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Sample records for alectoris rufa perdiz

  1. Correlates of helminth community in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Estrada, A; Telletxea, I

    2003-06-01

    Between 1992 and 1996, 587 wild red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) from 16 Spanish provinces were examined to study the variations of helminth communities in this game species across a broad geographical area. The survey revealed 13 species of helminth parasites. Dicrocoelium sp.. Rhabdometra nigropunctata, and Cheilospirura gruweli were the most common species, whereas Raillietina bolivari, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Tetrameres sp., and Capillaria anatis were the most rare. Subulura suctoria, Heterakis gallinarum, Heterakis tenuicaudata, Capillaria contorta, Trichostrongylus tenuis, and Raillietina tetragona occurred with intermediate frequencies. The abundance of C. gruweli, S. suctoria, H. tenuicaudata, T. tenuis, and R. tetragona was inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to yearly mean temperature, whereas the abundance of Dicrocoelium sp. was directly correlated to latitude and inversely correlated to yearly mean temperature. The abundance of R. tetragona was inversely correlated to latitude and yearly mean humidity. The number of helminths per partridge and the number of helminth species per partridge were lower in young birds than in adults. Partridge body condition was inversely correlated to abundance of C. contorta. Richer infracommunities were linked to richer component communities. At the infracommunity level, total number of helminths per partridge and number of helminth species per partridge were inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to yearly mean temperature. At the component community level, both species richness and diversity (Simpson's index) were inversely correlated to latitude and directly correlated to mean temperature. Across the broad geographical range of the study area, the helminth parasite communities of red-legged partridges had marked geographical variation in their structure. Our results suggest that this variation is determined by the distribution of both intermediate and definitive hosts

  2. Descriptive study of an avian pox outbreak in wild red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Buenestado, F.; Gortázar, C.; Millán, J.; Höfle, U.; Villafuerte, R.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the dynamics and epidemiology of an outbreak of avian pox in free-living, red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in southern Spain. Between March 2000 and January 2001, 115 free-living, red-legged partridges (70 juveniles, 45 adults) were captured and radio-tagged. This, together with the necropsy of 44 carcasses (10 juveniles, 34 adults) found in the study area, and the inspection of 108 shot birds (74 juveniles, 34 adults) after a hunting drive in October, permitted a close monitoring of the course of the disease. Forty-one per cent of radio-tagged juveniles but none of 45 radio-tagged adults showed pox-like lesions at the time of capture, recapture, or necropsy. At least 40% of the juveniles that survived into the hunting season, but only 2.9% of the adults inspected at the same time, showed lesions suggestive of infection with avian poxvirus. The survival of juveniles during the peak of the outbreak was much lower than that of the adults, but we found no significant differences between the survival probabilities of juvenile partridges with and without pox-like lesions. Nevertheless, some birds may have developed lesions after their capture. The occurrence and course of the disease in a managed area with intense predator control underlines the need for studies on the combined influence of diseases and predators on population dynamics. Also the need for early detection of diseases for the management of game species is emphasized. PMID:15061513

  3. Use of radiotracking techniques to study a summer repopulation with Red-Legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) chicks.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J A; Alonso, M E; Gaudioso, V R; Olmedo, J A; Díez, C; Bartolomé, D

    2004-06-01

    On a private property with a stable population of wild Red-Legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) and an appropriate habitat for the survival of the species, reinforcement repopulations were carried out using 54 birds that were 2 to 3 mo old and reared on a commercial game farm. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of repopulations, the behavior in the wild of released partridges, and the possible causes of success or failure of reinforcement population operations. The releases were carried out during August and September of 2 consecutive years. All birds were equipped with radio transmitter collars to determine their behavior after release. Two release methods were used in yr 1: an acclimatization cage (AC) method and a direct release method on the day of the birds arrival (DR). The aim of the release in yr 2 was to collect data to determine the influence of year conditions using the DR method. Of the 54 released birds, none remained alive by the time of the reproductive period in the following spring. The mean survival time was 16.79 d for the AC method and was 11.89 and 5 d for the DR method in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Of the recorded mortalities, we assigned 81.13% to predation, 7.55% to hunting, and 11.32% to unknown causes of death, accidents, or starvation. Repopulation was not successful at providing a long-term increase in partridge numbers, with most birds falling victim to predation within 1 mo of release. Dispersion is the maximum distance from the release point at which each bird was located. The postrelease mean dispersion was 437.65 m for the AC method and was 647.57 and 266.07 m for the DR method in yr 1 and 2, respectively.

