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Sample records for alec christie julian

  1. Sir Alec Clegg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This article is a personal view of the career of Sir Alec Clegg. It outlines some of Clegg's achievements in the West Riding, and why he was so influential on those that he worked with. Finally, it retells one of Alec Clegg's favourite stories "The fable of Fred".

  2. ALECS: assembly language extensions and control structures

    SciTech Connect

    Oothoudt, M.A.; Kozlowski, T.

    1982-01-01

    ALECS is an assembly language preprocessor allowing the use of structured programming techniques in MACRO-11 code. Programs are written using standard control structures with normal MACRO-11 code embedded as needed. The ALECS task is used to translate the source to pure MACRO-11 source file which is then submitted to the assembler. ALECS also produces a structured source listing showing the true logical flow of code. ALECS has been used for short subroutines as well as RSX-11M I/0 drivers and an ACP.

  3. Corpus Christi, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This near vertical view of the south Texas coast shows the city of Corpus Christi (28.0N, 97.0W) and Corpus Christi Bay. Mustang Island and the Gulf of Mexico are seen in the Southeast corner of the view. The Nueces River flows into the bay from the west. The light toned squiggly lines in Corpus Christi Bay are mud trails caused by shrimp boats dragging their nets along the shallow bottom of the bay.

  4. President of Council-Sir Alec

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-17

    En décembre 1983 le président de l'Association du Personnel du Cern a suggéré d'inviter le président du conseil à une réunion du personnel dans le but d'améliorer la communication entre le conseil et le personnel. Le DG H.schopper remercie le président du conseil, Sir Alec, d'avoir accepté l'invitation malgré ses nombreux occupations.

  5. President of Council-Sir Alec

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    En décembre 1983 le président de l'Association du Personnel du Cern a suggéré d'inviter le président du conseil à une réunion du personnel dans le but d'améliorer la communication entre le conseil et le personnel. Le DG H.schopper remercie le président du conseil, Sir Alec, d'avoir accepté l'invitation malgré ses nombreux occupations.

  6. 130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Fortyseven acre Julian Price Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Forty-seven acre Julian Price Lake created by an impoundment. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. The man behind the DNA fingerprints: an interview with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this interview we talk with Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys about DNA fingerprinting, his wider scientific career, and the past, present and future of forensic DNA applications. The podcast with excerpts from this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/biome/alec-jeffreys. PMID:24245655

  8. H. Julian Allen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    H. Julian Allen stands beside the observation window of the 8 x 7 foot test section of the NACA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. H. Julian Allen is best known for his 'Blunt Body Theory' of aerodynamics, a design technique for alleviating the severe re-entry heating problem which was then delaying the development of ballistic missiles. His findings revolutionized the fundamental design of ballistic missle re-entry shapes. Subsequently, applied research led to applications of the 'blunt' shape to ballistic missles and spacecraft which were intended to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. This application led to the design of ablative heat shields that protected the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo astronauts as their space capsules re- entered the Earth's atmosphere. 'Harvey' Allen as he was called by most, was not only a brilliant scientist and aeronautical engineer but was also admired for his kindness, thoughtfulness and sense of humor. Among his many other accomplishments, Harvey Allen served as Center Director of the NASA Ames Research Center from 1965 to 1969. He died of a heart attack on January 29, 1977 at the age of 66.

  9. Tribute to Julian Schwinger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Walter

    It is a melancholy privilege for me to take part in this symposium in honor of my venerated teacher, Julian Schwinger. All of us here know that his brilliant scientific insights and methodologies have l deep imprints across the entire spectrum of theoretical physics, both pure and applied. No doubt his most outstanding work was his monumental relativistically covariant renormalization theory of quantum electrodynamics; other areas which he substantially reshaped include quantum gauge theories, whose significance he was one of the first to realize; nuclear physics — beginning with his first papers written as a teenager and in which he offered perhaps the first comprehensive lecture course; the theory of waveguides, a powerful reformulation during World War II in terms of tensor Green's functions and variational principles; scattering theory; particle accelerators; and, very broadly, the structure of elementary particle theory…

  10. 77 FR 2448 - Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary Special Local Regulation in the Corpus Christi Bayfront area...

  11. Julian Schwinger — Personal Recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Paul C.

    We're gathered here today to salute Julian Schwinger, a towering figure of the golden age of physics — and a kind and gentle human being. Even at our best universities, people with Julian's talent and his passion for discovery and perfection are rare — so rare that neither they nor the rest of us know how to take best advantage of their genius. The failure to find a happier solution to this dilemma in recent years has concerned many of us. It should not becloud the fact that over their lifetimes, few physicists, if any, have surmounted this impedance mismatch more effectively than Julian, conveying not only knowledge but lofty values and aspirations directly and indirectly to thousands of physicists…

  12. Julian Meltzoff (1921-2015).

    PubMed

    Sherman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Julian Meltzoff, who died on December 22, 2015, in his La Jolla, California home. Meltzoff was a major architect of modern clinical psychology. His innovative contributions in the arena of human service delivery, his empirical evaluations of the efficacy of psychotherapy, and his creative strategy for training clinical psychologists were truly ground breaking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward of... said breakwater; and eastward of the Corpus Christi sea wall....

  14. How Has the Environment Influenced Christy's Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Blair E.

    Defining environment as both the physical space and the people who are in it, this paper explored the effects of environment on a first-grade child. Urie Bronfenbrenner's theories on the effects of physical environment on children provided a conceptual foundation during the observation of Christy, a student at Lawrence School in Brookline,…

  15. Developing Readers: Lessons from Agatha Christie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Reminds readers that looking at individual authors rather than dealing in generalizations is a very meaningful approach to increasing an understanding of how reading works by making sense of the text. Discusses how Agatha Christie's writing follows very predictable patterns and may provide useful experiences for novice readers. (MG)

  16. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  17. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... departures of loaded LPG vessels via a Marine Safety Information Broadcast Notice to Mariners. ... established as safety zones during specified conditions: (1) For incoming tank vessels loaded with Liquefied... Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG...

  18. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... departures of loaded LPG vessels via a Marine Safety Information Broadcast Notice to Mariners. ... established as safety zones during specified conditions: (1) For incoming tank vessels loaded with Liquefied... Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG...

  19. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... departures of loaded LPG vessels via a Marine Safety Information Broadcast Notice to Mariners. ... established as safety zones during specified conditions: (1) For incoming tank vessels loaded with Liquefied... Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG...

  20. Simple Formulae for Julian Day Numbers and Calendar Dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatcher, D. A.

    1984-03-01

    A careful choice of origin gives simple formulae for Julian day numbers from Gregorian or Julian calendar dates, and calendar dates from day numbers, for the entire historical period and all future dates.

  1. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ....; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... (LNG) export and import terminal, and a natural gas transmission pipeline in Nueces and San...

  2. Moral Mondays and the Defense of Public Education: The Fusion Movement against ALEC-Influenced Legislation in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Johnson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    A barrage of pro-privatization policies that cascaded into North Carolina education statutes during the 2013-2014 legislative session helped spark a series of organized protests known as the Moral Monday Movement. Powerful and strategic policy networks, such as the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), have made privatization and…

  3. Moral Mondays and the Defense of Public Education: The Fusion Movement against ALEC-Influenced Legislation in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Johnson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    A barrage of pro-privatization policies that cascaded into North Carolina education statutes during the 2013-2014 legislative session helped spark a series of organized protests known as the Moral Monday Movement. Powerful and strategic policy networks, such as the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), have made privatization and…

  4. ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment

    ScienceCinema

    Long, Chuck

    2016-07-12

    Results of the ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE) field campaign are contributing significantly to concurrent national and international research efforts addressing questions about how the MJO initiates and changes as it passes phenomenon differs in observations versus models.

  5. ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Chuck

    2014-03-29

    Results of the ARM Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE) field campaign are contributing significantly to concurrent national and international research efforts addressing questions about how the MJO initiates and changes as it passes phenomenon differs in observations versus models.

  6. RadNet Air Data From Corpus Christi, TX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Corpus Christi, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  7. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  8. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  9. Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-14

    Many storms around the world have roots in the Indian Ocean, where they are churned up by the atmospheric process called the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). PNNL is working to unlock the secrets of the MJO, particularly how it initiates in the Indian Ocean every 30-60 days. Better prediction of the MJO will help resource managers, weather forecasters and people worldwide better prepare for its effects.

  10. Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Many storms around the world have roots in the Indian Ocean, where they are churned up by the atmospheric process called the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). PNNL is working to unlock the secrets of the MJO, particularly how it initiates in the Indian Ocean every 30-60 days. Better prediction of the MJO will help resource managers, weather forecasters and people worldwide better prepare for its effects.

  11. Madden-Julian Variability in Coupled Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K R; Gualdi, S; Li, W; Slingo, J M

    2001-12-12

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant mode of tropical variability (Madden and Julian 1971, 1972). It is manifested on a timescale of {approx}30-70 days through large-scale circulation anomalies which occur in conjunction with eastward propagating convective anomalies over the eastern hemisphere. Recent evidence has suggested that an interactive ocean may be important for the simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (Flatau et al. 1997, Sperber et al. 1997, Waliser et al. 1999, Inness et al. 2002). As part of an initiative to the CLIVAR Working Group on Coupled Modeling, we examine ocean-atmosphere GCMs to ascertain the degree to which they can represent the 4-dimensional space-time structure of the MJO. The eastward propagation of convection is also examined with respect to the surface fluxes and SST, and we compare and contrast the behavior over the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Importantly, the results are interpreted with respect to systematic error of the mean state.

  12. 40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.136 Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) consists of the...

  13. 76 FR 31821 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... amends Class D airspace within the Corpus Christi, TX, area by updating the geographic coordinates for... the geographic coordinates, within Class D airspace, of the Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX,...

  14. 76 FR 49285 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... Register June 2, 2011, ] amending Class D airspace at Cabaniss Navy Outlying Field (NOLF), Corpus Christi... Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX (76 FR 31821, Docket No. FAA-2010-1171). Subsequent to publication,...

  15. Percy Julian, Robert Robinson, and the Identity of Eserethole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2008-01-01

    The Nova production "Percy Julian--Forgotten Genius" included the very public disagreement between Percy Julian, an unknown American chemist, and Robert Robinson, possibly the best known organic chemist of the day, as to the identity of "eserethole", the key intermediate for the synthesis of the alkaloid physostigmine. The Nova production,…

  16. Percy Julian, Robert Robinson, and the Identity of Eserethole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2008-01-01

    The Nova production "Percy Julian--Forgotten Genius" included the very public disagreement between Percy Julian, an unknown American chemist, and Robert Robinson, possibly the best known organic chemist of the day, as to the identity of "eserethole", the key intermediate for the synthesis of the alkaloid physostigmine. The Nova production,…

  17. Julian B. Rotter (1916-2014).

    PubMed

    Strickland, Bonnie R

    2014-01-01

    One of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century, Julian B. Rotter, died at the age of 97 on January 6, 2014, at his home in Mansfield, Connecticut. Jules was born on October 22, 1916, in Brooklyn, New York, the third son of Jewish immigrant parents. As noted in the citation for his American Psychological Association (APA) Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, "his pioneering social learning framework...transformed behavioral approaches to personality and clinical psychology. He integrated the concepts of expectancy and reinforcement and built an enduring early bridge between the psychology of learning and its diverse social, clinical, and personality applications. His seminal studies of the variable of internal versus external locus of control provided the foundation for years of prolific research on choice and perceived control in several disciplines...Julian Rotter, by his writing, teaching, and personal example,...profoundly changed theory and practice in the field" (American Psychologist, 1989, p. 625). He was devoted to his family and shared his insights, his empathy, his compassion, and his admirable social conscience with them, as he did with his myriad friends and students. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Beginning Again: A Response to Rosen and Christie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doecke, Brenton; Breen, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Genre theory has been around for a long time now. The exchange between Michael Rosen and Frances Christie recently featured in "Changing English" is the latest in a series of exchanges between advocates of genre and their critics over the past three decades or so. Our aim in this response-essay is not to weigh up the merits of the cases…

  19. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. (a) Location. The following area is designated as a security zone: all waters of the Corpus Christi...

  20. VIEW OF THE INTERSECTION OF JULIAN AVE AND MONTHAN STREET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INTERSECTION OF JULIAN AVE AND MONTHAN STREET. THE WATERS OF THE PEARL HARBOR CHANNEL ARE IN THE BACKGROUND AT LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Hickam Historic Housing, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Monitoring the Madden-Julian oscillation with geopotential height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Jeremy Cheuk-Hin; Qian, Weihong

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the three-dimensional geopotential height structure of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and proposes that the MJO convection signals can be well reflected by upper-tropospheric zonal anomalous height gradient (ZAHG, \

  2. Morphologic Response to a New Inlet, Packery Channel, Corpus Christi, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    terminology, Aransas Pass (shared with Aransas Bay to the north) on the north side and Corpus Christi Pass on the south side, in the SSE corner (Fig...1 and Fig. 2). Dredging of Aransas Pass started in 1912, and its re-direction into Corpus Christi Bay in 1924 caused Corpus Christi Pass to slowly...rather than the 23-mile (37 km) transit to Aransas Pass. The North Padre Island (Packery Channel), Nueces County, Texas, Storm Damage Reduction

  3. A Conversation with Robert F. Christy Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippincott, Sara

    2006-12-01

    Robert F. Christy, Institute Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at Caltech, recalls his wartime work at Los Alamos on the critical assembly for the plutonium bomb (“the Christy bomb”); the Alamogordo test, July 16, 1945; the postwar concerns of ALAS (Association of Los Alamos Scientists); his brief return to the University of Chicago and move to Caltech; friendship with and later alienation from Edward Teller; work with Charles and Tommy Lauritsen and William A. Fowler in Caltech’s Kellogg Radiation Laboratory; Freeman Dyson’s Orion Project; work on the meson and RR Lyrae stars; fellowship at Cambridge University; 1950s Vista Project at Caltech; his opposition to the Strategic Defense Initiative; and his post-retirement work for the National Research Council’s Committee on Dosimetry and on inertial-confinement fusion.

  4. A Conversation with Robert F. Christy Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippincott, Sara

    2006-09-01

    Robert F. Christy, Institute Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at Caltech, recalls his childhood in British Columbia; his undergraduate years at the University of British Columbia; his graduate work with J. Robert Oppenheimer at Berkeley; and his work on the Manhattan Project, first with Enrico Fermi at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago and then as a member of the Theoretical Division at Los Alamos.

  5. H. Julian Allen with Blunt Body Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    H. Julian Allen is best known for his 'Blunt Body Theory' of aerodynamics, a design technique for alleviating the severe re-entry heating problem which was then delaying the development of ballistic missiles. His findings revolutionized the fundamental design of ballistic missle re-entry shapes. Subsequently, applied research led to applications of the 'blunt' shape to ballistic missles and spacecraft which were intended to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere. This application led to the design of ablative heat shields that protected the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo astronauts as their space capsules re- entered the Earth's atmosphere. 'Harvey' Allen as he was called by most, was not only a brilliant scientist and aeronautical engineer but was also admired for his kindness, thoughtfulness and sense of humor. Among his many other accomplishments, Harvey Allen served as Center Director of the NASA Ames Research Center from 1965 to 1969. He died of a heart attack on January 29, 1977 at the age of 66.

  6. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S...′41.6″ 97°15′33.3″ thence to a point on shore at latitude 27°40′44.9″ N.; thence along the shore...

  7. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S...′41.6″ 97°15′33.3″ thence to a point on shore at latitude 27°40′44.9″ N.; thence along the shore...

  8. Julian Smith: scientific surgeon, photographer, inventor.

    PubMed

    Vellar, Ivo D

    2002-01-01

    Julian Augustus Romaine Smith was one of the surgeons who, in the company of Thomas Dunhill, Hugh Devine, Douglas Shields and David Murray Morton, established Saint Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, as arguably the premier surgical hospital in Victoria, if not Australia. Smith abandoned a most promising scientific career to study medicine, completing his medical course in Melbourne where he graduated top of his year in 1898/1899. He gained his MD in 1901 and set up practice in Morwell, a Victorian country town, where he initiated his surgical career. In 1905 Smith returned to Melbourne and worked as assistant to Mr F. D. Bird, a prominent surgeon. He travelled overseas in 1906, visiting leading medical centres in England where Almroth Wright's work on vaccination made a deep impression on him. On his return to Australia in 1908 he joined the surgical staff at Saint Vincent's Hospital as surgeon to outpatients, finally retiring as surgeon to inpatients in 1928. Smith was made a Foundation Fellow of the Australasian College of Surgeons in 1927. Smith was regarded by his peers as a brilliant innovative surgeon with a special interest in urology. He became an expert cystoscopist. After he retired, he continued his long-standing interest in portrait photography for which he was considered a master. During World War II he designed and built an elegant roller pump for use in direct blood transfusion. He died in 1947, survived by his wife, a daughter and three sons, one of whom became President of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. 78 FR 44523 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 122 Under Alternative Site Framework; Corpus Christi, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...; Corpus Christi, Texas Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... establishment or reorganization of zones; Whereas, the Port of Corpus Christi Authority, grantee of Foreign..., Kleberg and Bee Counties, Texas, within and adjacent to the Corpus Christi Customs and Border...

  10. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... American Tri-Hull Championship will consist of a series of power boat races for approximately 8-12 vessels that are 18-feet long. The temporary safety zone is necessary for the safety of race participants...

  11. Giants of the past: Percy Lavon Julian (1899-1975) a forgotten pioneer in soy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The common thread running through African American chemist Percy Lavon Julian's life is one about outstanding achievements in the face of great obstacles. Racial oppression forced Julian to repeatedly pick up broken fragments of chance and turn them into opportunity. Percy Julian was a luminary in...

  12. 129. Julian Price Memorial Park. Price Lake Dam. A concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. Julian Price Memorial Park. Price Lake Dam. A concrete slab bridge crosses the top of the dam impounding a forty-seven acre lake. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. Teaching Margery and Julian in Anthology-Based Survey Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Zina

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that many of us teach the medieval English women mystics Margery Kempe and Julian of Norwich in survey courses, this essay attempts to put these writers in context for teachers who may have only a passing familiarity with the period. Focusing on passages of their writings found in the Longman and Norton anthologies of British…

  14. TOMORROW: EPA Recognizing Gulf Guardian Award Winners in Corpus Christi, TX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 29, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Gulf of Mexico Program will hold the 13 th annual Gulf Guardians Awards ceremony in Corpus Christi, TX, this Thursday, July 30.

  15. EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay.

  16. EPA Agreement with Citgo Will Improve Safety and Emergency Response in Corpus Christi, TX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (May 22, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced an agreement with the Citgo Refining and Chemicals Company for violations at the company's facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. In addition to correcting violation

  17. Evaluation of pore-water samplers at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used innovative sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report evaluates a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. The new type of pore-water sampler appears to be an effective approach for long-term monitoring of ground water in the sand and organic-rich mud beneath the drainage ditch.

  18. 76 FR 68188 - Valero Refining-Texas, L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, TX; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, TX; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment Notice... Refining-Texas, L.P., hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against the Port of Corpus Christi Authority of...

  19. Guiding future research on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-05-01

    Much as the recurrent variations of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affect climate and drive strong interannual variability across the planet, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)—a months-long, semireliable cycle—affects everything from the Indian monsoon to Pacific hurricanes to North American snowfall. Unlike the better known ENSO, which is seen primarily as an interannual oscillation in equatorial Pacific Ocean surface ocean temperatures, MJO is characterized by a transient cycle in Indian Ocean and western Pacific atmospheric behavior—a semiregular shift in tropical convection and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns.

  20. Julian Lewis (1946-2014): A 'serious hero'.

    PubMed

    Raff, Heather Burton

    2016-02-01

    Julian Lewis was a gifted medical researcher and writer. His early background was the Classics; then Physics and Math; finally, Molecular Cell Biology. He worked on important questions in early embryonic patterning and the cell communication system, and so cancer research, at King's College London, the Imperial Cancer Research Fund Oxford, and finally, Cancer Research UK London. He was a lifelong coauthor of the international textbook Molecular Biology of the Cell. His final personal battle with cancer was brave and not hidden. Awards included the Waddington Medal, a European Molecular Biology Organization membership, and a Fellowship of the Royal Society.

  1. Dr. Jacob Cohen presents the H. Julian Allen award to Anthony Colaprete.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-16

    Dr. Jacob Cohen Director Office of Chief Scientist with Dr. Anthony Colaprete recipient of the H. Julian Allen Award In recognition as co-author of the outstanding scientific paper entitled "Detection of Water in the LCROSS Ejecta Pluma." Shown here Dr. Jacob Cohen presents the H. Julian Allen award to Anthony Colaprete.

  2. 76 FR 55909 - CITGO Refining and Chemicals Company L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION CITGO Refining and Chemicals Company L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, Texas... ``Complainant,'' against the Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, Texas (PCCA)...

  3. When Will It Be ...?: U.S. Naval Observatory Sidereal Time and Julian Date Calculators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda R.; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Sidereal time and Julian date are two values often used in observational astronomy that can be tedious to calculate. Fortunately, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) has redesigned its on-line Sidereal Time and Julian Date (JD) calculators to provide data through an Application Programming Interface (API). This flexible interface returns dates and times in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party websites or applications.Via the API, Sidereal Time can be obtained for any location on Earth for any date occurring in the current, previous, or subsequent year. Up to 9999 iterations of sidereal time data with intervals from 1 second to 1095 days can be generated, as long as the data doesn’t extend past the date limits. The API provides the Gregorian calendar date and time (in UT1), Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time, Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time, Local Mean Sidereal Time, Local Apparent Sidereal Time, and the Equation of the Equinoxes.Julian Date can be converted to calendar date, either Julian or Gregorian as appropriate, for any date between JD 0 (January 1, 4713 BCE proleptic Julian) and JD 5373484 (December 31, 9999 CE Gregorian); the reverse calendar date to Julian Date conversion is also available. The calendar date and Julian Date are returned for all API requests; the day of the week is also returned for Julian Date to calendar date conversions.On-line documentation for using all USNO API-enabled calculators, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php).For those who prefer using traditional data input forms, Sidereal Time can still be accessed at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/siderealtime.php, and the Julian Date Converter at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/JulianDate.php.

  4. Hydrodynamic characterization of Corpus Christi Bay through modeling and observation.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad S; Bonner, James S; Edge, Billy L; Page, Cheryl A

    2014-11-01

    Christi Bay is a relatively flat, shallow, wind-driven system with an average depth of 3-4 m and a mean tidal range of 0.3 m. It is completely mixed most of the time, and as a result, depth-averaged models have, historically, been applied for hydrodynamic characterization supporting regulatory decisions on Texas coastal management. The bay is highly stratified during transitory periods of the summer with low wind conditions. This has important implications on sediment transport, nutrient cycling, and water quality-related issues, including hypoxia which is a key water quality concern for the bay. Detailed hydrodynamic characterization of the bay during the summer months included analysis of simulation results of 2-D hydrodynamic model and high-frequency (HF) in situ observations. The HF radar system resolved surface currents, whereas an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measured current at different depths of the water column. The developed model successfully captured water surface elevation variation at the mouth of the bay (i.e., onshore boundary of the Gulf of Mexico) and at times within the bay. However, large discrepancies exist between model-computed depth-averaged water currents and observed surface currents. These discrepancies suggested the presence of a vertical gradient in the current structure which was further substantiated by the observed bi-directional current movement within the water column. In addition, observed vertical density gradients proved that the water column was stratified. Under this condition, the bottom layer became hypoxic due to inadequate mixing with the aerated surface water. Understanding the disparities between observations and model predictions provides critical insights about hydrodynamics and physical processes controlling water quality.

  5. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  6. Statistical forecasts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C.; Carvalho, L.; Higgins, W.; Waliser, D.; Schemm, J.-K.

    2003-04-01

    Tropical intraseasonal convective anomalies (TICA) play a significant role in the coupled ocean-atmosphere system and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the primary mode of this variability. The two main aspects investigated in this study are: 1) differences in predictive skill of TICA events with different eastward propagation characteristics; 2) differences in predictive skill of TICA events occurring in different phases of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Twenty two years of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is used to identify eastward propagating convective anomalies. A statistical forecast model based on lagged linear regression of the first two principal components from a combined empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of intraseasonally filtered OLR, zonal wind components at 200 hPa and 850 hPa anomalies is developed. The forecast model shows useful skill out to about 25 days when validated against filtered anomalies. The presentation will also discuss the statistical forecast skill in real-time.

  7. [How the Feast of Corpus Christi at the psychiatric hospital of Sarthe became a historical event].

    PubMed

    Guillemain, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Can the historian, passionate about archives, build a historical narrative based mainly on the memories of nurses? Could the caregivers, who are themselves players in the history of psychiatry write it? When the former hears the individual accounts of the latter, history is written. The history of the Feast of Corpus Christi at the psychiatric hospital of Le Mans.

  8. Factors associated with birth defects in the region of Corpus Christi, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance Branch of the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) has documented a high prevalence of certain birth defects in the Corpus Christi, TX region. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations...

  9. IMPACT OF STORM-WATER OUTFALLS ON SEDIMENT QUALITY IN CORPUS CHRISTI BAY, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industr...

  10. Factors associated with birth defects in the region of Corpus Christi, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance Branch of the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) has documented a high prevalence of certain birth defects in the Corpus Christi, TX region. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations...

  11. IMPACT OF STORM-WATER OUTFALLS ON SEDIMENT QUALITY IN CORPUS CHRISTI BAY, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industr...

  12. 75 FR 43886 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., Nueces County Airport, TX (Lat. 27 46'43'' N., long. 97 41'26'' W.) Corpus Christi VORTAC, TX (Lat. 27 54... within a 6.3-mile radius of Nueces County Airport, and within a 7.6-mile radius of Aransas County...

  13. 75 FR 13453 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ..., Nueces County Airport, TX (Lat. 27 46'43'' N., long. 97 41'26'' W.) Corpus Christi VORTAC, TX (Lat. 27 54...Campbell Airport, and within a 6.3-mile radius of Nueces County Airport, and within a 7.6-mile radius...

  14. Gulf Coast from Corpus Christi to mouth of Mississippi river from Gemini 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54559 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Gulf Coast from Corpus Christi, Texas, to mouth of Mississippi River, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 29th revolution of Earth. This photo was taken near sunrise. Photo credit: NASA

  15. The Phonology of Corpus Christi Spanish. Final Report. Summary of Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gustavo

    Thirteen Mexican-American children in Corpus Christi, Texas, most approximately six years old, were interviewed in Spanish for the purpose of establishing the phonology of their dialect. The linguistic competence of the children, not their performance, was of primary interest. A phonological chart was devised based on the data derived from the…

  16. The heliocentric system from the Orphic Hymns and the Pythagoreans to emperor Julian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Dacanalis, Aris; Dimitrijević, Milan, S.; Mantarakis, Petros

    The evolution of the heliocentric theory in the antiquity has been analyzed, from the first seeds in the Orphic Hymns to the emperor Julian, also called "the Apostate" in the 4th century A.D. In particular the Orphic Hymns, views of Pythagoreans, as well as the heliocentric ideas of Philolaus of Croton, Icetas, Ecphantus, Heraclides of Pontos, Anaximander, Seleucus of Seleucia, Aristarchus of Samos and Emperor Julian were analyzed.

  17. Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Corpus Christi Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    USEPA Region 6 and the US Army Corps of Engineers submit for public comment the Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Corpus Christi Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

  18. Solar and QBO Influences on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), also known as the 30-60 day oscillation, is the strongest of the intraseasonal climate oscillations and consists of an eastward propagating pattern of alternately intense and weak tropical convection and precipitation. It has significant derivative effects on extratropical circulation and intraseasonal climate. Both the stratospheric quasi-biennial wind oscillation (QBO) and direct solar forcing of the upper stratosphere produce a change in tropical upwelling rate in the lower stratosphere, which results in a temperature change in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere (UTLS). The solar- and QBO-induced temperature changes modify the static stability, which can affect the intensity of deep tropical convection. Temperature increases (during the QBO east phase at 50 hPa and during solar maxima) tend to decrease tropical convection intensity; the resulting reduced cloud heights produce a positive feedback in the form of increased outgoing longwave radiation, which further heats the UTLS. The opposite occurs during the QBO west phase (QBOW) and during solar minima (SMIN). Here, thirty-six years of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) amplitude and phase data covering the 1980-2015 period produced by the Japan Meteorological Agency (http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/tcc/tcc/products/clisys/mjo/figs/olr0-sst1_1980-2010/rmm8.csv) are analyzed to investigate the dependence of MJO occurrence rate on the phases of the QBO, the 11-year solar cycle (SC), and the solar rotational cycle (SRC). It is found that an MJO event with amplitude > 1.0 occurs about 10% more often under QBOW conditions than under QBOE conditions ( 17% in DJF; 13% in MAM; -5% in JJA; 16% in SON). The occurrence rate is 18% more often under QBOW/SMIN conditions than under QBOE/SMAX conditions ( 26% in DJF; 15% in MAM; -1% in JJA; 26% in SON). Superposed on this is an influence of peaks and minima of the SRC under solar maximum conditions on the occurrence rate of the MJO in the

  19. Madden-Julian Oscillation impacts on tropical African precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.

    2017-02-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of sub-seasonal climate variability in the global tropics. As such it represents an opportunity for intra-seasonal rainfall prediction and, perhaps, for explaining dynamics that underlie longer term variability and trends. This opportunity is of substantial interest for tropical Africa, where rainfall variability has significant impacts on agriculture, energy, and natural ecosystems. The objective of this review paper is to inventory and assess the state of knowledge of MJO influence on African rainfall. A number of studies have identified statistical links between MJO and sub-seasonal rainfall variability in West, East, and Southern Africa. The proposed mechanisms to explain this influence differ by region and by season, and they often involve multiscale interactions between local precipitation processes and MJO-associated atmospheric dynamics. Dynamically-based forecast systems have some skill in predicting MJO evolution to time horizons of 3-4 weeks, and some can capture teleconnections to Africa. On longer time scales, there is evidence that MJO activity both modulates and is modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole. The implications of these interactions for MJO connections to Africa require further research, as does the potential for trends in MJO behavior and impacts on Africa under global climate change.

  20. Stratospheric Control of Madden-Julian Oscillation and Its Teleconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seok-Woo; Lim, Yuna; Yoo, Changhyun; Hendon, Harry; Kim, Joowan

    2017-04-01

    Interannual variation of seasonal-mean tropical convection, especially that over the Indo-Pacific region, is primarily controlled by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). For example, during El Niño winters, seasonal-mean convection around the Maritime Continent becomes weaker than normal, while that over the central to eastern Pacific is strengthened. Similarly, subseasonal convective activity, that is associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), is influenced by the ENSO. The MJO activity tends to extend farther eastward to the dateline during El Niño winters and contract toward the western Pacific during La Niña winters. However, overall level of MJO activity across the Maritime Continent does not change much in response to the ENSO. It is shown that the boreal-winter MJO amplitude is closely linked with the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) rather than the ENSO. The MJO activity around the Maritime Continent becomes stronger and more organized during the easterly QBO winters. The QBO-related MJO change explains up to 40% of interannual variation of the boreal-winter MJO amplitude. This result suggests that variability of the MJO and the related tropical-extratropical teleconnections can be better understood and predicted by taking not only the tropospheric circulation but also the stratospheric mean state into account. The seasonality of the QBO-MJO link and the possible mechanism are also discussed.

  1. Julian Huxley, Uca pugnax and the allometric method.

    PubMed

    Packard, Gary C

    2012-02-15

    The allometric method, which often is attributed to Julian Huxley, entails fitting a straight line to logarithmic transformations of the original bivariate data and then back-transforming the resulting equation to form a power function in the arithmetic scale. Development of the technique was strongly influenced by Huxley's own research on growth by the enlarged 'crusher' claw in male fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax). Huxley reported a discontinuity in the log-log plot of chela mass vs body mass, which he interpreted as an abrupt change in relative growth of the chela at about the time crabs attain sexual maturity. My analysis of Huxley's arithmetic data indicates, however, that the discontinuity was an artifact caused by logarithmic transformation and that dynamics of growth by the crusher claw do not change at any point during development. Arithmetic data are well described by a power function fitted by nonlinear regression but not by one estimated by back-transforming a line fitted to logarithms. This finding and others like it call into question the continued reliance on the allometric method in contemporary research.

  2. Building on Julian Tudor Hart's example of anticipatory care.

    PubMed

    Watt, Graham; O'Donnell, Catherine; Sridharan, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    The prevention and delay of chronic disease is an increasing priority in all advanced health-care systems, but sustainable, effective and equitable approaches remain elusive. In a famous pioneering example in the UK, Julian Tudor Hart combined reactive and anticipatory care within routine consultations in primary medical care, while applying a population approach to delivery and audit. This approach combined the structural advantages of UK general practice, including universal coverage and the absence of user fees, with his long-term commitment to individual patients, and was associated with a 28% reduction in premature mortality over a 25-year period. The more recent, and comprehensively evaluated Scottish National Health Service demonstration project, 'Have a Heart Paisley', took a different approach to cardiovascular prevention and health improvement, using population screening for ascertainment, health coaches and referral to specific health improvement programmes for diet, smoking and exercise. We draw from both examples to construct a conceptual framework for anticipatory care, based on active ingredients, programme pathways and whole system approaches. While the strengths of a family practice approach are coverage, continuity, co-ordination and long-term relationships, the larger health improvement programme offered additional resources and expertise. As theory and evidence accrue, the challenge is to combine the strengths of primary medical care and health improvement, in integrated, sustainable systems of anticipatory care, addressing the heterogeneity of individual needs and solutions, while achieving high levels of coverage, continuity, co-ordination and outcome.

  3. Tracking Pulses of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneyama, Kunio; Zhang, Chidong; Long, Charles N.

    2013-12-13

    An international field campaign aiming at atmospheric and oceanic processes associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) was conducted in and around the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) during October 2011 - March 2012. The objective of the field campaign was to collect observations urgently needed to expedite the progress of understanding the key processes of the MJO, focusing on its initiation but also including propagation and maturation, and ultimately to improve skills of numerical simulation and prediction of the MJO. Primary targets of the field campaign include interaction of atmospheric deep convection with its environmental moisture, evolution of cloud populations, and air-sea interaction. Several MJO events were captured by ground-based, airborne, and oceanic instruments with advanced observing technology. Numerical simulations and real-time forecasts were integrated components of the field campaign in its design and operation. Observations collected during the campaign provide unprecedented opportunities to reveal detailed processes of the MJO and to assist evaluation, improvement and development of weather and climate models. The data policy of the campaign encourages the broad research community to use the field observations to advance the MJO study.

  4. Does the Madden-Julian Oscillation influence aerosol variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Baijun; Waliser, Duane E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Li, Qinbin; Yung, Yuk L.; Tyranowski, Tomasz; Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Torres, Omar; Smirnov, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the modulation of aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) using multiple, global satellite aerosol products: aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on Nimbus-7, and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA satellites. A composite MJO analysis indicates that large variations in the TOMS AI and MODIS/AVHRR AOT are found over the equatorial Indian and western Pacific Oceans where MJO convection is active, as well as the tropical Africa and Atlantic Ocean where MJO convection is weak but the background aerosol level is high. A strong inverse linear relationship between the TOMS AI and rainfall anomalies, but a weaker, less coherent positive correlation between the MODIS/AVHRR AOT and rainfall anomalies, were found. The MODIS/AVHRR pattern is consistent with ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network data. These results indicate that the MJO and its associated cloudiness, rainfall, and circulation variability systematically influence the variability in remote sensing aerosol retrieval results. Several physical and retrieval algorithmic factors that may contribute to the observed aerosol-rainfall relationships are discussed. Preliminary analysis indicates that cloud contamination in the aerosol retrievals is likely to be a major contributor to the observed relationships, although we cannot exclude possible contributions from other physical mechanisms. Future research is needed to fully understand these complex aerosol-rainfall relationships.

  5. Factors controlling the seasonality of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Hsu, Pang-Chi

    2017-06-01

    By analyzing observational data, previous studies have indicated that the tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is active during the boreal winter but relatively weak during the boreal summer. However, the factors that control seasonal MJO variation are not clear. To quantitatively understand the relative contributions of the occurrence frequency of enhanced MJO events and their averaged strength and lifespan to seasonal MJO amplitude, we defined the MJO events of 1979-2014 and analyzed their features in different seasons by using the Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index and the newly proposed RMM-r index. The results indicate that the MJO events show a higher frequency of occurrence, a stronger intensity and a longer duration during the boreal winter (Dec.-Feb.) and spring (Mar.-May). However, the frequency, strength and lifespan of MJO events are all reduced during the boreal summer (Jun.-Aug.) and autumn (Sep.-Nov.). The enhanced MJO events in winter-spring also show a large ratio of variance for eastward to westward components. To elucidate how large-scale background fields affect seasonal MJO variation, a series of sensitivity experiments was conducted by using a 2.5-layer model that can simulate MJO-like features. It is found that the variation in low-level moisture (vertical wind shear) is the key large-scale factor affecting the seasonal variation in MJO strength (in propagation). In comparison with the summer-autumn seasons when the MJO is relatively weakened, the relatively abundant low-level moisture near the equator during boreal winter-spring may strengthen the development of MJO convection and circulation, whereas the relatively weak easterly shear (or the westerly shear anomaly) is conducive to the enhancement of an eastward-propagating MJO component.

  6. The life cycle of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendon, Harry H.; Salby, Murry L.

    1994-01-01

    A composite life cycle of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is constructed from the cross covariance between outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), wind, and temperature. To focus on the role of convection, the composite is based on episodes when a discrete signal in OLR is present. The composite convective anomaly possesses a predominantly zonal wavenumber 2 structure that is confined to the eastern hemisphere. There, it propagates eastward at about 5 m/s and evolves through a systematic cycle of amplification and decay. Unlike the convective anomaly, the circulation anomaly is not confined to the eastern hemisphere. The circulation anomaly displays characteristics of both a forced response, coupled to the convective anomaly as it propagates across the eastern hemisphere, and a radiating response, which propagates away from the convective anomaly into the western hemisphere at about 10 m/s. The forced response appears as a coupled Rossby-Kelvin wave while the radiating response displays predominantly Kelvin wave features. When it is amplifying, the convective anomaly is positively correlated to the temperature perturbation, which implies production of eddy available potential energy (EAPE). A similar correlation between upper-tropospheric divergence and temperature implies conversion of EAPE to eddy kinetic energy during this time. When it is decaying, temperature has shifted nearly into quadrature with convection, so their correlation and production of EAPE are then small. The same correspondence to the amplification and decay of the disturbance is mirrored in the phase relationship between surface convergence and anomalous convection. The correspondence of surface convergence to the amplification and decay of the convective anomaly suggests that frictional wave- Conditional Instability of the Second Kind (CISK) plays a key role in generating the MJO.

  7. Modulation of Atlantic Aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Wong, S.

    2010-01-01

    Much like the better-known EI Nino-Southern Oscillation, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a global-scale atmospheric phenomenon. The MJO involves periodic, systematic changes in the distribution of clouds and precipitation over the western Pacific and Indian oceans, along with differences in wind intensity over even more extensive areas, including the north and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. The lead authors of this paper developed a sophisticated mathematical technique for mapping the spatial and temporal behavior of changes in the atmosphere produced by the MJO. In a previous paper, we applied this technique to search for modulation of airborne particle amount in the eastern hemisphere associated with the "wet" (cloudy) vs. "dry" phases of the MJO. The study used primarily AVHRR, MODIS, and TOMS satellite-retrieved aerosol amount, but concluded that other factors, such as cloud contamination of the satellite signals, probably dominated the observed variations. The current paper looks at MJO modulation of desert dust transport eastward across the Atlantic from northern Africa, a region much less subject to systematic cloud contamination than the eastern hemisphere areas studied previously. In this case, a distinct aerosol signal appears, showing that dust is transported westward much more effectively during the MJO phase that favors westward-flowing wind, and such transport is suppressed when the MJO reduces these winds. Aside form the significant achievement in identifying such an effect, the result implies that an important component of global dust transport can be predicted based on the phase of the MJO. As a consequence, the impact of airborne dust on storm development in the Atlantic, and on dust deposition downwind of the desert sources, can also be predicted and more accurately modeled.

  8. Does the Madden-Julian Oscillation Influence Aerosol Variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Li, Q.; Yung, Y. L.; Tyranowski, T.; Geogdzhayev, I. V.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Torres, O.; Smirnov, A.

    2007-12-01

    We investigate the modulation of aerosols by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) using satellite-based global aerosol products, including aerosol index (AI) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on Nimbus-7, and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA satellites. A composite analysis is performed for boreal winter, and the global pentad rainfall data from the NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) are used to identify MJO events. The MJO composites exhibit large variations in the TOMS AI and MODIS/AVHRR AOT over the equatorial Indian and western Pacific Oceans where MJO convection is active, as well as the tropical Africa and Atlantic Ocean where MJO convection is relatively weak but the background aerosol level is relatively high. A strong inverse linear relationship between the TOMS AI and rainfall anomalies, but a weaker, less coherent positive correlation between the MODIS/AVHRR AOT and rainfall anomalies, were found. The Aerosol Robotic Network AOT pattern at Kaashidoo (73.5°E, 4.9°N) and Nauru (167°E, 0.5°S) is more consistent with MODIS and AVHRR. These results indicate a connection between the MJO, its associated rainfall and circulation variability, and the observed aerosol variations. Several physical and non-physical factors that may contribute to the observed aerosol-rainfall relationship, such as aerosol humidification effect, wet deposition, surface wind speed, phytoplankton, different sensor sensitivities (absorbing versus non-absorbing aerosols and upper versus lower tropospheric aerosols), sampling issue, and cloud contamination, are discussed. However, a clear causal explanation for the observed patterns remains elusive. Further investigation is needed to unravel this complex aerosol-rainfall relationship.

  9. 78 FR 37792 - Mario Julian Martinez-Bernache, Inmate Number #95749-279, CI Big Spring, Corrections Institution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Mario Julian Martinez-Bernache, Inmate Number 95749-279, CI Big Spring... 15, 2012, in the U.S. District Court, Southern District of Texas, Mario Julian Martinez-Bernache (``Martinez-Bernache'') was convicted of violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778...

  10. Simplified metrics for the identification of the Madden-Julian oscillation in models

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Kim, Daehyun

    2012-07-01

    We propose simplified metrics to evaluate the fidelity with which the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is simulated in climate models. These metrics are based on lag correlation analysis of principal component time series (PCs). The PCs are obtained by projecting simulated 20–100 day bandpass filtered daily outgoing longwave radiation onto the two leading empirical orthogonal functions of observed MJO variability. The simplified MJO metrics, the maximum positive correlation and time lag at which it occurs, provide consistent information relative to more complex diagnostics developed by the Madden–Julian Oscillation Working Group (CLIVAR MJOWG) and by Kim et al.

  11. A trio-interaction theory for Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Guosen

    2016-12-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of tropical atmospheric intraseasonal variability and a primary source of predictability for global sub-seasonal prediction. Understanding the origin and perpetuation of the MJO has eluded scientists for decades. The present paper starts with a brief review of progresses in theoretical studies of the MJO and a discussion of the essential MJO characteristics that a theory should explain. A general theoretical model framework is then described in an attempt to integrate the major existing theoretical models: the frictionally coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave, the moisture mode, the frictionally coupled dynamic moisture mode, the MJO skeleton, and the gravity wave interference, which are shown to be special cases of the general MJO model. The last part of the present paper focuses on a special form of trio-interaction theory in terms of the general model with a simplified Betts-Miller (B-M) cumulus parameterization scheme. This trio-interaction theory extends the Matsuno-Gill theory by incorporating a trio-interaction among convection, moisture, and wave-boundary layer (BL) dynamics. The model is shown to produce robust large-scale characteristics of the observed MJO, including the coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave structure, slow eastward propagation ( 5 m/s) over warm pool, the planetary (zonal) scale circulation, the BL low-pressure and moisture convergence preceding major convection, and amplification/decay over warm/cold sea surface temperature (SST) regions. The BL moisture convergence feedback plays a central role in coupling equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves with convective heating, selecting a preferred eastward propagation, and generating instability. The moisture feedback can enhance Rossby wave component, thereby substantially slowing down eastward propagation. With the trio-interaction theory, a number of fundamental issues of MJO dynamics are addressed: why the MJO possesses a mixed Kelvin-Rossby wave structure

  12. Madden Julian Oscillation impacts on global ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Durrant, Tom H.; Hemer, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the impact of the tropical Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global ocean wind waves using 30 years of wave data from a wave model hindcast that is forced with high resolution surface winds from the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. We concentrate on the boreal winter season when the MJO has its greatest amplitude and is potentially a source of predictable wave impacts at intra-seasonal lead times. Statistically significant anomalies in significant wave height (Hs), peak wave period (Tp) and zonal wave energy flux (CgE) are found to covary with the intra-seasonal variation of surface zonal wind induced by the MJO as it traverses eastward from the western tropical Indian Ocean to the eastern tropical Pacific. Tp varies generally out of phase with Hs over the life cycle of the MJO, indicating that these MJO-wave anomalies are locally wind-generated rather than remotely generated by ocean swell. Pronounced Hs anomalies develop on the northwest shelf of Australia, where the MJO is known to influence sea level and surface temperatures, and in the western Caribbean Sea and Guatemalan-Panama Seas with enhanced wave anomalies apparent in the vicinity of the Tehuantepec and Papagayo gaps. Significant wave anomalies are also detected in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans in connection with the MJO teleconnection to the extratropics via atmospheric wave propagation. The impact in the north Atlantic stems from induction of the high phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) about 1 week after MJO convection traverses the Indian Ocean, and the low phase of the NAO about one week after suppressed convection traverses the Indian Ocean. Strong positive Hs anomalies maximize on the Northern European coast in the positive NAO phase and vice versa for the negative NAO phase. The MJO also influences the occurrence of daily low (below the 5th percentile) and high (above the 95th percentile) wave conditions across the tropics and in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

  13. Loss of Significance and Multidecadal Madden Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhas, E.; Goswami, B.

    2009-12-01

    Any change in the significant power of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) would not only affect the extended range prediction of MJO, but also affect the predictability of the tropical weather as it clusters synoptic activity. Change in significance and interdecadal variability of northern hemispheric winter MJO during 1948-2006 is examined using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Variation of MJO power relative to the rednoise background is estimated by isolating the MJO signal through frequency-wavenumber spectral analysis using a 10-year sliding window. It is shown that during the periods, the rate of increase of red background power has been larger than the rate of increase of MJO power leading to a decreasing trend of significant MJO power. It is also found that an interdecadal variation rides on the decreasing trend of significant power of the MJO. Another finding is that the zonal mean component on MJO time scale has a significant increasing trend. We propose that the persistent warming of Tropical Ocean during the period makes the tropical atmosphere increasingly unstable leading to higher intensity and frequency of occurrence of high frequency events. Higher energy in smaller scales eventually results in higher energy in larger scales through nonlinear upscale cascading of energy making the energy spectrum red. Energetics calculation in wavenumber domain has been carried out to understand why the significant MJO power is not increasing as fast as the red background. It shows that the long waves (wavenumber 1-3, i.e the MJO scale) always lose energy to the zonal mean flow and the rate of kinetic energy exchange between zonal mean flow and long waves has a linear increasing trend. Thus, while MJO is also being energized by the warming ocean, it is loosing increasingly more energy to zonal mean flow making the zonal mean more energetic while loosing its own significance at the same time. It is found that the observed interdecadal variability of the significant MJO

  14. From a Dual to a Tri-Partite School System: The Origins and Development of Educational Segregation in Corpus Christi, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how the Corpus Christi public school system adapted around 1900 to that region's changing social and economic conditions. Contends that the public schools reflected the peculiar form of racial segregation that became established in Corpus Christi and reflected the local society's caste-like structure which separated Blacks, Whites, and…

  15. Evaluating ancient Egyptian prescriptions today: Anti-inflammatory activity of Ziziphus spina-christi.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Jacob, Stefan; Bohnert, Stefan; Naß, Janine; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Khalid, Hassan; Merfort, Irmgard; Thines, Eckhard; Pommerening, Tanja; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. (Christ's Thorn Jujube) is a wild tree today found in Jordan, Israel, Egypt, and some parts of Africa, which was already in use as a medicinal plant in Ancient Egypt. In ancient Egyptian prescriptions, it was used in remedies against swellings, pain, and heat, and thus should have anti-inflammatory effects. Nowadays, Z. spina-christi, is used in Egypt (by Bedouins, and Nubians), the Arabian Peninsula, Jordan, Iraq, and Morocco against a wide range of illnesses, most of them associated with inflammation. Pharmacological research undertaken to date suggests that it possesses anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypotensive and anti-microbial effects. The transcription factor NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is critical in inflammation, proliferation and involved in various types of cancer. Identification of new anti-inflammatory compounds might be an effective strategy to target inflammatory disorders and cancer. Therefore, extracts from Z. spina-christi are investigated in terms of their anti-inflammatory effects. Our intention is to evaluate the effects of Z. spina-christi described in ancient Egyptian papyri, and to show whether the effects can be proven with modern pharmacological methods. Furthermore, we determine the active ingredients in crude extracts for their inhibitory activity toward NF-κB pathway. To determine the active ingredients of Z. spina-christi, we fractionated the extracts for bioassays and identified the active compounds. Epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, spinosin, 6''' feruloylspinosin and 6''' sinapoylspinosin and crude extracts of seed, leaf, root or stem were analyzed for their effect on NF-κB DNA binding by electromobility shift assay (EMSA) and nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 by Western blot analysis. The binding mode of the compounds to NF-κB pathway proteins was compared with the known inhibitor, MG-132, by in silico molecular docking calculations. Log10IC50

  16. Estimated sediment deposition in Lake Corpus Christi, Texas, 1972-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leibbrand, Norman F.

    1987-01-01

    Some difference was found in comparison of the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (Water Resources Division) study and the McCaughan and Etheridge Consulting Engineers study. Total sediment outflow from Lake Corpus Christi was estimated at 177 acre-feet (dry) by the Geological Survey and 1,070 acre-feet (dry) by McCaughan and Etheridge Consulting Engineers. This difference may be due to construction of a new dam, completed in 1958, that is higher and inundated the old dam.

  17. The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Dafni, Amots; Levy, Shay; Lev, Efraim

    2005-01-01

    This article surveys the ethnobotany of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. in the Middle East from various aspects: historical, religious, philological, literary, linguistic, as well as pharmacological, among Muslims, Jews, and Christians. It is suggested that this is the only tree species considered "holy" by Muslims (all the individuals of the species are sanctified by religion) in addition to its status as "sacred tree " (particular trees which are venerated due to historical or magical events related to them, regardless of their botanical identity) in the Middle East. It has also a special status as "blessed tree" among the Druze. PMID:16270941

  18. Maksim Trpkovič and the reform of the Julian calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatovič, M.; Trajkovska, V.

