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Sample records for alec christie julian

  1. Corpus Christi, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This near vertical view of the south Texas coast shows the city of Corpus Christi (28.0N, 97.0W) and Corpus Christi Bay. Mustang Island and the Gulf of Mexico are seen in the Southeast corner of the view. The Nueces River flows into the bay from the west. The light toned squiggly lines in Corpus Christi Bay are mud trails caused by shrimp boats dragging their nets along the shallow bottom of the bay.

  2. President of Council-Sir Alec

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    En décembre 1983 le président de l'Association du Personnel du Cern a suggéré d'inviter le président du conseil à une réunion du personnel dans le but d'améliorer la communication entre le conseil et le personnel. Le DG H.schopper remercie le président du conseil, Sir Alec, d'avoir accepté l'invitation malgré ses nombreux occupations.

  3. The man behind the DNA fingerprints: an interview with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this interview we talk with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys about DNA fingerprinting, his wider scientific career, and the past, present and future of forensic DNA applications. The podcast with excerpts from this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/biome/alec-jeffreys. PMID:24245655

  4. H. Julian Allen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    H. Julian Allen stands beside the observation window of the 8 x 7 foot test section of the NACA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. H. Julian Allen is best known for his 'Blunt Body Theory' of aerodynamics, a design technique for alleviating the severe re-entry heating problem which was then delaying the development of ballistic missiles. His findings revolutionized the fundamental design of ballistic missle re-entry shapes. Subsequently, applied research led to applications of the 'blunt' shape to ballistic missles and spacecraft which were intended to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. This application led to the design of ablative heat shields that protected the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo astronauts as their space capsules re- entered the Earth's atmosphere. 'Harvey' Allen as he was called by most, was not only a brilliant scientist and aeronautical engineer but was also admired for his kindness, thoughtfulness and sense of humor. Among his many other accomplishments, Harvey Allen served as Center Director of the NASA Ames Research Center from 1965 to 1969. He died of a heart attack on January 29, 1977 at the age of 66.

  5. Julian Meltzoff (1921-2015).

    PubMed

    Sherman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Julian Meltzoff, who died on December 22, 2015, in his La Jolla, California home. Meltzoff was a major architect of modern clinical psychology. His innovative contributions in the arena of human service delivery, his empirical evaluations of the efficacy of psychotherapy, and his creative strategy for training clinical psychologists were truly ground breaking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show..., Texas in support of the 2011 Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show. This temporary safety zone is... necessary to ensure the safety of participants and spectators in the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi...

  7. Developing Readers: Lessons from Agatha Christie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Reminds readers that looking at individual authors rather than dealing in generalizations is a very meaningful approach to increasing an understanding of how reading works by making sense of the text. Discusses how Agatha Christie's writing follows very predictable patterns and may provide useful experiences for novice readers. (MG)

  8. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  9. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  10. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ....; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... (LNG) export and import terminal, and a natural gas transmission pipeline in Nueces and San...

  11. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  12. ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment

    ScienceCinema

    Long, Chuck

    2016-07-12

    Results of the ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE) field campaign are contributing significantly to concurrent national and international research efforts addressing questions about how the MJO initiates and changes as it passes phenomenon differs in observations versus models.

  13. ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Chuck

    2014-03-29

    Results of the ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE) field campaign are contributing significantly to concurrent national and international research efforts addressing questions about how the MJO initiates and changes as it passes phenomenon differs in observations versus models.

  14. Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-14

    Many storms around the world have roots in the Indian Ocean, where they are churned up by the atmospheric process called the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). PNNL is working to unlock the secrets of the MJO, particularly how it initiates in the Indian Ocean every 30-60 days. Better prediction of the MJO will help resource managers, weather forecasters and people worldwide better prepare for its effects.

  15. Madden-Julian Variability in Coupled Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K R; Gualdi, S; Li, W; Slingo, J M

    2001-12-12

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant mode of tropical variability (Madden and Julian 1971, 1972). It is manifested on a timescale of {approx}30-70 days through large-scale circulation anomalies which occur in conjunction with eastward propagating convective anomalies over the eastern hemisphere. Recent evidence has suggested that an interactive ocean may be important for the simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (Flatau et al. 1997, Sperber et al. 1997, Waliser et al. 1999, Inness et al. 2002). As part of an initiative to the CLIVAR Working Group on Coupled Modeling, we examine ocean-atmosphere GCMs to ascertain the degree to which they can represent the 4-dimensional space-time structure of the MJO. The eastward propagation of convection is also examined with respect to the surface fluxes and SST, and we compare and contrast the behavior over the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Importantly, the results are interpreted with respect to systematic error of the mean state.

  16. Beginning Again: A Response to Rosen and Christie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doecke, Brenton; Breen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Genre theory has been around for a long time now. The exchange between Michael Rosen and Frances Christie recently featured in "Changing English" is the latest in a series of exchanges between advocates of genre and their critics over the past three decades or so. Our aim in this response-essay is not to weigh up the merits of the cases…

  17. Percy Julian, Robert Robinson, and the Identity of Eserethole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2008-01-01

    The Nova production "Percy Julian--Forgotten Genius" included the very public disagreement between Percy Julian, an unknown American chemist, and Robert Robinson, possibly the best known organic chemist of the day, as to the identity of "eserethole", the key intermediate for the synthesis of the alkaloid physostigmine. The Nova production,…

  18. Julian B. Rotter (1916-2014).

    PubMed

    Strickland, Bonnie R

    2014-01-01

    One of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century, Julian B. Rotter, died at the age of 97 on January 6, 2014, at his home in Mansfield, Connecticut. Jules was born on October 22, 1916, in Brooklyn, New York, the third son of Jewish immigrant parents. As noted in the citation for his American Psychological Association (APA) Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, "his pioneering social learning framework...transformed behavioral approaches to personality and clinical psychology. He integrated the concepts of expectancy and reinforcement and built an enduring early bridge between the psychology of learning and its diverse social, clinical, and personality applications. His seminal studies of the variable of internal versus external locus of control provided the foundation for years of prolific research on choice and perceived control in several disciplines...Julian Rotter, by his writing, teaching, and personal example,...profoundly changed theory and practice in the field" (American Psychologist, 1989, p. 625). He was devoted to his family and shared his insights, his empathy, his compassion, and his admirable social conscience with them, as he did with his myriad friends and students.

  19. A Conversation with Robert F. Christy Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippincott, Sara

    2006-12-01

    Robert F. Christy, Institute Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at Caltech, recalls his wartime work at Los Alamos on the critical assembly for the plutonium bomb (“the Christy bomb”); the Alamogordo test, July 16, 1945; the postwar concerns of ALAS (Association of Los Alamos Scientists); his brief return to the University of Chicago and move to Caltech; friendship with and later alienation from Edward Teller; work with Charles and Tommy Lauritsen and William A. Fowler in Caltech’s Kellogg Radiation Laboratory; Freeman Dyson’s Orion Project; work on the meson and RR Lyrae stars; fellowship at Cambridge University; 1950s Vista Project at Caltech; his opposition to the Strategic Defense Initiative; and his post-retirement work for the National Research Council’s Committee on Dosimetry and on inertial-confinement fusion.

  20. A Conversation with Robert F. Christy Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippincott, Sara

    2006-09-01

    Robert F. Christy, Institute Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at Caltech, recalls his childhood in British Columbia; his undergraduate years at the University of British Columbia; his graduate work with J. Robert Oppenheimer at Berkeley; and his work on the Manhattan Project, first with Enrico Fermi at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago and then as a member of the Theoretical Division at Los Alamos.

  1. H. Julian Allen with Blunt Body Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    H. Julian Allen is best known for his 'Blunt Body Theory' of aerodynamics, a design technique for alleviating the severe re-entry heating problem which was then delaying the development of ballistic missiles. His findings revolutionized the fundamental design of ballistic missle re-entry shapes. Subsequently, applied research led to applications of the 'blunt' shape to ballistic missles and spacecraft which were intended to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. This application led to the design of ablative heat shields that protected the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo astronauts as their space capsules re- entered the Earth's atmosphere. 'Harvey' Allen as he was called by most, was not only a brilliant scientist and aeronautical engineer but was also admired for his kindness, thoughtfulness and sense of humor. Among his many other accomplishments, Harvey Allen served as Center Director of the NASA Ames Research Center from 1965 to 1969. He died of a heart attack on January 29, 1977 at the age of 66.

  2. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX....

  3. Giants of the past: Percy Lavon Julian (1899-1975) a forgotten pioneer in soy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common thread running through African American chemist Percy Lavon Julian's life is one about outstanding achievements in the face of great obstacles. Racial oppression forced Julian to repeatedly pick up broken fragments of chance and turn them into opportunity. Percy Julian was a luminary in...

  4. EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay.

  5. Teaching Margery and Julian in Anthology-Based Survey Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Zina

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that many of us teach the medieval English women mystics Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich in survey courses, this essay attempts to put these writers in context for teachers who may have only a passing familiarity with the period. Focusing on passages of their writings found in the Longman and Norton anthologies of British…

  6. Balanced Dynamics in the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessions, Sharon; Sentic, Stipo; Fuchs, Zeljka; Raymond, David

    Balanced dynamics describes the response of the tropical thermodynamic environment to changes in the atmospheric vorticity patterns. Observations and numerical simulations have demonstrated that positive mid-tropspheric vorticity anomalies produce a more stable thermodynamic environment with cool anomalies at low levels and warm anomalies aloft. The increase in atmospheric stability creates more bottom-heavy convective profiles which are highly conducive for developing tropical cyclones. Balanced dynamics may also play a role in other varieties of tropical convection, including the most significant source of intraseasonal variability: the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Using data from DYNAMO-a field program aimed to investigate the dynamics of the MJO-we investigate the role of balanced dynamics in the Madden-Julian Oscillation. This work supported by the NSF.

  7. 76 FR 55909 - CITGO Refining and Chemicals Company L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... district and political sub- division of the State of Texas.'' Complainant alleges that it ``has been... CITGO Refining and Chemicals Company L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, Texas... ``Complainant,'' against the Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, Texas (PCCA)...

  8. Hydrodynamic characterization of Corpus Christi Bay through modeling and observation.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad S; Bonner, James S; Edge, Billy L; Page, Cheryl A

    2014-11-01

    Christi Bay is a relatively flat, shallow, wind-driven system with an average depth of 3-4 m and a mean tidal range of 0.3 m. It is completely mixed most of the time, and as a result, depth-averaged models have, historically, been applied for hydrodynamic characterization supporting regulatory decisions on Texas coastal management. The bay is highly stratified during transitory periods of the summer with low wind conditions. This has important implications on sediment transport, nutrient cycling, and water quality-related issues, including hypoxia which is a key water quality concern for the bay. Detailed hydrodynamic characterization of the bay during the summer months included analysis of simulation results of 2-D hydrodynamic model and high-frequency (HF) in situ observations. The HF radar system resolved surface currents, whereas an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measured current at different depths of the water column. The developed model successfully captured water surface elevation variation at the mouth of the bay (i.e., onshore boundary of the Gulf of Mexico) and at times within the bay. However, large discrepancies exist between model-computed depth-averaged water currents and observed surface currents. These discrepancies suggested the presence of a vertical gradient in the current structure which was further substantiated by the observed bi-directional current movement within the water column. In addition, observed vertical density gradients proved that the water column was stratified. Under this condition, the bottom layer became hypoxic due to inadequate mixing with the aerated surface water. Understanding the disparities between observations and model predictions provides critical insights about hydrodynamics and physical processes controlling water quality. PMID:25096643

  9. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  10. 76 FR 49285 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX (76 FR 31821, Docket No. FAA-2010-1171). Subsequent to publication, an... published in the Federal Register June 2, 2010 (76 FR 31821), (FR Doc. 2011-13559), are corrected as follows... the geographic coordinates in the regulatory text of a final rule that was published in the...

  11. 76 FR 31821 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... amends Class D airspace within the Corpus Christi, TX, area by updating the geographic coordinates...

  12. [How the Feast of Corpus Christi at the psychiatric hospital of Sarthe became a historical event].

    PubMed

    Guillemain, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Can the historian, passionate about archives, build a historical narrative based mainly on the memories of nurses? Could the caregivers, who are themselves players in the history of psychiatry write it? When the former hears the individual accounts of the latter, history is written. The history of the Feast of Corpus Christi at the psychiatric hospital of Le Mans.

  13. 40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.136 Section 81.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... County, Jackson County, Jim Wells County, Kenedy County, Kleberg County, Lavaca County, Live Oak...

  14. IMPACT OF STORM-WATER OUTFALLS ON SEDIMENT QUALITY IN CORPUS CHRISTI BAY, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industr...

  15. Factors associated with birth defects in the region of Corpus Christi, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance Branch of the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) has documented a high prevalence of certain birth defects in the Corpus Christi, TX region. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations...

  16. 78 FR 44523 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 122 Under Alternative Site Framework; Corpus Christi, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...; Whereas, notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (78 FR 13015-13016, 02/26/2013..., Kleberg and Bee Counties, Texas, within and adjacent to the Corpus Christi Customs and Border...

  17. Climbing the Mountain - The Scientific Biography of Julian Schwinger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Jagdish; Milton, Kimball

    2000-08-01

    This is the first biography ever written on the distinguished physicist Julian Schwinger. Schwinger was one of the most important and influential scientists of the twentieth century. The list of his contributions is staggering, from his early work leading to the Schwinger action principle, Euclidean quantum field theory, and the genesis of the standard model, to later valuable work on magnetic charge and the Casimir effect. He also shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics with Richard Feynman. However, even among physicists, understanding and recognition of his work remains limited. This book by Mehra and Milton, both of whom were personally acquainted with Schwinger, presents a unique portrait that sheds light on both his personality and his work through discussion of his lasting influence on science. Anyone who wishes to gain a deeper understanding of one of the great physicists of this century needs to read this book.

  18. Statistical forecasts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C.; Carvalho, L.; Higgins, W.; Waliser, D.; Schemm, J.-K.

    2003-04-01

    Tropical intraseasonal convective anomalies (TICA) play a significant role in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the primary mode of this variability. The two main aspects investigated in this study are: 1) differences in predictive skill of TICA events with different eastward propagation characteristics; 2) differences in predictive skill of TICA events occurring in different phases of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Twenty two years of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is used to identify eastward propagating convective anomalies. A statistical forecast model based on lagged linear regression of the first two principal components from a combined empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of intraseasonally filtered OLR, zonal wind components at 200 hPa and 850 hPa anomalies is developed. The forecast model shows useful skill out to about 25 days when validated against filtered anomalies. The presentation will also discuss the statistical forecast skill in real-time.

  19. The heliocentric system from the Orphic Hymns and the Pythagoreans to emperor Julian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Dacanalis, Aris; Dimitrijević, Milan, S.; Mantarakis, Petros

    The evolution of the heliocentric theory in the antiquity has been analyzed, from the first seeds in the Orphic Hymns to the emperor Julian, also called "the Apostate" in the 4th century A.D. In particular the Orphic Hymns, views of Pythagoreans, as well as the heliocentric ideas of Philolaus of Croton, Icetas, Ecphantus, Heraclides of Pontos, Anaximander, Seleucus of Seleucia, Aristarchus of Samos and Emperor Julian were analyzed.

  20. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Warming World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chuing-Wen June; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Keenlyside, Noel; Tsuang, Ben-Jei

    2015-04-01

    Climate models remain challenged by accurate simulation of the Madden- Julian oscillation (MJO). This has limited the study of the impact of global warming on this phenomenon. He we apply the newly developed ECHAM5-SIT coupled model that is able simulate the MJO with realistic strength, structure, period, and propagation speed. The model consists of a high-resolution one-column ocean model (SIT) coupled to the ECHAM5 atmospheric model. Numerical experiments were conducted to explore the changes in the MJO by the end of 21st Century under the RCP8.5 scenario. In the warming climate, the MJO remains wavenumber-one structure with larger amplitude and stronger circumglobal propagation, and faster eastward propagation. The convection develops higher in the upper troposphere and the overturning circulation expands zonally but contracts meridionally. The shallow and deep convective heating are both enhanced and a stronger low-level convergence enhances westward tilting with height. Enhancement of MJO amplitude and extent can be explained by enhanced intraseasonal low-level convergence and increased mean moisture under global warming. The moister mean state contributes to the enhancement of deep convection, which excites stronger Kelvin waves. This reinforces low-level convergence through the enhanced Frictional Convergence Mechanism and leads to the more efficient and timely preconditioning of the deep convection, and therefore to a faster development and enhancement of the deep convection in MJO.

  1. The Hydrological Cycle of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waliser, D.; Tian, B.; Schwartz, M.; Liu, T.; Fetzer, E.

    2007-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant form of intra-seasonal variability in the Tropics and it impacts a wide range of phenomena, such as El Nino/La Nina, Asian-Australian monsoons, mid-latitude weather, and tropical cyclones. Despite the prominent impacts of the MJO and its potential predictability with lead times on the order of weeks, our weather and climate models have a relatively poor representation of the MJO and our environmental predictions suffer from this shortcoming. To date, the large-scale MJO convection and circulation characteristics have been relatively well documented and in some cases understood. For the most part, these studies have focused on quantities such as upper and lower level winds, outgoing longwave radiation and precipitation, and surface heat budget processes. In recent years, a number of studies have also documented aspects of the MJO's vertical structure impacts on biology and composition. In this study, we focus on the hydrological cycle of the MJO. With the addition of a number of new satellite products in recent years, it is possible to more completely describe most aspects of the hydrological cycle of the MJO. We build on recent work with AIRS water vapor and MLS cloud ice profiles to document and discuss the variations in rainfall (TRMM, CMAP), surface evaporation (derived via SSM/I etc), vertical profiles of moisture (AIRS), column moisture convergence (QuikScat, SSM/I), and cloud liquid (SSM/I) and ice water (MLS).

  2. Tracking Pulses of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneyama, Kunio; Zhang, Chidong; Long, Charles N.

    2013-12-13

    An international field campaign aiming at atmospheric and oceanic processes associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) was conducted in and around the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) during October 2011 - March 2012. The objective of the field campaign was to collect observations urgently needed to expedite the progress of understanding the key processes of the MJO, focusing on its initiation but also including propagation and maturation, and ultimately to improve skills of numerical simulation and prediction of the MJO. Primary targets of the field campaign include interaction of atmospheric deep convection with its environmental moisture, evolution of cloud populations, and air-sea interaction. Several MJO events were captured by ground-based, airborne, and oceanic instruments with advanced observing technology. Numerical simulations and real-time forecasts were integrated components of the field campaign in its design and operation. Observations collected during the campaign provide unprecedented opportunities to reveal detailed processes of the MJO and to assist evaluation, improvement and development of weather and climate models. The data policy of the campaign encourages the broad research community to use the field observations to advance the MJO study.

  3. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K R; Gleckler, P J; Doutriaux, C; Groups, A M; Groups, C M; Slingo, J M; Inness, P M; Gualdi, S; Li, W

    2003-10-27

    A methodology is utilized to analyze in a standardized fashion the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in general circulation models. This is attained by projecting 20-100 day bandpass filtered outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the models onto the two leading empirical orthogonal functions (EOF's) of observed OLR that characterize the propagation of MJO convection from the Indian Ocean to the central Pacific Ocean. The resulting principal component time series are then screened to isolate boreal winters during which they exhibit a lead-lag relationship consistent with observations. This PC subset is used for linear regression to determine the ability of the models to simulate the observed spacetime variability of the MJO. The vast majority of models underestimate the amplitude of the MJO convective anomalies by a factor of two or more, and the eastward propagation of convection is less coherent than observed, typically. For a given family of models, coupling to an ocean leads to better organization of the large-scale convection. The low-level moisture convergence mechanism for eastward propagation is represented in limited cases, as is the vertical structure of the MJO.

  4. The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Dafni, Amots; Levy, Shay; Lev, Efraim

    2005-01-01

    This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered "holy" by Muslims (all the individuals of the species are sanctified by religion) in addition to its status as "sacred tree " (particular trees which are venerated due to historical or magical events related to them, regardless of their botanical identity) in the Middle East. It has also a special status as "blessed tree" among the Druze. PMID:16270941

  5. Estimated sediment deposition in Lake Corpus Christi, Texas, 1972-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leibbrand, Norman F.

    1987-01-01

    Some difference was found in comparison of the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (Water Resources Division) study and the McCaughan and Etheridge Consulting Engineers study. Total sediment outflow from Lake Corpus Christi was estimated at 177 acre-feet (dry) by the Geological Survey and 1,070 acre-feet (dry) by McCaughan and Etheridge Consulting Engineers. This difference may be due to construction of a new dam, completed in 1958, that is higher and inundated the old dam.

  6. Does the Madden-Julian Oscillation Influence Aerosol Variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Li, Q.; Yung, Y. L.; Tyranowski, T.; Geogdzhayev, I. V.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Torres, O.; Smirnov, A.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the modulation of aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) using satellite-based global aerosol products, including aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on Nimbus-7, and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA satellites. A composite analysis is performed for boreal winter, and the global pentad rainfall data from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) are used to identify MJO events. The MJO composites exhibit large variations in the TOMS AI and MODIS/AVHRR AOT over the equatorial Indian and western Pacific Oceans where MJO convection is active, as well as the tropical Africa and Atlantic Ocean where MJO convection is relatively weak but the background aerosol level is relatively high. A strong inverse linear relationship between the TOMS AI and rainfall anomalies, but a weaker, less coherent positive correlation between the MODIS/AVHRR AOT and rainfall anomalies, were found. The Aerosol Robotic Network AOT pattern at Kaashidoo (73.5°E, 4.9°N) and Nauru (167°E, 0.5°S) is more consistent with MODIS and AVHRR. These results indicate a connection between the MJO, its associated rainfall and circulation variability, and the observed aerosol variations. Several physical and non-physical factors that may contribute to the observed aerosol-rainfall relationship, such as aerosol humidification effect, wet deposition, surface wind speed, phytoplankton, different sensor sensitivities (absorbing versus non-absorbing aerosols and upper versus lower tropospheric aerosols), sampling issue, and cloud contamination, are discussed. However, a clear causal explanation for the observed patterns remains elusive. Further investigation is needed to unravel this complex aerosol-rainfall relationship.

  7. Modulation of Atlantic Aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Wong, S.

    2010-01-01

    Much like the better-known EI Nino-Southern Oscillation, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a global-scale atmospheric phenomenon. The MJO involves periodic, systematic changes in the distribution of clouds and precipitation over the western Pacific and Indian oceans, along with differences in wind intensity over even more extensive areas, including the north and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. The lead authors of this paper developed a sophisticated mathematical technique for mapping the spatial and temporal behavior of changes in the atmosphere produced by the MJO. In a previous paper, we applied this technique to search for modulation of airborne particle amount in the eastern hemisphere associated with the "wet" (cloudy) vs. "dry" phases of the MJO. The study used primarily AVHRR, MODIS, and TOMS satellite-retrieved aerosol amount, but concluded that other factors, such as cloud contamination of the satellite signals, probably dominated the observed variations. The current paper looks at MJO modulation of desert dust transport eastward across the Atlantic from northern Africa, a region much less subject to systematic cloud contamination than the eastern hemisphere areas studied previously. In this case, a distinct aerosol signal appears, showing that dust is transported westward much more effectively during the MJO phase that favors westward-flowing wind, and such transport is suppressed when the MJO reduces these winds. Aside form the significant achievement in identifying such an effect, the result implies that an important component of global dust transport can be predicted based on the phase of the MJO. As a consequence, the impact of airborne dust on storm development in the Atlantic, and on dust deposition downwind of the desert sources, can also be predicted and more accurately modeled.

  8. The life cycle of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendon, Harry H.; Salby, Murry L.

    1994-01-01

    A composite life cycle of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is constructed from the cross covariance between outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), wind, and temperature. To focus on the role of convection, the composite is based on episodes when a discrete signal in OLR is present. The composite convective anomaly possesses a predominantly zonal wavenumber 2 structure that is confined to the eastern hemisphere. There, it propagates eastward at about 5 m/s and evolves through a systematic cycle of amplification and decay. Unlike the convective anomaly, the circulation anomaly is not confined to the eastern hemisphere. The circulation anomaly displays characteristics of both a forced response, coupled to the convective anomaly as it propagates across the eastern hemisphere, and a radiating response, which propagates away from the convective anomaly into the western hemisphere at about 10 m/s. The forced response appears as a coupled Rossby-Kelvin wave while the radiating response displays predominantly Kelvin wave features. When it is amplifying, the convective anomaly is positively correlated to the temperature perturbation, which implies production of eddy available potential energy (EAPE). A similar correlation between upper-tropospheric divergence and temperature implies conversion of EAPE to eddy kinetic energy during this time. When it is decaying, temperature has shifted nearly into quadrature with convection, so their correlation and production of EAPE are then small. The same correspondence to the amplification and decay of the disturbance is mirrored in the phase relationship between surface convergence and anomalous convection. The correspondence of surface convergence to the amplification and decay of the convective anomaly suggests that frictional wave- Conditional Instability of the Second Kind (CISK) plays a key role in generating the MJO.

  9. Maps showing textural characteristics of benthic sediments in the Corpus Christi Bay estuarine system, south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.; Stelting, Charles E.; McGowen, Joseph H.

    1981-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay is a heavily used estuary on the south Texas coast in the northwest Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1).  The Bay is stressed by diverse activities which could substantially affect its ecosystem.  Such activities include shipping, resource production (oil, gas, and construction aggregate), commercial and sport fishing, and recreation.  Shipping activities alone have had a substantial impact on the bay.  For example, the past maintenance of navigation channels has required extensive dredging and spoil disposal within the estuarine system.  Numerous subaqueous spoil disposal sites and subaerial spoil banks are present throughout the bay (fig. 1), and the selection of future spoil disposal sites is becoming a critical local problem.  As activities in the bay increase, the need for effective environmental management becomes increasingly important, and effective management necessitates a good understanding of the bay's physical characteristics.  The objective of this study is to provide detailed information about the textural composition of bottom sediments within the estuarine system, information which could be used in making environmental-management decisions.  Visual descriptions of bottom sediments in Corpus Christi Bay and adjacent areas have been presented by McGowen and Morton (1979).  Additionally, a study of the textures of sediments on the Inner Continental Shelf adjacent to the bay has been presented by Shideler and Berryhill (1977).

  10. Simplified metrics for the identification of the Madden-Julian oscillation in models

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Kim, Daehyun

    2012-07-01

    We propose simplified metrics to evaluate the fidelity with which the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is simulated in climate models. These metrics are based on lag correlation analysis of principal component time series (PCs). The PCs are obtained by projecting simulated 20–100 day bandpass filtered daily outgoing longwave radiation onto the two leading empirical orthogonal functions of observed MJO variability. The simplified MJO metrics, the maximum positive correlation and time lag at which it occurs, provide consistent information relative to more complex diagnostics developed by the Madden–Julian Oscillation Working Group (CLIVAR MJOWG) and by Kim et al.

  11. Madden Julian Oscillation impacts on global ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Durrant, Tom H.; Hemer, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the impact of the tropical Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global ocean wind waves using 30 years of wave data from a wave model hindcast that is forced with high resolution surface winds from the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. We concentrate on the boreal winter season when the MJO has its greatest amplitude and is potentially a source of predictable wave impacts at intra-seasonal lead times. Statistically significant anomalies in significant wave height (Hs), peak wave period (Tp) and zonal wave energy flux (CgE) are found to covary with the intra-seasonal variation of surface zonal wind induced by the MJO as it traverses eastward from the western tropical Indian Ocean to the eastern tropical Pacific. Tp varies generally out of phase with Hs over the life cycle of the MJO, indicating that these MJO-wave anomalies are locally wind-generated rather than remotely generated by ocean swell. Pronounced Hs anomalies develop on the northwest shelf of Australia, where the MJO is known to influence sea level and surface temperatures, and in the western Caribbean Sea and Guatemalan-Panama Seas with enhanced wave anomalies apparent in the vicinity of the Tehuantepec and Papagayo gaps. Significant wave anomalies are also detected in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans in connection with the MJO teleconnection to the extratropics via atmospheric wave propagation. The impact in the north Atlantic stems from induction of the high phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) about 1 week after MJO convection traverses the Indian Ocean, and the low phase of the NAO about one week after suppressed convection traverses the Indian Ocean. Strong positive Hs anomalies maximize on the Northern European coast in the positive NAO phase and vice versa for the negative NAO phase. The MJO also influences the occurrence of daily low (below the 5th percentile) and high (above the 95th percentile) wave conditions across the tropics and in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

  12. Faulty assumptions: A comment on Blanton, Jaccard, Gonzales, and Christie (2006)

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, Brian A.; Sriram, N.

    2007-01-01

    Blanton, Jaccard, Gonzales, and Christie (BJGC, 2006) assert that the Implicit Association Test (IAT) imposes a model that portrays relative preferences as the additive difference between single attitudes. This assertion is misplaced because relative preferences do not necessarily reduce to component attitudes. BJGC also assume that the IAT conditions represent two indicators of the same construct. This assumption is incorrect, and is the cause of their poor-fitting models. The IAT, like other experimental paradigms, contrasts performance between interdependent conditions, and cannot be reduced to component parts. This is true whether calculating a simple difference between conditions, or using the IAT D score. D – an individual effect size that is monotonically related to Cohen's d – codifies the interdependency between IAT conditions. When their unjustified psychometric assumptions are replaced with plausible assumptions, the models fit their data very well, and basis for their poor-fitting models becomes clear. PMID:18438456

  13. The influence of coastal wetlands on hurricane surge in Corpus Christi, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C.; Irish, J. L.; Olivera, F.

    2010-12-01

    The State of Texas has historically faced hurricane-related damage episodes, with Ike being the most recent example. It is expected that, in the future, hurricanes will intensify due to climate change causing greater surges, while the attenuating effect of wetlands on storm surges will also be modified due to sea level rise changes in wetland vegetation type and spatial location. Numerical analysis of storm surges is an important instrument to predict and simulate flooding extent and magnitude in coastal areas. Most operational surge models account for the influence of wetlands and other vegetation by momentum loss due to friction at the bottom and by reduction of imposed wind stress. A coupled hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC) and wave model (SWAN) was employed, and wetlands were characterized using Manning’s n, surface canopy, and surface roughness. The wetlands parameters were developed from: 1) the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and 2001; 2) the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) 2001. The calibrated coupled model for two historical hurricanes, Bret and Beulah, was used to simulate the storm surge for each scenario. Preliminary results for the sensitivity analyses, for hurricane Bret, comparing the scenarios with parameters developed from NLCD and NWI datasets with four hypothetical scenarios considering very high and low Manning’s n and wind stress (surface canopy) values showed that, for areas inside Nueces Bay, the storm surge high could vary up to four times depending on the parameter selection, for areas inside Corpus Christi Bay, the storm surge high varied around three times and behind the barrier island the storm surge high variation was less than three times. This study is a first step for an evaluation of the impact that sea level rise, climate changed wetlands, wetlands restoration, land use change, and wetlands degradation have on hurricane related surge elevation and extent in the city of Corpus Christi.

  14. A mobile monitoring system to understand the processes controlling episodic events in Corpus Christi Bay.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Bonner, James S; Ojo, Temitope O; Page, Cheryl

    2011-04-01

    Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) is a shallow wind-driven bay and thereby, can be characterized as a highly pulsed system. It cycles through various episodic events such as hypoxia, water column stratification, sediment resuspension, flooding, etc. Understanding of the processes that control these events requires an efficient observation system that can measure various hydrodynamic and water quality parameters at the multitude of spatial and temporal scales of interest. As part of our effort to implement an efficient observation system for Corpus Christi Bay, a mobile monitoring system was developed that can acquire and visualize data measured by various submersible sensors on an undulating tow-body deployed behind a research vessel. Along with this system, we have installed a downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to measure the vertical profile of water currents. Real-time display of each measured parameter intensity (measured value relative to a pre-set peak value) guides in selecting the transect route to capture the event of interest. In addition, large synchronized datasets measured by this system provide an opportunity to understand the processes that control various episodic events in the bay. To illustrate the capability of this system, datasets from two research cruises are presented in this paper that help to clarify processes inducing an inverse estuary condition at the mouth of the ship channel and hypoxia at the bottom of the bay. These measured datasets can also be used to drive numerical models to understand various environmental phenomena that control the water quality of the bay. PMID:20556650

  15. A mobile monitoring system to understand the processes controlling episodic events in Corpus Christi Bay.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Bonner, James S; Ojo, Temitope O; Page, Cheryl

    2011-04-01

    Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) is a shallow wind-driven bay and thereby, can be characterized as a highly pulsed system. It cycles through various episodic events such as hypoxia, water column stratification, sediment resuspension, flooding, etc. Understanding of the processes that control these events requires an efficient observation system that can measure various hydrodynamic and water quality parameters at the multitude of spatial and temporal scales of interest. As part of our effort to implement an efficient observation system for Corpus Christi Bay, a mobile monitoring system was developed that can acquire and visualize data measured by various submersible sensors on an undulating tow-body deployed behind a research vessel. Along with this system, we have installed a downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to measure the vertical profile of water currents. Real-time display of each measured parameter intensity (measured value relative to a pre-set peak value) guides in selecting the transect route to capture the event of interest. In addition, large synchronized datasets measured by this system provide an opportunity to understand the processes that control various episodic events in the bay. To illustrate the capability of this system, datasets from two research cruises are presented in this paper that help to clarify processes inducing an inverse estuary condition at the mouth of the ship channel and hypoxia at the bottom of the bay. These measured datasets can also be used to drive numerical models to understand various environmental phenomena that control the water quality of the bay.

  16. Establishment of the United States Navy Mine Warfare Center of Excellence in the Corpus Christi Bay Area, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kosclski, J.L.; Boyer, R.; Sloger, W.

    1997-08-01

    The proposed establishment of the US Navy Mine Warfare Center of Excellence (MWCE) in the Corpus Christi Bay Area, Texas, involved the collocation of the Navy`s Mine Warfare and Mine Counter Measures assets in proximity to each other at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Ingleside and Naval Air Station (NAS) Corpus Christi, Texas. Collocation of these Navy forces would provide significant advantages in meeting mission and operational requirements. This action would improve the operational training and readiness of the forces. In addition to new construction or modifications at NAVSTA Ingleside, NAS Corpus Christi, and off-base; the establishment of offshore training and operating areas was required. When the project was first proposed in 1993, considerable concern was expressed by environmental interests, shrimpers, and state and federal resource agencies regarding the impact of the proposed training activities within Gulf waters. The Navy and Turner Collie and Braden, Inc., under contract to the Navy, conducted several technical studies and extensive coordination with concerned interests during the environmental impact statement process to identify and document the potential intensity, magnitude, and duration of impact from each proposed training activity.

  17. Reduction of rodent fertility by plant consumption : With particular reference toZiziphus spina-christi.

    PubMed

    Shappira, Z; Terkel, J; Egozi, J; Nyska, A; Friedman, J

    1990-06-01

    The present study investigates the possibility that plants used in traditional medicine for birth control may also reduce reproduction in their natural herbivores. Ten species of plants utilized by Bedouins for birth control were selected. These were dried, ground, and mixed with the standard diet and offered to female laboratory rats. Six plant species (60%) were found to reduce reproduction rate in white female rats, and the shoots and fruit of one of the effective species,Ziziphus spina-christi, when offered to its natural herbivore,Meriones tristrami, at the level of 35% of the standard diet, postponed female puberty and significantly reduced offspring survival. Plants that are known to be an effective factor in human birth control may have similar effects on their natural mammalian herbivores. In such cases, when the seeds of the plant are part of the herbivore diet, a certain percentage of the seeds will be dispersed and germinate, while the resulting population control of the animal achieved by its consumption of the seeds will prevent overgrazing, thus maintaining a mutual balance. It is suggested that ethnopharmacological data may assist in uncovering plants that, under the following conditions, have the potential to regulate reproduction in mammalian herbivores (with implications for human reproduction): (1) the plant is an important component of the animal's diet and (2) the active secondary metabolites of the plant directly interact with the physiological systems governing reproduction in the herbivore. PMID:24264003

  18. Cytotoxicity of different extracts of arial parts of Ziziphus spina-christi on Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Shirani, Kobra

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to determine if Ziziphus spina-christi, a species from this family, has cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Using maceration method, different extracts of leaves of Z. spina-christi were prepared. Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol (9:1), methanol-water (7:1) methanol, butanol and water were used for extraction, after preliminary phytochemical analyses were done. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of extracts were added. After incubation of cells for 72 h, their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol, butanol, methanol-water and aqueous extracts of Z. spina-christi significantly and concentration-dependently reduced viability of Hela and MAD-MB-468 cells. In the both cell lines, chloroform-methanol extract of Z. spina-christi was more potent than the other extracts. Results: From the finding of this study it can be concluded that Z. spina-christi is a good candidate for further study for new cytotoxic agents. PMID:24627846

  19. Geologic map of the Julian 7.5' quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Victoria R.

    2015-01-01

    Jurassic plutons in the Julian quadrangle underwent synkinematic metamorphism with the result that plutonic contacts and foliation are concordant with those in the surrounding metamorphosed country rocks. Foliation in Jurassic plutons consists of the planar orientation of recrystallized mineral grains and aggregates; deformation textures include augen gneiss, mylonitic gneiss, and mylonite. Structural studies indicate that a significant part of this deformation took place in the Cretaceous and, therefore, the regional foliation in this part of the batholith clearly postdates intrusion of many Cretaceous plutons.

  20. Distribution, abundance, and resting microhabitat of burbot on Julian's Reef, southwestern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Horns, William H.

    1993-01-01

    We used a remotely operated submersible vehicle equipped with a color video camera to videotape the lake bed and document the distribution and abundance of burbot Lota lotaon a 156-hectare portion of Julian's Reef in southwestern Lake Michigan. The substrates and bathymetry of the study area had been mapped recently by side-scan sonar. Burbot density determined from videotapes covering 6,900 m2 of lake bed at depths of 23–41 m averaged 139 individuals/ hectare (range, 0–571/hectare). This density was substantially higher than the highest burbot density (59–95/hectare) reported in the literature. Burbot were present on the lake bed at depths of 23–36 m, but were most abundant near the crest of the reef at 23–28 m, where the water temperature was 8–13°C, their preferred summer temperature range. Substrates in that temperature range on the reef were bedrock, bedrock ridges, and bedrock and rubble. Burbot were most abundant on the bedrock and rubble. Small fish and macroinvertebrates typically eaten by burbot elsewhere in western Lake Michigan were distributed on the reef according to their summer preferred temperatures and were not seen in abundance where burbot density was highest. We saw no lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on Julian's Reef, although large numbers of juvenile lake trout have been stocked there annually and temperatures on the reef were in the preferred summer temperature range for lake trout.

  1. Distribution, abundance, and resting microhabitat of burbot on Julian's Reef, southwestern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Horns, William H.

    1993-01-01

    We used a remotely operated submersible vehicle equipped with a color video camera to videotape the lake bed and document the distribution and abundance of burbot Lota lota on a 156-hectare portion of Julian's Reef in southwestern Lake Michigan. The substrates and bathymetry of the study area had been mapped recently by side-scan sonar. Burbot density determined from videotapes covering 6,900 m2 of lake bed at depths of 23-41 m averaged 139 individuals/ hectare (range, 0-571/hectare). This density was substantially higher than the highest burbot density (59-95/hectare) reported in the literature. Burbot were present on the lake bed at depths of 23-36 m, but were most abundant near the crest of the reef at 23-28 m, where the water temperature was 8-13°C, their preferred summer temperature range. Substrates in that temperature range on the reef were bedrock, bedrock ridges, and bedrock and rubble. Burbot were most abundant on the bedrock and rubble. Small fish and macroinvertebrates typically eaten by burbot elsewhere in western Lake Michigan were distributed on the reef according to their summer preferred temperatures and were not seen in abundance where burbot density was highest. We saw no lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on Julian's Reef, although large numbers of juvenile lake trout have been stocked there annually and temperatures on the reef were in the preferred summer temperature range for lake trout.

  2. On wave-CISK and the evaporation-wind feedback for the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirtman, B.; Vernekar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The combined effects of Kelvin wave-CISK and the evaporation-wind (E-W) feedback are proposed as a possible mechanism for the Madden-Julian oscillation. A very simple single vertical mode model has been employed to examine the effects of both these processes on moist Kelvin waves. The effects of wave-induced moisture convergence is parameterized by reducing the moist static stability, and CISK occurs when the moist static stability becomes negative. The E-W feedback in the presence of mean easterlies leads to unstable Kelvin modes. The presence of mean westerlies leads to decaying Kelvin modes. When CISK and the E-W feedback work in concert, an unstable Kelvin mode develops that has phase speeds of propagation between 5 m/s and 10 m/s for a large range of parameter values. On the other hand, the E-W feedback mechanism alone, in the case when CISK is not operating, produces the phase speeds of the observed Madden-Julian oscillation for only a very limited range of parameter values.

  3. [Discrimination and spectral response characteristic of stress leaves infected by rice Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan-Yu; Shi, Jing-Jing; Wang, Da-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    An ASD Field Spec Pro Full Range spectrometer was used to acquire the spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased leaves infected by rice Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, which were cut from rice individuals in the paddy field. Firstly, foliar pigment content was investigated. As compared with healthy leaves, the total chlorophyll and carotene contents (mg x g(-1)) of diseased leaves decreased 18% and 22%, respectively. The diseased foliar content ratio of total chlorophyll to carotene was nearly 82% of the healthy ones. Secondly, the response characteristics of hyperspectral reflectance of diseased leaves were analyzed. The spectral reflectance in the blue (450-520 nm), green (520-590 nm) and red (630-690 nm) regions were 2.5, 2 and 3.3 times the healthy ones respectively due to the decrease in foliar pigment content, whereas in the near infrared (NIR, 770-890 nm) region was 71.7 of the healthy ones because of leaf twist, and 73.7% for shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1 500-2 400 nm) region, owing to water loss. Moreover, the hyperspectral feature parameters derived from the raw spectra and the first derivative spectra were analyzed. The red edge position (REP) and blue edge position (BEP) shifted about 8 and 10 nm toward the short wavelengths respectively. The green peak position (GPP) and red trough position (RTP) shifted about 8.5 and 6 nm respectively toward the longer wavelengths. Finally, the area of the red edge peak (the sum of derivative spectra from 680 to 740 nm) and red edge position (REP) as the input vectors entered into C-SVC, which was an soft nonlinear margin classification method of support vector machine, to recognize the healthy and diseased leaves. The kernel function was radial basis function (RBF) and the value of punishment coefficient (C) was obtained from the classification model of training data sets (n = 138). The performance of C-SVC was examined with the testing sample (n = 126), and healthy and diseased leaves could be successfully

  4. Is Julian Assange an International Version of Daniel Ellsberg and WikiLeaks the Modern Equivalent of the Pentagon Papers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freivogel, William H.

    2011-01-01

    History has placed the stamp of approval on the publication of the Pentagon Papers, the top-secret history of the Vietnam War. If WikiLeaks editor-in-chief Julian Assange is another Daniel Ellsberg, then it is possible the website's disclosures will be viewed over time as similarly in the public interest. A classroom discussion on the release of…

  5. Ocean feedback to pulses of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Moum, James N.; Pujiana, Kandaga; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Smyth, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical understanding of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been elusive, and predictive capabilities therefore limited. New measurements of the ocean's response to the intense surface winds and cooling by two successive MJO pulses, separated by several weeks, show persistent ocean currents and subsurface mixing after pulse passage, thereby reducing ocean heat energy available for later pulses by an amount significantly greater than via atmospheric surface cooling alone. This suggests that thermal mixing in the upper ocean from a particular pulse might affect the amplitude of the following pulse. Here we test this hypothesis by comparing 18 pulse pairs, each separated by <55 days, measured over a 33-year period. We find a significant tendency for weak (strong) pulses, associated with low (high) cooling rates, to be followed by stronger (weaker) pulses. We therefore propose that the ocean introduces a memory effect into the MJO, whereby each event is governed in part by the previous event. PMID:27759016

  6. Deep ocean impact of a Madden-Julian oscillation observed by Argo floats.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Adrian J; Singhruck, Patama; Heywood, Karen J

    2007-12-14

    Using the new Argo array of profiling floats that gives unprecedented space-time coverage of the upper 2000 meters of the global ocean, we present definitive evidence of a deep tropical ocean component of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The surface wind stress anomalies associated with the MJO force eastward-propagating oceanic equatorial Kelvin waves that extend downward to 1500 meters. The amplitude of the deep ocean anomalies is up to six times the amplitude of the observed annual cycle. This deep ocean sink of energy input from the wind is potentially important for understanding phenomena such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation and for interpreting deep ocean measurements made from ships.

  7. Interpreting the upper level structure of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Joy M.; Adames, Ángel F.; Wallace, John M.; Sukhatme, Jai S.

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear response of a spherical shallow water model to an imposed heat source in the presence of realistic zonal mean zonal winds is investigated numerically. The solutions exhibit elongated, meridionally tilted ridges and troughs indicative of a poleward dispersion of wave activity. As the speed of the jets is increased, the equatorial Kelvin wave is unaffected but the global Rossby wave train coalesces to form a compact, amplified quadrupole structure that bears a striking resemblance to the observed upper level structure of the Madden-Julian oscillation. In the presence of strong subtropical westerly jets, the advection of planetary vorticity by the meridional flow and relative vorticity by the zonally averaged background flow conspire to create the distinctive quadrupole configuration of flanking Rossby waves.

  8. The "bicameral mind" 30 years on: a critical reappraisal of Julian Jaynes' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; Trimble, Michael; Cinti, Federico; Monaco, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In 1976 Julian Jaynes published his controversial book The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, introducing the hypothesis of a two-chambered brain-mind model that preceded the evolutionary development of the conscious mind. Jaynes' speculative model gave rise to a huge debate, which has reverberated throughout the current neuroscientific and neurophilosophical literature. Has the bicameral mind stood the test of time? To answer this question, the present paper adopts a multidisciplinary perspective and, after briefly summarizing Jaynes' hypothesis, addresses two main critical issues: the neurological basis of the bicameral model and the philological accuracy of Jaynes' arguments. Finally, the concept of a non-unitary Self is presented as one of the most relevant contemporary legacies of the bicameral mind.

  9. A Madden-Julian oscillation event realistically simulated by a global cloud-resolving model.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hiroaki; Satoh, Masaki; Nasuno, Tomoe; Noda, Akira T; Oouchi, Kazuyoshi

    2007-12-14

    A Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a massive weather event consisting of deep convection coupled with atmospheric circulation, moving slowly eastward over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Despite its enormous influence on many weather and climate systems worldwide, it has proven very difficult to simulate an MJO because of assumptions about cumulus clouds in global meteorological models. Using a model that allows direct coupling of the atmospheric circulation and clouds, we successfully simulated the slow eastward migration of an MJO event. Topography, the zonal sea surface temperature gradient, and interplay between eastward- and westward-propagating signals controlled the timing of the eastward transition of the convective center. Our results demonstrate the potential making of month-long MJO predictions when global cloud-resolving models with realistic initial conditions are used.

  10. Systematic decomposition of the Madden-Julian Oscillation into balanced and inertio-gravity components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Nedjeljka; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new method for the three-dimensional multivariate decomposition of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) into balanced and inertio-gravity (IG) components. The method analyzes global fields with no filtering involved, and it provides a quantitative comparison between the contribution of the Rossby, Kelvin, and other balanced and IG modes to the MJO circulation and its teleconnections. Results based on the ERA Interim reanalysis data and the multivariate MJO index show that the Rossby mode with the lowest meridional index is the largest contributor to the MJO circulation over the Pacific. A smaller role of the Kelvin mode is diagnosed over the Indian Ocean and the maritime continent. The MJO teleconnections in the polar stratosphere appear associated with the leading balanced vertical modes. The presented method shows new ways of evaluating the MJO structure and its global impacts in weather and climate models.

  11. Feature Tracking and Visualization of Madden-Julian Osciallation in Climate Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Teng-Yok; Tong, Xin; Shen, Han-Wei; Wong, Pak C.; Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-20

    Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is one of the less understood aspects of tropical meteorology, which plays a significant role in tropical intra-seasonal variations in rain, temperature and winds over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In this paper, we present an integrated analysis and visualization framework for MJO episodes simulated by a high resolution regional model. To distinguish MJOs from other weather phenomena, our framework utilizes domain knowledge to track MJOs as finding the globally optimized properties in the data. In addition to enhancing the animation with feature tracking, our visualization system also integrates different visualization components such as Virtual Globe and Hovmoller Diagrams to visualize large scale events both in space and time. By linking all of these visualization components on a web-based interface, scientists can identify cloud and environmental processes associated with the initiation and eastward propagation of MJO more easily.