  4. Transcriptomic Characterization of Innate and Acquired Immune Responses in Red-Legged Partridges (Alectoris rufa): A Resource for Immunoecology and Robustness Selection.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Cañon, Javier; Gil, Ignacio; Dunner, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Present and future challenges for wild partridge populations include the resistance against possible disease transmission after restocking with captive-reared individuals, and the need to cope with the stress prompted by new dynamic and challenging scenarios. Selection of individuals with the best immune ability may be a good strategy to improve general immunity, and hence adaptation to stress. In this study, non-infectious challenges with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and sheep red blood cells allowed the classification of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) according to their overall immune responses (IR). Skin from the area of injection of PHA and spleen, both from animals showing extreme high and low IR, were selected to investigate the transcriptional profiles underlying the different ability to cope with pathogens and external aggressions. RNA-seq yielded 97 million raw reads from eight sequencing libraries and approximately 84% of the processed reads were mapped to the reference chicken genome. Differential expression analysis identified 1488 up- and 107 down-regulated loci in individuals with high IR versus low IR. Partridges displaying higher innate IR show an enhanced activation of host defence gene pathways complemented with a tightly controlled desensitization that facilitates the return to cellular homeostasis. These findings indicate that the immune system ability to respond to aggressions (either diseases or stress produced by environmental changes) involves extensive transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations, and expand our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of the avian immune system, opening the possibility of improving disease resistance or robustness using genome assisted selection (GAS) approaches for increased IR in partridges by using genes such as AVN or BF2 as markers. This study provides the first transcriptome sequencing data of the Alectoris genus, a resource for molecular ecology that enables integration of genomic tools

  5. Transcriptomic Characterization of Innate and Acquired Immune Responses in Red-Legged Partridges (Alectoris rufa): A Resource for Immunoecology and Robustness Selection

    PubMed Central

    Sevane, Natalia; Cañon, Javier; Gil, Ignacio; Dunner, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Present and future challenges for wild partridge populations include the resistance against possible disease transmission after restocking with captive-reared individuals, and the need to cope with the stress prompted by new dynamic and challenging scenarios. Selection of individuals with the best immune ability may be a good strategy to improve general immunity, and hence adaptation to stress. In this study, non-infectious challenges with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and sheep red blood cells allowed the classification of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) according to their overall immune responses (IR). Skin from the area of injection of PHA and spleen, both from animals showing extreme high and low IR, were selected to investigate the transcriptional profiles underlying the different ability to cope with pathogens and external aggressions. RNA-seq yielded 97 million raw reads from eight sequencing libraries and approximately 84% of the processed reads were mapped to the reference chicken genome. Differential expression analysis identified 1488 up- and 107 down-regulated loci in individuals with high IR versus low IR. Partridges displaying higher innate IR show an enhanced activation of host defence gene pathways complemented with a tightly controlled desensitization that facilitates the return to cellular homeostasis. These findings indicate that the immune system ability to respond to aggressions (either diseases or stress produced by environmental changes) involves extensive transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations, and expand our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of the avian immune system, opening the possibility of improving disease resistance or robustness using genome assisted selection (GAS) approaches for increased IR in partridges by using genes such as AVN or BF2 as markers. This study provides the first transcriptome sequencing data of the Alectoris genus, a resource for molecular ecology that enables integration of genomic tools

  6. First finding of spontaneous infections with Cryptosporidium baileyi and C. meleagridis in the red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa from an aviary in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej; Pavlásek, Ivan

    2015-04-30

    This paper represents the first report of spontaneous infection with Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), as well as the percentage of positive samples and age-associated dynamics of cryptosporidial infections in an aviary in the Czech Republic. The entire infection process was monitored over two semesters (July-December 2012 and 2013) until release of birds for hunting purposes. Coprological examination of 663 pooled fecal samples and 89 post-mortem examinations of red-legged partridges were carried out. Our results indicated that infections with C. baileyi only occurred in 5-7 week-old birds during 2013 (percentage of positivity, 1%) and those with C. meleagridis in 18-22 week (17%) and 17-21 week-old birds (24%) during 2012 and 2013, respectively. Molecular characterization of isolates of C. baileyi and C. meleagridis heat shock protein 70 and actin genes were analyzed in order to support our coprological results. DNA sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene was used to subtype C. meleagridis. Our findings extend the host range for C. baileyi.