    In this essay, we try to express the short history of different Christian calendars, as well as the history of the Julian calendar. Especially, we emphasize Maksim Trpkovic's fundamental role in this reform, who was a professor of natural sciences and originated from Macedonia.

  19. Maps showing textural characteristics of benthic sediments in the Corpus Christi Bay estuarine system, south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.; Stelting, Charles E.; McGowen, Joseph H.

    1981-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay is a heavily used estuary on the south Texas coast in the northwest Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1).  The Bay is stressed by diverse activities which could substantially affect its ecosystem.  Such activities include shipping, resource production (oil, gas, and construction aggregate), commercial and sport fishing, and recreation.  Shipping activities alone have had a substantial impact on the bay.  For example, the past maintenance of navigation channels has required extensive dredging and spoil disposal within the estuarine system.  Numerous subaqueous spoil disposal sites and subaerial spoil banks are present throughout the bay (fig. 1), and the selection of future spoil disposal sites is becoming a critical local problem.  As activities in the bay increase, the need for effective environmental management becomes increasingly important, and effective management necessitates a good understanding of the bay's physical characteristics.  The objective of this study is to provide detailed information about the textural composition of bottom sediments within the estuarine system, information which could be used in making environmental-management decisions.  Visual descriptions of bottom sediments in Corpus Christi Bay and adjacent areas have been presented by McGowen and Morton (1979).  Additionally, a study of the textures of sediments on the Inner Continental Shelf adjacent to the bay has been presented by Shideler and Berryhill (1977).

  20. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  1. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  2. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  3. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  4. 33 CFR 3.40-35 - Sector Corpus Christi Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The boundaries of Sector Corpus Christi's Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone start at the junction of the sea and the east bank of the Colorado River at latitude 28°35′44″ N, longitude 95... southwest along the northern boundary of Wharton County, TX; thence northwest along the eastern and...

  5. Multiscale Asymptotics for the Skeleton of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and Tropical-Extratropical Interactions (Open Access)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    for the Skeleton of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and Tropical–Extratropical Interactions Abstract: A new model is derived and analyzed for tropical...extratropical inter- actions involving the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The model combines (i) the tropical dynamics of the MJO and equatorial...dry variables are considered, but it occurs in the moist model here through interactions with water vapor and convective activity. Keywords: tropical

  6. Milutin Milanković and the Reform of the Julian Calendar in 1923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.; Theodossiou, E. Th.; Mantarakis, P. Z.

    2008-03-01

    At the Orthodox Church Ecumenical Congress of 1923 in Constantinople one of the important questions discussed was the Julian Calendar reform. In the delegation of the Serbian Orthodox Church was the accomplished Serbian geophysicist and astronomer Milutin Milanković (1879-1958), who played a critical role in the proceedings, and whose proposition for calendar reform was adopted. The issues relating to that proposal are discussed here, along with a short history of Milutin Milanković and his work.

  7. Conceptual ecosystem model of the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montagna, P.A.; Li, J.; Street, G.T.

    1996-01-01

    This report developed a conceptual ecosystem model, both pictorial and narrative, of the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program (CCBNEP) study area. The model demonstrates ecosystem linkages at all trophic levels and substrate types, and provides a conceptual framework with which to assess ecological and environmental impacts (both episodic and cumulative) associated with external influences. The model is based on current scientific consensus regarding the modeling of estuarine ecosystem components, and data and information regarding these relationships within the study area. The model was developed to two levels of detail: (1) a detailed model suitable for the scientific and technical community; and, (2) a simple model suitable for use in CCBNEP public documents and management conference deliberations.

  8. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Corpus Christi NTMS quadrangle, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-31

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Corpus Christi Quadrangle, Texas, are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 119 groundwater samples and 57 stream sediment samples. Also included is a brief discussion on the geology and hydrology of the quadrangle. Groundwater data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile occur primarily in a trend in western Nueces County. With one exception, waters in the trend are produced from the Evangeline aquifer and have high values for selenium and strontium. Owing to urbanization, low topographic relief, and the presence of Recent-to-Pleistocene surface material, stream sediment data were found to be less than optimum for the determination of the potential for uranium mineralization, and variation in uranium concentrations between units may simply reflect lithologic differences.

  9. Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan, Corpus Christi Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    USEPA Region 6 and the US Army Corps of Engineers submit for comment this Draft Site Management and Monitoring Plan, Corpus Christi Site Management and Monitoring Plan for Maintenance and New Work Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site

  10. The influence of coastal wetlands on hurricane surge in Corpus Christi, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C.; Irish, J. L.; Olivera, F.

    2010-12-01

    The State of Texas has historically faced hurricane-related damage episodes, with Ike being the most recent example. It is expected that, in the future, hurricanes will intensify due to climate change causing greater surges, while the attenuating effect of wetlands on storm surges will also be modified due to sea level rise changes in wetland vegetation type and spatial location. Numerical analysis of storm surges is an important instrument to predict and simulate flooding extent and magnitude in coastal areas. Most operational surge models account for the influence of wetlands and other vegetation by momentum loss due to friction at the bottom and by reduction of imposed wind stress. A coupled hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC) and wave model (SWAN) was employed, and wetlands were characterized using Manning’s n, surface canopy, and surface roughness. The wetlands parameters were developed from: 1) the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and 2001; 2) the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) 2001. The calibrated coupled model for two historical hurricanes, Bret and Beulah, was used to simulate the storm surge for each scenario. Preliminary results for the sensitivity analyses, for hurricane Bret, comparing the scenarios with parameters developed from NLCD and NWI datasets with four hypothetical scenarios considering very high and low Manning’s n and wind stress (surface canopy) values showed that, for areas inside Nueces Bay, the storm surge high could vary up to four times depending on the parameter selection, for areas inside Corpus Christi Bay, the storm surge high varied around three times and behind the barrier island the storm surge high variation was less than three times. This study is a first step for an evaluation of the impact that sea level rise, climate changed wetlands, wetlands restoration, land use change, and wetlands degradation have on hurricane related surge elevation and extent in the city of Corpus Christi.

  11. Surface Wind and Upper-Ocean Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation Simulated by the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Madden- Julian Oscillation Simulated by the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System 0601153N 73-4347-22-5 Toshiaki Shinoda, Tommy G...unlimited. Simulation of surface wind and upper-ocean variability associated with the Madden - Julian oscillation (MJO) by a regional coupled model, the...based on the comparison with the spatial variation of surface forcing fields. Indian Ocean, diurnal effects, Madden- Julian oscillation, coupled

  12. Large-Scale Oceanic Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign from Satellite Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-29

    dynamical ocean feedback mechanism for the Madden- Julian oscillation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 2010,136, 740-754. 42. McCreary , J.P.; Kundu, P.K...Variability Associated with the Madden- Julian Oscillation During the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign from Satellite Observations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...measurements based on the comparison with in-situ observations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Indian Ocean, Madden- Julian Oscillation, CINDY/DYNAMO, aquarius

  13. Seasonal Change in Nearshore and Channel Morphology at Packery Channel, A New Inlet Serving Corpus Christi, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Channel enjoy a variety of activities including fishing, boating, swimming, snorkeling, and kayaking . Consistently strong wind and a weaker longshore...south of Bob Hall Pier. Fish Pass is an artificial inlet that opened in 1978 and began closing naturally soon after construction with complete closure...the Corpus Christi Water Exchange Pass. Rapid natural closure of the Fish Pass created doubt about the stability of the planned inlet at Packery

  14. Simulated Madden-Julian Oscillation structure and sea-surface temperature dependence within an aquaplanet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Edward

    The response of simulated Madden-Julian Oscillations to changes in sea surface temperature climatologies, turbulent surface flux parameterizations, moisture time tendency parameterizations, and air-sea couplings is examined with the use of an aquaplanet model. The intent of this study is to determine the contribution of individual proposed mechanisms to the generation of variability at intraseasonal (30--60 days) timescales. Among the theoretical frameworks tested are Conditional Instability of the Second Kind (CISK) which is a class of scale interaction invoking a feedback between large-scale circulation and cumulus-scale convection, Wind Induced Surface Heat Exchange (WISHE) which asserts that condensational heating and adiabatic cooling in the atmosphere always balance which nullifies CISK so that the primary forcing for the Madden-Julian Oscillation is evaporative moisture fluxes induced by perturbations in easterly surface winds preceding the bulk of convection, and Air-Sea Convective Intraseasonal Interactions (ASCII) which consider the interactive couplings between surface wind magnitude and direction, ocean mixing layer depth, surface latent heat flux anomalies, and cloud shielding effects to create a zonally asymmetric boundary layer water vapor distribution induced by elevated sea surface temperatures to the east of the propagating convective mode and enhanced evaporative fluxes to the west which act to hinder rapid forward progression of the wave. A series of numerical experiments were conducted in which one or more of the model representations of these mechanism were suppressed and the resulting behavior of the simulated Madden Julian Oscillation was evaluated relative to its spatial and temporal structure. It was found that the suppression of WISHE lowered the variability of the simulated Madden Julian Oscillation by a factor of ˜80 while the suppression of the moisture feedback which is driven by difference in surface layer water vapor content had

  15. Modulation of hurricane activity in the gulf of mexico by the madden-julian oscillation

    PubMed

    Maloney; Hartmann

    2000-03-17

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is a large-scale episodic modulation of tropical winds and precipitation that travels eastward from Asia to America, with a characteristic repeat time of 30 to 60 days. Here it is shown that when MJO wind anomalies in the lower troposphere of the eastern Pacific are westerly, Gulf of Mexico and western Caribbean hurricane genesis is four times more likely than when the MJO winds are easterly. Accurate predictions of the MJO may lead to improved long-range forecasts of tropical cyclone activity.

  16. Geologic map of the Julian 7.5' quadrangle, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Victoria R.

    2015-01-01

    Jurassic plutons in the Julian quadrangle underwent synkinematic metamorphism with the result that plutonic contacts and foliation are concordant with those in the surrounding metamorphosed country rocks. Foliation in Jurassic plutons consists of the planar orientation of recrystallized mineral grains and aggregates; deformation textures include augen gneiss, mylonitic gneiss, and mylonite. Structural studies indicate that a significant part of this deformation took place in the Cretaceous and, therefore, the regional foliation in this part of the batholith clearly postdates intrusion of many Cretaceous plutons.

  17. Conducting a user-centered information needs assessment: the Via Christi Libraries' experience*

    PubMed Central

    Perley, Cathy M.; Gentry, Camillia A.; Fleming, A. Sue; Sen, Kristin M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The research sought to provide evidence to support the development of a long-term strategy for the Via Christi Regional Medical Center Libraries. Methods: An information needs assessment was conducted in a large medical center serving approximately 5,900 physicians, clinicians, and nonclinical staff in 4 sites in 1 Midwestern city. Quantitative and qualitative data from 1,295 self-reporting surveys, 75 telephone interviews, and 2 focus groups were collected and analyzed to address 2 questions: how could the libraries best serve their patrons, given realistic limitations on time, resources, and personnel, and how could the libraries best help their institution improve patient care and outcomes? Results: Clinicians emphasized the need for “just in time” information accessible at the point of care. Library nonusers emphasized the need to market library services and resources. Both clinical and nonclinical respondents emphasized the need for information services customized to their professional information needs, preferences, and patterns of use. Specific information needs in the organization were identified. Discussion/Conclusions: The results of this three-part, user-centered information needs assessment were used to develop an evidence-based strategic plan. The findings confirmed the importance of promoting library services in the organization and suggested expanded, collaborative roles for hospital librarians. PMID:17443250

  18. Impact of storm-water outfalls on sediment quallity in corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R. Scott; Montagna, Paul A.; Biedenbach, James M.; Kalke, Rick; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Hooten, Russell L.; Cripe, Geraldine

    2000-01-01

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industrial and domestic outfalls, oil field–produced water discharges, and dredging activity) and eight reference sites were also evaluated. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for physical–chemical characteristics, contaminant concentrations (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and pesticides), toxicity (amphipod and mysid solid phase and sea urchin pore-water fertilization and embryological development tests), and a benthic index of biotic integrity (BIBI) composed of 10 independent metrics calculated for each site. This large data matrix was reduced using multivariate analysis to create new variables for each component representing overall means and containing most of the variance in the larger data set. The new variables were used to conduct the correlation analysis. Toxicity was significantly correlated with both chemistry and ecological responses, whereas no correlations between the benthic metrics and sediment chemistry were observed. Using the combined information from the SQT, four of the five most degraded sites were storm-water outfall sites. Although estuaries are naturally stressful environments because of salinity and temperature fluctuations, this ecosystem appears to have been compromised by anthropogenic influences similar to what has been observed for other heavily urbanized bay systems along the Texas and Gulf coast.

  19. Impact of storm-water outfalls on sediment quality in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Montagna, P.A.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Kalke, R.; Kennicutt, M.C.; Hooten, R.; Cripe, G.

    2000-03-01

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industrial and domestic outfalls, oil field-produced water discharges, and dredging activity) and eight reference sites were also evaluated. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for physical-chemical characteristics, contaminant concentrations (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and pesticides), toxicity, and a benthic index of biotic integrity (BIBI) composed of 10 independent metrics calculated for each site. This large data matrix was reduced using multivariate analysis to create new variables for each component representing overall means and containing most of the variance in the larger data set. The new variables were used to conduct the correlation analysis. Toxicity was significantly correlated with both chemistry and ecological responses, whereas no correlations between the benthic metrics and sediment chemistry were observed. Using the combined information from the SQT, four of the five most degraded sites were storm-water outfall sites. Although estuaries are naturally stressful environments because of salinity and temperature fluctuations, this ecosystem appears to have been compromised by anthropogenic influences similar to what has been observed for other heavily urbanized bay systems along the Texas and Gulf coast.

  20. An Environmental Information System for Hypoxia in Corpus Christi Bay: A WATERS Network Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsker, B.; Maidment, D.; Hodges, B.; Montagna, P.; Bonner, J.

    2006-12-01

    This project is creating and demonstrating a prototype Environmental Information System (EIS) that couples sensor measurements with end-to-end cyberinfrastructure to improve understanding of hypoxia in Corpus Christi Bay (CC Bay), Texas. Hypoxia is a common estuarine phenomenon that occurs when dissolved oxygen concentrations fall below 2 mg/L, and has resulted in about a ten-fold reduction in benthic standing stock and diversity in CC Bay. The hypoxia in CC Bay is correlated with salinity-induced stratification of the bay, but the causes of the stratification and the spatial and temporal patterns of the hypoxia remain uncertain. In this project, an interdisciplinary team of hydrologists, environmental engineers, and biologists are collaborating to improve understanding of hypoxia by: (1) creating an Environmental Data Access System for CC Bay data archives, leveraging CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) Web service developments to create data services that automatically ingest observed data in both national and local remote data archives; (2) developing an Environmental Modeling System for CC Bay hypoxia, combining numerical hydrodynamic, dissolved oxygen, and oxygen demand models with data mining using hierarchical machine learning algorithms; and (3) demonstrating the effectiveness of the EIS for supporting adaptive hypoxia sampling and collaborative research using the CyberCollaboratory. This paper will summarize current progress and plans for the project.

  1. Cytotoxicity of different extracts of arial parts of Ziziphus spina-christi on Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, Abbas; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Shirani, Kobra

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that plants from the family Rhamnaceae possess anticancer activity. In this study, we sought to determine if Ziziphus spina-christi, a species from this family, has cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Using maceration method, different extracts of leaves of Z. spina-christi were prepared. Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol (9:1), methanol-water (7:1) methanol, butanol and water were used for extraction, after preliminary phytochemical analyses were done. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts against Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of extracts were added. After incubation of cells for 72 h, their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Hexane, chloroform, chloroform-methanol, butanol, methanol-water and aqueous extracts of Z. spina-christi significantly and concentration-dependently reduced viability of Hela and MAD-MB-468 cells. In the both cell lines, chloroform-methanol extract of Z. spina-christi was more potent than the other extracts. Results: From the finding of this study it can be concluded that Z. spina-christi is a good candidate for further study for new cytotoxic agents. PMID:24627846

  2. Distribution, abundance, and resting microhabitat of burbot on Julian's Reef, southwestern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Horns, William H.

    1993-01-01

    We used a remotely operated submersible vehicle equipped with a color video camera to videotape the lake bed and document the distribution and abundance of burbot Lota lota on a 156-hectare portion of Julian's Reef in southwestern Lake Michigan. The substrates and bathymetry of the study area had been mapped recently by side-scan sonar. Burbot density determined from videotapes covering 6,900 m2 of lake bed at depths of 23-41 m averaged 139 individuals/ hectare (range, 0-571/hectare). This density was substantially higher than the highest burbot density (59-95/hectare) reported in the literature. Burbot were present on the lake bed at depths of 23-36 m, but were most abundant near the crest of the reef at 23-28 m, where the water temperature was 8-13°C, their preferred summer temperature range. Substrates in that temperature range on the reef were bedrock, bedrock ridges, and bedrock and rubble. Burbot were most abundant on the bedrock and rubble. Small fish and macroinvertebrates typically eaten by burbot elsewhere in western Lake Michigan were distributed on the reef according to their summer preferred temperatures and were not seen in abundance where burbot density was highest. We saw no lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on Julian's Reef, although large numbers of juvenile lake trout have been stocked there annually and temperatures on the reef were in the preferred summer temperature range for lake trout.

  3. Distribution, abundance, and resting microhabitat of burbot on Julian's Reef, southwestern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Horns, William H.

    1993-01-01

    We used a remotely operated submersible vehicle equipped with a color video camera to videotape the lake bed and document the distribution and abundance of burbot Lota lotaon a 156-hectare portion of Julian's Reef in southwestern Lake Michigan. The substrates and bathymetry of the study area had been mapped recently by side-scan sonar. Burbot density determined from videotapes covering 6,900 m2 of lake bed at depths of 23–41 m averaged 139 individuals/ hectare (range, 0–571/hectare). This density was substantially higher than the highest burbot density (59–95/hectare) reported in the literature. Burbot were present on the lake bed at depths of 23–36 m, but were most abundant near the crest of the reef at 23–28 m, where the water temperature was 8–13°C, their preferred summer temperature range. Substrates in that temperature range on the reef were bedrock, bedrock ridges, and bedrock and rubble. Burbot were most abundant on the bedrock and rubble. Small fish and macroinvertebrates typically eaten by burbot elsewhere in western Lake Michigan were distributed on the reef according to their summer preferred temperatures and were not seen in abundance where burbot density was highest. We saw no lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on Julian's Reef, although large numbers of juvenile lake trout have been stocked there annually and temperatures on the reef were in the preferred summer temperature range for lake trout.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Chuck

    2016-07-01

    Every 30–90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall. This phenomenon is referred to as the Madden–Julian Oscillation, or MJO, named after the scientists who identified this cycle. The MJO significantly affects weather and rainfall patterns around the world (Zhang 2013). To improve predictions of the MJO—especially about how it forms and evolves throughout its lifecycle—an international group of scientists collected an unprecedented set of observations from the Indian Ocean and western Pacific region from October 2011 through March 2012 through several coordinated efforts. The coordinated field campaigns captured six distinct MJO cycles in the Indian Ocean. The rich set of observations capturing several MJO events from these efforts will be used for many years to study the physics of the MJO. Here we highlight early research results using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment (AMIE), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

  5. Modulation of Madden-Julian Oscillation on the polar mesospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Yang, C.; Liu, X.; Yue, J.; Russell, J. M., III; Dou, X.

    2016-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant intra-seasonal variability in the equatorial troposphere, and is characterized by eastward propagation of tropical deep convection with a speed of 5 m/s from Indian ocean to central Pacific ocean, and with a intra-seasonal period of 30-90 days [Madden and Julian, 1994]. The MJO could significantly impact the global weather and climate [Zhang, 2005]. Recent studies also suggested that the Northern Hemisphere (NH) stratospheric polar vortex could be modulated by the MJO with strengthened (weakened) polar vortex during the enhanced (suppressed) convection in the tropical central Pacific Ocean [Garfinkel et al., 2014]. Using the Aura/Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) observations, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis interim dataset, and Specified Dynamics of Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (SD-WACCM) simulations, we study the influences of MJO in the mesosphere during the Northern winter and on the southern hemisphere summer polar mesospheric cloud (PMC). The anomalous PMC occurrence frequency is clearly correlated with anomalous water vapor and anti-correlated with anomalous temperature in the southern hemisphere polar mesosphere, suggesting that the MJO modulates the summer polar mesospheric temperature and water vapor and thus the formation of PMC. We will also discuss the possible mechanism of the mesosphere responses to MJO using SD-WACCM and ECMWF.

  6. The Relative Importance of Terrestrial Versus Marine Sediment Sources to the Nueces- Corpus Christi Estuary, Texas: An Isotopic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, K. M.; Santschi, P. H.; Schindler, K. J.; Andres, M. J.; Weaver, E. A.

    2006-05-01

    Determining principle sources of sediment to coastal systems is an important and complex problem that figures prominently in a myriad of geological, geomorphological, geochemical and biological processes. Lithogenic (226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th) and fallout (137Cs, 210Pb) isotopes were used in conjunction with sedimentological methods to determine rates of sedimentation in the Nueces Delta and Nueces-Corpus Christi Estuary and to assess the relative importance of marine versus terrestrial sediment sources to the estuary. Sampling focused primarily on the lower Nueces River, Nueces Delta, Nueces Bay, Corpus Christi Bay, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIW) and Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Gain size data show GIW and GOM sediments to be dominantly sands, Corpus Christi Bay sediments to be dominantly clays and sediments from all other sampled areas to be more homogenized in grain size, suggesting that near shore oceanic sediments are sands derived predominantly from long shore transport in the littoral zone. Bed load and suspended sediments sourced from the Nueces River provide sand and fines to the Nueces Delta and Bay, where the coarser size fractions are effectively retained. Similarity of lithogenic isotope ratios in surface sediment types throughout the system precluded a numeric approach to discerning the importance of each of the two large scale sediment source areas (terrestrial and marine). A stepwise, graphical examination of discrete lithogenic isotope activity concentrations shows more promise. Terrestrial, marine and bay sediment means for 226Ra v. 232Th, 226Ra v. 230Th and 228Ra v. 232Th show that terrestrial and marine sediment sources have different signatures, despite having a similar grain size distribution (sands), and that sediment deposited in Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays are indistinguishable from the terrestrial component. Supporting evidence is provided by thorium isotopes, 230Th v. 232Th, 228Th v. 232Th and 228Th v. 230Th. Nueces Delta

  7. Is Julian Assange an International Version of Daniel Ellsberg and WikiLeaks the Modern Equivalent of the Pentagon Papers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freivogel, William H.

    2011-01-01

    History has placed the stamp of approval on the publication of the Pentagon Papers, the top-secret history of the Vietnam War. If WikiLeaks editor-in-chief Julian Assange is another Daniel Ellsberg, then it is possible the website's disclosures will be viewed over time as similarly in the public interest. A classroom discussion on the release of…

  8. Is Julian Assange an International Version of Daniel Ellsberg and WikiLeaks the Modern Equivalent of the Pentagon Papers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freivogel, William H.

    2011-01-01

    History has placed the stamp of approval on the publication of the Pentagon Papers, the top-secret history of the Vietnam War. If WikiLeaks editor-in-chief Julian Assange is another Daniel Ellsberg, then it is possible the website's disclosures will be viewed over time as similarly in the public interest. A classroom discussion on the release of…

  9. Formulation and evaluation of antihyperglycemic leaf extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Nesseem, D I; Michel, C G; Sleem, A A; El-Alfy, T S

    2009-02-01

    This study deals with the formulation of antihyperglycemic leaf extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd. A bioactivity guided fractionation of different leaf extracts [defatted ethanol 70% (a), butanol (b), ethanol 70% (c), ethyl acetate (d) and petroleum ether (e) extracts] revealed that extract (c) possessed the highest antihyperglycemic activity followed by (b) and (a). HPLC was adopted for standardization of the extract (c) based on evaluation of the major saponin christinin-A which was used as marker. The detection limit was 9.45 mg/ml for Christinin-A. Extracts (a), (b) and (c) were separately formulated in soft (S) and hard (H) gelatin capsules. Two different formulations (F1 and F2) were tried using different excipients suitable for oral drug delivery. Formula 1, used for soft gelatin capsules [(F1) Sa, Sb, Sc] Formula 2, used for hard gelatin capsules [(F2) - Ha, Hb, Hc]. The recovery rates of the samples of saponin were in the range 99.43-101.86% at 200, 800 microg/ml and 1200 microg/ml. Saponin release rates from different formulae were carried out using dissolution tester USP XXIV. The highest release was obtained from formulation Sc. The release of the extracts followed diffusion mechanism. The selected formula Sc exhibited highest anti-diabetic activity (P < 0.01) on acute and long-term administration and highest saponin release. This formula (Sc) contained poly-oxyethylene (20) cetyl ether (BC-20TX), PEG 400, PEG 6000, purified water, meglyol 810, ascorbic acid and 200 mg of extract (c).

  10. Global association of the Madden-Julian Oscillation with monsoon lows and depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haertel, Patrick; Boos, William R.

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has revealed that monsoon lows and depressions are modulated on intraseasonal time scales in a few regions, including India, Australia, and the East Pacific. This study examines whether such modulation occurs on a global scale and, in particular, how the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is associated with changes in synoptic-scale vortices across all monsoon regions. The spatial climatology of monsoon disturbances is largely insensitive to MJO amplitude. However, monsoon disturbance frequency (MDF) varies substantially with MJO phase, with regional perturbations of 25 to 90% of the seasonal mean value across the tropics. In off-equatorial locations, MDF maxima occur in locations where the MJO enhances low level cyclonic vorticity, typically near the western edge of midlevel moisture perturbations. In contrast, equatorial MDF perturbations are in phase with MJO moisture and rainfall anomalies, with maxima in regions with strong low level zonal wind convergence.

  11. Ocean feedback to pulses of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Moum, James N.; Pujiana, Kandaga; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Smyth, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical understanding of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been elusive, and predictive capabilities therefore limited. New measurements of the ocean's response to the intense surface winds and cooling by two successive MJO pulses, separated by several weeks, show persistent ocean currents and subsurface mixing after pulse passage, thereby reducing ocean heat energy available for later pulses by an amount significantly greater than via atmospheric surface cooling alone. This suggests that thermal mixing in the upper ocean from a particular pulse might affect the amplitude of the following pulse. Here we test this hypothesis by comparing 18 pulse pairs, each separated by <55 days, measured over a 33-year period. We find a significant tendency for weak (strong) pulses, associated with low (high) cooling rates, to be followed by stronger (weaker) pulses. We therefore propose that the ocean introduces a memory effect into the MJO, whereby each event is governed in part by the previous event. PMID:27759016

  12. Feature Tracking and Visualization of Madden-Julian Osciallation in Climate Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Teng-Yok; Tong, Xin; Shen, Han-Wei; Wong, Pak C.; Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-20

    Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is one of the less understood aspects of tropical meteorology, which plays a significant role in tropical intra-seasonal variations in rain, temperature and winds over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In this paper, we present an integrated analysis and visualization framework for MJO episodes simulated by a high resolution regional model. To distinguish MJOs from other weather phenomena, our framework utilizes domain knowledge to track MJOs as finding the globally optimized properties in the data. In addition to enhancing the animation with feature tracking, our visualization system also integrates different visualization components such as Virtual Globe and Hovmoller Diagrams to visualize large scale events both in space and time. By linking all of these visualization components on a web-based interface, scientists can identify cloud and environmental processes associated with the initiation and eastward propagation of MJO more easily.

  13. Using AMIE data to study cloud processes within the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Houze, Robert A.

    2015-12-17

    This study uses AMIE data to show how the small clouds in the Madden-Julian Oscillation first organize into lines and other patterns, how they develop the first rainshowers, how those showers deposit cool air over the ocean surface, how this cool air spreads and triggers deeper convection, how the deep convection develops into mesoscale systems, how the mesoscale systems modify the heating profile through the depth of the troposphere, and how the development of the clouds responds to and interacts with large-scale waves circumnavigating the globe at upper levels, and how equatorial trapped waves at lower levels modulates the development of the cloud population. The techniques used to analyze the radar and sounding data collected in AMIE to achieve the above results are innovative, and to obtain more general results we have used regional modeling with a variety of cloud microphysical schemes in combination with the data analyses.

  14. A Madden-Julian oscillation event realistically simulated by a global cloud-resolving model.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hiroaki; Satoh, Masaki; Nasuno, Tomoe; Noda, Akira T; Oouchi, Kazuyoshi

    2007-12-14

    A Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a massive weather event consisting of deep convection coupled with atmospheric circulation, moving slowly eastward over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Despite its enormous influence on many weather and climate systems worldwide, it has proven very difficult to simulate an MJO because of assumptions about cumulus clouds in global meteorological models. Using a model that allows direct coupling of the atmospheric circulation and clouds, we successfully simulated the slow eastward migration of an MJO event. Topography, the zonal sea surface temperature gradient, and interplay between eastward- and westward-propagating signals controlled the timing of the eastward transition of the convective center. Our results demonstrate the potential making of month-long MJO predictions when global cloud-resolving models with realistic initial conditions are used.

  15. In Appreciation Julian Schwinger: From Nuclear Physics and Quantum Electrodynamics to Source Theory and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Kimball A.

    2007-01-01

    Julian Schwinger’s influence on twentieth-century science is profound and pervasive. He is most famous for his renormalization theory of quantum electrodynamics, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1965 with Richard Feynman and Sin-itiro Tomonaga. This triumph undoubtedly was his most heroic work, but his legacy lives on chiefly through subtle and elegant work in classical electrodynamics, quantum variational principles, proper-time methods, quantum anomalies, dynamical mass generation, partial symmetry, and much more. Starting as just a boy, he rapidly became one of the preeminent nuclear physicists in the world in the late 1930s, led the theoretical development of radar technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during World War II, and soon after the war conquered quantum electrodynamics, becoming the leading quantum-field theorist for two decades, before taking a more iconoclastic route during the last quarter century of his life.

  16. The Extratropical Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on Wintertime Blocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. A.; Maloney, E. D.; Barnes, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Wintertime atmospheric blocking is associated with severe long-lasting weather conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. Studies have shown that the primary mode of tropical intraseasonal variability, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), significantly influences important factors for blocking, including the North Atlantic Oscillation and Rossby wave breaking. However, the extent to which the MJO impacts the occurrence of winter blocking is not yet fully understood. The occurrence of North Pacific, North Atlantic, and European blocking is examined during the lifecycle of the MJO. Findings demonstrate a significant MJO influence on atmospheric blocking in all three regions, with a near doubling in east Pacific, Atlantic, and European blocking frequency following certain MJO phases. It is suggested that the increase in European blocking is a result of two conditions: 1) a pre-existing anomalous anticyclone in the North Atlantic, and 2) a preceding negative Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern triggered and influenced by MJO convection.

  17. Modulation of the boreal wintertime Madden-Julian oscillation by the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Changhyun; Son, Seok-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), the dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropical troposphere, has a significant impact on global weather and climate. Here we present that the year-to-year variation of the MJO activity shows significant changes with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the tropical stratosphere. Specifically, the boreal winter MJO amplitude, evaluated by various metrics, is typically stronger than normal during the QBO easterly phase at 50 hPa and weaker than normal during the QBO westerly phase at 50 hPa. This relationship, which is possibly mediated by the QBO-related static stability and/or vertical wind shear changes in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, is robust whether or not the activeness of the MJO or QBO is taken into account. This result suggests a new potential route from the stratosphere that regulates the organized tropical convection, helping to improve the prediction skill of the boreal winter MJO.

  18. Visualizing and verifying probabilistic forecasts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Hudson, Debra

    2016-12-01

    We describe a new approach for presenting probabilistic forecasts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) based on the community standard Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index, using forecasts from version 2 of the Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia. This new display overcomes the difficulty of interpreting a dispersive ensemble plume and directly quantifies the probability for the MJO to occur in each of its eight RMM-defined phases as well as the weak phase. Beyond monitoring and interpreting predictions of the MJO, this new approach also provides a basis for forecast verification using probability-based skill scores. Here we present a clear and concise quantitative summary of this innovative method for accessing probability of the state of the MJO in an ensemble forecast. This new method compliments the traditional MJO ensemble forecast display and verification and will benefit global forecasting centers, international MJO working groups, and the World Meteorological Organization Subseasonal to Seasonal Project.

  19. Ocean feedback to pulses of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the equatorial Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Moum, James N; Pujiana, Kandaga; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Smyth, William D

    2016-10-19

    Dynamical understanding of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been elusive, and predictive capabilities therefore limited. New measurements of the ocean's response to the intense surface winds and cooling by two successive MJO pulses, separated by several weeks, show persistent ocean currents and subsurface mixing after pulse passage, thereby reducing ocean heat energy available for later pulses by an amount significantly greater than via atmospheric surface cooling alone. This suggests that thermal mixing in the upper ocean from a particular pulse might affect the amplitude of the following pulse. Here we test this hypothesis by comparing 18 pulse pairs, each separated by <55 days, measured over a 33-year period. We find a significant tendency for weak (strong) pulses, associated with low (high) cooling rates, to be followed by stronger (weaker) pulses. We therefore propose that the ocean introduces a memory effect into the MJO, whereby each event is governed in part by the previous event.

  20. Thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Regional Model with Constrained Moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dudhia, Jimy

    2011-09-01

    In order to identify the main thermodynamic processes that sustain the Madden Julian Oscillation, an eddy available potential energy budget analysis is performed on a WRF simulation with moisture constrained by observations. The model realistically simulates the two MJO episodes observed during the winter of 2007-2008. The analysis shows that instabilities and damping associated with variations in diabatic heating and energy transport work in concert to provide the MJO with its observed characteristics. The results are used to construct a simplified paradigm of MJO thermodynamics. Furthermore, the effect of moisture nudging on the simulation is analyzed to understand the limitations of the model cumulus parameterization. Without moisture nudging, the parameterization fails to provide adequate low-level (upper-level) moistening during the early (late) stage of the MJO active phase. The moistening plays a critical role in providing stratiform heating variability that is an important source of eddy available potential energy for the model MJO.

  1. Intraseasonal variations of the tropical total ozone and their connection to the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B.; Yung, Y. L.; Waliser, D. E.; Tyranowski, T.; Kuai, L.; Fetzer, E. J.; Irion, F. W.

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the intraseasonal (30-90 day) variations in satellite-observed tropical total ozone (O3) and their connection to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Tropical total O3 intraseasonal variations are large (~+/-10 DU) and comparable to those in annual and interannual time scales. These O3 anomalies are mainly evident in the subtropics over the Pacific and eastern; hemisphere and propagate slowly eastward (~5 m s-1). The subtropical negative (positive) O3 anomalies are typically collocated with the subtropical upper troposphere anticyclones (cyclones) generated by equatorial MJO convection and flank or lie to the west of the equatorial enhanced (suppressed) MJO convection. The subtropical O3 are anti-correlated with geopotential height anomalies near the tropopause and thus mainly associated with the O3 variability in the stratosphere rather the troposphere. Over the equatorial regions, total O3 anomalies are small.

  2. Momentum Budget Analysis of Westerly Wind Events Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Oh, J. H.; Waliser, D. E.; Moncrieff, M. W.; Johnson, R. H.; Ciesielski, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign was conducted over the Indian Ocean (IO) from October 2011 to February 2012 to investigate the initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Three MJOs accompanying one or more westerly wind events (WWEs) occurred in late October, late November, and late December 2011, respectively. Momentum budget analysis is conducted in this study to understand the contributions of the dynamical processes involved in the wind evolution associated with the MJO active phases over the IO during DYNAMO using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis. This analysis shows that westerly acceleration at lower levels associated with the MJO active phase generally appears to be maintained by the pressure gradient force (PGF), which is partly canceled by meridional advection of the zonal wind. Westerly acceleration in the mid-troposphere is mostly attributable to vertical advection. In addition, the MJO in late November (MJO2), accompanied by two different WWEs (WWE1, WWE2) spaced a few days apart, is further diagnosed. Unlike other WWEs during DYNAMO, horizontal advection is more responsible for the westerly acceleration in the lower troposphere for the WWE2 than the PGF. Interactions between the MJO2 convective envelope and convectively coupled waves (CCWs) have been further analyzed to illuminate the dynamical contribution of these synoptic scale equatorial waves to the WWEs during MJO2. We suggest that differences in the developing processes among WWEs can be attributed to the different types of CCWs.The Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign was conducted over the Indian Ocean (IO) from October 2011 to February 2012 to investigate the initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Three MJOs accompanying one or more westerly wind events (WWEs) occurred in late October, late November, and late December 2011, respectively. Momentum budget analysis is

  3. Disruptions of El Niño–Southern Oscillation teleconnections by the Madden–Julian Oscillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoell, Andrew; Barlow, Mathew; Wheeler, Mathew; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of interannual variability, with global impacts on weather and climate that have seasonal predictability. Research on the link between interannual ENSO variability and the leading mode of intraseasonal variability, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), has focused mainly on the role of MJO initiating or terminating ENSO. We use observational analysis and modeling to show that the MJO has an important simultaneous link to ENSO: strong MJO activity significantly weakens the atmospheric branch of ENSO. For weak MJO conditions relative to strong MJO conditions, the average magnitude of ENSO-associated tropical precipitation anomalies increases by 63%, and the strength of hemispheric teleconnections increases by 58%. Since the MJO has predictability beyond three weeks, the relationships shown here suggest that there may be subseasonal predictability of the ENSO teleconnections to continental circulation and precipitation.

  4. Moist thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a cloud resolving simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2011-10-31

    The moist thermodynamic processes that determine the scale and energy of the Madden-Julian Oscillation are investigated using moisture and eddy available potential energy (EAPE) budget analyses on a high resolution regional model simulation. The two MJO episodes observed during the winter of 2007-2008 are realistically simulated. In the model, small differences among the timescales of convective vertical transport, mixing and condensation of moisture determine the timescale of MJO moistening. Furthermore, various cloud types play a damping or destabilizing contribution role in the EAPE budget of the MJO, depending on their characteristic latent heating profile and its covariance with the temperature fluctuations. The results are used identify possible sources of the difficulties in simulating MJO in low resolution models that rely on cumulus parameterizations.

  5. Systematic decomposition of the Madden-Julian Oscillation into balanced and inertio-gravity components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Nedjeljka; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new method for the three-dimensional multivariate decomposition of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) into balanced and inertio-gravity (IG) components. The method analyzes global fields with no filtering involved, and it provides a quantitative comparison between the contribution of the Rossby, Kelvin, and other balanced and IG modes to the MJO circulation and its teleconnections. Results based on the ERA Interim reanalysis data and the multivariate MJO index show that the Rossby mode with the lowest meridional index is the largest contributor to the MJO circulation over the Pacific. A smaller role of the Kelvin mode is diagnosed over the Indian Ocean and the maritime continent. The MJO teleconnections in the polar stratosphere appear associated with the leading balanced vertical modes. The presented method shows new ways of evaluating the MJO structure and its global impacts in weather and climate models.

  6. Influence of Madden-Julian Oscillation on Southeast Asia rainfall extremes: Observations and predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Prince; Rahmat, Raizan; Cheong, Wee Kiong; Wallace, Emily

    2014-06-01

    The influence of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the rainfall distribution of Southeast Asia is studied using TRMM satellite-derived rainfall and rain gauge data. It is shown that convectively active (suppressed) phases of MJO can increase (decrease) the probability of extreme rain events over the land regions by about 30-50% (20-25%) during November-March season. The influence of MJO on localized rainfall extremes are also observed both in rainfall intensity and duration. The Met Office Global Seasonal forecasting system seasonal forecasting system is shown to reproduce the MJO influence on rainfall distribution well despite the model biases over land. Skills scores for forecasting 90th percentile extreme rainfall shows significant skills for convective phases. This study demonstrates the feasibility of deriving probabilistic forecasts of extreme rainfall at medium range.

  7. The "bicameral mind" 30 years on: a critical reappraisal of Julian Jaynes' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; Trimble, Michael; Cinti, Federico; Monaco, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In 1976 Julian Jaynes published his controversial book The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, introducing the hypothesis of a two-chambered brain-mind model that preceded the evolutionary development of the conscious mind. Jaynes' speculative model gave rise to a huge debate, which has reverberated throughout the current neuroscientific and neurophilosophical literature. Has the bicameral mind stood the test of time? To answer this question, the present paper adopts a multidisciplinary perspective and, after briefly summarizing Jaynes' hypothesis, addresses two main critical issues: the neurological basis of the bicameral model and the philological accuracy of Jaynes' arguments. Finally, the concept of a non-unitary Self is presented as one of the most relevant contemporary legacies of the bicameral mind.

  8. Julian Davies and the discovery of kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5.

    PubMed

    Berg, Douglas E

    2016-10-12

    This paper recounts some of my fond memories of a collaboration between Julian Davies and myself that started in 1974 in Geneva and that led to our serendipitous discovery of the bacterial kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5, and aspects of the lasting positive impact of our interaction and discovery on me and the community. Tn5 was one of the first antibiotic resistance transposons to be found. Its analysis over the ensuing decades provided valuable insights into mechanisms and control of transposition, and led to its use as a much-valued tool in diverse areas of molecular genetics, as also will be discussed here.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 12 October 2016; doi:10.1038/ja.2016.120.

  9. Convective Gravity Waves and the Madden-Julian-Oscillation: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisch, S.; Chun, H. Y.; Kang, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Weather systems in the tropical Indian Ocean region are prominently influenced by the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) (Madden and Julian, 1972). Once an MJO active cycle is established, it can drive surface weather for several months, forcing heavy rainfall and droughts on the Indian Subcontinent. Although understanding of the MJO has improved over the last decade, MJO still considerably degrades forecasting skill, particularly in the Asian Monsoon region (Kim et al. 2014). This is especially true for seasonal prediction. The interaction of gravity waves (GW) from convection during MJO active phases is one of the various sources of uncertainties in MJO modeling. We developed a coupled model of convective gravity wave (CGW) forcing and propagation to evaluate the entire life-cycle of GWs from their convective excitation to their dissipation in the upper stratosphere / lower mesosphere region. CGW forcing at source level was calculated using the Song & Chun (2005) model. GW trajectories were calculated using GROGRAT (Marks & Eckermann 1995). Simulations were performed for all respective MJO phases for MJO cycles during a 30 years period using MERRA and CFSR data for the full spectrum of CGWs. Our results show a clear connection between 200 hPa winds and the direction of zonal momentum flux during MJO phases of increased convection (phases 1-4) in the Indian Ocean. This prominent momentum flux feature changes with the progress of each MJO cycle. Zonal means of momentum flux and gravity wave drag (GWD) also show this tautology. Furthermore, we estimated the impact of GWD forcing in the tropical upper troposphere to stratosphere region in relation to the CGW source spectra at launch altitude. We compare these results with MJO composites of momentum flux at cloud top level and various altitudes as a function of MJO phase. Finally, we validate our findings with observations from satellite measurements.

  10. Evaluation of electrodialysis for chronic acid recovery and purification at Corpus Christi Army Depot. Final report, Oct 89-Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    A large quantity of hazardous waste is generated during the maintenance, repair, and overhaul of a wide variety of military equipment at Army depots. Some of this waste is generated by the use of chromic acid solutions for chromium electroplating and the application and removal of chromate conversion coatings. Hazardous waste results when metal contamination builds up in the solutions to such a degree that the solutions must be disposed of as hazardous waste. Removal of this metal contamination should result in a lengthened bath life and reduced hazardous wate generation. As part of its pollution abatement and environmental control mission, the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) is pursuing R and D projects to assist depots in meeting the Army goal of a 50 percent reduction in hazardous waste by the end of 1992 compared with 1985 baseline levels. In one project, USATHAMA purchased, installed, operated, and evaluated an electrodialysis system on two chromic acid process solutions at Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) in Corpus Christi, Texas. The objective of this task was to evaluate the system's ability to remove metal contamination and oxidize trivalent chromium (an impurity) to hexavalent chromium (chromic acid).

  11. Mercury bioaccumulation and bioaccumulation factors for Everglades mosquitofish as related to sulfate: a re-analysis of Julian II (2013).

    PubMed

    Pollman, Curtis D; Axelrad, Donald M

    2014-11-01

    The Everglades, an ecosystem of international significance, has elevated biota mercury levels representing risk to human and wildlife consumers of fish. Given the critical role of sulfate in the methylation of mercury, and because there is a significant agricultural contribution, one potential means of reducing these mercury levels is reducing Everglades sulfate inputs. Julian II (Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:329-332, 2013) conducted regression modeling of the relationship between surface water sulfate concentrations and Gambusia spp. mercury bioconcentration factors across the major hydrologic subunits of the Everglades, and used those results to draw conclusions about the role of sulfate in the cycling of mercury in the Everglades. We however demonstrate a number of fundamental problems with the analysis, interpretation and conclusions. As a result, we strongly caution against using the results of Julian II (Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:329-332, 2013) to formulate management decisions regarding mitigation of the Everglades mercury problem.

  12. Zonal scales of Madden-Julian Oscillation in model experiments with and without continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surajit; Sengupta, Debasis; Chakraborty, Arindam; Sukhatme, Jai; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2015-04-01

    The low-frequency eastward propagating Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) impacts weather and climate around the globe. MJO has zonal wavenumber 1-5, but the reason why these characteristic spatial scales arise are not clearly understood. We use the aquaplanet version of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM-5), with perpetual spring equinox forcing and zonally symmetric sea surface temperature (SST), to study tropical intraseasonal oscillations (ISO), including MJO. In the first two experiments, we specify zonally symmetric SST profiles that mimic observed climatological July and January conditions. In the January SST simulation, we find a zonal wavenumber 1 mode with dominant period of 60 days, moving east at about 6 m/s. This mode, which resembles the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), is absent when the model was forced by July SST. This shows the importance of the meridional gradient of SST on generation of MJO in this model. For further investigation of the influence of tropical SST on ISO and convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEW), we conduct experiments with idealized symmetric SST profiles having different widths of warm ocean centered at the equator. When the latitudinal extent of warm SST is comparable to or larger than the equatorial Rossby radius, we find a dominant low frequency (50-80 days) eastward mode that resembles the MJO, as in the January SST experiment. Our study shows that wider, meridionally symmetric SST profiles are necessary for a stronger MJO-like mode. In contrast to many other aquaplanet studies, a significant finding is the existence of westward propagating 30-120 day Rossby waves with zonal wavenumber 1 to 3, and meridional wavenumber 1, 3 and 5. However, in all the aquaplanet simulations, the MJO variance occurs at zonal wavenumber one. To understand the role of land-sea distribution on zonal wavenumber of MJO, we perform a third set of experiments by introducing continents with realistic orography in the model. These experiments

  13. Dynamics of Large-Scale Convective Onset in the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Scott Wayne

    The role of large-scale circulation anomalies in the convective onset of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the Indian Ocean during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign, conducted Oct. 2011--Feb. 2012, is explained using radar and rawinsonde observations, reanalysis, and regional model simulations. Convective onset was characterized by two episodic and rapid increases in the vertical growth of the cumuliform cloud population over the Indian Ocean: First, the areal coverage of moderately deep (~5 km) convection increased; about 1 week later, the areal coverage of deep (up to the tropopause) convection increased rapidly. Deep tropospheric wavenumber 1 anomalies in zonal wind and vertical velocity circumnavigated the tropics repeatedly during DYNAMO. MJO convective onset occurred when the upward branch of this wavenumber 1 circulation arrived over the Indian Ocean because a reduction in large-scale subsidence cooled the troposphere and steepened the lapse rate below 500 hPa. This made the environment more conducive to development of moderately deep convection. The moderately deep convection moistened the environment during week-long transition periods by transporting moisture vertically from the boundary layer to the free troposphere and detraining it into the clear-air environment, particularly between 650--850 mb. Regional cloud-permitting model simulations of convection during MJO onsets reproduced the distinct transition periods. The modeling results confirmed that rapid cooling of the environment enhanced the areal coverage of, and thus total vertical transport of water within, moderately deep convection at the beginning of transition periods. Evaporation of cloud condensate via entrainment or dissipation of clouds was directly responsible for environmental moistening. Cooling of the climatologically stable layer between 700--850 mb was particularly important because it allowed a greater number of cumulus elements growing

  14. Heavy-metal contamination of Crassostrea virginica and associated sediments of the Corpus Christi Bay system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, G.; Martin, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    In a preliminary survey, Crassostrea virginica from areas of the Corpus Christi Bay system of Texas show significant concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in their tissues and shells; concentrations of these same metals in associated sediments are also high in certain areas of the bay system. Zn and Cd concentrations in tissue show a high negative correlation to each other, whereas Zn and Pb in tissue and shell show a high positive correlation to one another. Sediment contents of Pb and Zn best reflect tissue values of the heavy metals; sediment concentrations of Cd and Cu show a poor inverse correlation to tissue concentrations. Some possible factors influencing these correlations are suspended-sediment type, physiological changes, water quality, and Ca intake.

  15. Distribution and isotopic composition of uranium in lower Nueces River, Nueces Bay and Corpus Christi Bay, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Charles W.; Slade, Elizabeth Ann

    1972-01-01

    The uranium concentration and isotopic composition of water and suspended sediment from the Nueces River, Nueces Bay and Corpus Christi Bay were determined by alpha-spectroscopy. The average dissolved uranium concentration and radioactivity ratio (U234/U238) of Nueces River water were determined to be 2.44 µg/1 and 1.15 respectively. Water from a tributary of the Nueces River, Cayamon Creek, was found to contain an average dissolved uranium concentration of 42.8 µg/1 with an isotopic radioactivity ratio of 1.56. Close inspection of the lateral concentration and isotopic activity ratio of uranium revealed an increase below the confluence of Cayamon Creek with the Nueces River. A model was derived based on equations used in isotopic dilution analysis, which predicts these increases within analytical error. This model may be useful in future studies to locate anomalous uranium within the hydrologic environment.

  16. The effects of opening an artificial tidal inlet on hydrography and estuarine macrofauna in Corpus Christi, Texas.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Terence A; Montagna, Paul A; Kalke, Richard D

    2013-07-01

    Packery Channel is part of a complex of storm washover channels which, before 1912, have opened intermittently, linking the Laguna Madre and Corpus Christi Bay, Texas with the Gulf of Mexico. On 21 July 2005, with the assistance of Hurricane Emily, Packery Channel was prematurely opened to the Gulf of Mexico, months before construction of a dredged channel was scheduled to be completed. A before-versus-after, control-versus-impact (BACI) design was used to assess the effects of reopening Packery Channel on water quality and estuarine macrofauna in Mollie Beattie Coastal Habitat Community (MBCHC), Corpus Christi Bay. Two deep (approximately 1 m below m.s.l.) and two shallow (approximately 0.2 m below m.s.l.) stations were sampled monthly for physical and biological characteristics at both control and impact sites between November 2003 and March 2009. The opening of Packery Channel created a unique situation where salinities decreased after the channel opening by ameliorating hypersalinity in Laguna Madre rather than increasing salinities as would occur in most estuaries worldwide. Salinity also fluctuated in a diurnal pattern after the opening of Packery Channel. Apart from salinity, Packery Channel has caused little hydrographic change in MBCHC since opening in July 2005. There was little effect on the macrofaunal community composition. There was a greater difference in community composition between deep and shallow stations than between either before and after or control and impact sites. There have been no significant changes in abundance, biomass, or N1 diversity caused by the opening of Packery Channel.