  12. Disruptions of El Niño–Southern Oscillation teleconnections by the Madden–Julian Oscillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoell, Andrew; Barlow, Mathew; Wheeler, Mathew; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of interannual variability, with global impacts on weather and climate that have seasonal predictability. Research on the link between interannual ENSO variability and the leading mode of intraseasonal variability, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), has focused mainly on the role of MJO initiating or terminating ENSO. We use observational analysis and modeling to show that the MJO has an important simultaneous link to ENSO: strong MJO activity significantly weakens the atmospheric branch of ENSO. For weak MJO conditions relative to strong MJO conditions, the average magnitude of ENSO-associated tropical precipitation anomalies increases by 63%, and the strength of hemispheric teleconnections increases by 58%. Since the MJO has predictability beyond three weeks, the relationships shown here suggest that there may be subseasonal predictability of the ENSO teleconnections to continental circulation and precipitation.

  13. Momentum Budget Analysis of Westerly Wind Events Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Oh, J. H.; Waliser, D. E.; Moncrieff, M. W.; Johnson, R. H.; Ciesielski, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign was conducted over the Indian Ocean (IO) from October 2011 to February 2012 to investigate the initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Three MJOs accompanying one or more westerly wind events (WWEs) occurred in late October, late November, and late December 2011, respectively. Momentum budget analysis is conducted in this study to understand the contributions of the dynamical processes involved in the wind evolution associated with the MJO active phases over the IO during DYNAMO using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis. This analysis shows that westerly acceleration at lower levels associated with the MJO active phase generally appears to be maintained by the pressure gradient force (PGF), which is partly canceled by meridional advection of the zonal wind. Westerly acceleration in the mid-troposphere is mostly attributable to vertical advection. In addition, the MJO in late November (MJO2), accompanied by two different WWEs (WWE1, WWE2) spaced a few days apart, is further diagnosed. Unlike other WWEs during DYNAMO, horizontal advection is more responsible for the westerly acceleration in the lower troposphere for the WWE2 than the PGF. Interactions between the MJO2 convective envelope and convectively coupled waves (CCWs) have been further analyzed to illuminate the dynamical contribution of these synoptic scale equatorial waves to the WWEs during MJO2. We suggest that differences in the developing processes among WWEs can be attributed to the different types of CCWs.The Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign was conducted over the Indian Ocean (IO) from October 2011 to February 2012 to investigate the initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Three MJOs accompanying one or more westerly wind events (WWEs) occurred in late October, late November, and late December 2011, respectively. Momentum budget analysis is

  14. Spontaneous onset of a Madden-Julian oscillation event in a cloud-system-resolving simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hiroaki; Satoh, Masaki; Katsumata, Masaki

    2009-07-01

    Spontaneous onset of a Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) event in November 2006 was reproduced at a proper location and time by a global cloud-resolving model (CRM) used with a relatively coarse horizontal grid. Preconditioning of moisture was simulated about 4-days prior to the onset in the Indian Ocean, which agreed with data obtained in an in-situ observation. To investigate influence of zonal Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradient in the Indian Ocean, we conducted a sensitivity study comparing composites made from five ensemble simulations. It was found that the eastward-moving signal of this MJO event could be obscured if SST were zonally uniform in the western Indian Ocean. Zonal SST gradient has not been considered important in the previous studies about the MJO onset, but SST distribution locating cooler SST in the west side possibly help enhance convection in slow eastward-moving envelopes of the MJO.

  15. Using AMIE data to study cloud processes within the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Houze, Robert A.

    2015-12-17

    This study uses AMIE data to show how the small clouds in the Madden-Julian Oscillation first organize into lines and other patterns, how they develop the first rainshowers, how those showers deposit cool air over the ocean surface, how this cool air spreads and triggers deeper convection, how the deep convection develops into mesoscale systems, how the mesoscale systems modify the heating profile through the depth of the troposphere, and how the development of the clouds responds to and interacts with large-scale waves circumnavigating the globe at upper levels, and how equatorial trapped waves at lower levels modulates the development of the cloud population. The techniques used to analyze the radar and sounding data collected in AMIE to achieve the above results are innovative, and to obtain more general results we have used regional modeling with a variety of cloud microphysical schemes in combination with the data analyses.

  16. Feature tracking and visualization of the Madden-Julian oscillation in climate simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Teng-Yok; Tong, Xin; Shen, Han-Wei; Wong, Pak Chung; Hagos, Samson; Leung, L Ruby

    2013-01-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is one of the less understood aspects of tropical meteorology. It plays a significant role in tropical intraseasonal variations in rain, temperature, and winds over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Researchers have developed an integrated analysis and visualization tool for MJO episodes simulated by a high-resolution regional model. To distinguish the MJO from other weather phenomena, the tool uses domain knowledge to track the MJO and find the globally optimized properties in the data. To visualize large-scale events in space and time, the tool integrates different visualization components such as a Hovmöller diagram and virtual globe. By linking the visualization components on a Web-based interface, the tool lets scientists more easily identify cloud and environmental processes associated with the MJO's onset and eastward propagation. PMID:24808057

  17. Distribution and isotopic composition of uranium in lower Nueces River, Nueces Bay and Corpus Christi Bay, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Charles W.; Slade, Elizabeth Ann

    1972-01-01

    The uranium concentration and isotopic composition of water and suspended sediment from the Nueces River, Nueces Bay and Corpus Christi Bay were determined by alpha-spectroscopy. The average dissolved uranium concentration and radioactivity ratio (U234/U238) of Nueces River water were determined to be 2.44 µg/1 and 1.15 respectively. Water from a tributary of the Nueces River, Cayamon Creek, was found to contain an average dissolved uranium concentration of 42.8 µg/1 with an isotopic radioactivity ratio of 1.56. Close inspection of the lateral concentration and isotopic activity ratio of uranium revealed an increase below the confluence of Cayamon Creek with the Nueces River. A model was derived based on equations used in isotopic dilution analysis, which predicts these increases within analytical error. This model may be useful in future studies to locate anomalous uranium within the hydrologic environment.

  18. The effects of opening an artificial tidal inlet on hydrography and estuarine macrofauna in Corpus Christi, Texas.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Terence A; Montagna, Paul A; Kalke, Richard D

    2013-07-01

    Packery Channel is part of a complex of storm washover channels which, before 1912, have opened intermittently, linking the Laguna Madre and Corpus Christi Bay, Texas with the Gulf of Mexico. On 21 July 2005, with the assistance of Hurricane Emily, Packery Channel was prematurely opened to the Gulf of Mexico, months before construction of a dredged channel was scheduled to be completed. A before-versus-after, control-versus-impact (BACI) design was used to assess the effects of reopening Packery Channel on water quality and estuarine macrofauna in Mollie Beattie Coastal Habitat Community (MBCHC), Corpus Christi Bay. Two deep (approximately 1 m below m.s.l.) and two shallow (approximately 0.2 m below m.s.l.) stations were sampled monthly for physical and biological characteristics at both control and impact sites between November 2003 and March 2009. The opening of Packery Channel created a unique situation where salinities decreased after the channel opening by ameliorating hypersalinity in Laguna Madre rather than increasing salinities as would occur in most estuaries worldwide. Salinity also fluctuated in a diurnal pattern after the opening of Packery Channel. Apart from salinity, Packery Channel has caused little hydrographic change in MBCHC since opening in July 2005. There was little effect on the macrofaunal community composition. There was a greater difference in community composition between deep and shallow stations than between either before and after or control and impact sites. There have been no significant changes in abundance, biomass, or N1 diversity caused by the opening of Packery Channel.

  19. Mercury bioaccumulation and bioaccumulation factors for Everglades mosquitofish as related to sulfate: a re-analysis of Julian II (2013).

    PubMed

    Pollman, Curtis D; Axelrad, Donald M

    2014-11-01

    The Everglades, an ecosystem of international significance, has elevated biota mercury levels representing risk to human and wildlife consumers of fish. Given the critical role of sulfate in the methylation of mercury, and because there is a significant agricultural contribution, one potential means of reducing these mercury levels is reducing Everglades sulfate inputs. Julian II (Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:329-332, 2013) conducted regression modeling of the relationship between surface water sulfate concentrations and Gambusia spp. mercury bioconcentration factors across the major hydrologic subunits of the Everglades, and used those results to draw conclusions about the role of sulfate in the cycling of mercury in the Everglades. We however demonstrate a number of fundamental problems with the analysis, interpretation and conclusions. As a result, we strongly caution against using the results of Julian II (Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:329-332, 2013) to formulate management decisions regarding mitigation of the Everglades mercury problem. PMID:25260994

  20. Dynamics of Large-Scale Convective Onset in the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Scott Wayne

    The role of large-scale circulation anomalies in the convective onset of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the Indian Ocean during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign, conducted Oct. 2011--Feb. 2012, is explained using radar and rawinsonde observations, reanalysis, and regional model simulations. Convective onset was characterized by two episodic and rapid increases in the vertical growth of the cumuliform cloud population over the Indian Ocean: First, the areal coverage of moderately deep (~5 km) convection increased; about 1 week later, the areal coverage of deep (up to the tropopause) convection increased rapidly. Deep tropospheric wavenumber 1 anomalies in zonal wind and vertical velocity circumnavigated the tropics repeatedly during DYNAMO. MJO convective onset occurred when the upward branch of this wavenumber 1 circulation arrived over the Indian Ocean because a reduction in large-scale subsidence cooled the troposphere and steepened the lapse rate below 500 hPa. This made the environment more conducive to development of moderately deep convection. The moderately deep convection moistened the environment during week-long transition periods by transporting moisture vertically from the boundary layer to the free troposphere and detraining it into the clear-air environment, particularly between 650--850 mb. Regional cloud-permitting model simulations of convection during MJO onsets reproduced the distinct transition periods. The modeling results confirmed that rapid cooling of the environment enhanced the areal coverage of, and thus total vertical transport of water within, moderately deep convection at the beginning of transition periods. Evaporation of cloud condensate via entrainment or dissipation of clouds was directly responsible for environmental moistening. Cooling of the climatologically stable layer between 700--850 mb was particularly important because it allowed a greater number of cumulus elements growing

  1. Sensitivity to Madden-Julian Oscillation variations on heavy precipitation over the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila M. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent mode of tropical intraseasonal variability in the climate system and has worldwide influences on the occurrences and forecasts of heavy precipitation. This paper investigates the sensitivity of precipitation over the contiguous United States (CONUS) in a case study (boreal 2004-05 winter). Several major storms affected the western and eastern CONUS producing substantial economic and social impacts including loss of lives. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to perform experiments to test the significance of the MJO amplitude. The control simulation uses the MJO amplitude observed by reanalysis, whereas the amplitude is modified in perturbation experiments. WRF realistically simulates the precipitation variability over the CONUS, although large biases occur over the Western and Midwest United States. Daily precipitation is aggregated in western, central and eastern sectors and the frequency distribution is analyzed. Increases in MJO amplitude produce moderate increases in the median and interquartile range and large and robust increases in extreme (90th and 95th percentiles) precipitation. The MJO amplitude clearly affects the transport of moisture from the tropical Pacific and Gulf of Mexico into North America providing moist rich air masses and the dynamical forcing that contributes to heavy precipitation.

  2. Cumulus Moistening, the Diurnal Cycle, and Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, J. H.; Johnson, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric soundings, cloud radar, and air-sea flux measurements collected during DYNAMO (Dynamics of the MJO) are employed to study the initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean. Findings indicate that moistening of the troposphere during MJO initiation occurs in two stages: low-to-midlevel moistening in the suppressed phase (i.e., prior to the onset of deep convection), followed by deep-column moistening during the early active phase. The first stage of moistening occurs as the drying by large-scale subsidence and horizontal advection wane and convective clouds increase in areal coverage and deepen from shallow to congestus. Analysis of the suppressed phase reveals the striking degree to which the moistening characteristic of this period is accomplished by the diurnal cycle of cumulus clouds. This diurnal cycle is driven by the cycle in sea surface temperature and air-sea fluxes linked to shallow oceanic diurnal warm layers. This coupled diurnal cycle, and the associated afternoon peak in convective cloud depth, cloud areal coverage, and cumulus moistening, likely drives more vigorous overall moistening than would occur without this diurnal cycle. A conspicuous finding pertaining to the suppressed phase convection is the prominence of mesoscale cloud organization (i.e., open cells and horizontal convective rolls), which is hypothesized to enhance convective instability in localized patches, thereby promoting deeper, more vigorous cumulus moistening than would otherwise occur.

  3. Race and laboratory norms. The critical insights of Julian Herman Lewis (1891-1989).

    PubMed

    Crenner, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    The work of Julian Herman Lewis helps to expose the underlying racial organization of laboratory normality in early twentieth-century medicine. In the 1920s and 1930s, Lewis launched a critique of prevailing racial theory, as he established an academic career in pathology at the University of Chicago. As one of the small number of black research physicians at the time, Lewis met barriers to his work that eventually derailed his career. Although his research fell short of its goals, his work continues to provide a key insight into medical laboratory standards as they became institutionalized in Lewis's field of clinical pathology. By avoiding attributions of race and following prevailing practices of racial exclusion, medical laboratories quietly reasserted social norms in the formation of laboratory normality. An examination of Lewis's critiques and his research sharpens questions about the development of the concept of "normal" in the human sciences and a related tendency in twentieth-century medicine to conflate difference with pathology.

  4. Role of Longwave Cloud-Radiation Feedback in the Simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Daehyun; Ahn, Min-Seop; Kang, In-Sik; Del Genio, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the cloud-radiation interaction in the simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is investigated. A special focus is on the enhancement of column-integrated diabatic heating due to the greenhouse effects of clouds and moisture in the region of anomalous convection. The degree of this enhancement, the greenhouse enhancement factor (GEF), is measured at different precipitation anomaly regimes as the negative ratio of anomalous outgoing longwave radiation to anomalous precipitation. Observations show that the GEF varies significantly with precipitation anomaly and with the MJO cycle. The greenhouse enhancement is greater in weak precipitation anomaly regimes and its effectiveness decreases monotonically with increasing precipitation anomaly. The GEF also amplifies locally when convection is strengthened in association with the MJO, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). A robust statistical relationship is found among CMIP5 climate model simulations between the GEF and the MJO simulation fidelity. Models that simulate a stronger MJO also simulate a greater GEF, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). Models with a greater GEF in the strong precipitation anomaly regime (greater than 30 mm day(-1)) represent a slightly slower MJO propagation speed. Many models that lack the MJO underestimate the GEF in general and in particular in the weak precipitation anomaly regime. The results herein highlight that the cloud-radiation interaction is a crucial process for climate models to correctly represent the MJO.

  5. Resolving the upper-ocean warm layer improves the simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Tu, Chia-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Here we show that coupling a high-resolution one-column ocean model to an atmospheric general circulation model dramatically improves simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) to have realistic strength, period, and propagation speed. The mechanism for the simulated MJO involves both frictional wave-convective conditional instability of the second kind (Frictional wave-CISK) and air-sea convective intraseasonal interaction (ASCII). In particular, better resolving the fine structure of upper ocean temperature, especially the warm layer, produces more vigorous atmosphere-ocean interaction and strengthens intraseasonal variations in both SST and atmospheric circulation. This helps organize and strengthen deep convection, inducing a stronger Kelvin-wave like perturbation and frictional near-surface convergence to the east. In addition, the warmer SST ahead of the MJO also acts to destabilize the boundary layer and enhance frictional convergence. These lead to a more realistic eastward-propagating MJO. A suite of sensitivity experiments were performed to show the robustness of the mechanisms and to demonstrate: (1) that mean state differences are not the main contributors to the improved simulation of our coupled model; (2) the role of SST variability in enhancing frictional convergence and intraseasonal variations in precipitation, and (3) that the simulation is significantly degraded when the first ocean model layer is thicker than 10 m. Our coupled model results are consistent with observations and demonstrate a simple but effective means to significantly improve MJO simulation and potentially also forecasts.

  6. Possible Influences of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on Global Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chidong; McKinney, Matthew; Lasslop, Gitta; Kreidenweis, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Possible influences of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global wildfire are investigated. Glob fire potential and activities are measured by the Nesterov Index (NI), fire danger index (FDI), fire number (FN), and burned area (BA) from the output of a process-based fire regime model (SPITFIRE). The MJO is described using the Real-Time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index. Eight MJO phases defined by the RMM index correspond to different longitudinal locations of positive and negative anomalies in its rainfall as it propagates eastward from the Indian to Pacific Oceans. Phase 0 is defined as periods without MJO signals. Potential influences of the MJO on global fire are demonstrated as the differences of the four fire parameters between each of the eight MJO phases and phase 0. Statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level) differences are identified in various MJO phases in the following regions: tropical Africa, the Amazonia, Siberia, western Russia, and North America. Potential implications and caveats of these signals are discussed.

  7. Multidecadal variations in the modulation of Alaska wintertime air temperature by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics, is known to influence extratropical air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere. In particular, it has been shown that intraseasonal variations in wintertime Alaska surface air temperature (SAT) is linked with variations in cross-shore surface wind and that this mechanism is driven by a train of Rossby waves originating in the tropics due to MJO forcing. We show, using long station records of Alaska SAT and an independent reconstruction of the MJO index over the twentieth century, that the MJO-SAT connection in Alaska has undergone significant multidecadal variability over the last century. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation appears to explain some of the observed multidecadal variability but fails to capture a large proportion of it. We identify four distinct periods between the years 1910 and 2000 that exhibit either a weak, moderate or strong MJO-SAT connection. The nature of our method ensures that the detected multidecadal variability is due to changes in the teleconnection mechanism and not due to changes in the strength of the MJO index. Finally, we speculate on the mechanism which may bring about such multidecadal variations in the teleconnection mechanism.

  8. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and northern high latitude wintertime surface air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2004-02-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the primary mode of large-scale intraseasonal variability in the tropics. Recent work has connected the MJO to atmospheric variability in mid-latitudes. We focus on relationships between the MJO and wintertime surface air temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. The MJO is diagnosed using principal EOF of 850 hPa zonal winds from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for 1979-2002. Station data are used for surface air temperature in Alaska, Canada, the former U.S.S.R., Greenland, and Iceland. The phase of the MJO has a substantial systematic and spatially coherent effect on intraseasonal variability in wintertime surface air temperature through the global Arctic. Composites of geopotential height and specific humidity suggest that radiative and advective effects are important in the observed connections. These statistical connections may be useful for wintertime temperature forecasts. The mechanisms connecting intraseasonal tropical variability with polar and sub-polar variability bear examination.

  9. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  10. Role of delayed deep convection in the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Chen, Zaoyang; Huang, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The power spectrum of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) has a peculiar dispersion relation and is well separated from the convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs). The authors present a theoretical model coupling the equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves to understand this spectral feature of MJO. In this model, a delay process for triggering the deep convection from the additional planetary boundary layer (PBL) pumped moisture is implemented. This model has a moist Kelvin wave-like dispersion relation, and short waves grow fast when all moisture pumped by the PBL excites the deep convection instantly. When the moisture pumped by the PBL is delayed to stay in the lower troposphere for a time scale on the order of a day before triggering the deep convection, this model simulates a MJO-like mode, for which three features of the MJO, the peculiar dispersion relation, the horizontal quadrupole-vortex structure, and longest waves having maximum growth rate, have been simulated. Both moist Kelvin wave-like mode and MJO-like mode are simulated simultaneously when part of the deep convection is delayed, where the strong instability occurs at low-frequency long wavelength for the MJO-like mode and at high-frequency short wavelength for the moist Kelvin wave-like mode. These results suggest the importance of the delay process of deep convection in simulating the MJO.

  11. Predictability of the Madden-Julian Oscillation index: seasonality and dependence on MJO phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Thompson, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    We describe here a damped harmonic oscillator model for the Wheeler and Hendon (Mon Weather Rev 132(8):1917-1932, 2004) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) index in order to gain new insights into the predictability of the MJO. Building on a tradition of idealized models, the model for the MJO state consists of a bivariate autoregressive process, equivalent to a finite difference approximation to a dynamical underdamped harmonic oscillator, as represented by a second order ordinary differential equation. The statistical properties of the model, namely the ensemble mean, ensemble variance, and within-ensemble correlation, are used to develop predictability time scales for canonical MJO events. We explore the model under both white noise and coloured noise forcing and the model parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood estimation, as a function of season and initial MJO event amplitude and phase. The model provides a significantly better fit using coloured noise forcing, which is equivalent to using a higher order model, indicating that the MJO index is not a simple order-1 coupled autoregressive process. Using the fitted model we map the predictability times scales for the mean, variance, and correlation as a function of initial MJO position in phase space. It is shown that the predictability time scales, and thus MJO predictability, vary as a function of MJO phase space and season which is a novel result for empirical models of the MJO. The result that MJO predictability varies with MJO state also has relevance for the interpretation of the Maritime Continent prediction barrier.

  12. Madden-Julian Oscillation: Its potential vorticity vs. Gill-model interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chidong; Ling, Jian

    2013-04-01

    The challenge of understanding and predicting the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) motivated a major international field campaign over the tropical Indian Ocean to study convective initiation of the MJO (CINDY/DYNAMO, October 2012 - March 2013). An introduction to this field campaign, its data collection and preliminary results is given in Session AS1.9. In this talk, connections between field observations, especially diabatic heating, and large-scale dynamics of the MJO are discussed. The Gill-model solutions have been commonly used to interpret the dynamic structure of the MJO. The zonal wind anomalies east of the MJO convection center are generally described as the Kelvin wave component of the MJO and the low-level (high-level) cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulations as the equatorial Rossby wave component. A potential vorticity (PV) analysis indicates that such interpretation of the MJO in terms of the Kelvin and Rossby waves are not always accurate and can be misleading. The circulation pattern of the MJO is distinct from those of the Kelvin and Rossby waves and other types of non-MJO convective activities. It is suggested that large-scale convective organization in a certain way that allows PV generation of the MJO is a key to MJO dynamics. Two processes dominate PV generation of the MJO. One is MJO self-sustainment, which involves diabatic heating of the MJO and planetary vorticity. Another represents stochastic processes contributed from diabatic heating and vorticity unrelated to the MJO and other equatorial waves.

  13. Seaglider observations of equatorial Indian Ocean Rossby waves associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Benjamin G. M.; Matthews, Adrian J.; Heywood, Karen J.; Kaiser, Jan; Schmidtko, Sunke

    2014-06-01

    During the CINDY-DYNAMO field campaign of September 2011-January 2012, a Seaglider was deployed at 80°E and completed 10 north-south sections between 3 and 4°S, measuring temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen concentration, and chlorophyll fluorescence. These high-resolution subsurface observations provide insight into equatorial ocean Rossby wave activity forced by three Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events during this time period. These Rossby waves generate variability in temperature O(1°C), salinity O(0.2 g kg-1), density O(0.2 kg m-3), and oxygen concentration O(10 μmol kg-1), associated with 10 m vertical displacements of the thermocline. The variability extends down to 1000 m, the greatest depth of the Seaglider observations, highlighting the importance of surface forcing for the deep equatorial ocean. The temperature variability observed by the Seaglider is greater than that simulated in the ECCO-JPL reanalysis, especially at depth. There is also marked variability in chlorophyll fluorescence at the surface and at the depth of the chlorophyll maximum. Upwelling from Rossby waves and local wind stress curl leads to an enhanced shoaling of the chlorophyll maximum by 10-25 m in response to the increased availability of nutrients and light. This influence of the MJO on primary production via equatorial ocean Rossby waves has not previously been recognized.

  14. Global Occurrences of Extreme Precipitation and the Madden Julian Oscillation: Observations and Predictability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Charles; Waliser, Duane E.; Lau, K. M.; Stern, W.

    2004-12-01

    This study investigates 1) the eastward propagation of the Madden Julian oscillation (MJO) and global occurrences of extreme precipitation, 2) the degree to which a general circulation model with a relatively realistic representation of the MJO simulates its influence on extremes, and 3) a possible modulation of the MJO on potential predictability of extreme precipitation events. The observational analysis shows increased frequency of extremes during active MJO phases in many locations. On a global scale, extreme events during active MJO periods are about 40% higher than in quiescent phases of the oscillation in locations of statistically significant signals.A 10-yr National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Laboratory for the Atmospheres (GLA) GCM simulation with fixed climatological SSTs is used to generate a control run and predictability experiments. Overall, the GLA model has a realistic representation of extremes in tropical convective regions associated with the MJO, although some shortcomings also seem to be present. The GLA model shows a robust signal in the frequency of extremes in the North Pacific and on the west coast of North America, which somewhat agrees with observational studies. The analysis of predictability experiments indicates higher success in the prediction of extremes during an active MJO than in quiescent situations. Overall, the predictability experiments indicate the mean number of correct forecasts of extremes during active MJO periods to be nearly twice the correct number of extremes during quiescent phases of the oscillation in locations of statistically significant signals.


  15. Future change in the Madden-Julian oscillation using CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, E. J.; Seo, K. H.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, G. U.

    2014-12-01

    Future changes in the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) have been examined using CMIP5 simulations. To represent future MJO change, historical experiment data from 1979 to 2005 and representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP 8.5) run data from 2071 to 2100 are compared. Several changes and associated processes are investigated: 1) MJO will strengthen. For this, the following three aspects are presented. First, in wavenumber-frequency power spectrum analysis for 30-90 days filtered precipitation over [15°S-15°N], spectral power tends to increase significantly. Second, the explained variance of combined EOF1 and EOF2 using 30-90 days filtered zonal winds at 200 and 850 hPa and OLR increases from 46% to 54%. Lastly, the days of MJO index (defined as the amplitude of PC1 and 2 in combined EOF) that is larger than 1.0 increase. 2) Changes in the MJO phase speed are unclear, because different models in CMIP5 show different results. The main process for controlling the phase speed of the MJO will be examined using two and half layer model. Other characteristics of the MJO will be discussed through the moist static energy and moisture budget analyses.

  16. Past- and present-day Madden-Julian Oscillation in CNRM-CM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Eun-Ji; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the past (nineteenth century) and present day (twentieth century) is examined using preindustrial and historical experiments of Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques-Coupled Models, version 5 (CNRM-CM5) in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The present-day MJO is stronger than the past MJO by 33% and it is ~10% more frequent. In particular, the MJO phases 4-7 signifying deep convection situated over the Maritime continent and western Pacific (WP) are considerably enhanced. These changes are due mainly to greenhouse gas forcing with little impact from nature forcing. Dynamical mechanisms for this change are investigated. A peculiar strengthening of MJO over WP comes from increased basic-state sea surface temperature (SST) over the Central Pacific (CP) and EP. The increase in precipitation over WP results from both the response to enhanced SST over CP and the inverted Walker circulation induced by the EP and CP SST increase. The latter causes a pair of anticyclonic Rossby waves straddling the equator, leading to moisture convergence over WP.

  17. Impact of the Madden Julian Oscillation on the summer West African monsoon in AMIP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niang, Coumba; Mohino, Elsa; Gaye, Amadou T.; Omotosho, J. Bayo

    2016-06-01

    At intraseasonal timescales, convection over West Africa is modulated by the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). In this work we investigate the simulation of such relationship by 11 state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation models runs with prescribed observed sea surface temperatures. In general, the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project simulations show good skill in capturing the main characteristics of the summer MJO as well as its influence on convection and rainfall over West Africa. Most models simulate an eastward spatiotemporal propagation of enhanced and suppressed convection similar to the observed MJO, although their signal over West Africa is weaker in some models. In addition, the ensemble average of models' composites gives a better performance in reproducing the main features and timing of the MJO and its impact over West Africa. The influence on rainfall is well captured in both Sahel and Guinea regions thereby adequately producing the transition between positive and negative rainfall anomalies through the different phases as in the observations. Furthermore, the results show that a strong active convection phase is clearly associated with a stronger African Easterly Jet (AEJ) but the weak convective phase is associated with a much weaker AEJ. Our analysis of the equatorial waves suggests that the main impact over West Africa is established by the propagation of low-frequency waves within the MJO and Rossby spectral peaks. Results from the simulations confirm that it may be possible to predict anomalous convection over West Africa with a time lead of 15-20 day.

  18. Sea Surface Temperature Coupling to Madden-Julian Oscillations over the Indonesian Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Pujiana, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intraseasonal SST characteristics within the Indonesian Seas and their responses to the Madden-Julian Oscillations [MJO] are examined through analyses of observed and reanalysis datasets. Intraseasonal variation accounts for about 30% of SST variability, with the strongest signature is observed in Banda and Timor seas. The MJO signature in SST is evident in the form of energy peak at 35-45 days, amplification during the Northwest Monsoon (boreal winter), and eastward propagation. SST responds to sea-air heat flux associated with MJO with net heat flux into the ocean (atmosphere) characterizing the suppressed (active) phase of MJO. The influence of MJO on Banda Sea SST is greatest during La Niña periods, which are favorable for deeper thermocline conditions, which diminish the role of ocean processes driving vertical heat transfer between subsurface and surface layers. Diminished influence of ocean processes results in dominance of surface heat fluxes associated with MJO in governing intraseasonal SST variability. During El Niño, the role of ocean processes is favorable to mediate heat transfer between lower and upper layer of the ocean surface as thermocline is shallower. The ocean component heat fluxes then compete with MJO forced heat fluxes in governing SST variability as indicated by less pronounced eastward propagation.

  19. Atmosphere-ocean coupled processes in the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, Charlotte A.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Woolnough, Steven J.

    2015-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is a convectively coupled 30-70 day (intraseasonal) tropical atmospheric mode that drives variations in global weather but which is poorly simulated in most atmospheric general circulation models. Over the past two decades, field campaigns and modeling experiments have suggested that tropical atmosphere-ocean interactions may sustain or amplify the pattern of enhanced and suppressed atmospheric convection that defines the MJO and encourage its eastward propagation through the Indian and Pacific Oceans. New observations collected during the past decade have advanced our understanding of the ocean response to atmospheric MJO forcing and the resulting intraseasonal sea surface temperature fluctuations. Numerous modeling studies have revealed a considerable impact of the mean state on MJO ocean-atmosphere coupled processes, as well as the importance of resolving the diurnal cycle of atmosphere-upper ocean interactions. New diagnostic methods provide insight to atmospheric variability and physical processes associated with the MJO but offer limited insight on the role of ocean feedbacks. Consequently, uncertainty remains concerning the role of the ocean in MJO theory. Our understanding of how atmosphere-ocean coupled processes affect the MJO can be improved by collecting observations in poorly sampled regions of MJO activity, assessing oceanic and atmospheric drivers of surface fluxes, improving the representation of upper ocean mixing in coupled model simulations, designing model experiments that minimize mean state differences, and developing diagnostic tools to evaluate the nature and role of coupled ocean-atmosphere processes over the MJO cycle.

  20. Optimal Initial Perturbations for Ensemble Prediction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation during Boreal Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Schubert, Siegfried; Chang, Yehui

    2012-01-01

    An initialization strategy, tailored to the prediction of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), is evaluated using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5), coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The approach is based on the empirical singular vectors (ESVs) of a reduced-space statistically determined linear approximation of the full nonlinear CGCM. The initial ESV, extracted using 10 years (1990-99) of boreal winter hindcast data, has zonal wind anomalies over the western Indian Ocean, while the final ESV (at a forecast lead time of 10 days) reflects a propagation of the zonal wind anomalies to the east over the Maritime Continent an evolution that is characteristic of the MJO. A new set of ensemble hindcasts are produced for the boreal winter season from 1990 to 1999 in which the leading ESV provides the initial perturbations. The results are compared with those from a set of control hindcasts generated using random perturbations. It is shown that the ESV-based predictions have a systematically higher bivariate correlation skill in predicting the MJO compared to those using the random perturbations. Furthermore, the improvement in the skill depends on the phase of the MJO. The ESV is particularly effective in increasing the forecast skill during those phases of the MJO in which the control has low skill (with correlations increasing by as much as 0.2 at 20 25-day lead times), as well as during those times in which the MJO is weak.

  1. Respective roles of shallow convection and stratiform rainfall on the simulation of Madden-Julian Oscillation.

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Joshua Xiouhua [IPRC Wang, Bin [IPRC&DM Yeh, Hsi-Chyi

    2010-03-15

    Respective Roles of Shallow Convection and Stratiform Rainfall on the Simulation of Madden Julian Oscillation Joshua Xiouhua Fu IPRC, SOEST, University of Hawaii The IPRC/UH Hybrid-coupled GCM (HcGCM), which combined ECHAM-4 AGCM with UH intermediate ocean model, produces robust Tropical Intra-Seasonal Oscillations including the boreal-winter MJO and boreal-summer Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation. In this study, two sets of sensitivity experiments (i.e., short-term retrospective forecast of one MJO event observed during TOGA COARE and long-term free integrations) have been carried out to understand the respective roles of shallow-convection and stratiform rainfall on the simulations and predictions of the MJO. Major findings are summarized as following: Shallow-convection ahead of MJO deep convection moistens the lower-troposphere and preconditions the movement of the MJO. Present study shows that this process is very important to the eastward propagating speed of the MJO. A significant fraction of stratiform rainfall (~30%; stratiform part vs. total rainfall) is needed for ECHAM-4 to have a robust MJO. The above findings suggest that in addition to deep convection, shallow convection and stratiform rainfall needs to be well represented in conventional GCMs to ensure a robust model MJO.

  2. Charaterization of nonpoint sources and loadings to the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, C.; Jennings, M.; Ockerman, D.; Dybala, T.

    1996-01-01

    The report identified waterborne nonpoint sources of pollution (NPSP) contributing to pollutant loadings of receiving waters within the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program (CCBNEP) study area. Literature and existing data was reviewed with respect to eight categories of land use and several pollutant parameters. Land use categories include: (1) industrial/commercial; (2) transportation; (3) urban; (4) residential; (5) agricultural cropland (dryland and irrigated); (6) rangeland; (7) undeveloped/open; and (8) marinas. The first phase (Year 1) portion of the assessment of nonpoint source pollutant loadings focussed on the derivation of Even Mean Concentrations (EMCs) of various pollutants associated with each of the above eight land use categories. It is envisaged that a Year 2 CCBNEP project will model the loadings of these pollutants based on variable conditions (e.g., wet/dry year, large/small storm) for watersheds and subwatersheds within the study area. The report includes a comprehensive geographic analysis of the contribution of NPS pollutants to the CCBNEP study area and an analysis of probable causes.

  3. Significance of organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wintering shorebirds at Corpus Christi, Texas, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal residues were determined in 103 shorebirds of seven species collected at Corpus Christi, Texas, during the winter of 1976-77 to evaluate their potential effects on population survival, DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in most samples. Chlordane isomers, dieldrin, toxaphene, and heptachlor epoxide also occurred, but less frequently. In general, organochlorine residues were low in skinned carcasses. Geometric means on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.25 ppm to 4.76 ppm for DDE and from 0.67 ppm to 6.64 ppm for PCBs; residues of the other compounds averaged less than 1 ppm in all instances. Mercury, lead, arsenic and vanadium occurred in all shorebird livers, and selenium and cadmium were detected in all kidneys. Residues of these metals, except selenium, were low in most tissue samples. Selenium averages varied from 1.77 ppm to 5.62 ppm (wet weight) in kidneys; residues in this range may be sufficient to inhibit reproduction or to induce other forms of toxicity, especially at the higher levels.

  4. Analysis of extreme rainfall in South America associated with Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutwiler Silva, Elaine; Siqueira Silva, Maria Elisa

    2014-05-01

    Since the early Twentieth Century, the scientific community has recorded the observation of atmospheric and oceanic oscillations related to climatic behavior in remote areas with influence on intraseasonal, interannual and decadal scales, as indicated by [Walker, (1924); Bjerkness (1969); Gutzler and Wallace (1981); Rogers and Van Loon (1978, 1979)]. On the intraseasonal scale, Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) plays a key role in the modulation of rainfall in the tropics and subtropics (Kayano et al., 2009) being characterized by an east shift in a zonal large-scale and thermally direct cell on the Pacific Ocean. This oscillation was first detected in the work of Madden and Julian (1971, 1972) through the application of spectral analysis on daily radiosonde data provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), for the stations at Canton island. The analysis allowed the detection and documentation of oscillations with periods from 40 to 50 days with strong associations between the surface pressure, zonal wind and temperature at different atmospheric levels. Although Souza and Ambrizzi (2006) indicate that South America (SA) has its convective activity altered due to the passage of the MJO, at the present moment, the existing models of climate prediction have not been able to correctly reproduce the propagation of the MJO. This study aims to analyze the periods of occurrence of extreme precipitation and drought in SA associated with OMJ and check the ability of Regional Circulation Model (RegCM4) to simulate this climate variability both diagnostically and prognostically. Daily rainfall data compiled by Liebmann and Allured (2005) will be used for the period 1978-2005 for the detection of MJO influence on SA precipitation. The analysis of atmospheric fields (wind at 200 and 850 hPa and omega at 500 and 850 hPa) of the Reanalysis I data set (Kalnay, 1996) obtained from the Physical Sciences Division (PSD) will be performed in order to verify the

  5. Detail isotopic stratigraphy of snowpack - case study from Julian Alps (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreča, P.; Brenčič, M.; Sinjur, I.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    In temperate humid catchments the storage of precipitation in snowpack, and the subsequent melting, both highly variable in space and time, substantially impacts the water cycle. Recent climate warming and changes in atmospheric circulation patterns have resulted in reductions in the duration of the snow cover season, the amount of water stored in the snowpack, as well as a widespread trend toward earlier melt. Comparison of water balance for periods 1961-90 and 1971-2000 showed that in Slovenia average precipitation amount remained the same in both periods while runoff decreased and the evaporation increased recently. The area of Julian Alps (NW Slovenia) represents the upper catchment area of river Sava. The area is locally characterised as one with the highest annual precipitation amount in Europe, rapid runoffs and low evaporation. Snow cover is regular, starts to accumulate in late autumn and lasts more than 100 days, at the upper tree line usually more than 150 days. Due to positive air temperature trend snow cover period is changing and consequently the discharge regime is affected. Spatial and temporal variability of snow, as well as snow cover contribution to the water balance in Julian Alps remains poorly investigated. Isotopes of O and H have been used to study snow deposition and the subsequent alteration of snowpack and its influence on runoff. Despite their potential, environmental isotopes were only rarely used in investigations of water cycle in mountain areas of Slovenia in the past. To improve the knowledge on snowpack isotope characteristics and processes in it, and consequently to enable better understanding of water balance with emphasize on recharge of important Slovene aquifers, in 2011 at selected site in the area of Triglav National Park (Planina Javornik) the first isotope research of snowpack has been started. We performed detail sampling of snowpack at two locations with different canopy structures (e.g. clearing and forest stand

  6. A Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Liu, F.

    2010-12-01

    Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is an equatorial, planetary scale circulation system coupled with a multi-scale convective complex. The nature and roles of multi-scale interaction (MSI) on MJO dynamics has not been well understood. Here we formulate a prototype theoretical model to advance our understanding the MSI in MJO. The model integrates three essential elements: a) large scale equatorial wave dynamics driven by boundary layer frictional convergence instability (FCI), b) effects of multi-cloud heating and an instability arising from synoptic system-induced convective momentum transfer (CMT), and c) interaction between the planetary and synoptic systems. We show that the CMT mechanism tends to yield a growing stationary mode with a quadrupole-vortex horizontal structure (enhanced Rossby wave component); whereas the FCI favors a fast eastward-moving mode with a Gill-Pattern structure (enhanced Kelvin wave response). The MSI instability can stem from either FCI or CMT mechanisms or both, depending on the ratio of deep convective versus stratiform/congestus heating. With increasing stratiform/congestus heating, the FCI weakens while the CMT becomes more effective. A growing MSI mode has a mixed horizontal structure of CMT and FCI and prefers slow eastward propagation. The FCI sets the eastward propagation, and CMT plays a vital role in slowing down the propagation speed. These results encourage further observational diagnosis of multi-cloud structure and heating profiles in the MJO convective complex and improvement of models’ capability in reproducing correct partitioning of cloud amounts between deep convective and stratiform/congestus clouds.

  7. Assessments of surface latent heat flux associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxia; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    To understand the accuracy and uncertainty of surface latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the LHF from each of the six global reanalysis datasets is compared with LHF based on in situ data and the objectively analyzed air-sea flux (OAFlux), in terms of tropical intraseasonal variability. The reanalysis products used in this study include the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), three generations of reanalysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP R1, R2 and CFSR), and the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). We find that the intraseasonal LHF of the reanalysis products agrees well with the OAFlux over the tropical oceans in terms of patterns, but there is a significant spread in amplitude among the reanalysis products. Both ERA-I and MERRA show smaller biases in the power spectral analysis, while the other reanalysis products (NCEP R1, NCEP R2, CFSR, and 20CR) tend to overestimate the intraseasonal LHF when compared with the TAO buoy products and OAFlux. The role of anomalous LHF in supporting the MJO convection identified by previous TAO buoy data studies is confirmed by the long-term global reanalyses. The feature of increasing LHF accompanied by growing MJO observed in the recent MJO field campaign in the central Indian Ocean (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) is also well captured by the reanalysis products. Among the reanalysis datasets, MERRA has the smallest bias in temporal variability of LHF during the DYNAMO/CINDY2011 period.

  8. The impact of cloud radiative heating on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crueger, Traute; Stevens, Bjorn

    2015-04-01

    We explore how atmospheric radiative heating, due to the presence of clouds, influences the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) as simulated by four comprehensive atmosphere general circulation models. For that reason we compare simulations in which clouds are transparent to electromagnetic radiation ('clouds-off') with control simulations in which clouds are allowed to interact with radiation ('clouds-on"). Making clouds transparent to radiation leads to robust changes of the mean state and the MJO: tropical precipitation in the Indian ocean is displaced off the equator, leading to two symmetric bands of precipitation in this basin. In addition, in clouds-off, the MJO weakens compared to clouds-on. Within the MJO cloud radiative effects lead to stronger convective heating profiles. Heating from non-radiative processes is dominated by the parameterized convection, but large-scale heating associated with cloud microphysical processes acting on the grid-scale, modifies the shape of the profile, leading to a top-heaviness when cloud radiative effects are accounted for. The radiative heating due to clouds slows down the phase speed of the MJO. Averaged over the entire MJO life-cycle the column-integrated radiative heating due to clouds lags the vertically integrated moist static energy by 40° to 60° of longitude (equivalently 7 to 10 days assuming a period of 60 days). All four models studied reveal more pronounced Kelvin waves when clouds are transparent to radiation (clouds-off) suggesting that cloud-radiative effects on large-scale heating profiles acts to damp smaller scale, or faster, Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves and amplify MJO-like disturbances.

  9. Thermodynamics in the Suppressed Phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation Using a Multiplatform Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. B.; Robertson, F. R.; Clayson, C. A.; Taylor, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) represents a prominent mode of intraseasonal tropical variability. It is manifest by coherent large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation, convection, and thermodynamic processes. Preconditioning of the environment prior to the active phase of the MJO has been noted, but the balance of theorized mechanisms to accomplish this process remains unresolved. Further, there is a lack of consensus on the means by which primary initiation of an MJO event occurs. Observational and modeling efforts have recently been undertaken to advance our understanding of the physical underpinnings governing MJO development. However these intensive studies are often limited in space and/or time and are potentially subject to model deficiencies. Satellite observations, especially those providing vertical resolution of temperature and moisture, provide an opportunity to expand our knowledge of processes critical to MJO initiation and preconditioning. This work will provide an analysis of suppressed phase thermodynamics with an emphasis on the use of a complementary suite of satellite observations including AIRS/AMSU-A profiles, CERES radiative fluxes, and cloud properties observed by MODIS. Emphasis of this work will regard the distribution of cloud regimes, their radiative-convective effects, and their relationship to moist static energy during the recharge and suppressed stages of MJO initiation and eastward propagation. The analyses will make use of cloud regimes from MODIS observations to provide a compositing technique that enables the identification of systematic connections between different cloud regimes and the larger scale environment. Within these cloud regimes, the relationship between the associated cloud-radiative effects observed by CERES, vertically-resolved and vertically-integrated thermodynamics using AIRS/AMSU-A observations, and atmospheric boundary layer fluxes will be demonstrated.

  10. Links Between the Madden-Julian Oscillation and Severe Convective Storms in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, B.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has shown a tendency for severe convective storms to vary intraseasonally, including by phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The MJO is the leading mode of atmospheric intraseasonal variability and is characterized by large regions (1000-5000 km) of anomalous convective activity that generally propagate eastward along the equator. Anomalous upper-troposphere heating associated with this convection generates poleward-propagating Rossby waves that interact with the preexisting extratropical circulation. The projection of this interaction onto the synoptic scale - via the favoring of troughs and ridges at certain positions - is the hypothesized mechanism by which the MJO modulates severe convection. However, one unexplored aspect of this modulation is the extent to which severe convection in winter and early-spring months, especially Jan-Mar, may be influenced by different phases of the MJO. While climatologically rarer than events later in spring, severe thunderstorms in winter and early spring still have potential to be high-impact weather events, especially as they often occur in populated areas of the southeast U.S. that have shown more vulnerability than other regions such as the southern or central plains. Results from other studies (not necessarily focused on the question of severe convective storms) have indicated statistically significant modulation of upper- and mid-tropospheric circulation (from 200 hPa to 700 hPa), surface temperature, and sea level pressure. Thus, it is possible that the MJO's influence also extends to severe storms, as these are ingredients known to affect the likelihood of convective activity in the U.S. Using a methodology similar to other recent MJO studies, the impacts of the MJO on tornado, hail, and wind activity from Jan-Mar will be tested as part of this larger project to understand intraseasonal variability of severe storms.

  11. Modulation of the Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the major tropical wave modes, the convectively-coupled equatorial Kelvin wave (CCKW) plays a critical role in tropical climate / weather variability. CCKW activity exhibits strong variation on both seasonal and intraseasonal time scales. In this study, evidence of the strong modulation of the CCKW activity by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) will be presented, with a particular focus over South America and tropical Atlantic region. The primary modulation of CCKWs over this region, as noted in anomalous fields of rainfall as well as vertical profiles of wind, moisture and temperature, is found to be a modulation of wave activity - namely amplitude, with secondary effects on vertical structure, and very little impact on wavenumber. CCKW activity is enhanced during MJO phases 8, 1, and 2, and damped during MJO phases 4, 5, and 6. Further analyses reveal that the strong modulation of the MJO on the CCKW activity could be largely through two factors, namely, the vertical zonal wind shear and the lower-middle troposphere specific humidity. The CCKW activity tends to be enhanced during MJO phases when the westward vertical wind shear and positive lower to mid-troposphere moisture anomalies are evident, and vice versa. These two physical processes associated with the MJO are found to have positively (negatively) reinforcing influences in the CCKW activity in phase 1 (4, and 5), while counteracting influences in phases 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8, leading to the observed MJO cycle of the CCKW activity anomalies in the study region. The results presented in this study may have important implications for extended-range prediction of tropical wave activity, and possibly initiation of the MJO further downstream in the Indian Ocean.

  12. Madden-Julian Oscillation analog and intraseasonal variability in a multicloud model above the equator.

    PubMed

    Majda, Andrew J; Stechmann, Samuel N; Khouider, Boualem

    2007-06-12

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant component of tropical intraseasonal variability, and a theory explaining its structure and successful numerical simulation remains a major challenge. A successful model for the MJO should have a propagation speed of 4-7 m/s predicted by theory; a wavenumber-2 or -3 structure for the planetary-scale, low-frequency envelope with distinct active and inactive phases of deep convection; an intermittent turbulent chaotic multiscale structure within the planetary envelope involving embedded westward- and eastward-propagating deep convection events; and qualitative features of the low-frequency envelope from the observational record regarding, e.g., its zonal flow structure and heating. Here, such an MJO analog is produced by using the recent multicloud model of Khouider and Majda in an appropriate intraseasonal parameter regime for flows above the equator so that rotation is ignored. Key features of the multicloud model are (i) systematic low-level moisture convergence with retained conservation of vertically integrated moist static energy, and (ii) the use of three cumulus cloud types (congestus, stratiform, and deep convective) together with their differing vertical heating structures. Besides all of the above structure in the MJO analog waves, there are accurate predictions of the phase speed from linear theory and transitions from weak, regular MJO analog waves to strong, multiscale MJO analog waves as climatological parameters vary. With all of this structure in a simplified context, these models should be useful for MJO predictability studies in a fashion akin to the Lorenz 96 model for the midlatitude atmosphere.