  7. Occurrence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli and antimicrobial-resistant E. coli in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa): sanitary concerns of farming.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Sánchez, Sandra; Sánchez, Sergio; Ewers, Christa; Höfle, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) are a significant part of the culture, diet and income for many people in central and southern Spain. Due to declining populations in the wild, intensive farming is common and 4 million juvenile partridges are released each autumn. Intensive management and high densities result in high prevalence of enteric disease and the use of antimicrobials as preventive measures on partridge farms and prior to restocking in the wild. We determined the occurrence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), and screened phenotypic resistance of E. coli against enrofloxacin, gentamicin and cefotaxim in farmed, restocked and wild partridges. Prevalence of APEC in farmed and restocked red-legged partridges was significantly higher than in natural populations. Phenotypic resistance against both gentamicin and enrofloxacin was significantly more frequent in farmed (75%) and restocked (43%) partridges than in wild partridges, while most E. coli isolated from natural populations were susceptible to all three antimicrobials tested (65%). This indicates that farmed and restocked partridges carry APEC that could be a reason for disease outbreaks on farms, and that E. coli carried by farmed and restocked partridges can acquire resistance to frequently used antimicrobials, thus being a concern for the environment, wild birds and consumers. Management in farms and restocking procedures may create a hazard not only for spreading APEC, but also as a potential source of resistant E. coli in the environment.

  8. Anti-predator behaviour of adult red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) tutors improves the defensive responses of farm-reared broods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, C; Alonso, M E; Tizado, E J; Pérez, J A; Armenteros, J A; Gaudioso, V R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to improve natural anti-predator behaviour of farm-reared gamebirds. We evaluated the anti-predator behaviour of reared red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa chicks kept in brooder houses in large groups (>350 chicks), trained and not trained by parent red-legged partridges acting as experienced tutors. The experiment consisted of two conditioned tests (a raptor model and a human) and two control tests, which were conducted during three consecutive phases of life (1-4, 15-17 and 30-32 d after hatching). The motor anti-predator behaviour, its duration, the intensity of response in chicks and alarm calls elicited by adults were recorded. Tutors elicited aerial alarm calls (76% of tests) and showed prolonged crouching (59% of tests) in response to the raptor model whereas uttering the ground alarm call (73% of tests) and showing vigilance behaviour (78% of tests) was the main pattern during the human test. Trained and not trained chicks showed similar motor behaviour in response to the raptor model (crouching) and the human test (escaping), but frequency of strong responses (all chicks responding) from chicks trained with tutors was double that of chicks trained without them, and chicks trained with tutors showed a higher frequency of long responses (41-60 s). This study indicates that anti-predator training programmes before release may improve behaviour of farm-reared partridges which may confer benefits to survival of birds.

  9. Protection of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) against West Nile virus (WNV) infection after immunization with WNV recombinant envelope protein E (rE).

    PubMed

    Escribano-Romero, E; Gamino, V; Merino-Ramos, T; Blázquez, A B; Martín-Acebes, M A; de Oya, N Jiménez; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, A V; Escribano, José M; Höfle, U; Saiz, J C

    2013-09-23

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, although it occasionally infects other vertebrates, including humans, in which it may result fatal. To date, no licensed vaccines against WNV infection are available for birds, but its availability would certainly benefit certain populations, as birds grown for restocking, hunting activities, or alimentary purposes, and those confined to wildlife reservations and recreation installations. We have tested the protective capability of WNV envelope recombinant (rE) protein in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa). Birds (n=28) were intramuscularly immunized three times at 2-weeks interval with rE and a control group (n=29) was sham-immunized. Except for 5 sham-immunized birds that were not infected and housed as contact controls, partridges were subcutaneously challenged with WNV. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and feather pulps were collected at several days after infection and blood samples were taken during vaccination and after infection. All rE-vaccinated partridges elicited anti-WNV antibodies before challenge and survived to the infection, while 33.3% of the sham-immunized birds succumbed, as did 25% of the contact animals. Most (84%) unvaccinated birds showed viremia 3 d.p.i., but virus was only detected in 14% of the rE vaccinated birds. WNV-RNA was detected in feathers and swabs from sham-immunized partridges from 3 to 7 d.p.i., mainly in birds that succumbed to the infection, but not in rE vaccinated birds. Thus, rE vaccination fully protected partridges against WND and reduced the risk of virus spread.

  10. Spatial variation in helminth community structure in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.): effects of definitive host density.