  17. Essential-Oil Variability in Natural Populations of Pinus mugo Turra from the Julian Alps.

    PubMed

    Bojović, Srdjan; Jurc, Maja; Ristić, Mihailo; Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Vidaković, Vera; Stefanović, Milena; Jurc, Dušan

    2016-02-01

    The composition and variability of the terpenes and their derivatives isolated from the needles of a representative pool of 114 adult trees originating from four natural populations of dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) from the Julian Alps were investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 54 of the 57 detected essential-oil components were identified. Among the different compound classes present in the essential oils, the chief constituents belonged to the monoterpenes, comprising an average content of 79.67% of the total oil composition (74.80% of monoterpene hydrocarbons and 4.87% of oxygenated monoterpenes). Sesquiterpenes were present in smaller amounts (average content of 19.02%), out of which 16.39% were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and 2.62% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The most abundant components in the needle essential oils were the monoterpenes δ-car-3-ene, β-phellandrene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and β-pinene and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. From the total data set of 57 detected compounds, 40 were selected for principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA), and cluster analysis (CA). The overlap tendency of the four populations suggested by PCA, was as well observed by DA. CA also demonstrated similarity among the populations, which was the highest between Populations I and II. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. The Madden-Julian Oscillation and its Impact on Northern Hemisphere Weather Predictability during Wintertime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Charles; Waliser, Duane E.; Lau, K. M.; Stern, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is known as the dominant mode of tropical intraseasonal variability and has an important role in the coupled-atmosphere system. This study used twin numerical model experiments to investigate the influence of the MJO activity on weather predictability in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard laboratory for the Atmospheres (GLA) general circulation model was first used in a 10-yr simulation with fixed climatological SSTs to generate a validation data set as well as to select initial conditions for active MJO periods and Null cases. Two perturbation numerical experiments were performed for the 75 cases selected [(4 MJO phases + Null phase) _ 15 initial conditions in each]. For each alternative initial condition, the model was integrated for 90 days. Mean anomaly correlations in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (2O deg N_60 deg.N) and standardized root-mean-square errors were computed to validate forecasts and control run. The analyses of 500-hPa geopotential height, 200-hPa Streamfunction and 850-hPa zonal wind component systematically show larger predictability during periods of active MJO as opposed to quiescent episodes of the oscillation.

  19. Optimal Initial Perturbations for Ensemble Prediction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation during Boreal Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Schubert, Siegfried; Chang, Yehui

    2012-01-01

    An initialization strategy, tailored to the prediction of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), is evaluated using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5), coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The approach is based on the empirical singular vectors (ESVs) of a reduced-space statistically determined linear approximation of the full nonlinear CGCM. The initial ESV, extracted using 10 years (1990-99) of boreal winter hindcast data, has zonal wind anomalies over the western Indian Ocean, while the final ESV (at a forecast lead time of 10 days) reflects a propagation of the zonal wind anomalies to the east over the Maritime Continent an evolution that is characteristic of the MJO. A new set of ensemble hindcasts are produced for the boreal winter season from 1990 to 1999 in which the leading ESV provides the initial perturbations. The results are compared with those from a set of control hindcasts generated using random perturbations. It is shown that the ESV-based predictions have a systematically higher bivariate correlation skill in predicting the MJO compared to those using the random perturbations. Furthermore, the improvement in the skill depends on the phase of the MJO. The ESV is particularly effective in increasing the forecast skill during those phases of the MJO in which the control has low skill (with correlations increasing by as much as 0.2 at 20 25-day lead times), as well as during those times in which the MJO is weak.

  20. The Onset of the Madden-Julian Oscillation Within an Aquaplanet Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Edward; Lindesay, James; Suarez, Max

    1997-01-01

    A series of numerical experiments using a two-level atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) were performed for the purpose of investigating the coupling between sea surface temperature (SST) profile and the onset of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The AGCM was modified to run as an aquaplane with all seasonal forcing removed. SST distributions based on the New Global Sea-Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (GISST) Data Set for 1903-1994 were generated then modified to vary the north-south gradient and tropical temperatures. It was found that the MJO signal did not depend on the SST temperature gradients but rather on the absolute temperature of the equatorial region, EOF analysis revealed that the SST distribution which generated the strongest MJO signal produced a periodic fluctuation in velocity potential at the 250 millibar level with a phase speed of 15 m/s, and a periodicity of 30 days which falls within the shortest limit of observed oscillations. This distribution also possessed the coolest equatorial SSTs which suggests that increased stability in the atmosphere favors the occurrence of organized MJO propagation.

  1. Role of Longwave Cloud-Radiation Feedback in the Simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Daehyun; Ahn, Min-Seop; Kang, In-Sik; Del Genio, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the cloud-radiation interaction in the simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is investigated. A special focus is on the enhancement of column-integrated diabatic heating due to the greenhouse effects of clouds and moisture in the region of anomalous convection. The degree of this enhancement, the greenhouse enhancement factor (GEF), is measured at different precipitation anomaly regimes as the negative ratio of anomalous outgoing longwave radiation to anomalous precipitation. Observations show that the GEF varies significantly with precipitation anomaly and with the MJO cycle. The greenhouse enhancement is greater in weak precipitation anomaly regimes and its effectiveness decreases monotonically with increasing precipitation anomaly. The GEF also amplifies locally when convection is strengthened in association with the MJO, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). A robust statistical relationship is found among CMIP5 climate model simulations between the GEF and the MJO simulation fidelity. Models that simulate a stronger MJO also simulate a greater GEF, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). Models with a greater GEF in the strong precipitation anomaly regime (greater than 30 mm day(-1)) represent a slightly slower MJO propagation speed. Many models that lack the MJO underestimate the GEF in general and in particular in the weak precipitation anomaly regime. The results herein highlight that the cloud-radiation interaction is a crucial process for climate models to correctly represent the MJO.

  2. Tropical mid-tropospheric CO2 variability driven by the Madden–Julian oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Li, King-Fai; Tian, Baijun; Waliser, Duane E.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the present-day climate. Most of the community focuses on its long-term (decadal to centennial) behaviors that are relevant to climate change, but there are relatively few discussions of its higher-frequency forms of variability, and none regarding its subseasonal distribution. In this work, we report a large-scale intraseasonal variation in the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder CO2 data in the global tropical region associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The peak-to-peak amplitude of the composite MJO modulation is ∼1 ppmv, with a standard error of the composite mean < 0.1 ppmv. The correlation structure between CO2 and rainfall and vertical velocity indicate positive (negative) anomalies in CO2 arise due to upward (downward) large-scale vertical motions in the lower troposphere associated with the MJO. These findings can help elucidate how faster processes can organize, transport, and mix CO2 and provide a robustness test for coupled carbon–climate models. PMID:20978207

  3. A general theoretical framework for understanding essential dynamics of Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Guosen

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by observed structure of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), a general theoretical model framework is advanced for understanding fundamental aspects of MJO dynamics. The model extends the Matsuno-Gill theory by incorporating (a) moisture feedback to precipitation, (b) a trio-interaction among equatorial waves, boundary layer (BL) dynamics, and precipitation, and (c) a simplified Betts-Miller (B-M) cumulus parameterization. The general model with B-M scheme yields a frictionally coupled dynamic moisture mode, which produces an equatorial planetary-scale, unstable system moving eastward slowly with coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave structure and BL moisture convergence leading major convection. The moisture feedback in B-M scheme reinforces the coupling between precipitation heating and Rossby waves and enhances the Rossby wave component in the MJO mode, thereby slowing down eastward propagation and resulting in a more realistic horizontal structure. It is, however, the BL frictional convergence feedback that couples equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves with convective heating and selects a preferred eastward propagation. The eastward propagation speed in the model is inversely related to the relative intensity of the equatorial "Rossby" westerly versus "Kelvin" easterly associated with the MJO. The cumulus parameterization scheme may affect propagation speed through changing MJO horizontal structure. The SST or basic-state moist static energy has a fundamental control on MJO propagation speed and intensification/decay. Model sensitivity to BL and cumulus scheme parameters and ramifications of the model results to general circulation modeling are discussed.

  4. Respective roles of shallow convection and stratiform rainfall on the simulation of Madden-Julian Oscillation.

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Joshua Xiouhua [IPRC Wang, Bin [IPRC&DM Yeh, Hsi-Chyi

    2010-03-15

    Respective Roles of Shallow Convection and Stratiform Rainfall on the Simulation of Madden Julian Oscillation Joshua Xiouhua Fu IPRC, SOEST, University of Hawaii The IPRC/UH Hybrid-coupled GCM (HcGCM), which combined ECHAM-4 AGCM with UH intermediate ocean model, produces robust Tropical Intra-Seasonal Oscillations including the boreal-winter MJO and boreal-summer Monsoon Intra-Seasonal Oscillation. In this study, two sets of sensitivity experiments (i.e., short-term retrospective forecast of one MJO event observed during TOGA COARE and long-term free integrations) have been carried out to understand the respective roles of shallow-convection and stratiform rainfall on the simulations and predictions of the MJO. Major findings are summarized as following: Shallow-convection ahead of MJO deep convection moistens the lower-troposphere and preconditions the movement of the MJO. Present study shows that this process is very important to the eastward propagating speed of the MJO. A significant fraction of stratiform rainfall (~30%; stratiform part vs. total rainfall) is needed for ECHAM-4 to have a robust MJO. The above findings suggest that in addition to deep convection, shallow convection and stratiform rainfall needs to be well represented in conventional GCMs to ensure a robust model MJO.

  5. Formation mechanisms of PNA-like teleconnection pattern in response to the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, K. H.; Lee, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Formation mechanisms of PNA-like teleconnection pattern in response to the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) have been investigated with the GFDL dry model simulations. For this, the Rossby wave source (RWS) has been identified first and wave seeding has been performed using Rossby wave dispersion relationship. Results show that initial MJO phase 2-like diabatic forcing generates negative PNA-like pattern through negative RWS to the north of the enhanced convection over the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) and positive RWS to the north of the suppressed convection over the equatorial western Pacific. It is of interest that the dibatic forcing over the IO generates another +RWS region at the exit of the jet stream through advection of the climatological relative vorticity by the northerly MJO winds. Ray tracing demonstrates explicit Rossby wave energy propagation over the PNA region. A series of simulations with different monopole forcing indicates that MJO phase-2 structure is most effective for the generation of -PNA pattern. The mechanisms for the surface warming over NA are discussed with the integration of the temperature equation and Rossby wave propagation.

  6. Role of Longwave Cloud-Radiation Feedback in the Simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Daehyun; Ahn, Min-Seop; Kang, In-Sik; Del Genio, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the cloud-radiation interaction in the simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is investigated. A special focus is on the enhancement of column-integrated diabatic heating due to the greenhouse effects of clouds and moisture in the region of anomalous convection. The degree of this enhancement, the greenhouse enhancement factor (GEF), is measured at different precipitation anomaly regimes as the negative ratio of anomalous outgoing longwave radiation to anomalous precipitation. Observations show that the GEF varies significantly with precipitation anomaly and with the MJO cycle. The greenhouse enhancement is greater in weak precipitation anomaly regimes and its effectiveness decreases monotonically with increasing precipitation anomaly. The GEF also amplifies locally when convection is strengthened in association with the MJO, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). A robust statistical relationship is found among CMIP5 climate model simulations between the GEF and the MJO simulation fidelity. Models that simulate a stronger MJO also simulate a greater GEF, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). Models with a greater GEF in the strong precipitation anomaly regime (greater than 30 mm day(-1)) represent a slightly slower MJO propagation speed. Many models that lack the MJO underestimate the GEF in general and in particular in the weak precipitation anomaly regime. The results herein highlight that the cloud-radiation interaction is a crucial process for climate models to correctly represent the MJO.

  7. Exploring the Chemical Reach of the Madden-Julian Oscillation using the A-Train data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B.; Li, K.; Waliser, D. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Fetzer, E.; Worden, J.; Schwartz, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (aka Intraseasonal Oscillation) is the dominant component of the intraseasonal (30-90 day) variability in the tropical atmosphere. Since its discovery, the MJO has continued to be a topic of significant interest due to its extensive interactions with other components of the climate system and the fact that it represents a connection between the better-understood weather and seasonal-to-interannual climate variations. To date, influences of the MJO on the physical components of global climate system have been well recognized, documented, and in same cases, also well understood (e.g., monsoon, ENSO, hurricane, and extratropical weather). However, the impacts of the MJO on the chemical component of the climate system have been realized only recently and have not been well documented and understood. In the paper, we will present our recent exploration activities on the chemical reach of the MJO using the modern atmospheric composition satellite data. In particular, we will highlight our new findings on the MJO-related variations of water vapor (H2O) using the Aqua AIRS H2O data and the Aura TES HDO data, carbon dioxide (CO2) using the Aqua AIRS CO2 data, ozone using the Aura MLS and Aura TES ozone data, and aerosol from the MODIS AOT data.

  8. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  9. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and northern high latitude wintertime surface air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2004-02-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the primary mode of large-scale intraseasonal variability in the tropics. Recent work has connected the MJO to atmospheric variability in mid-latitudes. We focus on relationships between the MJO and wintertime surface air temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. The MJO is diagnosed using principal EOF of 850 hPa zonal winds from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for 1979-2002. Station data are used for surface air temperature in Alaska, Canada, the former U.S.S.R., Greenland, and Iceland. The phase of the MJO has a substantial systematic and spatially coherent effect on intraseasonal variability in wintertime surface air temperature through the global Arctic. Composites of geopotential height and specific humidity suggest that radiative and advective effects are important in the observed connections. These statistical connections may be useful for wintertime temperature forecasts. The mechanisms connecting intraseasonal tropical variability with polar and sub-polar variability bear examination.

  10. Destabilization of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in Present and Future Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolding, B.; Maloney, E. D.; Branson, M.; Henderson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    A weak temperature gradient (WTG) balance framework is used to investigate the destabilization of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in SP-CESM and ERA-interim. It is shown that the strength and vertical structure of intraseasonal variations in large-scale vertical moisture advection can be accurately diagnosed from apparent heating. The role that various apparent heating processes (e.g. radiative heating, microphysical processes) play in driving large-scale vertical moisture advection is assessed, and their individual contributions to the destabilization of the MJO examined. The reduction of longwave radiative cooling during the enhanced convective phase is shown to play a crucial role in allowing the ensemble cloud population to further grow moisture anomalies associated with the MJO. The WTG balance framework is then applied to a 4×CO2 simulation of SP-CESM, in which a marked increases in MJO activity occurs. The role that changes in the static stability, the vertical moisture gradient, and the strength of the radiative feedback may play in increasing MJO activity is discussed.

  11. Hydrological Balance of High Mountainous Lake on Karstified Plateau of Julian Alps - Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rman, N.; Ratej, J.; Brenčič, M.

    2009-04-01

    High mountainous lake Jezero na Planini pri Jezeru is located in the Triglav National Park at the Julian Alps in Slovenia. It fills a depression covered with Pleistocene fine-grained sediments and glacial till on intensively karstified plateau. In the past many investigations were performed on the lake and its surrounding without knowledge about hydrological balance. The goal of the present study is to fill this gap. Hydrological water balance model of the discussed area was constructed based on results of hydrogeological mapping, soil analyses, infiltration capacity measurements with unsaturated hydraulic parameter analyses, and hydrological modelling. Modelling for soil water balance in the lake catchment area was done with analytical computer program Visual HELP. Free-water-surface evaporation and lake storage calculations were based on other analytical models. A number of different scenarios of possible catchment areas were studied in order to describe the amount of water circulation in the open system of the lake. Scenario that implies that the catchment area is bounded to the nearest vicinity of the lake was proved to be the most realistic. Using the water balance, the paper shows that mountainous lake formed on small accumulation of low permeable sediments on highly permeable and karstified limestone can be self-efficient as precipitation on the lake surface and, moreover, surface runoff from the nearest slopes are sufficient to sustain its volume.

  12. Global-scale convective aggregation: Implications for the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Nathan P.; Randall, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown that convection will self-organize in cloud-system-resolving model simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium, and it has been suggested that the convective envelope of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) may be organized by similar processes on a much larger scale. Here we present support for that hypothesis based on simulations with SP-CAM with globally uniform SST. Without rotation, convection self-organizes into large (˜4000 km) clusters surrounded by dry regions, while with Earth-like rotation the model produces a robust MJO. The nonrotating aggregation and MJO are found to have similar budgets of moist static energy, both being supported by diabatic feedbacks, particularly cloud-longwave interaction. Mechanism denial experiments show that longwave heating anomalies associated with high clouds are essential to the nonrotating aggregation, and amplify the MJO. Simulations using the conventional CAM show a weaker MJO and a much weaker tendency for nonrotating aggregation, and both MJO activity and aggregation intensity are found to increase with the entrainment rate in the deep convection parameterization.

  13. Key processes for the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation based on multimodel simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xianan

    2017-01-01

    As a prominent climate variability mode with widespread influences on global weather extremes, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) remains poorly represented in the latest generation of general circulation models (GCMs), with a particular challenge in simulating its eastward propagating convective signals. In this study, by analyzing multimodel simulations from a recent global MJO model evaluation project, an effort is made to identify key processes for the eastward propagation of the MJO through analyses of moisture entropy (ME) processes under a "moisture mode" framework for the MJO. The column-integrated horizontal ME advection is found to play a critical role for the eastward propagation of the MJO in both observations and good MJO models, with a primary contribution through advection of the lower tropospheric seasonal mean ME by the MJO anomalous circulations. By contrast, the horizontal ME advection effect for the eastward propagation is greatly underestimated in poor MJO GCMs, due to model deficiencies in simulating both the seasonal mean ME pattern and MJO circulations, leading to a largely stationary MJO mode in these GCMs. These results thus pinpoint an important guidance toward improved representation of the MJO in climate and weather forecast models. While this study mainly focuses on fundamental physics for the MJO propagation over the Indian Ocean, complex influences by the Maritime Continent on the MJO and also ME processes associated with the MJO over the western Pacific warrant further investigations.

  14. Potential spawning habitat for lake trout on Julian's Reef, Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1996-01-01

    Julian's Reef is an historical spawning ground for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southwestern Lake Michigan. It is a designated lake trout refuge and is the focus of lake trout restoration efforts in Illinois waters of the lake. We studied the reef to determine its potential as spawning habitat for stocked lake trout. We used side-scan sonar and a remotely operated vehicle equipped with a video camera to survey and map 156 ha of lake bed on the southeast portion of the reef, where an earlier study revealed the presence of loose-rock substrate potentially suitable for use by spawning lake trout. Our survey showed that the substrate on the reef that most closely resembled that described in the literature as suitable for spawning by stocked lake trout in the Great Lakes was rubble patches with interstitial depths greater than 20 cm. These rubble patches occupied about 2 ha of the 13-ha expanse of bedrock and rubble substrate near the reef crest in the surveyed area. We estimated that these rubble patches, if fully used by spawning lake trout, could accommodate egg deposition by at least 1,300–3,300 2.7-kg females.

  15. Extratropical Forcing Triggered the 2015 Madden-Julian Oscillation-El Niño Event.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chi-Cherng; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Lee, Ming-Ying; Chow, Chun-Hoe; Jiang, Li-Chiang

    2017-04-24

    In this paper, we report the triggering effect of extratropical perturbation on the onset of an atypical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and onset of the 2015-16 El Niño in March 2015. The MJO exhibited several unique characteristics: the effect of extratropical forcing, atypical genesis location and timing in the equatorial western Pacific, and the extremity of amplitudes in many aspects. The southward-penetrating northerly associated with the extratropical disturbances in the extratropical western North Pacific contributed to triggering the deep convection and westerly wind burst (WWB) and onset of the MJO over the anomalously warm tropical western Pacific in early March. The persisting strong WWB forced downwelling Kelvin wave-like oceanic perturbation that propagated eastward and led to the onset of the 2015-16 El Niño. The proposed novel extratropical forcing mechanism explaining the unique extratropics-MJO-El Niño association, based on both data diagnostics and numerical experiments, warrants further attention for a more detailed understanding of the onset of the MJO and its potential effect on El Niño.

  16. Modulation of Global Fire Probability by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chidong

    2014-05-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is an atmospheric phenomenon that dominates the subseasonal (20 - 90 day) variability in the tropics. Its main feature includes an eastward moving large-scale center of deep convection from the Indian Ocean to the western and central Pacific Ocean. As its convection center moves eastward, the MJO exerts influences on many weather, climate and other phenomena in the Earth system, both in the tropics and extratropics. Satellite-based global fire data sets (MODIS, ATSR) have revealed that probability of fire in many regions of the world undergoes systematic changes through the life cycle of the MJO. For example, when MJO convection center is located over the Indian Ocean, fire probability is anomalous high in West Africa and northern Australia, but anomalously low in central Africa, the Amazonia, and Alaska. In the tropics, such changes are directly related to rainfall fluctuations of the MJO itself in the eastern hemisphere, and are consequences of atmospheric equatorial waves excited by MJO convection that propagate into the western hemisphere. In the extratropics, the changes are mainly due to teleconnection patterns in the atmosphere established by anomalous convection of the MJO. Simultaneous perturbations in rainfall, surface temperature and humidity suggest that no single meteorological variable can fully explain the modulation of fire probability by the MJO. Current efforts are being made to related wild fire to lightening frequencies, which are also modulated by the MJO.

  17. Past- and present-day Madden-Julian Oscillation in CNRM-CM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Eun-Ji; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-04-01

    Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the past (nineteenth century) and present day (twentieth century) is examined using preindustrial and historical experiments of Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques-Coupled Models, version 5 (CNRM-CM5) in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The present-day MJO is stronger than the past MJO by 33% and it is ~10% more frequent. In particular, the MJO phases 4-7 signifying deep convection situated over the Maritime continent and western Pacific (WP) are considerably enhanced. These changes are due mainly to greenhouse gas forcing with little impact from nature forcing. Dynamical mechanisms for this change are investigated. A peculiar strengthening of MJO over WP comes from increased basic-state sea surface temperature (SST) over the Central Pacific (CP) and EP. The increase in precipitation over WP results from both the response to enhanced SST over CP and the inverted Walker circulation induced by the EP and CP SST increase. The latter causes a pair of anticyclonic Rossby waves straddling the equator, leading to moisture convergence over WP.

  18. The Madden-Julian oscillation and its seasonal impact on mid-latitude weather predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Minoru

    Seasonal influence of the the Madden-Julian oscillation(MJO) activity on weather predictability in the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere is investigated. This is accomplished by analyzing a T42 global atmospheric model with an imbedded model of the MJO derived from the observations. The imbedded model uses observed outgoing longwave radiation data from NCEP. Therefore novel features of the present study include a numerical model with realistic representation of the MJO, very large prediction ensembles, and information theoretic techniques to measure potential predictability of midlatitude. Results show that the MJO appears to be potentially able to increase mid-latitude predictability by several days in three important mid-latitude regions. The effect is more pronounced in summer hemisphere than winter hemisphere. The effect is much smaller during winter hemisphere for all three regions. One reason for this difference is that the signal to noise ratio of the remote MJO response is larger during summer. Results also indicate that regions closer geographically to the MJO centre of action around the maritime continent might have bigger effect. Our results also suggest that there appears a strong case for improving the representation of the MJO convection in general circulation models.

  19. Madden-Julian Oscillation and sea level: Local and remote forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, E. C. J.; Thompson, K. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the tropical atmosphere on intraseasonal time scales (i.e., weeks to seasons). This study examines the connection between the MJO and global sea level measured by altimeters over the last 17 years. We first identify regions exhibiting a significant (both statistical and practical) relationship between sea level and the MJO. The first region consists of the equatorial Pacific and western coastal zones of North and South America. Consistent with previous studies, we identify wind-driven equatorially trapped Kelvin waves that propagate eastward along the equatorial Pacific and then transform into coastal trapped waves that propagate poleward along the western coasts of North and South America. The second region includes the shallow waters of the Gulf of Carpentaria (off Australia's north coast) and the adjacent Arafura and Timor seas. Setup by onshore winds is shown to be the dominant physical process. Finally, the northeastern Indian Ocean is shown to be a complex region involving a combination of equatorially trapped Kelvin waves, coastal trapped waves, and westward-propagating Rossby waves exhibiting characteristics of both local and remote forcing. The implications of the results for deep and coastal ocean forecasting are discussed.

  20. Sea Surface Temperature Coupling to Madden-Julian Oscillations over the Indonesian Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Pujiana, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intraseasonal SST characteristics within the Indonesian Seas and their responses to the Madden-Julian Oscillations [MJO] are examined through analyses of observed and reanalysis datasets. Intraseasonal variation accounts for about 30% of SST variability, with the strongest signature is observed in Banda and Timor seas. The MJO signature in SST is evident in the form of energy peak at 35-45 days, amplification during the Northwest Monsoon (boreal winter), and eastward propagation. SST responds to sea-air heat flux associated with MJO with net heat flux into the ocean (atmosphere) characterizing the suppressed (active) phase of MJO. The influence of MJO on Banda Sea SST is greatest during La Niña periods, which are favorable for deeper thermocline conditions, which diminish the role of ocean processes driving vertical heat transfer between subsurface and surface layers. Diminished influence of ocean processes results in dominance of surface heat fluxes associated with MJO in governing intraseasonal SST variability. During El Niño, the role of ocean processes is favorable to mediate heat transfer between lower and upper layer of the ocean surface as thermocline is shallower. The ocean component heat fluxes then compete with MJO forced heat fluxes in governing SST variability as indicated by less pronounced eastward propagation.

  1. Theory and evidence that the Madden-Julian Oscillation is a dispersive, convectively coupled moisture wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adames, Á. F.; Kim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A linear wave theory for the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), previously developed by Sobel and Maloney, is extended upon in this study. Using column-integrated moisture as a prognostic variable, a dispersion relation is derived that solely depends on the convective adjustment timescale, a parameter that indicates the amount of moisture available for propagation and the distance that free Kelvin waves are able to travel in the presence of dissipation. The dispersion relation adequately describes the MJO's signal in the wavenumber-frequency spectrum and defines the MJO as a dispersive equatorial moist wave with a westward group velocity. On the basis of linear regression analysis of the time varying field of outgoing longwave radiation, it is estimated that that the MJO's group velocity is 2/5 as large as its eastward phase speed. This dispersion is the result of the anomalous winds in the Kelvin and Rossby wave responses modulating the mean distribution of moisture such that the moisture anomaly propagates eastward while wave energy propagates westward. Additionally, it is found that cloud-radiation feedbacks cause growth of the moist wave to be largest at the planetary scales. It is hypothesized that this scale selection mechanism is the result of upper-level cloudiness exhibiting a larger zonal extent than precipitation. The longwave radiative heating from these upper-level clouds causes an expansion of the region of ascent under weak-temperature gradient balance.

  2. Possible Influences of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on Global Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chidong; McKinney, Matthew; Lasslop, Gitta; Kreidenweis, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Possible influences of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global wildfire are investigated. Glob fire potential and activities are measured by the Nesterov Index (NI), fire danger index (FDI), fire number (FN), and burned area (BA) from the output of a process-based fire regime model (SPITFIRE). The MJO is described using the Real-Time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index. Eight MJO phases defined by the RMM index correspond to different longitudinal locations of positive and negative anomalies in its rainfall as it propagates eastward from the Indian to Pacific Oceans. Phase 0 is defined as periods without MJO signals. Potential influences of the MJO on global fire are demonstrated as the differences of the four fire parameters between each of the eight MJO phases and phase 0. Statistically significant (at the 95% confidence level) differences are identified in various MJO phases in the following regions: tropical Africa, the Amazonia, Siberia, western Russia, and North America. Potential implications and caveats of these signals are discussed.

  3. Analysis of extreme rainfall in South America associated with Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutwiler Silva, Elaine; Siqueira Silva, Maria Elisa

    2014-05-01

    Since the early Twentieth Century, the scientific community has recorded the observation of atmospheric and oceanic oscillations related to climatic behavior in remote areas with influence on intraseasonal, interannual and decadal scales, as indicated by [Walker, (1924); Bjerkness (1969); Gutzler and Wallace (1981); Rogers and Van Loon (1978, 1979)]. On the intraseasonal scale, Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) plays a key role in the modulation of rainfall in the tropics and subtropics (Kayano et al., 2009) being characterized by an east shift in a zonal large-scale and thermally direct cell on the Pacific Ocean. This oscillation was first detected in the work of Madden and Julian (1971, 1972) through the application of spectral analysis on daily radiosonde data provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), for the stations at Canton island. The analysis allowed the detection and documentation of oscillations with periods from 40 to 50 days with strong associations between the surface pressure, zonal wind and temperature at different atmospheric levels. Although Souza and Ambrizzi (2006) indicate that South America (SA) has its convective activity altered due to the passage of the MJO, at the present moment, the existing models of climate prediction have not been able to correctly reproduce the propagation of the MJO. This study aims to analyze the periods of occurrence of extreme precipitation and drought in SA associated with OMJ and check the ability of Regional Circulation Model (RegCM4) to simulate this climate variability both diagnostically and prognostically. Daily rainfall data compiled by Liebmann and Allured (2005) will be used for the period 1978-2005 for the detection of MJO influence on SA precipitation. The analysis of atmospheric fields (wind at 200 and 850 hPa and omega at 500 and 850 hPa) of the Reanalysis I data set (Kalnay, 1996) obtained from the Physical Sciences Division (PSD) will be performed in order to verify the

  4. Detail isotopic stratigraphy of snowpack - case study from Julian Alps (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreča, P.; Brenčič, M.; Sinjur, I.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    In temperate humid catchments the storage of precipitation in snowpack, and the subsequent melting, both highly variable in space and time, substantially impacts the water cycle. Recent climate warming and changes in atmospheric circulation patterns have resulted in reductions in the duration of the snow cover season, the amount of water stored in the snowpack, as well as a widespread trend toward earlier melt. Comparison of water balance for periods 1961-90 and 1971-2000 showed that in Slovenia average precipitation amount remained the same in both periods while runoff decreased and the evaporation increased recently. The area of Julian Alps (NW Slovenia) represents the upper catchment area of river Sava. The area is locally characterised as one with the highest annual precipitation amount in Europe, rapid runoffs and low evaporation. Snow cover is regular, starts to accumulate in late autumn and lasts more than 100 days, at the upper tree line usually more than 150 days. Due to positive air temperature trend snow cover period is changing and consequently the discharge regime is affected. Spatial and temporal variability of snow, as well as snow cover contribution to the water balance in Julian Alps remains poorly investigated. Isotopes of O and H have been used to study snow deposition and the subsequent alteration of snowpack and its influence on runoff. Despite their potential, environmental isotopes were only rarely used in investigations of water cycle in mountain areas of Slovenia in the past. To improve the knowledge on snowpack isotope characteristics and processes in it, and consequently to enable better understanding of water balance with emphasize on recharge of important Slovene aquifers, in 2011 at selected site in the area of Triglav National Park (Planina Javornik) the first isotope research of snowpack has been started. We performed detail sampling of snowpack at two locations with different canopy structures (e.g. clearing and forest stand

  5. Late Quaternary glaciation of the Upper Soca River Region (Southern Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bavec, Milos; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Mahan, Shannon; Stock, Gregory M.

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Late Quaternary glaciers in the Upper Soc??a River Region (Southern Julian Alps, SE Europe) has been analyzed using a combination of geological mapping, glaciological modeling, and sediment dating (radiocarbon, U/Th series and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence-IRSL). Field investigations focused mainly on relatively well preserved Quaternary sequences in the Bovec Basin, an intramontane basin located SW of the Mediterranean/Black Sea divide and surrounded by mountain peaks reaching from approximately 2100 up to 2587 m a.s.l. Within the Basin we recognized two Late Quaternary sedimentary assemblages, which consist of the same facies association of diamictons, laminated lacustrine deposits and sorted fluvial sediments. Radiocarbon dating of the upper part of the lake sediments sequence (between 12790??85 and 5885??60 14C years b.p.) indicates that the younger sedimentary assemblage was deposited during the last glacial maximum and through early Holocene (Marine Isotope Stage 21, MIS 2-1). Sediment ages obtained for the older assemblage with U/Th and IRSL techniques (between 154.74??22.88 and 129.93??7.90 ka b.p. for selected samples) have large errors but both methods yield results consistent with deposition during the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5). Based on analyses of field data combined with glaciological modeling, we argue that both sediment complexes formed due to high sediment productivity spurred by paraglacial conditions with glaciers present in the uplands around the Bovec Basin but not extending down to the basin floor. Our study shows that the extent and intensity of direct glacial sedimentation by Late Quaternary glaciers in the region was previously significantly overestimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of the Madden Julian Oscillation on precipitation and surface air temperature in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Mariano S.; Vera, C. S.; Kiladis, G. N.; Liebmann, B.

    2016-01-01

    The regional influence of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) on South America is described. Maps of probability of weekly-averaged rainfall exceeding the upper tercile were computed for all seasons and related statistically with the phase of the MJO as characterized by the Wheeler-Hendon real-time multivariate MJO (RMM) index and with the OLR MJO Index. The accompanying surface air temperature and circulation anomalies were also calculated. The influence of the MJO on regional scales along with their marked seasonal variations was documented. During December-February when the South American monsoon system is active, chances of enhanced rainfall are observed in southeastern South America (SESA) region mainly during RMM phases 3 and 4, accompanied by cold anomalies in the extratropics, while enhanced rainfall in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) region is observed in phases 8 and 1. The SESA (SACZ) signal is characterized by upper-level convergence (divergence) over tropical South America and a cyclonic (anticyclonic) anomaly near the southern tip of the continent. Impacts during March-May are similar, but attenuated in the extratropics. Conversely, in June-November, reduced rainfall and cold anomalies are observed near the coast of the SACZ region during phases 4 and 5, favored by upper-level convergence over tropical South America and an anticyclonic anomaly over southern South America. In September-November, enhanced rainfall and upper-level divergence are observed in the SACZ region during phases 7 and 8. These signals are generated primarily through the propagation of Rossby wave energy generated in the region of anomalous heating associated with the MJO.

  7. Modulation of the intraseasonal rainfall over tropical Brazil by the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Everaldo B.; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2006-11-01

    Fifteen years (1987-2001) of rain gauge-based data are used to describe the intraseasonal rainfall variability over tropical Brazil and its associated dynamical structure. Wavelet analysis performed on rainfall time series showed significant peaks centered roughly in periods of 30-70 days, particularly in the eastern southeastern Amazon and northern northeast Brazil. A significant enhancement of precipitation with maximum anomalies in a northeastward oriented band over tropical Brazil is evidenced from empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of 30-70-day filtered rainfall anomalies during rainy season (January to May). Lagged/lead composites revealed that, on a global scale, the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the main atmospheric-mechanism modulator of the pluviometric variations on intraseasonal timescale in the eastern Amazon and northeast Brazil. A coherent northward expansion of rainfall across tropical Brazil is evident during the passage of MJO over South America. Regionally, the establishment of a quasi-stationary deep convection band triggered by the simultaneous manifestation of south Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) explains the intensified rainfall over these regions. Such regional mechanisms are dynamically embedded within the eastward-propagating MJO-related large-scale convective envelope along tropical South America/the Atlantic Ocean. These features occur in association with a significant intraseasonal evolution of the lower-level wind and sea-surface temperature (SST) patterns, particularly in the Atlantic Ocean, including a coherent dynamical connection with atmospheric circulation, deep convective activity over South America and rainfall over tropical Brazil.

  8. Links Between the Madden-Julian Oscillation and Severe Convective Storms in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, B.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has shown a tendency for severe convective storms to vary intraseasonally, including by phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The MJO is the leading mode of atmospheric intraseasonal variability and is characterized by large regions (1000-5000 km) of anomalous convective activity that generally propagate eastward along the equator. Anomalous upper-troposphere heating associated with this convection generates poleward-propagating Rossby waves that interact with the preexisting extratropical circulation. The projection of this interaction onto the synoptic scale - via the favoring of troughs and ridges at certain positions - is the hypothesized mechanism by which the MJO modulates severe convection. However, one unexplored aspect of this modulation is the extent to which severe convection in winter and early-spring months, especially Jan-Mar, may be influenced by different phases of the MJO. While climatologically rarer than events later in spring, severe thunderstorms in winter and early spring still have potential to be high-impact weather events, especially as they often occur in populated areas of the southeast U.S. that have shown more vulnerability than other regions such as the southern or central plains. Results from other studies (not necessarily focused on the question of severe convective storms) have indicated statistically significant modulation of upper- and mid-tropospheric circulation (from 200 hPa to 700 hPa), surface temperature, and sea level pressure. Thus, it is possible that the MJO's influence also extends to severe storms, as these are ingredients known to affect the likelihood of convective activity in the U.S. Using a methodology similar to other recent MJO studies, the impacts of the MJO on tornado, hail, and wind activity from Jan-Mar will be tested as part of this larger project to understand intraseasonal variability of severe storms.

  9. Simulations of Madden-Julian Oscillation in High Resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liping; Stenchikov, Georgiy; McCabe, Matthew; Bangalath, HamzaKunhu; Raj, Jerry; Osipov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    The simulation of tropical signals, especially the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), is one of the major deficiencies in current numerical models. The unrealistic features in the MJO simulations include the weak amplitude, more power at higher frequencies, displacement of the temporal and spatial distributions, eastward propagation speed being too fast, and a lack of coherent structure for the eastward propagation from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific (e.g., Slingo et al. 1996). While some improvement in simulating MJO variance and coherent eastward propagation has been attributed to model physics, model mean background state and air-sea interaction, studies have shown that the model resolution, especially for higher horizontal resolution, may play an important role in producing a more realistic simulation of MJO (e.g., Sperber et al. 2005). In this study, we employ unique high-resolution (25-km) simulations conducted using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) to evaluate the MJO simulation against the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim re-analysis (ERAI) dataset. We specifically focus on the ability of the model to represent the MJO related amplitude, spatial distribution, eastward propagation, and horizontal and vertical structures. Additionally, as the HIRAM output covers not only an historic period (1979-2012) but also future period (2012-2050), the impact of future climate change related to the MJO is illustrated. The possible changes in intensity and frequency of extreme weather and climate events (e.g., strong wind and heavy rainfall) in the western Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region are highlighted.

  10. Interactions of river discharge parameterizations with the Madden Julian oscillation in the CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, C. A.; Tseng, Y. H.; Bryan, F.

    2016-12-01

    River discharge in the tropical Warm Pool is a source of fresh water to the upper ocean, which can help stabilize the upper ocean, reduce ocean mixing, and promote radiation-driven surface warming. Large rivers, such as the Ganges, that drain large land masses provide quasi-steady freshening during certain seasons. Freshening from rivers that drain smaller land masses, such as islands within the Maritime Continent, is more regulated by rainfall. The Madden Julian oscillation (MJO) regulates instraseasonal rainfall, SST, and surface salinity across the Warm Pool, and is sensitive to the ocean response to this forcing. The effects of estuarine river discharge on upper ocean stratification and interactions with the MJO are explored using two different estuary parameterizations in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In the control simulation (CTR), river discharge is spread uniformly onto the ocean surface over an artificially chosen length scale using the virtual salt flux approach. In the experimental configuration, river discharge is confined to the ocean model grid point containing the river delta, and mixed vertically with a two-layer estuary box model (EBM). In EBM, the temperature and salinity distribution is driven mainly by oceanic mixing and advection without ad-hoc horizontal spreading. Compared to EBM, over-dispersal of river runoff in CTR leads to fresher surface waters, shallower ocean mixed layers, and more variable SSTs throughout the Warm Pool. In CTR, river discharge is transported to a larger area by surface currents. Specifically, fresh water from the Ganges contributes to a low salinity, warm SST band near 10N in the central Indian Ocean; in the Indonesian Seas, overly dispersed runoff contributes to a shallower mixed layer and larger SST increases during the MJO suppressed phase. MJO convection and propagation characteristics suggest that the MJO in CTR benefits from the overly dispersed river discharge, while the MJO in EBM is less impacted.

  11. Convective Momentum Transport Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation Based on Reanalysis Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J. H.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D. E.; Moncrieff, M. W.; Johnson, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most prominent tropical atmospheric variability modes, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) exerts profound influences on global weather and climate, and serves as a critical predictability source for extend-range forecast. In spite of the recent effort toward improving the ability of general circulation models (GCMs) to simulate the MJO, significant challenges still remain for current GCMs to produce more realistic MJO simulations. Previous studies have highlighted the important role of multi-scale interactions within the MJO including the momentum exchanges in order to improve MJO prediction skill. In this study, convective momentum transport (CMT) associated with the MJO is analyzed based on the recent NOAA Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), in particular, by capitalizing on its archive of the parameterized subgrid CMT. Consistent with previous cloud-resolving model study, a three-layer vertical structure associated with the MJO is clear in the subgrid CMT from the CFSR. In association with enhanced MJO convection over both the Indian Ocean (IO) and western Pacific (WP), within and to the west (east) of the MJO convection, positive (negative), negative (positive), positive (negative) subgrid CMT momentum tendency anomalies are evident in the upper, middle, and lower troposphere, respectively. This subgrid CMT vertical structure tends to damp the large-scale MJO circulation in the middle and upper troposphere, but enhances MJO winds in a shallow near-surface layer. Further analyses illustrate that this three-layer vertical structure in subgrid momentum tendency of the MJO is largely balanced by grid-scale u-momentum transport. The momentum tendency structure associated with the MJO based on the CFSR is also confirmed with the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis for the two-year period of the Year of the Tropical Convection (YOTC), which further lends confidence to our results.

  12. Modulation of the Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the major tropical wave modes, the convectively-coupled equatorial Kelvin wave (CCKW) plays a critical role in tropical climate / weather variability. CCKW activity exhibits strong variation on both seasonal and intraseasonal time scales. In this study, evidence of the strong modulation of the CCKW activity by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) will be presented, with a particular focus over South America and tropical Atlantic region. The primary modulation of CCKWs over this region, as noted in anomalous fields of rainfall as well as vertical profiles of wind, moisture and temperature, is found to be a modulation of wave activity - namely amplitude, with secondary effects on vertical structure, and very little impact on wavenumber. CCKW activity is enhanced during MJO phases 8, 1, and 2, and damped during MJO phases 4, 5, and 6. Further analyses reveal that the strong modulation of the MJO on the CCKW activity could be largely through two factors, namely, the vertical zonal wind shear and the lower-middle troposphere specific humidity. The CCKW activity tends to be enhanced during MJO phases when the westward vertical wind shear and positive lower to mid-troposphere moisture anomalies are evident, and vice versa. These two physical processes associated with the MJO are found to have positively (negatively) reinforcing influences in the CCKW activity in phase 1 (4, and 5), while counteracting influences in phases 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8, leading to the observed MJO cycle of the CCKW activity anomalies in the study region. The results presented in this study may have important implications for extended-range prediction of tropical wave activity, and possibly initiation of the MJO further downstream in the Indian Ocean.

  13. Thermodynamics in the Suppressed Phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation Using a Multiplatform Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Taylor, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) represents a prominent mode of intraseasonal tropical variability. It is manifest by coherent large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation, convection, and thermodynamic processes. Preconditioning of the environment prior to the active phase of the MJO has been noted, but the balance of theorized mechanisms to accomplish this process remains unresolved. Further, there is a lack of consensus on the means by which primary initiation of an MJO event occurs. Observational and modeling efforts have recently been undertaken to advance our understanding of the physical underpinnings governing MJO development. However these intensive studies are often limited in space and/or time and are potentially subject to model deficiencies. Satellite observations, especially those providing vertical resolution of temperature and moisture, provide an opportunity to expand our knowledge of processes critical to MJO initiation and preconditioning. This work will provide an analysis of suppressed phase thermodynamics with an emphasis on the use of a complementary suite of satellite observations including AIRS/AMSU-A profiles, CERES radiative fluxes, and cloud properties observed by MODIS. Emphasis of this work will regard the distribution of cloud regimes, their radiative-convective effects, and their relationship to moist static energy during the recharge and suppressed stages of MJO initiation and eastward propagation. The analyses will make use of cloud regimes from MODIS observations to provide a compositing technique that enables the identification of systematic connections between different cloud regimes and the larger scale environment. Within these cloud regimes, the relationship between the associated cloud-radiative effects observed by CERES, vertically-resolved and vertically-integrated thermodynamics using AIRS/AMSU-A observations, and atmospheric boundary layer fluxes will be demonstrated.

  14. Madden-Julian Oscillation analog and intraseasonal variability in a multicloud model above the equator.

    PubMed

    Majda, Andrew J; Stechmann, Samuel N; Khouider, Boualem

    2007-06-12

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant component of tropical intraseasonal variability, and a theory explaining its structure and successful numerical simulation remains a major challenge. A successful model for the MJO should have a propagation speed of 4-7 m/s predicted by theory; a wavenumber-2 or -3 structure for the planetary-scale, low-frequency envelope with distinct active and inactive phases of deep convection; an intermittent turbulent chaotic multiscale structure within the planetary envelope involving embedded westward- and eastward-propagating deep convection events; and qualitative features of the low-frequency envelope from the observational record regarding, e.g., its zonal flow structure and heating. Here, such an MJO analog is produced by using the recent multicloud model of Khouider and Majda in an appropriate intraseasonal parameter regime for flows above the equator so that rotation is ignored. Key features of the multicloud model are (i) systematic low-level moisture convergence with retained conservation of vertically integrated moist static energy, and (ii) the use of three cumulus cloud types (congestus, stratiform, and deep convective) together with their differing vertical heating structures. Besides all of the above structure in the MJO analog waves, there are accurate predictions of the phase speed from linear theory and transitions from weak, regular MJO analog waves to strong, multiscale MJO analog waves as climatological parameters vary. With all of this structure in a simplified context, these models should be useful for MJO predictability studies in a fashion akin to the Lorenz 96 model for the midlatitude atmosphere.

  15. Occurrence of Extreme Precipitation Events in California and Relationships with the Madden-Julian Oscillation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Charles

    2000-10-01

    California receives most of the annual precipitation during the boreal winter season. Additionally, large spatial and temporal variations in the total rainfall amounts are observed. This study investigates the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in California and the modulation by the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). Three questions are investigated. 1) Are extreme precipitation events in California more likely to occur during active MJO than inactive periods? 2) In what phase of the MJO life cycle are extreme events more likely? 3) Are interannual variations in the frequency of extreme events in California related to interannual variations of the MJO?Daily totals derived from gridded hourly station data are used to define extreme precipitation events from January 1958 to December 1996. Outgoing longwave radiation from polar orbiting satellites (1979-96) and zonal component of the wind at 200 hPa and 850 hPa from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (1958-96) are used to describe the life cycle of the oscillation and its interannual variability. The results indicate that the frequency of extreme events are more common when tropical activity associated with the MJO is high, as opposed to periods of quiescent phases of the oscillation. Second, a slight preference for a higher number of events is observed when convective anomalies are located in the Indian Ocean. In this situation, low-level westerly and easterly wind anomalies are observed over the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, respectively. The analysis of the interannual variability in the amplitude of the MJO and the occurrence of extreme events over California indicates no direct and systematic relationships with the number of extreme events.

  16. Characteristics of Precipitation, Cloud, and Latent Heating Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K-M.; Wu, H-T.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of cloud and rainfall structures associated with Madden Julian oscillation (MJO) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. Two complementary indices are used to define MJO phases. Joint probability distribution functions (PDFs) of cloud-top temperature and radar echo-top height are constructed for each of the eight MJO phases. The genesis stage of MJO convection over the western Pacific (phases 1 and 2) features a bottom-heavy PDF, characterized by abundant warm rain, low clouds, suppressed deep convection, and higher sea surface temperature (SST). As MJO convection develops (phases 3 and 4), a transition from the bottom-heavy to top-heavy PDF occurs. The latter is associated with the development of mixed-phase rain and middle-to-high clouds, coupled with rapid SST cooling. At the MJO convection peak (phase 5), a top-heavy PDF contributed by deep convection with mixed-phase and ice-phase rain and high echo-top heights (greater than 5 km) dominates. The decaying stage (phases 6 and 7) is characterized by suppressed SST, reduced total rain, increased contribution from stratiform rain, and increased nonraining high clouds. Phase 7, in particular, signals the beginning of a return to higher SST and increased warm rain. Phase 8 completes the MJO cycle, returning to a bottom-heavy PDF and SST conditions similar to phase 1. The structural changes in rain and clouds at different phases of MJO are consistent with corresponding changes in derived latent heating profiles, suggesting the importance of a diverse mix of warm, mixed-phase, and ice-phase rain associated with low-level, congestus, and high clouds in constituting the life cycle and the time scales of MJO.

  17. Oceanic Feedback to the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Mixing's Critical Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moum, J. N.; Pujiana, K.; Lien, R. C.; Smyth, W.

    2016-02-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the Indian Ocean is a large-scale, propagating atmospheric disturbance in the equatorial latitude band characterized by reduced outgoing longwave radiation due to deep atmospheric convection, and at the surface by intense westerly wind bursts and a change in sign of the net surface heat flux. The ocean response is the formation of a near-surface Yoshida-Wyrtki Jet, which accelerates almost in balance with the surface wind stress. High shear at the Jet's base drives intense turbulence, both of which continue long after the atmospheric disturbance has passed (Moum et al., 2014). The sequence of MJOs observed in the 2011-2012 DYNAMO experiment suggested the possibility that the greater mixing due to more intense MJO wind bursts might reduce SST recovery rates following MJO passage, thus reducing upper ocean heat content available to drive future atmospheric convection. We have tested this with a statistical analysis of less-complete historical observations of MJOs documenting 50 previous events. Our analysis shows that 1) SST increases more rapidly following weak MJOs than strong MJOs, and within a 60-day window, 2) weak MJOs follow strong MJOs (and do not follow weak MJOs), 3) strong MJOs follow weak MJOs (and do not follow strong MJOs). We hypothesize that these results are the consequence of Jet-forced variations in subsurface mixing on SST recovery rates, thereby providing direct feedback to subsequent MJOs. Moum, J.N., S.P. de Szoeke, W.D. Smyth, J.B. Edson, H.L. DeWitt, A.J. Moulin, E.J. Thompson, C.J. Zappa, S.A. Rutledge, R.H. Johnson and C.W. Fairall, 2014. Air-sea interactions from westerly wind bursts during the November 2011 MJO in the Indian Ocean. Bull.Am.Met.Soc., 95, 1185-1199.