  13. The effect of atmospheric radiative heating by clouds on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crueger, Traute; Stevens, Bjorn

    2015-06-01

    This article explores how atmospheric radiative heating, due to the presence of clouds, influences the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) as simulated by four comprehensive atmosphere general circulation models. Simulations in which clouds are transparent to electromagnetic radiation ("clouds-off") are compared with control simulations in which clouds are allowed to interact with radiation ("clouds-on"). Making clouds transparent to radiation leads to robust changes of the mean state: the westerly winds in the equatorial Indo-Pacific area weaken and the precipitation reveals a shift from single to double Intertropical Convergence Zones. These changes are accompanied by weaker MJOs. Also, the moisture sensitivity of precipitation changes, however not consistently within our group of models. Further analyses show that within the active phase of intraseasonal variability, cloud-radiative effects amplify the heating profiles compared to clouds-off. Heating from nonradiative processes is dominated by the parameterized convection, but large-scale heating associated with cloud microphysical processes acting on the grid-scale modifies the shape of the heating profile, leading to a top-heaviness when cloud-radiative effects are accounted for. The radiative heating due to clouds slows down the phase speed of the MJO. Averaged over the entire MJO life cycle, the column-integrated radiative heating due to clouds lags the vertically integrated moist static energy by 40°-60° of longitude (equivalently 7-10 days assuming a period of 60 days). All four models studied reveal more pronounced Kelvin waves when clouds are transparent to radiation, suggesting that cloud-radiative effects on large-scale heating profiles damp smaller scale, or faster, Kelvin waves and amplify MJO-like disturbances.

  14. Late Quaternary glaciation of the Upper Soca River Region (Southern Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bavec, Milos; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Mahan, Shannon; Stock, Gregory M.

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Late Quaternary glaciers in the Upper Soc??a River Region (Southern Julian Alps, SE Europe) has been analyzed using a combination of geological mapping, glaciological modeling, and sediment dating (radiocarbon, U/Th series and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence-IRSL). Field investigations focused mainly on relatively well preserved Quaternary sequences in the Bovec Basin, an intramontane basin located SW of the Mediterranean/Black Sea divide and surrounded by mountain peaks reaching from approximately 2100 up to 2587 m a.s.l. Within the Basin we recognized two Late Quaternary sedimentary assemblages, which consist of the same facies association of diamictons, laminated lacustrine deposits and sorted fluvial sediments. Radiocarbon dating of the upper part of the lake sediments sequence (between 12790??85 and 5885??60 14C years b.p.) indicates that the younger sedimentary assemblage was deposited during the last glacial maximum and through early Holocene (Marine Isotope Stage 21, MIS 2-1). Sediment ages obtained for the older assemblage with U/Th and IRSL techniques (between 154.74??22.88 and 129.93??7.90 ka b.p. for selected samples) have large errors but both methods yield results consistent with deposition during the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5). Based on analyses of field data combined with glaciological modeling, we argue that both sediment complexes formed due to high sediment productivity spurred by paraglacial conditions with glaciers present in the uplands around the Bovec Basin but not extending down to the basin floor. Our study shows that the extent and intensity of direct glacial sedimentation by Late Quaternary glaciers in the region was previously significantly overestimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of Precipitation, Cloud, and Latent Heating Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K-M.; Wu, H-T.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of cloud and rainfall structures associated with Madden Julian oscillation (MJO) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. Two complementary indices are used to define MJO phases. Joint probability distribution functions (PDFs) of cloud-top temperature and radar echo-top height are constructed for each of the eight MJO phases. The genesis stage of MJO convection over the western Pacific (phases 1 and 2) features a bottom-heavy PDF, characterized by abundant warm rain, low clouds, suppressed deep convection, and higher sea surface temperature (SST). As MJO convection develops (phases 3 and 4), a transition from the bottom-heavy to top-heavy PDF occurs. The latter is associated with the development of mixed-phase rain and middle-to-high clouds, coupled with rapid SST cooling. At the MJO convection peak (phase 5), a top-heavy PDF contributed by deep convection with mixed-phase and ice-phase rain and high echo-top heights (greater than 5 km) dominates. The decaying stage (phases 6 and 7) is characterized by suppressed SST, reduced total rain, increased contribution from stratiform rain, and increased nonraining high clouds. Phase 7, in particular, signals the beginning of a return to higher SST and increased warm rain. Phase 8 completes the MJO cycle, returning to a bottom-heavy PDF and SST conditions similar to phase 1. The structural changes in rain and clouds at different phases of MJO are consistent with corresponding changes in derived latent heating profiles, suggesting the importance of a diverse mix of warm, mixed-phase, and ice-phase rain associated with low-level, congestus, and high clouds in constituting the life cycle and the time scales of MJO.

  16. Thermodynamics in the Suppressed Phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation Using a Multiplatform Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Taylor, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) represents a prominent mode of intraseasonal tropical variability. It is manifest by coherent large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation, convection, and thermodynamic processes. Preconditioning of the environment prior to the active phase of the MJO has been noted, but the balance of theorized mechanisms to accomplish this process remains unresolved. Further, there is a lack of consensus on the means by which primary initiation of an MJO event occurs. Observational and modeling efforts have recently been undertaken to advance our understanding of the physical underpinnings governing MJO development. However these intensive studies are often limited in space and/or time and are potentially subject to model deficiencies. Satellite observations, especially those providing vertical resolution of temperature and moisture, provide an opportunity to expand our knowledge of processes critical to MJO initiation and preconditioning. This work will provide an analysis of suppressed phase thermodynamics with an emphasis on the use of a complementary suite of satellite observations including AIRS/AMSU-A profiles, CERES radiative fluxes, and cloud properties observed by MODIS. Emphasis of this work will regard the distribution of cloud regimes, their radiative-convective effects, and their relationship to moist static energy during the recharge and suppressed stages of MJO initiation and eastward propagation. The analyses will make use of cloud regimes from MODIS observations to provide a compositing technique that enables the identification of systematic connections between different cloud regimes and the larger scale environment. Within these cloud regimes, the relationship between the associated cloud-radiative effects observed by CERES, vertically-resolved and vertically-integrated thermodynamics using AIRS/AMSU-A observations, and atmospheric boundary layer fluxes will be demonstrated.

  17. Realistic initiation and dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a coarse resolution aquaplanet GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayamohan, R. S.; Khouider, Boualem; Majda, Andrew J.

    2013-12-01

    The main mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are still widely debated. The capacity of operational global climate models (GCMs) to correctly simulate the MJO is hindered by the inadequacy of the underlying cumulus parameterizations. Here we show that a coarse resolution GCM, coupled to a simple multicloud model parameterization mimicking the observed dynamics and physical structure of organized tropical convection, simulates the MJO in an idealized setting of an aquaplanet without ocean dynamics. We impose a fixed nonhomogeneous sea-surface temperature replicating the Indian Ocean/Western Pacific warm pool. This results in a succession of MJOs with realistic phase speed, amplitude, and physical structure. Each MJO event is initiated at a somewhat random location over the warm pool and dies sometimes near the eastern boundary of the warm pool and sometimes at a random location way beyond the warm pool. Also occasionally the MJO events stall at the center of maximum heating. This is reminiscent of the fact that in nature some MJOs stall over the maritime continent while others reach the central Pacific Ocean and beyond. The initiation mechanism in the model is believed to be a combination of persistent intermittent convective events interacting with observed large-scale flow patterns and internal tropical dynamics. The large-scale flow patterns are associated with planetary-scale dry Kelvin waves that are triggered by preceding MJO events and circle the globe, while congestus cloud decks on the flanks of the warm pool are believed to force Rossby gyres which then funnel moisture toward the equatorial region.

  18. Ethnic Differences in Post-Stroke Quality of Life in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Sarah L; Brown, Devin L; Baek, Jonggyu; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mexican Americans (MAs) have an increased risk of stroke and experience worse post-stroke disability than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), which may translate into worse post-stroke quality of life (QOL). We assessed ethnic differences in post-stroke QOL, as well as potential modification of associations by age, sex, and initial stroke severity. Methods Ischemic stroke survivors were identified through the biethnic, population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from medical records, baseline interviews, and 90-day post-stroke interviews. Post-stroke QOL was measured at approximately 90 days by the validated short-form stroke-specific QOL in 3 domains: overall, physical, and psychosocial (range 0–5; higher scores represent better QOL). Tobit regression was used to model associations between ethnicity and post-stroke QOL scores, adjusted for demographics, clinical characteristics, and pre-stroke cognition and function. Results Among 290 eligible stroke survivors (66% MA, 34% NHW, median age=69 years), median scores for overall, physical, and psychosocial post-stroke QOL were 3.3, 3.8 and 2.7, respectively. Overall post-stroke QOL was lower for MAs than NHWs (mean difference = −0.30, 95%CI:−0.59,−0.01) and in the physical domain (mean difference = −0.47, 95%CI:−0.81,−0.14) after multivariable adjustment. No ethnic difference was found in the psychosocial domain. Age modified the associations between ethnicity and post-stroke QOL such that differences were present in older but not younger ages. Conclusions Disparities exist in post-stroke QOL for MAs and appear to be driven by differences in older stroke patients. Targeted interventions to improve outcomes among MA stroke survivors are urgently needed. PMID:26286542

  19. Madden-Julian oscillation and sea surface temperature interactions in a multi-scale framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-12-01

    The ocean-atmosphere coupling can play a role in initiating and sustaining the Madden-Julian Oscillations (MJOs), which are the major intraseasonal oscillations in the atmosphere. In this thesis, the oceanic influence on MJOs is studied with reanalysis products, numerical models, and idealized theoretical models. The energy sources for MJOs are calculated with NCEP reanalysis. The perturbed potential energy is found to be the most important energy source for most MJO events. In some MJO events, the sea surface is warmed due to the reduced latent heat flux during the suppressed phase of MJOs. As a result, warm sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) occur, which appear to prolong the life time of these MJO events. In a minority of the MJO events, warm SSTAs can drive the atmosphere actively and trigger MJO events. In these events, the warm SSTAs are attributable to the internal oceanic processes influenced by the warm Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), which spreads from the southeastern Indian Ocean to the western Indian Ocean and modifies the subtle balance between stratification and mixing in the western Indian Ocean. In addition, during the transit period between monsoon seasons, a few MJO events are sustained by the energy obtained from the mean kinetic energy. Since the MJO events have different energy sources, their mechanisms should be considered in the context of these energy sources. While the spatial scale of the SSTAs in the Indian Ocean is only of order 100 km, the scale of MJOs is of order 1000 km, raising the potential for interactions between the oceanic and the atmospheric oscillations with different scales and this is demonstrated to be possible with analytical solutions to idealized linear governing equations. With a reasonable choice of parameters, the meso-scale oceanic and the large-scale atmospheric oscillations can interact with each other and lead to unstable waves in the intraseasonal band in this linear coupled model. The coupling and

  20. Influence of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on Rainfall Variability over West Africa at Intraseasonal Timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Intraseasonal variability of rainfall over West Africa plays a significant role in the economy of the region and is highly linked to agriculture and water resources. This research study aims to investigate the relationship between Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and rainfall over West Africa during the boreal summer in the the state-of-the-art Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) type simulations performed by Atmosphere General Circulation Models (GCMs) forced with prescribed Sea Surface Temperature (SST). It aims to determine the impact of MJO on rainfall and convection over West Africa and identify the dynamical processes which are involved in the state-of-the-art climate simulations. The simulations show in general good skills in capturing its main characteristics as well as its influence on rainfall over West Africa. On the global scale, most models simulated an eastward spatio-temporal propagation of enhanced and suppressed convection similar to the observed. However, over West Africa the MJO signal is weak in few of the models although there is a good coherence in the eastward propagation. The influence on rainfall is well captured in both Sahel and Guinea regions thereby adequately producing the transition between positive and negative rainfall anomalies through the different phases as seen in the observation. Furthermore, the results show that strong active convective phase is clearly associated with the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) but the weak convective phase is associated with a much weaker AEJ particularly over coastal Ghana. In assessing the mechanisms which are involved in the above impacts the convectively equatorial coupled waves (CCEW) are analysed separately. The analysis of the longitudinal propagation of zonal wind at 850hPa and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) shows that the CCEW are very weak and their extention are very limited beyong West African region. It was found that the westward coupled equatorial Rossby waves are needed to

  1. The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models

    DOE PAGES

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Gualdi, Silvio; Legutke, Stephanie; Gayler, Veronika

    2005-06-29

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30–70 days. During the boreal winter/spring, it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space–time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which ~100 years of daily data is available, Montemore » Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the nonadjusted scale interaction experiment (SINTEX) coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of ~0.5°C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical eastern hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or when compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air–sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat

  2. Vertical Structure and Physical Processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: A Model Evaluation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolnough, S. J.; Waliser, D. E.; Klingaman, N. P.; Jiang, X.; Petch, J.; Xavier, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    The fundamental physics of the generation, maintenance and propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation are intensely debated. Many theories focus on instabilities arising from interactions between components of the vertical diabatic heating from convection and the large-scale circulation. Most general circulation models (GCMs) exhibit biases in diabatic-heating profiles against observed or reanalysis products, but those products also exhibit considerable discrepancies with one another. The Vertical structure and physical processes of the MJO project is a novel model-evaluation project, designed to assess relationships between diabatic processes in GCMs and their representations of the MJO. A key advantage of the project is the acquisition of temperature, moisture and momentum tendencies from each of the model sub-grid physics schemes. The project has three components, designed to take advantage of known links between biases in short-range forecasts and climate simulations: (1) 20-year AMIP-type simulations to assess the representation of the MJO in each GCM; (2) 2-day hindcasts of two YoTC MJO events to investigate the timestep-level behaviour of physical parameterisations; (3) 20-day hindcasts of the same events to identify links between degradations in forecast skill and the representation of diabatic processes. Analysis of the three component has identified several over-arching conclusions. First, many process-oriented MJO diagnostics derived from past studies using one or several GCMs fail to distinguish between the GCMs in this project that simulate the MJO well and those that do so poorly, whether for initialised hindcasts or 20-year simulations. Second, there is little correlation between GCM hindcast skill for these cases and the fidelity of the MJO representation in climate simulations. Third, all three components have demonstrated that a reliable representation of the moistening profile, particularly lower- and mid-tropospheric moistening during the

  3. Prediction of the Madden-Julian oscillation with the POAMA dynamical prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Harun A.; Hendon, Harry H.; Wheeler, Matthew C.; Alves, Oscar

    2011-02-01

    Predictions of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) are assessed using a 10-member ensemble of hindcasts from POAMA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology coupled ocean-atmosphere seasonal prediction system. The ensemble of hindcasts was initialised from observed atmosphere and ocean initial conditions on the first of each month during 1980-2006. The MJO is diagnosed using the Wheeler-Hendon Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index, which involves projection of daily data onto the leading pair of eigenmodes from an analysis of zonal winds at 200 and 850 hPa and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) averaged about the equator. Forecasts of the two component (RMM1 and RMM2) index are quantitatively compared with observed behaviour derived from NCEP reanalyses and satellite OLR using the bivariate correlation skill, root-mean-square error (RMSE), and measures of the MJO amplitude and phase error. Comparison is also made with a simple vector autoregressive (VAR) prediction model of RMM as a benchmark. Using the full hindcast set, we find that the MJO can be predicted with the POAMA ensemble out to about 21 days as measured by the bivariate correlation exceeding 0.5 and the bivariate RMSE remaining below ~1.4 (which is the value for a climatological forecast). The VAR model, by comparison, drops to a correlation of 0.5 by about 12 days. The prediction limit from POAMA increases by less than 2 days for times when the MJO has large initial amplitude, and has little sensitivity to the initial phase of the MJO. The VAR model, on the other hand, shows a somewhat larger increase in skill for times of strong MJO variability and has greater sensitivity to initial phase, with lower skill for times when MJO convection is developing in the Indian Ocean. The sensitivity to season is, however, greater for POAMA, with maximum skill occurring in the December-January-February season and minimum skill in June-July-August. Examination of the MJO amplitudes shows that individual POAMA members

  4. Assessment of Madden-Julian oscillation simulations with various configurations of CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojing; Tang, Youmin; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Dake; Yao, Zhixiong; Islam, Siraj Ul

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) simulated in five experiments using the Community Earth System Model under different model settings. The analysis focused on the effects of air-sea coupling, resolution and atmospheric physics on the basic characteristics of the MJO, including intraseasonal variance, wavenumber-frequency characteristics and eastward propagation, using outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), zonal winds at 850 hPa (U850) and at 200 hPa (U200). Five experiments are conducted for this purpose including one atmospheric model—Community Atmosphere model version 4 (CAM4), two coupled models with CAM4 or Community Atmosphere model version 5 (CAM5) as the atmospheric component at a low resolution (CLP4_2d, CPL5_2d) and two the same coupled model with a high resolution (CPL4_1d and CLP5_1d). The results show that all models have better intraseasonal characteristics in U850 than in OLR. The uncoupled model CAM4 has lower fidelity than the coupled models in characterizing MJO basic features including the temporal and spatial intraseasonal variability and the eastward propagation. With ocean feedback, the coherence of convection and circulation is improved in the coupled models. The higher resolution is helpful in improving ISV spatial distribution and eliminating low frequency bias in the frequency-wavenumber spectra although it has little improvement to MJO-band variance (power) in frequency-wavenumber spectra. The new shallow convection scheme in CAM5 improves the moisture process of the lower troposphere so that CPL5_2d and CPL5_1d have more realistic eastward propagation speed in the boreal winter and better northward propagation in the boreal summer than other models. However, the strength of the convective MJO signal in CPL5_2d and CPL5_1d are weaker than other models and observations, which is probably one of the most spurious features in CPL5_2d and CPL5_1d experiments, suggesting that the CAM5 has a weaker

  5. The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Gualdi, Silvio; Legutke, Stephanie; Gayler, Veronika

    2005-06-29

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30–70 days. During the boreal winter/spring, it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space–time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which ~100 years of daily data is available, Monte Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the nonadjusted scale interaction experiment (SINTEX) coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of ~0.5°C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical eastern hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or when compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air–sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat flux

  6. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in ECHAM4 Coupled and Uncoupled GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K R; Gualdi, S; Legutke, S; Gayler, V

    2004-10-13

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30-70 days. During the boreal winter/spring it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space-time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures, and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which {approx}100 years of daily data is available, Monte Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the non-adjusted SINTEX coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of {approx}0.5 C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical Eastern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air-sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model, in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat flux anomalies. However, the integrations

  7. Precursor Environmental Conditions Associated with the Termination of Madden-Julian Oscillation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachnik, J. P.; Waliser, D. E.; Majda, A.

    2014-12-01

    Current generations of global climate models continue to struggle with simulating many of the observed features of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and suffer from low skill regarding initiation forecasts. While recent work has focused on those mechanisms thought to be important for MJO initiation, fewer studies have examined the large-scale conditions associated with quiescent periods of the MJO and the decay of existing events. Understanding these mechanisms may provide a valuable context toward improving simulations of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and operational weather forecast models. This study presents an analysis of the precursor environmental conditions related to the termination of MJO events. A simple climatology is created using a real-time MJO monitoring index, documenting the locations and frequencies of MJO decay. Lead-lag composites of several atmospheric variables including temperature, moisture, and intraseasonal wind anomalies are generated from three reanalyses. Long-term, lower tropospheric moisture deficits over the local domain best identify terminating events over the Indian Ocean, with a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and corresponding lead times as much as 20 days prior to MJO decay. Statistically significant differences are also identified more than 10 days in advance of MJO termination events in the west Pacific, though the vertical velocity and moisture anomalies are more symmetric about the equator. We also present results for those MJOs that terminate over the maritime continent. Unlike the Indian Ocean and west Pacific, the likelihood of an MJO to cross the maritime continent appears related to its own intensity, rather than the upstream environmental conditions, with only the strongest MJOs propagating into the warm pool region. Finally, a budget analysis is performed on the three-dimensional moisture advection equation in order to better elucidate what time-scales and physical

  8. A Momentum Budget Analysis of Westerly Wind Events Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ji-Hyun; Jiang, Xianan; Waliser, Duane; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Johnson, Richard; Ciesielski, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Three Madden-Julian Oscillation events during Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign were investigated to understand the contributions of the dynamical processes involved in the wind evolution associated with the MJO over the Indian Ocean (IO). The DYNAMO field campaign was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012 over the IO to shed light on the initiation of the MJO. Based on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis, a momentum budget analysis of three MJOs that occurred in late October, late November, and late December shows that westerly acceleration at lower levels associated with the MJO active phase generally appears to be maintained by the pressure gradient force (PGF), which could be partly canceled by meridional advection of the zonal wind. Westerly acceleration in the midtroposphere tends to be mostly attributable to vertical advection. In particular, the dynamical contribution of synoptic-scale equatorial waves to the WWEs is illuminated by diagnosing the MJO in November (MJO2), accompanied by two WWEs (WWE1 and WWE2) spaced a few days apart. Unlike other WWEs during DYNAMO, horizontal advection is more responsible for the westerly acceleration in the lower troposphere for WWE2 than the PGF. Different interactions between the MJO2 envelope and convectively coupled waves (CCWs) can be responsible for different developing processes among WWEs.

  9. Precipitation microstructure in different Madden-Julian Oscillation phases over Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kozu, Toshiaki; Shimomai, Toyoshi; Shibagaki, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2016-02-01

    Intraseasonal variations of precipitation and its microstructure are investigated using measurements of the Equatorial Atmospheric Radar (EAR) facilities at Kototabang, west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). Raindrop size distribution (DSD) observations are obtained from a 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) with a near continuous record of operation over eight consecutive years (2003-2010). Precipitation types are classified using 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation, and are partitioned according to active and inactive convective phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). It is found that precipitation systems during the inactive phase are more continental in nature than those during the active phase. Cloud propagation from brightness temperature data indicates that Sumatra receives the rainfall mainly from maritime clouds during the active phase, while it is mainly from the continental clouds (land-based convection) during the inactive phase. Other remarkable differences between active and inactive phase precipitation systems are also observed from the vertical structure of precipitation. The precipitation during the inactive phase has deeper storms, a higher reflectivity aloft, more lightning activity and less stratiform characteristics, as compared to the active phase. Assessment of cloud effective radius of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data also shows a slight difference in the cloud droplet between the active and the inactive MJO phases. Different convective storms in different MJO phases lead to different DSD characteristics and Z-R relationships. The DSD during the inactive phase tends to have a higher concentration of medium and large-size drops than the active counterpart, consistent with the previous study during the first campaign of Coupling Processes in the Equatorial Atmosphere project. Although the DSD parameters and coefficient of Z-R relationships fall within the range of tropical maritime

  10. A mechanism-denial study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation with reduced interference from mean state changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Mechanism-denial experiments using Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model are conducted to investigate the importance of extratropical and circumnavigating waves, wind-evaporation feedback, and radiative-convective feedback to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A common issue with mechanism-denial studies is the interference from mean state changes when processes are turned off in the model. Here time-invariant forcing and nudging on effective timescales longer than the intraseasonal timescale are implemented to maintain the mean state. The MJO activity remains largely unchanged with suppressed extratropical and circumnavigating waves when the mean state is maintained to be close to that of the control run, suggesting that excitation of MJO by extratropical and circumnavigating waves is not necessary for the existence of MJO in this model. It is also shown that the wind-evaporation feedback slows down eastward propagation of the MJO, and the radiative-convective feedback amplifies the MJO.

  11. Extreme Winter Precipitation Events in the Western United States: The impact of ENSO and the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, S.; Chang, Y.; Suarez, M.; Pegion, P.

    2005-05-01

    The west coast of the United States occasionally experiences intense winter storms that account for a major fraction of the total seasonal rain(snow)fall. In some cases, it is not a single storm, but a series of storms, that batter the west coast in a matter of few weeks. These storms, unfortunately, are often associated with flooding, mudslides and other disasters that can lead to extensive property damage and even loss of life. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of the nature of these storms and the extent to which their occurrence is impacted by El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the Madden Julian Oscillation. The results are based on 50 years of precipitation observations, NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, and idealized experiments with a global atmospheric general circulation model.

  12. Advection, Moistening, and Shallow-to-deep Convection Transitions During the Initiation and Propagation of Madden-Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Landu, Kiranmayi; Long, Charles N.

    2014-09-11

    Using observations from the 2011 AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign over the Indian Ocean and a high-resolution regional model simulation, the processes that lead to the rapid shallow-to-deep convection transitions associated with the initiation and eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are examined. By tracking the evolution of the depth of several thousand individual model simulated precipitation features, the role of and the processes that control the observed midtropospheric moisture buildup ahead of the detection of deep convection are quantified at large and convection scales. The frequency of shallow-to-deep convection transitions is found to be sensitive to this midlevel moisture and large-scale uplift. This uplift along with the decline of large-scale drying by equator-ward advection causes the moisture buildup leading to the initiation of the MJO. Convection scale moisture variability and uplift, and large-scale zonal advection play secondary roles.

  13. Surprising Resilience of the Madden-Julian Oscillation to Extreme Climate Cooling in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. S.; Yang, D.

    2014-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that radiative convective equilibrium (RCE) self-aggregation is a good metaphor for the maintenance of the Madden-Julian Oscillation by imposing extreme cooling in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SPCAM) v. 3.0 in a uniform SST configuration. The expectation is that - like RCE self-aggregation - SPCAM's simulated MJO should shut down at sea surface temperatures significantly less than 25 degrees Celsius. Remarkably, the MJO in SPCAM is resilient to extreme cooling down to one degree Celsius. With cooling, the simulated MJO becomes more barotropic and its zonal wavelength decreases. The amplitude decrease and horizontal scale contraction are consistent with the theoretical prediction from Yang and Ingersoll (2014, GRL).

  14. Resilience of an explicitly simulated Madden-Julian Oscillation to extreme basic state variation challenges moisture mode view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. S.; Yang, D.

    2015-12-01

    Idealized experiments are performed with the SuperParamaterized CAM to test two hypotheses motivated by a modern view of the "moisture mode" theory of the Madden Julian Oscillation. Inconsistent with both hypotheses, evidence is found of a cold-MJO signal under horizontally homogenous SSTs. Apparently the intrinsic MJO signal in SPCAM3 is a surprisingly resilient mode that can survive both extreme cooling of the climate and a reversal of near-equatorial meridional MSE gradients. Column MSE analysis indicates a negative overall growth rate of MJO MSE in our coldest simulations, which is hard to reconcile with the survival of a cold MJO from a moisture mode view. A resilience of familiar features of the MJO-MSE budget in our simulations could indicate some other cause, beyond local column MSE dynamics, requires such phase relationships to exist.

  15. Regulation of H2O and CO in Tropical Tropopause Layer by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, S.; Dessler, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    Impacts of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) on the water vapor (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are investigated using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data for November 2004 to May 2005. The eastward propagation of deep convection in the H2O and CO fields in the TTL is evident. Tropical mean water vapor at 370 K is regulated by the MJO through the variation of temperature with a timescale of 30-45 days. Enhancement of deep convection associated with the MJO also injects CO from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere. However, tropical mean CO at 370 K responds instantaneously to the large surface emission over the African continent. The regulation of TTL CO by the MJO is through the enhancement of deep convection over the African continent and is less evident than that of H2O.

  16. Geometry of the Paleo-Nueces River Incised-Valley, Corpus Christi Bay, Texas as it Relates to Quaternary Sea Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugrin, L.; Gulick, S. S.; Goff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    CHIRP subbottom seismic data were collected on the 2009 and 2011 Marine Geophysics Field courses at the University of Texas at Austin within the Corpus Christi Bay along the central Texas coast in order to study the geometry of the ancestral Nueces River incised valley and its evolution over Quaternary sea level history. Since the late Pleistocene, the Nueces River valley experienced a gradual infill due to sea level rise, interrupted by two major flooding events that represent periods of rapid sediment influx. These flooding events are recognizable based on abrupt changes in seismic facies. Discontinuous, chaotic fluvial lag deposits present underneath a fairly continuous, stratified, sub-horizontal estuarine coastal plain facies mark what is interpreted to be the Pleistocene/Holocene unconformity. Above the P/H boundary, oyster reefs thrive within the estuary until capped by a strong reflector, marking the second flooding surface that allowed enough incoming sediment to discontinue oyster reef growth. The estuarine deposits within the paleo-Nueces river valley exhibit a landward migration as the Holocene transgression proceeded. As infill continued, the bay-head delta prograded seaward and the flood-tidal delta extended progressively further up the estuary until the central estuarine basin was capped. The earlier flooding events provide strong reflectors that can be linked to the draining of Lake Agassiz around 8.2 k.a.. This event flooded the Gulf of Mexico with freshwater, and interrupted the estuarine infilling of the Nueces paleo-channel. Cores from previous studies have found at least two species of oyster reefs in Corpus Christi Bay: euryhaline species Crassostrea virginica, and Ostrea equestris, a species known to thrive in higher salinity waters. The presence of both species at the flooding boundary suggests the sudden pulse of freshwater mixed with higher salinity oceanic water. The second flooding surface is interpreted to be associated with an increase

  17. The impact of the Madden-Julian oscillation on polar surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Changhyun

    This dissertation investigates the impact of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the extratropical surface air temperature (SAT). The underlying idea of this study is that tropical convective heating is linked to the extratropical circulation and SAT through poleward propagating Rossby waves. Given this perspective, two questions are addressed. One is the extent to which the MJO contribute to interdecadal time scale polar amplification of SAT (Chapters 2 and 3) and the other is the mechanism by which the MJO alters the intraseasonal time scale extratropical SAT change (Chapters 4 and 5). Polar amplification, i.e., interdecadal time-scale SAT increase being greatest at high latitudes, is one of prominent features of current climate change. Numerous observational and modeling studies have documented this phenomenon. However, its cause remains uncertain. The surface albedo feedback, which is associated with retreats in snow and ice cover and hence increases in surface albedo with a warmer climate, is the most prominent explanation. However, one of important characteristics of polar amplification is that its maximum amplitude is retained during the winter season when incoming solar radiation is minimal. In Chapters 2 and 3, we show that polar amplification during the 1979--2008 winters is tropically excited. More specifically, we show evidence that polar amplification is linked to interdecadal time scale change in the MJO phase frequency of occurrence. We present both the extended boreal winter (November to March) and austral winter (May to September), with our focus being on winter Hemisphere, where the MJO has strong influence. First, during the 30-year boreal winter, MJO phases 4--6 have occurred with an increased frequency of occurrence while phases 1 and 2 have showed a moderate decrease in their frequency of occurrence. Using lagged composites of the SAT, we show that Arctic warming takes place 1--2 weeks after MJO passes its phases 4--6. Similarly, MJO phases

  18. Delineation of marsh types of the Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River in 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Brasher, Michael G.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mitchell, Michael K.; Ballard, Bart M.; Parr, Mark W.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Wilson, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh-reliant wildlife (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation zones throughout the Texas coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation and collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, and Ducks Unlimited, Inc., has produced a classification of marsh vegetation types along the middle and upper Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River. This study incorporates approximately 1,000 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal marsh areas and about 2,000 supplemental locations from fresh marsh, water, and “other” (that is, nonmarsh) areas. About two-thirds of these data were used for training, and about one-third were used for assessing accuracy. Decision-tree analyses using Rulequest See5 were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using these data, multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, a bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables believed to be important for delineating the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation communities. Image objects were generated from segmentation of high-resolution airborne imagery acquired in 2010 and were used to refine the classification. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) classified and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. Overall accuracy corrected for bias (accuracy

  19. Impact of Sea Level Rise on the Attenuation of Hurricane Storm Surge by Wetlands in Corpus Christi, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C.; Irish, J. L.; Olivera, F.

    2011-12-01

    Celso Ferreira1, Jennifer L. Irish2, Francisco Olivera3 1 Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, email: celsoferreira@tamu.edu. 2 Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, email: jirish@vt.edu 3 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, email: folivera@civil.tamu.edu. Texas has historically faced severe hurricanes with Ike being the most recent major storm example. It is believed that coastal wetlands might reduce the impact of the storm surge on coastal areas, acting as a natural protection against hurricane flooding, especially for small hurricanes and tropical storms. Considering the expected rise in the mean sea level, wetland composition and spatial distribution are also expected to change as the environmental conditions change along the coast. We analyzed a range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections for sea level rise (SLR) to simulate wetland alterations and evaluate their impact on hurricane storm surge. The analyses was conducted for Corpus Christi Bay using a pre-validated, physically based, hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC) and a wind and pressure field model (PBL) representing the physical properties of historical hurricane Bret. The calculations were performed using an unstructured numerical grid with 3.3 million nodes covering part of the Atlantic Ocean and the entire Gulf of Mexico (resolution from 2000 km to 50 meters at the coast). Wetlands are represented in the numerical model through their influence on the frictional resistance proprieties and bathymetric changes. To characterize the wetland types and their spatial distribution along the coast, we used six different land use databases from the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) (1992, 2001), the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) (1993) and the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C

  20. A Smart ALEC Threatens Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie; Mead, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    Public education has historically been in the public and political eye. Then came 2011 and the high profile and well televised protests in Wisconsin, Ohio and Indiana. In each case Republican Governors and Republican controlled state legislatures had introduced substantially similar bills that sought sweeping changes to each state's collective…

  1. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  2. Monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities in mountain lakes: a case of the Fifth Triglav Lake in the Julian Alps.

    PubMed

    Ravnikar, Tina; Bohanec, Marko; Muri, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    The Fifth Triglav Lake is a remote mountain lake in the Julian Alps. The area of the Julian Alps where the lake is situated is protected by law and lies within the Triglav National Park. Mountain lakes in Slovenia were considered for a long time as pristine, unpolluted lakes, but analyses in the last decade revealed considerable human impact even in such remote places. Eutrophication or excessive accumulation of nutrients is the main problem of most lakes in the temperate climatic zone, also in Slovenia. Since the introduction of fish in 1991, the lake is going through a series of changes for which we do not know exactly where they lead, so the monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities are of great importance. For this purpose, a qualitative multiattribute decision model was developed with DEX method to assess ecological effects on the lake. The extent of the ecological effects on the lake is assessed using four main parameters: the trophic state, lake characteristics, environmental parameters, and anthropogenic stressors. Dependence of environmental impact on various external factors beyond human control, such as temperature, precipitation, retention time, and factors on which we have influence, such as the amount of wastewater and the presence of fish in the lake, were also evaluated. The following data were measured: chlorophyll a, nutrients, TP, oxygen, C/N ratio, nutrients in sediment, temperature, precipitation, retention time, and volume. We made assumptions about fish and wastewater, which we could not measure. The main contributions of this work are the designed model and the obtained findings for the Fifth Triglav Lake that can help not only scientists in understanding the complexity of lake-watershed systems and interactions among system components but also local authorities to manage and monitor the lake aquatic environment in an effective and efficient way. The model is flexible and can be also used for other lakes, assuming that the used

  3. Monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities in mountain lakes: a case of the Fifth Triglav Lake in the Julian Alps.

    PubMed

    Ravnikar, Tina; Bohanec, Marko; Muri, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    The Fifth Triglav Lake is a remote mountain lake in the Julian Alps. The area of the Julian Alps where the lake is situated is protected by law and lies within the Triglav National Park. Mountain lakes in Slovenia were considered for a long time as pristine, unpolluted lakes, but analyses in the last decade revealed considerable human impact even in such remote places. Eutrophication or excessive accumulation of nutrients is the main problem of most lakes in the temperate climatic zone, also in Slovenia. Since the introduction of fish in 1991, the lake is going through a series of changes for which we do not know exactly where they lead, so the monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities are of great importance. For this purpose, a qualitative multiattribute decision model was developed with DEX method to assess ecological effects on the lake. The extent of the ecological effects on the lake is assessed using four main parameters: the trophic state, lake characteristics, environmental parameters, and anthropogenic stressors. Dependence of environmental impact on various external factors beyond human control, such as temperature, precipitation, retention time, and factors on which we have influence, such as the amount of wastewater and the presence of fish in the lake, were also evaluated. The following data were measured: chlorophyll a, nutrients, TP, oxygen, C/N ratio, nutrients in sediment, temperature, precipitation, retention time, and volume. We made assumptions about fish and wastewater, which we could not measure. The main contributions of this work are the designed model and the obtained findings for the Fifth Triglav Lake that can help not only scientists in understanding the complexity of lake-watershed systems and interactions among system components but also local authorities to manage and monitor the lake aquatic environment in an effective and efficient way. The model is flexible and can be also used for other lakes, assuming that the used

  4. Seaglider Observations of Equatorial Ocean Rossby Wave Interactions With the Madden-Julian Oscillation During CINDY-DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, B. G.; Matthews, A. J.; Heywood, K. J.; Stevens, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    During the CINDY-DYNAMO field campaign in 2011-12, a Seaglider was deployed at 80°E in the Indian Ocean, and patrolled between 3° and 4°S over a period of three months. In addition, the periods when the Seaglider was travelling to and from the deployment location at 1.5°S represent two independent sections almost four months apart. The 3-4°S data have been optimally interpolated to generate unique and very high resolution data sets of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll and oxygen, along with derived geostrophic velocities in a region that has been under-observed to date. These observations reveal the importance of equatorial ocean Rossby waves in generating intraseasonal variability in the subsurface Indian Ocean, with temperature anomalies of around 0.5°C and salinity anomalies of 0.1 due to such waves. These anomalies extend with only slightly reduced magnitude into the deep ocean up to the maximum observed depth of 1000 m. The latitudinal structure of the temperature, salinity and density anomalies is generally very coherent, consistent with the structure of first meridional mode equatorial ocean Rossby waves. The chlorophyll and oxygen data from the Seaglider show how these waves have a substantial impact on biological activity at this location, with the peak productivity shifting vertically by up to 20 metres due to upwelling and downwelling. Linearised numerical ocean model simulations were conducted for the period around the Seaglider deployment period, to put the observations in context. These model simulations were forced by ERA-Interim winds that were filtered to remove the high-frequency variability while retaining that relating to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Comparison between the model runs and Seaglider observations indicates that the MJO-related winds are directly responsible for a large portion of the observed ocean Rossby wave activity, although there is also a role for lower-frequency wind forcing. The model results also highlight

  5. Influence of the Madden–Julian oscillation on Tibetan Plateau snow cover at the intraseasonal time-scale

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Hsu, Pang-chi; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), known as the third pole of the Earth, has snow cover with intraseasonal to decadal variability that affects weather and climate both inside and outside the TP. However, the factors that generate the TP snow cover (TPSC) anomalies at the intraseasonal time-scale are unclear. This report reveals the influence of the Madden‒Julian oscillation (MJO), which is the most dominant component of the tropical intraseasonal variability, on TPSC. We focus on wintertime snow cover over the central and eastern TP, where the intraseasonal variability is large. TPSC increases/decreases in the MJO phases 8‒1/4–5, when the eastward-propagating MJO suppressed/enhanced convection locates over the Maritime Continent. Such a change in TPSC leads to the most dominant positive/negative anomalies of TPSC in the following phases 2‒3/6‒7 due to the non-significant change of TPSC in these phases. There is anomalous moisture advection over the upstream of the TP caused by MJO-excited large-scale atmospheric circulation. The advection process generates the low-frequency eastward-propagating anomalous water vapour from upstream to the TP that influences precipitation and, eventually, TPSC. PMID:27464569

  6. Influence of the Madden-Julian oscillation on Tibetan Plateau snow cover at the intraseasonal time-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-07-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), known as the third pole of the Earth, has snow cover with intraseasonal to decadal variability that affects weather and climate both inside and outside the TP. However, the factors that generate the TP snow cover (TPSC) anomalies at the intraseasonal time-scale are unclear. This report reveals the influence of the Madden‒Julian oscillation (MJO), which is the most dominant component of the tropical intraseasonal variability, on TPSC. We focus on wintertime snow cover over the central and eastern TP, where the intraseasonal variability is large. TPSC increases/decreases in the MJO phases 8‒1/4-5, when the eastward-propagating MJO suppressed/enhanced convection locates over the Maritime Continent. Such a change in TPSC leads to the most dominant positive/negative anomalies of TPSC in the following phases 2‒3/6‒7 due to the non-significant change of TPSC in these phases. There is anomalous moisture advection over the upstream of the TP caused by MJO-excited large-scale atmospheric circulation. The advection process generates the low-frequency eastward-propagating anomalous water vapour from upstream to the TP that influences precipitation and, eventually, TPSC.

  7. Extended-range forecast of spring rainfall in southern China based on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Hsu, Pang-chi; He, Jinhai; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-06-01

    Spring (March-May) rainfall after a dry period in winter has a substantial impact on agriculture and water management in populous southern China. The occurrence of low-frequency spring rainfall anomalies has been linked with the tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) through its modulation of large-scale circulation and moisture supply over southern China. Using the spatial and temporal information of the MJO as a predictor, an empirical model for extended-range forecasting of spring rainfall in southern China was constructed. We first obtained the coupled patterns between the preceding MJO evolutions (real-time multivariate MJO index) and the succeeding rainfall variability in southern China based on singular value decomposition analysis. Then, a prediction was carried out by projecting the predictor onto the spatiotemporal coupled patterns. Useful skill, in terms of the temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) between the predicted and observed rainfall over southern China, persisted up to a forecast lead-time of six pentads. The forecast amplitude bias in terms of root-mean-square error was around 1.0 standard deviation. Also, the forecast skill was highly dependent on the strength of the MJO signal. During active MJO periods, the TCC skill was around twofold larger than that during weak MJO periods. The current statistical model shows encouraging ability, but additional work is required to improve its forecasting skill.

  8. Influence of the Madden-Julian oscillation on Tibetan Plateau snow cover at the intraseasonal time-scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), known as the third pole of the Earth, has snow cover with intraseasonal to decadal variability that affects weather and climate both inside and outside the TP. However, the factors that generate the TP snow cover (TPSC) anomalies at the intraseasonal time-scale are unclear. This report reveals the influence of the Madden‒Julian oscillation (MJO), which is the most dominant component of the tropical intraseasonal variability, on TPSC. We focus on wintertime snow cover over the central and eastern TP, where the intraseasonal variability is large. TPSC increases/decreases in the MJO phases 8‒1/4-5, when the eastward-propagating MJO suppressed/enhanced convection locates over the Maritime Continent. Such a change in TPSC leads to the most dominant positive/negative anomalies of TPSC in the following phases 2‒3/6‒7 due to the non-significant change of TPSC in these phases. There is anomalous moisture advection over the upstream of the TP caused by MJO-excited large-scale atmospheric circulation. The advection process generates the low-frequency eastward-propagating anomalous water vapour from upstream to the TP that influences precipitation and, eventually, TPSC. PMID:27464569

  9. Regulation of H2O and CO in Tropical Tropopause Layer by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Sun; Dessler, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    Impacts of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) on the water vapor (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) abundances in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are investigated using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data for November 2004 to May 2005. The effects of the eastward propagation of MJO on H2O and CO abundances in the TTL are evident. Deep convection transports H20 into the upper troposphere up to about the 355-365 K level. Around the 365-375 K level, a dry anomaly is collocated with a cold anomaly, which is above a warm anomaly located near the region of convection enhancement. Tropical mean H20 at 375 K is regulated by the MJO through convection enhancement and coherent with the local MJO-related temperature variation. The locations of dehydration follow the eastward propagation of convection enhancement and its area extent depends on the phase of the MJO. Enhancement of deep convection associated with the MJO also injects CO from the lower troposphere to the TTL up to 375 K. However, tropical mean CO at 375 K responds instantaneously to the large injection event occurring over the African continent.

  10. Multi-model Intraseasonal Forecasting of the Madden-Julian Oscillation during DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. X.; Wang, W.; Weaver, S. J.; Lee, J.; Hsu, P.; Wang, B.; Taniguchi, H.

    2012-12-01

    The present study assessed the forecast skill of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) observed during the DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE Intensive Observing Period (IOP, from October 1st, 2011 to January 15th, 2012) in conventional weather and climate general circulation models and revealed their strengths and weaknesses in forecasting the initiations and propagations of the MJO. In general, current models have higher skills in forecasting the MJO that follows a preceding event (successive MJO) than that with no preceding event (primary MJO). The common modeling problems include: i), too slow eastward propagation; ii), the Maritime Continent barrier; and iii), the difficulty to predict the primary events. More specifically, it is found that the MJO forecasting skills during the IOP, measured with the Wheeler-Hendon Index, reach 12, 21, and 28 days for the GFS atmosphere-only model, the CFSv2 and UH coupled models, respectively. This result demonstrates that air-sea coupling extends MJO predictability by at least one week. Comparative analysis of the CFSv2 and UH coupled models indicates that the propagation speed of the models' intrinsic MJO mode is critical for the forecast performance. Further numerical experiments have been carried out to reveal the roles of SST feedback and atmospheric internal dynamics on MJO initiation and propagation.

  11. Influence of the Madden–Julian oscillation on Tibetan Plateau snow cover at the intraseasonal time-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-07-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), known as the third pole of the Earth, has snow cover with intraseasonal to decadal variability that affects weather and climate both inside and outside the TP. However, the factors that generate the TP snow cover (TPSC) anomalies at the intraseasonal time-scale are unclear. This report reveals the influence of the Madden‒Julian oscillation (MJO), which is the most dominant component of the tropical intraseasonal variability, on TPSC. We focus on wintertime snow cover over the central and eastern TP, where the intraseasonal variability is large. TPSC increases/decreases in the MJO phases 8‒1/4–5, when the eastward-propagating MJO suppressed/enhanced convection locates over the Maritime Continent. Such a change in TPSC leads to the most dominant positive/negative anomalies of TPSC in the following phases 2‒3/6‒7 due to the non-significant change of TPSC in these phases. There is anomalous moisture advection over the upstream of the TP caused by MJO-excited large-scale atmospheric circulation. The advection process generates the low-frequency eastward-propagating anomalous water vapour from upstream to the TP that influences precipitation and, eventually, TPSC.

  12. Regulation of H2O and CO in tropical tropopause layer by the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sun; Dessler, Andrew E.

    2007-07-01

    Impacts of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) on the water vapor (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) abundances in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are investigated using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data for November 2004 to May 2005. The effects of the eastward propagation of MJO on H2O and CO abundances in the TTL are evident. Deep convection transports H2O into the upper troposphere up to about the 355- to 365-K level. Around the 365- to 375-K level, a dry anomaly is collocated with a cold anomaly, which is above a warm anomaly located near the region of convection enhancement. Tropical mean H2O at 375 K is regulated by the MJO through convection enhancement and is coherent with the local MJO-related temperature variation. The locations of dehydration follow the eastward propagation of convection enhancement, and its area extent depends on the phase of the MJO. Enhancement of deep convection associated with the MJO also injects CO from the lower troposphere to the TTL up to 375 K. However, tropical mean CO at 375 K responds instantaneously to the large injection event occurring over the African continent.

  13. The Madden–Julian oscillation wind-convection coupling and the role of moisture processes in the MM5 model

    SciTech Connect

    Monier, Erwan; Weare, Bryan C.; Gustafson, William I.

    2009-07-24

    The realism of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) produced by the MM5 regional model is investigated using systematic and standardized statistical diagnostics. This study expands on previous work by choosing a larger domain and a different input dataset (ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis) to force the initial and boundary conditions of the model. Results show that upper- and lower-level zonal winds display the correct MJO structure, phase speed (8 m s -1) and space-time power spectrum. However, the simulated free atmosphere moisture, Outgoing Longwave Radation (OLR) and precipitation do not exhibit any clear MJO signal. Yet, the boundary layer moisture, the moist static energy and the atmospheric instability, measured using a moist static energy instability index have clear MJO signals. A significant finding of this study is the ability of MM5 to simulate a realistic MJO phase speed in the winds without reproducing the MJO wind-convection coupling or a realistic propagation in the free atmosphere water vapor. This study suggests that the convergence of boundary layer moisture and the discharge and recharge of the moist static energy and atmospheric instability may be responsible for controlling the speed of propagation of the MJO circulation.