    PubMed

    Calvete, C; Blanco-Aguiar, J A; Virgós, E; Cabezas-Díaz, S; Villafuerte, R

    2004-07-01

    Parasite community ecology has recently focused on understanding the forces structuring these communities. There are few surveys, however, designed to study the spatial repeatability and predictability of parasite communities at the local scale in one host. The purpose of our study was to address the relationship between infracommunity and component community richness, and to describe spatial variations on the local scale, of helminth parasite communities in an avian host, the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufta). We sampled 235 wild partridges from 8 separate localities, with different partridge population densities, in the Ciudad Real and Toledo provinces of central Spain, and we determined their overall and intestinal helminth species. We found that habitat variables (mean temperature and land use) were not significantly associated with any component community. The partridge population abundance index was directly correlated with the prevalence and mean intensity of infection but not with component community species richness. There was a curvilinear relationship between infracommunity and component community species richness, as well as negative interspecific associations, for the helminth species assemblage parasitizing the intestine. A nestedness/anti-nestedness pattern, considered as part of a continuum, was associated with prevalence, mean intensity and partridge population abundance index, but not with component community richness. Increases in the partridge population abundance index and the prevalence and mean intensity of infection were associated with increases in helminth community nestedness. Although negative interactions between helminth species could not be ruled out as forces structuring helminth communities, our results suggest that parasite community structure in the red-legged partridge was primarily determined by the extrinsic influence of parasite habitat heterogeneity and its amplification of the differing probabilities of colonization of

  11. Incidence of single and mixed infections with Eimeria kofoidi, E. caucasica and E. legionensis on the health of experimentally infected red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa).

    PubMed

    Naciri, M; Fort, G; Briant, J; Duperray, J; Benzoni, G

    2014-09-15

    Little is known about Eimeria-induced coccidiosis in partridges. After a coccidiosis outbreak in a farm rearing red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Brittany (France), three Eimeria species were identified as Eimeria kofoidi, Eimeria caucasica and Eimeria legionensis. This study aimed to reproduce the effects of the disease occurring in field conditions, in the absence of preventive treatments, to further build a coccidiosis model, helpful for coccidiostatic development. The pathogenic effects of a single infection with Eimeria kofoidi, E. caucasica and E. legionensis were evaluated, as well as the effects of multiple infections associating two or three of these species in red-legged partridges. Thirty-one-day-old birds were individually inoculated with Eimeria spp. and clinically followed up until 49 days of age. Mortality, lesion scores, daily oocyst production and growth were used as assessment criteria. Single infections with 250,000 E. kofoidi, 30,000 E. caucasica or 100,000 E. legionensis oocysts did not increase mortality rate compared to uninfected birds, whereas the combination of 3 species caused significant 28% mortality (P<0.05). Five days post inoculation, lesions scores in the proximal intestine (duodenum/jejunum) decreased in dual-infected birds and tended to decrease in triple-infected birds compared to lesions in mono-infected birds. The highest caecal lesion score was recorded in birds co-infected with E. kofoidi and E. legionensis. In multi-infected birds, the total number of oocysts excreted per gram of faeces was lower than the sum of oocysts excreted by mono-infected birds. Each single infection caused significant growth depression and even weight loss in E. legionensis infected birds (P<0.05). Dual or triple infections worsened this effect. Eighteen days post inoculation, only mono-infected birds had recovered. Their weight gains were not different from that of uninfected birds, whereas growth was significantly depressed in dual

  12. Pathology of avian pox in wild red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gortázar, C; Millán, J; Höfle, U; Buenestado, F J; Villafuerte, R; Kaleta, E F

    2002-10-01

    The diagnosis and pathology of an avian pox outbreak in free-living red-legged partridges in Cádiz, Southern Spain, is described. Diagnosis of the disease was based on histopathology, ultrastructural examination of, and virus isolation from lesions of necropsied animals. Lesions were present mainly in juvenile partridges (41%), and were observed primarily on the dorsal part of the digits or on the hock joint. The lesions ranged from small wartlike nodules to large tumor-like lesions. The presence of acute lesions of any grade as opposed to absence of lesions or healed lesions adversely affected body condition of the partridges (P <.01). Further investigations on the epidemiology of the disease and on the relation of the isolated strains to other avian poxviruses are under way.