  18. Assessments of surface latent heat flux associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingxia; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    To understand the accuracy and uncertainty of surface latent heat flux (LHF) associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the LHF from each of the six global reanalysis datasets is compared with LHF based on in situ data and the objectively analyzed air-sea flux (OAFlux), in terms of tropical intraseasonal variability. The reanalysis products used in this study include the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I), the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), three generations of reanalysis from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP R1, R2 and CFSR), and the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR). We find that the intraseasonal LHF of the reanalysis products agrees well with the OAFlux over the tropical oceans in terms of patterns, but there is a significant spread in amplitude among the reanalysis products. Both ERA-I and MERRA show smaller biases in the power spectral analysis, while the other reanalysis products (NCEP R1, NCEP R2, CFSR, and 20CR) tend to overestimate the intraseasonal LHF when compared with the TAO buoy products and OAFlux. The role of anomalous LHF in supporting the MJO convection identified by previous TAO buoy data studies is confirmed by the long-term global reanalyses. The feature of increasing LHF accompanied by growing MJO observed in the recent MJO field campaign in the central Indian Ocean (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) is also well captured by the reanalysis products. Among the reanalysis datasets, MERRA has the smallest bias in temporal variability of LHF during the DYNAMO/CINDY2011 period.

  19. Integrating Sensor Data and Informatics to Improve Understanding of Hypoxia in the WATERS Network Testbed at Corpus Christi Bay, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, E.; Kulis, P.; Brouwer, A.; Montagna, P.; Hodges, B. R.; Minsker, B.; Maidment, D.

    2007-12-01

    The goal of the WATERS Network Testbed in Corpus Christi Bay (Texas) is to better understand hypoxia by creating a prototype Environmental Information System (EIS) that links field data collection, real-time modeling techniques, and cyberinfrastructure. In this paper, we explore the connection between the bay's bottom-water hypoxia and wind mixing by integrating several field data sets within a machine-learning model and exploring the mechanisms leading to the model results using an independent data set. K-nearest neighbor machine learning models applied to several long-term data sets indicate that wind velocities are instrumental in forecasting hypoxic events. Additionally, statistical analysis suggests that the impacts of wind vary spatially throughout the bay. Forecasting algorithms can be employed to predict not only the expected value of dissolved oxygen levels throughout the bay, but also the probability of observing hypolimnetic hypoxia. Prior values of dissolved oxygen, salinity, wind direction, wind velocity, and water temperature have been shown to play a meaningful role in influencing the DO value twenty-four hours hence. Visualizing spatial maps of expected means and variances not only illustrate potentially hypoxia regions, but areas where future sampling would be most beneficial as well. We use a short-term field data set to explore the possible mechanisms controlling the observed statistical trends in long-term data sets. Field data taken from July 2006 document a specific hypoxic episode that follows a high wind event. Analyses of temporal changes in the vertical water column support the suspected connections between wind, salinity, and hypoxia, and suggest some possible mechanisms for this connection. It is suspected that wind controls the sinking of heavy, saline water into the bottom of Corpus Christi Bay from Laguna Madre, a nearby shallower bay. This isolation of dense water from surface oxygen replenishment may be critical in hypoxia

  20. Ocean Surface Layer Response Under Madden-Julian Oscillation Convective Systems in the Equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiana, K.; Moum, J. N.

    2016-02-01

    Extensive surface heat flux, acoustics, and turbulence measurements, from a geostationary ship at 0,80.5E and from moorings at 0,80.5E and 0,90E equipped with moored temperature microstructure profilers [χpod], documented buoyancy and current responses to four Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) passages in the central-eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during the fall 2011 - spring 2012 DYNAMO experiment. Each MJO passage was marked with a net air-sea heat flux into the atmosphere, mainly controlled by attenuated shortwave radiation and increased evaporative cooling, and the occurrence of westerly wind bursts which lasted for a couple of days. In response to the prevailing strong eastward wind stress (τx> 0.2 N/m2) and buoyancy loss (Jb0>5x10-7 m2s-3), sea surface temperature dropped by about 0.5°-1.5°C, strong surface-forced mixing occurred (turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ɛ>10-6 m2s-3), homogeneous layer within the upper 40-60 m formed, pycnocline descended, and westerly-driven eastward currents accelerated. Although intermittent surface freshening due to rain squalls was evident, entrained subsurface salty water appeared to increase surface salinity by 0.3 - 0.5 psu during MJO passage. The swift 1-1.5 m/s eastward currents (the Yoshida Wyrtki jet), strongest across the upper 90 m and within 2° of the equator, persisted for several weeks and created highly sheared currents below the jet's base inducing amplified shear instability-generated mixing beneath the surface mixed layer. Low Ri (<0.5) and strong turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (10-7<ɛ<10-6 m2s-3) characterized the jet's base between 60-90 m. This sustained subsurface vertical mixing attributed to the Yoshida-Wyrkti jet affects the surface mixed layer heat budget and potentially delays the sea surface temperature recovery following the MJO passage.

  1. Evaluating and classifying the phase cycles of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Thomas Robert

    Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the largest element of intraseasonal variability in the tropical atmosphere recognized by an eastward propagating pattern of cloud cover primarily in the equatorial Indian and western Pacific Oceans. This 30- to 60-day cycle oscillates eastward in a longitudinal fashion and is a teleconnection to global weather patterns. As MJO progresses across the Indian and Pacific basins, it is associated with the development of distinct weather patterns and regimes across the mid-latitudes. This research further clarifies how MJO can be classified in terms of phase in an attempt to enhance the use of MJO as a weather and climate predictor. In this research, 16 MJO phase cycle event types were identified and classified in terms of movement (steady progressing, variable, oscillating, and unclassified) and event length (0 to 29 days, 30 to 44 days, 45 to 59 days, and 60+ days). Phase cycle (PC) was defined as the time in days it takes for a MJO to evolve from the first day in phase 2 (western Indian Ocean) progressively back to the final day in phase 1 (Africa). In observing and analyzing 248 MJO events, from February 4, 1979 through April 30, 2010, climatological background information was defined while the PC events were characterized in terms of duration and magnitude. It was discovered that the number of annual events has decreased from an average of 8.5 events per year in 1980 to 7.5 events per year in 2009, and the length of these events has increased from an average of 42.5 days per event in 1979 to 49.5 days per event in 2010. Additionally, steady progressing PC events went through their cycles much quicker and had a higher amplitude value (including number of days where amplitude is greater than 1) than the remaining three PC types. MJO data were additionally related to sea surface temperature (SST) data fluctuations, primarily involving the well-studied El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Results indicated that MJO events are most

  2. MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation) Analysis of the Chlorophyll-a Distribution in Western Waters Bengkulu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryanto, Y. D.; Fitrianti, N.; Hartoko, A.; Anggoro, S.; Zainuri, M.

    2017-02-01

    The global phenomenon Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is one of the dominant oscillation in the equatorial region of the Indian Ocean that oscillates between 30-60 days and experience the process of convection movement from west to east. MJO has a correlation of high intensity rainfall of the area in its path. During his journey eastward, the MJO is influenced by the position of the sun. When the sun in the equatorial MJO moves straight east. Meanwhile, when the position of the sun in the south of the equator, MJO shifted slightly to the south of the equator, known as the propagation of the south-east (south-eastern propagation). When the position of the sun is in the north of the equator, MJO shifted slightly to the north of the equator, known as the propagation of the north-east (north-east of propagation). Waters west of Bengkulu has a huge potential in the fisheries sector, which is situated overlooking the Indian Ocean. The phenomenon MJO influence on rainfall, sea surface temperature, and the concentration of chlorophyll-a. This study aims to look at the temporal distribution of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a and decide how MJO relationship with SST and precipitation conditions and increasing the amount of chlorophyll during the phase of the MJO in Bengkulu waters. The dataset used is data of chlorophyll-a which download in oceancolor.gfsc.nasa.gov , sea surface temperature data is used is a model of Kaplan Extended V2, RMM1 index data and RMM2 on www.bom.gov.au and rainfall data of Bengkulu region. The method used is descriptive statistical methods, Conditional Probability and logistics regression. From the above explanation can be said that there is a relationship between the incidence of MJO by the number of chlorophyll-a. Odds the addition of chlorophyll-a have a linear relationship with the duration of the incident MJO in Bengkulu, odds increase the amount of chlorophyll-a in Bengkulu region reaches a threshold value of 0.5, it means that the

  3. Assessment of Madden-Julian oscillation simulations with various configurations of CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojing; Tang, Youmin; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Dake; Yao, Zhixiong; Islam, Siraj Ul

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) simulated in five experiments using the Community Earth System Model under different model settings. The analysis focused on the effects of air-sea coupling, resolution and atmospheric physics on the basic characteristics of the MJO, including intraseasonal variance, wavenumber-frequency characteristics and eastward propagation, using outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), zonal winds at 850 hPa (U850) and at 200 hPa (U200). Five experiments are conducted for this purpose including one atmospheric model—Community Atmosphere model version 4 (CAM4), two coupled models with CAM4 or Community Atmosphere model version 5 (CAM5) as the atmospheric component at a low resolution (CLP4_2d, CPL5_2d) and two the same coupled model with a high resolution (CPL4_1d and CLP5_1d). The results show that all models have better intraseasonal characteristics in U850 than in OLR. The uncoupled model CAM4 has lower fidelity than the coupled models in characterizing MJO basic features including the temporal and spatial intraseasonal variability and the eastward propagation. With ocean feedback, the coherence of convection and circulation is improved in the coupled models. The higher resolution is helpful in improving ISV spatial distribution and eliminating low frequency bias in the frequency-wavenumber spectra although it has little improvement to MJO-band variance (power) in frequency-wavenumber spectra. The new shallow convection scheme in CAM5 improves the moisture process of the lower troposphere so that CPL5_2d and CPL5_1d have more realistic eastward propagation speed in the boreal winter and better northward propagation in the boreal summer than other models. However, the strength of the convective MJO signal in CPL5_2d and CPL5_1d are weaker than other models and observations, which is probably one of the most spurious features in CPL5_2d and CPL5_1d experiments, suggesting that the CAM5 has a weaker

  4. Precursor Environmental Conditions Associated with the Termination of Madden-Julian Oscillation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachnik, J. P.; Waliser, D. E.; Majda, A.

    2014-12-01

    Current generations of global climate models continue to struggle with simulating many of the observed features of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and suffer from low skill regarding initiation forecasts. While recent work has focused on those mechanisms thought to be important for MJO initiation, fewer studies have examined the large-scale conditions associated with quiescent periods of the MJO and the decay of existing events. Understanding these mechanisms may provide a valuable context toward improving simulations of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and operational weather forecast models. This study presents an analysis of the precursor environmental conditions related to the termination of MJO events. A simple climatology is created using a real-time MJO monitoring index, documenting the locations and frequencies of MJO decay. Lead-lag composites of several atmospheric variables including temperature, moisture, and intraseasonal wind anomalies are generated from three reanalyses. Long-term, lower tropospheric moisture deficits over the local domain best identify terminating events over the Indian Ocean, with a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and corresponding lead times as much as 20 days prior to MJO decay. Statistically significant differences are also identified more than 10 days in advance of MJO termination events in the west Pacific, though the vertical velocity and moisture anomalies are more symmetric about the equator. We also present results for those MJOs that terminate over the maritime continent. Unlike the Indian Ocean and west Pacific, the likelihood of an MJO to cross the maritime continent appears related to its own intensity, rather than the upstream environmental conditions, with only the strongest MJOs propagating into the warm pool region. Finally, a budget analysis is performed on the three-dimensional moisture advection equation in order to better elucidate what time-scales and physical

  5. Influence of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on Rainfall Variability over West Africa at Intraseasonal Timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Intraseasonal variability of rainfall over West Africa plays a significant role in the economy of the region and is highly linked to agriculture and water resources. This research study aims to investigate the relationship between Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and rainfall over West Africa during the boreal summer in the the state-of-the-art Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) type simulations performed by Atmosphere General Circulation Models (GCMs) forced with prescribed Sea Surface Temperature (SST). It aims to determine the impact of MJO on rainfall and convection over West Africa and identify the dynamical processes which are involved in the state-of-the-art climate simulations. The simulations show in general good skills in capturing its main characteristics as well as its influence on rainfall over West Africa. On the global scale, most models simulated an eastward spatio-temporal propagation of enhanced and suppressed convection similar to the observed. However, over West Africa the MJO signal is weak in few of the models although there is a good coherence in the eastward propagation. The influence on rainfall is well captured in both Sahel and Guinea regions thereby adequately producing the transition between positive and negative rainfall anomalies through the different phases as seen in the observation. Furthermore, the results show that strong active convective phase is clearly associated with the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) but the weak convective phase is associated with a much weaker AEJ particularly over coastal Ghana. In assessing the mechanisms which are involved in the above impacts the convectively equatorial coupled waves (CCEW) are analysed separately. The analysis of the longitudinal propagation of zonal wind at 850hPa and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) shows that the CCEW are very weak and their extention are very limited beyong West African region. It was found that the westward coupled equatorial Rossby waves are needed to

  6. Madden-Julian oscillation and sea surface temperature interactions in a multi-scale framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-12-01

    The ocean-atmosphere coupling can play a role in initiating and sustaining the Madden-Julian Oscillations (MJOs), which are the major intraseasonal oscillations in the atmosphere. In this thesis, the oceanic influence on MJOs is studied with reanalysis products, numerical models, and idealized theoretical models. The energy sources for MJOs are calculated with NCEP reanalysis. The perturbed potential energy is found to be the most important energy source for most MJO events. In some MJO events, the sea surface is warmed due to the reduced latent heat flux during the suppressed phase of MJOs. As a result, warm sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) occur, which appear to prolong the life time of these MJO events. In a minority of the MJO events, warm SSTAs can drive the atmosphere actively and trigger MJO events. In these events, the warm SSTAs are attributable to the internal oceanic processes influenced by the warm Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), which spreads from the southeastern Indian Ocean to the western Indian Ocean and modifies the subtle balance between stratification and mixing in the western Indian Ocean. In addition, during the transit period between monsoon seasons, a few MJO events are sustained by the energy obtained from the mean kinetic energy. Since the MJO events have different energy sources, their mechanisms should be considered in the context of these energy sources. While the spatial scale of the SSTAs in the Indian Ocean is only of order 100 km, the scale of MJOs is of order 1000 km, raising the potential for interactions between the oceanic and the atmospheric oscillations with different scales and this is demonstrated to be possible with analytical solutions to idealized linear governing equations. With a reasonable choice of parameters, the meso-scale oceanic and the large-scale atmospheric oscillations can interact with each other and lead to unstable waves in the intraseasonal band in this linear coupled model. The coupling and

  7. The Madden-Julian oscillation in ECHAM4 coupled and uncoupled general circulation models

    DOE PAGES

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Gualdi, Silvio; Legutke, Stephanie; ...

    2005-06-29

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30–70 days. During the boreal winter/spring, it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space–time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which ~100 years of daily data is available, Montemore » Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the nonadjusted scale interaction experiment (SINTEX) coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of ~0.5°C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical eastern hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or when compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air–sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat

  8. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in ECHAM4 Coupled and Uncoupled GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K R; Gualdi, S; Legutke, S; Gayler, V

    2004-10-13

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) dominates tropical variability on timescales of 30-70 days. During the boreal winter/spring it is manifested as an eastward propagating disturbance, with a strong convective signature over the eastern hemisphere. The space-time structure of the MJO is analyzed using simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model run with observed monthly mean sea-surface temperatures, and coupled to three different ocean models. The coherence of the eastward propagation of MJO convection is sensitive to the ocean model to which ECHAM4 is coupled. For ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, models for which {approx}100 years of daily data is available, Monte Carlo sampling indicates that their metrics of eastward propagation are different at the 1% significance level. The flux-adjusted coupled simulations, ECHAM4/OPYC and ECHO-G, maintain a more realistic mean-state, and have a more realistic MJO simulation than the non-adjusted SINTEX coupled runs. The SINTEX model exhibits a cold bias in Indian Ocean and tropical West Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature of {approx}0.5 C. This cold bias affects the distribution of time-mean convection over the tropical Eastern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the eastward propagation of MJO convection in this model is not as coherent as in the two models that used flux adjustment or compared to an integration of ECHAM4 with prescribed observed SST. This result suggests that simulating a realistic basic state is at least as important as air-sea interaction for organizing the MJO. While all of the coupled models simulate the warm (cold) SST anomalies that precede (succeed) the MJO convection, the interaction of the components of the net surface heat flux that lead to these anomalies are different over the Indian Ocean. The ECHAM4/OPYC model, in which the atmospheric model is run at a horizontal resolution of T42, has eastward propagating zonal wind anomalies and latent heat flux anomalies. However, the integrations

  9. A Momentum Budget Analysis of Westerly Wind Events Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ji-Hyun; Jiang, Xianan; Waliser, Duane; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Johnson, Richard; Ciesielski, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Three Madden-Julian Oscillation events during Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign were investigated to understand the contributions of the dynamical processes involved in the wind evolution associated with the MJO over the Indian Ocean (IO). The DYNAMO field campaign was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012 over the IO to shed light on the initiation of the MJO. Based on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis, a momentum budget analysis of three MJOs that occurred in late October, late November, and late December shows that westerly acceleration at lower levels associated with the MJO active phase generally appears to be maintained by the pressure gradient force (PGF), which could be partly canceled by meridional advection of the zonal wind. Westerly acceleration in the midtroposphere tends to be mostly attributable to vertical advection. In particular, the dynamical contribution of synoptic-scale equatorial waves to the WWEs is illuminated by diagnosing the MJO in November (MJO2), accompanied by two WWEs (WWE1 and WWE2) spaced a few days apart. Unlike other WWEs during DYNAMO, horizontal advection is more responsible for the westerly acceleration in the lower troposphere for WWE2 than the PGF. Different interactions between the MJO2 envelope and convectively coupled waves (CCWs) can be responsible for different developing processes among WWEs.

  10. Significance of organochlorine and heavy metal residues in wintering shorebirds at Corpus Christi, Texas, 1976-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal residues were determined in 103 shorebirds of seven species collected at Corpus Christi, Texas, during the winter of 1976-77 to evaluate their potential effects on population survival, DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in most samples. Chlordane isomers, dieldrin, toxaphene, and heptachlor epoxide also occurred, but less frequently. In general, organochlorine residues were low in skinned carcasses. Geometric means on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.25 ppm to 4.76 ppm for DDE and from 0.67 ppm to 6.64 ppm for PCBs; residues of the other compounds averaged less than 1 ppm in all instances. Mercury, lead, arsenic and vanadium occurred in all shorebird livers, and selenium and cadmium were detected in all kidneys. Residues of these metals, except selenium, were low in most tissue samples. Selenium averages varied from 1.77 ppm to 5.62 ppm (wet weight) in kidneys; residues in this range may be sufficient to inhibit reproduction or to induce other forms of toxicity, especially at the higher levels.

  11. Precipitation microstructure in different Madden-Julian Oscillation phases over Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kozu, Toshiaki; Shimomai, Toyoshi; Shibagaki, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2016-02-01

    Intraseasonal variations of precipitation and its microstructure are investigated using measurements of the Equatorial Atmospheric Radar (EAR) facilities at Kototabang, west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). Raindrop size distribution (DSD) observations are obtained from a 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) with a near continuous record of operation over eight consecutive years (2003-2010). Precipitation types are classified using 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation, and are partitioned according to active and inactive convective phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). It is found that precipitation systems during the inactive phase are more continental in nature than those during the active phase. Cloud propagation from brightness temperature data indicates that Sumatra receives the rainfall mainly from maritime clouds during the active phase, while it is mainly from the continental clouds (land-based convection) during the inactive phase. Other remarkable differences between active and inactive phase precipitation systems are also observed from the vertical structure of precipitation. The precipitation during the inactive phase has deeper storms, a higher reflectivity aloft, more lightning activity and less stratiform characteristics, as compared to the active phase. Assessment of cloud effective radius of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data also shows a slight difference in the cloud droplet between the active and the inactive MJO phases. Different convective storms in different MJO phases lead to different DSD characteristics and Z-R relationships. The DSD during the inactive phase tends to have a higher concentration of medium and large-size drops than the active counterpart, consistent with the previous study during the first campaign of Coupling Processes in the Equatorial Atmosphere project. Although the DSD parameters and coefficient of Z-R relationships fall within the range of tropical maritime

  12. Ethnic Differences in Post-Stroke Quality of Life in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Sarah L; Brown, Devin L; Baek, Jonggyu; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mexican Americans (MAs) have an increased risk of stroke and experience worse post-stroke disability than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), which may translate into worse post-stroke quality of life (QOL). We assessed ethnic differences in post-stroke QOL, as well as potential modification of associations by age, sex, and initial stroke severity. Methods Ischemic stroke survivors were identified through the biethnic, population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from medical records, baseline interviews, and 90-day post-stroke interviews. Post-stroke QOL was measured at approximately 90 days by the validated short-form stroke-specific QOL in 3 domains: overall, physical, and psychosocial (range 0–5; higher scores represent better QOL). Tobit regression was used to model associations between ethnicity and post-stroke QOL scores, adjusted for demographics, clinical characteristics, and pre-stroke cognition and function. Results Among 290 eligible stroke survivors (66% MA, 34% NHW, median age=69 years), median scores for overall, physical, and psychosocial post-stroke QOL were 3.3, 3.8 and 2.7, respectively. Overall post-stroke QOL was lower for MAs than NHWs (mean difference = −0.30, 95%CI:−0.59,−0.01) and in the physical domain (mean difference = −0.47, 95%CI:−0.81,−0.14) after multivariable adjustment. No ethnic difference was found in the psychosocial domain. Age modified the associations between ethnicity and post-stroke QOL such that differences were present in older but not younger ages. Conclusions Disparities exist in post-stroke QOL for MAs and appear to be driven by differences in older stroke patients. Targeted interventions to improve outcomes among MA stroke survivors are urgently needed. PMID:26286542

  13. Convective moisture adjustment time scale as a key factor in regulating model amplitude of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xianan; Zhao, Ming; Maloney, Eric D.; Waliser, Duane E.

    2016-10-01

    Despite its pronounced impacts on weather extremes worldwide, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) remains poorly represented in climate models. Here we present findings that point to some necessary ingredients to produce a strong MJO amplitude in a large set of model simulations from a recent model intercomparison project. While surface flux and radiative heating anomalies are considered important for amplifying the MJO, their strength per unit MJO precipitation anomaly is found to be negatively correlated to MJO amplitude across these multimodel simulations. However, model MJO amplitude is found to be closely tied to a model's convective moisture adjustment time scale, a measure of how rapidly precipitation must increase to remove excess column water vapor, or alternately the efficiency of surface precipitation generation per unit column water vapor anomaly. These findings provide critical insights into key model processes for the MJO and pinpoint a direction for improved model representation of the MJO.

  14. A mechanism-denial study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation with reduced interference from mean state changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Mechanism-denial experiments using Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model are conducted to investigate the importance of extratropical and circumnavigating waves, wind-evaporation feedback, and radiative-convective feedback to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A common issue with mechanism-denial studies is the interference from mean state changes when processes are turned off in the model. Here time-invariant forcing and nudging on effective timescales longer than the intraseasonal timescale are implemented to maintain the mean state. The MJO activity remains largely unchanged with suppressed extratropical and circumnavigating waves when the mean state is maintained to be close to that of the control run, suggesting that excitation of MJO by extratropical and circumnavigating waves is not necessary for the existence of MJO in this model. It is also shown that the wind-evaporation feedback slows down eastward propagation of the MJO, and the radiative-convective feedback amplifies the MJO.

  15. Advection, Moistening, and Shallow-to-deep Convection Transitions During the Initiation and Propagation of Madden-Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Landu, Kiranmayi; Long, Charles N.

    2014-09-11

    Using observations from the 2011 AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign over the Indian Ocean and a high-resolution regional model simulation, the processes that lead to the rapid shallow-to-deep convection transitions associated with the initiation and eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are examined. By tracking the evolution of the depth of several thousand individual model simulated precipitation features, the role of and the processes that control the observed midtropospheric moisture buildup ahead of the detection of deep convection are quantified at large and convection scales. The frequency of shallow-to-deep convection transitions is found to be sensitive to this midlevel moisture and large-scale uplift. This uplift along with the decline of large-scale drying by equator-ward advection causes the moisture buildup leading to the initiation of the MJO. Convection scale moisture variability and uplift, and large-scale zonal advection play secondary roles.

  16. Resilience of an explicitly simulated Madden-Julian Oscillation to extreme basic state variation challenges moisture mode view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. S.; Yang, D.

    2015-12-01

    Idealized experiments are performed with the SuperParamaterized CAM to test two hypotheses motivated by a modern view of the "moisture mode" theory of the Madden Julian Oscillation. Inconsistent with both hypotheses, evidence is found of a cold-MJO signal under horizontally homogenous SSTs. Apparently the intrinsic MJO signal in SPCAM3 is a surprisingly resilient mode that can survive both extreme cooling of the climate and a reversal of near-equatorial meridional MSE gradients. Column MSE analysis indicates a negative overall growth rate of MJO MSE in our coldest simulations, which is hard to reconcile with the survival of a cold MJO from a moisture mode view. A resilience of familiar features of the MJO-MSE budget in our simulations could indicate some other cause, beyond local column MSE dynamics, requires such phase relationships to exist.

  17. Extreme Winter Precipitation Events in the Western United States: The impact of ENSO and the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, S.; Chang, Y.; Suarez, M.; Pegion, P.

    2005-05-01

    The west coast of the United States occasionally experiences intense winter storms that account for a major fraction of the total seasonal rain(snow)fall. In some cases, it is not a single storm, but a series of storms, that batter the west coast in a matter of few weeks. These storms, unfortunately, are often associated with flooding, mudslides and other disasters that can lead to extensive property damage and even loss of life. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of the nature of these storms and the extent to which their occurrence is impacted by El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the Madden Julian Oscillation. The results are based on 50 years of precipitation observations, NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, and idealized experiments with a global atmospheric general circulation model.

  18. Surprising Resilience of the Madden-Julian Oscillation to Extreme Climate Cooling in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. S.; Yang, D.

    2014-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that radiative convective equilibrium (RCE) self-aggregation is a good metaphor for the maintenance of the Madden-Julian Oscillation by imposing extreme cooling in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model (SPCAM) v. 3.0 in a uniform SST configuration. The expectation is that - like RCE self-aggregation - SPCAM's simulated MJO should shut down at sea surface temperatures significantly less than 25 degrees Celsius. Remarkably, the MJO in SPCAM is resilient to extreme cooling down to one degree Celsius. With cooling, the simulated MJO becomes more barotropic and its zonal wavelength decreases. The amplitude decrease and horizontal scale contraction are consistent with the theoretical prediction from Yang and Ingersoll (2014, GRL).

  19. Atmospheric aerosol properties over the equatorial Indian Ocean and the impact of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWitt, H. L.; Coffman, D. J.; Schulz, K.; Brewer, A.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    The chemical, physical, and optical properties of sub- and supermicrometer aerosols over the equatorial Indian Ocean were measured on-board the R/V Revelle during the fall 2011 Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign. During this time both the retreating of the Asian monsoon and two Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) events were observed. The R/V Revelle was on station (0.10 N and 80.50 E) to measure atmospheric and oceanic conditions between October 4 and October 30, 2011 (Leg 2 of the DYNAMO research cruise) and November 11th and December 4th, 2011 (Leg 3). Throughout the campaign, background marine atmospheric conditions were generally observed with average particle number concentration of less than 300 cm-3 and ozone (O3) <30 ppbv. As the Asian monsoon season retreated over the boreal fall and the general wind direction changed from southerly to northerly transporting, respectively, clean marine and polluted continental air masses, the average submicrometer aerosol mass almost doubled from 1.8 × 1.1 μg m-3 in October to 3.3 × 2.2 μg m-3 in November/December. In addition, the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties appeared to be more influenced by continental sources. The effect of MJO-associated convection anomalies on aerosols in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL) were measured during November when a complete MJO convection wave moved over the equatorial Indian Ocean and during October when a partial MJO event was observed. MJO-associated convection strongly affected the local aerosol population's size, composition, optical properties, and concentration as increased vertical mixing introduced new particles into the MBL, rainout cleared the atmosphere of submicrometer continental aerosol particles while high winds enhanced the concentration sea salt aerosol particles in the local atmosphere. Four stages of MJO-affected aerosol population changes in the remote Indian Ocean are defined.

  20. Atmospheric aerosol properties over the equatorial Indian Ocean and the impact of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langley Dewitt, H.; Coffman, Derek J.; Schulz, Kristen J.; Alan Brewer, W.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2013-06-01

    The chemical, physical, and optical properties of sub- and supermicrometer aerosols over the equatorial Indian Ocean were measured on board the R/V Revelle during the fall 2011 Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation field campaign. During this time, both the retreating of the Asian monsoon and two Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events were observed. The R/V Revelle was on station (0.1°N and 80.5°E) to measure atmospheric and oceanic conditions between 4 October and 30 October 2011 (Leg 2) and 11 November and 4 December 2011 (Leg 3). Throughout the campaign, background marine atmospheric conditions were usually observed. As the Asian monsoon season retreated over the boreal fall and the general wind direction changed from southerly to northerly transporting, respectively, clean marine and polluted continental air masses, the average submicrometer aerosol mass nearly doubled from Leg 2 to Leg 3 and the aerosol appeared to be more influenced by continental sources. The effect of MJO-associated convection anomalies on aerosols in the remote marine boundary layer (MBL) was measured during November when a complete MJO convection wave moved over the equatorial Indian Ocean and during October when a partial MJO event was observed. MJO-associated convection strongly affected the local aerosol as increased vertical mixing introduced new particles into the MBL, rainout cleared the atmosphere of submicrometer aerosol particles, and high winds enhanced the concentration of sea salt aerosol particles in the local atmosphere. Four stages of MJO-affected aerosol population changes in the remote Indian Ocean are defined.

  1. A Smart ALEC Threatens Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie; Mead, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    Public education has historically been in the public and political eye. Then came 2011 and the high profile and well televised protests in Wisconsin, Ohio and Indiana. In each case Republican Governors and Republican controlled state legislatures had introduced substantially similar bills that sought sweeping changes to each state's collective…

  2. Phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity of five Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd provenances and their allelopathic effects on Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Lens culinaris L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Elaloui, M; Ghazghazi, H; Ennajah, A; Manaa, S; Guezmir, W; Karray, N B; Laamouri, A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate some secondary metabolites, antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extracts of five Ziziphus spina-christi provenances (INRGREF, Tozeur, Degueche, Nafta and Kebelli) and their allelopathic effects on Trigonella foenum-graecum and Lens culinaris. Leaves were collected during 2013 and 2014. Total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity were evaluated using the Folin ciocalteux, Aluminum trichloride, vanillin and scavenging activity on 22-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical methods, respectively. Total phenols, tannins and flavonoids were present, at levels of 57.41 mg GAE/g DW, 31.98 mg RE/g DW and 14.68 μg CE/g DW, respectively. The high antioxidant activity (0.086 μg/mL) was noted in kebelli provenance (2013). The highest germination, plumule and radicle lengths of tested species were observed in INRGREF provenance. Z. spina-christi leaf extracts may be suggested in foods and pharmaceutical industries. Leaf extracts could also provide a natural herbicide with a positive impact on the environment.

  3. OP09STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY FOR BRAIN METASTASES AT THE CHRISTIE AT SALFORD ROYAL HOSPITAL: OUR TWO-YEAR EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Helbrow, J.; McBain, C.; Gattamaneni, R.; Tran, A.; McCarthy, C.; Edwards, R.; Redikin, J.; Handley, J.; O'Hara, C.; Kennedy, J.; Mills, S.; Soh, C.; Leggate, J.; Whitfield, G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases (BMs) commenced at The Christie at Salford in Dec 11 using the Novalis TxTM and BrainLab ExacTrac® system. We report our first 2 years' data. METHOD: Patients meeting NHS commissioning criteria were referred via MDT for assessment and if suitable consent. We used the BrainLab mask, CT and MRI. Gross tumour volumes (GTVs) were grown by 2mm if <4cm3 and by 1mm if >4cm3 to a planning target volume. The dose to the 80% isodose was 21Gy/1 fraction(#), 18Gy/1# and 25.5Gy/3# alternate days for PTVs <7cm3, 7-13cm3 and >13cm3 respectively and 30Gy/5# on alternate days to the 90% isodose in critical locations or where organ at risk constraints were exceeded. Follow up was 3-monthly with MRI and clinic review. Radiological response was classified as complete, unequivocal, enlargement consistent with treatment, enlargement suspicious of progression or unequivocal progression. RESULTS: Between Dec 11-Jan 14, 89 patients were consented, 51% female. Median age was 61 years (range 16-81). Primaries included lung (34%), breast (22%) and melanoma (15%), which was controlled in 67%; 42% had no extracranial metastases. A total of 170 BMs were treated (1 a retreat); per course a median of 2 (1-5) BMs were treated with median total GTV 4.87cm3 (0.05-29.9cm3). Prescribed dose was 21Gy/1# in 101 BMs, 18Gy/1# in 43, 25.5Gy/3# in 10 and 30Gy/5# in 16. One year survival from first SRS was: overall 48% (95% CI 34%-60%), lung 39% (18%-59%), breast 89% (62%-97%) and melanoma 44% (10%-75%). CONCLUSION: Overall survival results are encouraging and suggest appropriate patient selection. More detailed analysis including toxicity and time to intracranial progression will be presented.

  4. Monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities in mountain lakes: a case of the Fifth Triglav Lake in the Julian Alps.

    PubMed

    Ravnikar, Tina; Bohanec, Marko; Muri, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    The Fifth Triglav Lake is a remote mountain lake in the Julian Alps. The area of the Julian Alps where the lake is situated is protected by law and lies within the Triglav National Park. Mountain lakes in Slovenia were considered for a long time as pristine, unpolluted lakes, but analyses in the last decade revealed considerable human impact even in such remote places. Eutrophication or excessive accumulation of nutrients is the main problem of most lakes in the temperate climatic zone, also in Slovenia. Since the introduction of fish in 1991, the lake is going through a series of changes for which we do not know exactly where they lead, so the monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities are of great importance. For this purpose, a qualitative multiattribute decision model was developed with DEX method to assess ecological effects on the lake. The extent of the ecological effects on the lake is assessed using four main parameters: the trophic state, lake characteristics, environmental parameters, and anthropogenic stressors. Dependence of environmental impact on various external factors beyond human control, such as temperature, precipitation, retention time, and factors on which we have influence, such as the amount of wastewater and the presence of fish in the lake, were also evaluated. The following data were measured: chlorophyll a, nutrients, TP, oxygen, C/N ratio, nutrients in sediment, temperature, precipitation, retention time, and volume. We made assumptions about fish and wastewater, which we could not measure. The main contributions of this work are the designed model and the obtained findings for the Fifth Triglav Lake that can help not only scientists in understanding the complexity of lake-watershed systems and interactions among system components but also local authorities to manage and monitor the lake aquatic environment in an effective and efficient way. The model is flexible and can be also used for other lakes, assuming that the used

  5. Seaglider Observations of Equatorial Ocean Rossby Wave Interactions With the Madden-Julian Oscillation During CINDY-DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, B. G.; Matthews, A. J.; Heywood, K. J.; Stevens, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    During the CINDY-DYNAMO field campaign in 2011-12, a Seaglider was deployed at 80°E in the Indian Ocean, and patrolled between 3° and 4°S over a period of three months. In addition, the periods when the Seaglider was travelling to and from the deployment location at 1.5°S represent two independent sections almost four months apart. The 3-4°S data have been optimally interpolated to generate unique and very high resolution data sets of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll and oxygen, along with derived geostrophic velocities in a region that has been under-observed to date. These observations reveal the importance of equatorial ocean Rossby waves in generating intraseasonal variability in the subsurface Indian Ocean, with temperature anomalies of around 0.5°C and salinity anomalies of 0.1 due to such waves. These anomalies extend with only slightly reduced magnitude into the deep ocean up to the maximum observed depth of 1000 m. The latitudinal structure of the temperature, salinity and density anomalies is generally very coherent, consistent with the structure of first meridional mode equatorial ocean Rossby waves. The chlorophyll and oxygen data from the Seaglider show how these waves have a substantial impact on biological activity at this location, with the peak productivity shifting vertically by up to 20 metres due to upwelling and downwelling. Linearised numerical ocean model simulations were conducted for the period around the Seaglider deployment period, to put the observations in context. These model simulations were forced by ERA-Interim winds that were filtered to remove the high-frequency variability while retaining that relating to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Comparison between the model runs and Seaglider observations indicates that the MJO-related winds are directly responsible for a large portion of the observed ocean Rossby wave activity, although there is also a role for lower-frequency wind forcing. The model results also highlight

  6. Geometry of the Paleo-Nueces River Incised-Valley, Corpus Christi Bay, Texas as it Relates to Quaternary Sea Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugrin, L.; Gulick, S. S.; Goff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    CHIRP subbottom seismic data were collected on the 2009 and 2011 Marine Geophysics Field courses at the University of Texas at Austin within the Corpus Christi Bay along the central Texas coast in order to study the geometry of the ancestral Nueces River incised valley and its evolution over Quaternary sea level history. Since the late Pleistocene, the Nueces River valley experienced a gradual infill due to sea level rise, interrupted by two major flooding events that represent periods of rapid sediment influx. These flooding events are recognizable based on abrupt changes in seismic facies. Discontinuous, chaotic fluvial lag deposits present underneath a fairly continuous, stratified, sub-horizontal estuarine coastal plain facies mark what is interpreted to be the Pleistocene/Holocene unconformity. Above the P/H boundary, oyster reefs thrive within the estuary until capped by a strong reflector, marking the second flooding surface that allowed enough incoming sediment to discontinue oyster reef growth. The estuarine deposits within the paleo-Nueces river valley exhibit a landward migration as the Holocene transgression proceeded. As infill continued, the bay-head delta prograded seaward and the flood-tidal delta extended progressively further up the estuary until the central estuarine basin was capped. The earlier flooding events provide strong reflectors that can be linked to the draining of Lake Agassiz around 8.2 k.a.. This event flooded the Gulf of Mexico with freshwater, and interrupted the estuarine infilling of the Nueces paleo-channel. Cores from previous studies have found at least two species of oyster reefs in Corpus Christi Bay: euryhaline species Crassostrea virginica, and Ostrea equestris, a species known to thrive in higher salinity waters. The presence of both species at the flooding boundary suggests the sudden pulse of freshwater mixed with higher salinity oceanic water. The second flooding surface is interpreted to be associated with an increase

  7. Intraseasonal variability of surface ozone in Santiago, Chile: Modulation by phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Bradford S.; Fitzmaurice, Sean J.; Pritchard, Sarah R.

    2012-09-01

    In Santiago, Chile, summertime surface ozone (O3) concentrations regularly exceed local and international health thresholds due to high antecedent pollutants, frequent clear skies, and warm surface air temperatures. However, few (if any) studies exist that have examined the intraseasonal variability of surface O3 or its modulation by phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to investigate the intraseasonal variability of surface O3 and the meteorological parameters known to affect O3 concentrations during summer months in Santiago, and connect any observed variability to phase of the MJO. Ozone concentrations at seven stations in the Chilean National Air Quality Information System (SINCA), along with upper-air, surface, and reanalysis data, were used to create composites for each phase of the MJO. Results confirm that for the Santiago metropolitan region, both maximum daily O3 concentrations, as well as the diurnal cycle of O3, depend on MJO Phase. Ozone concentrations were highest during Phases 5 and 6 and lowest during Phases 1 and 2. Cloud cover anomalies best agreed with this pattern of O3 variability, with low (high) cloud cover anomalies occurring during days with high (low) ozone. Surface temperature and strength and height of the lower-troposphere temperature inversion had similar, but less pronounced, connections to O3, with slightly warmer surface temperatures and stronger inversions closer to the ground occurring on days with higher O3. Wind velocity was found to vary little between days with low and high ozone.

  8. Effective control parameters in a deep convection scheme for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    This work seeks to find the most effective parameters in a deep convection scheme (relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme) of the National Centers of Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System model for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A suite of sensitivity experiments are performed by changing physical components such as the relaxation parameter of mass flux for adjustment of the environment, the evaporation rate from large-scale precipitation, the moisture trigger threshold using relative humidity of the boundary layer, and the fraction of re-evaporation of convective (subgrid-scale) rainfall. Among them, the last two parameters are found to produce a significant improvement. Increasing the strength of these two parameters reduces light rainfall that inhibits complete formation of the tropical convective system or supplies more moisture that help increase a potential energy to large-scale environment in the lower troposphere (especially at 700 hPa), leading to moisture preconditioning favorable for further development and eastward propagation of the MJO. In a more humid environment, more organized MJO structure (i.e., space-time spectral signal, eastward propagation, and tilted vertical structure) is produced.

  9. Regulation of H2O and CO in Tropical Tropopause Layer by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Sun; Dessler, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    Impacts of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) on the water vapor (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) abundances in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are investigated using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data for November 2004 to May 2005. The effects of the eastward propagation of MJO on H2O and CO abundances in the TTL are evident. Deep convection transports H20 into the upper troposphere up to about the 355-365 K level. Around the 365-375 K level, a dry anomaly is collocated with a cold anomaly, which is above a warm anomaly located near the region of convection enhancement. Tropical mean H20 at 375 K is regulated by the MJO through convection enhancement and coherent with the local MJO-related temperature variation. The locations of dehydration follow the eastward propagation of convection enhancement and its area extent depends on the phase of the MJO. Enhancement of deep convection associated with the MJO also injects CO from the lower troposphere to the TTL up to 375 K. However, tropical mean CO at 375 K responds instantaneously to the large injection event occurring over the African continent.

  10. [The celebrity of Polish and French medicine--Józef Julian Franciszek Feliks Babiński (1857-1932)].

    PubMed

    Skalski, Janusz H; Gładki, Marcin; Pypłacz, Dariusz

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents a biography of Polish and French medical scientist, Józef Julian Franciszek Feliks Babiński (1857-1932), a son of Polish exiles to France after the unsuccessful insurrection against the Russian occupants. Born in Paris, Babiński considered Poland as his own home-country, being faithful and grateful citizen of France, his adopted country. He made his neurological department in Paris a world famous medical centre at the turn of the 20th century. Currently for every student of medicine or physician practitioner, the name of Babiński immediately associates with the "toe phenomenon" (phénomène des orteils). The discovery of this "sign" (1896) is the crowning point of Babiński's work in semiology. He was a co-author of discoveries known under eponym names of syndromes: Babinski-Nageotte, Babinski-Fröhlich, Anton-Babinski and many others. Babiński emphasized his Polish origins, expressing his feeling towards two home countries (1922): "I am proud to have two countries--to one, I owe the knowledge, to the other, the country of my ancestors, the elements of my Polish soul...".

  11. Extended-range forecast of spring rainfall in southern China based on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Hsu, Pang-chi; He, Jinhai; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-06-01

    Spring (March-May) rainfall after a dry period in winter has a substantial impact on agriculture and water management in populous southern China. The occurrence of low-frequency spring rainfall anomalies has been linked with the tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) through its modulation of large-scale circulation and moisture supply over southern China. Using the spatial and temporal information of the MJO as a predictor, an empirical model for extended-range forecasting of spring rainfall in southern China was constructed. We first obtained the coupled patterns between the preceding MJO evolutions (real-time multivariate MJO index) and the succeeding rainfall variability in southern China based on singular value decomposition analysis. Then, a prediction was carried out by projecting the predictor onto the spatiotemporal coupled patterns. Useful skill, in terms of the temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) between the predicted and observed rainfall over southern China, persisted up to a forecast lead-time of six pentads. The forecast amplitude bias in terms of root-mean-square error was around 1.0 standard deviation. Also, the forecast skill was highly dependent on the strength of the MJO signal. During active MJO periods, the TCC skill was around twofold larger than that during weak MJO periods. The current statistical model shows encouraging ability, but additional work is required to improve its forecasting skill.

  12. Effective control parameters in a deep convection scheme for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2017-06-01

    This work seeks to find the most effective parameters in a deep convection scheme (relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme) of the National Centers of Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System model for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A suite of sensitivity experiments are performed by changing physical components such as the relaxation parameter of mass flux for adjustment of the environment, the evaporation rate from large-scale precipitation, the moisture trigger threshold using relative humidity of the boundary layer, and the fraction of re-evaporation of convective (subgrid-scale) rainfall. Among them, the last two parameters are found to produce a significant improvement. Increasing the strength of these two parameters reduces light rainfall that inhibits complete formation of the tropical convective system or supplies more moisture that help increase a potential energy to large-scale environment in the lower troposphere (especially at 700 hPa), leading to moisture preconditioning favorable for further development and eastward propagation of the MJO. In a more humid environment, more organized MJO structure (i.e., space-time spectral signal, eastward propagation, and tilted vertical structure) is produced.

  13. Influence of the Madden-Julian oscillation on Tibetan Plateau snow cover at the intraseasonal time-scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Hsu, Pang-Chi; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-07-28

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), known as the third pole of the Earth, has snow cover with intraseasonal to decadal variability that affects weather and climate both inside and outside the TP. However, the factors that generate the TP snow cover (TPSC) anomalies at the intraseasonal time-scale are unclear. This report reveals the influence of the Madden‒Julian oscillation (MJO), which is the most dominant component of the tropical intraseasonal variability, on TPSC. We focus on wintertime snow cover over the central and eastern TP, where the intraseasonal variability is large. TPSC increases/decreases in the MJO phases 8‒1/4-5, when the eastward-propagating MJO suppressed/enhanced convection locates over the Maritime Continent. Such a change in TPSC leads to the most dominant positive/negative anomalies of TPSC in the following phases 2‒3/6‒7 due to the non-significant change of TPSC in these phases. There is anomalous moisture advection over the upstream of the TP caused by MJO-excited large-scale atmospheric circulation. The advection process generates the low-frequency eastward-propagating anomalous water vapour from upstream to the TP that influences precipitation and, eventually, TPSC.

  14. Influence of the Madden–Julian oscillation on Tibetan Plateau snow cover at the intraseasonal time-scale

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Hsu, Pang-chi; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), known as the third pole of the Earth, has snow cover with intraseasonal to decadal variability that affects weather and climate both inside and outside the TP. However, the factors that generate the TP snow cover (TPSC) anomalies at the intraseasonal time-scale are unclear. This report reveals the influence of the Madden‒Julian oscillation (MJO), which is the most dominant component of the tropical intraseasonal variability, on TPSC. We focus on wintertime snow cover over the central and eastern TP, where the intraseasonal variability is large. TPSC increases/decreases in the MJO phases 8‒1/4–5, when the eastward-propagating MJO suppressed/enhanced convection locates over the Maritime Continent. Such a change in TPSC leads to the most dominant positive/negative anomalies of TPSC in the following phases 2‒3/6‒7 due to the non-significant change of TPSC in these phases. There is anomalous moisture advection over the upstream of the TP caused by MJO-excited large-scale atmospheric circulation. The advection process generates the low-frequency eastward-propagating anomalous water vapour from upstream to the TP that influences precipitation and, eventually, TPSC. PMID:27464569

  15. Intraseasonal variability of sea level and circulation in the Gulf of Thailand: the role of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Intraseasonal variability of the tropical Indo-Pacific ocean is strongly related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Shallow seas in this region, such as the Gulf of Thailand, act as amplifiers of the direct ocean response to surface wind forcing by efficient setup of sea level. Intraseasonal ocean variability in the Gulf of Thailand region is examined using statistical analysis of local tide gauge observations and surface winds. The tide gauges detect variability on intraseasonal time scales that is related to the MJO through its effect on local wind. The relationship between the MJO and the surface wind is strongly seasonal, being most vigorous during the monsoon, and direction-dependent. The observations are then supplemented with simulations of sea level and circulation from a fully nonlinear barotropic numerical ocean model (Princeton Ocean Model). The numerical model reproduces well the intraseasonal sea level variability in the Gulf of Thailand and its seasonal modulations. The model is then used to map the wind-driven response of sea level and circulation in the entire Gulf of Thailand. Finally, the predictability of the setup and setdown signal is discussed by relating it to the, potentially predictable, MJO index.

  16. The costs of being a restless intellect: Julian Huxley's popular and scientific career in the 1920s.

    PubMed

    Erlingsson, Steindór J

    2009-06-01

    Julian Huxley's (1887-1975) contribution to twentieth-century biology and science popularisation is well documented. What has not been appreciated so far is that despite Huxley's eminence as a public scientific figure and the part that he played in the rise of experimental zoology in Britain in the 1920s, his own research was often heavily criticised in this period by his colleagues. This resulted in numerous difficulties in getting his scientific research published in the early 1920s. At this time, Huxley started his popular science career. Huxley's friends criticised him for engaging in this actively and attributed the publication difficulties to the time that he allocated to popular science. The cause might also have its roots in his self-professed inability to delve deeply into the particularities of research. This affected Huxley's standing in the scientific community and seems to have contributed to the fact that Huxley failed twice in the late 1920s to be elected to the Royal Society. This picture undermines to some extent Peter J. Bowler's recent portrayal of Huxley as a science populariser.

  17. Identifying a key physical factor sensitive to the performance of Madden-Julian oscillation simulation in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Go-Un; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2017-03-01

    A key physical factor in regulating the performance of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) simulation is examined by using 26 climate model simulations from the World Meteorological Organization's Working Group for Numerical Experimentation/Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Atmospheric System Study (WGNE and MJO-Task Force/GASS) global model comparison project. For this, intraseasonal moisture budget equation is analyzed and a simple, efficient physical quantity is developed. The result shows that MJO skill is most sensitive to vertically integrated intraseasonal zonal wind convergence (ZC). In particular, a specific threshold value of the strength of the ZC can be used as distinguishing between good and poor models. An additional finding is that good models exhibit the correct simultaneous convection and large-scale circulation phase relationship. In poor models, however, the peak circulation response appears 3 days after peak rainfall, suggesting unfavorable coupling between convection and circulation. For an improving simulation of the MJO in climate models, we propose that this delay of circulation in response to convection needs to be corrected in the cumulus parameterization scheme.

  18. Assessing the Importance of the Evaporation-Wind Feedback Mechanism in the Modulation of Simulated Madden-Julian Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Edward; Lindesay, James; Suarez, Max J.