  14. Madden–Julian Oscillation prediction skill of a new-generation global model demonstrated using a supercomputer

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Tomoki; Satoh, Masaki; Miura, Hiroaki; Tomita, Hirofumi; Yashiro, Hisashi; Noda, Akira T.; Yamada, Yohei; Kodama, Chihiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Yoneyama, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Global cloud/cloud system-resolving models are perceived to perform well in the prediction of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO), a huge eastward -propagating atmospheric pulse that dominates intraseasonal variation of the tropics and affects the entire globe. However, owing to model complexity, detailed analysis is limited by computational power. Here we carry out a simulation series using a recently developed supercomputer, which enables the statistical evaluation of the MJO prediction skill of a costly new-generation model in a manner similar to operational forecast models. We estimate the current MJO predictability of the model as 27 days by conducting simulations including all winter MJO cases identified during 2003–2012. The simulated precipitation patterns associated with different MJO phases compare well with observations. An MJO case captured in a recent intensive observation is also well reproduced. Our results reveal that the global cloud-resolving approach is effective in understanding the MJO and in providing month-long tropical forecasts. PMID:24801254

  15. Effective control parameters in a deep convection scheme for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    This work seeks to find the most effective parameters in a deep convection scheme (relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme) of the National Centers of Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System model for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A suite of sensitivity experiments are performed by changing physical components such as the relaxation parameter of mass flux for adjustment of the environment, the evaporation rate from large-scale precipitation, the moisture trigger threshold using relative humidity of the boundary layer, and the fraction of re-evaporation of convective (subgrid-scale) rainfall. Among them, the last two parameters are found to produce a significant improvement. Increasing the strength of these two parameters reduces light rainfall that inhibits complete formation of the tropical convective system or supplies more moisture that help increase a potential energy to large-scale environment in the lower troposphere (especially at 700 hPa), leading to moisture preconditioning favorable for further development and eastward propagation of the MJO. In a more humid environment, more organized MJO structure (i.e., space-time spectral signal, eastward propagation, and tilted vertical structure) is produced.

  16. Assessing the Importance of the Evaporation-Wind Feedback Mechanism in the Modulation of Simulated Madden-Julian Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Edward; Lindesay, James; Suarez, Max J.

    1998-01-01

    An examination of simulated Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) response to active and suppressed air-sea interactions is made using an aquaplanet model employing a realistic representation of the hydrologic cyle. In general, the evaporation-wind feedback (EWF) results from a coupling between tropical zonal surface wind stresses and evaporation anomalies. Recent observational and theoretical studies have questioned the significance of EWF in sustaining the predominantly wavenumber 1 eastward propagating mode commonly attributed to the interaction between large scale convergence and cumulus-scale convection (conditional instability of the second kind, CISK). To ascertain the nature of the EWF dependence on lower boundary conditions and thus quantify its effect on MJO development, a series of numerical experiments were conducted employing various zonally symmetric sea surface temperature (SST) distributions with active and suppressed EWF mechanisms. Results suggest that a correlation exists between tropical SSTs and the efficacy of the EWF in vertically redistributing heat acquired through surface wind stresses. It has been determined that the removal of the EWF is not a crucial factor in the dampening of the simulated MJO at high equatorial SSTs. The additional energy fed into the developing convective mode by the EWF selectively amplifies higher order wave modes in all numerical experiments thus boosting overall variances in oscillatory responses.

  17. Tropical Atlantic Dust and Smoke Aerosol Variabilities Related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation in MODIS and MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yanjuan; Tian, Baijun; Kahn, Ralph A.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Wong, Sun; Waliser, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, MODIS fine mode fraction and MISR non-spherical fraction are 2used to derive dust and smoke AOT components (tau(sub dust) and tau(sub smoke)) over the tropical Atlantic, and their variabilities related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are then investigated. Both MODIS and MISR show a very similar dust and smoke winter climatology. tau(sub dust) is found to be the dominant aerosol component over the tropical Atlantic while tau(sub smoke) is significantly smaller than tau(sub dust). The daily MODIS and MISR tau(sub dust) are overall highly correlated, with the correlation coefficients typically about 0.7 over the North Atlantic. The consistency between the MODIS and MISR dust and smoke aerosol climatology and daily variations give us confidence to use these two data sets to investigate their relative contributions to the total AOT variation associated with the MJO. However, unlike the MISR dust discrimination, which is based on particle shape retrievals, the smoke discrimination is less certain, based on assumed partitioning of maritime aerosol for both MISR and MODIS. The temporal evolution and spatial patterns of the tau(sub dust) anomalies associated with the MJO are consistent between MODIS and MISR. The tau(sub dust) anomalies are very similar to those of tau anomalies, and are of comparable magnitude. In contrast, the MJO-related tau(sub smoke) anomalies are rather small, and the tau(sub mar) anomalies are negligible. The consistency between the MODIS and MISR results suggests that dust aerosol is the dominant component on the intra-seasonal time scale over the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Tropical Atlantic Dust and Smoke Aerosol Variations Related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation in MODIS and MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yanjuan; Tian, Baijun; Kahn, Ralph A.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Wong, Sun; Waliser, Duane E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fine mode fraction and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nonspherical fraction data are used to derive dust and smoke aerosol optical thickness (T(sub dust) and T(sub smoke)) over the tropical Atlantic in a complementary way: due to its wider swath, MODIS has 3-4 times greater sampling than MISR, but MISR dust discrimination is based on particle shape retrievals, whereas an empirical scheme is used for MODIS. MODIS and MISR show very similar dust and smoke winter climatologies. T(sub dust) is the dominant aerosol component over the tropical Atlantic, accounting for 40-70 percent of the total aerosol optical thickness (AOT), whereas T(sub smoke) is significantly smaller than T(sub dust). The consistency and high correlation between these climatologies and their daily variations lends confidence to their use for investigating the relative dust and smoke contributions to the total AOT variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The temporal evolution and spatial patterns of the tdus anomalies associated with the MJO are consistent between MODIS and MISR: the magnitude of MJO-realted T(sub dust) anomalies is comparable to or even larger than that of the total T, while the T(sub smoke) anomaly represents about 15 percent compared to the total, which is quite different from their relative magnitudes to the total T on the climatological time scale. This suggests that dust and smoke are not influenced by the MJO in the same way. Based on correlation analysis, dust is strongly influenced by the MJO-modulated trade wind and precipitation anomalies, and can last as long as one MJO phase, whereas smoke is less affected.

  19. Linkages between the Madden Julian Oscillation, process-level diagnostics and GCM parameterization behavior in YOTC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, R. B.; Hannay, C.

    2014-12-01

    The simulation of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) remains a significant challenge in climate models. The primary difficulty lies in relating MJO skill to parameterized physical processes - the main access point for model development. One theory of the MJO relies on scale-interactions from small to large scales. The expectation is that GCMs should reproduce the correct relationships at the smallest resolved scales and this will translate through increasing scales and lead to a skillful simulation of the MJO. So-called 'process-based' diagnostics have recently been applied to simple model fields in order to relate accurate simulation of the MJO to accurate, small-scale process-level relationships (Kim et al., 2014). In this presentation we will take this technique further to provide greater insight into how the underlying physical parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) conspire to provide the process-level responses in the model, particularly as it relates to precipitation and humidity dependent processes. This provides the potential for a range of dependencies between parameterization tendencies and MJO skill. Furthermore, these dependencies are examined to quantify the effect of model biases. This entails performing the same process-level analysis on simply initialized and nudged CAM simulations that make use of YOTC analysis. These techniques enable diagnosis of the relationship between degrading model simulation (basic state and MJO) and changes in the parameterized response at the process level. In summary, this talk will show the most promising relationships between MJO simulation performance and the fidelity with which the parameterized physics produce observed process-scale relationships.

  20. Effects of the Maritime Continent on Large-Scale Convection Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics. It has wide-ranging impacts on global patterns of precipitation and surface temperature, and it has been suggested that it has an effect on ENSO. Large-scale convection fueling the MJO is initiated over the tropical Indian Ocean and propagates eastward across the Maritime Continent (MC) and into the western Pacific as a pattern of alternating phases of active and suppressed convection. As an eastward-propagating MJO convective event encounters the MC, its nature is altered due to the complex interactions with the landmass and topography as well as the warm coastal ocean. Previous studies have shown strong diurnal cycles over land and ocean, with distinct diurnal maxima of convection during the day and night, respectively. This complex air-sea-land interaction over the MC region and its impact on the large-scale convection and the MJO are still not well understood. This study aims to improve our understanding of the effects of the MC on the MJO as it propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific. We use the University of Miami Coupled Model (UMCM), a fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model, to investigate the air-sea-land interaction processes and their impact on the large-scale convection associated with MJO. A control simulation of an MJO is carried out first using the DYNAMO observations from 2011 as model verification. To understand the effects of the MC on the MJO convection, coupled model experiments will be conducted by varying the island topography and/or altering the landmass with water surface. Analysis of the coupled model simulations will be compared with satellite observations such as the TRMM precipitation and cloud cluster tracking using hourly IR data. The outcome of this study is expected to provide some insights into important mechanisms that underlie the complex phenomenon.

  1. Evidence for a modulation of the intraseasonal summer temperature in Eastern Patagonia by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques-Coper, Martín.; Brönnimann, Stefan; Martius, Olivia; Vera, Carolina S.; Cerne, S. Bibiana

    2015-08-01

    We describe the relationship between the intraseasonal component of surface air temperature (SAT) variability in Eastern Patagonia and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) during austral summer based on ~50 years of daily instrumental records, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis, and a century-long MJO index reconstruction. Our results show that the summer SAT variability in Patagonia is highly driven by the intraseasonal activity (~80%), especially by that associated with the MJO. The active MJO phases modulate the spatial mean intraseasonal temperature signal in Eastern Patagonia with ~1.5°C of amplitude. In most of the region, the warmest (coldest) conditions are found during active phase 8 (4). These opposite states of the temperature perturbations are related to almost inverse midlevel circulation anomalies over southern South America and the southwest Atlantic, which are part of a large-scale Rossby-like wave train of alternating circulation anomalies extended along the South Pacific. The corresponding outgoing longwave radiation anomalies suggest that these structures may be triggered by anomalous convection in the tropics. Furthermore, we show that intraseasonal heat waves in southeastern Patagonia tend to occur during active MJO phase 8. These events are also induced by a wave train pattern over the South Pacific, associated with other intraseasonal variability sources. Hence, as shown in a case study, circulation anomalies over the South Pacific triggered, in general, by tropical convection variability and, in particular, by the MJO activity may constructively interact with circulation patterns resulting from the extratropical dynamics, eventually leading to intraseasonal heat waves in southeastern Patagonia.

  2. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Biases and uncertainties at short range

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Prince K.; Petch, Jon C.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Woolnough, Steve J.; Jiang, Xianan; Waliser, Duane E.; Caian, Mihaela; Cole, Jason; Hagos, Samson M.; Hannay, Cecile; Kim, Daehyun; Miyakawa, Tomoki; Pritchard, Michael S.; Roehrig, Romain; Shindo, Eiki; Vitart, Frederic; Wang, Hailan

    2015-05-26

    We present an analysis of diabatic heating and moistening processes from 12 to 36 h lead time forecasts from 12 Global Circulation Models as part of the “Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)” project. A lead time of 12–36 h is chosen to constrain the large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics to be close to observations while avoiding being too close to the initial spin-up of the models as they adjust to being driven from the Years of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis. A comparison of the vertical velocity and rainfall with the observations and YOTC analysis suggests that the phases of convection associated with the MJO are constrained in most models at this lead time although the rainfall in the suppressed phase is typically overestimated. Although the large-scale dynamics is reasonably constrained, moistening and heating profiles have large intermodel spread. In particular, there are large spreads in convective heating and moistening at midlevels during the transition to active convection. Radiative heating and cloud parameters have the largest relative spread across models at upper levels during the active phase. A detailed analysis of time step behavior shows that some models show strong intermittency in rainfall and differences in the precipitation and dynamics relationship between models. In conclusion, the wealth of model outputs archived during this project is a very valuable resource for model developers beyond the study of the MJO. Additionally, the findings of this study can inform the design of process model experiments, and inform the priorities for field experiments and future observing systems.

  3. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Biases and uncertainties at short range

    DOE PAGES

    Xavier, Prince K.; Petch, Jon C.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Woolnough, Steve J.; Jiang, Xianan; Waliser, Duane E.; Caian, Mihaela; Cole, Jason; Hagos, Samson M.; Hannay, Cecile; et al

    2015-05-26

    We present an analysis of diabatic heating and moistening processes from 12 to 36 h lead time forecasts from 12 Global Circulation Models as part of the “Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)” project. A lead time of 12–36 h is chosen to constrain the large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics to be close to observations while avoiding being too close to the initial spin-up of the models as they adjust to being driven from the Years of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis. A comparison of the vertical velocity and rainfall with the observations and YOTC analysis suggests thatmore » the phases of convection associated with the MJO are constrained in most models at this lead time although the rainfall in the suppressed phase is typically overestimated. Although the large-scale dynamics is reasonably constrained, moistening and heating profiles have large intermodel spread. In particular, there are large spreads in convective heating and moistening at midlevels during the transition to active convection. Radiative heating and cloud parameters have the largest relative spread across models at upper levels during the active phase. A detailed analysis of time step behavior shows that some models show strong intermittency in rainfall and differences in the precipitation and dynamics relationship between models. In conclusion, the wealth of model outputs archived during this project is a very valuable resource for model developers beyond the study of the MJO. Additionally, the findings of this study can inform the design of process model experiments, and inform the priorities for field experiments and future observing systems.« less

  4. Shallow-to-Deep Transition of Madden-Julian Oscillation Convection as Observed by TRMM and GPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Rutledge, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study uses TRMM and GPM data to study the evolution of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convection over the Indian Ocean (IO). Radar observations from the 2011-2012 DYNAMO field campaign in the central IO have provided rich information on the 3D structure of MJO convection, including the transition from shallow to deep convection during the MJO onset. However, DYNAMO radar measurements are limited to only three MJO events and three radar sites. In this study, the shallow to deep transition (SDT) problem and lifecycle evolution of MJO events over the IO is revisited using longer term, larger-scale TRMM and GPM data. Our analysis indicates that the TRMM and GPM satellite is able to capture the evolution of individual MJO events (e.g., precipitation) on the daily and regional (e.g., 2000 km x 2000 km) scale. We have investigated the evolution and properties of ~40 prominent MJO events in terms of precipitation amounts, three-dimensional radar reflectivity, microwave ice scattering signatures, cloud top brightness temperature, and lightning flash rates. We track the SDT time scale and lifecycle evolution of each MJO using these multiple parameters, instead of composites in previous TRMM studies. MJO events have also been examined as a function of the MJO type (e.g., duration of MJO lifecycles and MJO strength). Preliminary results show that the SDT is on the scale of 7-10 days with small variations among different MJO types. SDT trends are less well-defined by the 20 dBZ (TRMM PR) echo top height compared to lower thresholds. In contrast, the satellite IR brightness temperature (TRMM VIRS), the 12 dBZ (GPM DPR Ka-band) echo top heights, and lightning flash rate (TRMM LIS) depict the STD rather well.

  5. Satellite measurements of the Madden-Julian oscillation in wintertime stratospheric ozone over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuli; Liu, Yi; Liu, Chuanxi; Sofieva, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) signal in wintertime stratospheric ozone over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asia using the harmonized dataset of satellite ozone profiles. Two different MJO indices—the all-season Real-Time multivariate MJO index (RMM) and outgoing longwave radiation-based MJO index (OMI)—are used to compare the MJO-related ozone anomalies. The results show that there are pronounced eastward-propagating MJO-related stratospheric ozone anomalies (mainly within 20-200 hPa) over the subtropics. The negative stratospheric ozone anomalies are over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asia in MJO phases 4-7, when MJO-related tropical deep convective anomalies move from the equatorial Indian Ocean towards the western Pacific Ocean. Compared with the results based on RMM, the MJO-related stratospheric column ozone anomalies based on OMI are stronger and one phase ahead. Further analysis suggests that different sampling errors, observation principles and retrieval algorithms may be responsible for the discrepancies among different satellite measurements. The MJO-related stratospheric ozone anomalies can be attributed to the MJO-related circulation anomalies, i.e., the uplifted tropopause and the northward shifted westerly jet in the upper troposphere. Compared to the result based on RMM, the upper tropospheric westerly jet may play a less important role in generating the stratospheric column ozone anomalies based on OMI. Our study indicates that the circulation-based MJO index (RMM) can better characterize the MJO-related anomalies in tropopause pressure and thus the MJO influence on atmospheric trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, especially over subtropical East Asia.

  6. Sources of suspended-sediment loads in the lower Nueces River watershed, downstream from Lake Corpus Christi to the Nueces Estuary, south Texas, 1958–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

    2013-01-01

    During 2010, additional suspended-sediment data were collected during selected runoff events to provide new data for model testing and to help better understand the sources of suspended-sediment loads. The model was updated and used to estimate and compare sediment yields from each of 64 subwatersheds comprising the lower Nueces River watershed study area for three selected runoff events: November 20-21, 2009, September 7-8, 2010, and September 20-21, 2010. These three runoff events were characterized by heavy rainfall centered near the study area and during which minimal streamflow and suspended-sediment load entered the lower Nueces River upstream from Wesley E. Seale Dam. During all three runoff events, model simulations showed that the greatest sediment yields originated from the subwatersheds, which were largely cropland. In particular, the Bayou Creek subwatersheds were major contributors of suspended-sediment load to the lower Nueces River during the selected runoff events. During the November 2009 runoff event, high suspended-sediment concentrations in the Nueces River water withdrawn for the City of Corpus Christi public-water supply caused problems during the water-treatment process, resulting in failure to meet State water-treatment standards for turbidity in drinking water. Model simulations of the November 2009 runoff event showed that the Bayou Creek subwatersheds were the primary source of suspended-sediment loads during that runoff event.

  7. Sources of suspended-sediment loads in the lower Nueces River watershed, downstream from Lake Corpus Christi to the Nueces Estuary, south Texas, 1958–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

    2013-01-01

    The HSPF model was calibrated to simulate suspended sediment using suspended-sediment data collected at the Mathis, Bluntzer, and Calallen gages during 2006-7. Model simulated suspended-sediment loads at the Calallen gage were within 5 percent of loads that were estimated, by regression, from suspended-sediment sample analysis and measured streamflow. The calibrated watershed model was used to estimate streamflow and suspended-sediment loads for 1958-2010, including loads transported to the Nueces Estuary. During 1958-2010, on average, an estimated 288 tons per day (tons/d) of suspended sediment were delivered to the lower Nueces River; an estimated 278 tons/d were delivered to the estuary. The annual suspended-sediment load was highly variable, depending on the occurrence of runoff events and high streamflows. During 1958-2010, the annual total sediment loads to the estuary varied from an estimated 3.8 to 2,490 tons/d. On average, 113 tons/d, or about 39 percent of the estimated annual suspended-sediment contribution, originated from cropland in the study watershed. Releases from Lake Corpus Christi delivered an estimated 94 tons/d of suspended sediment or about 33 percent of the 288 tons/d estimated to have been delivered to the lower Nueces River. Erosion of stream-channel bed and banks accou

  8. Response to Julian et al. (2015) "Comment on and Reinterpretation of Gabriel et al. (2014) `Fish Mercury and Surface Water Sulfate Relationships in the Everglades Protection Area'"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Mark C.; Axelrad, Don; Orem, William; Osborne, Todd Z.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this forum is to respond to a rebuttal submitted by Julian et al., Environ Manag 55:1-5, 2015 where they outlined their overall disagreement with the data preparation, methods, and interpretation of results presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014). Here, we provide background information on the research premise presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) and provide a defense for this work using five themes. In spite of what Julian et al. perceive as limitations in the sampling methods and analytical tools used for this work, the relationships found between fish total mercury and surface water sulfate concentrations in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) are comparable to relationships between pore water methylmercury (MeHg) and pore water sulfate found in past studies indicating that sulfate is important to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in the Everglades. Julian et al. state "…there is no way to justify any ecosystem-wide sulfur strategy as a management approach to reduce mercury risk in the (Everglades) as suggested by Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014), Corrales et al. (Sci Tot Environ 409:2156-2162, 2011) and Orem et al. (Rev Environ Sci Technol 41 (S1):249-288, 2011)." We disagree, and having stated why sulfate input reduction to the Everglades may be the most effective means of reducing mercury in Everglades fish, it is important that research on sulfur and mercury biogeochemistry continues. If further studies support the relationship between sulfate loading reduction and MeHg reduction, sulfur mass balance studies should commence to (1) better quantify agricultural and connate seawater sulfate inputs and (2) define opportunities to reduce sulfate inputs to the Everglades ecosystem.

  9. Response to Julian et al. (2015) "comment on and reinterpretation of Gabriel et al. (2014) 'fish mercury and surface water sulfate relationships in the everglades protection area'".

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mark C; Axelrad, Don; Orem, William; Osborne, Todd Z

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this forum is to respond to a rebuttal submitted by Julian et al., Environ Manag 55:1-5, 2015 where they outlined their overall disagreement with the data preparation, methods, and interpretation of results presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014). Here, we provide background information on the research premise presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) and provide a defense for this work using five themes. In spite of what Julian et al. perceive as limitations in the sampling methods and analytical tools used for this work, the relationships found between fish total mercury and surface water sulfate concentrations in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) are comparable to relationships between pore water methylmercury (MeHg) and pore water sulfate found in past studies indicating that sulfate is important to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in the Everglades. Julian et al. state "…there is no way to justify any ecosystem-wide sulfur strategy as a management approach to reduce mercury risk in the (Everglades) as suggested by Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014), Corrales et al. (Sci Tot Environ 409:2156-2162, 2011) and Orem et al. (Rev Environ Sci Technol 41 (S1):249-288, 2011)." We disagree, and having stated why sulfate input reduction to the Everglades may be the most effective means of reducing mercury in Everglades fish, it is important that research on sulfur and mercury biogeochemistry continues. If further studies support the relationship between sulfate loading reduction and MeHg reduction, sulfur mass balance studies should commence to (1) better quantify agricultural and connate seawater sulfate inputs and (2) define opportunities to reduce sulfate inputs to the Everglades ecosystem.

  10. The Modulation of Tropical Storm Activity in the Western North Pacific by the Madden-Julian Oscillation in GEOS-5 AGCM Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Hye-Mi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Yoo, Jin H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on tropical storm (TS) activity in the western North Pacific, using observations and GEOS-5 simulations at 50-km horizontal resolution. While GEOS-5 produces an MJO of faster propagation and weaker amplitude, it nevertheless reproduces the observed modulation of TS activity by the MJO with the highest TS genesis and increased track density in the active phases of MJO. The study suggests that the simulation of the sub-seasonal variability of TS activity could be improved by improving the simulations of the MJO in climate models.

  11. A mechanism-denial study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation with reduced interference from mean state changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model, the authors investigate the importance of (i) the influences of extratropical and circumnavigating waves, (ii) the wind-evaporation feedback and (iii) the radiative-convective feedback to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A common issue with mechanism-denial studies is the interference from mean state changes in the simulations when processes are turned off in the model. In the present study, time-invariant forcing and nudging on an effective time scale longer than the intraseasonal time scale are implemented to maintain the mean state. Forced by perpetual February sea surface temperature, the control simulation is integrated for 15 years, and produces satisfactory climatology. The influence of extratropical waves on the MJO is first examined by relaxing the prognostic variables outside the tropics towards the controlled mean state. When the mean state is not maintained, the MJO activity decreases as the Hadley circulation weakens, consistent with a previous study. However, when the mean state is maintained to be the same as that of the control, the MJO activity does not decrease with the suppression of extratropical waves and remains as strong as that in the control. The results are not sensitive to the latitudes beyond which the extratropical waves are suppressed. To further assess the influence of circumnavigating waves on the MJO, the prognostic variables are relaxed towards the controlled climatology all over the globe except within 40°S-30°N, 0°E-90°W, so that the MJO initiation and propagation are confined in the box. In this experiment, strong MJO activity is produced over the tropical Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and the results suggest that the essential processes for the existence of the MJO are internal to these regions. In the last two experiments, the wind-evaporation and radiative-convective feedback are turned off by prescribing surface flux and radiative heating to the climatology

  12. Role of the Atmospheric Mean State on the Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Tropical Channel Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Pallav; Zhang, Chidong; Moncrieff, Mitch; Dudhia, Jimy; Caron, Julie M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bruyere, Cindy

    2010-06-08

    Tropical channel models, defined as models that are global in the zonal direction but bounded in the meridional direction, are particularly useful for simulating the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and understanding its physical and dynamical basis. Influences from the extratropics through the lateral boundaries have been found to be essential to the reproduction of the initiation of certain MJO events. This led to a hypothesis that multi-year simulations using a tropical channel model would reproduce reasonable MJO statistics under the influence of prescribed lateral boundary conditions derived from global reanalyses. Interestingly, the MJO statistics in such a multi-year simulation by a high-resolution tropical channel model are not better than those from global climate models. The error in the atmospheric mean state is found to be a possible reason for the poor MJO statistics in the simulation. Nevertheless, even with a large error in the mean state, the multi-year simulation captures two MJO events previously found to be initiated by extratropical influences. However, the model does not reproduce a third event, whose initiation is not directly influenced by the extratropics. This implies that in the absence of dynamical interactions between the MJO and the lateral boundary conditions, the error in the mean state could be sufficient to prevent the MJO initiation. To explore this third MJO event further, a series of sensitivity tests are conducted. These tests show that the simulation of this event is neither critically influenced by the cumulus parameterization employed, nor the initial conditions when the model is integrated 2 weeks prior to the MJO initiation. The model captures this event when the MJO signal is already present in the initial conditions. The use of highresolution sea surface temperature does not improve the simulation of the third MJO event. A higher-resolution nested domain covering the Indo-Pacific warm pool region and including a cloud

  13. AMIE (ARM MJO Investigation Experiment): Observations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation for Modeling Studies Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C; Del Genio, A; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Klein, S; Leung, L Ruby; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Wu, X; Xie, S

    2010-03-22

    Deep convection in the tropics plays an important role in driving global circulations and the transport of energy from the tropics to the mid-latitudes. Understanding the mechanisms that control tropical convection is a key to improving climate modeling simulations of the global energy balance. One of the dominant sources of tropical convective variability is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which has a period of approximately 30–60 days. There is no agreed-upon explanation for the underlying physics that maintain the MJO. Many climate models do not show well-defined MJO signals, and those that do have problems accurately simulating the amplitude, propagation speed, and/or seasonality of the MJO signal. Therefore, the MJO is a very important modeling target for the ARM modeling community geared specifically toward improving climate models. The ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) period coincides with a large international MJO initiation field campaign called CINDY2011 (Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011) that will take place in and around the Indian Ocean from October 2011 to January 2012. AMIE, in conjunction with CINDY2011 efforts, will provide an unprecedented data set that will allow investigation of the evolution of convection within the framework of the MJO. AMIE observations will also complement the long-term MJO statistics produced using ARM Manus data and will allow testing of several of the current hypotheses related to the MJO phenomenon. Taking advantage of the expected deployment of a C-POL scanning precipitation radar and an ECOR surface flux tower at the ARM Manus site, we propose to increase the number of sonde launches to eight per day starting in about mid-October of the field experiment year, which is climatologically a period of generally suppressed conditions at Manus and just prior to the climatologically strongest MJO period. The field experiment will last until the end of the MJO

  14. The Impact of Local Meridional Circulations and Madden-Julian Oscillation on the Asian Summer Monsoon Precipitation in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamide, M.; Koike, T.

    2013-12-01

    Since Pakistan locates in the west edge of Asian Summer Monsoon Region, the amount of precipitation there is severely influenced by the variability of monsoon activity. In some dry years such as in 1991 or 2002, Pakistan suffered from strong drought, causing great economic and life losses, while, in wet years such as 1994 or 2003, flood came to Pakistan, washing away whole cities. In order to reduce the damage of these water hazards, seasonal prediction is greatly effective, but due to the complicated mechanism of monsoon, it is still very challenging problem. In this research, we suppose ocean as one of the sources for seasonal precipitation trend, concentrating on the impact of atmospheric circulations on monsoonal precipitation, which is essential for the improvement of seasonal prediction. This research utilizes JRA25 reanalysis dataset and NOAA's OLR datasets. Correlation analysis between sea surface temperature and OLR over Pakistan on July showed that there is significant relationship between Arabian Sea and monsoonal precipitation in Pakistan. From the empirical Orthogonal Functions analysis conducted on zonally averaged mass stream function over Arabian Sea, the anomaly of atmospheric circulations over Arabian Sea is mainly composed of the anomaly of subtropical jets in Northern and Southern Hemisphere (Northern Hemisphere; Figure), and of the jet in lower troposphere around equator. Especially, the strength of Northern subtropical jet with Hadley-like circulation, which is derived from principle component, is strongly correlated with precipitation activity in Pakistan. On July of extremely dry (wet) years, downdraft in mid-latitude region associated with subtropical jet and Hadley-like circulation are strengthened (weakened), so that monsoonal precipitation is suppressed (enhanced). The strength of those circulations greatly changes intra-seasonally, and, as Sajani et al. (2007) indicates, Madden-Julian Oscillation is a good source of these intra

  15. On the predictability of the interannual behaviour of the Madden-Julian oscillation and its relationship with El Nino

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K.R., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of tropical variability at intraseasonal timescales. It displays substantial interannual variability in intensity which may have important implications for the predictability of the coupled system. The reasons for this interannual variability are not understood. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the interannual behavior of the MJO is related to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, particularly El Nino, and hence whether it is predictable. The interannual behavior of the MJO has been diagnosed initially in the 40-year NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis. The results suggest that prior to the mid-1970s the activity of the MJO was consistently lower than during the latter part of the record. This may be related to either inadequacies in the data coverage, particularly over the tropical Indian Ocean prior to the introduction of satellite observations, or to the real effects of a decadal timescale warming in the tropical SSTs. The teleconnection patterns between interannual variations in MJO activity and SST show only a weak, barely significant, influence of El Nino in which the MJO is more active during the cold phase. As well as the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, a 4-member ensemble of 45 year integrations with the Hadley Centre climate model (HadAM2a), forced by observed SSTs for 1949-93, has been used to investigate the relationship between MJO activity and SST. HadAM2a is known to give a reasonable simulation of the MJO and the extended record provided by this ensemble of integrations allows a more robust investigation of the predictability of MJO activity than was possible with the 40-year NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The results have shown that, for the uncoupled system, with the atmosphere being driven by imposed SSTS, there is no reproducibility for the activity of the MJO from year to year. The interannual behavior of the MJO is not controlled by the phase of El Nino and would appear to be chaotic in

  16. Three-Dimensional Water Vapor and Cloud Variations Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during Northern Hemisphere Winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, David S.; Waliser, Duane E.

    2003-03-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant form of intraseasonal variability in the Tropics. In previous studies, intraseasonal variability has usually been characterized in terms of wind or convection anomalies, while the structure of MJO-related moisture variations has been greatly unexplored. This work focuses on the behavior of moisture and related hydrological fields associated with MJO events during Northern Hemisphere winter. Five-day averaged (1979-99) Television Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) moisture soundings from the NASA Pathfinder data were used, providing global coverage at specific pressure levels. The TOVS moisture, as well as the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud fraction anomaly data, were composited based on MJO events selected via an index constructed from Xie-Arkin bandpassed pentad rainfall data. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure and evolution of precipitation, water vapor, and clouds over the life cycle of the MJO shows a rich set of relationships between the variables.The composite evolution of moisture shows markedly different vertical structures as a function of longitude. There is a clear westward tilt with the height of the moisture maximum associated with MJO disturbances propagating eastward across the Indian Ocean. These disturbances evolve into nearly vertically uniform moist anomalies as they reach the western Pacific. Near-surface (850 mb) water vapor leads precipitation by 1 pentad over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Upper-level water vapor lags the peak in precipitation by 1-2 pentads, as the upper troposphere is moistened following intense convection. In the eastern Pacific, the moisture variations then become confined to the lower levels (<700 mb), with upper-level water vapor nearly out of phase. ISCCP total cloud fraction is highly correlated with humidity, and also leads observed precipitation. There is a longitudinal

  17. Geomorphological map and preliminary analysis of Quaternary sediments in the Planica-Tamar valley (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Andrej; Šmuc, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    The Planica-Tamar valley is located in the Julian Alps in north-west Slovenia. The Planica-Tamar valley represents typical mountain glacial valley bounded by steep, mainly carbonate cliffs with some glacial deposits still preserved. The valley is currently being filled with numerous Holocene sediments deposited by rock falls, landslides, mass gravity flows and fluvial flows. These deposits are forming active or inactive interfingering talus slopes, alluvial and debris-flow fans, all of them with a complex history of sedimentation and erosion forming unconformity bounded sedimentary units. In order to make a thorough analysis of these deposits a detailed geomorphological map in a scale of 1:10 000 has been made. Six different types of sedimentary deposits were defined and mapped. These are moraines, lacustrine sediments, fluvio-glacial deposits, talus slopes, debris fans and alluvial fans. Other mapped features also include shape of ravines, their depths, ridges and direction of sedimentary flow. Additionally areas of active, semi-active and inactive sedimentation were marked. Moraines forms a ridge in the bottom of the valleys and are composed of unconsolidated, poorly sorted, subangular grains ranging from clay size to a few cubic meters big blocks. Lacustrine sediments are represented by laminated well sorted sand and silt, while fluvio-glacial deposits are composed of washed out subrounded sands and gravels. Talus slope deposits are characterised by clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravel. Debris flow fans are represented by extremely poorly sorted matrix-supported gravels with grain size ranging from clay to few cubic meters big blocks. Alluvial fans are composed by variety of sedimentary textures. Sediments at the fan apex are clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravels with up to a few cubic meters big block. In the middle part of the fan the sieve deposits are common, while in the distal parts a few centimeters thick layers of sand and

  18. Variability in surface meteorological variables over the equatorial Indian Ocean and its relationship with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, S.; Seiki, A.; Horii, T.

    2012-12-01

    To examine statistical behavior of variability in surface meteorological variables with sub-daily time scales is expected to provide fundamental information for understanding air-sea interaction, surface flux variability, and interaction between cumulus convection and a boundary layer. Here we study relationship between the behavior and Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), through analysis of observation data obtained over the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean during CINDY/DYNAMO intensive observation period of October-December, 2011. The data analyzed include observations by Research Vessels Roger Revelle and Mirai, and by a moored buoy installed near the equator at 1.5S, 90E as a part of the RAMA project. The sub-daily variability is defined as an anomaly of hourly-mean variable from its daily running mean. The buoy data show that horizontal wind and temperature fluctuations had larger variance during convective active phases of the MJO than pre- and post-active phases. The sub-daily fluctuation contributed to approximately 30 % of surface latent heat flux before intrusion of the MJO-scale westerly wind, while after that, its contribution reduced to less than 10 % of the flux. In the latter period, not only the MJO-scale westerly but also vigorous synoptic-scale meridional wind fluctuation plays a role on the flux. Furthermore, it seems that a major axis of the horizontal wind fluctuation shifted from southwest-northeast to northwest-southeast directions when the westerly wind started to flow. Such characteristics were generally consistent with observations by Roger Revelle staying near the equator, while data obtained by Mirai staying 8S exhibited different characteristics, with smaller amplitude of the sub-daily fluctuations. In addition to the above-mentioned case study, we use RAMA buoy data of other periods to perform statistical analysis, intending to compare results with those of the case study. Furthermore, we plan to compare the observed behavior with one

  19. Response to ?A Madden-Julian Oscillation Event Realistically Simulated by a Global Cloud-Resolving Model?

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K R

    2007-12-18

    I agree with the authors that forecasting the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in a high resolution global model is important for numerous reasons, including improved weather forecast skill beyond 10 days, and resolving small scale features embedded in the MJO that coarse resolution ({approx}100-300km horizontal grid spacing) climate models do not (e.g., tropical cyclones). Unfortunately, the authors promote the (incorrect) overall impression that coarse resolution climate models cannot simulate the MJO by (a) only discussing aspects of works that indicate the poor ability of coarse resolution climate models to simulate the MJO, and (b) by promoting the use of higher resolution models, and the use of embedded two-dimensional cloud resolving models embedded in coarse resolution climate models as the principal methods for realistically representing the MJO because of the difficulty of coarse resolution models 'to estimate the vertical redistribution of heat and moisture by unresolved convective clouds'. Regarding items (a) and (b), I have co-authored two of the works cited by Miura et al. that bemoan the poor ability of coarse resolution climate models to simulate the MJO, and indeed simulating the MJO in coarse resolution climate models is a grand challenge. However, I would like to draw to their attention to work that has demonstrated that two different coarse resolution climate models, using conventional parameterizations of convection and clouds, can represent the MJO with high fidelity. In the later study, where more complete model diagnostics were available, important aspects of the MJO that were realistically represented included the relationship between convection and low-level moisture convergence, surface fluxes, the vertical structure of winds and divergence, and important air-sea interactions. Additionally, regarding item (b), convection is certainly of central importance in representing the MJO, but it is the interaction of convection (parameterized or

  20. Exploring the Utility of the Planned CYGNSS Mission for Investigating the Initiation and Development of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy; Mecikalski, John; Li, Xuanli; Chronis, Themis; Brewer, Alan; Churnside, James; Rutledge, Steve

    2014-01-01

    CYGNSS is a planned constellation consisting of multiple micro-satellites that leverage the Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide rapidly updated, high resolution (approx. 15-50 km, approx. 4 h) surface wind speeds (via bi-static scatterometry) over the tropical oceans in any weather condition, including heavy rainfall. The approach of the work to be presented at this conference is to utilize a limited-domain, cloud-system resolving model (Weather Research and Forecasting or WRF) and its attendant data assimilation scheme (Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation or 3DVAR) to investigate the utility of the CYGNSS mission for helping characterize key convectiveto- mesoscale processes - such as surface evaporation, moisture advection and convergence, and upscale development of precipitation systems - that help drive the initiation and development of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The proposed work will focus on three scientific objectives. Objective 1 is to produce a high-resolution surface wind dataset resolution (approx. 0.5 h, approx. 1-4 km) for multiple MJO onsets using WRF-assimilated winds and other data from the DYNAmics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, which took place during October 2011 - March 2012. Objective 2 is to study the variability of surface winds during MJO onsets at temporal and spatial scales of finer resolution than future CYGNSS data. The goal is to understand how sub-CYGNSS-resolution processes will shape the observations made by the satellite constellation. Objective 3 is to ingest simulated CYGNSS data into the WRF model in order to perform observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). These will be used to test and quantify the potential beneficial effects provided by CYGNSS, particularly for characterizing the physical processes driving convective organization and upscale development during the initiation and development of the MJO. The proposed research is ideal for answering important

  1. Physical Mechanisms for the Maintenance of GCM-Simulated Madden-Julian Oscillation over the Indian Ocean and Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Liping; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-05-05

    The kinetic energy budget is conducted to analyze the physical processes responsible for the improved Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) simulated by the Iowa State University general circulation models (ISUGCM). The modified deep convection scheme that includes the revised convection closure, convection trigger condition and convective momentum transport (CMT) enhances the equatorial (10oS-10oN) MJO-related perturbation kinetic energy (PKE) in the upper troposphere and leads to more robust and coherent eastward propagating MJO signal. In the MJO source region-the Indian Ocean (45oE-120oE), the upper-tropospheric MJO PKE is maintained by the vertical convergence of wave energy flux and the barotropic conversion through the horizontal shear of mean flow. In the convectively active region-the western Pacific (120oE-180o), the upper-tropospheric MJO PKE is supported by the convergence of horizontal and vertical wave energy fluxes. Over the central-eastern Pacific (180o-120oW), where convection is suppressed, the upper-tropospheric MJO PKE is mainly due to the horizontal convergence of wave energy flux. The deep convection trigger condition produces stronger convective heating which enhances the perturbation available potential energy (PAPE) production and the upward wave energy fluxes, and leads to the increased MJO PKE over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. The trigger condition also enhances the MJO PKE over the central-eastern Pacific through the increased convergence of meridional wave energy flux from the subtropical latitudes of both hemispheres. The revised convection closure affects the response of mean zonal wind shear to the convective heating over the Indian Ocean and leads to the enhanced upper-tropospheric MJO PKE through the barotropic conversion. The stronger eastward wave energy flux due to the increase of convective heating over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific by the revised closure is favorable to the eastward propagation of MJO and the

  2. Evaluation of convection-permitting model simulations of cloud populations associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation using data collected during the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Long, Charles N.; Wu, Di; Thompson, Gregory

    2014-11-12

    Regional cloud permitting model simulations of cloud populations observed during the 2011 ARM Madden Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment/ Dynamics of Madden-Julian Experiment (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign are evaluated against radar and ship-based measurements. Sensitivity of model simulated surface rain rate statistics to parameters and parameterization of hydrometeor sizes in five commonly used WRF microphysics schemes are examined. It is shown that at 2 km grid spacing, the model generally overestimates rain rate from large and deep convective cores. Sensitivity runs involving variation of parameters that affect rain drop or ice particle size distribution (more aggressive break-up process etc) generally reduce the bias in rain-rate and boundary layer temperature statistics as the smaller particles become more vulnerable to evaporation. Furthermore significant improvement in the convective rain-rate statistics is observed when the horizontal grid-spacing is reduced to 1 km and 0.5 km, while it is worsened when run at 4 km grid spacing as increased turbulence enhances evaporation. The results suggest modulation of evaporation processes, through parameterization of turbulent mixing and break-up of hydrometeors may provide a potential avenue for correcting cloud statistics and associated boundary layer temperature biases in regional and global cloud permitting model simulations.

  3. Comment on "Methodology and results of calculating Central California surface temperature trends: evidence of human-induced climate change?" by Christy et al. (2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfils, C; Duffy, P; Lobell, D

    2006-03-28

    Understanding the causes of observed regional temperature trends is essential to projecting the human influences on climate, and the societal impacts of these influences. In their recent study, Christy et al. (2006, hereinafter CRNG06) hypothesized that the presence of irrigated soils is responsible for rapid warming of summer nights occurring in California's Central Valley over the last century (1910-2003), an assumption that rules out any significant effect due to increased greenhouse gases, urbanization, or other factors in this region. We question this interpretation, which is based on an apparent contrast in summer nighttime temperature trends between the San Joaquin Valley ({approx} +0.3 {+-} 0.1 C/decade) and the adjacent western slopes of the Sierra Nevada (-0.25 {+-} 0.15 C/decade), as well as the amplitude, sign and uncertainty of the Sierra nighttime temperature trend itself. We, however, do not dispute the finding of other Sierra and Valley trends. Regarding the veracity of the apparent Sierra nighttime temperature trend, CRNG06 generated the Valley and Sierra time-series using a meticulous procedure that eliminates discontinuities and isolates homogeneous segments in temperature records from 41 weather stations. This procedure yields an apparent cooling of about -0.25 {+-} 0.15 C/decade in the Sierra region. However, because removal of one of the 137 Sierra segments, from the most elevated site (Huntington Lake, 2140m), causes an increase in nighttime temperature trend as large as the trend itself (of +0.25 C/decade, CH06), and leads to a zero trend, the apparent cooling of summer nights in the Sierra regions seems, in fact, largely uncertain.

  4. The 'Vertical Structure and Diabatic Processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation' model evaluation project: Overview and key results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingaman, N. P.; Jiang, X.; Xavier, P.; Petch, J.; Waliser, D. E.; Woolnough, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of tropical sub-seasonal (30-60 day) variability. By modulating regional monsoon circulation and precipitation, interacting with ENSO and influences modes of extra-tropical variability (e.g., the NAO), the MJO provides a key source of weekly and monthly predictability globally. Despite this, most weather and climate models exhibit large biases in their simulations of the MJO. We will introduce a model evaluation project, endorsed by YoTC and GASS, designed to identify and reduce sources of error in the models' MJO representations. A key advantage of this project over previous intercomparisons is that temperature, moisture and momentum tendencies have been requested from all sub-grid parameterization schemes. This allows detailed analysis of the links between biases in MJO activity and biases in the vertical profiles of diabatic heating, moistening and momentum. The project comprises three components: 20-year simulations, from which the overall level of MJO activity can be assessed; serial 2-day hindcasts of two strong events in winter 2009-2010, in which the behavior of model parameterizations can be evaluated close to the initial, observed state; and serial 20-day hindcasts of the same two MJO events, which bridge the gap between the other two components by permitting analysis of the degradation of the simulated MJO from the initial state towards the model's climatology. Analysis of the 20-year simulations suggests that many proposed process-oriented MJO metrics, such as the relationship between precipitation and the vertical structure of relative humidity, do not sufficiently distinguish between those models that simulate the MJO well and those that simulate it poorly. It is assumed that the processes described by these metrics are necessary, but not sufficient, for an adequate simulation of the MJO in GCMs. Analysis of the 2-day hindcasts demonstrates that models develop substantial biases in upper

  5. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmospheric Model-2 with the Tiedtke Convective Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P; Wang, B; Sperber, K R; Li, T; Meehl, G A

    2004-07-26

    The boreal winter Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) remains very weak and irregular in structure in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model version 2 (CAM2) as in its direct predecessor, the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3). The standard version of CAM2 uses the deep convective scheme of Zhang and McFarlane (1995), as in CCM3, with the closure dependent on convective available potential energy (CAPE). Here, sensitivity tests using several versions of the Tiedtke (1989) convective scheme are conducted. Typically, the Tiedtke convection scheme gives an improved mean state, intraseasonal variability, space-time power spectra, and eastward propagation compared to the standard version of the model. Coherent eastward propagation of MJO related precipitation is also much improved, particularly over the Indian-western Pacific Oceans. Sensitivity experiments show that enhanced downdrafts in the Tiedtke scheme reduces the amplitude of the MJO but to a lesser extent than when this scheme is closed on CAPE to represent deep convections. A composite life cycle of the model MJO indicates that over the Indian Ocean wind induced surface heat exchange functions, while over the western/central Pacific Ocean aspects of frictional moisture convergence are evident in the maintenance and eastward propagation of the oscillation.

  6. Overview of Proposal on High Resolution Climate Model Simulations of Recent Hurricane and Typhoon Activity: The Impact of SSTs and the Madden Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Kang, In-Sik; Reale, Oreste

    2009-01-01

    This talk gives an update on the progress and further plans for a coordinated project to carry out and analyze high-resolution simulations of tropical storm activity with a number of state-of-the-art global climate models. Issues addressed include, the mechanisms by which SSTs control tropical storm. activity on inter-annual and longer time scales, the modulation of that activity by the Madden Julian Oscillation on sub-seasonal time scales, as well as the sensitivity of the results to model formulation. The project also encourages companion coarser resolution runs to help assess resolution dependence, and. the ability of the models to capture the large-scale and long-terra changes in the parameters important for hurricane development. Addressing the above science questions is critical to understanding the nature of the variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon and its regional impacts, and thus CLIVAR RAMP fully endorses the proposed tropical storm simulation activity. The project is open to all interested organizations and investigators, and the results from the runs will be shared among the participants, as well as made available to the broader scientific community for analysis.

  7. Evaluation of the impacts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on rainfall and hurricanes in Central and South America and the Atlantic Ocean using ICI-RAFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannettone, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Based on the method of Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA) and L-moments (Hosking & Wallis, 1997), a tool was developed to estimate the frequency/intensity of a rainfall event of a particular duration using ground-based rainfall observations. Some of the code used to develop this tool was taken from the FORTRAN code provided by Hosking & Wallis and rewritten in Visual Basic 2010. This tool was developed at the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM) and is referred to as the ICIWaRM Regional Analysis of Frequency Tool (ICI-RAFT) (Giovannettone & Wright, 2012). In order to study the effectiveness of ICI-RAFT, three case studies were selected for the analysis. The studies take place in selected regions within Argentina, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Rainfall data were provided at locations throughout each country; total rainfall for specific periods were computed and analyzed with respect to several global climate indices using lag times ranging from 1 to 6 months. Each analysis attempts to identify a global climate index capable of predicting above or below average rainfall several months in advance, qualitatively and using an equation that is developed. The index that had the greatest impact was the MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation), which is the focus of the current study. The MJO is considered the largest element of intra-seasonal (30 - 90 days) variability in the tropical atmosphere and, unlike other indices, is characterized by the eastward propagation of large areas of convective anomalies near the equator, propagating from the Indian Ocean east into the Pacific Ocean. The anomalies are monitored globally using ten different indices located on lines of longitude near the equator, with seven in the eastern hemisphere and three in the western hemisphere. It has been found in previous studies that the MJO is linked to summer rainfall in Southeast China (Zhang et al., 2009) and southern Africa (Pohl et al., 2007) and to rainfall patterns

  8. Effects of moisture feedback in a frictional coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave model and implication in the Madden-Julian oscillation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The authors extend the original frictional wave dynamics and implement the moisture feedback (MF) to explore the effects of planetary boundary layer (PBL) process and the MF on the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This new system develops the original frictional wave dynamics by including the moisture tendency term (or the MF mode), along with a parameterized precipitation based on the Betts-Miller scheme. The linear instability analysis of this model provides solutions to elucidate the behaviors of the "pure" frictional convergence (FC) mode and the "pure" MF mode, respectively, as well as the behaviors of the combined FC-MF mode or the dynamical moisture mode. These results show that without the PBL frictional moisture convergence, the MF mode is nearly stationary and damped. Not only does the PBL frictional feedback make the damping MF mode grow with preferred planetary scale but it also enables the nearly stationary MF mode to move eastward slowly, resulting in an oscillation with a period of 30-90 days. This finding suggests the important role of the frictional feedback in generating eastward propagating unstable modes and selecting the preferred planetary scales. The MF process slows down the eastward-propagating short-wave FC mode by delaying the occurrence of deep convection and by enhancing the Rossby wave component. However, the longest wave (wavenumber one) is insensitive to the MF or the convective adjustment time, indicating that the unstable longest wave is primarily controlled by PBL frictional feedback process. Implications of these theoretical results in MJO simulation in general circulation models are discussed.