    1998-01-01

    An examination of simulated Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) response to active and suppressed air-sea interactions is made using an aquaplanet model employing a realistic representation of the hydrologic cyle. In general, the evaporation-wind feedback (EWF) results from a coupling between tropical zonal surface wind stresses and evaporation anomalies. Recent observational and theoretical studies have questioned the significance of EWF in sustaining the predominantly wavenumber 1 eastward propagating mode commonly attributed to the interaction between large scale convergence and cumulus-scale convection (conditional instability of the second kind, CISK). To ascertain the nature of the EWF dependence on lower boundary conditions and thus quantify its effect on MJO development, a series of numerical experiments were conducted employing various zonally symmetric sea surface temperature (SST) distributions with active and suppressed EWF mechanisms. Results suggest that a correlation exists between tropical SSTs and the efficacy of the EWF in vertically redistributing heat acquired through surface wind stresses. It has been determined that the removal of the EWF is not a crucial factor in the dampening of the simulated MJO at high equatorial SSTs. The additional energy fed into the developing convective mode by the EWF selectively amplifies higher order wave modes in all numerical experiments thus boosting overall variances in oscillatory responses.

  19. QBO/solar modulation of the boreal winter Madden-Julian oscillation: A prediction for the coming solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Lon L.

    2017-04-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), also known as the 30-60 day oscillation, is the strongest of the intraseasonal climate oscillations in the tropics and has significant derivative effects on extratropical circulation and intraseasonal climate. It has recently been shown that the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) modulates the amplitude of the boreal winter MJO such that MJO amplitudes are larger on average during the easterly phase (QBOE) than during the westerly phase (QBOW). A major possible mechanism is the decrease in static stability in the lowermost stratosphere under QBOE conditions resulting from relative upwelling associated with the QBO-induced meridional circulation. Here evidence is presented that tropical upwelling changes related to the 11 year solar cycle also modulate the boreal winter MJO. Based on 37.3 years of MJO amplitude data, the largest amplitudes and occurrence rates, and the weakest static stabilities in the tropical lower stratosphere, occur during the QBOE phase under solar minimum (SMIN) conditions while the smallest amplitudes and strongest static stabilities occur during the QBOW phase under solar maximum (SMAX) conditions. Conversely, when the QBO and solar forcings are opposed (QBOW/SMIN and QBOE/SMAX), the difference in occurrence rates becomes statistically insignificant. During the coming solar minimum, at least one additional winter in the QBOE/SMIN category should occur (possibly as early as 2017/2018) during which especially large MJO amplitudes are expected and an initial test of these results will be possible.

  20. The Madden–Julian oscillation wind-convection coupling and the role of moisture processes in the MM5 model

    SciTech Connect

    Monier, Erwan; Weare, Bryan C.; Gustafson, William I.

    2009-07-24

    The realism of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) produced by the MM5 regional model is investigated using systematic and standardized statistical diagnostics. This study expands on previous work by choosing a larger domain and a different input dataset (ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis) to force the initial and boundary conditions of the model. Results show that upper- and lower-level zonal winds display the correct MJO structure, phase speed (8 m s -1) and space-time power spectrum. However, the simulated free atmosphere moisture, Outgoing Longwave Radation (OLR) and precipitation do not exhibit any clear MJO signal. Yet, the boundary layer moisture, the moist static energy and the atmospheric instability, measured using a moist static energy instability index have clear MJO signals. A significant finding of this study is the ability of MM5 to simulate a realistic MJO phase speed in the winds without reproducing the MJO wind-convection coupling or a realistic propagation in the free atmosphere water vapor. This study suggests that the convergence of boundary layer moisture and the discharge and recharge of the moist static energy and atmospheric instability may be responsible for controlling the speed of propagation of the MJO circulation.

  1. Madden–Julian Oscillation prediction skill of a new-generation global model demonstrated using a supercomputer

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Tomoki; Satoh, Masaki; Miura, Hiroaki; Tomita, Hirofumi; Yashiro, Hisashi; Noda, Akira T.; Yamada, Yohei; Kodama, Chihiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Yoneyama, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Global cloud/cloud system-resolving models are perceived to perform well in the prediction of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO), a huge eastward -propagating atmospheric pulse that dominates intraseasonal variation of the tropics and affects the entire globe. However, owing to model complexity, detailed analysis is limited by computational power. Here we carry out a simulation series using a recently developed supercomputer, which enables the statistical evaluation of the MJO prediction skill of a costly new-generation model in a manner similar to operational forecast models. We estimate the current MJO predictability of the model as 27 days by conducting simulations including all winter MJO cases identified during 2003–2012. The simulated precipitation patterns associated with different MJO phases compare well with observations. An MJO case captured in a recent intensive observation is also well reproduced. Our results reveal that the global cloud-resolving approach is effective in understanding the MJO and in providing month-long tropical forecasts. PMID:24801254

  2. Regulation of H2O and CO in Tropical Tropopause Layer by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Sun; Dessler, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    Impacts of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) on the water vapor (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) abundances in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are investigated using Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data for November 2004 to May 2005. The effects of the eastward propagation of MJO on H2O and CO abundances in the TTL are evident. Deep convection transports H20 into the upper troposphere up to about the 355-365 K level. Around the 365-375 K level, a dry anomaly is collocated with a cold anomaly, which is above a warm anomaly located near the region of convection enhancement. Tropical mean H20 at 375 K is regulated by the MJO through convection enhancement and coherent with the local MJO-related temperature variation. The locations of dehydration follow the eastward propagation of convection enhancement and its area extent depends on the phase of the MJO. Enhancement of deep convection associated with the MJO also injects CO from the lower troposphere to the TTL up to 375 K. However, tropical mean CO at 375 K responds instantaneously to the large injection event occurring over the African continent.

  3. The impact of the diurnal cycle on the propagation of Madden-Julian Oscillation convection across the Maritime Continent

    DOE PAGES

    Hagos, Samson M.; Zhang, Chidong; Feng, Zhe; ...

    2016-09-19

    Influences of the diurnal cycle of convection on the propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) across the Maritime Continent (MC) are examined using cloud-permitting regional model simulations and observations. A pair of ensembles of control (CONTROL) and no-diurnal cycle (NODC) simulations of the November 2011 MJO episode are performed. In the CONTROL simulations, the MJO signal is weakened as it propagates across the MC, with much of the convection stalling over the large islands of Sumatra and Borneo. In the NODC simulations, where the incoming shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere is maintained at its daily mean value,more » the MJO signal propagating across the MC is enhanced. Examination of the surface energy fluxes in the simulations indicates that in the presence of the diurnal cycle, surface downwelling shortwave radiation in CONTROL simulations is larger because clouds preferentially form in the afternoon. Furthermore, the diurnal co-variability of surface wind speed and skin temperature results in a larger sensible heat flux and a cooler land surface in CONTROL compared to NODC simulations. Here, an analysis of observations indicates that the modulation of the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by the diurnal cycle of cloudiness negatively projects on the MJO intraseasonal cycle and therefore disrupts the propagation of the MJO across the MC.« less

  4. The impact of the diurnal cycle on the propagation of Madden-Julian Oscillation convection across the Maritime Continent

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Zhang, Chidong; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; De Mott, Charlotte; Kerns, Brandon; Benedict, James J.; Martini, Matus N.

    2016-09-19

    Influences of the diurnal cycle of convection on the propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) across the Maritime Continent (MC) are examined using cloud-permitting regional model simulations and observations. A pair of ensembles of control (CONTROL) and no-diurnal cycle (NODC) simulations of the November 2011 MJO episode are performed. In the CONTROL simulations, the MJO signal is weakened as it propagates across the MC, with much of the convection stalling over the large islands of Sumatra and Borneo. In the NODC simulations, where the incoming shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere is maintained at its daily mean value, the MJO signal propagating across the MC is enhanced. Examination of the surface energy fluxes in the simulations indicates that in the presence of the diurnal cycle, surface downwelling shortwave radiation in CONTROL simulations is larger because clouds preferentially form in the afternoon. Furthermore, the diurnal co-variability of surface wind speed and skin temperature results in a larger sensible heat flux and a cooler land surface in CONTROL compared to NODC simulations. Here, an analysis of observations indicates that the modulation of the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by the diurnal cycle of cloudiness negatively projects on the MJO intraseasonal cycle and therefore disrupts the propagation of the MJO across the MC.

  5. Impact of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global distribution of total water vapor and column ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathurochman, Irvan; Lubis, Sandro W.; Setiawan, Sonni

    2017-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the leading mode of intra-seasonal variability in the tropical troposphere, characterized by an eastward moving ‘pulse’ of cloud and rainfall near the equator. In this study, total precipitable water (TPW) and total column ozone (TCO) datasets from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis were used to analyse the impact of the MJO on the distribution of water vapor and column ozone in the tropics from 1979 to 2013. The results show that seasonal variations of TPW modulated by the MJO are maximized in the tropics of about 10°S-10°N during boreal winter, while the variation in TCO is maximized in the mid-latitudes of about 30°S - 40°N in the same season. The composite analysis shows that MJO modulates TPW and TCO anomalies eastward across the globe. The underlying mechanism of the MJO’s impact on TPW is mainly associated with variation of tropical convection modulated by the MJO, while the underlying mechanism of the MJO’s impact on TCO is mainly associated with an intra-seasonal variability of tropopause height modulated by the MJO activity. This knowledge helps to improve the prediction skill of the intra-seasonal variation of water vapor and column ozone in the tropics during boreal winter.

  6. Moist Process Biases in Simulations of the Madden–Julian Oscillation Episodes Observed during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; Zhao, Chun; Martini, Matus N.; Berg, Larry K.

    2016-02-01

    Two Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) episodes observed during the 2011 AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign are simulated using a regional cloud-permitting model, a regional model with various cumulus parameterizations, and a global variable-resolution model with a high-resolution region centered over the tropical Indian Ocean. Model biases associated with moisture mode instability, wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE), and convective momentum transport (CMT) are examined and their relative contributions to the overall model errors are quantified using a linear statistical model. Linear relationships are found among the normalized root mean square errors of precipitation, saturation fraction, evaporation, and surface wind speed suggesting that errors may propagate across the processes involving these variables. Analysis using a linear statistical model shows the relationship between convection and local surface wind speed (related to CMT processes) is the source of the largest uncertainty. In comparison, WISHE processes in the simulations tend to be biased consistently, with excess evaporation for the same wind speeds as the observations, which suggests they are likely related to biases in boundary layer and/or surface schemes. The relationship between precipitation and saturation fraction (which is associated with moisture mode instability) is captured relatively well with slightly larger model precipitation in the simulations in comparison to observations for the same saturation fraction, especially for weak rain rates. By linking developments in theoretical understanding of MJO processes and cumulus parameterizations, this study provides guidance to future improvements of MJO simulation by in high-resolution regional and global models.

  7. Effective control parameters in deep convection scheme for the improved simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, J.; Seo, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    This work seeks for the most effective parameters in a deep convection scheme (relaxed Arakawa-Schubert convection scheme) of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System model for the improved simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A suite of sensitivity experiments are performed in a coupled free run format. Two parameters are found to lead to a significant improvement: a threshold of relative humidity of the boundary layer and a fraction of re-evaporation of convective precipitation. Increasing the strength of these two parameters increases a supply of water vapor and condensate from deep cumulus ensembles to environment in the lower troposphere (especially, 700 hPa), and reduces light rainfall amount that prevents complete organization of convective system. Under a more humid environment (or positive moisture-convection feedback), the space-time spectral signal, eastward propagation, tilted vertical structure of dynamic and thermodynamic variables associated with the MJO are more comparable to observations and a recharge-discharge theory.

  8. Impact of Sea Level Rise on the Attenuation of Hurricane Storm Surge by Wetlands in Corpus Christi, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C.; Irish, J. L.; Olivera, F.

    2011-12-01

    Celso Ferreira1, Jennifer L. Irish2, Francisco Olivera3 1 Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, email: celsoferreira@tamu.edu. 2 Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, email: jirish@vt.edu 3 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, email: folivera@civil.tamu.edu. Texas has historically faced severe hurricanes with Ike being the most recent major storm example. It is believed that coastal wetlands might reduce the impact of the storm surge on coastal areas, acting as a natural protection against hurricane flooding, especially for small hurricanes and tropical storms. Considering the expected rise in the mean sea level, wetland composition and spatial distribution are also expected to change as the environmental conditions change along the coast. We analyzed a range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections for sea level rise (SLR) to simulate wetland alterations and evaluate their impact on hurricane storm surge. The analyses was conducted for Corpus Christi Bay using a pre-validated, physically based, hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC) and a wind and pressure field model (PBL) representing the physical properties of historical hurricane Bret. The calculations were performed using an unstructured numerical grid with 3.3 million nodes covering part of the Atlantic Ocean and the entire Gulf of Mexico (resolution from 2000 km to 50 meters at the coast). Wetlands are represented in the numerical model through their influence on the frictional resistance proprieties and bathymetric changes. To characterize the wetland types and their spatial distribution along the coast, we used six different land use databases from the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) (1992, 2001), the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) (1993) and the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C

  9. Delineation of marsh types of the Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River in 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Brasher, Michael G.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mitchell, Michael K.; Ballard, Bart M.; Parr, Mark W.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Wilson, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh-reliant wildlife (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation zones throughout the Texas coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation and collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, and Ducks Unlimited, Inc., has produced a classification of marsh vegetation types along the middle and upper Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River. This study incorporates approximately 1,000 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal marsh areas and about 2,000 supplemental locations from fresh marsh, water, and “other” (that is, nonmarsh) areas. About two-thirds of these data were used for training, and about one-third were used for assessing accuracy. Decision-tree analyses using Rulequest See5 were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using these data, multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, a bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables believed to be important for delineating the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation communities. Image objects were generated from segmentation of high-resolution airborne imagery acquired in 2010 and were used to refine the classification. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) classified and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. Overall accuracy corrected for bias (accuracy

  10. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  11. Anti-diabetic activity and stability study of the formulated leaf extract of Zizyphus spina-christi (L.) Willd with the influence of seasonal variation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Camilia George; Nesseem, Demiana Ibrahim; Ismail, Manal Fouad

    2011-01-07

    The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Zizyphus spina-christi leaf extract (200 mg/kg b.w.), plain and formulated in STZ-diabetic rats. Percentage yield of extracts, marker yield (christinin-A) and antihyperglycemic potencies, depending on seasonal variation were investigated. The chemical stability, study of storage conditions, shelf life T90 prediction of both plain extract and formulated soft gelatin capsules by accelerated studies were studied. Changes in all studied parameters after oral administration of Z. spina-christi extract for 28 days were reported. Seasonal variation affecting yield and activities was studied. Flavonoid contents were HPLC evaluated. The capsules were stored at 30, 40 and 50°C [75% relative humidity] and their residual christinin-A content was assayed for 24 weeks. Christinin-A chemical degradation was monitored by HPLC stability indicating method previously validated. Possible physical examination was checked by dissolution test of the content of the capsules using dissolution tester USP XXIV. Oral administration of Z. spina-christi leaf extract, plain and formulated for 28 days reduced blood glucose level with significant increase in serum insulin and C-peptide levels. Marked elevation in total antioxidant capacity with normalization of percentage of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C%) was reported. Moreover, they succeeded to reduce the elevated blood lactate level and to elevate the reduced blood pyruvate content of diabetic rats. In line with amelioration of the diabetic state, Zizyphus extract, plain and formulated restored liver and muscle glycogen content together with significant decrease of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities. In vitro experiments showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity of Zizyphus extract against α-amylase enzyme with (IC(50)) at 0.3 mg/ml. Such finding has been supported by the in vivo suppression of starch digestion and

  12. Heavy precipitation in the southwest of Iran: association with the Madden-Julian Oscillation and synoptic scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafar Nazemosadat, M.; Shahgholian, K.

    2017-01-01

    Some important characteristics of the November-April heavy precipitation in southwestern parts of Iran and their linkages to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) were assessed for the period of 1975-2011. Daily precipitation data in nine meteorological stations spread in various parts of the study area and the corresponding MJO indices were analyzed. For each station, precipitation data were sorted in descending order and those values that fell within 5% of the highest records were categorized as the heavy precipitation. Besides this, the 10% threshold was also analyzed as an axillary assessment. The considered heavy precipitation data (5% threshold) accounted from about 26-35% of total annual precipitation. About half of the heavy precipitation occurred during December-January period and the other half distributed within the months of March, February, November and April by about 17, 14, 13and 6%, respectively. The highest frequency of heavy precipitation was related to the MJO phase 8. After this, the more frequent precipitation events were respectively associated to the phases 2, 7, 1, 6, 5 and 4 of the MJO. For the phases 1, 2, 7 and 8 frequency of the heavy precipitation statistically increased when the MJO amplitude was greater than unity. In contrast, for phases 4 and 5, heavy precipitation was generally linked to the spells that the amplitude size was lower than unity. Formation of a strong north-south oriented cold front mainly in Saudi Arabia and west-east oriented warm fronts in the southwest of Iran were realized as the key elements for initiating heavy precipitation over the study area. Although development of the Mediterranean-based cyclonic circulation is essential for the formation of these fronts, moisture transport mostly originates from northern parts of the Arabian Sea, southern parts of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.

  13. On the relationship between the Madden-Julian Oscillation and 2 m air temperature over central Asia in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Lu, Youyu; Yang, Ben; Jiang, Jing; Huang, Anning; Zhao, Yong; La, Mengke; Yang, Qing

    2016-11-01

    Linear regression is used to explore the relationship between the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and 2 m air temperature (T2M) over central Asia in boreal winter during 1979-2012. During MJO phases 3 and 4 (7 and 8), T2M anomalies exhibit a significantly strong, negative (positive) response to the MJO from the Arabian Sea to northwestern China. The anomalies of T2M are essentially influenced by surface net downward long (Ldown) and shortwave radiations, which are caused by the changes in total cloud cover (TCC) and low-level tropospheric air temperature. The anomalies of Ldown that are caused by TCC account for 20-65% of total Ldown. The remaining anomalies of total Ldown are explained by low-level air temperature changes. The 850 hPa air temperature (T850) tendency is mainly affected by the vertical motion over central Asia during MJO phases 1, 2, 4-6, and 8, as well as over northern India during phases 3 and 7. Over Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, and northwestern China, the anomalies of T850 tendency are mainly explained by the temperature advection during phases 3 and 7. TCC and vertical motion are affected by the evolution of the MJO event. The cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation related to the MJO over central Asia during phases 3 and 4 (7 and 8) causes the transport of cold (warm) air over central Asia. The MJO can be a useful intraseasonal signal to predict winter T2M over central Asia, where temperatures would be colder (warmer) than normal during MJO phases 3 and 4 (7 and 8).

  14. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Biases and uncertainties at short range

    DOE PAGES

    Xavier, Prince K.; Petch, Jon C.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; ...

    2015-05-26

    We present an analysis of diabatic heating and moistening processes from 12 to 36 h lead time forecasts from 12 Global Circulation Models as part of the “Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)” project. A lead time of 12–36 h is chosen to constrain the large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics to be close to observations while avoiding being too close to the initial spin-up of the models as they adjust to being driven from the Years of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis. A comparison of the vertical velocity and rainfall with the observations and YOTC analysis suggests thatmore » the phases of convection associated with the MJO are constrained in most models at this lead time although the rainfall in the suppressed phase is typically overestimated. Although the large-scale dynamics is reasonably constrained, moistening and heating profiles have large intermodel spread. In particular, there are large spreads in convective heating and moistening at midlevels during the transition to active convection. Radiative heating and cloud parameters have the largest relative spread across models at upper levels during the active phase. A detailed analysis of time step behavior shows that some models show strong intermittency in rainfall and differences in the precipitation and dynamics relationship between models. In conclusion, the wealth of model outputs archived during this project is a very valuable resource for model developers beyond the study of the MJO. Additionally, the findings of this study can inform the design of process model experiments, and inform the priorities for field experiments and future observing systems.« less

  15. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Biases and uncertainties at short range.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Prince K; Petch, Jon C; Klingaman, Nicholas P; Woolnough, Steve J; Jiang, Xianan; Waliser, Duane E; Caian, Mihaela; Cole, Jason; Hagos, Samson M; Hannay, Cecile; Kim, Daehyun; Miyakawa, Tomoki; Pritchard, Michael S; Roehrig, Romain; Shindo, Eiki; Vitart, Frederic; Wang, Hailan

    2015-05-27

    An analysis of diabatic heating and moistening processes from 12 to 36 h lead time forecasts from 12 Global Circulation Models are presented as part of the "Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)" project. A lead time of 12-36 h is chosen to constrain the large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics to be close to observations while avoiding being too close to the initial spin-up of the models as they adjust to being driven from the Years of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis. A comparison of the vertical velocity and rainfall with the observations and YOTC analysis suggests that the phases of convection associated with the MJO are constrained in most models at this lead time although the rainfall in the suppressed phase is typically overestimated. Although the large-scale dynamics is reasonably constrained, moistening and heating profiles have large intermodel spread. In particular, there are large spreads in convective heating and moistening at midlevels during the transition to active convection. Radiative heating and cloud parameters have the largest relative spread across models at upper levels during the active phase. A detailed analysis of time step behavior shows that some models show strong intermittency in rainfall and differences in the precipitation and dynamics relationship between models. The wealth of model outputs archived during this project is a very valuable resource for model developers beyond the study of the MJO. In addition, the findings of this study can inform the design of process model experiments, and inform the priorities for field experiments and future observing systems.

  16. Linkages between the Madden Julian Oscillation, process-level diagnostics and GCM parameterization behavior in YOTC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, R. B.; Hannay, C.

    2014-12-01

    The simulation of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) remains a significant challenge in climate models. The primary difficulty lies in relating MJO skill to parameterized physical processes - the main access point for model development. One theory of the MJO relies on scale-interactions from small to large scales. The expectation is that GCMs should reproduce the correct relationships at the smallest resolved scales and this will translate through increasing scales and lead to a skillful simulation of the MJO. So-called 'process-based' diagnostics have recently been applied to simple model fields in order to relate accurate simulation of the MJO to accurate, small-scale process-level relationships (Kim et al., 2014). In this presentation we will take this technique further to provide greater insight into how the underlying physical parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) conspire to provide the process-level responses in the model, particularly as it relates to precipitation and humidity dependent processes. This provides the potential for a range of dependencies between parameterization tendencies and MJO skill. Furthermore, these dependencies are examined to quantify the effect of model biases. This entails performing the same process-level analysis on simply initialized and nudged CAM simulations that make use of YOTC analysis. These techniques enable diagnosis of the relationship between degrading model simulation (basic state and MJO) and changes in the parameterized response at the process level. In summary, this talk will show the most promising relationships between MJO simulation performance and the fidelity with which the parameterized physics produce observed process-scale relationships.

  17. Planetary scale selection of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in an air-sea coupled dynamic moisture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuntao; Liu, Fei; Mu, Mu; Ren, Hong-Li

    2017-07-01

    The authors present an air-sea coupled dynamic moisture (ASDM) model to explore the mechanism of preferred planetary scale of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This ASDM model, extended from the original frictionally coupled dynamic moisture model and a mixed layer model, can present a good simulation of planetary-scale characteristics of the MJO, including a slow eastward propagation of 5 m s-1, coupled Rossby-Kelvin wave-like structure, and phase leading of convective center by warm sea surface temperature (SST). It is interesting that the planetary-scale selection in terms of instability is only found in the nonlinear ASDM model with the assumption of positive-only heating. Such a scale selection, however, cannot be found in the ASDM model with linear heating or in an uncoupled atmosphere model. The essential mechanism for the scale selection is nonlinear positive-only heating, and the air-sea interaction primarily provides an instability source to support this scale selection. This scale selection is attributed to different phase speeds of coupled moist Rossby-Kelvin waves and dry Kelvin waves. From short-wave initial perturbations, the easterly wind anomalies of eastward-propagating dry Kelvin waves from a stronger wave component will catch up with other weaker moist components and suppress their westerly wind anomalies, resulting in weak SST gradient as well as reduced moisture convergence and precipitation for these suppressed components. As a result, the wavenumber-one structure is selected. The Warm Pool-like mean state will select the stronger component among the initial short-wave perturbations and accelerate this scale selection process. These results provide new insight into MJO mechanism in terms of air-sea interaction.

  18. Tropical Atlantic Dust and Smoke Aerosol Variations Related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation in MODIS and MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yanjuan; Tian, Baijun; Kahn, Ralph A.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Wong, Sun; Waliser, Duane E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fine mode fraction and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nonspherical fraction data are used to derive dust and smoke aerosol optical thickness (T(sub dust) and T(sub smoke)) over the tropical Atlantic in a complementary way: due to its wider swath, MODIS has 3-4 times greater sampling than MISR, but MISR dust discrimination is based on particle shape retrievals, whereas an empirical scheme is used for MODIS. MODIS and MISR show very similar dust and smoke winter climatologies. T(sub dust) is the dominant aerosol component over the tropical Atlantic, accounting for 40-70 percent of the total aerosol optical thickness (AOT), whereas T(sub smoke) is significantly smaller than T(sub dust). The consistency and high correlation between these climatologies and their daily variations lends confidence to their use for investigating the relative dust and smoke contributions to the total AOT variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The temporal evolution and spatial patterns of the tdus anomalies associated with the MJO are consistent between MODIS and MISR: the magnitude of MJO-realted T(sub dust) anomalies is comparable to or even larger than that of the total T, while the T(sub smoke) anomaly represents about 15 percent compared to the total, which is quite different from their relative magnitudes to the total T on the climatological time scale. This suggests that dust and smoke are not influenced by the MJO in the same way. Based on correlation analysis, dust is strongly influenced by the MJO-modulated trade wind and precipitation anomalies, and can last as long as one MJO phase, whereas smoke is less affected.

  19. Cloud-radiative driving of the Madden-Julian oscillation as seen by the A-Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Genio, Anthony D.; Chen, Yonghua

    2015-06-01

    Cloud and water vapor radiative heating anomalies associated with convection may be an effective source of moist static energy driving the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). In this paper 5 years of radiative heating profiles derived from CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation data are analyzed to document radiative heating anomalies during the MJO. Atmospheric shortwave absorption and surface longwave radiation anomalies are of opposite sign and 10-20% as large as top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies, confirming that OLR provides a useful estimate of the total column radiative heating anomaly. Positive anomalies generally peak about 1 week before the MJO peak and are smallest over the Indian Ocean. Anomalies over the Maritime Continent are strongest and coincident with the MJO peak. Shortwave heating profile anomalies are weaker than longwave anomalies in the active region of the MJO but generally of opposite sign; thus, shortwave heating damps the longwave destabilization of the lower troposphere. The exception is the onset phase of the MJO, where shortwave and longwave heating anomalies due to thin cirrus are both positive in the upper troposphere and exert a stabilizing influence. Specific humidity anomalies in the middle troposphere reach 0.5 g kg-1, but the associated clear-sky heating anomaly is small. Radiative enhancement of column moist static energy becomes significant as precipitation increases before the MJO peak and remains high after the MJO peak as precipitation begins to decline. Elevated radiative heating after the peak may contribute to destabilizing the MJO.

  20. The Modulation and Decadal Change of Madden-Julian Oscillation on Tropical Cyclone in the Western North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the climatological relationship between the Modden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and Tropical Cyclone (TC) activity in the Western North Pacific (WNP) and its decadal variability. Based on the knowledge of the modulation of MJO on TC in WNP, a set of data including the RMM(Real-time Multivariate MJO)index from RMRC(bureau of meteorology)of the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research,the best tracks from the Navy Joint Typhoon Warming Center(JTWC),daily data of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis were used.The result shows that TC frequency in WNP exhibited a statistically significant decrease during the period of 1998-2010, comparing to the period of 1979-1997.The decrease on TC frequency in WNP mainly occured during MJO active phases 4,5,6,and 7. In further investigation on comparison of cycle days of MJO, duration of MJO active phases (4,5,6,and 7),low-frequency wind at 850hPa, large-scale convection circulation and vatiability of Surface Sea Temperatures (SST) and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) in MJO active phases between 1979-1997 and 1998-2010, we found that: during 1998-2010,cycle days of MJO and duration of MJO active phases exhibited a significant decrease; low-frequency wind at 850hPa showed an eastern-wind transition; convective areas in MJO active phases decreased and anormaly of its SST were more negative. These may be reasons of difference of TC frequency in the period of 1979-1997 and 1998-2010.

  1. Shallow-to-Deep Transition of Madden-Julian Oscillation Convection as Observed by TRMM and GPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Rutledge, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study uses TRMM and GPM data to study the evolution of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convection over the Indian Ocean (IO). Radar observations from the 2011-2012 DYNAMO field campaign in the central IO have provided rich information on the 3D structure of MJO convection, including the transition from shallow to deep convection during the MJO onset. However, DYNAMO radar measurements are limited to only three MJO events and three radar sites. In this study, the shallow to deep transition (SDT) problem and lifecycle evolution of MJO events over the IO is revisited using longer term, larger-scale TRMM and GPM data. Our analysis indicates that the TRMM and GPM satellite is able to capture the evolution of individual MJO events (e.g., precipitation) on the daily and regional (e.g., 2000 km x 2000 km) scale. We have investigated the evolution and properties of ~40 prominent MJO events in terms of precipitation amounts, three-dimensional radar reflectivity, microwave ice scattering signatures, cloud top brightness temperature, and lightning flash rates. We track the SDT time scale and lifecycle evolution of each MJO using these multiple parameters, instead of composites in previous TRMM studies. MJO events have also been examined as a function of the MJO type (e.g., duration of MJO lifecycles and MJO strength). Preliminary results show that the SDT is on the scale of 7-10 days with small variations among different MJO types. SDT trends are less well-defined by the 20 dBZ (TRMM PR) echo top height compared to lower thresholds. In contrast, the satellite IR brightness temperature (TRMM VIRS), the 12 dBZ (GPM DPR Ka-band) echo top heights, and lightning flash rate (TRMM LIS) depict the STD rather well.

  2. Cloud-Radiative Driving of the Madden-Julian Oscillation as Seen by the A-Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Genio, Anthony; Chen, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Cloud and water vapor radiative heating anomalies associated with convection may be an effective source of moist static energy driving the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). In this paper five years of radiative heating profiles derived from CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation data are analyzed to document radiative heating anomalies during the MJO. Atmospheric shortwave absorption and surface longwave radiation anomalies are of opposite sign and 10-20% as large as top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies, confirming that OLR provides a useful estimate of the total column radiative heating anomaly. Positive anomalies generally peak about one week before the MJO peak and are smallest over the Indian Ocean. Anomalies over the Maritime Continent are strongest, and coincident with the MJO peak. Shortwave heating profile anomalies are about half as large as longwave anomalies in the active region of the MJO but generally of opposite sign; thus shortwave heating damps the longwave destabilization of the lower troposphere. The exception is the onset phase of the MJO, where shortwave and longwave heating anomalies due to thin cirrus are both positive in the upper troposphere and exert a stabilizing influence. Specific humidity anomalies in the middle troposphere reach 0.5 g kg(exp. -1), but the associated clear sky heating anomaly is very small. Radiative enhancement of column moist static energy becomes significant about 10 days before the MJO peak, when precipitation anomalies are still increasing, and then remains high after the MJO peak after precipitation has begun to decline.

  3. Tropical Atlantic Dust and Smoke Aerosol Variabilities Related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation in MODIS and MISR Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yanjuan; Tian, Baijun; Kahn, Ralph A.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Wong, Sun; Waliser, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, MODIS fine mode fraction and MISR non-spherical fraction are 2used to derive dust and smoke AOT components (tau(sub dust) and tau(sub smoke)) over the tropical Atlantic, and their variabilities related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are then investigated. Both MODIS and MISR show a very similar dust and smoke winter climatology. tau(sub dust) is found to be the dominant aerosol component over the tropical Atlantic while tau(sub smoke) is significantly smaller than tau(sub dust). The daily MODIS and MISR tau(sub dust) are overall highly correlated, with the correlation coefficients typically about 0.7 over the North Atlantic. The consistency between the MODIS and MISR dust and smoke aerosol climatology and daily variations give us confidence to use these two data sets to investigate their relative contributions to the total AOT variation associated with the MJO. However, unlike the MISR dust discrimination, which is based on particle shape retrievals, the smoke discrimination is less certain, based on assumed partitioning of maritime aerosol for both MISR and MODIS. The temporal evolution and spatial patterns of the tau(sub dust) anomalies associated with the MJO are consistent between MODIS and MISR. The tau(sub dust) anomalies are very similar to those of tau anomalies, and are of comparable magnitude. In contrast, the MJO-related tau(sub smoke) anomalies are rather small, and the tau(sub mar) anomalies are negligible. The consistency between the MODIS and MISR results suggests that dust aerosol is the dominant component on the intra-seasonal time scale over the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Biases and uncertainties at short range

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Prince K.; Petch, Jon C.; Klingaman, Nicholas P.; Woolnough, Steve J.; Jiang, Xianan; Waliser, Duane E.; Caian, Mihaela; Cole, Jason; Hagos, Samson M.; Hannay, Cecile; Kim, Daehyun; Miyakawa, Tomoki; Pritchard, Michael S.; Roehrig, Romain; Shindo, Eiki; Vitart, Frederic; Wang, Hailan

    2015-05-26

    We present an analysis of diabatic heating and moistening processes from 12 to 36 h lead time forecasts from 12 Global Circulation Models as part of the “Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)” project. A lead time of 12–36 h is chosen to constrain the large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics to be close to observations while avoiding being too close to the initial spin-up of the models as they adjust to being driven from the Years of Tropical Convection (YOTC) analysis. A comparison of the vertical velocity and rainfall with the observations and YOTC analysis suggests that the phases of convection associated with the MJO are constrained in most models at this lead time although the rainfall in the suppressed phase is typically overestimated. Although the large-scale dynamics is reasonably constrained, moistening and heating profiles have large intermodel spread. In particular, there are large spreads in convective heating and moistening at midlevels during the transition to active convection. Radiative heating and cloud parameters have the largest relative spread across models at upper levels during the active phase. A detailed analysis of time step behavior shows that some models show strong intermittency in rainfall and differences in the precipitation and dynamics relationship between models. In conclusion, the wealth of model outputs archived during this project is a very valuable resource for model developers beyond the study of the MJO. Additionally, the findings of this study can inform the design of process model experiments, and inform the priorities for field experiments and future observing systems.

  5. Response to Julian et al. (2015) "comment on and reinterpretation of Gabriel et al. (2014) 'fish mercury and surface water sulfate relationships in the everglades protection area'".

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mark C; Axelrad, Don; Orem, William; Osborne, Todd Z

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this forum is to respond to a rebuttal submitted by Julian et al., Environ Manag 55:1-5, 2015 where they outlined their overall disagreement with the data preparation, methods, and interpretation of results presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014). Here, we provide background information on the research premise presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) and provide a defense for this work using five themes. In spite of what Julian et al. perceive as limitations in the sampling methods and analytical tools used for this work, the relationships found between fish total mercury and surface water sulfate concentrations in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) are comparable to relationships between pore water methylmercury (MeHg) and pore water sulfate found in past studies indicating that sulfate is important to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in the Everglades. Julian et al. state "…there is no way to justify any ecosystem-wide sulfur strategy as a management approach to reduce mercury risk in the (Everglades) as suggested by Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014), Corrales et al. (Sci Tot Environ 409:2156-2162, 2011) and Orem et al. (Rev Environ Sci Technol 41 (S1):249-288, 2011)." We disagree, and having stated why sulfate input reduction to the Everglades may be the most effective means of reducing mercury in Everglades fish, it is important that research on sulfur and mercury biogeochemistry continues. If further studies support the relationship between sulfate loading reduction and MeHg reduction, sulfur mass balance studies should commence to (1) better quantify agricultural and connate seawater sulfate inputs and (2) define opportunities to reduce sulfate inputs to the Everglades ecosystem.

  6. Response to Julian et al. (2015) "Comment on and Reinterpretation of Gabriel et al. (2014) `Fish Mercury and Surface Water Sulfate Relationships in the Everglades Protection Area'"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Mark C.; Axelrad, Don; Orem, William; Osborne, Todd Z.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this forum is to respond to a rebuttal submitted by Julian et al., Environ Manag 55:1-5, 2015 where they outlined their overall disagreement with the data preparation, methods, and interpretation of results presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014). Here, we provide background information on the research premise presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) and provide a defense for this work using five themes. In spite of what Julian et al. perceive as limitations in the sampling methods and analytical tools used for this work, the relationships found between fish total mercury and surface water sulfate concentrations in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) are comparable to relationships between pore water methylmercury (MeHg) and pore water sulfate found in past studies indicating that sulfate is important to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in the Everglades. Julian et al. state "…there is no way to justify any ecosystem-wide sulfur strategy as a management approach to reduce mercury risk in the (Everglades) as suggested by Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014), Corrales et al. (Sci Tot Environ 409:2156-2162, 2011) and Orem et al. (Rev Environ Sci Technol 41 (S1):249-288, 2011)." We disagree, and having stated why sulfate input reduction to the Everglades may be the most effective means of reducing mercury in Everglades fish, it is important that research on sulfur and mercury biogeochemistry continues. If further studies support the relationship between sulfate loading reduction and MeHg reduction, sulfur mass balance studies should commence to (1) better quantify agricultural and connate seawater sulfate inputs and (2) define opportunities to reduce sulfate inputs to the Everglades ecosystem.

  7. The Modulation of Tropical Storm Activity in the Western North Pacific by the Madden-Julian Oscillation in GEOS-5 AGCM Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Hye-Mi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Yoo, Jin H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on tropical storm (TS) activity in the western North Pacific, using observations and GEOS-5 simulations at 50-km horizontal resolution. While GEOS-5 produces an MJO of faster propagation and weaker amplitude, it nevertheless reproduces the observed modulation of TS activity by the MJO with the highest TS genesis and increased track density in the active phases of MJO. The study suggests that the simulation of the sub-seasonal variability of TS activity could be improved by improving the simulations of the MJO in climate models.

  8. The Modulation of Tropical Storm Activity in the Western North Pacific by the Madden-Julian Oscillation in GEOS-5 AGCM Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myong-In; Kim, Hye-Mi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Yoo, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on tropical storm (TS) activity in the western North Pacific, using observations and GEOS-5 simulations at 50-km horizontal resolution. While GEOS-5 produces an MJO of faster propagation and weaker amplitude, it nevertheless reproduces the observed modulation of TS activity by the MJO with the highest TS genesis and increased track density in the active phases of MJO. The study suggests that the simulation of the sub-seasonal variability of TS activity could be improved by improving the simulations of the MJO in climate models.

  9. A mechanism-denial study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation with reduced interference from mean state changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model, the authors investigate the importance of (i) the influences of extratropical and circumnavigating waves, (ii) the wind-evaporation feedback and (iii) the radiative-convective feedback to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A common issue with mechanism-denial studies is the interference from mean state changes in the simulations when processes are turned off in the model. In the present study, time-invariant forcing and nudging on an effective time scale longer than the intraseasonal time scale are implemented to maintain the mean state. Forced by perpetual February sea surface temperature, the control simulation is integrated for 15 years, and produces satisfactory climatology. The influence of extratropical waves on the MJO is first examined by relaxing the prognostic variables outside the tropics towards the controlled mean state. When the mean state is not maintained, the MJO activity decreases as the Hadley circulation weakens, consistent with a previous study. However, when the mean state is maintained to be the same as that of the control, the MJO activity does not decrease with the suppression of extratropical waves and remains as strong as that in the control. The results are not sensitive to the latitudes beyond which the extratropical waves are suppressed. To further assess the influence of circumnavigating waves on the MJO, the prognostic variables are relaxed towards the controlled climatology all over the globe except within 40°S-30°N, 0°E-90°W, so that the MJO initiation and propagation are confined in the box. In this experiment, strong MJO activity is produced over the tropical Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and the results suggest that the essential processes for the existence of the MJO are internal to these regions. In the last two experiments, the wind-evaporation and radiative-convective feedback are turned off by prescribing surface flux and radiative heating to the climatology

  10. Determining the Factors for the Simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Use of NCEP CFS RAS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, K.; Choi, J.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the capability for simulating the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) in a series of atmosphere-ocean coupled and uncoupled simulations using NCEP operational general circulation models. The effect of air-sea coupling on the MJO is examined by comparing long-term simulations from the coupled Climate Forecast System (CFS T62) and the atmospheric Global Forecast System (GFS T62) models. Another coupled simulation with a higher horizontal resolution model (CFS T126) is performed to investigate the impact of model horizontal resolution. Furthermore, to examine the impact on a deep convection scheme, an additional coupled T126 run (CFS T126RAS) is conducted with the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme. The most important factors for the proper simulation of the MJO are investigated from these runs. The empirical orthogonal function, lagged regression and spectral analyses indicated that the interactive air-sea coupling greatly improved the coherence between convection, circulation and other surface fields on the intraseasonal time scale. In contrast to the model simulations using the simplified Arakawa-Schubert (SAS) cumulus scheme, CFS T126RAS produced statistically significant spectral peaks in the MJO frequency band, and greatly improved the strength of the MJO convection and circulation. Most importantly, the ability of MJO convection signal to penetrate into the Maritime Continent and western Pacific was demonstrated. In this simulation, an early-stage shallow heating and moistening preconditioned the atmosphere for subsequent intense MJO convection and a top-heavy vertical heating profile was formed by stratiform heating in the upper and middle troposphere, working to increase temperature anomalies and hence eddy available potential energy that sustains the MJO. The stratiform heating arose from convective detrainment of moisture to the environment and stratiform anvil clouds. Therefore, the following factors were analyzed to be most

  11. AMIE (ARM MJO Investigation Experiment): Observations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation for Modeling Studies Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C; Del Genio, A; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Klein, S; Leung, L Ruby; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Wu, X; Xie, S

    2010-03-22

    Deep convection in the tropics plays an important role in driving global circulations and the transport of energy from the tropics to the mid-latitudes. Understanding the mechanisms that control tropical convection is a key to improving climate modeling simulations of the global energy balance. One of the dominant sources of tropical convective variability is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which has a period of approximately 30–60 days. There is no agreed-upon explanation for the underlying physics that maintain the MJO. Many climate models do not show well-defined MJO signals, and those that do have problems accurately simulating the amplitude, propagation speed, and/or seasonality of the MJO signal. Therefore, the MJO is a very important modeling target for the ARM modeling community geared specifically toward improving climate models. The ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) period coincides with a large international MJO initiation field campaign called CINDY2011 (Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011) that will take place in and around the Indian Ocean from October 2011 to January 2012. AMIE, in conjunction with CINDY2011 efforts, will provide an unprecedented data set that will allow investigation of the evolution of convection within the framework of the MJO. AMIE observations will also complement the long-term MJO statistics produced using ARM Manus data and will allow testing of several of the current hypotheses related to the MJO phenomenon. Taking advantage of the expected deployment of a C-POL scanning precipitation radar and an ECOR surface flux tower at the ARM Manus site, we propose to increase the number of sonde launches to eight per day starting in about mid-October of the field experiment year, which is climatologically a period of generally suppressed conditions at Manus and just prior to the climatologically strongest MJO period. The field experiment will last until the end of the MJO

  12. Physical Mechanisms for the Maintenance of GCM-Simulated Madden-Julian Oscillation over the Indian Ocean and Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Liping; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-05-05

    The kinetic energy budget is conducted to analyze the physical processes responsible for the improved Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) simulated by the Iowa State University general circulation models (ISUGCM). The modified deep convection scheme that includes the revised convection closure, convection trigger condition and convective momentum transport (CMT) enhances the equatorial (10oS-10oN) MJO-related perturbation kinetic energy (PKE) in the upper troposphere and leads to more robust and coherent eastward propagating MJO signal. In the MJO source region-the Indian Ocean (45oE-120oE), the upper-tropospheric MJO PKE is maintained by the vertical convergence of wave energy flux and the barotropic conversion through the horizontal shear of mean flow. In the convectively active region-the western Pacific (120oE-180o), the upper-tropospheric MJO PKE is supported by the convergence of horizontal and vertical wave energy fluxes. Over the central-eastern Pacific (180o-120oW), where convection is suppressed, the upper-tropospheric MJO PKE is mainly due to the horizontal convergence of wave energy flux. The deep convection trigger condition produces stronger convective heating which enhances the perturbation available potential energy (PAPE) production and the upward wave energy fluxes, and leads to the increased MJO PKE over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. The trigger condition also enhances the MJO PKE over the central-eastern Pacific through the increased convergence of meridional wave energy flux from the subtropical latitudes of both hemispheres. The revised convection closure affects the response of mean zonal wind shear to the convective heating over the Indian Ocean and leads to the enhanced upper-tropospheric MJO PKE through the barotropic conversion. The stronger eastward wave energy flux due to the increase of convective heating over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific by the revised closure is favorable to the eastward propagation of MJO and the

  13. Response to ?A Madden-Julian Oscillation Event Realistically Simulated by a Global Cloud-Resolving Model?

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K R

    2007-12-18

    I agree with the authors that forecasting the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in a high resolution global model is important for numerous reasons, including improved weather forecast skill beyond 10 days, and resolving small scale features embedded in the MJO that coarse resolution ({approx}100-300km horizontal grid spacing) climate models do not (e.g., tropical cyclones). Unfortunately, the authors promote the (incorrect) overall impression that coarse resolution climate models cannot simulate the MJO by (a) only discussing aspects of works that indicate the poor ability of coarse resolution climate models to simulate the MJO, and (b) by promoting the use of higher resolution models, and the use of embedded two-dimensional cloud resolving models embedded in coarse resolution climate models as the principal methods for realistically representing the MJO because of the difficulty of coarse resolution models 'to estimate the vertical redistribution of heat and moisture by unresolved convective clouds'. Regarding items (a) and (b), I have co-authored two of the works cited by Miura et al. that bemoan the poor ability of coarse resolution climate models to simulate the MJO, and indeed simulating the MJO in coarse resolution climate models is a grand challenge. However, I would like to draw to their attention to work that has demonstrated that two different coarse resolution climate models, using conventional parameterizations of convection and clouds, can represent the MJO with high fidelity. In the later study, where more complete model diagnostics were available, important aspects of the MJO that were realistically represented included the relationship between convection and low-level moisture convergence, surface fluxes, the vertical structure of winds and divergence, and important air-sea interactions. Additionally, regarding item (b), convection is certainly of central importance in representing the MJO, but it is the interaction of convection (parameterized or

  14. Geomorphological map and preliminary analysis of Quaternary sediments in the Planica-Tamar valley (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Andrej; Šmuc, Andrej

    2016-04-01

    The Planica-Tamar valley is located in the Julian Alps in north-west Slovenia. The Planica-Tamar valley represents typical mountain glacial valley bounded by steep, mainly carbonate cliffs with some glacial deposits still preserved. The valley is currently being filled with numerous Holocene sediments deposited by rock falls, landslides, mass gravity flows and fluvial flows. These deposits are forming active or inactive interfingering talus slopes, alluvial and debris-flow fans, all of them with a complex history of sedimentation and erosion forming unconformity bounded sedimentary units. In order to make a thorough analysis of these deposits a detailed geomorphological map in a scale of 1:10 000 has been made. Six different types of sedimentary deposits were defined and mapped. These are moraines, lacustrine sediments, fluvio-glacial deposits, talus slopes, debris fans and alluvial fans. Other mapped features also include shape of ravines, their depths, ridges and direction of sedimentary flow. Additionally areas of active, semi-active and inactive sedimentation were marked. Moraines forms a ridge in the bottom of the valleys and are composed of unconsolidated, poorly sorted, subangular grains ranging from clay size to a few cubic meters big blocks. Lacustrine sediments are represented by laminated well sorted sand and silt, while fluvio-glacial deposits are composed of washed out subrounded sands and gravels. Talus slope deposits are characterised by clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravel. Debris flow fans are represented by extremely poorly sorted matrix-supported gravels with grain size ranging from clay to few cubic meters big blocks. Alluvial fans are composed by variety of sedimentary textures. Sediments at the fan apex are clast-supported poorly sorted very angular gravels with up to a few cubic meters big block. In the middle part of the fan the sieve deposits are common, while in the distal parts a few centimeters thick layers of sand and

  15. On the predictability of the interannual behaviour of the Madden-Julian oscillation and its relationship with El Nino

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K.R., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of tropical variability at intraseasonal timescales. It displays substantial interannual variability in intensity which may have important implications for the predictability of the coupled system. The reasons for this interannual variability are not understood. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the interannual behavior of the MJO is related to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, particularly El Nino, and hence whether it is predictable. The interannual behavior of the MJO has been diagnosed initially in the 40-year NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis. The results suggest that prior to the mid-1970s the activity of the MJO was consistently lower than during the latter part of the record. This may be related to either inadequacies in the data coverage, particularly over the tropical Indian Ocean prior to the introduction of satellite observations, or to the real effects of a decadal timescale warming in the tropical SSTs. The teleconnection patterns between interannual variations in MJO activity and SST show only a weak, barely significant, influence of El Nino in which the MJO is more active during the cold phase. As well as the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, a 4-member ensemble of 45 year integrations with the Hadley Centre climate model (HadAM2a), forced by observed SSTs for 1949-93, has been used to investigate the relationship between MJO activity and SST. HadAM2a is known to give a reasonable simulation of the MJO and the extended record provided by this ensemble of integrations allows a more robust investigation of the predictability of MJO activity than was possible with the 40-year NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The results have shown that, for the uncoupled system, with the atmosphere being driven by imposed SSTS, there is no reproducibility for the activity of the MJO from year to year. The interannual behavior of the MJO is not controlled by the phase of El Nino and would appear to be chaotic in

  16. Role of the Atmospheric Mean State on the Initiation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Tropical Channel Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Pallav; Zhang, Chidong; Moncrieff, Mitch; Dudhia, Jimy; Caron, Julie M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bruyere, Cindy

    2010-06-08

    Tropical channel models, defined as models that are global in the zonal direction but bounded in the meridional direction, are particularly useful for simulating the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and understanding its physical and dynamical basis. Influences from the extratropics through the lateral boundaries have been found to be essential to the reproduction of the initiation of certain MJO events. This led to a hypothesis that multi-year simulations using a tropical channel model would reproduce reasonable MJO statistics under the influence of prescribed lateral boundary conditions derived from global reanalyses. Interestingly, the MJO statistics in such a multi-year simulation by a high-resolution tropical channel model are not better than those from global climate models. The error in the atmospheric mean state is found to be a possible reason for the poor MJO statistics in the simulation. Nevertheless, even with a large error in the mean state, the multi-year simulation captures two MJO events previously found to be initiated by extratropical influences. However, the model does not reproduce a third event, whose initiation is not directly influenced by the extratropics. This implies that in the absence of dynamical interactions between the MJO and the lateral boundary conditions, the error in the mean state could be sufficient to prevent the MJO initiation. To explore this third MJO event further, a series of sensitivity tests are conducted. These tests show that the simulation of this event is neither critically influenced by the cumulus parameterization employed, nor the initial conditions when the model is integrated 2 weeks prior to the MJO initiation. The model captures this event when the MJO signal is already present in the initial conditions. The use of highresolution sea surface temperature does not improve the simulation of the third MJO event. A higher-resolution nested domain covering the Indo-Pacific warm pool region and including a cloud

  17. Exploring the Utility of the Planned CYGNSS Mission for Investigating the Initiation and Development of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy; Mecikalski, John; Li, Xuanli; Chronis, Themis; Brewer, Alan; Churnside, James; Rutledge, Steve

    2014-01-01

    CYGNSS is a planned constellation consisting of multiple micro-satellites that leverage the Global Positioning System (GPS) to provide rapidly updated, high resolution (approx. 15-50 km, approx. 4 h) surface wind speeds (via bi-static scatterometry) over the tropical oceans in any weather condition, including heavy rainfall. The approach of the work to be presented at this conference is to utilize a limited-domain, cloud-system resolving model (Weather Research and Forecasting or WRF) and its attendant data assimilation scheme (Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation or 3DVAR) to investigate the utility of the CYGNSS mission for helping characterize key convectiveto- mesoscale processes - such as surface evaporation, moisture advection and convergence, and upscale development of precipitation systems - that help drive the initiation and development of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The proposed work will focus on three scientific objectives. Objective 1 is to produce a high-resolution surface wind dataset resolution (approx. 0.5 h, approx. 1-4 km) for multiple MJO onsets using WRF-assimilated winds and other data from the DYNAmics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, which took place during October 2011 - March 2012. Objective 2 is to study the variability of surface winds during MJO onsets at temporal and spatial scales of finer resolution than future CYGNSS data. The goal is to understand how sub-CYGNSS-resolution processes will shape the observations made by the satellite constellation. Objective 3 is to ingest simulated CYGNSS data into the WRF model in order to perform observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). These will be used to test and quantify the potential beneficial effects provided by CYGNSS, particularly for characterizing the physical processes driving convective organization and upscale development during the initiation and development of the MJO. The proposed research is ideal for answering important

  18. Evaluation of convection-permitting model simulations of cloud populations associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation using data collected during the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Long, Charles N.; Wu, Di; Thompson, Gregory

    2014-11-12

    Regional cloud permitting model simulations of cloud populations observed during the 2011 ARM Madden Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment/ Dynamics of Madden-Julian Experiment (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign are evaluated against radar and ship-based measurements. Sensitivity of model simulated surface rain rate statistics to parameters and parameterization of hydrometeor sizes in five commonly used WRF microphysics schemes are examined. It is shown that at 2 km grid spacing, the model generally overestimates rain rate from large and deep convective cores. Sensitivity runs involving variation of parameters that affect rain drop or ice particle size distribution (more aggressive break-up process etc) generally reduce the bias in rain-rate and boundary layer temperature statistics as the smaller particles become more vulnerable to evaporation. Furthermore significant improvement in the convective rain-rate statistics is observed when the horizontal grid-spacing is reduced to 1 km and 0.5 km, while it is worsened when run at 4 km grid spacing as increased turbulence enhances evaporation. The results suggest modulation of evaporation processes, through parameterization of turbulent mixing and break-up of hydrometeors may provide a potential avenue for correcting cloud statistics and associated boundary layer temperature biases in regional and global cloud permitting model simulations.