  9. Multi-Reanalysis Comparison of Variability in Analysis Increment of Column-Integrated Water Vapor Associated with Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study conducts a comparison of three reanalysis products (JRA-55, JRA-25, and ERA-Interim) in representation of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), focusing on column-integrated water vapor (CWV) that is considered as an essential variable for discussing MJO dynamics. Besides the analysis fields of CWV, which exhibit spatio-temporal distributions that are quite similar to satellite observations, CWV tendency simulated by forecast models and analysis increment calculated by data assimilation are examined. For JRA-55, it is revealed that, while its forecast model is able to simulate eastward propagation of the CWV anomaly, it tends to weaken the amplitude, and data assimilation process sustains the amplitude. The multi-reanalysis comparison of the analysis increment further reveals that this weakening bias is probably caused by excessively weak cloud-radiative feedback represented by the model. This bias in the feedback strength makes anomalous moisture supply by the vertical advection term in the CWV budget equation too insensitive to precipitation anomaly, resulting in reduction of the amplitude of CWV anomaly. ERA-Interim has a nearly opposite feature; the forecast model represents excessively strong feedback and unrealistically strengthens the amplitude, while the data assimilation weakens it. These results imply the necessity of accurate representation of the cloud-radiative feedback strength for a short-term MJO forecast, and may be evidence to support the argument that this feedback is essential for the existence of MJO. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the multi-reanalysis comparison of the analysis increment will provide useful information for identifying model biases and, potentially, for estimating parameters that are difficult to estimate solely from observation data, such as gross moist stability.

  10. Effects of the diurnal cycle in solar radiation on the tropical Indian Ocean mixed layer variability during wintertime Madden-Julian Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanlong; Han, Weiqing; Shinoda, Toshiaki; Wang, Chunzai; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Moum, James N.; Wang, Jih-Wang

    2013-10-01

    The effects of solar radiation diurnal cycle on intraseasonal mixed layer variability in the tropical Indian Ocean during boreal wintertime Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events are examined using the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model. Two parallel experiments, the main run and the experimental run, are performed for the period of 2005-2011 with daily atmospheric forcing except that an idealized hourly shortwave radiation diurnal cycle is included in the main run. The results show that the diurnal cycle of solar radiation generally warms the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) north of 10°S, particularly during the calm phase of the MJO when sea surface wind is weak, mixed layer is thin, and the SST diurnal cycle amplitude (dSST) is large. The diurnal cycle enhances the MJO-forced intraseasonal SST variability by about 20% in key regions like the Seychelles-Chagos Thermocline Ridge (SCTR; 55°-70°E, 12°-4°S) and the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO; 65°-95°E, 3°S-3°N) primarily through nonlinear rectification. The model also well reproduced the upper-ocean variations monitored by the CINDY/DYNAMO field campaign between September-November 2011. During this period, dSST reaches 0.7°C in the CEIO region, and intraseasonal SST variability is significantly amplified. In the SCTR region where mean easterly winds are strong during this period, diurnal SST variation and its impact on intraseasonal ocean variability are much weaker. In both regions, the diurnal cycle also has a large impact on the upward surface turbulent heat flux QT and induces diurnal variation of QT with a peak-to-peak difference of O(10 W m-2).

  11. Comparison of Moist Static Energy and Budget between the GCM-Simulated Madden–Julian Oscillation and Observations over the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Deng, Liping

    2013-07-01

    The moist static energy (MSE) anomalies and MSE budget associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) simulated in the Iowa State University General Circulation Model (ISUGCM) over the Indian and Pacific Oceans are compared with observations. Different phase relationships between MJO 850-hPa zonal wind, precipitation, and surface latent heat flux are simulated over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, which are greatly influenced by the convection closure, trigger conditions, and convective momentum transport (CMT). The moist static energy builds up from the lower troposphere 15–20 days before the peak of MJO precipitation, and reaches the maximum in the middle troposphere (500–600 hPa) near the peak of MJO precipitation. The gradual lower-tropospheric heating and moistening and the upward transport of moist static energy are important aspects of MJO events, which are documented in observational studies but poorly simulated in most GCMs. The trigger conditions for deep convection, obtained from the year-long cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations, contribute to the striking difference between ISUGCM simulations with the original and modified convection schemes and play the major role in the improved MJO simulation in ISUGCM. Additionally, the budget analysis with the ISUGCM simulations shows the increase in MJO MSE is in phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over the western Pacific, while out of phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over the Indian Ocean. However, the NCEP analysis shows that the tendency of MJO MSE is in phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over both oceans.

  12. Rap and Orality in a Post-NCLB/ALEC World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Dierdre Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Rigid foci on accountability, accreditation, and customer service pose significant challenges for literacy educators today. The most consequential identified as the snuffing out of scholastic innovation and erosion of academic freedom. This article recounts a recent experience that occurred while the author prepared a lesson for an undergraduate…

  13. Simulation of streamflow and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the lower Nueces River watershed, downstream from Lake Corpus Christi to the Nueces Estuary, South Texas, 1958-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Fort Worth District, City of Corpus Christi, Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, San Antonio River Authority, and San Antonio Water System, developed, calibrated, and tested a Hydrological Simulation Program ? FORTRAN (HSPF) watershed model to simulate streamflow and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads during 1958-2008 in the lower Nueces River watershed, downstream from Lake Corpus Christi to the Nueces Estuary in South Texas. Data available to simulate suspended-sediment concentrations and loads consisted of historical sediment data collected during 1942-82 in the study area and suspended-sediment concentration data collected periodically by the USGS during 2006-07 at three USGS streamflow-gaging stations, Nueces River near Mathis, Nueces River at Bluntzer, and Nueces River at Calallen. The Nueces River near Mathis station is downstream from Wesley E. Seale Dam, completed in 1958 to impound Lake Corpus Christi. Suspended-sediment data collected before and after completion of Wesley E. Seale Dam provide insights to the effects of the dam and reservoir on suspended-sediment loads transported by the lower Nueces River from downstream of the dam to the Nueces Estuary. Annual suspended-sediment loads at a site near the Nueces River at Mathis station were considerably lower, for a given annual mean discharge, after the dam was completed than before the dam was completed. Most of the suspended sediment transported by the Nueces River downstream from Wesley E. Seale Dam occurred during high-flow releases from the dam or during floods. During October 1964-September 1971, about 532,000 tons of suspended sediment were transported by the Nueces River near Mathis. Of this amount, about 473,000 tons, or about 89 percent, were transported by large runoff events (mean streamflow exceeding 1,000 cubic feet per second). To develop the watershed model to simulate suspended

  14. MM5 Modeling of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans: Model Description and Control Run Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, William I.; Weare, B. C.

    2004-03-01

    A new methodology to study the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is introduced. While previous MJO studies typically have involved highly simplified mathematical models or general circulation models, this new approach seeks to reproduce the MJO using a regional model with prescribed boundary conditions. This paper reports initial control run results for this methodology using the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) for a domain extending from the western Indian Ocean to the Dateline. The control run boundaries are forced using the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NRA) data set for a 24 month time period. The climatology for the 24 month period is examined to establish the robustness of the MM5 model for this region. Results indicate good agreement in the mean winds between the model and the forcing data set. The primary differences are an easterly bias at 850 hPa and altered flow patterns in the Indian monsoon region. Mean OLR results are good for the model interior with larger discrepancies near the western and eastern boundaries. These discrepancies lead to a reversal of the OLR gradient along the equator. Thirty to seventy day bandpassed data is examined to determine how MM5 reproduces the MJO. The modeled and comparison data 30–70 day zonal wind and OLR have similar MJO periodicities, exhibit eastward propagation, and possess the observed seasonal character and vertical structure of the MJO. The “Matthews EOF” technique reveals good similarity between the model and observed OLR. Analysis of vertical profiles of 30-70 day zonal wind reveals lower tropospheric winds blow in the opposite direction of upper level winds for both the model and NRA. Vertical profiles of 30-70 day moist static energy exhibit a peak near the top of the boundary layer. Differences between the model simulated and observed MJO events are a tendency for the OLR to be relatively noisy and for peak OLR intensity to occur in the west Indian Ocean in the model as opposed to

  15. Modelling the Madden Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Slingo, J M; Inness, P M; Sperber, K R

    2004-05-21

    The MJO has long been an aspect of the global climate that has provided a tough test for the climate modelling community. Since the 1980s there have been numerous studies of the simulation of the MJO in atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs), ranging from Hayashi and Golder (1986, 1988) and Lau and Lau (1986), through to more recent studies such as Wang and Schlesinger (1999) and Wu et al. (2002). Of course, attempts to reproduce the MJO in climate models have proceeded in parallel with developments in our understanding of what the MJO is and what drives it. In fact, many advances in understanding the MJO have come through modeling studies. In particular, failure of climate models to simulate various aspects of the MJO has prompted investigations into the mechanisms that are important to its initiation and maintenance, leading to improvements both in our understanding of, and ability to simulate, the MJO. The initial focus of this chapter will be on modeling the MJO during northern winter, when it is characterized as a predominantly eastward propagating mode and is most readily seen in observations. Aspects of the simulation of the MJO will be discussed in the context of its sensitivity to the formulation of the atmospheric model, and the increasing evidence that it may be a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. Later, we will discuss the challenges regarding the simulation of boreal summer intraseasonal variability, which is more complex since it is a combination of the eastward propagating MJO and the northward propagation of the tropical convergence zone. Finally some concluding remarks on future directions in modeling the MJO and its relationship with other timescales of variability in the tropics will be made.

  16. On the roles of the northeast cold surge, the Borneo vortex, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, and the Indian Ocean Dipole during the extreme 2006/2007 flood in southern Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangang, Fredolin T.; Juneng, Liew; Salimun, Ester; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Seng, Yap Kok; Reason, C. J. C.; Behera, S. K.; Yasunari, T.

    2008-05-01

    The mid-December 2006 to late January 2007 flood in southern Peninsular Malaysia was the worst flood in a century and was caused by three extreme precipitation episodes. These extreme precipitation events were mainly associated with strong northeasterly winds over the South China Sea. In all cases, the northeasterlies penetrated anomalously far south and followed almost a straight trajectory. The elevated terrain over Sumatra and southern Peninsular Malaysia caused low-level convergence. The strong easterly winds near Java associated with the Rossby wave-type response to Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) inhibited the counter-clockwise turning of the northeasterlies and the formation of the Borneo vortex, which, in turn, enhanced the low-level convergence over the region. The abrupt termination of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in December 2006 played a secondary role as warmer equatorial Indian Ocean helped in the MJO formation.

  17. 77 FR 2448 - Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... natural barriers on all 4 sides of the race course and local knowledge about wind, waves, and currents in... during scheduled break periods between races and at other times when permitted by the Coast Guard Patrol... significant effect on the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under figure 2-1,...

  18. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Thomas J. Ahrens, a leader in the use of shock waves to study planetary interiors and impact phenomena, died at his home in Pasadena, California on November 24, 2010, at the age of 74. He was the California Institute of Technology's Fletcher Jones Professor of Geophysics, formally emeritus since 2005 but professionally active to the end. Tom was a pioneer in experimental and numerical studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact, arguably the most important geophysical process in the formation, growth and - in many cases - surface evolution of planets. As a professor at Caltech, he established the foremost university laboratory for shock wave experiments, where students and research associates from around the world pursued basic research in geophysics, planetary science and other disciplines. Previously, high-pressure shock experiments were primarily conducted in national laboratories, where they were initially associated with development of nuclear weapons. The shock wave laboratory at Caltech was noted for key measurements addressing major questions in planetary geophysics. Equation-of-state studies on silicate melts showed that magma deep in Earth's mantle could be denser than the coexisting crystals, implying downward transport of melts (and associated heat) rather than the upward eruption of lavas observed in volcanic regions at Earth's surface. Shock-melting experiments on iron at pressures of Earth's core provide a crucial constraint on the temperature at the center of our planet. And studies of hydrous, carbonate and sulphate minerals under shock compression document how climate-altering molecules can be released by major impacts, such as the K/T event associated with the most recent mass extinction of biota in Earth history. In addition, Tom was a leader in numerical simulation of cratering, bringing the most recent laboratory measurements into the modeling of planetary impacts. Tom's training was in geophysics and applied experimental physics, as exemplified by the ultrasonic wave-velocity measurements of his Ph.D. research at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (geophysics Ph.D. in 1962, following a B.S. in geology and geophysics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1957, and M.S. in geophysics from Caltech in 1958). He served in the U.S. Army (1959-60) and was employed at Stanford Research Institute (1962-67), where he conducted shock wave experiments, before joining the faculty at Caltech in 1967. With such a broad background, Tom combined condensed-matter physics, continuum mechanics, petrology and seismology, for instance in characterizing polymorphic phase transformations in Earth's mantle (1967 J. Geophys. Res. Paper with Y. Syono); using shock wave measurements to interpret seismological data on Earth's deep interior (1969 Rev. Geophysics paper with D. L. Anderson and A. E. Ringwood); modeling geodynamic effects of phase-transition kinetics (1975 Rev. Geophysics paper with G. Shubert); characterizing the effects of gravity and crustal strength on crater formation (1981 Rev. Geophysics paper with J. D. O'Keefe); and quantifying impact erosion of terrestrial planetary atmospheres (1993 Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences). The span of his science was also reflected in collaborations with - among others - Paul D. Asimow, George R. Rossman and Edward M. Stolper at Caltech, as well as Arthur C. Mitchell and William J. Nellis at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. His accomplishments included conducting the first shock-wave experiments on lunar samples and solid hydrogen; measuring the first absorption spectra of minerals under shock loading; discovering major phase changes in CaO, FeO, KAlSi3O8, and KFeS2; measuring shock temperatures in silicates, metals, and oxides; conducting the first planetary cratering calculations for mass of melted and vaporized material, and mass and energy of ejecta as a function of planetary escape velocity; experimentally documenting shock vaporization on volatile-bearing minerals, and applying the results to understanding the formation of oceans and atmospheres; conducting the first dynamic-compression experiments on molten silicates, with applications to characterizing the maximum depth of volcanism on terrestrial planets, as well as the crystallization sequence of magma oceans; performing the first thermodynamic calculations delineating the impact-shock conditions for melting and vaporization of planetary materials; carrying out the first smoothed particle hydrodynamic calculations to investigate energy partitioning upon impact in self-gravitating planetary systems; and conducting the first quantitative tensile failure studies for brittle media, relating crack-density to elastic velocity deficits and the onset of damage. Tom was also Co-Investigator on the NASA Cosmic Dust Analyzer Experiment, and the NASA/ESA Cassini Mission to Saturn. Honors included the AGU Hess Medal, Geological Society of America Day Medal, Meteoritical Society Barringer Medal, APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter' Topical Groups's Duvall Medal and AAAS Newcomb-Cleveland Prize. He had been President of AGU's Tectonophysics Section, Editor of Journal of Geophysical Research, founding member of both the Mineral and Rock Physics and Study of Earth's Deep Interior focus groups, and Editor - more like key driving force - for AGU's Handbook of Physical Constants. He was a fellow of the AGU, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Geochemical Society; and member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, as well as Foreign Associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Main-belt asteroid 4739 Tomahrens (1985 TH1) was named after him. Tom made it clear, however, that it was his students (more than 30), research associates (15 or more) and many collaborators who were the real mark of success. No doubt driven by the need to sustain a major, expensive research facility, as well as to satisfy an inner drive, he maintained a daunting work schedule - including evenings, weekends and holidays - that challenged and stimulated so many around him, perhaps even frightening or frustrating some. He could play as hard as he worked, enjoying sailing, skiing and other outdoor activities over the years.

  19. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Thomas J. Ahrens, a leader in the use of shock waves to study planetary interiors and impact phenomena, died at his home in Pasadena, California on November 24, 2010, at the age of 74. He was the California Institute of Technology's Fletcher Jones Professor of Geophysics, formally emeritus since 2005 but professionally active to the end. Tom was a pioneer in experimental and numerical studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact, arguably the most important geophysical process in the formation, growth and - in many cases - surface evolution of planets. As a professor at Caltech, he established the foremost university laboratory for shock wave experiments, where students and research associates from around the world pursued basic research in geophysics, planetary science and other disciplines. Previously, high-pressure shock experiments were primarily conducted in national laboratories, where they were initially associated with development of nuclear weapons. The shock wave laboratory at Caltech was noted for key measurements addressing major questions in planetary geophysics. Equation-of-state studies on silicate melts showed that magma deep in Earth's mantle could be denser than the coexisting crystals, implying downward transport of melts (and associated heat) rather than the upward eruption of lavas observed in volcanic regions at Earth's surface. Shock-melting experiments on iron at pressures of Earth's core provide a crucial constraint on the temperature at the center of our planet. And studies of hydrous, carbonate and sulphate minerals under shock compression document how climate-altering molecules can be released by major impacts, such as the K/T event associated with the most recent mass extinction of biota in Earth history. In addition, Tom was a leader in numerical simulation of cratering, bringing the most recent laboratory measurements into the modeling of planetary impacts. Tom's training was in geophysics and applied experimental physics, as exemplified by the ultrasonic wave-velocity measurements of his Ph.D. research at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (geophysics Ph.D. in 1962, following a B.S. in geology and geophysics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1957, and M.S. in geophysics from Caltech in 1958). He served in the U.S. Army (1959-60) and was employed at Stanford Research Institute (1962-67), where he conducted shock wave experiments, before joining the faculty at Caltech in 1967. With such a broad background, Tom combined condensed-matter physics, continuum mechanics, petrology and seismology, for instance in characterizing polymorphic phase transformations in Earth's mantle (1967 J. Geophys. Res. Paper with Y. Syono); using shock wave measurements to interpret seismological data on Earth's deep interior (1969 Rev. Geophysics paper with D. L. Anderson and A. E. Ringwood); modeling geodynamic effects of phase-transition kinetics (1975 Rev. Geophysics paper with G. Shubert); characterizing the effects of gravity and crustal strength on crater formation (1981 Rev. Geophysics paper with J. D. O'Keefe); and quantifying impact erosion of terrestrial planetary atmospheres (1993 Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences). The span of his science was also reflected in collaborations with - among others - Paul D. Asimow, George R. Rossman and Edward M. Stolper at Caltech, as well as Arthur C. Mitchell and William J. Nellis at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. His accomplishments included conducting the first shock-wave experiments on lunar samples and solid hydrogen; measuring the first absorption spectra of minerals under shock loading; discovering major phase changes in CaO, FeO, KAlSi3O8, and KFeS2; measuring shock temperatures in silicates, metals, and oxides; conducting the first planetary cratering calculations for mass of melted and vaporized material, and mass and energy of ejecta as a function of planetary escape velocity; experimentally documenting shock vaporization on volatile-bearing minerals, and applying the results to understanding the formation of oceans and atmosph

  20. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L. E.; Zhang, J.

    2014-08-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the 7 SouthEast Asian Studies program (7SEAS), a two-week, late September~2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan Archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a~receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a~narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Nina year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol lifecycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN < 150 cm-3, non-sea salt PM2.5=1μg m-3). However, elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm-3 and non-sea salt PM2.510-25 μg m-3). These

  1. "You Don't Want a Smart Alec": Selecting Examiners to Assess Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The use of external examiners in the doctoral assessment process is seen as a quality assurance process in most higher education systems. This article suggests that the selection of examiners is a critical aspect of that process. Interview analysis highlights the professional/academic considerations involved in selecting suitable examiners, as…

  2. Alec in Reading Land: Some Reactions to and Implications of the Durkin Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick R.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that Dolores Durkin's findings that even elementary children are not receiving reading comprehension instruction indicate a need for more interdisciplinary interaction and more interschool cooperation. (MKM)

  3. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the scale-dependent role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, J.

    2015-02-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the Seven SouthEast Asian Studies program (7-SEAS), a 2-week, late September 2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Niña year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol life cycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN < 150 cm-3, non-sea-salt PM2.5 < 1 μg m-3). However, elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm-3 and non-sea-salt PM2.5 10-25 μg m

  4. Delineation of marsh types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama, in 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Michael G. Brasher,; Jenneke M. Visser,; Michael K. Mitchell,; Bart M. Ballard,; Mark W. Parr,; Barry C. Wilson,

    2015-07-23

    This study incorporates about 9,800 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal wetland areas. Decision-tree analyses were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using ground reference data from helicopter vegetation surveys and independent variables such as multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, bare-earth digital elevation models based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables. Image objects were created from 2010 National Agriculture Imagery Program color-infrared aerial photography. The final classification is a 10-meter raster dataset that was produced by using a majority filter to classify image objects according to the marsh vegetation type covering the majority of each image object. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the classified multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. The seamless classification produced through this work can be used to help develop and refine conservation efforts for priority natural resources.

  5. Delineation of marsh types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama, in 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Michael G. Brasher; Jenneke M. Visser; Michael K. Mitchell; Bart M. Ballard; Mark W. Parr; Barry C. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates about 9,800 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal wetland areas. Decision-tree analyses were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using ground reference data from helicopter vegetation surveys and independent variables such as multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, bare-earth digital elevation models based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables. Image objects were created from 2010 National Agriculture Imagery Program color-infrared aerial photography. The final classification is a 10-meter raster dataset that was produced by using a majority filter to classify image objects according to the marsh vegetation type covering the majority of each image object. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the classified multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. The seamless classification produced through this work can be used to help develop and refine conservation efforts for priority natural resources.

  6. "Cisneros v. CCISD" the Desegregation of the Corpus Christi Independent School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, John Albert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this historical case study was to add to the literature an analysis of the landmark legal case of Jose Cisneros v. CCISD. The outcome of this case established Mexican Americans as an ethnic minority and set the legal precedent that the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Topeka ruling could be extended to other minorities beyond…

  7. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat... American Tri-Hull Championship will consist of a series of power boat races for approximately 8-12 vessels... with power boat races. Basis and Purpose This safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of...

  8. Characteristics Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation at Manus Island

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Liping; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2013-05-15

    Ground-based high temporal and vertical resolution datasets from 2002 to 2008 of observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea are used to examine the evolution of clouds and rainfall associated with the MJO life cycle. A composite MJO event is developed based on the NOAA MJO Index 4 using 13 events. The analysis shows that the cloud evolution during the composited MJO life cycle depicts a two-phase structure consisting of a development phase and a mature phase. During the development phase, congestus is the most important cloud type; during the mature phase, deep convection is the dominant cloud type. Consistent with this two-phase structure, the heavy rainfall frequency also shows a two-peak structure during the MJO life cycle. Light rainfall does not show a clear relation to the MJO life cycle, but shows variability on shorter time scales. From the development phase to the mature phase, the MJO structure shifts from the Type I to Type II structure, showing a different phase relationship between convection and dynamic fields (or wave motion) in the development and mature phases. During the shift, mid-level clouds play an important role in moving moisture to the mid-troposphere and preparing the atmosphere for the following deep convection. The discharge-recharge theory explains some of observed features of the MJO evolution at the ARM TWP Manus Island site.

  9. Application of terrestrial photogrammetry for the mass balance calculation on Montasio Occidentale Glacier (Julian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs, allows to obtain high-resolution DEMs which enable good mass balance estimations on glaciers with similar characteristics.

  10. The Living and the Dead in Education: Commentary on Julian Williams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Jean Lave and Ray McDermott (2002) did a service with their powerful reading of Marx's 1844 essay on "Estranged Labour" (Marx, 1964). In reworking Marx's critique of "alienated labour" in terms of "alienated learning," they reminded everyone of Marx's own impassioned revolt against the inhumanity of the capitalist order and found a novel way of…

  11. Interaction of deep and shallow convection is key to Madden-Julian Oscillation simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang J.; Song, Xiaoliang

    2009-05-01

    This study investigates the role of the interaction between deep and shallow convection in MJO simulation using the NCAR CAM3. Two simulations were performed, one using a revised Zhang-McFarlane convection scheme for deep convection and the Hack scheme for shallow convection, and the other disallowing shallow convection below 700 mb in the tropical belt. The two simulations produce dramatically different MJO characteristics. While the control simulation produces realistic MJOs, the simulation without shallow convection has very weak MJO signals in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Composite analysis finds that shallow convection serves to precondition the lower troposphere by moistening it ahead of deep convection. It also produces enhanced low-level mass convergence below 850 mb ahead of deep convection. This work, together with previous studies, suggests that a correct simulation of the interaction between deep and shallow convection is key to MJO simulation in global climate models.

  12. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in the NCAR Community Earth System Model Coupled Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Anderson, J. L.; Moncrieff, M.; Collins, N.; Danabasoglu, G.; Hoar, T.; Karspeck, A. R.; Neale, R. B.; Raeder, K.; Tribbia, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a quantitative evaluation of the simulated MJO in analyses produced with a coupled data assimilation (CDA) framework developed at the National Center for Atmosphere Research. This system is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM; previously known as the Community Climate System Model -CCSM) interfaced to a community facility for ensemble data assimilation (Data Assimilation Research Testbed - DART). The system (multi-component CDA) assimilates data into each of the respective ocean/atmosphere/land model components during the assimilation step followed by an exchange of information between the model components during the forecast step. Note that this is an advancement over many existing prototypes of coupled data assimilation systems, which typically assimilate observations only in one of the model components (i.e., single-component CDA). The more realistic treatment of air-sea interactions and improvements to the model mean state in the multi-component CDA recover many aspects of MJO representation, from its space-time structure and propagation (see Figure 1) to the governing relationships between precipitation and sea surface temperature on intra-seasonal scales. Standard qualitative and process-based diagnostics identified by the MJO Task Force (currently under the auspices of the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation) have been used to detect the MJO signals across a suite of coupled model experiments involving both multi-component and single-component DA experiments as well as a free run of the coupled CESM model (i.e., CMIP5 style without data assimilation). Short predictability experiments during the boreal winter are used to demonstrate that the decay rates of the MJO convective anomalies are slower in the multi-component CDA system, which allows it to retain the MJO dynamics for a longer period. We anticipate that the knowledge gained through this study will enhance our understanding of the MJO feedback mechanisms across the air-sea interface, especially regarding ocean impacts on the MJO as well as highlight the capability of coupled data assimilation systems for related tropical intraseasonal variability predictions.

  13. Archive of digital and digitized analog boomer seismic reflection data collected during USGS cruise 96CCT02 in Copano, Corpus Christi, and Nueces Bays and Corpus Christi Bayou, Texas, July 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Morton, Robert A.; Blum, Mike D.; Wiese, Dana S.; Subiño, Janice A.

    2007-01-01

    In June of 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys from Nueces to Copano Bays, Texas. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, cruise log, and formal FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles and high resolution scanned TIFF images of the original paper printouts are also provided. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  14. Regular and Novel Metonymy: Can You Curl up with a Good Agatha Christie in Your Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabakova, Roumyana; Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer; Kyun Kang, Sang

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of two off-line comprehension tasks investigating the acceptability of unconventional and conventional metonymy by native speakers of Korean and Spanish who speak English as a second language. We are interested in discovering whether learners differentiate between conventional and unconventional metonymy, and whether…

  15. 78 FR 13015 - Foreign-Trade Zone 122-Corpus Christi, Tx; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... February 20, 2013. FTZ 122 was approved by the Board on September 5, 1985 (Board Order 310, 50 FR 38020, 9/19/1985) and expanded on December 6, 1991 (Board Order 545, 56 FR 65884, 12/19/1991), and on September 1, 1995 (Board Order 764, 60 FR 47149, 9/11/1995). The current zone includes the following...

  16. The Video in the Classroom: Agatha Christie's "Evil Under the Sun" and the Teaching of Narratology through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokonis, Michael

    This paper suggests ways in which video can be used in teaching college literature and cinema courses in order to promote audiovisual literacy. The method proposed presupposes an approach to narrative through narratology, the discipline that examines texts of narrative fiction as narratives, irrespective of their mode of manifestation (verbal,…

  17. Julian Lennon Is Global Ambassador for the Lupus Foundation of America | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... classic Beatles song, "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds." As Global Ambassador, Lennon supports public awareness initiatives ... classic Beatles song, "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds." Lennon has been a long-time supporter of ...

  18. 78 FR 37792 - Mario Julian Martinez-Bernache, Inmate Number #95749-279, CI Big Spring, Corrections Institution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ..., Corrections Institution, 2001 Rickabaugh Drive, Big Spring, TX 79720; Order Denying Export Privileges On March...: Inmate Number 95749-279, CI Big Spring, Corrections Institution, 2001 Rickabaugh Drive, Big Spring,...

  19. Simulated effects of projected pumping on the availability of freshwater in the Evangeline Aquifer in an area southwest of Corpus Christi, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groschen, George E.

    1985-01-01

    Two simulations of the projected pumping a low estimate, as much as 46.2 cubic feet per second during 2011-20; and a high estimate, as much as 60.0 cubic feet per second during the same period indicate that no further regional water-quality deterioration is likely to occur. Many important properties and conditions are estimated from poor or insufficient field data, and possible ranges of these properties and conditions are tested. In spite of the errors and data deficiencies, the results are based on the best estimates currently available. The reliability of the conclusions rests on the adequacy of the data and the demonstrated sensitivity of the model results to errors in estimates of these properties.

  20. 76 FR 68188 - Valero Refining-Texas, L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, TX; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... are excessive and not reasonably related to the value of services rendered to Complainant.'' Further..., affidavits, depositions, or other documents or that the nature of the matter in issue is such that an...

  1. Do Native American Culture, Life Experiences, Physics and the Bible Provide Supportive Evidence For Julian Barbour's Thesis About Anachronisms Relating to The End of Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mears, Paul C.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Historic, and current Native American attitude considers that time can be considered in a cyclic sense that contrasts against a majority view of physicists that time varies in a linear algebraic sense. Precognition experiences offer evidence that time has a more subtle substance. The Bible clearly delineates "prophetic awareness of the future." Embedded "Bible codes" are touted as mathematical evidence for the existence of God. His existence is better served if "past-tense" information of events can propagate backward relative to our "present-tense" time. Barbour, p39: [some] " physicists entertain the idea time truly does not exist applies to motion .suggestion; it too is pure illusion." The concept of prophecy has been interpreted as evidence or "proof" of the existence of "Manitou" or God. Our interpretation is that, according to Native American legends, or the Bible, for as yet unspecified reasons, time behaves as though it can convey information in a backward, or forward, sense. It is like an f (t ± ti).

  2. Book Review: The end of time: the next revolution in our understanding of the universe. Julian Barbour, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 384 pp., 16.95, ISBN 0195145925

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, G. F. R.

    In the early part of this century, physicists, led notably by Albert Einstein and the pioneers of quantum theory-in particular Neils Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Paul Dirac-discovered that the underlying nature of physical reality is stranger than anyone had ever imagined. A series of brilliant insights led to the realisation, on the one hand, of the relative nature of space and time measurements, and hence of our basic concepts of space and time (ultimately leading to the discovery of nuclear energy), and on the other hand, of the quantum nature of matter, with its associated quantum statistics and uncertainty of prediction (leading to transistors and lasers). Combining these views ultimately led to a realisation of the necessity of the existence of anti-matter, and of the dynamic nature of the vacuum. Further developments led to an understanding of the existence of symmetries characterising the various families of elementary particles, and of the unified nature of the fundamental interactions when described as gauge theories with forces mediated by exchange of gauge bosons. These properties have all been confirmed by carefully controlled experiments.

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 VIEW FROM CORNER OF WHITAKER AND ST JULIAN SHOWING NORTH FACADE - Gibbons Block, Congress, Saint Julian, Barnard, Whitaker Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. 78 FR 58332 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... San Antonio The Honorable Julian Department of Public July 5, 2013 480045 1317). (12-06-3532P). Castro... The Honorable Julian Department of Public July 22, 2013 480045 1318). (12-06-2419P). Castro, Mayor... Honorable Julian Department of Public July 29, 2013 480045 1318). (12-06-4141P). Castro, Mayor, City...

  5. Students in Austin, Texas Learn About Space Exploration and Science

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Christie Sauers, Orion Cockpit Working Group Deputy, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at the Ann ...

  6. Developing Partnerships for Adult Literacy Training: College/Community Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Agnes L.; And Others

    The Corpus Christi Literacy Council (CCLC) is an independent, non-profit educational organization operating through joint partnership and grant activities with Del Mar College (DMC) and community and government organizations in the Corpus Christi (Texas) area. The major purposes of the council are to establish comprehensive reading programs for…

  7. Multicultural Literature: Broadening Young Children's Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Rachel G.; Lucido, Frank; Canales, JoAnn

    This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the dual-language ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the…

  8. Early Childhood Literacy: Programs & Strategies To Develop Cultural, Linguistic, Scientific and Healthcare Literacy for Very Young Children & their Families, 2001 Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack, Ed.; Garrett, Sherrye D., Ed.

    This yearbook recounts the work in 2001 at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the university, with an enrollment…

  9. University/Public School Partnership Provides a Jump Start for Three-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, JoAnn; Duron, Susan

    This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the university, with an…

  10. 77 FR 58368 - Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Application Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC Docket No. CP12-507..., 2012, Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC (CCL), located at 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston,...

  11. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002. Papers include: (1) "Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities" (Alec M. Bodzin); (2) "How Is Your Lawnmower Working?…

  12. Policy Shop Casts Long K-12 Shadow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In nearly 40 years of legislative advocacy, the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)--a free-market, limited-government group now drawing intense scrutiny for its support of a controversial self-defense law--has had a significant influence on K-12 education through its model legislation and work with state lawmakers to promote such…

  13. Usability in space science instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, J.; Scapin, D.

    2009-12-01

    The scientists who will eventually use data from a space instrument may not be the most important people to consider during the development programme, argues Alec McCalden. Better results could come from treating instrument usability as a design parameter from the start.

  14. 76 FR 28002 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... identification and password or smart card technology protocols. ] Retention and disposal: Records of security... Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. S500.10 System name: Personnel Security Files (June 8, 2009; 74 FR...: Automated Listing of Eligibility and Clearances (ALEC) (June 8, 2009; 74 FR 27121)....

  15. Education and Immigrant Integration in the United States and Canada. Proceedings of a Conference sponsored by the Division of United States Studies and the Canada Institute, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and The Migration Policy Institute (April 25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strum, Philippa, Ed.; Biette, David, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The Conference proceedings include an Introduction by Demetrios Papademetriou. Two panels presented speakers as follows: Panel I: Elementary and Secondary (K-12) Education: (1) Immigrant Integration and "Bilingual" Education (Alec Ian Gershberg); (2) Absent Policies: Canadian Strategies for the Education and Integration of Immigrant Children and…

  16. NAREM Journal. Volume 1, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narem Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Eight articles are included in the journal of the National Association for Remedial Education, Malaysia (NAREM). Chua Tee Tee describes the history and objectives of NAREM. Alec Williams reviews philosophical issues in remedial education. Khoo Phon Sai discusses cognitive, social, and emotional characteristics of slow learners and considers…

  17. Privatizing Schooling and Policy Making: The American Legislative Exchange Council and New Political and Discursive Strategies of Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary L.; Donchik, Liliana Montoro

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) as an example of a unique node within larger policy networks composed of new policy entrepreneurs (e.g., venture philanthropists, think tanks, private "edubusinesses" and their lobbyists, advocacy organizations, and social entrepreneurs). These new policy…

  18. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  19. DEHP (DI-N-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE), WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION, INDUCES DOSE DEPENDENT DECREASES IN FETAL TESTIS GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis.
    Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...

  20. Using The "Little Grey Cells."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Susan M.

    1983-01-01

    Finds that Agatha Christie's mysteries can be used to encourage discussion of characterization and human values, to promote reading and literary analysis skills, and to develop both writing and problem-solving skills. Suggests several language arts activities. (MM)

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 DETAIL OF PORCH (NORTH ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  2. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer October 10, 1936 DETAIL OF CAST IRON GRILLE ON FRONT PORCH. - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW (NORTH AND EAST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW AFTER 1919 STORM (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW PRIOR TO 1919 STORM (EAST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  6. Enumeration of Mars years and seasons since the beginning of telescopic exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piqueux, Sylvain; Byrne, Shane; Titus, Timothy N.; Hansen, Candice J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.

    2015-01-01

    A clarification for the enumeration of Mars Years prior to 1955 is presented, along with a table providing the Julian dates associated with Ls = 0° for Mars Years -183 (beginning of the telescopic study of Mars) to 100. A practical algorithm for computing Ls as a function of the Julian Date is provided. No new science results are presented

  7. Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

    2012-11-19

    This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

  8. The DC2.3 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a galectin that recognizes the galactoseβ1→4fucose disaccharide unit.

    PubMed

    Nemoto-Sasaki, Yoko; Takai, Shunsuke; Takeuchi, Tomoharu; Arata, Yoichiro; Nishiyama, Kazusa; Yamada, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hideyo; Natsugari, Hideaki; Kasai, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Galectins comprise a large family of β-galactoside-binding proteins in animals and fungi. We previously isolated cDNAs of 10 galectin and galectin-like genes (lec-1 to lec-6 and lec-8 to lec-11) from Caenorhabditis elegans and characterized the carbohydrate-binding properties of their recombinant proteins. In the present study, we isolated cDNA corresponding to an open reading frame of the DC2.3a gene from C. elegans total RNA; this cDNA encodes another potential galectin. A recombinant DC2.3a protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and used for analysis. The protein displayed hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, bound to an asialofetuin-Sepharose column, and was eluted with lactose. Furthermore, frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) analysis confirmed that DC2.3a recognized oligosaccharides with a non-reducing terminal galactose. According to these results, we designated DC2.3 as lec-12. The carbohydrate-binding property of the recombinant DC2.3a/LEC-12a was essentially similar to that of LEC-6. Additionally, DC2.3a/LEC-12a and LEC-6 showed higher affinities for the galactoseβ1→4fucose (Galβ1→4Fuc) disaccharide than for N-acetyllactosamine. This suggests that the principal recognition unit is the Galβ1→4Fuc disaccharide as in the case of the C. elegans galectins. However, the recombinant DC2.3a/LEC-12a showed weak affinity for N-glycan E3, which was previously shown to be a preferential endogenous ligand for LEC-6. The DC2.3a/LEC-12a endogenous ligand structures appear to be somewhat different but contain the same galactose-fucose recognition motif. PMID:21963509

  9. [Speech by Oscar Julian Bardeci, director of the Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE), at the Latinamerican Regional Meeting prior to the International Conference on Population in recognition of the Second Meeting on Population by the Committee of Upper-Level Government Experts (CEGAN), Havana, Cuba, November 16-19, 1983].

    PubMed

    Bardeci, O J

    1983-12-01

    This work examines the relationship between population growth and economic development in Latin America and assesses progress in the 10 years since the Bucharest World Population Conference. The Latin American population increased from about 159 million in 1950 to 275 million in 1970 and around 325 million in 1980. The rate of growth reached a maximum of 2.8%/year in the early 1970s and has now declined to about 2.3%/year. The regional growth rate is a product of population dynamics that differ greatly in individual countries. Crude birth rates declined in every country of Latin America between 1975-80, but still exceeded 40/1000 in 1980-85 in Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Current fertility is the result of the different trajectories of the demographic transition in different countries. While fertility in Argentina, Cuba, and Uruguay underwent a slow but sustained decline that began prior to 1960, other countries including Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, and Venezuela began an accelerated fertility decline in the 1960s that diffused rapidly through all age and social groups. Other countries have still not entered a definite phase of fertility decline. Mortality rates have declined appreciably in Latin America in the past few decades although they remain high in some countries. After the end of World War II and until the mid-1970s, most countries of the region experienced rapid economic growth coupled with profound changes in the productive structure. The industrial labor force grew in almost all countries along with urbanization, the decline of agricultural employment, and the increase of the tertiary sector. These and other important economic advances through the mid-1970s occurred despite rapid population growth, and the beginning of the fertility decline coincided with slowing economic growth that saw negative rates in 1981-82. Various studies have shown that not all population sectors were incorporated in the process of economic and social development. The proportion of the population in active age groups has increased dramatically, but no corresponding increase in employment opportunities has occurred. The informal sector has absorbed most of the excess growth, a trend reflected in the exclusion of a large segment of the population from the fruits of economic progress. Population growth and increased life expectancy have created demands for more retirement benefits, health and educational services, transportation, recreation, and housing. Nevertheless, it cannot be concluded that rapid population growth necessarily has negative consequences for economic development or social welfare. There are indications that the problem of poverty in Latin America could be solved if the political will to do so existed; obstacles to overcoming poverty are not primarily material or population-related. Urbanization, settlement of marginal areas, and relative decline of agricultural areas are 3 trends in spatial distribution of varying intensity and repercussions in different countries.

  10. 76 FR 14425 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Waybur, Julian, House, 3232 Pacific Ave, San Francisco, 11000143 Santa Clara County Seven Springs Ranch... has been made for the following resource: NORTH DAKOTA Stutsman Cecil Baker Round Barn, ND 38,...

  11. Reclaiming a Part of the Micmac Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a research project which resulted in publication, "The Julian Tribe," and showed how lost Micmac tribal heritage was reconstructed from church, census, county, provincial, and federal records when no tribal printed or secondary accounts or oral tradition remained. (NEC)

  12. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LANAI AND FAMILY ROOM FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LANAI AND FAMILY ROOM FROM THE DINING ROOM. SHOWING THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING IN THE DINING ROOM. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type L, 702 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Ollier disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... JV, Pansuriya TC, Grimer RJ, Ozger H, Jutte PC, San Julian M, Biau DJ, van der Geest ... Gouin FG, Campanacci DA, Marec-Berard P, Hogendoorn PC, Brand R, Taminiau AH. Incidence, predictive factors, and ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Maffucci syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... JV, Pansuriya TC, Grimer RJ, Ozger H, Jutte PC, San Julian M, Biau DJ, van der Geest ... Gouin FG, Campanacci DA, Marec-Berard P, Hogendoorn PC, Brand R, Taminiau AH. Incidence, predictive factors, and ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By ...

  16. 32 CFR 623.4 - Accounting procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accountable property officer (lender). (36-39) Julian date. (40-43) Serial number. 44 “N” for nonrecurring... shipment, DOD and Federal agencies will refer to AR 55-38 for specific instructions. (2) Damage or...

  17. The Devil's Advocate: Sex Differences in Mathematical Reasoning Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Drs. Camilla Parson Benbow and Julian C. Stanley of the Johns Hopkins University Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth discuss the question of whether there are sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability. (DB)

  18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN FLOOR TILE, EXPOSED-CORNER TUB, FLUSH VALVE TOILET, TILE WAINSCOT, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type B, 704 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 VIEW FROM MORRISON'S CAF? (CORNER OF WHITAKER & CONGRESS) SHOWING S. FACADE - Gibbons Block, Congress, Saint Julian, Barnard, Whitaker Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  20. Texas deepwater oil ports vie for support

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1991-03-25

    Two proposals for deepwater oil ports in the Gulf of Mexico apparently are competing for support from several of the same companies. Port of Corpus Christi Authority (PCCA) officials believe some companies to which they have broadened preliminary ideas for an inshore deepwater oil port also are members of a group studying plans for a deepwater port off Freeport, Tex. Safeharbor, proposed on Harbor Island across from Mustang Island in the Corpus Christi Ship Channel (CCSC), and Texas Offshore Oil Port (Texport) won't vie for exactly the same oil imports. Companies importing oil to refineries on Corpus Christi Bay would account for about half the 1 million b/d PCCA officials believe will be needed for Safeharbor to be economically viable. The rest would come from companies moving imported oil into the Houston area through Galveston Bay.

  1. Microwave sounding units and global warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global warming. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.

  2. Baseline nutrient dynamics in shallow well mixed coastal lagoon with seasonal harmful algal blooms and hypoxia formation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Evan L; Paudel, Bhanu; Montagna, Paul A

    2015-07-15

    Weekly inorganic nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations were measured to establish baseline conditions in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas during seasonal hypoxia and harmful algal bloom (HAB) formation. Two fixed stations along the southern shoreline were sampled weekly for a continuous year at the same time each day. Weekly shoreline observations were found to be statistically similar to quarterly observations in the bay center, but with a greater power to detect seasonal trends. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)<4 mg/L was measured in June, 2012 along the southern shoreline of Corpus Christi Bay, which places lower DO conditions west of previous estimates. During a bay-wide HAB event in November of 2011 no changes were observed in any of the nutrient or chlorophyll-a observations. This study documents a baseline of nutrients and chlorophyll-a in Corpus Christi Bay during a dry (average salinity>36 PSU) year.

  3. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.

  4. Primary human adult lung epithelial cells in vitro: response to interferon-gamma and cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, L; Dominguez, M; Yacoub, M

    1993-01-01

    Primary human adult lung epithelial cells (ALEC) were established in culture using the most distal parts of the lung to avoid the airways. Immunocytochemical peroxidase staining and semiquantitative flow cytometry were used to characterize the cells in conjunction with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb). The cells showed a constitutive expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens, patchy expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and a weak patchy expression of MHC class II antigens (detected using immunocytochemical staining). Incubation of the primary ALEC with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) (250 U/ml) stimulated an up-regulation of the expression of these three antigens to varying degrees; expression of MHC class I antigens and ICAM-1 molecules showed an up-regulation at 10 hr after the start of the treatment, reaching a peak at 48 hr, maintaining it for the next 24 hr and then, steadily and progressively, losing it towards the end of the experiment at 96 hr. Expression of HLA-DR showed an up-regulation at 17 hr after the start of the treatment, reaching a peak at 72 hr and maintaining it for the next 24 hr. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of ALEC in culture caused an up-regulation of expression of class I antigens and ICAM-1, but not DR. However, when the infected cells were incubated with IFN-gamma, an up-regulation in the expression of DR took place. Therefore, within the micro-environment of the transplanted lung the presence of cytokines (IFN-gamma) produced by infiltrating activated mononuclear cells, may render the lung epithelial cells capable of acting as antigen-presenting cells, expressing high levels of class I antigens, ICAM-1 and class II antigens, activating CD8 and CD4 cells thus playing a major part in the process of rejection of the lung allograft; themselves becoming a primary target in the process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8099565

  5. Nominees Set High Standards, Support Student Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carla

    2003-01-01

    Describes the winner and other nominees for the "Administrator of the Year" award presented nationally by the Journalism Education Association. Explains that W. Charles Dill, Don Senti, Juan Gonzales, Christy Slagle, Linda Quinn, Gary Davis, and Lucinda Lee Katz all set high standards, valued student press rights, and supported students. (PM)

  6. Vegetation dynamics of restored and remnant Willamette Valley, OR wet prairie wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wet prairie wetlands are now one of the rarest habitat types in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA. Less than two percent of their historic extent remains, with most having been converted into agricultural fields (Christy and Alverson 2011, ONHP 1983). This habitat is the obl...

  7. Asteroids Lightcurves at OAVdA: 2013 December - 2014 June

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbognani, Albino

    2014-10-01

    Twelve asteroids, main-belt (MBA) and near-Earth (NEA), were observed at OAVdA from 2013 December through 2014 June: 1678 Hveen, 2834 Christy Carol, 3744 Horn-d'Arturo, 7436 Kuroiwa, (21374) 1997 WS22, (53435) 1999 VM40, (143649) 2003 QQ47, (242708) 2005 UK1, (243566) 1995 SA, (251346) 2007 SJ, 2013 XY8, and 2014 CU13.