  19. Greater case-fatality after myocardial infarction among Mexican Americans and women than among non-Hispanic whites and men. The Corpus Christi Heart Project.

    PubMed

    Goff, D C; Ramsey, D J; Labarthe, D R; Nichaman, M Z

    1994-03-01

    Age-adjusted 28-day case-fatality rates were higher among Mexican Americans than among non-Hispanic whites and higher among women than among men hospitalized for definite or possible myocardial infarction in Corpus Christi, Nueces County, Texas, from May 1, 1988, through April 30, 1990. The authors therefore examined whether these higher case-fatality rates were associated with greater prevalence of previously diagnosed coronary heart disease or diabetes; with greater age, frequency of definite myocardial infarction, or congestive heart failure; with higher values of indicators of severity of infarction, including peak creatine phosphokinase levels and scales prognostic of early mortality after myocardial infarction; and with differences in receipt of in-hospital therapy. The overall 28-day case-fatality rate among 1,228 patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction during a 24-month period was 7.3%. After adjustment for age; diabetes; myocardial infarction class (definite vs. possible); congestive heart failure; the Norris and Peel severity indices; peak total creatine phosphokinase; and receipt of thrombolytic therapy, aspirin, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, anticoagulants, angioplasty, and bypass surgery, the risk of 28-day case-fatality for Mexican Americans in relation to non-Hispanic whites was 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.92-2.40). The corresponding risk for women in relation to men was 1.80 (95% confidence interval 1.12-2.89). These findings should alert clinicians to the high-risk status of these groups of patients.

  20. Sources of suspended-sediment loads in the lower Nueces River watershed, downstream from Lake Corpus Christi to the Nueces Estuary, south Texas, 1958–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

    2013-01-01

    During 2010, additional suspended-sediment data were collected during selected runoff events to provide new data for model testing and to help better understand the sources of suspended-sediment loads. The model was updated and used to estimate and compare sediment yields from each of 64 subwatersheds comprising the lower Nueces River watershed study area for three selected runoff events: November 20-21, 2009, September 7-8, 2010, and September 20-21, 2010. These three runoff events were characterized by heavy rainfall centered near the study area and during which minimal streamflow and suspended-sediment load entered the lower Nueces River upstream from Wesley E. Seale Dam. During all three runoff events, model simulations showed that the greatest sediment yields originated from the subwatersheds, which were largely cropland. In particular, the Bayou Creek subwatersheds were major contributors of suspended-sediment load to the lower Nueces River during the selected runoff events. During the November 2009 runoff event, high suspended-sediment concentrations in the Nueces River water withdrawn for the City of Corpus Christi public-water supply caused problems during the water-treatment process, resulting in failure to meet State water-treatment standards for turbidity in drinking water. Model simulations of the November 2009 runoff event showed that the Bayou Creek subwatersheds were the primary source of suspended-sediment loads during that runoff event.

  1. Tropical warm pool rainfall variability and impact on upper ocean variability throughout the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Elizabeth J.

    Heating and rain freshening often stabilize the upper tropical ocean, bringing the ocean mixed layer depth to the sea surface. Thin mixed layer depths concentrate subsequent fluxes of heat, momentum, and freshwater in a thin layer. Rapid heating and cooling of the tropical sea surface is important for controlling or triggering atmospheric convection. Ocean mixed layer depth and SST variability due to rainfall events have not been as comprehensively explored as the ocean's response to heating or momentum fluxes, but are very important to understand in the tropical warm pool where precipitation exceeds evaporation and many climate phenomena such as ENSO and the MJO (Madden Julian Oscillation) originate. The first part of the dissertation investigates tropical, oceanic convective and stratiform rainfall variability and determines how to most accurately estimate rainfall accumulation with radar from each rain type. The second, main part of the dissertation uses central Indian Ocean salinity and temperature microstructure measurements and surrounding radar-derived rainfall maps throughout two DYNAMO MJO events to determine the impact of precipitating systems on upper-ocean mixed layer depth and resulting SST variability. The ocean mixed layer was as shallow as 0-5 m during 528/1071 observation hours throughout 2 MJOs (54% of the data record). Out of 43 observation days, thirty-eight near-surface mixed layer depth events were attributed to freshwater stabilization, called rain-formed mixed layers (RFLs). Thirty other mixed layer stratification events were classified as diurnal warm layers (DWLs) due to stable temperature stratification by daytime heating. RFLs and DWLs were observed to interact in two ways: 1) RFLs fill preexisting DWLs and add to total near-surface mixed layer stratification, which occurred ten times; 2) RFLs last long enough to heat, creating a new DWL on top of the RFL, which happened nine times. These combination stratification events were

  2. Influence of geomorphic setting on sedimentation of two adjacent alpine lakes, Triglav Lakes Valley (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuc, Andrej; Skabene, Dragomir; Muri, Gregor; Vreča, Polona; Jaćimović, Radojko; Čermelj, Branko; Turšič, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Triglav Lakes Valley is elongated, 7km long depression, located high (at places over 2000 m.a.s.l.) in the central part of the Julian Alps (NW Slovenia). It hosts 6 small isolated lakes that formed due to the combination of Neogene tectonic and Pleistocene glaciation. The study is focused on the 5th and 6th Triglav Valley Lakes that characterize lower part of the valley. The lakes are located so close to each other that they are even connected in times of high water. Thus, they share the same bedrock geology, are subjected to the same climatic forcing and share similar vegetation communities. Despite their proximity, the lakes differ in their hydrologic and geomorphic setting. The lakes have no permanent surface tributaries; however 5th is fed periodically, at times of high water level, by the Močivec spring, while additional water flows from the swamp area near its northern shore. An underground spring on the eastern side of 5th represents the lake's only permanent freshwater inflow, while drainage takes place to the west via a small ponor. 6th has only one weak underground spring on the eastern side of the lake. Water levels may fluctuate between 2 and 3 m. Additionally, the lakes have different configuration of lakes shores; the northern shores of the 5th lake are low-angle soil and debris covered plateau, while southern shores of the 5th lake and shores of the 6th lake are represented by heavily karstified carbonate base rock and covered partly by trees. The detailed sedimentary analysis of the lakes record showed some similarities, but also some significant differences. Sediments of both lakes are represented by fine-grained turbidity current deposits that are transported from lake shores during snow melt or storms. The grain-size and sedimentary rates of the lakes are however markedly different. The 5th lake has coarser grained sediments, with mean ranging from 46 to 60 µm and records higher sedimentation rates of ~0,57 cm/year, compared to the 6th lake

  3. Modulation of radiative heating by the Madden-Julian Oscillation and convectively coupled Kelvin waves as observed by CloudSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ding; Kuang, Zhiming

    2011-11-01

    The vertical distribution of radiative heating affects the moist static energy budget and potentially the maintenance and propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This paper uses CloudSat data to examine the radiative heating climatology in the tropics and the vertical structure of its modulation by the MJO and convectively coupled Kelvin Waves (KWs). Composites of active regions of the MJO and KW both show positive radiative heating anomaly in the middle and lower troposphere and slightly negative radiative heating anomaly in upper troposphere. Such bottom-heavy profiles can help to strengthen the MJO while weaken the KWs. Another finding is that cloud condensate anomalies associated with the MJO are significantly more bottom-heavy than those of the KWs, while the radiative heating anomalies associated with the MJO are only very slightly more bottom-heavy.

  4. Comment on "Methodology and results of calculating Central California surface temperature trends: evidence of human-induced climate change?" by Christy et al. (2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfils, C; Duffy, P; Lobell, D

    2006-03-28

    Understanding the causes of observed regional temperature trends is essential to projecting the human influences on climate, and the societal impacts of these influences. In their recent study, Christy et al. (2006, hereinafter CRNG06) hypothesized that the presence of irrigated soils is responsible for rapid warming of summer nights occurring in California's Central Valley over the last century (1910-2003), an assumption that rules out any significant effect due to increased greenhouse gases, urbanization, or other factors in this region. We question this interpretation, which is based on an apparent contrast in summer nighttime temperature trends between the San Joaquin Valley ({approx} +0.3 {+-} 0.1 C/decade) and the adjacent western slopes of the Sierra Nevada (-0.25 {+-} 0.15 C/decade), as well as the amplitude, sign and uncertainty of the Sierra nighttime temperature trend itself. We, however, do not dispute the finding of other Sierra and Valley trends. Regarding the veracity of the apparent Sierra nighttime temperature trend, CRNG06 generated the Valley and Sierra time-series using a meticulous procedure that eliminates discontinuities and isolates homogeneous segments in temperature records from 41 weather stations. This procedure yields an apparent cooling of about -0.25 {+-} 0.15 C/decade in the Sierra region. However, because removal of one of the 137 Sierra segments, from the most elevated site (Huntington Lake, 2140m), causes an increase in nighttime temperature trend as large as the trend itself (of +0.25 C/decade, CH06), and leads to a zero trend, the apparent cooling of summer nights in the Sierra regions seems, in fact, largely uncertain.

  5. Differences in initial stroke severity between Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites vary by age: the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeffrey J.; Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Smith, Melinda A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Zahuranec, Darin B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A wide variety of racial and ethnic disparities in stroke epidemiology and treatment have been reported. Race-ethnic differences in initial stroke severity may be one important determinant of differences in outcome after stroke. The overall goal of this study was to move beyond ethnic comparisons in the mean or median severity, and instead investigate ethnic differences in the entire distribution of initial stroke severity. Additionally, we investigated whether age modifies the relationship between ethnicity and initial stroke severity as this may be an important determinant of racial differences in outcome after stroke. Methods Ischemic stroke cases were identified from the population-based Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was determined from the medical record or abstracted from the chart. Ethnicity was reported as Mexican American (MA) or non-Hispanic white (NHW). Quantile regression was used to model the distribution of NIHSS score by age category (45–59, 60–74, 75+) to test whether ethnic differences exist over different quantiles of NIHSS (5 percentile increments). Crude models examined the interaction between age category and ethnicity; models were then adjusted for history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. Results were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results There were 4,366 ischemic strokes, with median age 72 years (IQR: 61–81), 55% MA and median NIHSS of 4 (IQR: 2–8). MAs were younger, more likely to have a history of hypertension and diabetes, but less likely to have atrial fibrillation compared to NHWs. In the crude model, the ethnicity-age interaction was not statistically significant. After adjustment, the ethnicity-age interaction became significant at the 85th and 95th percentiles of NIHSS distribution. MAs in the younger age category (45–59) were significantly less

  6. Assessment of upper-ocean variability and the Madden-Julian Oscillation in extended-range air-ocean coupled mesoscale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiaodong; Reynolds, Carolyn A.; Doyle, James D.; May, Paul; O'Neill, Larry

    2017-06-01

    Atmosphere-ocean interaction, particular the ocean response to strong atmospheric forcing, is a fundamental component of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). In this paper, we examine how model errors in previous Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) events can affect the simulation of subsequent MJO events due to increased errors that develop in the upper-ocean before the MJO initiation stage. Two fully coupled numerical simulations with 45-km and 27-km horizontal resolutions were integrated for a two-month period from November to December 2011 using the Navy's limited area Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®). There are three MJO events that occurred subsequently in early November, mid-November, and mid-December during the simulations. The 45-km simulation shows an excessive warming of the SSTs during the suppressed phase that occurs before the initiation of the second MJO event due to erroneously strong surface net heat fluxes. The simulated second MJO event stalls over the Maritime Continent which prevents the recovery of the deep mixed layer and associated barrier layer. Cross-wavelet analysis of solar radiation and SSTs reveals that the diurnal warming is absent during the second suppressed phase after the second MJO event. The mixed layer heat budget indicates that the cooling is primarily caused by horizontal advection associated with the stalling of the second MJO event and the cool SSTs fail to initiate the third MJO event. When the horizontal resolution is increased to 27-km, three MJOs are simulated and compare well with observations on multi-month timescales. The higher-resolution simulation of the second MJO event and more-realistic upper-ocean response promote the onset of the third MJO event. Simulations performed with analyzed SSTs indicate that the stalling of the second MJO in the 45-km run is a robust feature, regardless of ocean forcing, while the diurnal cycle analysis indicates that both 45-km and 27-km ocean resolutions

  7. Variability in moist static energy budget associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation over the eastern Maritime Continent during CINDY2011/DYNAMO extended observing period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we examine variability in the moist static energy (MSE) budget over eastern Maritime Continent during the CINDY2011/DYNAMO extended observing period (from October 2011 through March 2012) associated with five convective disturbance events that can be recognized as the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). It reveals that the surface fluxes and radiative heating contribute to the maintenance of the amplitude of column-integrated MSE anomaly, and thus to the intensity of the MJO. The vertical and horizontal advection terms contribute to the phase progression and possibly eastward propagation of MJO. The contribution of the vertical advection is mainly due to lower-tropospheric decent after the precipitation and MSE maxima, presumably associated with rain re-evaporation, while that of the horizontal advection is due to so-called dry intrusion. We also argue impact of several assumptions used in recent idealized models of the MJO on the MSE budget. The assumptions we examined include (1) the column-integrated radiative heating anomaly is taken proportional to the column water vapor, and (2) the anomaly in vertical advection of MSE is taken proportional to that of dry static energy (in other words, the normalized gross moist stability is taken constant). We demonstrate that the assumption 1 tends to speed up the phase progression, while the assumption 2 tends to slow it down.

  8. Modulation of Heavy Rainfall in the Middle East and North Africa by Madden-Julian Oscillation Using High Resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Stenchikov, G. L.; McCabe, M. F.; Bangalath, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the modulation of subtropical rainfall by the dominant tropical intraseasonal signal of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), has been explored through the discussion of the MJO-convection-induced Kelvin and Rossby wave related teleconnection patterns. Our study focuses on characterizing the modulation of heavy rainfall in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region by the MJO, using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) simulations (25-km; 1979-2012) and a combination of available atmospheric products from satellite, in-situ and reanalysis data. The observed Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) and the simulated SST from GFDL's global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models (ESM2M) are employed in HIRAM to investigate the sensitivity of the simulated heavy rainfall and MJO to SST. The future trend of the extreme rainfalls and their links to the MJO response to climate change are examined using HIRAM simulations of 2012-2050 with the RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios to advance the possibility of characterization and forecasting of future extreme rainfall events in the MENA region.

  9. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmospheric Model-2 with the Tiedtke Convective Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P; Wang, B; Sperber, K R; Li, T; Meehl, G A

    2004-07-26

    The boreal winter Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) remains very weak and irregular in structure in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model version 2 (CAM2) as in its direct predecessor, the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3). The standard version of CAM2 uses the deep convective scheme of Zhang and McFarlane (1995), as in CCM3, with the closure dependent on convective available potential energy (CAPE). Here, sensitivity tests using several versions of the Tiedtke (1989) convective scheme are conducted. Typically, the Tiedtke convection scheme gives an improved mean state, intraseasonal variability, space-time power spectra, and eastward propagation compared to the standard version of the model. Coherent eastward propagation of MJO related precipitation is also much improved, particularly over the Indian-western Pacific Oceans. Sensitivity experiments show that enhanced downdrafts in the Tiedtke scheme reduces the amplitude of the MJO but to a lesser extent than when this scheme is closed on CAPE to represent deep convections. A composite life cycle of the model MJO indicates that over the Indian Ocean wind induced surface heat exchange functions, while over the western/central Pacific Ocean aspects of frictional moisture convergence are evident in the maintenance and eastward propagation of the oscillation.

  10. Overview of Proposal on High Resolution Climate Model Simulations of Recent Hurricane and Typhoon Activity: The Impact of SSTs and the Madden Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Kang, In-Sik; Reale, Oreste

    2009-01-01

    This talk gives an update on the progress and further plans for a coordinated project to carry out and analyze high-resolution simulations of tropical storm activity with a number of state-of-the-art global climate models. Issues addressed include, the mechanisms by which SSTs control tropical storm. activity on inter-annual and longer time scales, the modulation of that activity by the Madden Julian Oscillation on sub-seasonal time scales, as well as the sensitivity of the results to model formulation. The project also encourages companion coarser resolution runs to help assess resolution dependence, and. the ability of the models to capture the large-scale and long-terra changes in the parameters important for hurricane development. Addressing the above science questions is critical to understanding the nature of the variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon and its regional impacts, and thus CLIVAR RAMP fully endorses the proposed tropical storm simulation activity. The project is open to all interested organizations and investigators, and the results from the runs will be shared among the participants, as well as made available to the broader scientific community for analysis.

  11. A Madden-Julian Oscillation-triggered record ozone minimum over the Tibetan Plateau in December 2003 and its association with stratospheric “low-ozone pockets”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanxi; Liu, Yi; Cai, Zhaonan; Gao, Shouting; Lü, Daren; Kyrölä, Erkki

    2009-08-01

    A record minimum in total column ozone over the Tibetan Plateau in December 2003 is analyzed using both satellite observations and a chemical transport model (MOZART-3). Ozone profiles observed by the MIPAS and GOMOS over the ozone minimum region (25°-35°N, 85°-110°E) show pronounced ozone reduction in both the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) and the middle stratosphere regions. MOZART-3 simulation indicates that ozone reduction in the UTLS region is generally caused by uplift of the local tropopause and northward transport of tropical ozone-poor air associated with an anomalous anticyclone in the upper troposphere. MIPAS observation suggests that the displacement of “low-ozone pockets” is responsible for ozone decline in the middle-stratospheric region and contributes to 29-46% of the total column ozone reduction. Further analysis shows that the upper-tropospheric anticyclonic anomaly is closely associated with the Rossby-wave triggered by the eastward propagating Madden-Julian Oscillation convective heating.

  12. Overview of Proposal on High Resolution Climate Model Simulations of Recent Hurricane and Typhoon Activity: The Impact of SSTs and the Madden Julian Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Kang, In-Sik; Reale, Oreste

    2009-01-01

    This talk gives an update on the progress and further plans for a coordinated project to carry out and analyze high-resolution simulations of tropical storm activity with a number of state-of-the-art global climate models. Issues addressed include, the mechanisms by which SSTs control tropical storm. activity on inter-annual and longer time scales, the modulation of that activity by the Madden Julian Oscillation on sub-seasonal time scales, as well as the sensitivity of the results to model formulation. The project also encourages companion coarser resolution runs to help assess resolution dependence, and. the ability of the models to capture the large-scale and long-terra changes in the parameters important for hurricane development. Addressing the above science questions is critical to understanding the nature of the variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon and its regional impacts, and thus CLIVAR RAMP fully endorses the proposed tropical storm simulation activity. The project is open to all interested organizations and investigators, and the results from the runs will be shared among the participants, as well as made available to the broader scientific community for analysis.

  13. The impact of the diurnal cycle on the propagation of Madden-Julian Oscillation convection across the Maritime Continent: DIURNAL CYCLE AND MJO

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Zhang, Chidong; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; De Mott, Charlotte; Kerns, Brandon; Benedict, James J.; Martini, Matus N.

    2016-10-08

    Influences of the diurnal cycle of convection on the propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) across the Maritime Continent (MC) are examined using cloud-permitting regional model simulations and observations. A pair of ensembles of control (CONTROL) and no-diurnal cycle (NODC) simulations of the November 2011 MJO episode are performed. In the CONTROL simulations, the MJO signal is weakened as it propagates across the MC, with much of the convection stalling over the large islands of Sumatra and Borneo. In the NODC simulations, where the incoming shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere is maintained at its daily mean value, the MJO signal propagating across the MC is enhanced. Examination of the surface energy fluxes in the simulations indicates that in the presence of the diurnal cycle, surface downwelling shortwave radiation in CONTROL simulations is larger because clouds preferentially form in the afternoon. Furthermore, the diurnal co-variability of surface wind speed and skin temperature results in a larger sensible heat flux and a cooler land surface in CONTROL compared to NODC simulations. An analysis of observations indicates that the modulation of the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by the diurnal cycle of cloudiness negatively projects on the MJO intraseasonal cycle and therefore disrupts the propagation of the MJO across the MC.

  14. Winter mean lower tropospheric moisture over the Maritime Continent as a climate model diagnostic metric for the propagation of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Alex O.; Jiang, Xianan

    2017-03-01

    Despite its widespread influences on the atmosphere, the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) remains poorly represented in state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs). Motivated by recent findings that the horizontal advection of the mean low-tropospheric moist static energy or moisture by the MJO winds plays a crucial role in the eastward propagation of the MJO, we investigate the relationship between lower tropospheric moisture patterns over the Indo-Pacific and MJO eastward propagation in a suite of 23 GCM simulations. Model capability of reproducing the observed November-April mean lower tropospheric moisture pattern over the Indo-Pacific, especially near the Maritime Continent (MC), is highly correlated with model skill in simulating MJO eastward propagation. In GCMs with difficulty capturing realistic MJO propagation, the amplitude of the mean low-level moisture over the MC is greatly underestimated, leading to weak horizontal moisture gradients and thus discrepancies in moisture advection, significantly affecting MJO propagation. This study suggests that the mean lower tropospheric moisture pattern over the MC can serve as an important diagnostic metric for MJO propagation in climate models.

  15. A Critical Role of Dry Air Intrusion for Propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation Based on Multi-model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) exerts pronounced influences on global climate and extreme weather systems. Our current general circulation models (GCMs), however, exhibit rather limited capability in representing this prominent tropical variability mode. Meanwhile, fundamental physics of the MJO are still elusive. In this presentation, by analyzing 27 climate models that participated in the WCRP-WWRP/THORPEX YOTC MJO Task Force and GEWEX GASS global MJO model inter-comparison project, key processes responsible for realistic MJO simulations are explored based on budget analysis of moist static energy (MSE). Results suggest that horizontal advection of MSE, particularly the dry air intrusion from the west of the MJO convection, plays a crucial role for realistic eastward propagation of the MJO in GCM simulations. Due to model deficiencies in simulating both the MJO circulation and spatial distribution of background MSE, the horizontal advection of MSE is greatly underestimated in the poor MJO models, and largely offset by effects from radiative and surface fluxes, leading to rather weak eastward or even westward propagation of MJO convection in those models.

  16. Evaluation of the impacts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on rainfall and hurricanes in Central and South America and the Atlantic Ocean using ICI-RAFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannettone, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Based on the method of Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA) and L-moments (Hosking & Wallis, 1997), a tool was developed to estimate the frequency/intensity of a rainfall event of a particular duration using ground-based rainfall observations. Some of the code used to develop this tool was taken from the FORTRAN code provided by Hosking & Wallis and rewritten in Visual Basic 2010. This tool was developed at the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM) and is referred to as the ICIWaRM Regional Analysis of Frequency Tool (ICI-RAFT) (Giovannettone & Wright, 2012). In order to study the effectiveness of ICI-RAFT, three case studies were selected for the analysis. The studies take place in selected regions within Argentina, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Rainfall data were provided at locations throughout each country; total rainfall for specific periods were computed and analyzed with respect to several global climate indices using lag times ranging from 1 to 6 months. Each analysis attempts to identify a global climate index capable of predicting above or below average rainfall several months in advance, qualitatively and using an equation that is developed. The index that had the greatest impact was the MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation), which is the focus of the current study. The MJO is considered the largest element of intra-seasonal (30 - 90 days) variability in the tropical atmosphere and, unlike other indices, is characterized by the eastward propagation of large areas of convective anomalies near the equator, propagating from the Indian Ocean east into the Pacific Ocean. The anomalies are monitored globally using ten different indices located on lines of longitude near the equator, with seven in the eastern hemisphere and three in the western hemisphere. It has been found in previous studies that the MJO is linked to summer rainfall in Southeast China (Zhang et al., 2009) and southern Africa (Pohl et al., 2007) and to rainfall patterns

  17. Impacts of upscale heat and momentum transfer by moist Kelvin waves on the Madden-Julian oscillation: a theoretical model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is observed to interact with moist Kelvin waves. To understand the role of this interaction, a simple scale-interaction model is built, which describes the MJO modulation of moist Kelvin waves and the feedback from moist Kelvin waves through upscale eddy heat and momentum transfer. The backward-tilted moist Kelvin waves produce eddy momentum transfer (EMT) characterized by the lower-tropospheric westerly winds and eddy heat transfer (EHT) that warms the mid-troposphere. The EHT tends to induce the lower-tropospheric easterly winds and low pressure, which is located in front of the "westerly wind burst" induced by the EMT. Adding the eddy forcing to a neutral MJO skeleton model, we show that the EHT provides an instability source for the MJO by warming up the mid-troposphere, and the EMT offers an additional instability source by enhancing the lower-tropospheric westerly winds. The eddy forcing selects eastward propagation for the unstable mode, because it generates positive/negative eddy available potential energy for the eastward/westward modes by changing their thermal and dynamical structures. The present results show that moist Kelvin waves can provide a positive feedback to the MJO only when they are located within (or near) the convective complex (center) of the MJO. The EHT and EMT feedback works positively in the front and rear part of the MJO, respectively. These theoretical results suggest the potential importance of moist Kelvin waves in sustaining the MJO and encourage further observations to document the relationship between moist Kelvin waves and the MJO.

  18. Effects of moisture feedback in a frictional coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave model and implication in the Madden-Julian oscillation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The authors extend the original frictional wave dynamics and implement the moisture feedback (MF) to explore the effects of planetary boundary layer (PBL) process and the MF on the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This new system develops the original frictional wave dynamics by including the moisture tendency term (or the MF mode), along with a parameterized precipitation based on the Betts-Miller scheme. The linear instability analysis of this model provides solutions to elucidate the behaviors of the "pure" frictional convergence (FC) mode and the "pure" MF mode, respectively, as well as the behaviors of the combined FC-MF mode or the dynamical moisture mode. These results show that without the PBL frictional moisture convergence, the MF mode is nearly stationary and damped. Not only does the PBL frictional feedback make the damping MF mode grow with preferred planetary scale but it also enables the nearly stationary MF mode to move eastward slowly, resulting in an oscillation with a period of 30-90 days. This finding suggests the important role of the frictional feedback in generating eastward propagating unstable modes and selecting the preferred planetary scales. The MF process slows down the eastward-propagating short-wave FC mode by delaying the occurrence of deep convection and by enhancing the Rossby wave component. However, the longest wave (wavenumber one) is insensitive to the MF or the convective adjustment time, indicating that the unstable longest wave is primarily controlled by PBL frictional feedback process. Implications of these theoretical results in MJO simulation in general circulation models are discussed.

  19. Comparison of Moist Static Energy and Budget between the GCM-Simulated Madden–Julian Oscillation and Observations over the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiaoqing; Deng, Liping

    2013-07-01

    The moist static energy (MSE) anomalies and MSE budget associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) simulated in the Iowa State University General Circulation Model (ISUGCM) over the Indian and Pacific Oceans are compared with observations. Different phase relationships between MJO 850-hPa zonal wind, precipitation, and surface latent heat flux are simulated over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, which are greatly influenced by the convection closure, trigger conditions, and convective momentum transport (CMT). The moist static energy builds up from the lower troposphere 15–20 days before the peak of MJO precipitation, and reaches the maximum in the middle troposphere (500–600 hPa) near the peak of MJO precipitation. The gradual lower-tropospheric heating and moistening and the upward transport of moist static energy are important aspects of MJO events, which are documented in observational studies but poorly simulated in most GCMs. The trigger conditions for deep convection, obtained from the year-long cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations, contribute to the striking difference between ISUGCM simulations with the original and modified convection schemes and play the major role in the improved MJO simulation in ISUGCM. Additionally, the budget analysis with the ISUGCM simulations shows the increase in MJO MSE is in phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over the western Pacific, while out of phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over the Indian Ocean. However, the NCEP analysis shows that the tendency of MJO MSE is in phase with the horizontal advection of MSE over both oceans.

  20. Cloud object analysis of CERES Aqua observations of tropical and subtropical cloud regimes: Evolution of cloud object size distributions during the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man; Wong, Takmeng; Dong, Shengtao; Chen, Feng; Kato, Seiji; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we analyze cloud object data from the Aqua satellite between July 2006 and June 2010 that are matched with the real-time multivariate Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) index to examine the impact of MJO evolution on the evolutions of the size distributions of cloud object types. These types include deep convective (DC), cirrostratus, shallow cumulus, stratocumulus and overcast-stratus. A cloud object is a contiguous region of the earth with a single dominant cloud-system type. It is found that the cloud object size distributions of some phases depart greatly from the 8-phase combined distribution at large cloud-object diameters. The large-size group of cloud objects contributes to most of the temporal variations during the MJO evolution. For deep convective and cirrostratus cloud objects, there is a monotonic increase in both the number and footprint of large objects from the depressed to mature phases, which is attributed to the development and maturing of deep convection and anvils. The largest increase in the mean diameter during the mature phases that lasts to the early dissipating phase is related to growth of anvil clouds and is accompanied by moderate decreases in small-size objects. For shallow cumulus, the large objects decrease in number at the mature phases, but increase in number for both sizes before the mature phase. The opposite is true for the large overcast-stratus objects. The temporal evolution of large stratocumulus objects is similar to that of deep convective and cirrostratus object types except for peaking slightly earlier.

  1. Rap and Orality in a Post-NCLB/ALEC World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Dierdre Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Rigid foci on accountability, accreditation, and customer service pose significant challenges for literacy educators today. The most consequential identified as the snuffing out of scholastic innovation and erosion of academic freedom. This article recounts a recent experience that occurred while the author prepared a lesson for an undergraduate…

  2. Rap and Orality in a Post-NCLB/ALEC World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Dierdre Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Rigid foci on accountability, accreditation, and customer service pose significant challenges for literacy educators today. The most consequential identified as the snuffing out of scholastic innovation and erosion of academic freedom. This article recounts a recent experience that occurred while the author prepared a lesson for an undergraduate…

  3. Follow up of premature babies treated with artificial surfactant (ALEC).

    PubMed Central

    Morley, C J; Morley, R

    1990-01-01

    Of 235 survivors who had taken part in a randomised trial of artificial surfactant and who were born in Cambridge, follow up information was available for 231 (98%) infants. In 12 cases information came from local doctors; all others were assessed at 9 and 18 months (n = 212) or 9 months only (n = 7). There was no difference between those who had been treated with surfactant and control babies in the incidence of neurological impairment, mental impairment, respiratory infections, allergies, or hospital admissions up to 18 months after full term. In those born before 30 weeks' gestation (where surfactant most improves survival) the number of surviving randomised children who were normal was 35 of 61 in the treated group (57%) compared with 25 of 61 in the control group (41%). Improved neonatal survival after prophylactic surfactant treatment is not associated with an increased incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment. PMID:2201266

  4. MM5 Modeling of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans: Model Description and Control Run Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, William I.; Weare, B. C.

    2004-03-01

    A new methodology to study the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is introduced. While previous MJO studies typically have involved highly simplified mathematical models or general circulation models, this new approach seeks to reproduce the MJO using a regional model with prescribed boundary conditions. This paper reports initial control run results for this methodology using the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) for a domain extending from the western Indian Ocean to the Dateline. The control run boundaries are forced using the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NRA) data set for a 24 month time period. The climatology for the 24 month period is examined to establish the robustness of the MM5 model for this region. Results indicate good agreement in the mean winds between the model and the forcing data set. The primary differences are an easterly bias at 850 hPa and altered flow patterns in the Indian monsoon region. Mean OLR results are good for the model interior with larger discrepancies near the western and eastern boundaries. These discrepancies lead to a reversal of the OLR gradient along the equator. Thirty to seventy day bandpassed data is examined to determine how MM5 reproduces the MJO. The modeled and comparison data 30–70 day zonal wind and OLR have similar MJO periodicities, exhibit eastward propagation, and possess the observed seasonal character and vertical structure of the MJO. The “Matthews EOF” technique reveals good similarity between the model and observed OLR. Analysis of vertical profiles of 30-70 day zonal wind reveals lower tropospheric winds blow in the opposite direction of upper level winds for both the model and NRA. Vertical profiles of 30-70 day moist static energy exhibit a peak near the top of the boundary layer. Differences between the model simulated and observed MJO events are a tendency for the OLR to be relatively noisy and for peak OLR intensity to occur in the west Indian Ocean in the model as opposed to

  5. MM5 Modeling of the Madden Julian Oscillation in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans: Model Description and Control Run Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, William I., Jr.; Weare, Bryan C.

    2004-03-01

    A new methodology to study the Madden Julian oscillation (MJO) is introduced. While previous MJO studies typically have involved highly simplified mathematical models or general circulation models, this new approach seeks to reproduce the MJO by using a regional model with prescribed boundary conditions. This paper reports initial control run results for this methodology using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University (PSU) National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) for a domain extending from the western Indian Ocean to the date line. The control run boundaries are forced using the NCEP NCAR reanalysis (NRA) dataset for a 24-month time period. The climatology for the 24-month period is examined to establish the robustness of MM5 for this region. Results indicate good agreement in the mean winds between the model and the forcing dataset. The primary differences are an easterly bias at 850 hPa and altered flow patterns in the Indian monsoon region. Mean outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) results are good for the model interior with larger discrepancies near the western and eastern boundaries. These discrepancies lead to a reversal of the OLR gradient along the equator.Thirty- to seventy-day bandpassed data are examined to determine how MM5 reproduces the MJO. The modeled and comparison 30 70-day zonal wind and OLR data have similar MJO periodicities, exhibit eastward propagation, and possess the observed seasonal character and vertical structure of the MJO. The “Matthews EOF technique” reveals good similarity between the model and observed OLR. Analysis of vertical profiles of 30 70-day zonal wind reveals that lower-tropospheric winds blow in the opposite direction of upper-level winds for both the model and NRA. Vertical profiles of 30 70-day moist static energy exhibit a peak near the top of the boundary layer. Differences between the model-simulated and observed MJO events have a tendency for the OLR to be relatively noisy

  6. Modelling the Madden Julian Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Slingo, J M; Inness, P M; Sperber, K R

    2004-05-21

    The MJO has long been an aspect of the global climate that has provided a tough test for the climate modelling community. Since the 1980s there have been numerous studies of the simulation of the MJO in atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs), ranging from Hayashi and Golder (1986, 1988) and Lau and Lau (1986), through to more recent studies such as Wang and Schlesinger (1999) and Wu et al. (2002). Of course, attempts to reproduce the MJO in climate models have proceeded in parallel with developments in our understanding of what the MJO is and what drives it. In fact, many advances in understanding the MJO have come through modeling studies. In particular, failure of climate models to simulate various aspects of the MJO has prompted investigations into the mechanisms that are important to its initiation and maintenance, leading to improvements both in our understanding of, and ability to simulate, the MJO. The initial focus of this chapter will be on modeling the MJO during northern winter, when it is characterized as a predominantly eastward propagating mode and is most readily seen in observations. Aspects of the simulation of the MJO will be discussed in the context of its sensitivity to the formulation of the atmospheric model, and the increasing evidence that it may be a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. Later, we will discuss the challenges regarding the simulation of boreal summer intraseasonal variability, which is more complex since it is a combination of the eastward propagating MJO and the northward propagation of the tropical convergence zone. Finally some concluding remarks on future directions in modeling the MJO and its relationship with other timescales of variability in the tropics will be made.

  7. [Filosofical legacy of Julian Marias].

    PubMed

    Pérez Pérez, Félix

    2006-01-01

    Julián Marías was a philosopher, a prolific writer member of the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language, Prince of Asturias award in 1996. Marías thought could only be explained in the context of his life and his long term relation to Ortega y Gasset, both co-founded the Instituto de Humanidades. Between the late 1940s and the 1970s Marías taught at numerous institutions in the United States. Marías wrote on a wide variety of subjects during his long career, his History of Philosophy is widely regarded as the greatest work in the Spanish language on the history of philosphy.

  8. H. Julian Allen: An Appreciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenti, Walter G.; Boyd, John W.; Bugos, Glenn E.

    2007-01-01

    Harvey Allen is best known as the genius behind the blunt-body concept, published in 1953, which enables spacecraft to return safely home through Earth's dense atmosphere. He was also an extraordinary research leader, who led a world-class research program in hypersonics at the NACA Ames Aeronautical Laboratory. This paper reviews his career as one of America's leading theorists and experimenters, including his engineering education at Stanford, his work on the inverse problem of calculating the airfoil profile to obtain a desired pressure distribution, his hand in constructing wind tunnels and experimental facilities at Ames, and his pioneering and wide-ranging work on atmospheric re-entry. It concludes with an appreciation of his uniquely inspirational style of research management, and of his magnetic personality.

  9. An Appreciation: Berni Julian Alder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham Hoover, William

    Berni Alder profoundly influenced my research career at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Davis Campus' Teller Tech, beginning in 1962 and lasting for over fifty years. I very much appreciate the opportunity provided by his Ninetieth Birthday Celebration to review some of the many high spots along the way.

  10. Simulation of streamflow and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the lower Nueces River watershed, downstream from Lake Corpus Christi to the Nueces Estuary, South Texas, 1958-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Fort Worth District, City of Corpus Christi, Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, San Antonio River Authority, and San Antonio Water System, developed, calibrated, and tested a Hydrological Simulation Program ? FORTRAN (HSPF) watershed model to simulate streamflow and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads during 1958-2008 in the lower Nueces River watershed, downstream from Lake Corpus Christi to the Nueces Estuary in South Texas. Data available to simulate suspended-sediment concentrations and loads consisted of historical sediment data collected during 1942-82 in the study area and suspended-sediment concentration data collected periodically by the USGS during 2006-07 at three USGS streamflow-gaging stations, Nueces River near Mathis, Nueces River at Bluntzer, and Nueces River at Calallen. The Nueces River near Mathis station is downstream from Wesley E. Seale Dam, completed in 1958 to impound Lake Corpus Christi. Suspended-sediment data collected before and after completion of Wesley E. Seale Dam provide insights to the effects of the dam and reservoir on suspended-sediment loads transported by the lower Nueces River from downstream of the dam to the Nueces Estuary. Annual suspended-sediment loads at a site near the Nueces River at Mathis station were considerably lower, for a given annual mean discharge, after the dam was completed than before the dam was completed. Most of the suspended sediment transported by the Nueces River downstream from Wesley E. Seale Dam occurred during high-flow releases from the dam or during floods. During October 1964-September 1971, about 532,000 tons of suspended sediment were transported by the Nueces River near Mathis. Of this amount, about 473,000 tons, or about 89 percent, were transported by large runoff events (mean streamflow exceeding 1,000 cubic feet per second). To develop the watershed model to simulate suspended

  11. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Thomas J. Ahrens, a leader in the use of shock waves to study planetary interiors and impact phenomena, died at his home in Pasadena, California on November 24, 2010, at the age of 74. He was the California Institute of Technology's Fletcher Jones Professor of Geophysics, formally emeritus since 2005 but professionally active to the end. Tom was a pioneer in experimental and numerical studies of the effects of hypervelocity impact, arguably the most important geophysical process in the formation, growth and - in many cases - surface evolution of planets. As a professor at Caltech, he established the foremost university laboratory for shock wave experiments, where students and research associates from around the world pursued basic research in geophysics, planetary science and other disciplines. Previously, high-pressure shock experiments were primarily conducted in national laboratories, where they were initially associated with development of nuclear weapons. The shock wave laboratory at Caltech was noted for key measurements addressing major questions in planetary geophysics. Equation-of-state studies on silicate melts showed that magma deep in Earth's mantle could be denser than the coexisting crystals, implying downward transport of melts (and associated heat) rather than the upward eruption of lavas observed in volcanic regions at Earth's surface. Shock-melting experiments on iron at pressures of Earth's core provide a crucial constraint on the temperature at the center of our planet. And studies of hydrous, carbonate and sulphate minerals under shock compression document how climate-altering molecules can be released by major impacts, such as the K/T event associated with the most recent mass extinction of biota in Earth history. In addition, Tom was a leader in numerical simulation of cratering, bringing the most recent laboratory measurements into the modeling of planetary impacts. Tom's training was in geophysics and applied experimental physics, as exemplified by the ultrasonic wave-velocity measurements of his Ph.D. research at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (geophysics Ph.D. in 1962, following a B.S. in geology and geophysics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1957, and M.S. in geophysics from Caltech in 1958). He served in the U.S. Army (1959-60) and was employed at Stanford Research Institute (1962-67), where he conducted shock wave experiments, before joining the faculty at Caltech in 1967. With such a broad background, Tom combined condensed-matter physics, continuum mechanics, petrology and seismology, for instance in characterizing polymorphic phase transformations in Earth's mantle (1967 J. Geophys. Res. Paper with Y. Syono); using shock wave measurements to interpret seismological data on Earth's deep interior (1969 Rev. Geophysics paper with D. L. Anderson and A. E. Ringwood); modeling geodynamic effects of phase-transition kinetics (1975 Rev. Geophysics paper with G. Shubert); characterizing the effects of gravity and crustal strength on crater formation (1981 Rev. Geophysics paper with J. D. O'Keefe); and quantifying impact erosion of terrestrial planetary atmospheres (1993 Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences). The span of his science was also reflected in collaborations with - among others - Paul D. Asimow, George R. Rossman and Edward M. Stolper at Caltech, as well as Arthur C. Mitchell and William J. Nellis at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. His accomplishments included conducting the first shock-wave experiments on lunar samples and solid hydrogen; measuring the first absorption spectra of minerals under shock loading; discovering major phase changes in CaO, FeO, KAlSi3O8, and KFeS2; measuring shock temperatures in silicates, metals, and oxides; conducting the first planetary cratering calculations for mass of melted and vaporized material, and mass and energy of ejecta as a function of planetary escape velocity; experimentally documenting shock vaporization on volatile-bearing minerals, and applying the results to understanding the formation of oceans and atmospheres; conducting the first dynamic-compression experiments on molten silicates, with applications to characterizing the maximum depth of volcanism on terrestrial planets, as well as the crystallization sequence of magma oceans; performing the first thermodynamic calculations delineating the impact-shock conditions for melting and vaporization of planetary materials; carrying out the first smoothed particle hydrodynamic calculations to investigate energy partitioning upon impact in self-gravitating planetary systems; and conducting the first quantitative tensile failure studies for brittle media, relating crack-density to elastic velocity deficits and the onset of damage. Tom was also Co-Investigator on the NASA Cosmic Dust Analyzer Experiment, and the NASA/ESA Cassini Mission to Saturn. Honors included the AGU Hess Medal, Geological Society of America Day Medal, Meteoritical Society Barringer Medal, APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter' Topical Groups's Duvall Medal and AAAS Newcomb-Cleveland Prize. He had been President of AGU's Tectonophysics Section, Editor of Journal of Geophysical Research, founding member of both the Mineral and Rock Physics and Study of Earth's Deep Interior focus groups, and Editor - more like key driving force - for AGU's Handbook of Physical Constants. He was a fellow of the AGU, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Geochemical Society; and member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, as well as Foreign Associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Main-belt asteroid 4739 Tomahrens (1985 TH1) was named after him. Tom made it clear, however, that it was his students (more than 30), research associates (15 or more) and many collaborators who were the real mark of success. No doubt driven by the need to sustain a major, expensive research facility, as well as to satisfy an inner drive, he maintained a daunting work schedule - including evenings, weekends and holidays - that challenged and stimulated so many around him, perhaps even frightening or frustrating some. He could play as hard as he worked, enjoying sailing, skiing and other outdoor activities over the years.

  12. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus... within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel departs the LPG facility and transits...

  13. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L. E.; Zhang, J.

    2014-08-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the 7 SouthEast Asian Studies program (7SEAS), a two-week, late September~2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan Archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a~receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a~narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Nina year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol lifecycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN < 150 cm-3, non-sea salt PM2.5=1μg m-3). However, elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm-3 and non-sea salt PM2.510-25 μg m-3). These

  14. Development and Evaluation of ALEC Micro-Wand IIIe (tradename) Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    those who used the procedural workbook. Problems effectiveness of two types of instructional workbook. encountered during the study are identified and...dis- ~ ED One workbook type emphasized a procedural, cus, 9d, which should be helpful to project engineers •-• () "step-by-step" approach to learning...technology. The study examined change theory and recent views on teaching and learning, and tested the relative effectiveness of two types of

  15. Preventing Violence or Promulgating Fear? ALEC, the NRA, and Guns on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proffitt, Jennifer M.; White, John Wesley

    2017-01-01

    The euphemism that Florida, the nation's third most populous and politically powerful state, is a battleground is an apt description--and more than just every four years. Every year, every day in the state's capital, Florida has become high ground for pro-corporate, special-interest lobbyists who seek to instill a far-right legislative and social…

  16. Cost of wetland protection using a Christy cable yarder

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras; Edwin S. Miyata

    1990-01-01

    Forest managers, loggers, land-use planners, and other decision makers need an understanding of estimating the cost of protecting wetlands using cable logging systems to harvest timber products. Results suggest that protection costs can range from $245 to $490 per acre depending on the degree of protection desired.

  17. Summary of Meteorological Observations, Surface (SMOS), Corpus Christi, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    8217 P . A P A’_ _ _ 1’I *,:.’ __1_7 •_ _ .. ..__ _ _ _. .. .._ _ ~-- r- Ement ’X) !X x NoOb . Meon No. of Hour w. .ith remp rOatre Rol. tlvrn. 0 2F 6 73...1 - t--- - . _ , , 1 _ _ _ _ _ 0 _ __I_ I __ _ _ I _ _ i , 4 Elemert IX) -Xs - °x NoObs . N eon No. of Hous with Tenmleroture Mi? . .R

  18. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Oso Bay, the restriction of vessel traffic and spectator craft is necessary to protect life, property..., Ocean Drive Bridge over Oso Bay, (27N 42'36.2'', -97W 18'31.4'') running south to the point (27N 41'50.4... north along the shoreline of the Naval Air Station back to the Ocean Drive bridge across Oso Bay....

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC Director Jim Kennedy (left) and incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow talk about One NASA during the rollout of the Agency initiative at KSC. They were joined at the IMAX Theater® by other NASA leaders James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson to explain how their respective centers contribute to One NASA. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC Director Jim Kennedy (left) and incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow talk about One NASA during the rollout of the Agency initiative at KSC. They were joined at the IMAX Theater® by other NASA leaders James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson to explain how their respective centers contribute to One NASA. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA’s Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science, speaks to employees and guests during the rollout at KSC of the Agency initiative One NASA . The event was held at the IMAX Theater®. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Weiler, were KSC Director Jim Kennedy; James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA’s Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science, speaks to employees and guests during the rollout at KSC of the Agency initiative One NASA . The event was held at the IMAX Theater®. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Weiler, were KSC Director Jim Kennedy; James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

  1. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA leaders discuss the Agency’s One NASA initiative with selected employees at the KSC Visitor Complex IMAX Theater®. From left are KSC Director Jim Kennedy; James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - NASA leaders discuss the Agency’s One NASA initiative with selected employees at the KSC Visitor Complex IMAX Theater®. From left are KSC Director Jim Kennedy; James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

  2. Madden-Julian Oscillation simulated in BCC climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chongbo; Ren, Hong-Li; Song, Lianchun; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the ability of four versions BCC (Beijing Climate Center or National Climate Center) models (BCC_AGCM2.1, BCC_AGCM2.2, BCC_CSM1.1 and BCC_CSM1.1m) in simulating the MJO phenomenon using the outputs of the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) and historical runs. In general, the models can simulate some major characteristics of the MJO, such as the intensity, the periodicity, the propagation, and the temporal/spatial evolution of the MJO signals in the tropics. There are still some biases between the models and the observation/reanalysis data, such as the overestimated total intraseasonal variability, but underestimated MJO intensity, shorter significant periodicity, and excessive westward propagation. The differences in the ability of simulating the MJO between AMIP and historical experiments are also significant. Compared to the AMIP runs, the total intraseasonal variability is reduced and more realistic, however the ratio between the MJO and its westward counterpart decreases in the historical runs. This unrealistic simulation of the zonal propagation might have been associated with the greater mean precipitation over the Pacific and corresponded to the exaggeration of the South Pacific Convergence Zone structure in precipitation mean state. In contrast to the T42 versions, the improvement of model resolution demonstrate more elaborate topography, but the enhanced westward propagation signals over the Arabia Sea followed. The underestimated (overestimated) MJO variability over eastern Indian Ocean (Pacific) was assumed to be associated with the mean state. Three sets of sensitive experiments using BCC_CSM1.1m turn out to support this argument.