  8. Piloting Exercise Physiology in the Web-Based Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankey, Robert B.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of an exercise physiology class offered via the Internet at Texas A&M University Corpus Christi. Topics include cognitive evaluations, laboratory assignments, student interactions, differences in examination scores with traditional lecture classes, post-class surveys, and the need for training educators and providing…

  9. Sleep: The E-ZZZ Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergin, Christi A.; Bergin, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that students who do not get enough sleep are more likely to misbehave in school and have lower academic achievement than their peers with healthy sleeping habits. In this article, Christi A. Bergin and David A. Bergin share research into students' sleep habits and conclude that helping students get adequate sleep has potential…

  10. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Bryant Griffith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Bryant Griffith is a Regents Professor at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and Director of the Curriculum and Instruction Doctoral Program. Previously, he was Professor and Director of the School of Education at Acadia University, and Professor and Associate Dean at the University of Calgary. His research interests include situated…

  11. DNA ARRAYS TO MONITOR GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT BLOOD AND UTERUS FOLLOWING 17-BETA-ESTRADIOL EXPOSURE: BIOMONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS USING SURROGATE TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA arrays to monitor gene expression in rat blood and uterus following 17-b-estradiol exposure - biomonitoring environmental effects using surrogate tissues
    John C. Rockett, Robert J. Kavlock, Christy R. Lambright, Louise G. Parks, Judith E. Schmid, Vickie S. Wilson, Carmen W...

  12. Book review: Handbook of the birds of the world, Volume 8, Broadbills to Tapaculos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustafson, Mary

    2004-01-01

    No abstract available.Review info: Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume 8, Broadbills to Tapaculos. Edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, and David Christie. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain. 2003: 845 pp., 81 color plates, over 470 color photographs, 672 maps. ISBN: 8487334504, $195.00 (cloth)

  13. Introducing the "Cybercounseling and Cyberlearning" Web Site (cybercounsel.uncg.edu).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Bloom, John W.

    This chapter introduces the "Cybercounseling and Cyberlearning" Web site. It includes a brief description of the following chapters contained in the Web site: (1) "Cybersupervision: Close Encounters in the New Millennium" (D. Coursol and J. Lewis); (2) "Theoretical Tenets of Cybersupervision: Implications and Outcomes" (B. S. Christie); (3) "From…

  14. Politics and Play: Meditations on Rhetorical Bodily Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauliny, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the drag king performances of Christie Whisman, who lived and worked in Columbus, Ohio, USA, from 1999 to 2001, this essay argues that rhetorical bodily performances have the capacity not only to subvert normalised notions of identity categories, but that such performances can also create alternate pedagogical sites that persuasively…

  15. Teaching the Puritan Captivity Narrative: A History of the American Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, J. F.

    How educators teach and talk about the Puritans tends to promulgate a view of them that does not exist in all their texts. From the beginning of the Puritans' arrival in 1630 in New England until Cotton Mather's 1702 publication "Magnalia Christi Americana," there are literary treatments of the idealism and the hardship constituting Puritan life…

  16. Local health departments implement a theory-based model to increase breast and cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Suarez, L; Nichols, D C; Pulley, L; Brady, C A; McAlister, A

    1993-01-01

    Su Vida, Su Salud/Your Life, Your Health is a community program to increase participation in breast and cervical cancer screening. This program illustrates the diffusion of an innovative outreach strategy from a research environment to two local health departments. The program uses A Su Salud, the communication model in which positive role models are featured in the media, and community volunteers who give positive social reinforcement. Local health departments in Galveston and Corpus Christi, TX, were selected to implement the model because of excessive mortality rates in the region and the departments' adequate level of resources and commitment. Over an 18-month period, 54 stories of role models appeared in the media in Corpus Christi, and 60 appeared in Galveston. There were 490 volunteers active in Corpus Christi and 279 in Galveston. Of 365 inquiries to the Corpus Christi program, 35 percent were from the Mexican American target group of women ages 40-70. Of 1,457 women who contacted the Galveston program, 9 percent were from the African American target group ages 40-70. Local health departments are well-suited to participation in cancer control research applications because they have direct access to high-risk populations and have the authority to institutionalize effective interventions.

  17. A Cross-Case Analysis of Growth Model Programs in Three States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardella, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Signed into Law on January 8, 2002, the 1,180 page No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) shifted the course of public education in America. For the first time accountability was firmly placed at the center of school operations by requiring a systematic approach to achieving reform and improving all areas of school life (Wanker & Christie, 2005). As…

  18. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL PROCHLORAZ ADMINISTRATION ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN RATS: IN VIVO ASSESSMENTS OF A FUNGICIDE WITH MULTIPLE IN VITRO EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Gestational Prochloraz Administration on Male Reproductive Development in Rats. In Vivo Assessments of a Fungicide with multiple In Vitro effects.

    Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson,and L. Earl Gray Jr.,
    noriega.nigel@epa.gov<...

  19. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL PROCHLORAZ ADMINISTRATION ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN RATS. IN VIVO ASSESSMENTS OF A FUNGICIDE WITH MULTIPLE IN VITRO EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Gestational Prochloraz Administration on Male Reproductive Development in Rats. In Vivo Assessments of a Fungicide with multiple In Vitro effects.

    Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson, and L. Earl Gray Jr.,
    noriega.nigel@epa.go...

  20. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL PROCHLORAZ ADMINISTRATION ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN RATS. IN VIVO ASSESSMENTS OF A FUNGICIDE WITH MULTIPLE IN VITRO EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Gestational Prochloraz Administration on Male Reproductive Development in Rats. In Vivo Assessments of a Fungicide with multiple In Vitro effects.

    Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson,and L. Earl Gray Jr.,
    noriega.nigel@epa.gov<...

  1. THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ: IN VITRO ANDROGEN ANTAGONISM, PARTURITION DELAYS, AND MALE REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fungicide Prochloraz: In vitro Androgen Antagonism, Parturition Delays, and Male Reproductive Malformations in Rats.
    Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson, and L. Earl Gray Jr.,
    noriega.nigel@epa.gov
    US EPA
    Prochloraz (PZ) is an imid...

  2. PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Nigel Noriega, Jonathan Furr, Christy Lambright, Vickie Wilson, L. Earl Gray Jr.

    The plasticizer Di (2-ethylhexyl) phtha...

  3. Don Hammill: A Personal Perspective on the Field of Learning Disabilities, 3-Tier, and RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intervention in School and Clinic, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Don D. Hammill received all of his formal education in Texas schools, culminating in a doctorate in educational psychology-special education from the University of Texas at Austin in 1963. He had previously served as a teacher in the Corpus Christi (Texas) public schools and as a speech and language therapist in the Deer Park (Texas) public…

  4. The Gates' Foundation and the Future of U.S. Public Education: A Call for Scholars to Counter Misinformation Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Philip E.; Christie, H. K.

    2008-01-01

    Int his essay, the authors identify and problematize the claims and activities of four think tanks supported by contributions from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Kovacs and Christie attempt to show that these contributions support scholars and research of dubious quality, engage in political science abuse, and perpetuate discourses and…

  5. Facility fence-line monitoring using passive samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, the U.S. EPA executed a year-long field study at a refinery in Corpus Christi, Texas, to evaluate the use of passive diffusive sampling technology for assessing time-averaged benzene concentrations at the facility fence line. The study utilized 14-day time-integrated Car...

  6. Managing Curriculum: Rapid Implementation and Sustainability of a Districtwide Data Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayman, Jeffrey C.; Conoly, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    In March 2003, the Corpus Christi Independent School District (CCISD) received a Curriculum Management Audit report from the Texas Curriculum Management Audit Center of the Texas Association of School Administrators. One of the findings of this audit was that CCISD lacked a clear comprehensive management plan to define and guide the design,…

  7. Choreographing Change One Step at a Time: Integrating Technology in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falba, Christy J.; Zehm, Stanley J.; Bean, Tom; Markos, Patricia A.; Dixon, Juli K; McKinney, Marilyn

    The papers presented as part of this symposium explore several aspects of integrating technology in teacher education. The title paper, presented by Christy J. Falba, reports on a study to investigate the process and progress of integrating technology into university level teacher education courses from the perspective of the university…

  8. Ariadne's Thread: Using Social Presence Indices to Distinguish Learning Events in Face-to-Face and ICT-Rich Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Colin; Henderson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on ancient Greek mythology, this article traces the learning experiences of 164 pre-service education students as they make the transition from a conventional face-to-face (f-2-f) learning environment to an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) rich setting. Influenced by Social Presence Theory (Short, Williams & Christie, 1976)…

  9. Enhanced Teacher Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Teacher preparation and preparedness have been the focus of much research connecting quality teaching and learning, retention, and teacher satisfaction (Halsey, 2005; Hayes, Mills, Christie, & Lingard, 2006; MCEETYA, 2006). The successful recruitment and retention of teachers to rural and remote schools Australia-wide has been problematic for…

  10. Freshman Composition for the Learning Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Robert C.

    In fall 1992, Del Mar College (DMC), in Corpus Christi, Texas, offered for the first time a college-level composition class for students clinically diagnosed as learning disabled (LD), with the rationale that if LD students were first grouped together to learn the fundamentals of college-level writing and find success among their peers, they would…

  11. ECS Resignations Raise Questions of Fiscal Health: Leader of State Policy Group Says Problems Can Be Fixed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Kathy Christie, senior vice president at the Education Commission of the States (ECS), resigned on May 1, 2006, saying that the Denver-based group faces a financial crisis, and that she doubts the current ECS president can fix it. By the end of the week, the accounting manager had also resigned, expressing similar concerns, and two policy analysts…

  12. Toward an Agenda for Research on Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Mark, Melvin M.

    2003-01-01

    Builds on C. Christie's innovative work to chart a future course for research on evaluation. Describes a variety of forms that a more evidence-based approach to evaluation theory could take and offers suggestions to help increase the amount and impact of evidence in evaluation theory. (SLD)

  13. Taking Chances with Sex. Title No. 502.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVault, Christine

    This story, one of three in The Sexuality Decision-Making Series for Teens, contains several different possible plot lines depending on the decisions the reader makes for the characters at varous "choice points." The study focuses on the theme of birth control: when Christy and David decide to have sex, they have to face the responsibilities that…

  14. 78 FR 42755 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... and Baton Rouge, LA; D' Iberville, MS; Mobile, AL; Corpus Christi and Texas City, TX. Council address... regional management, red snapper would remain a federally managed species subject to federal conservation... South Water Street, Mobile, AL 36602, telephone: (251) 438-4000. Monday, August 12, 2013, Hilton...

  15. Learning My Way. Papers from the National Conference on Adult Aboriginal Learning (Perth, Western Australia, September 1988). A Special Edition of Wikaru 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Barbara, Comp.; McGinty, Suzanne, Comp.

    These 31 papers dealing with adult aboriginal learning are divided into three sections. The keynote speakers' papers appear first in each section. Section 1, Learning Our Way, contains these papers: "The Invasion of Aboriginal Education" (Christie); "The Drover's Daughter" (Bedford); "Nyungar Women Returning to Education" (Bennell); "Learning…

  16. 76 FR 34177 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... made available to the public on http://dolregs.ideascale.com . Authority: E.O. 13653, 76 FR 3821, Jan. 21, 2011; E.O. 12866, 58 FR 51735, Oct. 4, 1993. Dated: June 7, 2011. e. christi cunningham... Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Labor....

  17. MALFORMATIONS IN GUBERNACULAR LIGAMENT DEVELOPMENT INDUCED BY DEHP, DBP, AND BBP ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASES IN INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Malformations in gubernacular ligament development induced by DEHP, DBP, and BBP are associated with decreases in insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis.
    Vickie S.Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L. Earl Gray Jr. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEER...

  18. 40 CFR 81.344 - Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... County AQCR 214 Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Aransas County, Bee County...-Victoria Intrastate (Remainder of) Unclassifiable/Attainment Aransas County, Bee County, Brooks...

  19. Young Children. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…

  20. Early Imagining and the Development of Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Margaret B.

    1985-01-01

    Considers possible links between development of empathy and some children's spontaneous creation of imaginary companions or situations, citing examples of Agatha Christie's "Autobiography." Questions if such activities show ability to "decenter emotionally." Suggests need for better methods of assessing emotional decentering and role-playing and…

  1. Popular Literature: Its Compatibility with the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This special journal issue contains nine articles on the subject of using popular literature in the classroom. Subjects covered in the articles include (1) using vernacular supernatural literature to teach the skills of literary analysis, (2) teaching Agatha Christie's "Curtain," (3) pairing the classics with detective fiction, (4) using fantasy…

  2. Proceeding of the 2014 sorghum improvement conference of north america (SICNA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2014 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA 2014) meeting was held at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center , Agnes, Corpus Christi, TX on June 25-27, 2014. The meeting was attended by about 80 participants representing a diverse cross section of the sorghum indus...

  3. 76 FR 15321 - SEDASYS Computer-Assisted Personalized Sedation System; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.'s, Petition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.'s, Petition for Review of FDA's Denial of Premarket Approval AGENCY: Food and... that it intends to refer for review before an advisory committee Ethicon Endo- Surgery Inc.'s (EES's... through Friday. 1. Letter from Christy Foreman, FDA, CDRH, to Ken Charak, Ethicon Endo-Surgery,...

  4. 78 FR 4401 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Granting Rehearing During October 2012 ] FE Docket Nos. SABINE PASS LIQUEFACTION, LLC 10-111-LNG GULF COAST... Liquefaction, LLC. rehearing for further consideration. 3162 10/11/12 12-76-LNG The Dow Chemical Order granting... Christi Liquefaction Project to free trade agreement nations. 3165 10/18/12 12-115-LNG Freeport LNG...

  5. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  6. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED GUBERNACULAR LIGAMENT LESIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  7. Papers in Syntax. Working Papers in Linguistics No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathol, Andreas, Ed.; Pollard, Carl, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This collection of working papers in syntax includes: "Null Objects in Mandarin Chinese" (Christie Block); "Toward a Linearization-Based Approach to Word Order Variation in Japanese" (Mike Calcagno); "A Lexical Approach to Inalienable Possession Constructions in Korean" (Chung, Chan); "Chinese NP Structure" (Gao, Qian); "Linearization and…

  8. nursingstandard.com.

    PubMed

    2016-06-22

    1 Staff nurse Sammy Christie swapped ward rounds at Swansea's Morriston Hospital for flexing her muscles to win her first bodybuilding competition. Her victory at the Physical Culture Association's Welsh Championships was all the more impressive as she only took up the sport 18 months ago. Read more tinyurl.com/bodybuilding-nurse.

  9. 76 FR 36613 - Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... is listed in the Corpus Christi Metropolitan Planning Organization's Metropolitan Transportation Plan... on input from Federal, state, and local agencies, as well as private organizations and concerned... appropriate Federal, state, and local agencies, and to private organizations and citizens who have...

  10. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Nationwide Schedule of Appropriated Fund Regular Wage Surveys

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... appendix A to subpart B of part 532, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding.... Nashville DoD February Even. Texas Austin DoD June Even. Corpus Christi DoD June Even. Dallas-Fort Worth...

  11. A Career Education Counseling Project. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cron, C. Thomas

    Covering the period of June 1974 to June 1975, the report and final evaluation document the second year operation of a career education counseling project in the Corpus Christi Schools. The components of the project emphasized awareness and career orientation for K-6, established career resource areas in junior high school libraries, and developed…

  12. A British national observatory: the building of the New Physical Observatory at Greenwich, 1889-1898.

    PubMed

    Higgitt, Rebekah

    2014-12-01

    Over its long history, the buildings of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich were enlarged and altered many times, reflecting changing needs and expectations of astronomers and funders, but also the constraints of a limited site and small budgets. The most significant expansion took place in the late nineteenth century, overseen by the eighth Astronomer Royal, William Christie, a programme that is put in the context of changing attitudes toward scientific funding, Christie's ambitious plans for the work and staffing of the Observatory and his desire to develop a national institution that could stand with more recently founded European and American rivals. Examination of the archives reveals the range of strategies Christie was required to use to acquire consent and financial backing from the Admiralty, as well as his opportunistic approach. While hindsight might lead to criticism of his decisions, Christie eventually succeeded in completing a large building - the New Physical Observatory - that, in its decoration, celebrated Greenwich's past while, in its name, style, structure and contents, it was intended to signal the institution's modernization and future promise. PMID:25546998

  13. Parent, Family and Community Involvement. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This theme issue includes six articles about nurturing parent and community involvement in schools, particularly schools serving Hispanic, immigrant, or economically disadvantaged students. "Thinking about Learning: The Community and Academic Standards" (Oanh H. Maroney, Aurelio M. Montemayor) describes a Corpus Christi (Texas) project in which…

  14. An REU Experience with Micro Assembly Workcell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, William; Asiabanpour, Bahram; Jimenez, Jesus; Um, Dugan

    2010-01-01

    Under an NSF REU center grant REU-0755355 entitled "Micro/Nano Assembly Workcell Via Micro Visual Sensing and Haptic Feedback", Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and Texas State University-San Marcos collaboratively hosted two groups of 10 students from different backgrounds for 10 weeks each in Summer 2008 and 2009 respectively.…

  15. A British national observatory: the building of the New Physical Observatory at Greenwich, 1889-1898.

    PubMed

    Higgitt, Rebekah

    2014-12-01

    Over its long history, the buildings of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich were enlarged and altered many times, reflecting changing needs and expectations of astronomers and funders, but also the constraints of a limited site and small budgets. The most significant expansion took place in the late nineteenth century, overseen by the eighth Astronomer Royal, William Christie, a programme that is put in the context of changing attitudes toward scientific funding, Christie's ambitious plans for the work and staffing of the Observatory and his desire to develop a national institution that could stand with more recently founded European and American rivals. Examination of the archives reveals the range of strategies Christie was required to use to acquire consent and financial backing from the Admiralty, as well as his opportunistic approach. While hindsight might lead to criticism of his decisions, Christie eventually succeeded in completing a large building - the New Physical Observatory - that, in its decoration, celebrated Greenwich's past while, in its name, style, structure and contents, it was intended to signal the institution's modernization and future promise.

  16. An Educator's Perspective: Five "E's" to Success with Common Core Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neria, Christy M.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the implementation--and rigor--of the Common Core State Standards, many educators are looking for a different teaching approach to make content accessible to all students. Successful implementation of these standards for deaf and hard of hearing students can be achieved through what Christy Neria calls the "Five E's."…

  17. Contrasting Localized Norms for Mexican-American Children on the ABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Kevin J.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    This paper presents and compares data from the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (ABIC) on three groups of Mexican-American children from California, Austin, and Corpus Christi, Texas. The ABIC is premised on the belief that all behaviors are learned in a particular sociocultural context and that this context must be taken into account when…

  18. Share and Share Alike: Educators Can Share Methods and Materials with Greater Ease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Todd

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, Corpus Christi Independent School District (CCISD) met its Adequate Yearly Progress targets under No Child Left Behind for the third year in a row. All but one of the district's 61 schools was rated "academically acceptable" or better, and more than one quarter achieved a ranking of "recognized" or "exemplary." CCISD's excellent…

  19. LATE GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ DELAYS THE ONSET OF PARTURITION AND CAUSES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN MALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Late gestational exposure to the fungicide prochloraz delays the onset of parturition and causes reproductive malformations in male rat offspring.
    Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson, and L. Earl Gray Jr.,

    Prochloraz (PZ) is an imidazol...

  20. The Attempt to Reform School Councils in the 1980s: A Rehearsal for the Furore That Greeted the Proposals for School Boards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Jim

    2014-01-01

    In the light of the Scottish Government's commitment to the principles enshrined in the Christie Commission and developing approaches worldwide to public administration, this article considers the forces at work and the major arguments for suggesting the need for increased and enhanced participation by parents in educational decision-making and…

  1. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Nurse Education, Practice, Quality and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Corpus Christi (TAMUCC), College of Nursing and Health Science (CONHS). SUMMARY: The Health Resources and... successful transition from military to civilian careers, and how these barriers are compounded by the burden...), College of Nursing and Health Science (CONHS). Amount of Award: $178,374. Authority: Section 831 and...

  2. DNA fingerprinting in zoology: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Geoffrey K; Curtis, Caitlin; Millar, Craig D; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2014-02-03

    In 1962, Thomas Kuhn famously argued that the progress of scientific knowledge results from periodic 'paradigm shifts' during a period of crisis in which new ideas dramatically change the status quo. Although this is generally true, Alec Jeffreys' identification of hypervariable repeat motifs in the human beta-globin gene, and the subsequent development of a technology known now as 'DNA fingerprinting', also resulted in a dramatic shift in the life sciences, particularly in ecology, evolutionary biology, and forensics. The variation Jeffreys recognized has been used to identify individuals from tissue samples of not just humans, but also of many animal species. In addition, the technology has been used to determine the sex of individuals, as well as paternity/maternity and close kinship. We review a broad range of such studies involving a wide diversity of animal species. For individual researchers, Jeffreys' invention resulted in many ecologists and evolutionary biologists being given the opportunity to develop skills in molecular biology to augment their whole organism focus. Few developments in science, even among the subsequent genome discoveries of the 21st century, have the same wide-reaching significance. Even the later development of PCR-based genotyping of individuals using microsatellite repeats sequences, and their use in determining multiple paternity, is conceptually rooted in Alec Jeffreys' pioneering work.

  3. DNA fingerprinting in zoology: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 1962, Thomas Kuhn famously argued that the progress of scientific knowledge results from periodic ‘paradigm shifts’ during a period of crisis in which new ideas dramatically change the status quo. Although this is generally true, Alec Jeffreys’ identification of hypervariable repeat motifs in the human beta-globin gene, and the subsequent development of a technology known now as ‘DNA fingerprinting’, also resulted in a dramatic shift in the life sciences, particularly in ecology, evolutionary biology, and forensics. The variation Jeffreys recognized has been used to identify individuals from tissue samples of not just humans, but also of many animal species. In addition, the technology has been used to determine the sex of individuals, as well as paternity/maternity and close kinship. We review a broad range of such studies involving a wide diversity of animal species. For individual researchers, Jeffreys’ invention resulted in many ecologists and evolutionary biologists being given the opportunity to develop skills in molecular biology to augment their whole organism focus. Few developments in science, even among the subsequent genome discoveries of the 21st century, have the same wide-reaching significance. Even the later development of PCR-based genotyping of individuals using microsatellite repeats sequences, and their use in determining multiple paternity, is conceptually rooted in Alec Jeffreys’ pioneering work. PMID:24490906

  4. DNA fingerprinting in anthropological genetics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 1985, Sir Alec Jeffreys developed the variable-number tandem repeat method used to identify individuals and giving researchers the first DNA fingerprints. These initial methods were used in anthropological genetics, a field that uses a comparative approach to answer questions about human history, including the discernment of the origin of Native American populations and the discrimination of clan affiliation from individuals in Siberia. The technological and methodological advances since this time have led to the use of many more markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Y chromosomal and autosomal short tandem repeats, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and direct sequencing not only to identify individuals, but to examine frequencies and distributions of markers (or “prints”) of entire populations. In the field of anthropological genetics these markers have been used to reconstruct evolutionary history and answer questions concerning human origins and diaspora, migration, and the effects of admixture and adaptation to different environments, as well as susceptibility and resistance to disease. This review discusses the evolution of DNA markers since their application by Sir Alec Jeffreys and their applications in anthropological genetics. PMID:24245746

  5. Emergence and seasonal activity of the entomophagous rove beetle Aleochara bilineata (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in canola in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Broatch, J S; Dosdall, L M; Yang, R-C; Harker, K N; Clayton, G W

    2008-12-01

    Aleochara bilineata Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) is an important natural enemy of root maggots (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), which are serious pests of brassicaceous crops in North America and Europe. Adults of A. bilineata feed on eggs and larvae of root maggots, and A. bilineata larvae parasitize Delia spp. pupae. Emergence and seasonal activity patterns of A. bilineata were investigated during 2003-2005 in canola (Brassica rapa L. and Brassica napus L.) in central Alberta, Canada, in relation to degree-day (DD) accumulations and Julian date. Captures of A. bilineata adults from pitfall traps within emergence cages situated over canola stubble from the previous year indicated that approximately 428, 493, and 455 DD (soil base 5.57 degrees C) and 187, 189, and 180 Julian days were required for 50% emergence in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively (3-yr mean = 185.1 +/- 2.8 Julian days [SEM]). Captures of A. bilineata adults from pitfall traps placed in current canola crops determined that 50% levels of activity density required 379 DD and 180 Julian days in 2004. A logistic model that described the relationship of degree-days and Julian days with emergence of adult beetles was appraised, and good correspondence was evident between predicted and observed cumulative emergence patterns. Emergence and seasonal activity periods of A. bilineata in canola were well synchronized with occurrence of preimaginal life stages of its principal hosts, Delia radicum (L.) and Delia platura Meigen, with beetle emergence beginning shortly after the onset of root maggot oviposition.

  6. Digital Archiving: Where the Past Lives Again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxson, K. B.

    2012-06-01

    The process of digital archiving for variable star data by manual entry with an Excel spreadsheet is described. Excel-based tools including a Step Magnitude Calculator and a Julian Date Calculator for variable star observations where magnitudes and Julian dates have not been reduced are presented. Variable star data in the literature and the AAVSO International Database prior to 1911 are presented and reviewed, with recent archiving work being highlighted. Digitization using optical character recognition software conversion is also demonstrated, with editing and formatting suggestions for the OCR-converted text.

  7. Time-dependent seismic tomography of the Coso geothermal area, 1996-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    The permanent 18-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the seismically active Coso geothermal area, California, provides high-quality microearthquake (MEQ) data that are well suited to investigating temporal variations in structure related to processes within the geothermal reservoir. A preliminary study [Julian, et al., 2003; Julian, et al., 2004] comparing data from 1996 and 2003 found significant variations in the ratio of the seismic wave-speeds, Vp/Vs, at shallow depths over this time interval. This report describes results of a more detailed study of each year from 1996 through 2004.

  8. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67–73 and Nature 1985, 316:76–79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the novel method that allowed us for the first time to discriminate between humans, animals, plants and fungi on the individual level using DNA markers. A newsletter coined “Fingerprint News” was launched, T-shirts were sold, and the proceedings of the Berne conference filled a first book on “DNA fingerprinting: approaches and applications”. Four more conferences were about to follow, one on each continent, and Alec Jeffreys of course was invited to all of them. Since these early days, methodologies have undergone a rapid evolution and diversification. A multitude of techniques have been developed, optimized, and eventually abandoned when novel and more efficient and/or more reliable methods appeared. Despite some overlap between the lifetimes of the different technologies, three phases can be defined that coincide with major technological advances. Whereas the first phase of DNA fingerprinting (“the past”) was dominated by restriction fragment analysis in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, the advent of the PCR in the late 1980s gave way to the development of PCR-based single- or multi-locus profiling techniques in the second phase. Given that many routine applications of plant DNA fingerprinting still rely on PCR-based markers, we here refer to these methods as “DNA fingerprinting in the present”, and include numerous examples in the present review. The beginning of the third phase actually dates back to 2005, when several novel, highly parallel DNA

  9. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Nybom, Hilde; Weising, Kurt; Rotter, Björn

    2014-01-03

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67-73 and Nature 1985, 316:76-79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the novel method that allowed us for the first time to discriminate between humans, animals, plants and fungi on the individual level using DNA markers. A newsletter coined "Fingerprint News" was launched, T-shirts were sold, and the proceedings of the Berne conference filled a first book on "DNA fingerprinting: approaches and applications". Four more conferences were about to follow, one on each continent, and Alec Jeffreys of course was invited to all of them. Since these early days, methodologies have undergone a rapid evolution and diversification. A multitude of techniques have been developed, optimized, and eventually abandoned when novel and more efficient and/or more reliable methods appeared. Despite some overlap between the lifetimes of the different technologies, three phases can be defined that coincide with major technological advances. Whereas the first phase of DNA fingerprinting ("the past") was dominated by restriction fragment analysis in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, the advent of the PCR in the late 1980s gave way to the development of PCR-based single- or multi-locus profiling techniques in the second phase. Given that many routine applications of plant DNA fingerprinting still rely on PCR-based markers, we here refer to these methods as "DNA fingerprinting in the present", and include numerous examples in the present review. The beginning of the third phase actually dates back to 2005, when several novel, highly parallel DNA sequencing

  10. RR Lyrae stars - A theoretical study of Bailey type c variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubickyj, Olenka; Stothers, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    New theoretical models of stars pulsating in the first overtone have been constructed to simulate RR Lyr variables of Bailey type c. Despite the use of different opacities, these new models agree very well with earlier models built by Christy and Stellingwerf. Quantitative comparisons using empirical light curves and velocity curves of metal-poor type c variables confirm the validity of the models. Masses of 0.55-0.65 solar mass and luminosities of 40-50 solar luminosities derived here for the type c variables, are consistent with previous results obtained for type ab variables. A Christy echo of the kind normally associated with fundamental-mode pulsators was detected in the interior velocity structure of one first-overtone model that happens to have a large velocity amplitude.

  11. Deposition of zinc and cadmium by marine bacteria in estuarine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLerran, C.J.; Holmes, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    Mixed cultures of marine bacteria isolated from the sediments of Corpus Christi Harbor were examined for their ability to assimilate or precipitate radioactive zinc and cadmium from solution. Test data indicate that during summer, when bacterial activity is at a maximum, the bacteria and their metabolic byproducts play a significant role in the removal of zinc and cadmium from seawater and their subsequent deposition in marine sediments.

  12. Ergonomic analyses of downhill skiing.

    PubMed

    Clarys, J P; Publie, J; Zinzen, E

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide electromyographic feedback for (1) pedagogical advice in motor learning, (2) the ergonomics of materials choice and (3) competition. For these purposes: (1) EMG data were collected for the Stem Christie, the Stem Turn and the Parallel Christie (three basic ski initiation drills) and verified for the complexity of patterns; (2) integrated EMG (iEMG) and linear envelopes (LEs) were analysed from standardized positions, motions and slopes using compact, soft and competition skis; (3) in a simulated 'parallel special slalom', the muscular activity pattern and intensity of excavated and flat snow conditions were compared. The EMG data from the three studies were collected on location in the French Alps (Tignes). The analog raw EMG was recorded on the slopes with a portable seven-channel FM recorder (TEAC MR30) and with pre-amplified bipolar surface electrodes supplied with a precision instrumentation amplifier (AD 524, Analog Devices, Norwood, USA). The raw signal was full-wave rectified and enveloped using a moving average principle. This linear envelope was normalized according to the highest peak amplitude procedure per subject and was integrated in order to obtain a reference of muscular intensity. In the three studies and for all subjects (elite skiers: n = 25 in studies 1 and 2, n = 6 in study 3), we found a high level of co-contractions in the lower limb extensors and flexors, especially during the extension phase of the ski movement. The Stem Christie and the Parallel Christie showed higher levels of rhythmic movement (92 and 84%, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8064970

  13. A triumphant debut.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Thelma

    Nurse Christie Watson won the prestigious Costa first novel award for her book Tiny Sunbirds Far Away last month. In it she tells the story of a 12-year-old girl in Nigeria who trains to be a traditional midwife. Here, Ms Watson explains that nursing and writing are complementary careers, as both require resilience, hard work and an understanding of humanity. PMID:22413682

  14. Dr. John Stack and other NASA Langley Research Center Visitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Front Row, left to right: Mrs. Elsa Hoare and Major Philip L. Teed - staff members, Vickers-Armstrongs, Ltd., Weybridge, England: Dr. Barnes Wallis - Chief of Aeronautical Research, Vicers-Armstrong, Ltd., Weybridge, England. Back Row, left to right: Norman W. Boorer and Cecil W. Hayes - Staff members, Vickers-Armstrongs, Ltd., Weybridge, England; John R. Christie - Ministry of Supply, London, England; Philip A. Hufton - Chief Supt., Royal Aircraft Establishment, Bedford, England; Lindsey I. Turner, Jr. - Langley Research Center. Photographed November 13, 1958.

  15. [Pulmonary surfactants: in vivo structure and in vitro biophysical models for investigation and its perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lalchev, Z; Khristova, E; Vasiliev, Kh; Todorov, R; Ekserova, D

    2007-01-01

    The metabolism, composition, structure and functions of the alveolar surfactant (AS) are described. The most adequate biophysical models for investigation of AS are considered. The principals and possibilities of three mostly used models are described in details: Monolayers, Spinning drop method and Thin liquid films. Some of the studies of Bulgarian biophysical, physicochemical, biochemical and medical groups on the structure and mechanism of action of AS in vivo using samples of amniotic fluid (AF), animal pulmonary lavages (PL) and tracheal aspirates (TA) of newborns and adults are summarized. The role of specific surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D) on the properties and function of AS is demonstrated. The opportunities of the model investigations for application in laboratory pre- and postnatal diagnosis of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), as well as for the efficiency of RDS therapy during exogenous surfactant therapy with ALEC (UK), Survanta (USA), Exosurf (USA), Curosurf (Italy) u Alveofact (Germany) are considered.

  16. Securing the Future of Seversk and Zheleznogorsk After Reactor Shutdown. Conference Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen; Stein, Steven L.

    2005-01-31

    Seversk and Zheleznogorsk, two Russian closed nuclear cities, are home to the last three operating plutonium production reactors in Russia. The reactors are now scheduled for shutdown. Closing these reactors presents the world community with a significant nonproliferation achievement, but at the same time poses environmental, economic, and security challenges for the local communities. This conference is an opportunity for the international community to provide crucial support to facilitate these aspects of the plutonium reactor shutdown. Projects proposed complement the reactor shutdown process or assist with worker transition from plutonium production to nonweapons-related careers. Switzerland graciously offered to host the conference with the participation of both the Federal Atomic Energy Agency, Russian Federation and the United States Department of Energy. The one-and-a-half day event was held in Spiez, Switzerland, 8-9 February 2005. Dr. Alec Baer of Switzerland moderated the conference.

  17. Learning at Not-School: A Review of Study, Theory, and Advocacy for Education in Non-Formal Settings. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Schools do not define education, and they are not the only institutions in which learning takes place. After-school programs, music lessons, Scouts, summer camps, on-the-job training, and home activities all offer out-of-school educational experiences. In "Learning at Not-School," Julian Sefton-Green explores studies and scholarly research on…

  18. Action Research. Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Julian, Ed.

    Chapter titles in this book include the following: "Attitude and Access: Building a New Teaching/Learning Community in TESOL" (Julian Edge); "Here It Is, Rough Though It May Be: Basic Computer for ESL" (Alison Perkins); "An 'It's Not Action Research Yet, but I'm Getting There' Approach to Teaching Writing" (Neil Cowie); "Early Reflections:…

  19. Talent Search Research: What Have We Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Linda E.; Mills, Carol J.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the lessons learned from the over 25 years of research conducted by the Center for Talented Youth, as well as the prior 10 years of research conducted by Dr Julian Stanley and his graduate students. This summary also includes work done by the several other talent searches (Duke, Northwestern and Rocky Mountain), although a…

  20. D. H. Lawrence: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilka, Mark, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Dorothy Van Ghent, Marvin Mudrick, Mark Schorer, Harry T. Moore, Julian Moynahan, Monroe Engel, Graham Hough, Mark Spilka, W. D. Snodgrass, V. de S. Pinto, Arthur E. Waterman, Richard Foster, and Raymond Williams--all…

  1. Black Achievers in Science, Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, IL.

    In this guide, 16 historical and contemporary black scientists and engineers are highlighted as role models. Four scientists are represented in each of four technical fields: life sciences (Ernest E. Just; Harvey M. Pickrum; George W. Carver; Patricia S. Cowings); physical science (George R. Carruthers; Percy L. Julian; Walter E. Massey; Warren M.…

  2. DEVELOPING MECHANISTIC DATA FOR INCORPORATION INTO CANCER AND GENETIC RISK ASSESSMENTS: OLD PROBLEMS AND NEW APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    26th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture
    DEVELOPING MECHANISTIC DATA FOR INCORPORATION INTO CANCER AND
    GENETIC RISK ASSESSMENTS: OLD PROBLEMS AND NEW APPROACHES
    R. Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, NHEERL, Research Tr...

  3. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LOW DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinogenic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    R Julian Preston, Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

    The form of the dose-response curve for radiation-induced cancers, particu...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVR polarimetry of HD 48099 (Berdyugin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Sadegi, S.; Tsygankov, S.; Sakanoi, T.; Kagitani, M.; Yoneda, M.; Okano, S.; Poutanen, J.

    2016-05-01

    Normalized Stokes parameters of linear polarization (q, u) measured in the B, V and R pass-bands are presented with their errors. For each measurement the heliocentric Julian date, phase of the orbital period at the time of the observation and the name of the telescope are given. (1 data file).

  5. The sources of Schwinger's Green's functions

    PubMed Central

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2005-01-01

    Julian Schwinger's development of his Green's functions methods in quantum field theory is placed in historical context. The relation of Schwinger's quantum action principle to Richard Feynman's path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics is reviewed. The nonperturbative character of Schwinger's approach is stressed as well as the ease with which it can be extended to finite temperature situations. PMID:15930139

  6. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, Volume 11, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Leslie K., Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Five papers on applied linguistics in educational contexts are presented. "What Can Second Language Learners Learn from Each Other? Only Their Researcher Knows for Sure" (Teresa Pica, Felicia Lincoln-Porter, Diana Paninos, Julian Linnell) presents further research on interaction and negotiation among language learners. "Collaborative Effort…

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CCD photometry of CY Aqr 2012-2015 (Wiedemair+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemair, C.; Sterken, C.; Eenmae, T.; Tuvikene, T.; Niederkofler, D.; Franzinelli, P.; Durnwalder, J.; Nardi, R.; Franzinelli, T.; Morawetz, I.; Nugroho, S. K.; Damini Hofer, J.; Seeber, J.

    2016-10-01

    All photometric data reported in this paper were obtained through CCD imaging obtained over more than 50 partial nights comprising a total of more than 20000 useful CCD frames. Table 1 gives the journal of observations. Heliocentric Julian Date, differential magnitudes ys,bs,vs,us in the standard system, and instrumental differential magnitudes yi,bi,vi,ui. (4 data files).

  8. Career Vitalization and Stress among Professors: An Attributional Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumpus, J. Frank

    A model that conceptualizes career stress for faculty members and that suggests options for enhancing career vitality is considered. The model draws upon attribution theory, the locus of control in work of Julian Rotter and the literature of depression by Martin E. P. Seligman. It suggests that perceived causes, or attributions, are directly…

  9. Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed a review room in its headquarters building where, in the graphical style that prevailed in the 1960's, Ames leadership could review progress against schedule, budget and performance measures. Shown, in October 1965 is Merrill Mead chief of Ames' program and resources office. (for H Julian Allen Retirement album)

  10. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Art Libraries Section. Round Table on Audiovisual Media. Administrative Libraries Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Seven of the 13 papers in this collection discuss art libraries; the remaining six papers are concerned with administrative and special libraries. The papers from the Section of Art Libraries appear first in this list: (1) "SCOAD (Standing Committee on Art Documentation): Its Inception and Aims" (Julian Gardner, United Kingdom); (2) "The Pictorial…

  11. "Beyond the Seventh Fold": A Historical Account of a Natural Product Chemist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Edward S.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines the social and cultural background, education, and scientific contributions of Percy Lavon Julian, an African American natural product chemist. Presents and analyzes traits and abilities relevant to his growth, development, and survival and some of his thoughts on the nature of science, the relationship between science and the humanities,…

  12. The Talent Search Model of Gifted Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assouline, Susan G.; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Talent Search model, founded at Johns Hopkins University by Dr. Julian C. Stanley, is fundamentally an above-level testing program. This simplistic description belies the enduring impact that the Talent Search model has had on the lives of hundreds of thousands of gifted students as well as their parents and teachers. In this article, we…

  13. Drawing entitled "Planting Plan Pine Hills, Gd. Sta. U.S. Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Drawing entitled "Planting Plan Pine Hills, Gd. Sta. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 5. L. Glenn Hall, landscape engineer. 11-5-35. - Pine Hills Station, Barracks, West Side of Boulder Creek Road at Engineers Road, Julian, San Diego County, CA

  14. Eventos de Agosto (August Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on seven August events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Herbert Hoover's birthdate (August 10); Acta del Seguro Social (Social Security Act, August 14); Julian E. Blanco (August 14), Enmienda 19 Sufragia de la Mujer (Amendment 19, Women's Suffrage, August 26); Benjamin Harrison (August 20);…

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON STAIR RAILS AND NEWEL POSTS WITH INCISED LINES. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type L, 702 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ENTRY HALL AND STAIRS TO SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ENTRY HALL AND STAIRS TO SECOND FLOOR. TAKEN FROM THE DINING ROOM. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING AND THE TELEPHONE NICHE. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type L, 702 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. INTERIOR VIEW OF DINING ROOM WITH PANTRY ON THE RIGHT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF DINING ROOM WITH PANTRY ON THE RIGHT. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING, PAIRED SLINGING DOORS TO THE LANAI, AND TELEPHONE NICHE IN THE BEDROOM HALL (LEFT BACKGROUND). VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type B, 704 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex, Dr. Julian M. Earls (left), deputy director for Operations, Glenn Research Center, receives a plaque from astronaut Joan Higginbotham (right) during the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. Dr. Earls was guest speaker at the luncheon.

  19. The Birch Street Irregulars: mysteries found and resolved in the AAVSO data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Sara J.; Saladyga, Michael; Mattei, Janet A.

    As they evaluate AAVSO data, AAVSO technical staff members run across several kinds of errors. This paper takes a humorous and Sherlock Holmes-style look at some of the most common kinds of errors detected, from observers recording the wrong Julian Date, misidentifying stars, transposing entries on the observer form, to garden-variety data entry errors.

  20. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    R. Julian Preston
    Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA

    There ...

  1. Knaves, Knights or Networks: Which Assumption of Lecturer and Manager Motivation Should Underlie Further Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boocock, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Julian Le Grand, a well-known economist, identifies two types of public sector employee: knights (with altruistic motives) and knaves (with self-interested motives). He argues that the quasi-market, predicated on the assumption of knavish behaviour (or agent self-interest), is the most effective way of directing school managers and teachers…

  2. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics. Volume Twenty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    Papers on contrastive linguistics in this volume include: "Contrastive Discourse Analysis in Language Usage" (Juliane House); "Typology and Contrastive Analysis" (Vlasta Strakova); "On the Tenability of the Notion 'Pragmatic Equivalence' in Contrastive Analysis" (Karol Janicki); "On the Relevance of Phonetic, Phonological, and Morphological Levels…

  3. Embodied Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trousdale, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the concept of embodied spirituality from early Celtic traditions through the British medieval mystic Julian of Norwich to the present day. A "high theology" of the body in early Christianity and early Christian understandings of the relation among body, soul and spirit gave way to the influences of Greek thought with its…

  4. Education Across Cultures: Domestic and International Perspectives. Proceedings of the Annual Colloquium (7th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, March 28, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Council of Graduate Students in Education.

    The Council for Graduate Students in Education's Seventh Annual Colloquium was held on March 28, 1981, on the theme "Education Across Cultures: Domestic and International Perspectives." Papers presented include: "Symbolic Strategies in the Organization of Ethnic Study Programs" (Julian E. Abuso); "The Prospective Inner-City Teacher as…

  5. Profiles of Influence in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A., Ed.; Nugent, Stephanie A., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book, written to coincide with the 50th Anniversary the National Association for Gifted Children, recognizes many of the most prominent contributors to the field of gifted education over the past century. Those included are pioneers such as Lewis M. Terman and Leta S. Hollingworth, Julian Stanley, and Paul Torrance, through to more…

  6. Reflecting Visions. New Perspectives on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Linda, Ed.

    This book contains 14 papers: "Indigenous Peoples and Adult Education: A Growing Challenge" (Rodolfo Stavenhagen); "Indigenous Peoples: Progress in the International Recognition of Human Rights and the Role of Education" (Julian Burger); "Adult Learning in the Context of Indigenous Societies" (Linda King); "Linguistic Rights and the Role of…

  7. 48 CFR 1845.7102 - Instructions for preparing DD Form 1419.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Forms Preparation 1845.7102... will be a four-digit entry comprised of the last digit of the current calendar year and the Julian date... the year). The last entry will be a four-digit number from 0001 to 9999 to sequentially...

  8. Il Calcolo della Pasqua: Vittorio d'Aquitania Dionigi il Piccolo e Abbone di Fleury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    The Easter calculus is a story of ephemerides approximations, with appropriate algorithms, as well as the reformations of the calendar dealed with tropical year's approximations. The calculus made by Victorius of Aquitania, Dyonisius Exiguus and Abbo of Fleury, based on 532 years Easter period in Julian calendar are discussed, including the corrections ad hoc of the algorithms, like the saltus lunae.

  9. The Effects of Speech and Language Therapy Intervention on Children with Pragmatic Language Impairments in Mainstream School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine; Lloyd, Julian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, Catherine Adams, clinical senior lecturer in speech and language therapy at the University of Manchester, and Julian Lloyd, senior lecturer in psychology at Newman College, Birmingham, describe the implementation and effects of an intensive programme of speech and language therapy for children who have pragmatic language…

  10. Anamorphic Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2006-01-01

    During the 17th century, Baroque decoration used anamorphism to combine actual architectural elements with illusionistic painting. When viewed from a particular point in space, the architecture blends with painting to form a combined image. In this article, Julian Beever, a leading anamorphic pavement artist, explains to the author the principles…

  11. Setting the Stage for Action Research: A Discussion of Philosophical and Practical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Dianne; Kitchen, Julian

    2004-01-01

    In this second of four articles discussing the introduction of action research to a class of pre-service teachers, Julian and Dianne state the purpose and context of our work, and revisit in detail the intense discussions we had prior to undertaking our two-tiered action research adventure. Specifically, we elaborate on the beliefs, values and…

  12. Young Workers: Varieties of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barling, Julian, Ed.; Kelloway, E. Kevin, Ed.

    This book contains nine papers devoted to the psychological experience of youth employment and its role in shaping future employment experiences and expectations. "Introduction" (Julian Barling, E. Kevin Kelloway) emphasizes the diversity of young people as a group and the diversity of individual youth's employment experience. "The Nature of Youth…

  13. Knaves or Knights, Pawns or Queens?: An Evaluation of Australian Higher Education Reform Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollery, Brian; Murray, David; Crase, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To invoke Julian Le Grand's conceptual model of the interaction between human motivation and policy formulation in order to explain how motivational endogeneity in the university environment has distorted policy outcomes in the Australian higher education reform program. Design/methodology/approach: Le Grand contends that changes in the…

  14. A not-so-new eugenics. Harris and Savulescu on human enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    John Harris and Julian Savulescu, leading figures in the "new' eugenics, argue that parents are morally obligated to use genetic and other technologies to enhance their children. But the argument they give leads to conclusions even more radical than they acknowledge. Ultimately, the world it would lead to is not all that different from that championed by eugenicists one hundred years ago.

  15. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    Dimensions of Logarithmic Quantitites by Ian M. Mills Author's Reply: Philip Molyneux Reactions of Rare Earth Metals by G. L. Silver Undergraduate Polymer Experiment by Julian M. Dust Author's Reply: Kathryn R. Williams Other Publications on C6Cl6 and C2Cl6 by Richard L. Keiter Organic Hourglass Inclusions by James Benkn

  16. 75 FR 67632 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 237 and 252 RIN 0750-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition...- D027) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Interim rule.... Mail: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Attn: Mr. Julian E. Thrash, OUSD (AT&L) DPAP/DARS,...

  17. Hunting and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the controversy over including hunting as a part of outdoor education. Historically, figures such as Julian Smith, of the Outdoor Education Project of the 1950's, advocated hunting as a critical element of educating children and youth about care and protection of natural resources. Henry David Thoreau saw hunting experiences…

  18. The Center for Talented Youth Talent Search and Academic Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Linda B.; Albert, Mary Elizabeth; Brody, Linda E.

    2005-01-01

    Through annual talent searches based on the model developed by Julian Stanley, the Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth (CTY) seeks to identify, assess and recognize students with advanced academic abilities. CTY has also developed extensive programs and services to meet the needs of these students. Having grown steadily in response to…

  19. The Duke University Talent Identification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putallaz, Martha; Baldwin, Joy; Selph, Hollace

    2005-01-01

    The Duke University Talent Identification Program (Duke TIP) holds the distinguished position of being the first "transplant" of the Center for Talented Youth (CTY) regional talent search model developed by Professor Julian Stanley at Johns Hopkins University. Duke TIP was established in 1980, one year after CTY officially began. This article…

  20. "Rocky Mountain Talent Search" at the University of Denver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The "Rocky Mountain Talent Search" (RMTS) at the University of Denver was developed based on the talent search model developed by Dr Julian Stanley of Johns Hopkins University. This article summarizes the establishment of RMTS and outlines its contemporary programs. Guided by the philosophy that gifted students have unique needs, require academic…

  1. Everything but the Kitchen Sink: An Exploration of Significant Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which elementary students create collages similar to those of Julian Schnabel, learning to appreciate his work's meaning. Students select a symbol to represent an event or experience in their lives. Collages are created with acrylic paint and broken plates. (CMK)

  2. The Illusion of Inclusion: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Race and Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilig, Julian Vasquez; Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Julian Vasquez Heilig, Keffrelyn Brown, and Anthony Brown offer findings from a close textual analysis of how the Texas social studies standards address race, racism, and communities of color. Using the lens of critical race theory, the authors uncover the sometimes subtle ways that the standards can appear to adequately address…

  3. The Inseparable Links of Outdoor Education or You Can't Divide a Mobius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis M.

    This speech, presented at the reception of the Julian Smith Award, provides a short history of the author and of outdoor education. Outdoor education is defined as education in, about, and for the outdoors. Several points of interest regarding outdoor education are stressed by the author. These include: (1) there is a need for the public to be…

  4. Biological and Environmental Influences on Parturition Date and Birth Mass of a Seasonal Breeder

    PubMed Central

    Wolcott, Daniel M.; Reitz, Ryan L.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2015-01-01

    Natal features (e.g. Julian birth date and birth mass) often have fitness consequences and can be influenced by endogenous responses by the mother to seasonal fluctuations in nutritional quality and photoperiodic cues. We sought to further understand the biological and environmental factors that influence the natal features of a polytocous species in an environment with constant nutritional resources and limited seasonal variation. During a 36-year study we assessed the influence of biological factors (maternal age and litter type [i.e., litter size and sexual composition]) and environmental factors (total precipitation and mean maximum temperature during months encompassing conception, the last trimester of gestation, and the entire length of gestation) on Julian birth date and birth mass using linear-mixed effects models. Linear and quadratic functions of maternal age influenced both natal features with earliest Julian birth dates and heaviest birth masses occurring at prime-age and older individuals, which ranged from 5–9 years of age. Litter type influenced Julian birth date and birth mass. Interestingly, environmental factors affected Julian birth date and birth mass even though mothers were continuously allowed access to a high-quality diet. Random effects revealed considerable variation among mothers and years. This study demonstrates that, in long-lived polytocous species, environmental factors may have a greater influence on natal features than previously supposed and the influence from biological factors is also complex. The documented responses to environmental influences provide unique insights into how mammalian seasonal reproductive dynamics may respond to current changes in climate. PMID:25885545

  5. Biological and environmental influences on parturition date and birth mass of a seasonal breeder.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, Daniel M; Reitz, Ryan L; Weckerly, Floyd W

    2015-01-01

    Natal features (e.g. Julian birth date and birth mass) often have fitness consequences and can be influenced by endogenous responses by the mother to seasonal fluctuations in nutritional quality and photoperiodic cues. We sought to further understand the biological and environmental factors that influence the natal features of a polytocous species in an environment with constant nutritional resources and limited seasonal variation. During a 36-year study we assessed the influence of biological factors (maternal age and litter type [i.e., litter size and sexual composition]) and environmental factors (total precipitation and mean maximum temperature during months encompassing conception, the last trimester of gestation, and the entire length of gestation) on Julian birth date and birth mass using linear-mixed effects models. Linear and quadratic functions of maternal age influenced both natal features with earliest Julian birth dates and heaviest birth masses occurring at prime-age and older individuals, which ranged from 5-9 years of age. Litter type influenced Julian birth date and birth mass. Interestingly, environmental factors affected Julian birth date and birth mass even though mothers were continuously allowed access to a high-quality diet. Random effects revealed considerable variation among mothers and years. This study demonstrates that, in long-lived polytocous species, environmental factors may have a greater influence on natal features than previously supposed and the influence from biological factors is also complex. The documented responses to environmental influences provide unique insights into how mammalian seasonal reproductive dynamics may respond to current changes in climate.

  6. KSC-04PD-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Julian Earls (left), a school board member of Ronald E. McNair High School in Atlanta, and Sarah Copelin-Wood (far left), chair of the Board of Education, sign a Memorandum of Understanding after a presentation by KSC Deputy Director Dr. Woodrow Whitlow Jr., astronaut Leland Melvin and Dr. Julian Earls, director of NASA Glenn Research Center. McNair is a NASA Explorer School (NES). Whitlow visited the school to share the vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. He talked with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space. Dr. Earls discussed the future and the vision for space, plus the NASA careers needed to meet the vision. Melvin talked about the importance of teamwork and what it takes for mission success.

  7. 40- to 60-day oscillation in the source region of the Somali Current during 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Mysak, L.A.; Mertz, G.J.

    1984-01-20

    Evidence is presented for a 40- and 60-day oscillation in the longshore current and temperature fluctuations that were measured during 1976 in the Somali Current regime off Kenya by Dueing and Schott (1978). It is suggested that this equatorial oceanic oscillations is excited by long-period local wind fluctuations which are associated with the global tropical 40- to 50-day day oscillation first detected by Madden and Julian (1971,1972).

  8. Detours to the unification of calendars: The ``Improved Calendar'' (1700 bis 1775) and the foundation of the Berlin Astronomical Observatory. (German Title: Umwege zur Kalendereinheit: Der ``Verbesserte Kalender'' (1700 bis 1775) und die Gründung der Berliner Sternwarte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, Wolfgang

    The refusal of most protestant communities in Germany and other countries to accept the calendar reform decreed by Pope Gregor XIII in 1582 was finally circumvented by the introduction of an ``Improved (Julian) Calendar''. It did provide for astronomical rather than cyclical calculation of the date of Easter. While for most years both calendars were identical except in name, some conflicts did eventually occur. This led finally, in 1775, to a decision in favour of the Gregorian mode of calculation.

  9. On the Law of Inertia. Translation of: Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Ludwig

    2014-04-01

    This article is a translation of Ludwig Lange: "Ueber das Beharrungsgesetz" in: Berichte ueber Verhandlungen der Koenigl. Saechsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, math.-physik. Klasse (Leipzig, 1885), SS. 333-351. Translated by Herbert Pfister, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; herbert.pfister@uni-tuebingen.de. Kind assistance by Julian Barbour is acknowledged.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RV catalogue of O-type stars in NGC 6611 (Sana+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Gosset, E.; Evans, C. J.

    2009-11-01

    Journal of the spectroscopic observations of the NGC6611 O-type stars studied in the present paper. The two header lines indicate the considered spectral lines and the adopted rest wavelength (in Angstroms). The first column indicates the object considered. The second and third ones gives the heliocentric Julian dates at mid-exposure and the code of the instrumental setup. The following columns provide the heliocentric RVs (expressed in km/s) using various spectral lines. (2 data files).

  11. Royal Belgium observatory calendar: 156th year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A multitude of astronomical dates and information for the year 1993 are presented and include the following: important dates in the Israelite, Gregorian, Julian, and Muslim calendars; religions and civil holidays and saints' days; astronomical seasons; the situation, rising, setting etc. of the Sun; the dates and times of certain positions of the Moon; planetary orbits and visibility; and conditions of observations of comets and meteorites.

  12. In San Antonio, Pre-K Initiative Sets Steep Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Most Texans would rather sell a favorite horse than vote for a tax hike that promises bigger government. Yet San Antonio Mayor Julian Castro has not only persuaded his constituents to spend $248 million to pay for an unusual and ambitious preschool program for poor 4-year-olds, but he is also going to open doors in August--a mere nine months after…

  13. The origins of Schwinger's Euclidean Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael E.

    2015-05-01

    This paper places Julian Schwinger's development of the Euclidean Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in historical context. It traces the techniques employed in the formalism back to Schwinger's work on waveguides during World War II, and his subsequent formulation of the Minkowski space Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in 1951. Particular attention is dedicated to understanding Schwinger's physical motivation for pursuing the Euclidean extension of this formalism in 1958.

  14. New approach for determination of an optimum honeybee colony’s carrying capacity based on productivity and nectar secretion potential of bee forage species

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Adgaba, Nuru; Getachew, Awraris; Tadesse, Yilma

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine an optimum honeybee colony’s carrying capacity of selected valleys dominated by Ziziphus spina-christi and Acacia tortilis in the Al-Baha region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted based on the assessment of the number of colonies kept, their productivities and the existing productive bee forage resources in the target valleys with its economic implication. In the existing beekeeping practice, the average number of managed honeybee colonies introduced per square kilometer was 530 and 317 during the flowering period of Z. spina-christi and A. tortilis, respectively. Furthermore, the overall ratios of productive bee forage plants to the number of honeybee colonies introduced were 0.55 and 11.12 to Ziziphus trees and A. tortilis shrubs respectively. In the existing situation the average honey production potential of 5.21 and 0.34 kg was recorded per Ziziphus and A. tortilis plants per flowering season, respectively. The present study, revealed that the number of honeybee colonies introduced in relation to the existing bee forage potential was extremely overcrowding which is beyond the carrying capacity of bee forage resources in selected valleys and it has been observed to affect the productivities and subsequent profitability of beekeeping. The study infers that, by keeping the optimum honeybee colony’s carrying capacity of valleys (88 traditional hives/km2 or 54 Langstroth hives/km2 in Ziziphus field and 72 traditional hives/km2 or 44 Langstroth hives/km2 in A. tortilis field), profitability of beekeeping can be boosted up to 130.39% and 207.98% during Z. spina-christi and A. tortilis, flowering seasons, respectively. PMID:26858544

  15. New approach for determination of an optimum honeybee colony's carrying capacity based on productivity and nectar secretion potential of bee forage species.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Adgaba, Nuru; Getachew, Awraris; Tadesse, Yilma

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine an optimum honeybee colony's carrying capacity of selected valleys dominated by Ziziphus spina-christi and Acacia tortilis in the Al-Baha region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted based on the assessment of the number of colonies kept, their productivities and the existing productive bee forage resources in the target valleys with its economic implication. In the existing beekeeping practice, the average number of managed honeybee colonies introduced per square kilometer was 530 and 317 during the flowering period of Z. spina-christi and A. tortilis, respectively. Furthermore, the overall ratios of productive bee forage plants to the number of honeybee colonies introduced were 0.55 and 11.12 to Ziziphus trees and A. tortilis shrubs respectively. In the existing situation the average honey production potential of 5.21 and 0.34 kg was recorded per Ziziphus and A. tortilis plants per flowering season, respectively. The present study, revealed that the number of honeybee colonies introduced in relation to the existing bee forage potential was extremely overcrowding which is beyond the carrying capacity of bee forage resources in selected valleys and it has been observed to affect the productivities and subsequent profitability of beekeeping. The study infers that, by keeping the optimum honeybee colony's carrying capacity of valleys (88 traditional hives/km(2) or 54 Langstroth hives/km(2) in Ziziphus field and 72 traditional hives/km(2) or 44 Langstroth hives/km(2) in A. tortilis field), profitability of beekeeping can be boosted up to 130.39% and 207.98% during Z. spina-christi and A. tortilis, flowering seasons, respectively. PMID:26858544

  16. Host Suitability of Eight Prunus spp. and One Pyrus communis Rootstocks to Pratylenchus vulnus, P. neglectus, and P. thornei

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Marull, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on rootstocks of eight commonly used Prunus spp. and one Pyrus communis were evaluated under greenhouse conditions during a 15-month period. In a first experiment, two almonds (Moncayo and Garrigues), one peach (GF-305), and two peach-almond hybrids (GF-677 and Adafuel) inoculated with 2,000 nematodes per plant proved to be good hosts of P. vulnus. Highest (P < 0.05) numbers of nematodes per gram of fresh root weight were recovered from Adafuel and GF-677. Root weights were higher in uninoculated compared to inoculated plants of all rootstocks, whereas top weights of uninoculated Garrigues, GF-305, and GF-677 differed (P < 0.05) from those of inoculated plants. In a second experiment, three plum (Marianna 2624, Myrobalan 605, and San Julian 655-2) and one pear (OHF-333) rootstocks were also found to be good hosts of P. vulnus, although significantly fewer nematodes were recovered from Myrohalan 605 roots than from the other three materials. Inoculated OHF-333 and San Julian 655-2 differed (P < 0.05) in root weights over uninoculated plants. Only inoculated San Julian 655-2 showed differences in top weights over uninoculated treatments. Rootstocks were poor or non-hosts for P. neglectus and P. thornei. PMID:19283165

  17. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  18. Neutron Physics. A Revision of I. Halpern's notes on E. Fermi's lectures in 1945

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Beckerley, J.G.

    1951-10-16

    In the Fall of 1945 a course in Neutron Physics was given by Professor Fermi as part of the program of the Los Alamos University. The course consisted of thirty lectures most of which were given by Fermi. In his absence R.F. Christy and E. Segre gave several lectures. The present revision is based upon class notes prepared by I. Halpern with some assistance by B.T. Feld and issued first as document LADC 255 and later with wider circulation as MDDC 320.

  19. Hurricane Irene and associated floods of August 27-30, 2011, in New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Kara M.; Collenburg, Jerilyn V.; Reiser, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    About 1 million people across the State were evacuated, and every county was eventually declared a Federal disaster area. Property damage in New Jersey was estimated to be $1 billion. Governor Chris Christie declared a State of Emergency for New Jersey on August 31, 2011. After assessment of the damage by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, President Obama declared all 21 counties major disaster areas in the State of New Jersey on August 31, 2011.

  20. 33 CFR 334.802 - Ingleside Naval Station, Ingleside, Texas; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Christi Bay beginning at a point at latitude 27°49′15.0″ N, longitude 97°12′6.0″ W, thence southerly to latitude 27°49′7.3″ N, longitude 97°12′5.4″ W, thence south-southwesterly to latitude 27°49′01″ N, longitude 97°12′39.4″ W, thence west-northwesterly to latitude 27°49′02.4″ N, longitude 97°12′48.3″...

  1. 33 CFR 334.802 - Ingleside Naval Station, Ingleside, Texas; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Christi Bay beginning at a point at latitude 27°49′15.0″ N, longitude 97°12′6.0″ W, thence southerly to latitude 27°49′7.3″ N, longitude 97°12′5.4″ W, thence south-southwesterly to latitude 27°49′01″ N, longitude 97°12′39.4″ W, thence west-northwesterly to latitude 27°49′02.4″ N, longitude 97°12′48.3″...

  2. 33 CFR 334.802 - Ingleside Naval Station, Ingleside, Texas; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Christi Bay beginning at a point at latitude 27°49′15.0″ N, longitude 97°12′6.0″ W, thence southerly to latitude 27°49′7.3″ N, longitude 97°12′5.4″ W, thence south-southwesterly to latitude 27°49′01″ N, longitude 97°12′39.4″ W, thence west-northwesterly to latitude 27°49′02.4″ N, longitude 97°12′48.3″...

  3. Electron-beam-deposited thin polymer films - Electrical properties vs bombarding current.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, L. E.; Christy, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Polymer films about 150 A thick, deposited on glass substrates by electron bombardment of tetramethyltetraphenyltrisiloxane, were studied, after being sandwiched between evaporated aluminum electrodes, the top one semitransparent. The capacitance, conductance, and photoconductance of the sandwiches were measured at room temperature as a function of the electron bombarding current which formed the polymer. The polymer thickness was obtained independently from Christy's (1960) empirical formula for the rate of formation. The obtained results indicate that, with increasing bombarding current, the polymer undergoes an increase in both crosslinking bonds and dangling bonds. Exposure to air drastically reduces the density of dangling bonds, but does not affect the crosslinking.

  4. Offshore Texas and Louisiana marine ecosystem data synthesis. Volume 3: Annotated bibliography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.W.; James, B.M.

    1988-11-01

    This study provided a synthesis of available environmental information for the continental shelf from the shallow sublittoral to a depth of 500 m for the area between Corpus Christi Bay, Texas and the Mississippi River Delta. The Annotated Bibliography, which contains 1,535 references, was compiled through a combination of computer searches, telephone contacts, library visits, and submissions from chapter authors. The bibliographic data set is presented in hard copy and on IBM-compatible floppy disks that have been indexed with a computer program (FYI 3000 Plus) to allow searching by author, data, topic and geographic keywords, or words in the title, source, or annotation.

  5. Offshore Texas and Louisiana marine ecosystems data synthesis. Volume 2: Synthesis report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.W.; James, B.M.

    1988-11-01

    This study provided a synthesis of available environmental information for the continental shelf from the shallow sublittoral to a depth of 500 m for the area between Corpus Christi Bay, Texas and the Mississippi River Delta. The Synthesis Report consists of separate chapters devoted to marine geology, physical oceanography and meteorology, marine chemistry, marine biology, socioeconomics, and conceptual modeling of the area's major ecosystems with emphasis on the environmental effects of oil and gas operations. There is a summary of data gaps and information needs and suggestions for future field studies.

  6. National Spill Control School. A pilot program in environmental training. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oberholtzer, G.R.; Acuff, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 required an increased level of expertise by the American Public in the field of oil spill prevention and control. The National Spill Control School was created at Corpus Christi State University to help meet this need. Drawing on the talents of a nationwide sample of experts in this field, the project team created a unique management oriented course. A review of the origination and experiences of two years of classes of this pilot program is provided in this report.

  7. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kalayou, Shewit; Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Gebre-egziabher, Gebremedhin; Tiku'e, Tsegay; Sahle, Samson; Taddele, Habtamu; Ghezu, Mussie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70% methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated. PMID:23569962

  8. Temperature Trends in the TOVS Pathfinder Path A Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    TOVS (Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder) is the suite of infra-red and microwave sounding instruments, including HIRS-2 and MSU, that have flown on the NOAA Polar orbiting operational satellites TIROS-N, NOAA 6-14 from November 1978 to the present day. Data has been analyzed for the entire time period using a consistent methodology to produce twice daily per satellite global fields of surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature-moisture profile, cloud top pressure, and fractional cloud cover, OLR and clear sky OLR, and precipitation. All parameters were found to depend on the orbit time of observation which differed as a function of time both because of differing initial satellite orbits and orbit drift. This must be accounted for before one can attempt to find trends in the data. Methodology to account for orbit drift will be shown. Trends will then be shown, over the 21 year period 1979-1999, for surface skin temperature and atmospheric temperature profile. There has been global warming near the surface which falls off rapidly with height. Trends will also be shown for values of MSU2R and MSU4 which are computed from the soundings. These will be compared to trends of MSU2R and MSU4 observed by Spencer and Christy. There is generally good agreement between Spencer and Christy MSU2R trends and those computed from the TOVS Pathfinder data set, with the largest differences over the tropics.

  9. Data modelling in corpus linguistics: how low may we go?

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Marjolein H; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P

    2014-06-01

    Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors' linguistic decline, linking this decline to pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, in line with the nature of the (literary) work that was analysed, numbers alone do not suffice to 'tell the story'. The one and only objective of using statistical methods for the analysis of research data is to tell a story--what happened, when, and how. In the present study we describe a computerised but individualised approach to linguistic analysis--we propose a unifying approach, with firm grounds in Information Theory, that, independently from the specific parameter being investigated, guarantees to produce a robust model of the temporal dynamics of an author's linguistic richness over his or her lifetime. We applied this methodology to six renowned authors with an active writing life of four decades or more: Iris Murdoch, Gerard Reve, Hugo Claus, Agatha Christie, P.D. James, and Harry Mulisch. The first three were diagnosed with probable Alzheimer Disease, confirmed post-mortem for Iris Murdoch; this same condition was hypothesized for Agatha Christie. Our analysis reveals different evolutive patterns of lexical richness, in turn plausibly correlated with the authors' different conditions.

  10. Modeling of hot Jupiter H alpha transmission spectral line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chenliang; Arras, Phil; Christie, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The upper atmosphere of hot Jupiters is subject to the strong stellar radiation field of the host star, which can heat and ionize the gas, as well as excite atoms to higher energy levels. For planets near the parent star, a thick layer of atomic hydrogen may be present, which has now been observed through both Lyman alpha and H alpha absorption of starlight during transit. Motivated by these observations, we revisit the calculations of Christie et al to study the hydrogen level populations in detail, including radiative (de-)excitation, collisional (de-)excitation, collisional ell-mixing processes up to n = 6 states, as well as radiative ionization, recombination and collisional ionization processes. Using theHD 189733b thermal and photoionization equilibrium hydrostatic balance atmosphere model of Christie et al, we find that the 2s state population is dominated by a) creation and destruction channels via np states (n > 2), which was not considered previously, and b) 2s to 2p collisional ℓ-mixing process, which was treated incorrectly. I will show our modeling of H alpha transit depth observation with new level populations module.

  11. Population Genetics of Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus) Subspecies along the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Woltmann, Stefan; Stouffer, Philip C.; Bergeon Burns, Christine M.; Woodrey, Mark S.; Cashner, Mollie F.; Taylor, Sabrina S.

    2014-01-01

    Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus maritimus) along the Gulf of Mexico are currently recognized as four subspecies, including taxa in Florida (A. m. juncicola and A. m. peninsulae) and southern Texas (Ammodramus m. sennetti), plus a widespread taxon between them (A. m. fisheri). We examined population genetic structure of this “Gulf Coast” clade using microsatellite and mtDNA data. Results of Bayesian analyses (Structure, GeneLand) of microsatellite data from nine locations do not entirely align with current subspecific taxonomy. Ammodramus m. sennetti from southern Texas is significantly differentiated from all other populations, but we found evidence of an admixture zone with A. m. fisheri near Corpus Christi. The two subspecies along the northern Gulf Coast of Florida are significantly differentiated from both A. m. sennetti and A. m. fisheri, but are not distinct from each other. We found a weak signal of isolation by distance within A. m. fisheri, indicating this population is not entirely panmictic throughout its range. Although continued conservation concern is warranted for all populations along the Gulf Coast, A. m. fisheri appears to be more secure than the far smaller populations in south Texas and the northern Florida Gulf Coast. In particular, the most genetically distinct populations, those in Texas south of Corpus Christi, occupy unique habitats within a very small geographic range. PMID:25412194

  12. Phytosociological and ecological structure of Mediterranean enclaves along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black Sea region.

    PubMed

    Karaer, Fergan; Kilinc, Mahmut; Korkmaz, Hasan; Kutbay, Hamdi Guray; Yalcin, Erkan; Bilgin, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this study phytosociological structure of Mediterranean enclaves which occured along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black sea region was investigated. Pinus brutia var. brutia and Quercus coccifera are the most widespread communities in the study area. Pinus pinea, Arbutus andrachne, Arbutus unedo, Fontanesia philliraeoides subsp. philliraeoides and Olea europaea L. var sylvestris have a restricted distribution in inner parts of Black sea region as compared to P. brutia and Q. coccifera. The following associations were described in the study area. Siderito dichotomae -Quercetum cocciferae, Spiraeo crenatae-Oleetum sylvestns ass. nov, Cotino coggyreae- Arbutetum andrachnes, Buxo sempervirenti-Arbutetum unedonis ass. nov, Paliuro spinae-christi-Fontanesietum philliraeoidis, Querco infectoriae-Pinetum brutiae and Crucianello ponticae-Pinetum pinae. The highest species diversity was found in Crucienello ponticae- Pinetum pinae, while the lowest species diversity was found in Spiraeo crenatae-Oleetum sylvestris. Evenness values were much similar to each other among all of the associations. According to CA Paliurus spinae-christi-Fontanesietum philliraeoidis, Spiraeo crenatae- Oleetum sylvestris and Crucienello ponticae-Pinetum pinae occured in the negative zone. The other four associations occured in the positive zone. PMID:20648812

  13. DNA fingerprints come to court

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-15

    DNA fingerprinting, a new technique, which produces a visual representation of a person's genome, enables the identification of perpetrators from as little as a single hair root, providing they have left some biologic evidence-hair, skin cells, blood, or semen-at the scene of the crime. DNA fingerprinting was developed by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys, PhD, in 1985. Jeffreys, professor genetics at the University of Leicester, built upon a discovery, five years earlier, of certain hypervariable regions called minisatellites in unexpressed areas of DNA. The hypervariability was evidenced in the number of repetitions of certain sequences of base pairs. It was this aspect that revealed to Jeffreys something that had eluded other investigators. He realized that these minisatellite regions had a potential for identification far greater than that of conventional genetic markers, which are defined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). RFLPs are characterized by the substitution of one base pair for another, resulting in the presence or absence of a restriction enzyme site. Thus, each offers a limited number of alleles. In contrast, minisatellite regions have an accordion-like range of length, as the number of repetitions of a given sequence varies widely from person to person.

  14. A personal review of the history of the Royal Greenwich Observatory at Herstmonceux Castle, 1948-1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, G. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Royal Greenwich Observatory took its new name in 1948 at the start of the move to Herstmonceux Castle, when Sir Harold Spencer Jones was the Astronomer Royal. The move of the departments from their wartime bases to new buildings around the Castle was not completed until 1958, by which time the Astronomer Royal was Richard Woolley. He changed the primary emphasis of the astronomical work from long-term data-gathering programmes to astrophysical research. The transfer of responsibility for the Observatory from the Admiralty to the Science Research Council, in 1965, led eventually to a further major change in the 1970s, when Alan Hunter and Graham Smith were the Directors, as the primary task became the building of a new observatory on La Palma. During the 1980s, when Alec Boksenberg was Director, there were major cuts in staffing levels, especially for the public-service activities, and the RGO was moved to a new building in Cambridge in 1990.

  15. Electromagnetic pulse-induced current measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Chen, Jin Y.

    1991-08-01

    To develop safety guidelines for exposure to high fields associated with an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), it is necessary to devise techniques that would measure the peak current induced in the human body. The main focus of this project was to design, fabricate, and test a portable, self-contained stand-on device that would measure and hold the peak current and the integrated change Q. The design specifications of the EMP-Induced Current Measurement Device are as follows: rise time of the current pulse, 5 ns; peak current, 20-600 A; charge Q, 0-20 microcoulombs. The device uses a stand-on parallel-plate bilayer sensor and fast high-frequency circuit that are well-shielded against spurious responses to high incident fields. Since the polarity of the incident peak electric field of the EMP may be either positive or negative, the induced peak current can also be positive or negative. Therefore, the device is designed to respond to either of these polarities and measure and hold both the peak current and the integrated charge which are simultaneously displayed on two separate 3-1/2 digit displays. The prototype device has been preliminarily tested with the EMP's generated at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (ALECS facility) at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico.

  16. Interaction of highly vibrationally excited molecules with clean metal surfaces. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wodtke, A.M.; Auerbach, D.J.

    1998-11-01

    The authors present results from a grant funded under the Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences. A collaboration between Prof. Alec Wodtke of the Department of Chemistry at UCSB and Daniel J. Auerbach of IBM Almaden Research Labs has allowed new experiments on the dynamics of surface chemical reactivity to be successfully executed. High quality data has been generated which provides an excellent test of theoretical models of surface reactivity, a topic of importance to catalysis. The authors have obtained the first experimental measurements on the influence of reactant velocity on the steric effect in a chemical reaction: the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on copper. They have also designed and built a molecular beam scattering apparatus for the study of highly vibrationally excited molecules and their interactions with clean and oxidized metal surfaces. With this apparatus they have observed the vibrational energy exchange of highly vibrationally excited NO with an oxidized copper surface. Multi-quantum vibrational relaxation was found ({Delta}v = 1-5). Such remarkably strong and efficient vibrational energy transfer represents a qualitatively new phenomenon and is representative of the exciting new behavior that they had hoped might be observable in this project. Evidence of chemical reactivity of vibrationally excited NO on a clean copper surface was also found.

  17. Some Thoughts on Interstellar Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemperer, William

    It is indeed a pleasure to start our symposium celebrating Alec Dalgarno with the topic of astrochemistry. This subject, so intimately connected to radioastronomy, continues to provide new molecular species in a variety of astronomical sources, molecular clouds, circumstellar shells, and planetary nebula. A currently maintained catalog is online.1 The majority of species observed are not commercially available stable gas-phase species. Thus their laboratory production and the production of their rotational spectra is a most significant challenge. There is a pressure to make observations at increasingly higher frequencies, for reasons of higher signal strength. This further challenges the laboratory astrophysicist. For semi-rigid species the rotational energy may be well expressed in powers of angular momentum by three rotational constants (quadratic) and five centrifugal distortion constants (quartic).2 Thus a quite finite number of rotational transitions, at frequently convenient laboratory frequencies, allows the reasonably accurate estimation of the higher frequency spectrum. For larger molecules, especially those with large amplitude motions such as internal rotation or low frequency bending motions, the semi-rigid model is likely inadequate and a more complete laboratory spectrum is essential for reliable carrier identification...

  18. Precision autophagy: Will the next wave of selective autophagy markers and specific autophagy inhibitors feed clinical pipelines?

    PubMed

    Lebovitz, Chandra B; DeVorkin, Lindsay; Bosc, Damien; Rothe, Katharina; Singh, Jagbir; Bally, Marcel; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Young, Robert N; Lum, Julian J; Gorski, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    Research presented at the Vancouver Autophagy Symposium (VAS) 2014 suggests that autophagy's influence on health and disease depends on tight regulation and precision targeting of substrates. Discussions recognized a pressing need for robust biomarkers that accurately assess the clinical utility of modulating autophagy in disease contexts. Biomarker discovery could flow from investigations of context-dependent triggers, sensors, and adaptors that tailor the autophagy machinery to achieve target specificity. In his keynote address, Dr. Vojo Deretic (University of New Mexico) described the discovery of a cargo receptor family that utilizes peptide motif-based cargo recognition, a mechanism that may be more precise than generic substrate tagging. The keynote by Dr. Alec Kimmelman (Harvard Medical School) emphasized that unbiased screens for novel selective autophagy factors may accelerate the development of autophagy-based therapies. Using a quantitative proteomics screen for de novo identification of autophagosome substrates in pancreatic cancer, Kimmelman's group discovered a new type of selective autophagy that regulates bioavailable iron. Additional presentations revealed novel autophagy regulators and receptors in metabolic diseases, proteinopathies, and cancer, and outlined the development of specific autophagy inhibitors and treatment regimens that combine autophagy modulation with anticancer therapies. VAS 2014 stimulated interdisciplinary discussions focused on the development of biomarkers, drugs, and preclinical models to facilitate clinical translation of key autophagy discoveries.

  19. Correction.

    PubMed

    1992-12-11

    Last month, the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) prompted a 13 November Random Sample naming a group of scientists whose faces were appearing, USPS said, on stamps belonging to its Black Heritage Series. Among them: chemist Percy Lavon Julian; George Washington Carver; physician Charles R. Drew; astronomer and mathematician Benjamin Banneker; and inventor Jan Matzeliger. Science readers knew better. Two of the quintet appeared years ago: a stamp bearing Carver's picture was issued in 1948, and Drew appeared in the Great Americans Series in 1981. PMID:17831650

  20. Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective systems. Part II: An idealized model

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q. |; Randall, D.A.

    1995-02-15

    A simple model is used to examine the hypothesis that nonlinear interactions among atmospheric radiation, cumulus convection, and the surface moisture flux can result in a stationary, low-frequency (30-60 day period) oscillating heat source in the tropical atmosphere. The model produces low-frequency oscillations of temperature, moisture, and precipitation. The mechanism that produces these oscillations is identified through analyses of the model and its results. The relevance of this mechanism to understanding the observed Madden-Julian oscillation in the tropical atmosphere over the Indian and western Pacific Oceans is discussed. 17 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit

    ScienceCinema

    Borrill, Julian

    2016-07-12

    An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center.

  2. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrie, Will

    2016-07-01

    This is Part B of a 2-part Special Issue on ocean waves presenting new results on a variety of topics. Manuscripts discuss a variety of topics: wave physics; source terms for state-of-the-art-operational wave forecast models; stochastic modelling of inhomogeneous waves; wave-current interactions; shallow water waves; wave impacts on Stokes drift; coupled wave and surge models; wave-ice interactions; waves and sub-grid obstacles; wave-atmosphere-ocean coupling; ensemble wave forecast systems; data assimilation and wave prediction; wave model validation; Madden-Julian Oscillation impacts on waves; spectral wave partitioning and long term wave statistics; and wave climate projections.

  3. Auditory hallucinations in nonverbal quadriplegics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J

    1985-11-01

    When a system for communicating with nonverbal, quadriplegic, institutionalized residents was developed, it was discovered that many were experiencing auditory hallucinations. Nine cases are presented in this study. The "voices" described have many similar characteristics, the primary one being that they give authoritarian commands that tell the residents how to behave and to which the residents feel compelled to respond. Both the relationship of this phenomenon to the theoretical work of Julian Jaynes and its effect on the lives of the residents are discussed.

  4. Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center

  5. Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-14

    An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center

  6. Detection of U Sco in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Schaefer, Brad; Pagnotta, Ashley; Page, Kim; Osborne, Julian; Drake, Jeremy; Orio, Marina; Takei, Dai; Kuulkers, Erik; Ness, Jan-Uwe

    2010-02-01

    Eric M. Schlegel (UT-San Antonio); Brad Schaefer and Ashley Pagnotta (LSU); Kim Page and Julian Osborne (Leicester); Jeremy Drake (SAO); Marina Orio (Wisconsin), Dai Takei (Rikkyo Univ.), and Erik Kuulkers and Jan-Uwe Ness (ESA/ESAC), representing a large collaboration, report that U Sco has been detected in the X-ray band using the Swift satellite following the optical outburst discovery at V=8.05 on 2010 January 28.4743 (www.aavso.org/publications/alerts/alert415.shtml).

  7. Correction.

    PubMed

    1992-12-11

    Last month, the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) prompted a 13 November Random Sample naming a group of scientists whose faces were appearing, USPS said, on stamps belonging to its Black Heritage Series. Among them: chemist Percy Lavon Julian; George Washington Carver; physician Charles R. Drew; astronomer and mathematician Benjamin Banneker; and inventor Jan Matzeliger. Science readers knew better. Two of the quintet appeared years ago: a stamp bearing Carver's picture was issued in 1948, and Drew appeared in the Great Americans Series in 1981.

  8. Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian

    2009-01-01

    An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center.

  9. Effects of floods on fish assemblages in an intermittent prairie stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franssen, N.R.; Gido, K.B.; Guy, C.S.; Tripe, J.A.; Shrank, S.J.; Strakosh, T.R.; Bertrand, K.N.; Franssen, C.M.; Pitts, K.L.; Paukert, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    1. Floods are major disturbances to stream ecosystems that can kill or displace organisms and modify habitats. Many studies have reported changes in fish assemblages after a single flood, but few studies have evaluated the importance of timing and intensity of floods on long-term fish assemblage dynamics. 2. We used a 10-year dataset to evaluate the effects of floods on fishes in Kings Creek, an intermittent prairie stream in north-eastern, Kansas, U.S.A. Samples were collected seasonally at two perennial headwater sites (1995-2005) and one perennial downstream flowing site (1997-2005) allowing us to evaluate the effects of floods at different locations within a watershed. In addition, four surveys during 2003 and 2004 sampled 3-5 km of stream between the long-term study sites to evaluate the use of intermittent reaches of this stream. 3. Because of higher discharge and bed scouring at the downstream site, we predicted that the fish assemblage would have lowered species richness and abundance following floods. In contrast, we expected increased species richness and abundance at headwater sites because floods increase stream connectivity and create the potential for colonisation from downstream reaches. 4. Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) was used to select among candidate regression models that predicted species richness and abundance based on Julian date, time since floods, season and physical habitat at each site. At the downstream site, AIC weightings suggested Julian date was the best predictor of fish assemblage structure, but no model explained >16% of the variation in species richness or community structure. Variation explained by Julian date was primarily attributed to a long-term pattern of declining abundance of common species. At the headwater sites, there was not a single candidate model selected to predict total species abundance and assemblage structure. AIC weightings suggested variation in assemblage structure was associated with either Julian date

  10. ASTP Technical Air-To-Ground Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription of the technical air-to-ground voice communication of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission was presented. The transcript was divided into three columns giving, respectively, the time, speaker, and text. All times are expressed in Greenwich mean time for the appropriate Julian dates. The speaker column indicates the source of transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications. Special symbols were used to report garbling, pauses or self-interruptions, interruptions by other speakers or abrupt terminations, emphasized words, obliterations, and material translated from Russian.

  11. ASTP Onboard Voice Transcription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The transcription is presented of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project voice communications as recorded on the command module data storage equipment. Data from this recorder are telemetered (dumped) to Space Tracking and Data Network sites for retransmission to the Johnson Space Center. The transcript is divided into three columns -- time, speaker, and text. The Greenwich mean time column consists of three two-digit numbers representing hours, minutes, and seconds (e.g., 22 34 14) for the Julian dates shown at the top of the page on which a new day begins. The speaker column indicates the source of a transmission; the text column contains the verbatim transcript of the communications.

  12. Is procreative beneficence obligatory?

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ben

    2015-02-01

    Julian Savulescu defends the principle of procreative beneficence, according to which parents have a prima facie moral obligation to choose the child with the best expected life. In this paper, I argue that Savulescu fails to show that procreative beneficence is genuinely obligatory, because of his equivocation between moral reason and moral obligation. Savulescu assumes that morality requires us to do what we have most (moral) reason to do, but many deny this, for instance because they believe we have reasons (but no obligation) to perform supererogatory actions. Even if parents have moral reasons to choose the child with the best expected life, they may not be under any obligation to do so.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RV catalog of O-type stars in IC 2944 and Cen OB2 (Sana+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; James, G.; Gosset, E.

    2011-04-01

    Journal of the spectroscopic observations of the IC2944/Cen OB2 O-type stars studied in the present paper. The two header lines indicate the considered spectral lines and the adopted rest wavelength (in Angstroms). The first column indicates the object considered. The second and third ones gives the heliocentric Julian dates at mid-exposure and the code of the instrumental setup. The following columns provide the heliocentric RVs (expressed in km/s) using various spectral lines. (2 data files).

  14. Plate tectonics. Seismological detection of slab metamorphism.

    PubMed

    Julian, Bruce

    2002-05-31

    The occurrence of more or less continuous ground vibrations ("volcanic tremor") is an important indicator of volcanic activity. But results from the "Hi-net" seismic network in Japan reported by Obara show that continuous ground vibrations can occur far away from any volcanic activity. In his Perspective, Julian discusses the idea that this tremor is excited by flow of metamorphic fluids. He also identifies other possible locations where such a tremor may be detected and explains what may be learnt from measuring it.

  15. New AGU Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    Fellows of AGU are members who have attained acknowledged eminence in the Earth and space sciences. On 8 December 2007, the Fellows Committee elected 51 members for the class of 2008. Candidates are nominated by colleagues and then vetted by relevant sections and focus groups, who forward the top nominees to the Fellows Committee, which comprises 11 Fellows. Members of the 2006-2008 Fellows Committee are Tuija Pulkkinen, chair, and Shaw Liu, Andrea Rinaldo, Roberta Rudnick, Barbara Romanowicz, Lawrence Mysak, Steve Running, Thomas Herring, Lisa Tauxe, Julian McCreary, and Maria Zuber.

  16. Influence of Global Vegetation on Mid-Tropospheric CO2 Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Nguyen, Hai; Olsen, Ed

    2012-01-01

    AIRS Mid-Tropospheric CO2 shows a high degree of horizontal variability. Ongoing efforts show AIRS data influenced by global circulation patterns including El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) What is the influence of global vegetation cycle on CO2 seasonal behavior? (1) Can we correlate mid-trop CO2 seasonal variability with global vegetation for different regions? (2) For now: First look at zonal averages and Land Vegetation (ocean biomass later) (3) Goal: Sanity Check on AIRS Data Seasonal Cycle, Solicit interest by carbon cycle community

  17. Development of a comprehensive air quality modeling framework for a coastal urban airshed in south Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooqui, Mohmmed Zuber

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the major air pollution problems affecting urban areas of United States as well as other countries in the world. Analysis of surface observed ozone levels in south and central Texas revealed several days exceeding 8-hour average ozone National Ambient of Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) over the past decade. Two major high ozone episodes were identified during September of 1999 and 2002. A photochemical modeling framework for the high ozone episodes in 1999 and 2002 were developed for the Corpus Christi urban airshed. The photochemical model was evaluated as per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended statistical methods and the models performed within the limits set by EPA. An emission impact assessment of various sources within the urban airshed was conducted using the modeling framework. It was noted that by nudging MM5 with surface observed meteorological parameters and sea-surface temperature, the coastal meteorological predictions improved. Consequently, refined meteorology helped the photochemical model to better predict peak ozone levels in urban airsheds along the coastal margins of Texas including in Corpus Christi. The emissions assessment analysis revealed that Austin and San Antonio areas were significantly affected by on-road mobile emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The urban areas of San Antonio, Austin, and Victoria areas were estimated to be NOx sensitive. Victoria was heavily influenced by point sources in the region while Corpus Christi was influenced by both point and non-road mobile sources and was identified to be sensitive to VOC emissions. A rise in atmospheric temperature due to climate change potentially increase ozone exceedances and the peak ozone levels within the study region and this will be a major concern for air quality planners. This study noted that any future increase in ambient temperature would result in a significant increase in the urban and regional

  18. Serial position functions for recognition of olfactory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2007-10-01

    Two experiments examined item recognition memory for sequentially presented odours. Following a sequence of six odours participants were immediately presented with a series of two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) test odours. The test pairs were presented in either the same order as learning or the reverse order of learning. Method of testing was either blocked (Experiment 1) or mixed (Experiment 2). Both experiments demonstrated extended recency, with an absence of primacy, for the reverse testing procedure. In contrast, the forward testing procedure revealed a null effect of serial position. The finding of extended recency is inconsistent with the single-item recency predicted by the two-component duplex theory (Phillips & Christie, 1977). We offer an alternative account of the data in which recognition accuracy is better accommodated by the cumulative number of items presented between item learning and item test.

  19. Cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction by gaillardin.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Maryam Hamzeloo; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Atoofi, Azadeh; Rezaie, Mitra Asgharian; Irani, Mahboobeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Cytotoxic activity of gaillardin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula oculus-christi L. (Asteraceae), was assessed in the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG-2, human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A-549, and human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29, resulting in IC50 values of 6.37, 6.20, 4.76, and 1.81 microg/mL, respectively, in the microculture tetrazolium-formazan MTT assay. In vitro apoptosis-inducing properties of gaillardin were also evaluated in MCF-7 cells with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The results suggest gaillardin as a candidate for further studies in cancer therapy PMID:23819305

  20. Alchemy in Cambridge. An Annotated Catalogue of Alchemical Texts and Illustrations in Cambridge Repositories.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Alchemy in Cambridge captures the alchemical content of 56 manuscripts in Cambridge, in particular the libraries of Trinity College, Corpus Christi College and St John's College, the University Library and the Fitzwilliam Museum. As such, this catalogue makes visible a large number of previously unknown or obscured alchemica. While extant bibliographies, including those by M.R. James a century ago, were compiled by polymathic bibliographers for a wide audience of researchers, Alchemy in Cambridge benefits from the substantial developments in the history of alchemy, bibliography, and related scholarship in recent decades. Many texts are here identified for the first time. Another vital feature is the incorporation of information on alchemical illustrations in the manuscripts, intended to facilitate research on the visual culture of alchemy. The catalogue is aimed at historians of alchemy and science, and of high interest to manuscript scholars, historians of art and historians of college and university libraries. PMID:26245008

  1. Alchemy in Cambridge. An Annotated Catalogue of Alchemical Texts and Illustrations in Cambridge Repositories.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Alchemy in Cambridge captures the alchemical content of 56 manuscripts in Cambridge, in particular the libraries of Trinity College, Corpus Christi College and St John's College, the University Library and the Fitzwilliam Museum. As such, this catalogue makes visible a large number of previously unknown or obscured alchemica. While extant bibliographies, including those by M.R. James a century ago, were compiled by polymathic bibliographers for a wide audience of researchers, Alchemy in Cambridge benefits from the substantial developments in the history of alchemy, bibliography, and related scholarship in recent decades. Many texts are here identified for the first time. Another vital feature is the incorporation of information on alchemical illustrations in the manuscripts, intended to facilitate research on the visual culture of alchemy. The catalogue is aimed at historians of alchemy and science, and of high interest to manuscript scholars, historians of art and historians of college and university libraries.

  2. Validation of Interannual Differences of AIRS Monthly Mean Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Keita, Fricky; Molnar, Gyula

    2005-01-01

    Monthly mean fields of select geophysical parameters derived from analysis of AIRS/AMSU data, and their interannual differences, are shown and compared with analogous fields derived from other sources. All AIRS fields are derived using the AIRS Science Team Version 4 algorithm. Monthly mean results are shown for January 2004, as are interannual differences between January 2004 and January 2003. AIRS temperature and water vapor profile fields are compared with monthly mean collocated ECMWF 3 hour forecast and monthly mean TOVS Pathfinder Path A data. AIRS Tropospheric and Stratospheric coarse climate indicators are compared with analogous MSU products derived by Spencer and christy and found in the TOVS Pathfinder Path A data set. Total ozone is compared with results produced by TOMS. OLR is compared with OLR derived using CERES data and found in the TOVS Pathfinder Path A data set. AIRS results agree well in all cases, especially in the interannual difference sense.

  3. Dr. William Briggs: ophthalmic physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, London.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, J

    2001-01-01

    William Briggs, MD, established himself as one of the first ophthalmic physicians, whom today we would call a neuro-ophthalmologist, to practice in the United Kingdom. After graduating with an MD from Cambridge in 1677, and while a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, he carried out original studies in visual anatomy and physiology. He described and named the optic papilla and the retinal nerve fibers in his book Ophthalmographia, published in 1676. He published his New Theory of Vision in 1682. While at Cambridge, he was a contemporary and a friend of Isaac Newton, with whom Briggs worked but who, in matters of visual anatomy and physiology, came to reach different conclusions from Briggs. In 1683, Briggs came to London to practice as a physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, where he established a considerable reputation as an ophthalmologist. For political reasons he was forced to resign from the Hospital prematurely.

  4. Immunotherapy for acne vulgaris: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Simonart, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    There is a high unmet clinical need for new and better treatments in acne vulgaris. Propionibacterium acnes has a strong proinflammatory activity and targets molecules involved in the innate cutaneous immunity, keratinocytes and sebaceous glands of the pilosebaceous follicle. The role of P. acnes in acne confers legitimacy on the possible benefits of immunization-based approaches, which may represent a solution for limiting the development of antibiotic-resistant P. acnes. Various immunization-based approaches have been developed over the last decades, including killed pathogen-based vaccines, vaccination against cell wall-anchored sialidase, monoclonal antibodies to the Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson factor of P. acnes, anti-Toll-like receptors vaccines and natural antimicrobial peptides. This review summarizes the current evidence and explores the challenges to making this a realistic treatment option for the future.

  5. Recognizing face identity from natural and morphed smiles.

    PubMed

    Lander, Karen; Chuang, Lewis; Wickham, Lee

    2006-05-01

    It is easier to identify a degraded familiar face when it is shown moving (smiling, talking; nonrigid motion), than when it is displayed as a static image (Knight & Johnston, 1997; Lander, Christie, & Bruce, 1999). Here we explore the theoretical underpinnings of the moving face recognition advantage. In Experiment 1 we show that the identification of personally familiar faces when shown naturally smiling is significantly better than when the person is shown artificially smiling (morphed motion), as a single static neutral image or as a single static smiling image. In Experiment 2 we demonstrate that speeding up the motion significantly impairs the recognition of identity from natural smiles, but has little effect on morphed smiles. We conclude that the recognition advantage for face motion does not reflect a general benefit for motion, but suggests that, for familiar faces, information about their characteristic motion is stored in memory.

  6. Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yajie; Pillai, Supriya; Green, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Silver remains the preferred conductor for optical and near-infrared plasmonics. Many high-profile studies focus exclusively on performance simulation in such applications. Almost invariably, these use silver optical data either from Palik's 1985 handbook or, more frequently, an earlier Johnson and Christy (J&C) tabulation. These data are inconsistent, making it difficult to ascertain the reliability of the simulations. The inconsistency stems from challenges in measuring representative properties of pristine silver, due to tarnishing on air exposure. We demonstrate techniques, including use of silicon-nitride membranes, to access the full capabilities of multiple-angle, spectrometric-ellipsometry to generate an improved data set, representative of overlayer-protected, freshly-deposited silver films on silicon-nitride and glass. PMID:27470307

  7. High Speed Balancing Applied to the T700 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Lee, C.; Martin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed under Contracts NAS3-23929 and NAS3-24633 is presented. MTI evaluated the feasibility of high-speed balancing for both the T700 power turbine rotor and the compressor rotor. Modifications were designed for the existing Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) T53/T55 high-speed balancing system for balancing T700 power turbine rotors. Tests conducted under these contracts included a high-speed balancing evaluation for T700 power turbines in the Army/NASA drivetrain facility at MTI. The high-speed balancing tests demonstrated the reduction of vibration amplitudes at operating speed for both low-speed balanced and non-low-speed balanced T700 power turbines. In addition, vibration data from acceptance tests of T53, T55, and T700 engines were analyzed and a vibration diagnostic procedure developed.