  3. A Composite Study of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    significantly lower. Also, the magnitude 78 of the vertical motion is 1.5 to 2.0 times greater during the warm ypars . The differences in magnitude...assimilation procedure used is absolutely necessary to compare and evaluate results from different models. There is also the possibility of aliasing of data...statistics and data evaluation . NCAR Technical Note, Boulder, CO, NCAR TN-300 + STR, 94 pp. Vincent, D.G., K.H. North, R.A. Velasco, and P.G. Ramsey, 1991

  4. Understanding the temporal characteristics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, V. E.; Webster, P. J.; Stephens, G. L.; Johnson, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    One of the great mysteries existing in the climate of the tropics is the background physics that define the 20-60 day period band of intraseasonal variability and the variance that occurs within it. Although the modal structure of the oscillations appears to match some of the spatial characteristics of normal modes of the tropics, there is no match between theoretical temporal structure and that which is observed. A previous paper (Stephens et al. 2004) defined the MJO as a self-regulating oscillator with three distinct phases: destabilization, convective and restoring. Whereas these three phases appear endemic among the variety of intraseasonal oscillations observed in the tropics, the theory provides little information about the temporal structure of the MJO or its variation within the observed range. We extend the exploration of the thermodynamic self-regulation of the MJO by including an ocean-atmosphere interaction component. We use a semi-empirical ocean -atmosphere coupled model (developed initially by Agudelo 2007) consisting of the Kantha-Clayson single column ocean layer model coupled to an empirical atmospheric model comprised of empirically derived linear relationships between atmospheric variables and SST. The result is a broad spectrum of OLR and surface winds in the 20-60 day range supporting the hypothesis that local coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere. Specifically, the time-scale of the self-regulation is mainly due to feedbacks between SST and both convective activity and surface wind speed control that the evolution of the surface radiative and latent heat fluxes in the model. The sensitivity of the response to imposed ocean-mixed layer depth suggests why intraseasonal variability has specific genesis locations with the tropics. The implications of these results for the prediction of the MJO and the interpretation of the DYNAMO results are discussed. Agudelo, P. A., 2007: Role of local thermodynamic coupling in the life cycle of the intraseasonal oscillation in the indo-pacific warm pool, PhD. Dissertation, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Stephens, G. L., P. J. Webster, R. H. Johnson, R. Engelen and T. L'Ecuyer, 2004: Observational Evidence for the Mutual Regulation of the Tropical Hydrological Cycle and Tropical Sea Surface Temperatures. J. Climate: 17(11), 2213-2224.

  5. Observations of the temporal variability in aerosol properties and their relationships to meteorology in the summer monsoonal South China Sea/East Sea: the scale-dependent role of monsoonal flows, the Madden-Julian Oscillation, tropical cyclones, squall lines and cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Lagrosas, N. D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Reid, E. A.; Sessions, W. R.; Simpas, J. B.; Uy, S. N.; Boyd, T. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Blake, D. R.; Campbell, J. R.; Cliff, S. S.; Holben, B. N.; Holz, R. E.; Hyer, E. J.; Lynch, P.; Meinardi, S.; Posselt, D. J.; Richardson, K. A.; Salinas, S. V.; Smirnov, A.; Wang, Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, J.

    2015-02-01

    In a joint NRL/Manila Observatory mission, as part of the Seven SouthEast Asian Studies program (7-SEAS), a 2-week, late September 2011 research cruise in the northern Palawan archipelago was undertaken to observe the nature of southwest monsoonal aerosol particles in the South China Sea/East Sea (SCS/ES) and Sulu Sea region. Previous analyses suggested this region as a receptor for biomass burning from Borneo and Sumatra for boundary layer air entering the monsoonal trough. Anthropogenic pollution and biofuel emissions are also ubiquitous, as is heavy shipping traffic. Here, we provide an overview of the regional environment during the cruise, a time series of key aerosol and meteorological parameters, and their interrelationships. Overall, this cruise provides a narrative of the processes that control regional aerosol loadings and their possible feedbacks with clouds and precipitation. While 2011 was a moderate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) La Niña year, higher burning activity and lower precipitation was more typical of neutral conditions. The large-scale aerosol environment was modulated by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and its associated tropical cyclone (TC) activity in a manner consistent with the conceptual analysis performed by Reid et al. (2012). Advancement of the MJO from phase 3 to 6 with accompanying cyclogenesis during the cruise period strengthened flow patterns in the SCS/ES that modulated aerosol life cycle. TC inflow arms of significant convection sometimes span from Sumatra to Luzon, resulting in very low particle concentrations (minimum condensation nuclei CN < 150 cm-3, non-sea-salt PM2.5 < 1 μg m-3). However, elevated carbon monoxide levels were occasionally observed suggesting passage of polluted air masses whose aerosol particles had been rained out. Conversely, two drier periods occurred with higher aerosol particle concentrations originating from Borneo and Southern Sumatra (CN > 3000 cm-3 and non-sea-salt PM2.5 10-25 μg m

  6. ALEC (Aggregate Lifecycle Effectiveness and Cost): A Model for Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Force Enlisted Personnel Policies. Volume 2. Documentation and User’s Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF This PAGE (Wmn D Entered) PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION BEFORE COMPLETING FORM r I REPORT NUMBER GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3...an Identify by block nuinlf) See reverse side DO D I ,, 1473 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLAI VIICATION OF THIS PAGE ,hen Dts Enteredi) * - - !’ *.-O...Policies (Documentation and User’s Guide) C. Peter Rydell August 1987 Prepared for The United States Air Force Accesioli NTIS Ai D TI C T A,5 By RAND

  7. Associations between the neighbourhood environment characteristics and physical activity in older adults with specific types of chronic conditions: the ALECS cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Anthony; Cerin, Ester; Zhang, Casper J P; Sit, Cindy H P; Johnston, Janice M; Cheung, Martin M C; Lee, Ruby S Y

    2016-04-21

    Neighbourhood characteristics may influence physical activity (PA), which has positive effects on the health of older adults. Older adults with chronic conditions are less active and possibly more affected by environmental factors than their peers. Understanding neighbourhood characteristics associated with PA specific to older adults with chronic conditions is currently lacking. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the associations between the neighbourhood environment and various forms of PA in older adults with and without visual impairment, hearing impairment, musculoskeletal disease and/or genitourinary disease. Neighbourhood environment and PA data were collected in Hong Kong older adults (N = 909) from 124 preselected neighbourhoods stratified for walkability and socioeconomic status. Generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models with robust standard errors were used to examine associations of perceived neighbourhood environment characteristics, and the moderating effects of having specific chronic conditions, with PA outcomes. Thirteen perceived neighbourhood characteristics were associated with older adults' PA in the expected direction irrespective of their health condition. Nine neighbourhood characteristics had associations with PA that were dependent on hearing impairment, vision impairment, musculoskeletal disease or genitourinary disease. In general, they were stronger in participants with than without a specific chronic condition. Maximizing the potential for PA in older adults who have lower levels of physical functionality due to chronic conditions may require neighbourhood characteristics specific to these groups.

  8. Associations of objectively-assessed neighborhood characteristics with older adults' total physical activity and sedentary time in an ultra-dense urban environment: Findings from the ALECS study.

    PubMed

    Cerin, Ester; Zhang, Casper J P; Barnett, Anthony; Sit, Cindy H P; Cheung, Martin M C; Johnston, Janice M; Lai, Poh-Chin; Lee, Ruby S Y

    2016-11-01

    Associations of objectively-assessed neighborhood environment characteristics with accelerometer-based physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, and their socio-demographic and health-status moderators were examined. Data were collected on 402 Hong Kong Chinese older adults from neighborhoods stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Few main effects were observed. Sex moderated a third of the associations of environmental attributes with light-to-vigorous PA and sedentary time. Education and car ownership also moderated several associations with moderate-to-vigorous PA, light-to-vigorous PA, and sedentary time. Only two associations depended on age and health-related status. These findings suggest that social factors rather than physical capacity and health status may need to be considered in efforts to optimize activity-friendly environments for Chinese older urban dwellers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the rollout of the One NASA initiative at KSC, Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls embraces implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson while KSC Director Jim Kennedy (left) applauds. Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center. The event was held at the IMAX Theater® where NASA leaders discussed One NASA with selected employees. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Kennedy and Earls, were James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - At the rollout of the One NASA initiative at KSC, Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls embraces implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson while KSC Director Jim Kennedy (left) applauds. Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center. The event was held at the IMAX Theater® where NASA leaders discussed One NASA with selected employees. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Kennedy and Earls, were James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Dryden Flight Research Center Director Kevin Peterson talks about One NASA during the rollout of the Agency initiative at KSC. The event was held at the IMAX Theater® where NASA leaders discussed One NASA with selected employees. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Peterson, were KSC Director Jim Kennedy, James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Dryden Flight Research Center Director Kevin Peterson talks about One NASA during the rollout of the Agency initiative at KSC. The event was held at the IMAX Theater® where NASA leaders discussed One NASA with selected employees. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Peterson, were KSC Director Jim Kennedy, James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC Director Jim Kennedy and Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls share the stage during the rollout of the One NASA initiative at KSC. Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center. The event was held at the IMAX Theater® where NASA leaders discussed One NASA with selected employees. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Kennedy and Earls, were James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC Director Jim Kennedy and Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls share the stage during the rollout of the One NASA initiative at KSC. Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center. The event was held at the IMAX Theater® where NASA leaders discussed One NASA with selected employees. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Kennedy and Earls, were James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; incoming KSC Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC’s incoming Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow speaks to employees and guests during the rollout at KSC of the Agency initiative One NASA . The event was held at the IMAX Theater® where NASA leaders discussed One NASA with selected employees. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Whitlow, were KSC Director Jim Kennedy; James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - KSC’s incoming Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow speaks to employees and guests during the rollout at KSC of the Agency initiative One NASA . The event was held at the IMAX Theater® where NASA leaders discussed One NASA with selected employees. Explaining how their respective centers contribute to One NASA, along with Whitlow, were KSC Director Jim Kennedy; James Jennings, NASA’s associate deputy administrator for institutions and asset management; Ed Weiler, associate administrator for Space Science; Kevin Peterson, Dryden Flight Research Center director; and implementation team lead Johnny Stevenson. Glenn Research Center Director Dr. Julian Earls gave a motivational speech during the luncheon held at the Visitor Complex Debus Conference Center.

  13. Statistical and Economic Evaluation of the Bearing Maintenance Capability and Assets at Corpus Christi Army Depot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-27

    4.2.5 C/T Transmission . . . . . . . . . 4-13 4.2.6 B/T Transmission . . . . . . . . . 4-17 4.2.7 DIT Transmission. . . . . . . . . 4-17 4.2.8 Rotor ...C/T TRANSMISSION COST BREAKDOWN ...... .............. 4-7 4-8 D/T TRANSMISSION COST BREAKDOWN ............... .. 4-8 4-9 ROTOR HEAD/COrZROL COST...TRANSMISSION CANDIDATES ..... ............... .... 4-18 4-17 D/T TRANSMISSION CANDIDATES ...... ............... . ....- 19 4-18 ROTOR HEAD/CONTROL CANDIDATES

  14. Case Study: Structural Evaluation of Steel Truss Aircraft Hangars at Corpus Christi Army Depot, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    information essential for improving future reports. 1. Does this report satisfy a need? (Comment on purpose, related project, or other area of interest...AND BENDING STRESSES: HOTE THAT EVALUATION ALLOWABLE STRESSES ARE EQUAL TO DESIGN ALLOWABLE STRESSES DIVIDED BT THE FACTORS OF SAFETY ORIGINALLY

  15. Citgo Refining and Chemicals Company, Corpus Christi West, 2007 Petition for Objection to Title V Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Production rates and costs of group selection harvests with a christy cable yarder

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras; James Sherar; Tom Campbell

    1991-01-01

    Group selection harvest studies in Eastern hardwoods have shown that economic success of such harvests rests heavily on product market values, tree quality, and logging costs (Boucher and Hall 1989; Bell 1989). Other studies have attempted to define group selection harvests and where they can be used (Roach 1974). Additional studies have documented the reproduction of...

  17. Jersey-Style Neoliberalism: Governor Christopher Christie, Crony Capitalism, and the Politics of K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jason P.; Strothers, Atiya S.; Lugg, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Murphy, Strothers, and Lugg, focus on one urban center, Newark, as an illustrative case study of how New Jersey's brand of neoliberal politics has shaped the political agency of those who live in the communities served by New Jersey's public schools. The city, like other New Jersey locales, has had a long history of political…

  18. Citgo Refining and Chemicals Company, Corpus Christi West, 2006 Petition for Objection to Title V Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Flow and Suspended Sediment Events in the Near-Coastal Zone off Corpus Christi, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    an electrozone and an in-situ light scattering instrument. Two-dimensional fractal dimensions (D2) and derived volume distributions were...Project, funded by the Texas General Land Office (TGLO), which provides funding to doctoral students to develop real-time sensing and modeling of the...Ojo and M. Sterling (in press), Sensing the coastal environment. Building the European Capacity in Operational Oceanography - Proceedings of the

  20. Delineation of marsh types from Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, to Perdido Bay, Alabama, in 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Michael G. Brasher,; Jenneke M. Visser,; Michael K. Mitchell,; Bart M. Ballard,; Mark W. Parr,; Barry C. Wilson,

    2015-07-23

    This study incorporates about 9,800 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal wetland areas. Decision-tree analyses were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using ground reference data from helicopter vegetation surveys and independent variables such as multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, bare-earth digital elevation models based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables. Image objects were created from 2010 National Agriculture Imagery Program color-infrared aerial photography. The final classification is a 10-meter raster dataset that was produced by using a majority filter to classify image objects according to the marsh vegetation type covering the majority of each image object. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the classified multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. The seamless classification produced through this work can be used to help develop and refine conservation efforts for priority natural resources.

  1. 75 FR 66301 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ....) Ingleside, T.P. McCampbell Airport, TX (Lat. 27 54'47'' N., long. 97 12'41'' W.) Robstown, Nueces County....3-mile radius of Nueces County Airport, and within a 7.6-mile radius of Aransas County Airport,...

  2. 75 FR 31677 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ....) Ingleside, T.P. McCampbell Airport, TX (Lat. 27 54'47'' N., long. 97 12'41'' W.) Robstown, Nueces County... Airport, and within a 6.3-mile radius of Nueces County Airport, and within a 7.6-mile radius of...

  3. "Cisneros v. CCISD" the Desegregation of the Corpus Christi Independent School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, John Albert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this historical case study was to add to the literature an analysis of the landmark legal case of Jose Cisneros v. CCISD. The outcome of this case established Mexican Americans as an ethnic minority and set the legal precedent that the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Topeka ruling could be extended to other minorities beyond…

  4. Jersey-Style Neoliberalism: Governor Christopher Christie, Crony Capitalism, and the Politics of K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jason P.; Strothers, Atiya S.; Lugg, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Murphy, Strothers, and Lugg, focus on one urban center, Newark, as an illustrative case study of how New Jersey's brand of neoliberal politics has shaped the political agency of those who live in the communities served by New Jersey's public schools. The city, like other New Jersey locales, has had a long history of political…

  5. Analysis of the Winter Texan Impact on the Naval Hospital Corpus Christi Health Care System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    patterns to improve future planning. Methods and Procedure Methodology Nonprobability sampling methods were used to obtain general information about the...population using both qualitative and quantitative techniques . Multiple variables to consider under the following categories are the demographics of the...number of potential Winter Texans who may be retirees in the Rio Grande Valley. Simple forecasting techniques were used to estimate the current number of

  6. Application of terrestrial photogrammetry for the mass balance calculation on Montasio Occidentale Glacier (Julian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs, allows to obtain high-resolution DEMs which enable good mass balance estimations on glaciers with similar characteristics.

  7. An observational and theoretical study of the structure and propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adames, Angel F.

    This study is compososed of two parts. In the first part of this dissertation, the large-scale circulation features that determine the structure and evolution of MJO- related moisture and precipitation fields are examined using a linear analysis protocol based on daily 850- minus 150-hPa global velocity potential data. The analysis is augmented by a compositing procedure that emphasizes the structural features over the Indo-Pacific warm pool sector (60°E--180°) that give rise to the eastward propagation of the enhanced moisture and precipitation. It is found that boundary layer (BL) convergence in the low level easterlies to the east of the region of maximum ascent produces a deep but narrow plume of equa- torial ascent that moistens the mid-troposphere, while weakly diffluent flow above the BL spreads moisture away from the equator. Vertical advection of moisture from this plume of ascent accounts for the eastward propagation of the positive moisture anomalies across the Maritime Continent into the western Pacific. When the convection is first developing over the Indian Ocean, horizontal moisture advection contributes to both the eastward propagation and the amplification of the positive moisture anomalies along the equator to the east of the region of enhanced convection. The results of the first part of the dissertation are used to develop a linear wave theory for the MJO, shown in part two. The theory is largely based on a framework previously developed by Sobel and Maloney. In this treatment, column moisture is the only prognostic variable and the horizontal wind is diagnosed as the forced Kelvin and Rossby wave responses to an equatorial heat source/sink. In contrast to the original framework, the meridional and vertical structure of the basic equations are treated explicitly, and values of several key model parameters are adjusted, based on observations. A dispersion relation is derived that adequately describes the MJO's signal in the wavenumber-frequency spectrum and defines the MJO as a dispersive equatorial moist wave with a westward group velocity. On the basis of linear regression analysis of satellite and reanalysis data, it is estimated that the MJO's group velocity is ˜40% as large as its phase speed. This dispersion is the result of the anomalous winds in the wave modulating the mean distribution of moisture such that the moisture anomaly propagates eastward while wave activity propagates westward. The moist wave grows through feedbacks involving moisture, clouds and radia- tion, and is damped by the advection of moisture associated with the Rossby wave. Additionally, a zonal wavenumber dependence is found in cloud-radiation feedbacks which causes growth to be strongest at planetary scales. Our results suggest that this wavenumber dependence arises from the non-local nature of cloud-radiation feed-backs; that is, anomalous convection spreads upper-level clouds and reduces radiative cooling over an extensive area surrounding the anomalous precipitation.

  8. The Living and the Dead in Education: Commentary on Julian Williams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Jean Lave and Ray McDermott (2002) did a service with their powerful reading of Marx's 1844 essay on "Estranged Labour" (Marx, 1964). In reworking Marx's critique of "alienated labour" in terms of "alienated learning," they reminded everyone of Marx's own impassioned revolt against the inhumanity of the capitalist order and found a novel way of…

  9. The Madden-Julian Oscillation and its Teleconnections in a Warmer World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Eric; Wolding, Brandon; Henderson, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Two simulations of the Superparameterized Community Earth System Model (SP-CESM) are examined, one with pre-industrial (PI) levels of CO2 and one where CO2 levels have been quadrupled (4xCO2). While MJO convective variability increases considerably in the 4xCO2 simulation, the dynamical response to this convective variability decreases. Increased MJO convective variability is shown to be a robust response to the steepening vertical moisture gradient, consistent with the findings of previous studies. The decreased dynamical response to MJO convective variability is shown to be a consequence of increased static stability, which allows weaker variations in large-scale vertical velocity to produce sufficient adiabatic cooling to balance variations in MJO convective heating. This weakened dynamical response results in a considerable reduction of the MJO's ability to influence the extratropics, which is closely tied to the strength of its associated divergence. A linear baroclinic model is used to verify the impact of increased static stability on the extratropical circulation in a warmer climate. Results of this study suggest that, while MJO convective variability may increase in a warming climate, the MJO's role in bridging weather and climate in the extratropics may not.

  10. Climate change and the Madden-Julian Oscillation: A vertically resolved weak temperature gradient analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolding, Brandon O.; Maloney, Eric D.; Henderson, Stephanie; Branson, Mark

    2017-03-01

    WTG balance is used to examine how changes in the moist thermodynamic structure of the tropics affect the MJO in two simulations of the Superparameterized Community Earth System Model (SP-CESM), one at preindustrial (PI) levels of CO2 and one where CO2 levels have been quadrupled (4×CO2). While MJO convective variability increases considerably in the 4×CO2 simulation, the dynamical response to this convective variability decreases. Increased MJO convective variability is shown to be a robust response to the steepening vertical moisture gradient, consistent with the findings of previous studies. The steepened vertical moisture gradient allows MJO convective heating to drive stronger variations in large-scale vertical moisture advection, supporting destabilization of the MJO. The decreased dynamical response to MJO convective variability is shown to be a consequence of increased static stability, which allows weaker variations in large-scale vertical velocity to produce sufficient adiabatic cooling to balance variations in MJO convective heating. This weakened dynamical response results in a considerable reduction of the MJO's ability to influence the extratropics, which is closely tied to the strength of its associated divergence. A composite lifecycle of the MJO was used to show that northern hemisphere extratropical 525 hPa geopotential height anomalies decreased by 27% in the 4×CO2 simulation, despite a 22% increase in tropical convective heating associated with the MJO. Results of this study suggest that while MJO convective variability may increase in a warming climate, the MJO's role in "bridging weather and climate" in the extratropics may not.

  11. Moistening Processes for Madden-Julian Oscillation over Indian Ocean and Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. S.; Sui, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    The moistening processes for MJO over Indian Ocean (IO) and Maritime Continent (MC) are investigated through a diagnosis of ECMWF Re-analysis (ERA-Interim) data in Nov.-April, 1982-2011. During this period, 27 MJO events with strong magnitude and clear propagation are identified and further classified as either primary, or successive, according to the existence of preceding event. While the successive events are analyzed in composite fields, the primary events will be explored individually. A composite of scale-separated lower-tropospheric (1000-700 hPa) moisture (qL) budget is analyzed in four stages: suppressed, cloud developing, convective and decaying, each corresponding to the RMM index phase 567(781), 81(23), 2(4), and 34(56), respectively, for IO (MC). In the suppressed stage, the dominant moisture source over both region is surface evaporation/shallow convection (-Q2). Nonlinear zonal (meridional) advection by synoptic disturbances also has non-negligible contribution over IO (MC). In the cloud developing stage, qLapproaches maximum with moistening tendency to its east. This moistening is contributed by the advection of mean moisture by anomalous easterlies associated with downstream Rossby wave response of the dry anomaly and boundary layer moisture convergence. In the convective stage, while the zonal advection of anomalous westerlies and intense precipitation dries the atmosphere, the moistening of meridional advection by downstream Rossby anti-cyclonic gyres leads to the eastward propagation of deep convection. In the decaying stage, the strong westerlies bring in dry air from the west causing widespread drying. Overall, the moisture evolution of MC is consistent with IO expect meridional component is more essential in suppressed stage. A column-integrated moist static energy (MSE) budget is also analyzed to further identify the role of radiation and surface flux. The result shows that longwave heating is the dominant energy source in convective stage and latent heat flux is more prominent in decaying stage when the westerly is strong. The in-phase relation of longwave heating with column-integrated MSE suggests that longwave heating acts to maintain MSE and retard the propagation. Latent heat flux also slows down the propagation due to the phase lag.

  12. Informativeness of Wind Data in Linear Madden-Julian Oscillation Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-15

    2000–2011 period. Regional differences in skill are evident. The highest correlation at all lead times is found in the region of the maritime continent...between 110∘E and 130∘E. Here, the correlation remains above +0.6 for 6 days and remains above +0.5 for 13 days. By con- trast, the east Pacific region ...in Indo-Pacific longitudes, both indicative of the region and season where the MJO contributes the most to OLR anomalies and where tropical OLR vari

  13. A Framework for Assessing Operational Madden–Julian Oscillation Forecasts: A CLIVAR MJO Working Group Project

    DOE PAGES

    Gottschalck, J.; Wheeler, M.; Weickmann, K.; ...

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) MJO Working Group (MJOWG) has taken steps to promote the adoption of a uniform diagnostic and set of skill metrics for analyzing and assessing dynamical forecasts of the MJO. Here we describe the framework and initial implementation of the approach using real-time forecast data from multiple operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers. The objectives of this activity are to provide a means to i) quantitatively compare skill of MJO forecasts across operational centers, ii) measure gains in forecast skill over time by a given center and the community as a whole, and iii)more » facilitate the development of a multimodel forecast of the MJO. The MJO diagnostic is based on extensive deliberations among the MJOWG in conjunction with input from a number of operational centers and makes use of the MJO index of Wheeler and Hendon. This forecast activity has been endorsed by the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE), the international body that fosters the development of atmospheric models for NWP and climate studies. The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) within the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is hosting the acquisition of the forecast data, application of the MJO diagnostic, and real-time display of the standardized forecasts. The activity has contributed to the production of 1–2-week operational outlooks at NCEP and activities at other centers. Further enhancements of the diagnostic's implementation, including more extensive analysis, comparison, illustration, and verification of the contributions from the participating centers, will increase the usefulness and application of these forecasts and potentially lead to more skillful predictions of the MJO and indirectly extratropical and other weather variability (e.g., tropical cyclones) influenced by the MJO. The purpose of this article is to inform the larger scientific and operational forecast communities of the MJOWG forecast effort and invite participation from additional operational centers.« less

  14. Charter Schools Don't Serve Black Children Well: An Interview with Julian Vasquez Heilig

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The NAACP, nation's largest civil rights organization, steps up its opposition to charter schools just as a president and new education secretary appear ready to kick the sector into high gear. In 2016, the NAACP passed a resolution calling on a moratorium on the expansion of charter schools, citing concerns about transparency and accountability,…

  15. A Framework for Assessing Operational Madden–Julian Oscillation Forecasts: A CLIVAR MJO Working Group Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalck, J.; Wheeler, M.; Weickmann, K.; Vitart, F.; Savage, N.; Lin, H.; Hendon, H.; Waliser, D.; Sperber, K.; Nakagawa, M.; Prestrelo, C.; Flatau, M.; Higgins, W.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) MJO Working Group (MJOWG) has taken steps to promote the adoption of a uniform diagnostic and set of skill metrics for analyzing and assessing dynamical forecasts of the MJO. Here we describe the framework and initial implementation of the approach using real-time forecast data from multiple operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers. The objectives of this activity are to provide a means to i) quantitatively compare skill of MJO forecasts across operational centers, ii) measure gains in forecast skill over time by a given center and the community as a whole, and iii) facilitate the development of a multimodel forecast of the MJO. The MJO diagnostic is based on extensive deliberations among the MJOWG in conjunction with input from a number of operational centers and makes use of the MJO index of Wheeler and Hendon. This forecast activity has been endorsed by the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE), the international body that fosters the development of atmospheric models for NWP and climate studies. The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) within the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is hosting the acquisition of the forecast data, application of the MJO diagnostic, and real-time display of the standardized forecasts. The activity has contributed to the production of 1–2-week operational outlooks at NCEP and activities at other centers. Further enhancements of the diagnostic's implementation, including more extensive analysis, comparison, illustration, and verification of the contributions from the participating centers, will increase the usefulness and application of these forecasts and potentially lead to more skillful predictions of the MJO and indirectly extratropical and other weather variability (e.g., tropical cyclones) influenced by the MJO. The purpose of this article is to inform the larger scientific and operational forecast communities of the MJOWG forecast effort and invite participation from additional operational centers.

  16. The Living and the Dead in Education: Commentary on Julian Williams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Jean Lave and Ray McDermott (2002) did a service with their powerful reading of Marx's 1844 essay on "Estranged Labour" (Marx, 1964). In reworking Marx's critique of "alienated labour" in terms of "alienated learning," they reminded everyone of Marx's own impassioned revolt against the inhumanity of the capitalist order and found a novel way of…

  17. Charter Schools Don't Serve Black Children Well: An Interview with Julian Vasquez Heilig

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The NAACP, nation's largest civil rights organization, steps up its opposition to charter schools just as a president and new education secretary appear ready to kick the sector into high gear. In 2016, the NAACP passed a resolution calling on a moratorium on the expansion of charter schools, citing concerns about transparency and accountability,…

  18. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in the NCAR Community Earth System Model Coupled Data Assimilation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Anderson, J. L.; Moncrieff, M.; Collins, N.; Danabasoglu, G.; Hoar, T.; Karspeck, A. R.; Neale, R. B.; Raeder, K.; Tribbia, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a quantitative evaluation of the simulated MJO in analyses produced with a coupled data assimilation (CDA) framework developed at the National Center for Atmosphere Research. This system is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM; previously known as the Community Climate System Model -CCSM) interfaced to a community facility for ensemble data assimilation (Data Assimilation Research Testbed - DART). The system (multi-component CDA) assimilates data into each of the respective ocean/atmosphere/land model components during the assimilation step followed by an exchange of information between the model components during the forecast step. Note that this is an advancement over many existing prototypes of coupled data assimilation systems, which typically assimilate observations only in one of the model components (i.e., single-component CDA). The more realistic treatment of air-sea interactions and improvements to the model mean state in the multi-component CDA recover many aspects of MJO representation, from its space-time structure and propagation (see Figure 1) to the governing relationships between precipitation and sea surface temperature on intra-seasonal scales. Standard qualitative and process-based diagnostics identified by the MJO Task Force (currently under the auspices of the Working Group on Numerical Experimentation) have been used to detect the MJO signals across a suite of coupled model experiments involving both multi-component and single-component DA experiments as well as a free run of the coupled CESM model (i.e., CMIP5 style without data assimilation). Short predictability experiments during the boreal winter are used to demonstrate that the decay rates of the MJO convective anomalies are slower in the multi-component CDA system, which allows it to retain the MJO dynamics for a longer period. We anticipate that the knowledge gained through this study will enhance our understanding of the MJO feedback mechanisms across the air-sea interface, especially regarding ocean impacts on the MJO as well as highlight the capability of coupled data assimilation systems for related tropical intraseasonal variability predictions.

  19. North Pacific - North American Circulation and Precipitation Anomalies Associated With the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 1275-1277. Lorenz, D. J., and D. L. Hartmann, 2006: The effect of the MJO on the North American Monsoon . J. Climate ...extratropical wave train extending from southeast Asia into the NPNA region. ................................................ 92 Figure 55. Wheeler phase...extratropical wave train extending from southeast Asia into the NPNA region......................... 98 Figure 59. 200-hPa height anomaly for a composite of

  20. Characteristics Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation at Manus Island

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Liping; McFarlane, Sally A.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2013-05-15

    Ground-based high temporal and vertical resolution datasets from 2002 to 2008 of observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea are used to examine the evolution of clouds and rainfall associated with the MJO life cycle. A composite MJO event is developed based on the NOAA MJO Index 4 using 13 events. The analysis shows that the cloud evolution during the composited MJO life cycle depicts a two-phase structure consisting of a development phase and a mature phase. During the development phase, congestus is the most important cloud type; during the mature phase, deep convection is the dominant cloud type. Consistent with this two-phase structure, the heavy rainfall frequency also shows a two-peak structure during the MJO life cycle. Light rainfall does not show a clear relation to the MJO life cycle, but shows variability on shorter time scales. From the development phase to the mature phase, the MJO structure shifts from the Type I to Type II structure, showing a different phase relationship between convection and dynamic fields (or wave motion) in the development and mature phases. During the shift, mid-level clouds play an important role in moving moisture to the mid-troposphere and preparing the atmosphere for the following deep convection. The discharge-recharge theory explains some of observed features of the MJO evolution at the ARM TWP Manus Island site.

  1. Archive of digital and digitized analog boomer seismic reflection data collected during USGS cruise 96CCT02 in Copano, Corpus Christi, and Nueces Bays and Corpus Christi Bayou, Texas, July 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Morton, Robert A.; Blum, Mike D.; Wiese, Dana S.; Subiño, Janice A.

    2007-01-01

    In June of 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys from Nueces to Copano Bays, Texas. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, cruise log, and formal FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles and high resolution scanned TIFF images of the original paper printouts are also provided. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  2. EFFECTS OF WHOLE SEDIMENTS FROM CORPUS CHRISTI BAY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine and marine coastlines are receiving waters for many anthropogenic substances. Concentrations of many of these contaminants have been diminished by regulatory control of effluents, but there is concern that continuing inputs (non-point sources) and contaminants contained...

  3. Change in level of physical activity and risk of all-cause mortality or reinfarction: The Corpus Christi Heart Project.

    PubMed

    Steffen-Batey, L; Nichaman, M Z; Goff, D C; Frankowski, R F; Hanis, C L; Ramsey, D J; Labarthe, D R

    2000-10-31

    The role of physical activity (PA) in reducing the risk of all-cause mortality or reinfarction after a first myocardial infarction (MI) remains unresolved, particularly for minority populations. The association between change in level of PA and risk of death or reinfarction was studied in 406 Mexican American and non-Hispanic white women and men who survived a first MI. MI patients were interviewed at baseline and annually thereafter about PA, medical history, and risk factors of coronary heart disease. Change in level of PA after the index MI was categorized as (1) sedentary, no change (referent group), (2) decreased activity, (3) increased activity, and (4) active, no change. Over a 7-year period, the relative risk (95% CI) of death was as follows: 0.21 (0.10 to 0.44) for the active, no change group; 0.11 (0.03 to 0.46) for the increased activity group; and 0.49 (0.26 to 0.90) for the decreased activity group. The relative risk of reinfarction was as follows: 0.40 (0.24 to 0.66) for the active, no change group; 0.22 (0.09 to 0.50) for the increased activity group; and 0.93 (0.59 to 1.42) for the decreased activity group. These findings are consistent with a beneficial role of PA for Mexican American and non-Hispanic white women and men who survive a first MI and have practical implications for the management of MI survivors.

  4. 78 FR 13015 - Foreign-Trade Zone 122-Corpus Christi, Tx; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Alternative Site Framework An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board... zone under the alternative site framework (ASF) adopted by the Board (15 CFR 400.2(c)). The ASF is...

  5. Regular and Novel Metonymy: Can You Curl up with a Good Agatha Christie in Your Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabakova, Roumyana; Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer; Kyun Kang, Sang

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of two off-line comprehension tasks investigating the acceptability of unconventional and conventional metonymy by native speakers of Korean and Spanish who speak English as a second language. We are interested in discovering whether learners differentiate between conventional and unconventional metonymy, and whether…

  6. The Video in the Classroom: Agatha Christie's "Evil Under the Sun" and the Teaching of Narratology through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokonis, Michael

    This paper suggests ways in which video can be used in teaching college literature and cinema courses in order to promote audiovisual literacy. The method proposed presupposes an approach to narrative through narratology, the discipline that examines texts of narrative fiction as narratives, irrespective of their mode of manifestation (verbal,…

  7. EFFECTS OF WHOLE SEDIMENTS FROM CORPUS CHRISTI BAY ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine and marine coastlines are receiving waters for many anthropogenic substances. Concentrations of many of these contaminants have been diminished by regulatory control of effluents, but there is concern that continuing inputs (non-point sources) and contaminants contained...

  8. Water levels and salinities of water within the Evangeline Aquifer in an area southwest of Corpus Christi, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rettman, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Specific conductance, indicating the salinity of collected water samples, ranged from 940 micromhos per centimeter to 6,900 micromhos per centimeter. High values of specific conductance may be due to failure of well casings. Well casing failure is suspected in a few other wells also.

  9. Residential Ethnic Segregation and Stroke Risk in Mexican Americans: The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajiv C; Baek, Jonggyu; Smith, Melinda A; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Residential ethnic segregation may operate through multiple mechanisms to increase stroke risk. The current study evaluated if residential ethnic segregation was associated with stroke risk in a bi-ethnic population. Design Incident strokes were identified in Nueces County, Texas from 2000 to 2010. Residential ethnic segregation (range: 0–1) was derived for each census tract in the county (n=64) using 2000 U.S Census data, and categorized into: predominantly non-Hispanic white (NHW, <0.3); ethnically mixed (0.3–0.7); predominantly Mexican American (MA, >0.7). Multilevel Poisson regression models were fitted separately for NHWs and MAs to assess the association between residential ethnic segregation (predominantly NHW referent) and relative risk for stroke, adjusted for age category, sex and census tract-level median per capita income. Effect modification by age was also examined. Results In adjusted models, residential ethnic segregation was not associated with stroke risk in either ethnic group. Effect modification by age was significant in both groups. Young MAs and NHWs living in predominantly MA census tracts were at greater relative risk for stroke than those living in predominantly NHW census tracts, but this association was only significant for MAs [MAs: RR = 2.38 (95% CI: 1.31–4.31); NHWs: RR = 1.53 (95% CI: 0.92–2.52)]. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that residential ethnic segregation may influence downstream stroke risk in young MAs. Pathways between residential ethnic segregation and stroke in young MAs should be explored. PMID:25812246

  10. Excess stroke in Mexican Americans compared with non-Hispanic Whites: the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Lewis B; Smith, Melinda A; Lisabeth, Lynda D; Risser, Jan M H; Uchino, Ken; Garcia, Nelda; Longwell, Paxton J; McFarling, David A; Akuwumi, Olubumi; Al-Wabil, Areej; Al-Senani, Fahmi; Brown, Devin L; Moyé, Lemuel A

    2004-08-15

    Mexican Americans are the largest subgroup of Hispanics, the largest minority population in the United States. Stroke is the leading cause of disability and third leading cause of death. The authors compared stroke incidence among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites in a population-based study. Stroke cases were ascertained in Nueces County, Texas, utilizing concomitant active and passive surveillance. Cases were validated on the basis of source documentation by board-certified neurologists masked to subjects' ethnicity. From January 2000 to December 2002, 2,350 cerebrovascular events occurred. Of the completed strokes, 53% were in Mexican Americans. The crude cumulative incidence was 168/10,000 in Mexican Americans and 136/10,000 in non-Hispanic Whites. Mexican Americans had a higher cumulative incidence for ischemic stroke (ages 45-59 years: risk ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 2.69; ages 60-74 years: risk ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 1.91; ages >or=75 years: risk ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.32). Intracerebral hemorrhage was more common in Mexican Americans (age-adjusted risk ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 2.16). The subarachnoid hemorrhage age-adjusted risk ratio was 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 2.89). Mexican Americans experience a substantially greater ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage incidence compared with non-Hispanic Whites. As the Mexican-American population grows and ages, measures to target this population for stroke prevention are critical.

  11. Comparison of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease: The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project.

    PubMed

    Piriyawat, Paisith; Smajsová, Miriam; Smith, Melinda A; Pallegar, Sanjay; Al-Wabil, Areej; Garcia, Nelda M; Risser, Jan M; Moyé, Lemuel A; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2002-12-01

    To provide a scientific rationale for choosing an optimal stroke surveillance method, the authors compared active surveillance with passive surveillance. The methods involved ascertaining cerebrovascular events that occurred in Nueces County, Texas, during calendar year 2000. Active methods utilized screening of hospital and emergency department logs and routine visiting of hospital wards and out-of-hospital sources. Passive means relied on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), discharge codes for case ascertainment. Cases were validated by fellowship-trained stroke neurologists on the basis of published criteria. The results showed that, of the 6,236 events identified through both active and passive surveillance, 802 were validated to be cerebrovascular events. When passive surveillance alone was used, 209 (26.1%) cases were missed, including 73 (9.1%) cases involving hospital admission and 136 (17.0%) out-of-hospital strokes. Through active surveillance alone, 57 (7.1%) cases were missed. The positive predictive value of active surveillance was 12.2%. Among the 2,099 patients admitted to a hospital, passive surveillance using ICD-9 codes missed 73 cases of cerebrovascular disease and mistakenly included 222 noncases. There were 57 admitted hospital cases missed by active surveillance, including 13 not recognized because of human error. This study provided a quantitative means of assessing the utility of active and passive surveillance for cerebrovascular disease. More uniform surveillance methods would allow comparisons across studies and communities.

  12. Status, trends, and changes in freshwater inflows to bay systems in the Corpus Christi Bay National Estuary Program study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, W.H.; Mosier, J. G.; Bush, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    The watershed simulation model Hydrologic Simulation Program—Fortran (HSPF) was used to generate simulated flow (runoff) from the 13 watersheds to the six bay systems because adequate gaged streamflow data from which to estimate freshwater inflows are not available; only about 23 percent of the adjacent contributing watershed area is gaged. The model was calibrated for the gaged parts of three watersheds—that is, selected input parameters (meteorologic and hydrologic properties and conditions) that control runoff were adjusted in a series of simulations until an adequate match between model-generated flows and a set (time series) of gaged flows was achieved. The primary model input is rainfall and evaporation data and the model output is a time series of runoff volumes. After calibration, simulations driven by daily rainfall for a 26-year period (1968–93) were done for the 13 watersheds to obtain runoff under current (1983–93), predevelopment (pre-1940 streamflow and pre-urbanization), and future (2010) land-use conditions for estimating freshwater inflows and for comparing runoff under the three land-use conditions; and to obtain time series of runoff from which to estimate time series of freshwater inflows for trend analysis.

  13. Regular and Novel Metonymy: Can You Curl up with a Good Agatha Christie in Your Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabakova, Roumyana; Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer; Kyun Kang, Sang

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of two off-line comprehension tasks investigating the acceptability of unconventional and conventional metonymy by native speakers of Korean and Spanish who speak English as a second language. We are interested in discovering whether learners differentiate between conventional and unconventional metonymy, and whether…

  14. Pricing and Escalation Issues Weaken the Effectiveness of the Army Contract With Sikorsky to Support the Corpus Christi Army Depot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-08

    Honeywell Rotor under a long- term contract that uses a process called “one-pass pricing.” In one-pass pricing, a group of DoD pricing experts provides real...e P ted on ® Recycled Peper C REPLY TO ATTENTION OF· AMSCC·IR DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY u.s. ARMY CONTRACTING COMMAND 3334A WELLS ROAD REDSTONE

  15. Christie Gardens Apartments and Care Inc. and the Ontario Long Term Care Association: long term care recruitment and retention project.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    In 2008, the Ontario Long Term Care Association was awarded funding from HealthForceOntario to assist with its nursing recruitment strategy based on research it had initiated in 2007. The research goal was to understand the career motivations and perceptions of students enrolled in registered nursing (RN) and registered practical nursing (RPN) programs in Ontario to develop and test a message to support recruitment.

  16. Implementation and Validation of Bioplausible Visual Servoing Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Implementation and Validation of Bioplausible Visual Servoing Control by Vishnu Ganesan, Alec Koppel, Shuo Han, Joe Conroy, Alma Wickenden...Servoing Control Vishnu Ganesan Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL and Case Western Reserve, Cleveland Clinic Alec Koppel Sensors and...Control 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Vishnu Ganesan, Alec Koppel, Shuo Han, Joe Conroy, Alma

  17. Communication and interpersonal skills for nurses Shirley Bach Communication and interpersonal skills for nurses and Alec Grant Learning Matters 192pp £17 978 1 84445 162 3 1844451623 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2009-12-09

    Poor communication between healthcare professionals and their patients is often cited as the key reason why care standards fail. This small, concise text equips novice nurses with the skills they need to provide effective and safe care. It will also help readers to develop their interpersonal skills.

  18. Using CYGNSS to Observe Convectively Driven Near-Surface Winds in Tropical Precipitation Systems During Madden-Julian Oscillation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Li, Xuanli; Mecikalski, John; Hoover, Kacie; Castillo, Tyler; Chronis, Themis

    2017-01-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation OKLMA 1411 UTC Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a multi-satellite constellation that launched 15 December 2016. The primary objective of CYGNSS is to use bistatic Global Positioning System (GPS) reflectometry to accurately measure near-surface wind speeds within the heavily raining inner core of tropical cyclones. CYGNSS also features rapid revisit times over a given region in the tropics - ranging from several minutes to a few hours, depending on the constellation geometry at that time. Despite the focus on tropical cyclones, the ability of CYGNSS to provide rapid updates of winds, unbiased by the presence of precipitation, has many other potential applications related to general tropical convection.

  19. Julian Lennon Is Global Ambassador for the Lupus Foundation of America | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... classic Beatles song, "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds." As Global Ambassador, Lennon supports public awareness initiatives ... classic Beatles song, "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds." Lennon has been a long-time supporter of ...

  20. The Influence of Madden Julian Oscillation on the Formation of the Hot Event in the Western Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirasatriya, Anindya; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Helmi, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Hot event (HE) is the high SST phenomena higher than about 30°C, occur in an area of more than 2×106 km2 and last for a period more than 6 days. HE develops only under the condition of high solar radiation and low wind speed. The indication of the relation between HE and MJO has been described in the previous study for one HE case. In the present study, the more case of MJO-HE relation is collected for the period of 2003-2011 and the possible mechanisms is examined. New Generation Sea Surface Temperature for Open Ocean (NGSST-O-Global-V2.0a) was used to identify HEs. Precipitation from TRMM were bandpass filtered with cut off period of 30-60 days for MJO identification. Observation data from TAO/TRITON buoy were used for investigating the possible mechanism of MJO-HE relation. Off 48 HE cases located along the equatorial band, the development of 29 HE cases was related to the suppressed phase of MJO whereas the high solar radiation occurred. High precipitation during the active phase of MJO may contribute to stabilize the upper mixed layer. The stable upper water column fasten the heating process during the suppressed phase of MJO, generating HE.

  1. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia - the life's work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished.

    PubMed

    Podoba, J; Racova, K; Urbankova, H; Srbecky, M

    2016-01-01

    Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 - October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women. 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

  2. The U.S. Navy’s ...’From the Sea’ Strategy: Sir Julian Corbett Revisited?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE THE U.S. NAVY’S “. . . FROM THE SEX ” STRATEGY: SIR J-ULUN CORBETT REVISITED? CORE COURSE 2 ESSAY...command of the sea” porn ThucJdldes through Lord Selson and on mto Mahan, he makes bur one reference to Sir Juhari, wnh the additional slight of getting

  3. Current Practice of Thermoregulation During the Transport of Combat Wounded

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Current Practice of Thermoregulation During the Transport of Combat Wounded Michael Nesbitt, DSc, PA-C, Paul Allen, DSc, PA-C, Alec...S267– S274. 7. Gentilello LM. Advances in the management of hypothermia. Surg Clin North Am. 1995;75:243–256. 8. Holcomb J. The 2004 fitts lecture

  4. Changes Are Needed to the Army Contract with Sikorsky to Use Existing DoD Inventory and Control Costs at the Corpus Christi Army Depot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-03

    levels, monthly consumption data, and DLA standard unit prices for all DLA consumables . Enterprise Business System EBS is DLA’s primary...the business case analysis for BRAC CIT, consumable items that were part of a contractor logistics support contract, such as the CCAD/Sikorsky...Army Depot CIT Consumable Item Transfer DLA Defense Logistics Agency DOF Depot Overhaul Factor EBS

  5. Simulated effects of projected pumping on the availability of freshwater in the Evangeline Aquifer in an area southwest of Corpus Christi, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groschen, George E.

    1985-01-01

    Two simulations of the projected pumping a low estimate, as much as 46.2 cubic feet per second during 2011-20; and a high estimate, as much as 60.0 cubic feet per second during the same period indicate that no further regional water-quality deterioration is likely to occur. Many important properties and conditions are estimated from poor or insufficient field data, and possible ranges of these properties and conditions are tested. In spite of the errors and data deficiencies, the results are based on the best estimates currently available. The reliability of the conclusions rests on the adequacy of the data and the demonstrated sensitivity of the model results to errors in estimates of these properties.

  6. The Kelvin Wave and the Madden-Julian Oscillation in Aqua-plant Simulations by the Naval Research Laboratory Spectral Element Atmospheric Model (NSEAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-05

    3 305 455 605 605 755 75S 90S 0 .30E 60E 90E 120E 150E 180 150W 120W 90W 60W .30W LONGITUDE (Deg) NSEAM Mox :3000. Min:27 30. Ave:2821...E6rP8L30e --------------0 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 70 80 TIME (Doy) 80 90 70 80 TIME (Doy) 90 100 110 120 Mox :229, Min:O, Ave:33 ----------110 120...130 140 150 90 100 110 120 Mox :252, Min:O, Ave:44 ----------100 110 120 130 140 150 Figure 3 (cont.) ~ 0’ Ql 0 ....... w 0 :::> 1- (3 z 0

  7. The Kelvin Wave and the Madden-Julian Oscillation in Aqua-Plant Simulations by the Naval Research Laboratory Spectral Element Atmospheric Model (NSEAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-05

    3 305 455 605 605 755 75S 90S 0 .30E 60E 90E 120E 150E 180 150W 120W 90W 60W .30W LONGITUDE (Deg) NSEAM Mox :3000. Min:27 30. Ave:2821...E6rP8L30e --------------0 1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 70 80 TIME (Doy) 80 90 70 80 TIME (Doy) 90 100 110 120 Mox :229, Min:O, Ave:33 ----------110 120...130 140 150 90 100 110 120 Mox :252, Min:O, Ave:44 ----------100 110 120 130 140 150 Figure 3 (cont.) ~ 0’ Ql 0 ....... w 0 :::> 1- (3 z 0

  8. Do Native American Culture, Life Experiences, Physics and the Bible Provide Supportive Evidence For Julian Barbour's Thesis About Anachronisms Relating to The End of Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mears, Paul C.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Historic, and current Native American attitude considers that time can be considered in a cyclic sense that contrasts against a majority view of physicists that time varies in a linear algebraic sense. Precognition experiences offer evidence that time has a more subtle substance. The Bible clearly delineates "prophetic awareness of the future." Embedded "Bible codes" are touted as mathematical evidence for the existence of God. His existence is better served if "past-tense" information of events can propagate backward relative to our "present-tense" time. Barbour, p39: [some] " physicists entertain the idea time truly does not exist applies to motion .suggestion; it too is pure illusion." The concept of prophecy has been interpreted as evidence or "proof" of the existence of "Manitou" or God. Our interpretation is that, according to Native American legends, or the Bible, for as yet unspecified reasons, time behaves as though it can convey information in a backward, or forward, sense. It is like an f (t ± ti).

  9. Book Review: The end of time: the next revolution in our understanding of the universe. Julian Barbour, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 384 pp., 16.95, ISBN 0195145925

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, G. F. R.

    In the early part of this century, physicists, led notably by Albert Einstein and the pioneers of quantum theory-in particular Neils Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Paul Dirac-discovered that the underlying nature of physical reality is stranger than anyone had ever imagined. A series of brilliant insights led to the realisation, on the one hand, of the relative nature of space and time measurements, and hence of our basic concepts of space and time (ultimately leading to the discovery of nuclear energy), and on the other hand, of the quantum nature of matter, with its associated quantum statistics and uncertainty of prediction (leading to transistors and lasers). Combining these views ultimately led to a realisation of the necessity of the existence of anti-matter, and of the dynamic nature of the vacuum. Further developments led to an understanding of the existence of symmetries characterising the various families of elementary particles, and of the unified nature of the fundamental interactions when described as gauge theories with forces mediated by exchange of gauge bosons. These properties have all been confirmed by carefully controlled experiments.