  8. Pulse!!: a model for research and development of virtual-reality learning in military medical education and training.

    PubMed

    Dunne, James R; McDonald, Claudia L

    2010-07-01

    Pulse!! The Virtual Clinical Learning Lab at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, in collaboration with the United States Navy, has developed a model for research and technological development that they believe is an essential element in the future of military and civilian medical education. The Pulse!! project models a strategy for providing cross-disciplinary expertise and resources to educational, governmental, and business entities challenged with meeting looming health care crises. It includes a three-dimensional virtual learning platform that provides unlimited, repeatable, immersive clinical experiences without risk to patients, and is available anywhere there is a computer. Pulse!! utilizes expertise in the fields of medicine, medical education, computer science, software engineering, physics, computer animation, art, and architecture. Lab scientists collaborate with the commercial virtual-reality simulation industry to produce research-based learning platforms based on cutting-edge computer technology. PMID:23634475

  9. Isolation of pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes in faeces of wild animals in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kalorey, D R; Kurkure, N V; Warke, S R; Rawool, D B; Malik, S V S; Barbuddhe, S B

    2006-11-01

    The isolation of pathogenic Listeria spp. in faecal samples of captive wild animals was studied. Isolation of the pathogen was attempted from the samples by selective enrichment in University of Vermont Medium and plating onto Dominguez-Rodriguez isolation agar, PALCAM agar and modified McBride Listeria agar. Pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by Christie, Atkins, Munch Petersen test, phosphotidylinositol-specific phospholipase C assay, mice inoculation test and chick embryo bioassay. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from eight (16%) of 50 faecal samples from six different mammals and one bird. Out of eight isolates, one isolate from jackal proved to be pathogenic by all the pathogenicity testing assays. PCR amplification of virulence genes suggested that the isolate was potentially pathogenic. PMID:17034860

  10. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2012-04-23

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  11. Hudson River PCB clean-up to begin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Whitman signed the Record of Decision on 1 February to clean up a stretch of the Hudson River that has been contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The decision calls for dredging 2 million cubic meters of PCB-contaminated sediment from a 64-kilometer stretch of the upper Hudson to remove about 68,000 kilograms of PCBs.The plan follows years of scientific study about whether the PCBs were safely encased in the sediment or posed a continuing hazard, and concern over whether the PCBs can be safely removed without stirring up a larger pollution problem along the river. The EPA found that PCBs in the sediment are not safely buried because erosion and river flows can redistribute river sediment. The agency also found that although PCBs break down naturally over time, this degradation does not render them harmless.

  12. Report on the workshop on Ion Implantation and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1992-03-01

    This workshop was organized by the Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD), the major helicopter repair base within AVSCOM. Previous meetings had revealed a strong interest throughout DoD in ion beam technology as a means of extending the service life of military systems by reducing wear, corrosion, fatigue, etc. The workshop opened with an account by Dr. Bruce Sartwell of the successful application of ion implantation to bearings and gears at NRL, and the checkered history of the MANTECH Project at Spire Corporation. Dr. James Hirvonen (AMTL) continued with a summary of successful applications to reduce wear in biomedical components, and he also described the processes of ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) for a variety of protective coatings, including diamond-like carbon (DLC).

  13. Design of, and some clinical experience with, a novel optical surface measurement system in radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, G. J.; Marchant, T. E.; Parkhurst, J. M.; Sharrock, P. J.; Whitfield, G.; Moore, C. J.

    2010-04-01

    Optical imaging is becoming more prevalent in image guided radiotherapy as a complementary technology to traditional ionizing radiation based modalities. We present a novel structured light based device that can capture a patient's body surface topology with a large field of view and high spatial and temporal resolution. The system is composed of three cross-calibrated sensor heads that enable 'wrap around' imaging previously unavailable with similar line of sight optical techniques. The system has been installed in a treatment bunker at the Christie Hospital alongside an Elekta linear accelerator equipped with cone beam CT (CBCT) on-board imaging. In this paper we describe the system, focussing on the methodologies required to create a robust and practical device. We show examples of measurements made to ascertain its repeatability and accuracy, and present some initial experiences in using the device for pre-treatment patient set-up.

  14. Desertification and its effect on the erosion of vegetation in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Elhakem, Abeer Hamdy

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in Jazan region of south-western Saudi Arabia. Vegetation cover, frequency, abundance and soil characteristics were analysed at three locations with different quantitative and descriptive vegetation characteristics. Plant species were classified into three primary communities dominated by Salvadora persic, Acacia tortilis and Ziziphus spini-Christi. The results indicated that the distribution of plant species is controlled by soil characteristics. Very limited water resources are also limiting factor in vegetation growth. Among the three studied sites, desert and coastal environments are affected by desertification. Rehabilitation of the degraded lands requires collaborative efforts and support from the different related governmental sectors. Ecological conservation and sustainable development must be adopted as tools of rehabilitation.

  15. Can It

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Kelly L.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-31

    This short article describes the benefits of energy-efficient insulated recessed can downlights for use in residential and commercial buildings. The article describes DOE's program to bring more models of recessed cans that use pin-based compact fluorescent lamps to the market. The recessed can program is managed by PNNL for DOE. PNNL has conducted laboratory testing of several can lights and has found that three manufacturers are building lamps that meet DOE's strict criteria for performance and energy efficiency. The companies are PowerLux Corporation of Carlsbad, California; Technical Consumer Products (TCP), Inc. of Aurora, Ohio; and D-Light, a division of DiSci Labs LLC, is based in Corpus Christi, Texas.

  16. J. M. W. Turner's painting "The unpaid bill, or the dentist reproving his son's prodigality".

    PubMed

    Bishop, M; Gelbier, S; King, J

    2004-12-25

    In November 2002, the BDA News carried an item, illustrated with a colour reproduction, describing a painting of a Georgian dentist's rooms by Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), one of the most respected of English artists, which was shortly to come up for auction at Christies' Rooms in London. This work, first exhibited in 1808, was entitled "The unpaid bill, or the dentist reproving his son's prodigality", and had originally been commissioned by the connoisseur Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824). "The examiner", a contemporary London journal, identifies the 'cradle-piece' for the commission as being a Rembrandt which Payne Knight owned, and the journalist Robert Hunt said that Turner had more than come up to the task of showing that a modern could handle light as well as the old master, 'for a picture of colouring and effect, it is ... inestimable'.

  17. Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yajie; Pillai, Supriya; Green, Martin A.

    2016-07-01

    Silver remains the preferred conductor for optical and near-infrared plasmonics. Many high-profile studies focus exclusively on performance simulation in such applications. Almost invariably, these use silver optical data either from Palik’s 1985 handbook or, more frequently, an earlier Johnson and Christy (J&C) tabulation. These data are inconsistent, making it difficult to ascertain the reliability of the simulations. The inconsistency stems from challenges in measuring representative properties of pristine silver, due to tarnishing on air exposure. We demonstrate techniques, including use of silicon-nitride membranes, to access the full capabilities of multiple-angle, spectrometric-ellipsometry to generate an improved data set, representative of overlayer-protected, freshly-deposited silver films on silicon-nitride and glass.

  18. Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yajie; Pillai, Supriya; Green, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Silver remains the preferred conductor for optical and near-infrared plasmonics. Many high-profile studies focus exclusively on performance simulation in such applications. Almost invariably, these use silver optical data either from Palik’s 1985 handbook or, more frequently, an earlier Johnson and Christy (J&C) tabulation. These data are inconsistent, making it difficult to ascertain the reliability of the simulations. The inconsistency stems from challenges in measuring representative properties of pristine silver, due to tarnishing on air exposure. We demonstrate techniques, including use of silicon-nitride membranes, to access the full capabilities of multiple-angle, spectrometric-ellipsometry to generate an improved data set, representative of overlayer-protected, freshly-deposited silver films on silicon-nitride and glass. PMID:27470307

  19. Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yajie; Pillai, Supriya; Green, Martin A

    2016-07-29

    Silver remains the preferred conductor for optical and near-infrared plasmonics. Many high-profile studies focus exclusively on performance simulation in such applications. Almost invariably, these use silver optical data either from Palik's 1985 handbook or, more frequently, an earlier Johnson and Christy (J&C) tabulation. These data are inconsistent, making it difficult to ascertain the reliability of the simulations. The inconsistency stems from challenges in measuring representative properties of pristine silver, due to tarnishing on air exposure. We demonstrate techniques, including use of silicon-nitride membranes, to access the full capabilities of multiple-angle, spectrometric-ellipsometry to generate an improved data set, representative of overlayer-protected, freshly-deposited silver films on silicon-nitride and glass.

  20. T55 power turbine rotor multiplane-multispeed balancing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotordynamic analysis of the T55-L-11C engine was used to evaluate the balancing needs of the power turbine and to optimize the balancing procedure. As a result, recommendations were made for implementation of a multiplane-multispeed balancing plan. Precision collars for the attachment of trial weights to a slender rotor were designed enabling demonstration balancing on production hardware. The quality of the balance was then evaluated by installing a high speed balanced power turbine in an engine and running in a test cell at the Corpus Christi Army depot. The engine used had been tested prior to the turbine changeout and showed acceptable overall vibration levels for the engine were significantly reduced, demonstrating the ability of multiplane-multispeed balancing to control engine vibration.

  1. Mosquito vector control and biology in Latin America--a second symposium.

    PubMed

    Clark, G G; Suárez, M F

    1992-09-01

    The second Spanish language symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 58th Annual Meeting in Corpus Christi, TX in March 1992. The principal objective, as it was for the 1991 symposium, was to increase and stimulate greater participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists and public health workers from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 25 individual presentations that were given in Spanish. The symposium included the following topics: biology and chemical control of Aedes aegypti and anopheline vectors of malaria; field and laboratory studies of biological control agents for Aedes aegypti; community participation in the prevention of dengue; and other various aspects of the biology of other medically important arthropods (e.g., Simulium ochraceum, Lutzomyia and Culicoides).

  2. Isolation of pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes in faeces of wild animals in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kalorey, D R; Kurkure, N V; Warke, S R; Rawool, D B; Malik, S V S; Barbuddhe, S B

    2006-11-01

    The isolation of pathogenic Listeria spp. in faecal samples of captive wild animals was studied. Isolation of the pathogen was attempted from the samples by selective enrichment in University of Vermont Medium and plating onto Dominguez-Rodriguez isolation agar, PALCAM agar and modified McBride Listeria agar. Pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by Christie, Atkins, Munch Petersen test, phosphotidylinositol-specific phospholipase C assay, mice inoculation test and chick embryo bioassay. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from eight (16%) of 50 faecal samples from six different mammals and one bird. Out of eight isolates, one isolate from jackal proved to be pathogenic by all the pathogenicity testing assays. PCR amplification of virulence genes suggested that the isolate was potentially pathogenic.

  3. An overview of the use of lasers in general dental practice: 1. Laser physics and tissue interactions.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, Munther

    2005-05-01

    High tech dentistry now involves the routine use of lasers in general dental practice for various procedures once thought only possible with the conventional dental drill or scalpel. In 1990, the first dental laser, the dLase 300 (American Dental Lasers, Corpus Christi,TX 78405 USA), was introduced to the profession. There are now many different types of laser used in dentistry using a variety of wavelengths. Each laser wavelength is absorbed differently by soft and hard tissues and the efficiency of the laser has been determined by the ability of the tissue to absorb or reflect that wavelength. This and the following article hope to give a broad overview of dental lasers and their clinical uses. This article gives an overview of the relevant laser physics and highlights the laser-tissue interactions.

  4. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2016-07-12

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  5. Desertification and its effect on the erosion of vegetation in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Elhakem, Abeer Hamdy

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in Jazan region of south-western Saudi Arabia. Vegetation cover, frequency, abundance and soil characteristics were analysed at three locations with different quantitative and descriptive vegetation characteristics. Plant species were classified into three primary communities dominated by Salvadora persic, Acacia tortilis and Ziziphus spini-Christi. The results indicated that the distribution of plant species is controlled by soil characteristics. Very limited water resources are also limiting factor in vegetation growth. Among the three studied sites, desert and coastal environments are affected by desertification. Rehabilitation of the degraded lands requires collaborative efforts and support from the different related governmental sectors. Ecological conservation and sustainable development must be adopted as tools of rehabilitation. PMID:26879985

  6. Never underestimate the importance of networking: an imperative process for career success!

    PubMed

    Parsons, Lynn C

    2003-01-01

    The importance of establishing connections to other powerful, intelligent people is extremely important to having a successful nursing career. Nurses can and will continue to learn the important aspects of career networking for themselves, other nurses, and their patients. Sharing information, whether it is clinical, administrative, educational, or research-based, is extremely important to maintain the current knowledge that is necessary to be successful in the profession. According to Christy (1987), sharing information and opportunities with colleagues has a synergistic effect. In short, we can increase our supply of information and be influential and powerful leaders by sharing that information. Nurses need to become better networkers to build successful careers. This will require breaking out of our zones of comfort and becoming players on the health care stage. Nurses, patients, and the public will all be beneficiaries of their greater involvement in all health care networks in our country!

  7. Advanced MHD Algorithm for Solar and Space Science: lst Year Semi Annual Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnack, Dalton D.; Lionello, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    We report progress for the development of MH4D for the first and second quarters of FY2004, December 29, 2002 - June 6, 2003. The present version of MH4D can now solve the full viscous and resistive MHD equations using either an explicit or a semi-implicit time advancement algorithm. In this report we describe progress in the following areas. During the two last quarters we have presented poster at the EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly in Nice, France, April 6-11, 2003, and a poster at the 2003 International Sherwood Theory Conference in Corpus Christi, Texas, April 28-30 2003. In the area of code development, we have implemented the MHD equations and the semi-implicit algorithm. The new features have been tested.

  8. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    PubMed

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district. PMID:26591889

  9. Flood Risk Due to Hurricane Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivera, Francisco; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Irish, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the expected economic losses caused by hurricane inundation. We used surge response functions, which are physics-based dimensionless scaling laws that give surge elevation as a function of the hurricane's parameters (i.e., central pressure, radius, forward speed, approach angle and landfall location) at specified locations along the coast. These locations were close enough to avoid significant changes in surge elevations between consecutive points, and distant enough to minimize calculations. The probability of occurrence of a surge elevation value at a given location was estimated using a joint probability distribution of the hurricane parameters. The surge elevation, at the shoreline, was assumed to project horizontally inland within a polygon of influence. Individual parcel damage was calculated based on flood water depth and damage vs. depth curves available for different building types from the HAZUS computer application developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Parcel data, including property value and building type, were obtained from the county appraisal district offices. The expected economic losses were calculated as the sum of the products of the estimated parcel damages and their probability of occurrence for the different storms considered. Anticipated changes for future climate scenarios were considered by accounting for projected hurricane intensification, as indicated by sea surface temperature rise, and sea level rise, which modify the probability distribution of hurricane central pressure and change the baseline of the damage calculation, respectively. Maps of expected economic losses have been developed for Corpus Christi in Texas, Gulfport in Mississippi and Panama City in Florida. Specifically, for Port Aransas, in the Corpus Christi area, it was found that the expected economic losses were in the range of 1% to 4% of the property value for current climate conditions, of 1% to 8% for the 2030's and

  10. State of Water Molecules and Silanol Groups in Opal Minerals: a Near Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Opals from Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobon, Miroslav; Christy, Alfred A.; Kluvanec, Daniel; Illasova, L'udmila

    2011-06-01

    Recently near infrared spectroscopy in combination with double derivative technique has been effectively used by Christy [1] to differentiate between free silanol groups and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on silica gel. The method has given some insight into the type of functionalities and their location in silica gel samples. The inportant information in this respect comes from the overtones of the OH groups of water molecules hydrogen bonded to free silanol groups, and hydrogen bonded silanol groups absorbing in the region 5500- 5100 Cm-1 region. The approach was adapted to study the state of water and silanol functionalities and their locations in opals from Slovakia. Twenty opal samples classified into CT and A classes and one quartz sample were used in this work. The samples were crushed using a hydrolic press and powderised. Each sample was then subjected to evacuation process to remove surface adsorbed water at 200°C and the near infrared spectrum of the sample was measured using a Perkin Elmer NTS near infrared spectrometer equipped with a transflectance accessory. The detailed analysis of the sample was carried out using the second derivative profile of the spectrum. The samples were also heated to 750°C to study the state of water molecules in Opal minerals. The results indicate that the opal samples contain 1) surface adsorbed water 2) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups on the surface 3) Trapped water in the bulk 4) free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups in the cavity surfaces in the bulk. A part of the water molecules found in the bulk of opal minerals are free molecules and the rest are found in hydrogen bonded state to free and hydrogen bonded silanol groups. [1] A. A. Christy, New insights into the surface functionalities and adsorption evolution of water molecules on silica gel surface: A study by second derivative Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Vib. Spectrosc. 54 (2010) 42-49.

  11. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz de Montellano, B.

    1996-11-14

    As planned a letter was sent out to 17 teachers who had participated in a Summer 1994 workshop on ``Culturally Relevant Science for Hispanics`` at Michigan State. These teachers were supposed to have spent the intervening time developing lesson plans and curricula. The letter requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed by February 1996 with a stipend of $400 for satisfactory reports. It was a disappointment to only get 9 responses and not all of them demonstrating a satisfactory level of activity. Diana Marinez, Dean of Science at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi, who is the other developer of this curriculum and the author reviewed the submitted materials and chose those showing the most promise to be invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. Spring of 1996 and particularly in May--June, the author wrote a partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual which would provide a rationale for doing culturally relevant science, present the cultural and the scientific background that teachers would need in order to be able to teach. One of the goals of this curriculum is that it should be off-the-shelf ready to teach and that teachers would not have to do extra research to encourage its adoption. The outline of the book is appendix 1. The Writing Workshop was held at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi from July 14 to July 27, 1996. Participating teachers chose topics that they were interested in developing and wrote first drafts. These were distributed to all participants and critiqued by the workshop directors before being rewritten. Some teachers were more productive than others depending on their science background. In total an impressive number of lesson plans were written. These lesson plans are listed in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 is a sample lesson. Work still needs to be done on both the source book and the teachers` manual.

  12. Freshwater Sustainability under Climate Change in the Nueces River Basin, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, D. A.; Sinha, T.; Ji, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater sustainability in arid and semi-arid regions is threatened due to climate change as well as competing water demands for agriculture, urban development, industrial use and ecosystem needs. Such changes have forced the local water supply systems to update their water supply plans once in five years. Developments of such water supply plans not only require reliable assessment of water availability and demands but also incorporate uncertainties due to regional climate change projections. In this study, we focus our analysis on one of the basins in the South Texas - Nueces River Basin (NRB) which provide inflows to the Choke Canyon - Lake Corpus Christi reservoir system. This reservoir system is the major freshwater source for the coastal communities in the basin and the Nueces Bay, which serve as a habitat for several key fish species such as blue crab, brown shrimp, and southern flounder. Freshwater inflows in the NRB have decreased in the past decades, resulting in increased salinity of the Nueces Bay, thus impacting the natural habitat for several fish species. Therefore, estimating the impacts of climate change in the NRB is critical to develop sustainable water resources management in the region. We will implement a physically based hydrologic model under historical climate change scenarios from multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) over the past 30 years to understand how well we could have used large scale climate change projections in improving water resources management over the overlapping observations. A water management model will be developed for the Choke Canyon - Lake Corpus Christi Reservoir System, which will be ingested with inflow projections under multiple GCM scenarios over the past 30 years to incorporate uncertainty in water resources management. Finally, water management scenarios will be developed to minimize deficits between water availability and demands in the region.

  13. Analogue Materials Measured Under Simulated Lunar and Asteroid Environments: Application to Thermal Infrared Measurements of Airless Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Patterson, W., III; Moriarty, D.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote sensing study of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The near-surface vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon and asteroids creates a thermal gradient in the upper hundred microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2010, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Compared to ambient conditions, these effects include: (1) the Christiansen feature (CF), an emissivity maximum diagnostic of mineralogy and average composition, shifts to higher wavenumbers and (2) an increase in spectral contrast of the CF relative to the Reststrahlen bands (RB), the fundamental molecular vibration bands due to Si-O stretching and bending. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. The Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) is the newest addition to the RELAB at Brown University. The vacuum chamber simulates the space environment experienced by the near-surface soils of the Moon and asteroids. The internal rotation stage allows for six samples and two blackbodies to be measured without breaking vacuum (<10-4 mbar). Liquid nitrogen is used to cool the interior of the chamber, creating a cold, low emission environment (mimicking the space environment) for heated samples to radiate into. Sample cups can be heated in one of three configurations: (1) from below using heaters embedded in the base of the sample cup, (2) from above using a solar-like radiant heat source, and (3) from

  14. Convective Aggregation, Climate Sensitivity, and the Importance of Radiation Physics in Weather and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel, K.

    2015-12-01

    Since the revolutionary work of Vilhelm Bjerknes, Jule Charney, and Eric Eady, geophysical fluid dynamics has dominated weather research and continues to play an important in climate dynamics. Although the physics of radiative transfer is central to understanding climate, it has played a far smaller role in weather research and is given only rudimentary attention in most educational programs in meteorology. Yet key contemporary problems in atmospheric science, such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the self-aggregation of moist convection, do not appear to have been solved by approaches based strictly on fluid dynamics and moist adiabatic thermodynamics. Here I will argue that many outstanding problems in meteorology and climate science involve a nontrivial coupling of circulation and radiation physics. In particular, the phenomenon of self-aggregation of moist convection depends on the interaction of radiation with time-varying water vapor and clouds, with strong implications for such diverse problems as the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, and the relative insensitivity of tropical climate to radiative forcing. This argues for an augmentation of radiative transfer physics in graduate curricula in atmospheric sciences.

  15. Inheritance of nesting behaviour across natural environmental variation in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    McGaugh, Suzanne E; Schwanz, Lisa E; Bowden, Rachel M; Gonzalez, Julie E; Janzen, Fredric J

    2010-04-22

    Nesting behaviour is critical for reproductive success in oviparous organisms with no parental care. In organisms where sex is determined by incubation temperature, nesting behaviour may be a prime target of selection in response to unbalanced sex ratios. To produce an evolutionary change in response to sex-ratio selection, components of nesting behaviour must be heritable. We estimated the field heritability of two key components of nesting behaviour in a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent sex determination by applying the 'animal model' to a pedigree reconstructed from genotype data. We obtained estimates of low to non-detectable heritability using repeated records across all environments. We then determined environment-specific heritability by grouping records with similar temperatures for the winter preceding the nesting season, a variable known to be highly associated with our two traits of interest, nest vegetation cover and Julian date of nesting. The heritability estimates of nest vegetation cover and Julian date of nesting were qualitatively highest and significant, or nearly so, after hot winters. Additive genetic variance for these traits was not detectable after cold winters. Our analysis suggests that the potential for evolutionary change of nesting behaviour may be dependent on the thermal conditions of the preceding winter, a season that is predicted to be especially subject to climate change.

  16. Water Quality: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, January 26, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charles

    2009-02-10

    Print Out No.1 presents a listing of the initial data. The variables included were: SITE, REP, NH4, NO2{_}3, SRP, TDP, TN, TP, and JULIAN , representing site code, replication number, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and Julian date, respectively. All values for nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon variables are recorded as {micro}g/L. The 2007 water quality data received by SCS required considerable manipulation and data management prior to analysis. If it is anticipated that water quality data received by SCS in the future will be of the same format, the time to carry out the necessary reformatting of the data should be taken into consideration. The levels of SRP from water quality data of previous years were often below detection limits. The data from 2007 showed elevated levels for this and other responses. This pattern was seemingly unrelated to nutrient addition treatments, however, as they appeared consistently across the study area. The river fertilization program was begun in 2005. Because the procedures for detection of nutrients and metals are quite sensitive, SCS recommends that any future water quality samples taken on, or close to, the dates of fertilizer application be carried out with the utmost care to avoid contamination issues. Doing so will ensure consistency and reliability in the resulting data.

  17. Climate extremes in Malaysia and the equatorial South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahuddin, Ahmed; Curtis, Scott

    2011-08-01

    The southern extent of the South China Sea (SCS) is an important natural resource epicenter for Malaysia which experiences climate extremes. This paper documents the variability of extremes in the equatorial SCS through selected ground-based observations of precipitation in Malaysia and ship-based observations of wind data in the Maritime Continent region, to elucidate the interrelationship between precipitation variability over Malaysia and wind variability over the ocean. The data have been carefully inspected and analyzed, and related to the real-time multivariate Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) time series. The analysis suggests that the northeast or boreal winter monsoon dominates extreme rainfall in eastern Malaysian cities. Further, the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo Malaysia are affected by the MJO differently than the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. From the wind analysis we found that average zonal wind is westerly from May to September and easterly from November to April. When the active (convective) phase of the MJO is centered over the Maritime Continent, the strong westerly wind bursts are more frequent in the South China Sea. While more investigation is needed, these results suggest that the status of the Madden-Julian Oscillation can be used to help forecast climate extremes in areas of Malaysia.

  18. Impact of atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin waves on the upper ocean variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, Dariusz; Flatau, Maria; Flatau, Piotr; Matthews, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Air-sea interaction of Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves is studied using precipitation, latent heat, wind speed and diurnal ocean surface temperature variability index. The index describing upper ocean diurnal temperature variability in terms of wind speed and solar irradiance was developed based on Sea Glider data collected during special observing period of the 2011 Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field project. The climatology of Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves based on 15 years of TRMM measurements is developed. Out of 1948 Kelvin wave trajectories identified, more that 40% were active in the Indian Ocean basin. It is noticed that many Kelvin waves propagate in groups with only short period of time separating members of a group. Such waves account for most of the cross basin differences in the overall Kelvin waves activity. It is suggested that although averaged mixed layer temperature is not affected by fast propagating Kelvin waves, its diurnal variability is highly sensitive to wave passage even though the diurnal cycle doesn't have the wake effect in the ocean. Composites of all the Kelvin waves show that although changes in wind speed, latent heat, and temperature index have similar signature in various Madden Julian Oscillation phases the intraseasonal variability modulates the typical response to the Kelvin wave passage.

  19. Increasing Climate Literacy in Introductory Oceanography Classes Using Ocean Observation Data from Project Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hams, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    This session will present educational activities developed for an introductory Oceanography lecture and laboratory class by NOAA Teacher-at-Sea Jacquelyn Hams following participation in Leg 3 of Project DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) in November-December 2011. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is an important tropical weather phenomenon with origins in the Indian Ocean that impacts many other global climate patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Northern Hemisphere monsoons, tropical storm development, and pineapple express events. The educational activities presented include a series of lessons based on the observational data collected during Project DYNAMO which include atmospheric conditions, wind speeds and direction, surface energy flux, and upper ocean turbulence and mixing. The lessons can be incorporated into any introductory Oceanography class discussion on ocean properties such as conductivity, temperature, and density, ocean circulation, and layers of the atmosphere. A variety of hands-on lessons will be presented ranging from short activities used to complement a lecture to complete laboratory exercises.

  20. Formation and Development of Transient Eddies within an MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunaga, K.

    2012-12-01

    Temporal variations in tropical convection occur on various scales ranging from hours to seasons and beyond. The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971, 1972) is one of the most prominent phenomena regulating the tropical convection. Now, many features of the MJO are well described. However, several fundamental issues still remain unexplained. For example, scale-interaction between the MJO and non-MJO perturbations is one of the main issues on the MJO. The present paper, therefore, explores whether perturbations within an MJO have dominant time and horizontal scales or not. A field observational campaign called CINDY/DYNAMO was conducted over the central equatorial Indian Ocean in October-December 2011. During the campaign, large-scale-organized convection associated with an MJO broke out, and formation and development of transient eddies were prominent during the MJO active phase over the Indian Ocean. Eddies have a zonal scale of 2000-3000 km and time scale of 8-10 days. Following the shift of the convective active area associated with an MJO, the eddy packet moves to the east, although each eddy slowly propagates to the west. In order to examine the robustness, we also conducted the wavelet-analysis of multi-year reanalysis datasets (JCDAS), and it is turned out that the eddy formation and development are significant features of an MJO. Moreover, results from the composite analysis suggest that the eddy plays an significant role in the advection of the dry-air behind an MJO.

  1. Tibaldo and the Hole in the Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimony, Abner; Shimony, J.

    Tibaldo and the Hole in the Calendar is the story of how an eleven-year old boy growing up in 16th century Italy loses his birthday when the Gregorian calendar replaces the Julian calendar in 1582, and how he fights to prevent this loss. The author cleverly weaves elements of the cultural and scientific milieu of his time into an engaging and intelligent tale. Tibaldo's father is a medical assistant, and his sister is a midwife. He grows up learning about current medical practices by watching his father and sister and by listening to the great Professor Turisanus, for whom his father works. Tibaldo is fascinated by medicine and proves himself to be a fast learner, quickly gaining the respect of Professor Turasanus, who becomes a mentor for Tibaldo and sends him to the very best of schools. However, when Tibaldo learns that the Julian calendar is about to be revised, he realizes that he is about to lose his 13th birthday and determines to do something about this. The result is amusing and informative.

  2. Book Review: The history of the Quaternary Research Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, D. Q.

    2016-06-01

    This is a book that should be in the library of every member of the QRA as well as their institutions. This volume is a celebration of 50 years of the Quaternary Studies Field Group (1964), which was renamed the Quaternary Research Association (QRA) in 1969. What follows is a combination of a review with some further information based on the recollection of someone who was there. In examining the origins of the QSFG due credit is paid to Richard Hey and Richard West, but an inexplicable omission is the earlier discussion between Hey, Allan Straw and others during the field meeting of the Yorkshire Geological Society in September 1962 (Worsley, 2014). It is said that history is always written by the victors, or in modern parlance by those who write the minutes! But, in the writing of history there are only degrees of unsuccess. In Chapter 2 John Catt comments on the less than perfect early archival records of the QRA. So it is to his credit that 50 years of archival material has been diligently sifted and edited. In this he was assisted by memories of some named QRA members who are thanked. Wider consultation may have filled some of the gaps. At earlier meetings it was always a pleasure to greet long retired colleagues, such as Archie Lamont at the Carlops glacial drainage system when being demonstrated by Brian Sissons in 1966, or Tony Farringdon at Ballycotton Bay in 1968, or Hallam Movius in 1971 at a London discussion meeting. Similarly, who can forget the field meeting at Canterbury in 1967 when Alec Skempton demonstrated the Sevenoaks by-pass late-glacial slope failures, and John Hutchinson's use of Pomatias elegans for dating the Folkestone Warren landslips? Jan Mangerud's first QRA meeting on the Isle of Man (1971) was notable for his prescient recognition of glaciomarine deposits.

  3. Restoration and monitoring of a vessel grounding on a shallow reef in the Florida Keys.

    PubMed

    Schittone, Joe

    2010-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a monitoring event designed to track the recovery of a repaired coral reef injured by the M/V Alec Owen Maitland vessel grounding incident of October 25, 1989. This grounding occurred within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Pursuant to the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, NOAA recovers money for injury to Sanctuary resources, and uses it to restore those resources. A monitoring program tracks patterns of recovery, in order to determine the success of restoration measures. To evaluate success, reference habitats adjacent to the restoration site are concurrently monitored to compare the condition of restored areas with natural areas. Restoration of this site was completed in September 1995 by means of cement and limestone rock, and the monitoring results from summer 2007 are presented. Monitoring consisted of comparison of the biological conditions in the restored area with the reference area. Monitored corals are divided into the Orders: Gorgonians, Milleporans, and Scleractinians. Densities at the restored and reference areas are compared, and are shown to be greater in the restored. Size-class frequency distributions for the most abundant Scleractinians are examined, and reveal that the restoration is converging on the reference area. Also, for the Scleractinians, number and percentage of colonies by species, as well as several common biodiversity indices are provided; measures for the restored area approximate the reference area. A quantitative comparison of colony substrate settlement preference in the restored area is provided for all Orders, and for Scleractinians is further broken down for the two most frequent Genera.

  4. Sunspot numbers based on historic records in the 1610s: Early telescopic observations by Simon Marius and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2016-07-01

    Hoyt & Schatten (1998) claim that Simon Marius would have observed the sun from 1617 Jun 7 to 1618 Dec 31 (Gregorian calendar) all days, except three short gaps in 1618, but would never have detected a sunspot - based on a quotation from Marius in Wolf (1857), but mis-interpreted by Hoyt & Schatten. Marius himself specified in early 1619 that for one and a half year ... rather few or more often no spots could be detected ... which was never observed before (Marius 1619). The generic statement by Marius can be interpreted such that the active day fraction was below 0.5 (but not zero) from fall 1617 to spring 1619 and that it was 1 before fall 1617 (since August 1611). Hoyt & Schatten cite Zinner (1952), who referred to Zinner (1942), where observing dates by Marius since 1611 are given but which were not used by Hoyt & Schatten. We present all relevant texts from Marius where he clearly stated that he observed many spots in different form on and since 1611 Aug 3 (Julian) = Aug 13 (Greg.) (on the first day together with Ahasverus Schmidnerus); 14 spots on 1612 May 30 (Julian) = Jun 9 (Greg.), which is consistent with drawings by Galilei and Jungius for that day, the latter is shown here for the first time; at least one spot on 1611 Oct 3 and/or 11 (Julian), i.e. Oct 13 and/or 21 (Greg.), when he changed his sunspot observing technique; he also mentioned that he has drawn sunspots for 1611 Nov 17 (Julian) = Nov 27 (Greg.); in addition to those clearly datable detections, there is evidence in the texts for regular observations. For all the information that can be compared to other observers, the data from Marius could be confirmed, so that his texts are highly credible. We also correct several shortcomings or apparent errors in the database by Hoyt & Schatten (1998) regarding 1612 (Harriot), 1615 (Saxonius, Tardé), 1616 (Tardé), 1617-1619 (Marius, Riccioli/Argoli), and Malapert (for 1618, 1620, and 1621). Furthermore, Schmidnerus, Cysat, David & Johann Fabricius

  5. Potential effects of changes in precipitation and temperature on wet deposition in central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buda, Anthony; DeWalle, David R.

    Changes in regional climate can alter conditions that control the transport, chemical transformation, and eventual deposition of atmospheric pollutants. In Pennsylvania, climate change is projected to increase mean annual temperatures by 4°C and annual precipitation amounts by about 5% through 2100. The objective of this study was to determine how increases in temperature and precipitation would affect concentrations and wet deposition of SO 42-, NO 3-, NH 4+, and H + ions at a National Atmospheric Deposition Program site (NADP, PA15) in central Pennsylvania. Event-based wet deposition data were obtained from the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study (MAP3S) monitoring program for the period 1976-1989. Forward stepwise regression was used to predict log-normal concentrations per event using mean temperature, precipitation, Julian Date, and interactions of temperature and precipitation with Julian Date as predictor variables. Julian Date was included to adjust for time trends in precipitation chemistry and climate data. Results were categorized by annual periods, growing season/dormant season, and synoptic climate types. Significant positive effects of temperature on concentration and deposition were found for SO 42-, NH 4+, and H + but not for NO 3-. Precipitation increases reduced the concentration of each ion due to dilution, but the lower concentration only minimally offset the increase in wet deposition due to the increased precipitation. The effects of climate change during the growing season (April-September) were projected to cause greater increases in the magnitude of SO 42-, NO 3-, and H + concentrations and wet deposition than in the dormant season (October-March). Ammonium (NH 4+) increases were greatest during the dormant season. Climate change effects on wet deposition were generally similar among synoptic climate types with the greatest effects occurring for cold fronts and warm fronts. The impacts of climate change for this

  6. Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. Volume 20; The Climate of the FVCCM-3 Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Max J. (Editor); Chang, Yehui; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Nebuda, Sharon; Shen, Bo-Wen

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the climate of version 1 of the NASA-NCAR model developed at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO). The model consists of a new finite-volume dynamical core and an implementation of the NCAR climate community model (CCM-3) physical parameterizations. The version of the model examined here was integrated at a resolution of 2 degrees latitude by 2.5 degrees longitude and 32 levels. The results are based on assimilation that was forced with observed sea surface temperature and sea ice for the period 1979-1995, and are compared with NCEP/NCAR reanalyses and various other observational data sets. The results include an assessment of seasonal means, subseasonal transients including the Madden Julian Oscillation, and interannual variability. The quantities include zonal and meridional winds, temperature, specific humidity, geopotential height, stream function, velocity potential, precipitation, sea level pressure, and cloud radiative forcing.

  7. Convective Signals from Surface Measurements at ARM Tropical Western Pacific Site: Manus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Long, Charles N.; Mather, James H.; Liu, Xiaodong

    2011-02-23

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) signal has been detected using observations from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). With downwelling shortwave radiative fluxes and fractional sky cover from the ACRF TWP Manus site, and the statistical tools of wavelet and spectrum power, we report finding major convective signals from surface observations spanning the period from 1996 to 2006. Our findings are confirmed with the satellite-retrieved values of precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), and interpolated outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) satellite measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the same location. Our results indicate that the MJO convective signal has a strong seasonal-to-interannual evolution that is likely correlated with the interannual variability of El Ni ˜no Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  8. The cause of P.I. Tchaikovsky's (1840-1893) death: cholera, suicide, or both?

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, Pavle

    2010-01-01

    The death of P. I. Tchaikovsky (1840 - 1893) excites imagination even today. According to the "official scenario", Tchaikovsky had suffered from abdominal colic before being infected with cholera. On 2 November 1893, he drank a glass of unboiled water. A few hours later, he had diarrhoea and started vomiting. The following day anuria occured. He lost consciousness and died on 6 November (or on 25 Oktober according to the Russian Julian calendar). Soon after composer's death, rumors of forced suicide began to circulate. Based on the opinion of the musicologist Alexandra Orlova, the main reason for the composer's tragic fate lies in his homosexual inclination. The author of this article, after examining various sources and arguments, concludes that P. I. Tchaikovsky died of cholera.

  9. Patterns and cycles in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis wind and wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Tolman, Hendrik L.; Chawla, Arun

    2013-10-01

    The Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and the corresponding WAVEWATCH III hindcast datasets allow climatic interpretation of winds as well as their impacts on waves. In this paper, we analyze the continuous 31 years of global wind and wave data in terms of climate patterns and cycles. Quarterly averages and percentile plots of the wind speed and wave height illustrate the seasonal pattern and distributions of extreme events, while the annual and inter-annual variability demonstrates the wind and wave climate. The data is correlated with published indices of known atmospheric cycles. The datasets show good correspondence with the Arctic Oscillation, Antarctic Oscillation, El Nino Southern Oscillation, and the Madden-Julian Oscillation in both the wind and wave fields. The results compare well with published climate studies on regional scales and provide important linkage to the global wave climate characteristics.

  10. Racial science in social context: John R. Baker on eugenics, race, and the public role of the scientist.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2004-09-01

    In 1974 a British biologist, John Randal Baker (1900-1984), published a large and controversial book simply entitled Race that reiterated persistent eugenicist themes concerning the relation between race, intelligence, and progress. The history of Baker's book is a case study in the politics of scientific publishing, and his ideas influenced scholars associated with later works such as The Bell Curve. Baker, a student of Julian Huxley, was a longtime participant in the British eugenics movement and opponent of what he took to be a facile belief in human equality. In 1942, together with Michael Polanyi, he founded the Society for Freedom in Science to oppose those who advocated the central planning of scientific research. Baker's eugenics, political activities, and views on race express an elitist individualism, associated with the conservative wing of the eugenics movement, that this paper explores in the context of his career as a whole.

  11. Genesis of tropical cyclone Nargis revealed by multiple satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kazuyoshi; Wang, Bin; Fudeyasu, Hironori

    2009-03-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) Nargis recently battered Myanmar on May 2 2008 is one of the most deadly tropical storms in history. Nargis was initiated by an abnormally strong intraseasonal westerly event associated with Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) in the eastern Indian Ocean. An incipient cyclonic disturbance emerged as an emanation of Rossby wave-induced vortex when the intraseasonal convective anomaly reached the Maritime Continent. The northeastward movement of MJO convection facilitated further development of the disturbance. The incipient disturbance became a tropical disturbance (TD) with a central warm-core structure on April 26. The further development from the TD to TC formation on April 28 is characterized by two distinctive stages: a radial contraction followed by a rapid intensification. The processes responsible for contraction and rapid intensification are discussed by diagnosis of multiple satellite data. This proposed new scenario is instrumental for understanding how a major TC develops in the northern Indian Ocean.

  12. The Response to MJO-like Forcing in a Nonlinear Shallow-Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, M.; Hartmann, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the response to Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)-like heat forcing in a nonlinear shallow-water model, including monopolar heating source traveling eastward with an around the world period of 48 days and dipolar heating with zonal wave period of 48 days, with zonal wave number 2 confined in longitude to the MJO active regions. A jet localized in the Pacific is compared to a zonally uniform boreal basic flow. The results show that the Rossby wave response downstream exhibits intensified quasi-stationary anomalies in the Pacific jet exit region when the MJO-like heat forcing passes the Maritime Continent, in accord with the observational analysis by Adames and Wallace (2014). The dynamical mechanism suggested in this study can be used to interpret the intraseasonal MJO-Pacific North American pattern coherence and other extratropical intraseasonal events.

  13. The response to MJO-like forcing in a nonlinear shallow-water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Ming; Hartmann, Dennis L.

    2014-02-01

    This study examines the response to Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)-like heat forcing in a nonlinear shallow-water model, including monopolar heating source traveling eastward with an around the world period of 48 days and dipolar heating with zonal wave period of 48 days, with zonal wave number 2 confined in longitude to the MJO active regions. A jet localized in the Pacific is compared to a zonally uniform boreal basic flow. The results show that the Rossby wave response downstream exhibits intensified quasi-stationary anomalies in the Pacific jet exit region when the MJO-like heat forcing passes the Maritime Continent, in accord with the observational analysis by Adames and Wallace (2014). The dynamical mechanism suggested in this study can be used to interpret the intraseasonal MJO-Pacific North American pattern coherence and other extratropical intraseasonal events.

  14. Church, freedom and bolshevisation of Moscow University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2008-05-01

    A short description of events, occured in Russia after 1917 with emphasysis on main phyilosophycal curents such as marxism and believing, first of atheistic content and second of christian moralty content is given. It is argued, that bolshevicks contributed to progress of Russia, but this was reached by mean of purges and terror, during which many peoples were killed, especially representatives of the Russian Ortodox church. A list of scientists, which contributed more than other to the bolshevisation of the Russia and Moscow University, particularly, is given. The controverse between Hegel and Einstein from one part and Marx and bolshevicks from other part is examined also. The bolshevicks destroyed the Russian ortodox church, instead of its modernisation, is argued. The Calendar in the Russian Ortodox church is discussed, which is Julian, and it is argued, that a peaceful dialogue between the representatives of the Church and scientists is needed in order to make a transition to the Gregorian one.

  15. Time-dependent model of the Martian atmosphere for use in orbit lifetime and sustenance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, R. D.; Stewart, A. I.

    1984-01-01

    A time-dependent model of the Martian atmosphere suitable for calculation of long-term aerodynamic effects on low altitude satellites is presented. The atmospheric model is both position dependent, through latitude and longitude effects, and time dependent. The time dependency includes diurnal and seasonal effects, effects of annual motion, long and short term solar activity effects, and periodic dust storm effects. Nine constituent gases are included in the model. Uncertainties in exospheric temperature, turbidity, and turbopause altitude are used to produce bounds on the expected density. A computer model - a Fortran subroutine which, when given the Julian date, Cartesian position of the sun and the spacecraft in aerocentric coordinates, returns the local values of mass density, temperature, scale height, and upper and lower bounds on the mass density is presented.

  16. From descent to ascent--the human exception in the evolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    As the 'Darwin anniversary' (2009) has amply illustrated, Charles Darwin is seen as having forced a new understanding of self on humankind as a product of blind natural forces. However, mechanisms such as orthogenesis and the inheritance of acquired characteristics were maintained post-Origin to explain purposeful evolution. Only with the modern synthesis these mechanisms lost their validity, and Darwinian selection theory became the core of evolutionary biology. Thereafter, teleology was no longer an aspect of the natural world. This is how Theodosius Dobzhansky, Julian Huxley, Ernst Mayr, and George Gaylord Simpson told the history of evolutionary biology after Darwin throughout their lives. In the aftermath of the Darwin-year, it is worth taking another look: Was it in the evolutionary theories of the synthesis that humans finally became generally regarded as just another kind of living organism, subjected to the indifferent mechanisms of evolution and the whims of chance? PMID:20853706

  17. The Scala naturae revisited: evolutionary scales and anagenesis in comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C B; Hodos, W

    1991-09-01

    Recent suggestions that evolutionary scales have a place in theorization about the evolution of behavior have been based on the concept of anagenesis, formerly associated with notions of biological progress. An associated concept is that of grades, often used as units of anagenetic advance. Advocates of anagenetic analysis in comparative psychology cite the writings of biologists Bernard Rensch, Julian Huxley, George Gaylord Simpson, and Stephen Jay Gould to support the usefulness of anagenesis but treat the positions of each of these theorists as if they were the same. In fact, they differ considerably in their definition of anagenesis and in its application to specific issues in evolution. The anagenetic approach is criticized as axiological and frequently anthropocentric. Although the formation of grades can be useful, a sequence of grades must not be assumed to represent historical stages in the evolution of specific structures or behaviors.

  18. Science Accomplishments from a Decade of Aura OMI/MLS Tropospheric Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerald R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Olsen, Mark A.; Oman, Luke D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Liu, X.; Wargan, K.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Strahan, Susan E.; Pawson, Steven; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Newman, Paul A.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Cooper, Owen R.; Haffner, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric ozone from combined Aura OMI and MLS instruments have yielded a large number of new and important science discoveries over the last decade. These discoveries have generated a much greater understanding of biomass burning, lightning NO, and stratosphere-troposphere exchange sources of tropospheric ozone, ENSO dynamics and photochemistry, intra-seasonal variability-Madden-Julian Oscillation including convective transport, radiative forcing, measuring ozone pollution from space, improvements to ozone retrieval algorithms, and evaluation of chemical-transport and chemistry-climate models. The OMI-MLS measurements have been instrumental in giving us better understanding of the dynamics and chemistry involving tropospheric ozone and the many drivers affecting the troposphere in general. This discussion will provide an overview focusing on our main science results.

  19. Swing Amplification of Galactic Spiral Arms: Phase Synchronization of Stellar Epicycle Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the swing amplification model of galactic spiral arms proposed by Toomre. We describe the derivation of the perturbation equation in detail and investigate the amplification process of stellar spirals. We find that the elementary process of the swing amplification is the phase synchronization of the stellar epicycle motion. Regardless of the initial epicycle phase, the epicycle phases of stars in a spiral are synchronized during the amplification. Based on the phase synchronization, we explain the dependence of the pitch angle of spirals on the epicycle frequency. We find the most amplified spiral mode and calculate its pitch angle, wavelengths, and amplification factor, which are consistent with those obtained by the more rigorous model based on the Boltzmann equation by Julian & Toomre.

  20. A local index of Maritime Continent intraseasonal variability based on rain rates over the land and sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, C. L.; Lane, T. P.; Wheeler, M. C.

    2016-09-01

    A local index for describing intraseasonal variability over the Maritime Continent is developed. The index is based on the ratio of area-averaged rain rate over the land to that over the sea. It takes advantage of the fact that the main convective envelope of intraseasonal variability events tends to modulate the diurnal precipitation cycle over the land over the entire Maritime Continent. Lagged analysis is used to create composite intraseasonal variability events, where "day 0" is chosen according to when the normalized rain rate over the sea becomes greater than that over the land. The index identifies intraseasonal variability events associated with the Madden Julian Oscillation as well as equatorial Kelvin waves and westward propagating equatorial Rossby waves. The results suggest a similar local impact of all such events in suppressing the rain rate over land relative to that over the sea when the main convective envelope approaches.