  10. Analysis of Low Level Winds Measured by a Ship-Mounted, High Resolution Doppler Lidar during the Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYANMO) Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Scanning, Doppler Lidar, Operated from the RV Revelle During DYNAMO. Wm. Alan Brewer, R. J. Alvarez II, A. Weickmann, S. Sandberg, and M. Hardesty AMS...Alvarez II, A. Weickmann, S. Sandberg, and M. Hardesty 16th International Symposium for the Advancement of Boundary-Layer Remote Sensing 5-8 June 2012

  11. The Origin of the Common Yearly Counting in the Julian and Gregorian Calendar with Special Attention to the Ancient Astronomy and World View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwangl, Sepp

    Because of a new consideration and recently revealed new facts and documents it is maintained that Dionysius Exiguus fixed the common Christian yearly count with the aim to mark the begin and end of the age of Pisces. By incorporating of three factors, he precalculated the conjunction of all naked eye planets including Sun and Moon of May 2000. He figured it out with the help of so called eternal planet boards and a ``plotting year calculation'' (Zieljahrberechnung). Then he determined the year 1 A. D. exactly 1999 years before it, due the medieval assumed constant of precession, (66 2/3 years each degree), that was base of calculation of later Arabian and Persian astronomers. Thus he linked the ``Platonic Year'' with the ``Greatest Year''. He did this in order to fulfil the Christian belief of the return of the Lord during a planetary position which is equivalent to the Greek Symposium or the start of the Kali Yuga, calculated by the Indian astronomer Aryabhata. For both calculations actually the alignment of all planets of year 531 CE was the base. In his late antique religious and astronomical world view Dionysius determined the yearly counting such a way, that the year 2000 (2nd millennium) of his count should mark the end of the age of Pisces (ICHTHYS) and the religiously prophesied Christian end time.

  12. Variations in Vietnamese marriages, births and infant deaths by months of the Julian calendar and years of the Vietnamese and Chinese astrological calendars.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M T; Swenson, I

    1996-07-01

    The timing of births and marriages in Vietnam appears to have some statistically significant relationships with the signs of the Chinese and Vietnamese astrological calendars. Years considered to be good years have significantly more births and marriages than years that are not considered as desirable. Births and marriages also have some significant variations with seasons of the year. Infant deaths do not appear to have any significant relationships with the astrological signs although infant mortality has some significant relationships with seasons of the year. The findings indicate that there is some purposeful planning for marriages and births to coincide with optimal times defined in the astrological calendars.

  13. Evolution and Intensification of Cyclone Pam (2015) from Active Convective Populations within a Madden-Julian Oscillation Event in March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Cyclone Pam (2015) that developed in the southern tropical Pacific in March 2015 caused severe damages over the islands states in the southern Pacific. According to JTWC warning, Cyclone Pam was a category-5 storm and its maximum wind speed reached about 75 m/s. Because the islands of Vanuatu were severely damaged by the cyclone, the quantitative assessment of hazards induced by the cyclone is important in order to mitigate and prevent resulting disasters. In addition, this cyclone is of meteorological interest, because the cyclone developed and evolved from active convection of an MJO signal. This study numerically investigates the evolution and intensification of Cyclone Pam from the transformation of convective populations into a vortical structure with the use of a regional meteorological model, the WRF model. By examining the impacts of the size of the computational domain, the grid spacing, and the cumulus parameterization scheme employed to the simulated cyclone, we have found that the most intense cyclone with the most rapid intensification is reproduced with doubly nested domains at 6- and 2-km horizontal resolutions and without a cumulus parameterization; the simulated cyclone achieved the minimum central pressure of about 890 hPa. Transition processes from convective populations of MJO into a tropical cyclone are investigated. It was found that at the pre-storm stage when no cyclonic storm developed there was a very weak low within active convective areas of the MJO when they pass over the equatorial Pacific. The low generates weak cyclonic convergence off the equator. From the sensitivity experiments, there is a clear difference in the environmental moisture field among the experiments. This result suggests that the MJO provided a sufficient amount of moisture, which positively contribute to the intensification of the tropical cyclone.

  14. Selective Nonoperative Management of Penetrating Torso Injury From Combat Fragmentation Wounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Selective Nonoperative Management of Penetrating Torso Injury From Combat Fragmentation Wounds Alec C . Beekley, MD, Lorne H. Blackbourne, MD, James A...College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma Resident Trauma Paper Competition. Address for reprints: Alec C . Beekley, MD, FACS, Department of General...REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18

  15. Language Abstractions for Software-Defined Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Academy Christopher Monsanto Princeton University Mark Reitblatt Cornell University Jennifer Rexford Princeton University Alec Story Cornell...Transactions on Networking, 17(4), August 2009. [3] Nate Foster, Rob Harrison, Michael J. Freedman, Christopher Monsanto , Jennifer Rexford, Alec Story...networks. SIGCOMM CCR, 38(2):69–74, 2008. [7] Christopher Monsanto , Nate Foster, Rob Harrison, and David Walker. A compiler and run-time system for

  16. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Fahlman Department of Life Sciences Texas A&M- Corpus Christi 6300 Ocean Dr Unit 5892 Corpus Christi, TX 78412 phone: (361) 825-3489 fax: (361...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology, Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute University...Sciences Texas A&M- Corpus Christi 6300 Ocean Dr Unit 5892 Corpus Christi, TX 78412 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  17. 7 CFR 352.30 - Untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., or to approved refrigerated storage pending lading aboard ship, in Corpus Christi, Galveston, or... Hebbronville, TX, to Corpus Christi, TX, to Galveston, TX, to Kinder, LA, to Memphis, TN, and then to... east by a line drawn from Laredo, TX, to Hebbronville, TX, to Corpus Christi, TX, to Galveston, TX, to...

  18. 7 CFR 352.30 - Untreated oranges, tangerines, and grapefruit from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., or to approved refrigerated storage pending lading aboard ship, in Corpus Christi, Galveston, or... Hebbronville, TX, to Corpus Christi, TX, to Galveston, TX, to Kinder, LA, to Memphis, TN, and then to... east by a line drawn from Laredo, TX, to Hebbronville, TX, to Corpus Christi, TX, to Galveston, TX, to...

  19. Army Industrial Operations: Budgeting and Management of Carryover Could Be Improved

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    1The 13 Industrial Operations’ activities are the Anniston Army...Depot, Anniston , Alabama; the Blue Grass Army Depot, Richmond, Kentucky; the Corpus Christi Army Depot, Corpus Christi, Texas; the Crane Army...maintenance depots ( Anniston , Alabama; Corpus Christi, Texas; Background Page 4 GAO-13-499 Army Industrial Operations Letterkenny, Pennsylvania

  20. 75 FR 10300 - South Texas Area Maritime Security (STAMS) Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Security (STAMS) Committee to submit their application for membership to the Captain of the Port, Corpus Christi, Texas. DATES: Requests for membership should reach the Corpus Christi Captain of the Port on or... at the following address: Commander, USCG Sector Corpus Christi, 8930 Ocean Drive, Hangar 41,...

  1. Drug Prevention, Rehabilitation, Interdiction, and Law Enforcement (Corpus Christi, TX). Hearing before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (December 12 and 13, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This document provides transcripts of two consecutive days of Congressional hearings on narcotics abuse and control. Opening statements from Representatives Benjamin A. Gilman, Kent Hance, and Solomon P. Ortiz are presented. Testimony and prepared statements of 61 counselors and administrators in the field of substance abuse, public officials, law…

  2. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 VIEW FROM CORNER OF WHITAKER AND ST JULIAN SHOWING NORTH FACADE - Gibbons Block, Congress, Saint Julian, Barnard, Whitaker Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  3. Students in Austin, Texas Learn About Space Exploration and Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Christie Sauers, Orion Cockpit Working Group Deputy, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at the Ann ...

  4. Evaluation of Internal Structure, Volume and Mass of Glacial Bodies by Integrated LiDAR and Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys: The Case Study of Canin Eastern Glacieret (Julian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, R. R.; Forte, E.; Boccali, C.; Dossi, M.; Lanza, L.; Pipan, M.; Guglielmin, M.

    2015-03-01

    We propose an integrated methodology to image the internal structure, evaluate the volume and estimate the densities of different units within ice bodies, useful for more precise mass estimation of very small glaciers. The procedure encompasses light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) common offset data. The case study is the Canin Eastern Glacieret (CEG), a very small and maritime glacier in the Eastern Alps, and one of the lowermost glaciers of the European Alps. We calculate both volumetric and mass variations of the analysed ice body by integrating GPR measurements with LiDAR surveys acquired in different years (2006 and 2011). Between 2006 and 2011, the area of the glacieret increased from 8,510 to 17,530 m2 with a gain of 9,016 m2. The observed volume increase has been estimated in 96,350 m3 (+97 %), which corresponds to a positive mass balance of 3.89 m w.e.. This quite unusual finding in the present global warming behaviour is mainly due to the above-average winter accumulation (cw) in the considered period. Moreover, the winter season 2008-2009 represented an exceptional event with a cw equal to 13.38 m, the highest of the available record. Thanks to density estimation, we infer the total mass of the CEG at the time of the geophysical surveys, comparing such results with the ones obtained with available empirical equations, observing an important mass gain in the 5 years considered.

  5. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubba, Peter A., Ed.; Rye, James A., Ed.; DiBiase, Warren J., Ed.; Crawford, Barbara A., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 2002 Annual International Conference of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science which was held in Charlotte, North Carolina, January 10-13, 2002. Papers include: (1) "Teaching Science Methods Courses with Web-Enhanced Activities" (Alec M. Bodzin); (2) "How Is Your Lawnmower Working?…

  6. XPLANE: Real-Time Awareness of Tactical Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Conference, pages 1–6. IEEE, 2010. [3] Nate Foster, Rob Harrison, Michael J. Freedman, Christopher Monsanto , Jennifer Rexford, Alec Story, and David...architecture for user-level packet capture. In Proceedings USENIX Winter 1993 Conference. ACM, 1993. [10] Christopher Monsanto , Nate Foster, Rob

  7. Policy Shop Casts Long K-12 Shadow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In nearly 40 years of legislative advocacy, the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)--a free-market, limited-government group now drawing intense scrutiny for its support of a controversial self-defense law--has had a significant influence on K-12 education through its model legislation and work with state lawmakers to promote such…

  8. Privatizing Schooling and Policy Making: The American Legislative Exchange Council and New Political and Discursive Strategies of Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary L.; Donchik, Liliana Montoro

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) as an example of a unique node within larger policy networks composed of new policy entrepreneurs (e.g., venture philanthropists, think tanks, private "edubusinesses" and their lobbyists, advocacy organizations, and social entrepreneurs). These new policy…

  9. NAREM Journal. Volume 1, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narem Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Eight articles are included in the journal of the National Association for Remedial Education, Malaysia (NAREM). Chua Tee Tee describes the history and objectives of NAREM. Alec Williams reviews philosophical issues in remedial education. Khoo Phon Sai discusses cognitive, social, and emotional characteristics of slow learners and considers…

  10. Measurement of Minority Charge Carrier Diffusion Length in Gallium Nitride Nanowires Using Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    physicist Dr Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology in 1959 [2]. The development of...Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol 112, 2008, 11093–11097. [24] A.Alec Talin, George T. Wang, Elain Lai and Richard J. Anderson

  11. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  12. Privatizing Schooling and Policy Making: The American Legislative Exchange Council and New Political and Discursive Strategies of Education Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary L.; Donchik, Liliana Montoro

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) as an example of a unique node within larger policy networks composed of new policy entrepreneurs (e.g., venture philanthropists, think tanks, private "edubusinesses" and their lobbyists, advocacy organizations, and social entrepreneurs). These new policy…

  13. Policy Shop Casts Long K-12 Shadow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In nearly 40 years of legislative advocacy, the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC)--a free-market, limited-government group now drawing intense scrutiny for its support of a controversial self-defense law--has had a significant influence on K-12 education through its model legislation and work with state lawmakers to promote such…

  14. Ultrastructure of exogenous surfactants using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, R; Bellare, J R

    2001-01-01

    Therapy with specialised biomaterials, exogenous surfactants, is known to significantly decrease the mortality rates in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS). Surfactants available commercially vary widely in composition and biophysical properties. The present paper studies the ultrastructure of three exogenous surfactants used for the treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome, namely, Survanta, ALEC and Exosurf Neonatal with respect to their ability to form liposomes using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Liposomal organisation is more obvious in Exosurf than in Survanta and is most pronounced in ALEC. ALEC forms closed regular liposomes with an onion-ring-like internal bilayer arrangement. Survanta forms open membranous structures with wavy ribbon-like membranes. The complex membrane-like structures seen with Survanta may be due to the interaction of lipids with surfactant-specific proteins present in this surfactant which is derived from natural lung extracts and might indicate superior spreading at the lipid-water interface. Artificial protein-free surfactants (ALEC and Exosurf) did not appear to form these open membranous structures. Further study of the ultrastructure of possible biomaterials as surfactants could help in the development of new, improved artificial protein-free surfactants with open membranous structures that might facilitate spreading at the air-liquid interface of lungs.

  15. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishwanadha, Hari; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Provides suggestions on various English instruction topics. Includes (1) "Argumentation Exercise," Hari Vishwanadha; (2) "How to Survive Developmental (or Any Other) English," Sally Russell; (3) "Reach Out to an Expert," Norma A. Register; (4) "Summary and Response Writing," Alec Valentine; (5) "The Living Journal," Blair Spencer Ray; and (6)…

  16. Education and Immigrant Integration in the United States and Canada. Proceedings of a Conference sponsored by the Division of United States Studies and the Canada Institute, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and The Migration Policy Institute (April 25, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strum, Philippa, Ed.; Biette, David, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The Conference proceedings include an Introduction by Demetrios Papademetriou. Two panels presented speakers as follows: Panel I: Elementary and Secondary (K-12) Education: (1) Immigrant Integration and "Bilingual" Education (Alec Ian Gershberg); (2) Absent Policies: Canadian Strategies for the Education and Integration of Immigrant…

  17. Advertising Change: The Distribution of New Jobs in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHoul, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Everybody has a view about what's happening to university hiring policies--and it's often a bleak one. But it's generally hard to tie down the facts. Alec McHoul surveyed all the new job advertisements for the second half of 2004. As you might expect, change is in the air. (Contains 2 charts and 6 endnotes.)

  18. 40 CFR 52.2275 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2275 Control... Governor on July 20, 1977, is disapproved. (b) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Texas... unit at the Corpus Christi refinery of the Champlin Petroleum Company, Corpus Christi, Texas, with a...

  19. 76 FR 55082 - Re-Accreditation and Re-Approval Intertek Testing Services as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ..., Intertek Testing Services/Caleb Brett, Corpus Christi, Texas 78406, has been re-approved to gauge petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils, and to test petroleum and petroleum... Homeland Security. ACTION: Notice of re-approval of Intertek Testing Services, Corpus Christi, Texas, as a...

  20. Surface Facial Electromyography Reactions to Light-Relevant and Season-Relevant Stimuli in Seasonal Affective Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    1 Skin resistance – exosomatic electrodermal activity measured as resistance of the skin to an imposed current...directly measured by a constant current technique (Venables & Christie, 1980). 2 Skin conductance – exosomatic electrodermal activity measured as...Therapy, 6, 473-482. Venables, P. H., & Christie, M. J. (1980). Electrodermal activity . In I. Martin & P. H. Venables (Eds.), Techniques in

  1. Aircraft Accident Investigation at ARL: The First 50 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    it is significant. Hercule Poirot - The Murder on the Links ( Agatha Christie , 1923) -92- Arrange your facts. Arrange your ideas. And if some little...The Murder on the Links ( Agatha Christie , 1923) -93- APPENDIX 1 CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF ARL PUBLICATIONS ON AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION 1. T.F.C

  2. Developing Partnerships for Adult Literacy Training: College/Community Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Agnes L.; And Others

    The Corpus Christi Literacy Council (CCLC) is an independent, non-profit educational organization operating through joint partnership and grant activities with Del Mar College (DMC) and community and government organizations in the Corpus Christi (Texas) area. The major purposes of the council are to establish comprehensive reading programs for…

  3. A School Healthcare Program for Low Income Families of Very Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Esperanza Villanueva

    This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the dual-language ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and…

  4. The Possibilities of Longitudinal Research: Lessons from a Teacher and a Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author first presents an analysis based on field notes from when she was a first-grade teacher, with particular focus on one student, Christy. She then offers a longitudinal account of Christy from the author's current position as a university researcher. She argues that these two analyses reveal the power of longitudinal…

  5. A Bibliometric Analysis of the Academic Influences of and on Evaluation Theorists' Published Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heberger, Anne E.; Christie, Christina A.; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2010-01-01

    As is the case with other fields, there is motivation for studying the impact that the body of evaluation theory literature has within and outside the field. The authors used journal articles written by theorists included on the evaluation theory tree by Alkin and Christie (2004; Christie & Alkin, 2008) and published in the Web of Science, an…

  6. Nature Study: A Science Curriculum for Three and Four-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, JoAnn Montes; McDonald, Robert B.

    This chapter is a part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the dual-language ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District…

  7. 77 FR 58368 - Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Application Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC Docket No. CP12-507..., 2012, Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC (CCL), located at 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston, Texas...

  8. Early Childhood Literacy: Programs & Strategies To Develop Cultural, Linguistic, Scientific and Healthcare Literacy for Very Young Children & their Families, 2001 Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack, Ed.; Garrett, Sherrye D., Ed.

    This yearbook recounts the work in 2001 at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the university, with an enrollment…

  9. Multicultural Literature: Broadening Young Children's Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Rachel G.; Lucido, Frank; Canales, JoAnn

    This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the dual-language ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and…

  10. University/Public School Partnership Provides a Jump Start for Three-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, JoAnn; Duron, Susan

    This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the…

  11. Engineers on the Twin Rivers: A History of the Nashville District Corps of Engineers United States Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    River canalization project was directed by some exceptionally capable District Engineers-officers like Edgar Jadwin, Julian Schley, and Lytle Brown...Major Fiske and the officers who suc- ceeded him as District Engineer- General Julian Schley and Colonel Lewis H. Watkins among them-were enthused...52 Another early local flood protection General Julian F. Schley breaks ground for Wolf Creek Dam , September 1, 1941. To his right are Colonel O

  12. Upper Ocean Characteristics in the Tropical Indian Ocean from AXBT and AXCTD Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Madden– Julian oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2970–2982. Han, W., J. P. McCreary , Jr., D. Anderson, and A. J. Mariano, 1999: Dynamics of the...understanding the coupling processes that take place in air-sea interaction during the active and suppressed phases of Madden- Julian Oscillation, and... Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) research project. The aircraft-based measurements extended from 01 November to 13 December 2011, when 12 research

  13. Topics in High Energy Astrophysics Based on Lecture by Peter Goldreich at the RAND Corporation during June-July 1969,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    with Lambda = 0; Existence of horizons in cosmology; Universal blackbody radiation; Nucleosynthesis in the first 1001 seconds; Galaxy formation and Pulsar electrodynamics: The Goldreich-Julian model. (Author)

  14. Field Assessment of Yeast- and Oxalic Acid-generated Carbon Dioxide for Mosquito Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    FIELD ASSESSMENT OF YEAST- AND OXALIC ACID –GENERATED CARBON DIOXIDE FOR MOSQUITO SURVEILLANCE1 JAMES F. HARWOOD, ALEC G. RICHARDSON, JENNIFER A...were evaluated in order to address this capability gap: 1) an electrolyzer that converts solid oxalic acid into CO2 gas, and 2) CO2 produced by yeast...surveillance was compared to dry ice and compressed gas in Jacksonville, FL. The electrolyzed oxalic acid only slightly increased the number of

  15. Exploring New Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ, 1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON, 1 CARL W. DOUD, 1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...and Marine Corps Public Health Center, Navy Bureau of Med- icine and Surgery, Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. 1 ...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and

  16. Defeated by a MAZE: The Soviet Economy and Its Defense-Industrial Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Note, principles drawn from the history of economic thought are related to some of the key features of Russian and Soviet history to define and...adequately reflected. In this Note, principles drawn from the history of economic thought are related to some of the key features of Russian and...Alec, " History , Political Culture , and Economics in the Soviet Union," Economics and Politics in the USSR: Problems of Interdependence, Hans-Hermann

  17. The Installation Restoration Program Toxicology Guide. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Christoper P. Loieti, Warren L. Lyman, Alec W. Naugle and Joanne H. Perwak. Charlene J. Doucette was responsible for report production. Computerized and manual ...hexane and an alic-ot of the hexane extract injected onto a gas chromatographic (CC) column using a solvent flush technique . The CC column is programmed...using a solvent flush technique . The GC column is programmed to separate the semi-volatile organics; DDD is then detected with an electron capture

  18. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey, The Landings at Nellis Housing Area, Parcel H, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    are of the Company President and Asbestos Consultant-Alec Felhaber and not of Mr. Jose Sandoval . Mr. Sandoval was the Asbestos Project Manager and...rc.:f"L Jose Sandoval Environmental Consultant Nevada License #M-1394 Construction & Environmental Consultants, Inc. m October 31, 2008...please feel free to call me at (915) 533-1147. Since ly, . .4 ~~VL--- Jose Sandoval Gl...._ Environmental Consultant Nevada License #M~ 1394

  19. DEHP (DI-N-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE), WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION, INDUCES DOSE DEPENDENT DECREASES IN FETAL TESTIS GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis.
    Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...

  20. 77 FR 42699 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ..., Galveston and Corpus Christi, TX. Council address: Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, 2203 N. Lois... Galveston, 5400 Seawall Boulevard, Galveston Island, TX 77551, telephone: (409) 744-5000; and Courtyard...

  1. 76 FR 50182 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... among personnel from Texas Tech University, Texas A&M--Corpus Christi, and a commercial fishing... many as 30 vessel owners associated with that organization. Observers from Texas Tech University...

  2. Using The "Little Grey Cells."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Susan M.

    1983-01-01

    Finds that Agatha Christie's mysteries can be used to encourage discussion of characterization and human values, to promote reading and literary analysis skills, and to develop both writing and problem-solving skills. Suggests several language arts activities. (MM)

  3. DEHP (DI-N-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE), WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION, INDUCES DOSE DEPENDENT DECREASES IN FETAL TESTIS GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEHP (di-n-ethylhexyl phthalate), when administered during sexual differentiation, induces dose dependent decreases in fetal testis gene expression and steroid hormone synthesis.
    Vickie S. Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Kathy Bobseine, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, and ...

  4. Report to the U.S. Congress on the National Oceanographic Partnership Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Texas A&M University at Corpus Christi University College Dublin University of Georgia University of Vienna Max Planck...Institute Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Smithsonian Institution Station

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW PRIOR TO 1919 STORM (EAST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  6. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. Stewart, Photographer June 26, 1936 GENERAL VIEW AFTER 1919 STORM (SOUTHWEST ELEVATION). - Conrad Meuly House & Store, 210 Chaparral Street, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, TX

  7. Scaliger, Joseph (1540-1609)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    French mathematician who, in 1582, founded the system of the Julian day, a continuous reckoning of time which starts at midday GMT on 1 January 4713 BC. The system has the advantage that it is able to set aside issues of leap years, the different lengths of months, `lost' days at changes of calendars etc. The label `Julian' commemorates Scaliger's father Julius....

  8. Enumeration of Mars years and seasons since the beginning of telescopic exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piqueux, Sylvain; Byrne, Shane; Titus, Timothy N.; Hansen, Candice J.; Kieffer, Hugh H.

    2015-01-01

    A clarification for the enumeration of Mars Years prior to 1955 is presented, along with a table providing the Julian dates associated with Ls = 0° for Mars Years -183 (beginning of the telescopic study of Mars) to 100. A practical algorithm for computing Ls as a function of the Julian Date is provided. No new science results are presented

  9. Coastal Bioluminescence: A Collaboration on Sources, Population Dynamics and Critical Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    2006 Layered Organization of the Coastal Ocean (LOCO) experiment, Monterey Bay, CA, in collaboration with Drs Van Holliday, Percy Donaghay and Jim...during July 14 ( Julian Day 195) to July 28 ( Julian Day 209). A. Density, B. Chlorophyll, C. Bioluminescence, D. Close up of the intense

  10. Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island

    SciTech Connect

    Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

    2012-11-19

    This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

  11. San Nicolas Island surface radiation-meteorology data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Pasqua, Christopher M.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    A summary of the surface data collected by Colorado State University (CSU) on San Nicolas Island during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) from 30 June (Julian Day 181) through 19 July (Julian Day 200) is given. The data are available in two formats: hard copy graphs, and processed data on floppy disk.

  12. Comparative Education in the Nineteenth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    2010-01-01

    In this previously unpublished essay, William W. Brickman complicates the traditional conception of the historical foundations of comparative education--that is, the role of Marc-Antoine Julian as a "father figure." The article examines influences on Julian (by Cesar-Auguste Basset's influential publications, for example) and discusses…

  13. Containment Area Aquaculture Program. Economics and Marketing of Aquaculture in Dredged Material Containment Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Michael Haby, Russell Miget, ed., Texas Agricultural Exten- sion Service, Corpus Christi, TX. Keenum, M. E., and Waldrop, J. E. (1988). "Cash flow analysis...Michael Haby, Russell Miget, ed., Texas Agricultural Exten- sion Service, Corpus Christi, TX. Johns, M., Griffin, W., Lawrence, A. L., and Fox, J. (1981...Crawfish Culture Brunson , M. W. (1989). "Double cropping crawfish with sorghum in Louisiana," Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Baton Rouge, LA

  14. Korean Spring? An Analysis of the Arab Spring and Its Relevance for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Thesis Committee Chair David W. Christie, M.A. , Member William C. Latham, M.A. , Member Joseph G. Babb, M.A...express my deep appreciation for the hard work and dedication of Mr. David Christie, Mr. William Latham, and Mr. Joseph Babb. These three gentlemen...direct and instantaneous manner. In 2003, James Lindsay wrote in the Brookings Review that globalization was a challenge across the full spectrum of

  15. DoD Depot-Level Reparable Supply Chain Management: Process Effectiveness and Opportunities for Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Logistics Complex AMC Army Materiel Command AMCOM Aviation and Missile Life Cycle Management Command ANAD Anniston Army Depot AOIB Army Organic...Complex (ALC) (supply and maintenance), Oklahoma City ALC (supply and maintenance), Warner Robins ALC (supply), Anniston Army Depot, Corpus Christi...NIINs NOTE: CCAD = Corpus Christi Army Depot, TYAD = Tobyhanna Army Depot, LEAD = Letterkenny Army Depot, ANAD = Anniston Army Depot. RAND RR398-4.1 C

  16. Coastal Inlets of Texas, USA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Caney Creek Freeport Ship Channel San Luis Pass Galveston Pass Rollover Fish Pass Sabine Pass Texas Victoria Houston Port Arthur Corpus Christi...1960) provide design guidance for constructing fish passes along the Texas coast, it appears that an update based on more recent experiences and...Hall Pier at Corpus Christi; and bay gauges (Rawlings at Mouth of Colorado River; Lavaca, and Port Isabel in the lower Laguna Madre ) for year 1999

  17. Computer Crime: A Peopleware Problem. Proceedings of a Conference Held in Monterey, California on October 25 - 26, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-26

    Educators ........ 83 Lynn F. Fischer Understanding the Computer Criminal ........................................ 95 Neil S. Hibler & Jim Christy Notes...such as substance abuse, absenteeism, suicide, sabotage, and espionage. The paper prepared jointly by Col Hibler and his associate, Jim Christy...copies were "goods" within the meaning of the § 2314. The court conclud,3d that copies were within the definition of "goods. "The Botone court reasoned

  18. Coast Guard Spectrum Management (CG-652)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Louisiana, Arkansas, Kentucky, West Virginia, New Mexico Oklahoma, Indiana and OhioSECTOR NEW ORLEANS SECTOR CORPUS CHRISTI SECTOR HOUSTON-GALVESTON...MOBILE Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, Kentucky, West Virginia, New Mexico Oklahoma, Indiana and Ohio SECTOR NEW ORLEANS SECTOR CORPUS CHRISTI SECTOR...Alaska DISTRICT 11: SECTOR SAN DIEGO SECTOR LOS ANGELES-LONG BEACH SECTOR SAN FRANCISCO GROUP/AIRSTATION HUMBOLDT BAY CA DISTRICT 14

  19. [Speech by Oscar Julian Bardeci, director of the Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE), at the Latinamerican Regional Meeting prior to the International Conference on Population in recognition of the Second Meeting on Population by the Committee of Upper-Level Government Experts (CEGAN), Havana, Cuba, November 16-19, 1983].

    PubMed

    Bardeci, O J

    1983-12-01

    This work examines the relationship between population growth and economic development in Latin America and assesses progress in the 10 years since the Bucharest World Population Conference. The Latin American population increased from about 159 million in 1950 to 275 million in 1970 and around 325 million in 1980. The rate of growth reached a maximum of 2.8%/year in the early 1970s and has now declined to about 2.3%/year. The regional growth rate is a product of population dynamics that differ greatly in individual countries. Crude birth rates declined in every country of Latin America between 1975-80, but still exceeded 40/1000 in 1980-85 in Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Current fertility is the result of the different trajectories of the demographic transition in different countries. While fertility in Argentina, Cuba, and Uruguay underwent a slow but sustained decline that began prior to 1960, other countries including Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, and Venezuela began an accelerated fertility decline in the 1960s that diffused rapidly through all age and social groups. Other countries have still not entered a definite phase of fertility decline. Mortality rates have declined appreciably in Latin America in the past few decades although they remain high in some countries. After the end of World War II and until the mid-1970s, most countries of the region experienced rapid economic growth coupled with profound changes in the productive structure. The industrial labor force grew in almost all countries along with urbanization, the decline of agricultural employment, and the increase of the tertiary sector. These and other important economic advances through the mid-1970s occurred despite rapid population growth, and the beginning of the fertility decline coincided with slowing economic growth that saw negative rates in 1981-82. Various studies have shown that not all population sectors were incorporated in the process of economic and social development. The proportion of the population in active age groups has increased dramatically, but no corresponding increase in employment opportunities has occurred. The informal sector has absorbed most of the excess growth, a trend reflected in the exclusion of a large segment of the population from the fruits of economic progress. Population growth and increased life expectancy have created demands for more retirement benefits, health and educational services, transportation, recreation, and housing. Nevertheless, it cannot be concluded that rapid population growth necessarily has negative consequences for economic development or social welfare. There are indications that the problem of poverty in Latin America could be solved if the political will to do so existed; obstacles to overcoming poverty are not primarily material or population-related. Urbanization, settlement of marginal areas, and relative decline of agricultural areas are 3 trends in spatial distribution of varying intensity and repercussions in different countries.

  20. Risking NATO: Testing the Limits of the Alliance in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    without fully anticipating the wide range 30 See Julian E. Barnes, “U.S. Commander in Afghanistan Shifts Focus to Protect- ing People,” Los Angeles...Times, July 26, 2009. See also Julian E. Barnes, “Petraeus Takes Over as Head of U.S. Central Command,” Los Angeles Times, November 1, 2008; Candace...itself to the mission in Afghanistan, recognized that its commit- ment could not be indefinite. See Julian E. Barnes, “Gates Open to Sending More

  1. The Russian Calendars after the Christianization of the Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Russians became acquainted with the Christian religion in 860 A.D. In the middle of the 10th Century, Princess Olga of Kiev visited Constantinople and was baptized under the name Elene. Later, when her grandson Vladimir became a Christian, all the Russians became Christians too. Moreover, the Russians adopted the Cyrillic alphabet and the Julian calendar. In 1918 the government replaced the Julian calendar with the Gregorian one. However, the Russian Orthodox Church never accepted the Gregorian or the New Rectified Julian calendar. Even today it retains the old Julian calendar. An important but short-lived change in the history of the Russian calendar took place in the year 1929. Then the seven-day week was abolished being substituted with five-day intervals. This attempt was unsuccessful and finally the Soviet government restored the use of the initial Gregorian calendar and the ancient seven-day week.

  2. Mesyatsy "knizhnye" i "nebesnye": ikh sootnoshenie na stranitsakh letopisej %t "Literary" and "heavenly" months: their correlations in Russian chronicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravel', A. V.

    The overwhelming majority of Old-Russian dates are Julian, and this fact seems to prove that the Julian calendar gained a foothold after the baptism of Rus'. However, there are also about 10 lunar datings (mainly from the XV c.) in Russian chronicles. This fact corresponds to the words of Kirik (the Novgorod mathematician of the XII c.) who distinguished "heavenly" months from "literary" ones. The research shows that Kirik's words are true for the entire Medieval period of Russian history: the Julian calendar was really the "literary" one and people continued to count days by the Moon in their day-to-day life. Thus, lunar dating came up in Russian chronicles again and again. That is why attempts of recalculation into the Julian manner generated many mistakes (variant readings). If we take into account these "traces", we can reconstruct the initial lunar dating and determine more precisely the course of historical events.

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 VIEW FROM MORRISON'S CAF? (CORNER OF WHITAKER & CONGRESS) SHOWING S. FACADE - Gibbons Block, Congress, Saint Julian, Barnard, Whitaker Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. Reclaiming a Part of the Micmac Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a research project which resulted in publication, "The Julian Tribe," and showed how lost Micmac tribal heritage was reconstructed from church, census, county, provincial, and federal records when no tribal printed or secondary accounts or oral tradition remained. (NEC)

  5. Reclaiming a Part of the Micmac Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a research project which resulted in publication, "The Julian Tribe," and showed how lost Micmac tribal heritage was reconstructed from church, census, county, provincial, and federal records when no tribal printed or secondary accounts or oral tradition remained. (NEC)

  6. Schwinger credited with finding anomaly, exploring cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This letter points out that Julian Schwinger was first to identify the axial vector anomaly in the context of neutral pion decay into two photons. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics}

  7. Where Will All the Jobs Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Julian Josephson finds the environmental employment picture bleak, but far from hopeless. He looks at training and future trends, and lists a number of leads aimed at helping the unemployed. (Author/BT)

  8. Meteor Beliefs Project: The Ensisheim thunderstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair

    2011-08-01

    An examination of claimed events and beliefs, some of them portentous, concerning the Ensisheim meteorite's fall on November 7, 1492 AD (Julian) is given, from the time of the fall through to modernity.

  9. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 2. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN FLOOR TILE, EXPOSED-CORNER TUB, FLUSH VALVE TOILET, TILE WAINSCOT, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type B, 704 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Home Guard, Police, and the Social Contract

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    Selected COIN Theory Counterinsurgency theorists Galula, Kitson, Thompson, Paget and Kilcullen are largely in agreement on the need for comprehensive...to the rural areas.12 Colonel Julian Paget also highlights the importance of separating the population from insurgents through either resettling...www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1990/PFD.htm (accessed December 13, 2010). 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid. 13 Julian Paget , Counter-Insurgency Operations

  11. Thermodynamic Air/Ocean Feedback Mechanisms in the Equatorial Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    statistical interpolation scheme, Monthly Weather Review, 109, 701-721, 1981. McCreary , Julian P. Jr., A model of tropical ocean-atmospheric interaction...Monthly Weather Review, 111, 370-387. McCreary , Julian P. Jr., and Anderson, David L. T., An overview of coupled ocean-atmosphere models of El Nino and...background section, but for now, it is sufficient to say that they are interchangeable. Numerous published theories (Wyrtki, 1975; McCreary , 1983

  12. The Evolution of Upper Ocean Thermal Structure at 10 deg N, 125 deg W during 1997-1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    heat fluxes, westward propagating easterly waves, the Madden- Julian Oscillation, and atmospheric Rossby waves propagating from mid-latitudes (Gray and...transient adjustment of the tropical oceans away from western boundaries (e.g. White, 1977; McCreary , 1977; Meyers, 1979; Kessler, 1990). In a...cific. J. Geophys. Res., 95:5183-5217, 1990. [29] W.S. Kessler. EOF representations of the Madden- Julian Oscillation and its connection with ENSO. J

  13. An Observational Study of the Local and Remote Response of the Equatorial Pacific to Westerly Wind Events during the 1991-92 El Nino

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    layer depths, and a rise in sea level along the South American coast (Wyrtki, 1975; McCreary , 1976; Philander, 1981; Lukas et. al., 1984; Harrison and...separate the intraseasonal oscillations (Madden and Julian , 1972) from the higher frequency westerly wind bursts. Filtering was performed by applying...of the western Pacific ocean. J. Geophys. Rev., 69, 3343-3357. Madden, R.A., and P. Julian , 1972: Description of global scale circulation cells in the

  14. Intraseasonal sea surface warming in the western Indian Ocean by oceanic equatorial Rossby waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-09

    an equatorial westward jet of 80 cm s1 associated with downwelling ER waves. When anomalous currents associated with ER waves are removed in the...Oceans in association with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) [Madden and Julian, 1972; Drushka et al., 2012; Halkides et al., 2015]. Similarly...intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variations of 0.6°C are associated with the MJO, neglect- ing diurnal temperature variations that can exceed 2.0°C

  15. Evaluation of Lands for Recreational Snowmobile Use (Guidelines for Natural Resources Management and Land Use Compatibility).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Percy , E. C., "The Snowmobile: Friend or Foe?" Journal of Trauma, Vol 12, No. 5 (May 1972), pp 444-446. Price, V. J., "Snowmobiles, The Winter Revolution...Recreation Program, State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI Houser, James, Forester, Fort McCoy, WI Hutchinson, Julian , Land Manager...Outdoor Recreation Director, Fort McCoy, WI Houser, James, Forester, Fort McCoy, WI Hutchinson, Julian , Land Manager, Fort McCoy, WI Jackson, Gary

  16. A Study of the Medical Support of the Union and Confederate Armies during the Battle of Chickamauga: Lessons and Implications for Today’s US Army Medical Department Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Confederacy." Military Medicine 118.1 (1956): 54; Cunningham, Doctors 31. 18. Julian Chisolm, A Manual of Military Surgery For the Use of Surgeons in the...the Battles Illustrated Thereon. Washington: GPO, 1902. Chisolm, J. Julian . A Manual of Military Surgery For the Use of Surgeons in the Confederate...NOT CITED BOOKS Ashburn, Percy . A History of the Medical Department of the United States Army. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1929. Beers, Henry. Guide to

  17. Acting Administrator Lightfoot Visits Sierra Nevada Corporation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-06

    Acting NASA Deputy Administrator Lesa Roe, left, and acting NASA Administrator Robert Lightfoot, right, listen as Alec Devereaux, a systems engineer with Sierra Nevada Corporation, right, discusses the Flight Control Integration Lab (FCIL), Thursday, April 6, 2017 during a visit to Sierra Nevada Corporation in Louisville, Colo. Sierra Nevada Corporation, with their Dream Chaser Cargo System, was one of three companies to be awarded Commercial Resupply Services (CRS-2) contracts designed to obtain cargo delivery services to the space station, disposal of unneeded cargo, and the return of research samples and other cargo from the station back to NASA. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  18. A Big RISC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-18

    Cycle Time CalculatioD Appendix D. BRISC Parts L.iat Appendix E. BRISC Dnwillp Appendix F. DAPL Microcode L.iatiDp 1. IDtroductlon A Btg RISC...ud .f. Only two bita alec:t timin& iD any way, they are the Pipe Control bita described above. A microcode aaaembler c:3lled DAPL ia used to...create microco de [or BRISC. li Only a au~ set or the lull capability or DAPL is required bec:~use or the simpl icity or the BRISC mic:roc:ode. DAPL is

  19. Command History, 1970. Volume 1. Sanitized

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-01-01

    forces; and the shortage of ammunition and food caused mal- nutrition , desease, and death among enemy units. Enemy forces had overestimated the...two divi &I.l’Amored IVy S udroisq.l; :. ’tegth ChiA G` ’tn HadqQýiirtab AleC) The0 WiuVI V~dwnt~fnec AivJ6It and 31 Dec.w. ’~toz eo. er.n iue r...segments of Route 7 one on either side of Ban Ban. On Z8 Feb aircraft seeding the eastern point were fired at by SAMs launched from NVN. No aircraft were hit

  20. Microwave sounding units and global warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global warming. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.

  1. Microwave sounding units and global warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global warming. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.

  2. The State of Scientific Visualization with Regard to the NASA EOS Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Botts, Michael E.; Newchurch, Michael; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    In support of the mission to better understand the dynamics of the global atmosphere, John R. Christy and Nathaniel D. Reynolds investigated a wide range of topics. Christy worked closely with NASA scientist Roy Spencer to develop a data set of precision temperature measurements using the NASA built Microwave Sounding Unit. The data from this effort has received international recognition as they provide a source of precise information for the most difficult of environmental issues in the global climate change arena. In addition, Christy coordinated modeling research with NASA scientist Franklin Robertson with research focusing on the validation of global model output using various satellite data with sophisticated statistical techniques. Reynolds worked with NASA scientist Timothy Miller on idealized flows in a rotating annulus and the application of the results to the general circulation of the atmosphere. Additional work was carried out in investigation of stratospheric ozone fluctuations due to dynamical causes.

  3. The State of Scientific Visualization with Regard to the NASA EOS Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Botts, Michael E.; Newchurch, Michael; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    In support of the mission to better understand the dynamics of the global atmosphere, John R. Christy and Nathaniel D. Reynolds investigated a wide range of topics. Christy worked closely with NASA scientist Roy Spencer to develop a data set of precision temperature measurements using the NASA built Microwave Sounding Unit. The data from this effort has received international recognition as they provide a source of precise information for the most difficult of environmental issues in the global climate change arena. In addition, Christy coordinated modeling research with NASA scientist Franklin Robertson with research focusing on the validation of global model output using various satellite data with sophisticated statistical techniques. Reynolds worked with NASA scientist Timothy Miller on idealized flows in a rotating annulus and the application of the results to the general circulation of the atmosphere. Additional work was carried out in investigation of stratospheric ozone fluctuations due to dynamical causes.

  4. Baseline nutrient dynamics in shallow well mixed coastal lagoon with seasonal harmful algal blooms and hypoxia formation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Evan L; Paudel, Bhanu; Montagna, Paul A

    2015-07-15

    Weekly inorganic nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations were measured to establish baseline conditions in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas during seasonal hypoxia and harmful algal bloom (HAB) formation. Two fixed stations along the southern shoreline were sampled weekly for a continuous year at the same time each day. Weekly shoreline observations were found to be statistically similar to quarterly observations in the bay center, but with a greater power to detect seasonal trends. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)<4 mg/L was measured in June, 2012 along the southern shoreline of Corpus Christi Bay, which places lower DO conditions west of previous estimates. During a bay-wide HAB event in November of 2011 no changes were observed in any of the nutrient or chlorophyll-a observations. This study documents a baseline of nutrients and chlorophyll-a in Corpus Christi Bay during a dry (average salinity>36 PSU) year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Defense Systems Acquisition Review Council (DSARC). Volume I. Technical Report with Appendices A and B.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-04

    Roland 11 Perry Nelson* Hacker Murray 6/79 NAVSTAR 11 Dineen’ Shorey’ Hessler’ Murray 11/79 Copperhead 11 LaBerge * Pinie Wacker Murray 1/SO FYS III... LaBerge ’ Danzig’ Uarshman’ Christie’* 10/80 FVS PR LaBerge ’ Danzig* Bting Cua 6/82 LAMPS III Wade* Leach’ Heth h % Not a principal. "no appointee, actg...to illustrate the situation: FVS Program Review 1/80 LaBerge *Danzig* Harshman*Christie* Program Review 10/80 LaBerge *Danzig* Borsting Murray TRIDENT

  6. DNA fingerprinting in zoology: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 1962, Thomas Kuhn famously argued that the progress of scientific knowledge results from periodic ‘paradigm shifts’ during a period of crisis in which new ideas dramatically change the status quo. Although this is generally true, Alec Jeffreys’ identification of hypervariable repeat motifs in the human beta-globin gene, and the subsequent development of a technology known now as ‘DNA fingerprinting’, also resulted in a dramatic shift in the life sciences, particularly in ecology, evolutionary biology, and forensics. The variation Jeffreys recognized has been used to identify individuals from tissue samples of not just humans, but also of many animal species. In addition, the technology has been used to determine the sex of individuals, as well as paternity/maternity and close kinship. We review a broad range of such studies involving a wide diversity of animal species. For individual researchers, Jeffreys’ invention resulted in many ecologists and evolutionary biologists being given the opportunity to develop skills in molecular biology to augment their whole organism focus. Few developments in science, even among the subsequent genome discoveries of the 21st century, have the same wide-reaching significance. Even the later development of PCR-based genotyping of individuals using microsatellite repeats sequences, and their use in determining multiple paternity, is conceptually rooted in Alec Jeffreys’ pioneering work. PMID:24490906

  7. DNA fingerprinting in zoology: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Geoffrey K; Curtis, Caitlin; Millar, Craig D; Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2014-02-03

    In 1962, Thomas Kuhn famously argued that the progress of scientific knowledge results from periodic 'paradigm shifts' during a period of crisis in which new ideas dramatically change the status quo. Although this is generally true, Alec Jeffreys' identification of hypervariable repeat motifs in the human beta-globin gene, and the subsequent development of a technology known now as 'DNA fingerprinting', also resulted in a dramatic shift in the life sciences, particularly in ecology, evolutionary biology, and forensics. The variation Jeffreys recognized has been used to identify individuals from tissue samples of not just humans, but also of many animal species. In addition, the technology has been used to determine the sex of individuals, as well as paternity/maternity and close kinship. We review a broad range of such studies involving a wide diversity of animal species. For individual researchers, Jeffreys' invention resulted in many ecologists and evolutionary biologists being given the opportunity to develop skills in molecular biology to augment their whole organism focus. Few developments in science, even among the subsequent genome discoveries of the 21st century, have the same wide-reaching significance. Even the later development of PCR-based genotyping of individuals using microsatellite repeats sequences, and their use in determining multiple paternity, is conceptually rooted in Alec Jeffreys' pioneering work.

  8. DNA fingerprinting in anthropological genetics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 1985, Sir Alec Jeffreys developed the variable-number tandem repeat method used to identify individuals and giving researchers the first DNA fingerprints. These initial methods were used in anthropological genetics, a field that uses a comparative approach to answer questions about human history, including the discernment of the origin of Native American populations and the discrimination of clan affiliation from individuals in Siberia. The technological and methodological advances since this time have led to the use of many more markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Y chromosomal and autosomal short tandem repeats, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and direct sequencing not only to identify individuals, but to examine frequencies and distributions of markers (or “prints”) of entire populations. In the field of anthropological genetics these markers have been used to reconstruct evolutionary history and answer questions concerning human origins and diaspora, migration, and the effects of admixture and adaptation to different environments, as well as susceptibility and resistance to disease. This review discusses the evolution of DNA markers since their application by Sir Alec Jeffreys and their applications in anthropological genetics. PMID:24245746

  9. 76 FR 15321 - SEDASYS Computer-Assisted Personalized Sedation System; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.'s, Petition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.'s, Petition for Review of FDA's Denial of Premarket Approval AGENCY: Food and... that it intends to refer for review before an advisory committee Ethicon Endo- Surgery Inc.'s (EES's... through Friday. 1. Letter from Christy Foreman, FDA, CDRH, to Ken Charak, Ethicon Endo-Surgery,...

  10. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Nurse Education, Practice, Quality and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Corpus Christi (TAMUCC), College of Nursing and Health Science (CONHS). SUMMARY: The Health Resources and... feasibility study, Transitioning Enlisted Health Care Training into Academic Credit for Nursing Education... training with civilian nursing program requirements. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, $178,374 will be available...

  11. An Educator's Perspective: Five "E's" to Success with Common Core Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neria, Christy M.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the implementation--and rigor--of the Common Core State Standards, many educators are looking for a different teaching approach to make content accessible to all students. Successful implementation of these standards for deaf and hard of hearing students can be achieved through what Christy Neria calls the "Five E's."…

  12. LATE GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ DELAYS THE ONSET OF PARTURITION AND CAUSES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN MALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Late gestational exposure to the fungicide prochloraz delays the onset of parturition and causes reproductive malformations in male rat offspring.
    Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson, and L. Earl Gray Jr.,

    Prochloraz (PZ) is an imidazol...

  13. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED GUBERNACULAR LIGAMENT LESIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  14. 77 FR 48586 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on United States Highway 77

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Corpus Christi, Texas to US 83 in Harlingen, Texas. Those actions grant licenses, permits, and approvals..., Room 826, Austin, Texas 78701; telephone: (512) 536-5960; email: gregory.punske@dot.gov . The FHWA Texas Division Office's normal business hours are 7:45 a.m. to 4:15 p.m. (central time) Monday...

  15. 78 FR 42755 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... and Baton Rouge, LA; D' Iberville, MS; Mobile, AL; Corpus Christi and Texas City, TX. Council address... regional management, red snapper would remain a federally managed species subject to federal conservation... South Water Street, Mobile, AL 36602, telephone: (251) 438-4000. Monday, August 12, 2013, Hilton...

  16. PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERIPUBERTAL DI (2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE EXPOSURE INHIBITS ANDROGEN SENSITIVE TISSUE DEVELOPMENT AND DELAYS PUBERTY IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    Nigel Noriega, Jonathan Furr, Christy Lambright, Vickie Wilson, L. Earl Gray Jr.

    The plasticizer Di (2-ethylhexyl) phtha...

  17. DNA ARRAYS TO MONITOR GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT BLOOD AND UTERUS FOLLOWING 17-BETA-ESTRADIOL EXPOSURE: BIOMONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS USING SURROGATE TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA arrays to monitor gene expression in rat blood and uterus following 17-b-estradiol exposure - biomonitoring environmental effects using surrogate tissues
    John C. Rockett, Robert J. Kavlock, Christy R. Lambright, Louise G. Parks, Judith E. Schmid, Vickie S. Wilson, Carmen W...

  18. Don Hammill: A Personal Perspective on the Field of Learning Disabilities, 3-Tier, and RTI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intervention in School and Clinic, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Don D. Hammill received all of his formal education in Texas schools, culminating in a doctorate in educational psychology-special education from the University of Texas at Austin in 1963. He had previously served as a teacher in the Corpus Christi (Texas) public schools and as a speech and language therapist in the Deer Park (Texas) public…

  19. 75 FR 32836 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... strategies have worked well, discuss challenges faced by the pipeline industry, discuss Federal and state... via e- mail at christie.murray@dot.gov by close of business June 18, 2010. Preliminary Workshop Agenda... level discussion about member company challenges with implementing and evaluating...

  20. Behavioral Effects of Enrichment and Nicotine in Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Grunberg lab, I was graciously taken under the wings of all my labmates (Christie Oates Simpson-McKenzie, Michael Perry, Sarah Shafer Berger, Kristen...incision within the shave region approximately 1 cm below the scapulae was made with blunt-nosed, curved- tipped Mayo surgical scissors, a pocket was