  13. Sub-chronic effects of nitrate in drinking water on red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa): oxidative stress and T-cell mediated immune function.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Martín-Hernando, M A Paz; Mateo, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of nitrates on birds, we have exposed captive red-legged partridges to nitrates concentrations of 0 (control), 100 (dwell water in farming areas) or 500 mg/l (fertirrigation level). The cellular immune response, plasma biochemistry, methemoglobin concentration (metHb), and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues were studied after two weeks of exposure. Several blood parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and magnesium level decreased with nitrate exposure, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity and creatinine level increased. The oxidant effect of nitrates was evidenced by the increase in blood metHb, accompanied by the lipid peroxidation of red blood cells, the increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSH) in liver, and the generation of oxidative DNA damage in plasma lymphocytes. GSH in erythrocytes was negatively correlated with blood metHb. The cellular immune function was slightly lower at partridges exposed to nitrates. These results suggest that adverse effects of nitrates on birds occur at concentrations potentially present in the field.

  14. New Evidences of Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy by Putative Paternal Leakage between the Rock Partridge (Alectoris graeca) and the Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar).

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Andrea; Crestanello, Barbara; Fagotti, Anna; Simoncelli, Francesca; Chiesa, Stefania; Girardi, Matteo; Giovagnoli, Eleonora; Marangoni, Carla; Di Rosa, Ines; Lucentini, Livia

    2017-01-01

    The rock partridge, Alectoris graeca, is a polytypic species declining in Italy mostly due to anthropogenic causes, including the massive releases of the closely related allochthonous chukar partridge Alectoris chukar which produced the formation of hybrids. Molecular approaches are fundamental for the identification of evolutionary units in the perspective of conservation and management, and to correctly select individuals to be used in restocking campaigns. We analyzed a Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) fragment of contemporary and historical A. graeca and A. chukar samples, using duplicated analyses to confirm results and nuclear DNA microsatellites to exclude possible sample cross-contamination. In two contemporary specimens of A. graeca, collected from an anthropogenic hybrid zone, we found evidence of the presence of mtDNA heteroplasmy possibly associated to paternal leakage and suggesting hybridization with captive-bred exotic A. chukar. These results underline significant limitations in the reliability of mtDNA barcoding-based species identification and could have relevant evolutionary and ecological implications that should be accounted for when interpreting data aimed to support conservation actions.

  15. New Evidences of Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy by Putative Paternal Leakage between the Rock Partridge (Alectoris graeca) and the Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar)

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfi, Andrea; Crestanello, Barbara; Fagotti, Anna; Simoncelli, Francesca; Chiesa, Stefania; Girardi, Matteo; Giovagnoli, Eleonora; Marangoni, Carla; Di Rosa, Ines

    2017-01-01

    The rock partridge, Alectoris graeca, is a polytypic species declining in Italy mostly due to anthropogenic causes, including the massive releases of the closely related allochthonous chukar partridge Alectoris chukar which produced the formation of hybrids. Molecular approaches are fundamental for the identification of evolutionary units in the perspective of conservation and management, and to correctly select individuals to be used in restocking campaigns. We analyzed a Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) fragment of contemporary and historical A. graeca and A. chukar samples, using duplicated analyses to confirm results and nuclear DNA microsatellites to exclude possible sample cross-contamination. In two contemporary specimens of A. graeca, collected from an anthropogenic hybrid zone, we found evidence of the presence of mtDNA heteroplasmy possibly associated to paternal leakage and suggesting hybridization with captive-bred exotic A. chukar. These results underline significant limitations in the reliability of mtDNA barcoding-based species identification and could have relevant evolutionary and ecological implications that should be accounted for when interpreting data aimed to support conservation actions. PMID:28114306

  16. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  17. Exposure of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) to select avian pathogens; Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Veronica L; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Baker, Allan J; Diaz, Luis A

    2007-10-01

    As part of the shorebird surveillance, Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) were sampled in two Patagonian sites in Argentina, Río Grande and San Antonio Oeste, during 2005-2006. Cloacal swabs and serum samples were collected from 156 birds and tested by virus isolation (Newcastle disease virus), polymerase chain reaction (PCR; avian influenza virus and Plasmodium/Hemoproteus), and for antibodies to St. Louis encephalitis virus. All test results were negative.

  18. Population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis rufa (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities.

    PubMed

    Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Giles, K L

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effects of eight temperatures (22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, 35.0, 37.5, and 40.0 degrees C) and four relative humidities (43, 55, 63, and 75%) on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis rufa Broadhead (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). L. rufa did not survive at 43% RH, at all temperatures tested; at 55% RH, at the highest four temperatures; and at 63% RH and 40.0 degrees C. The greatest population growth was recorded at 35.0 degrees C and 75% RH (73-fold growth). At 40.0 degrees C, L. rufa populations declined or barely grew. L. rufa males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 31, 54, and 15%, respectively. Female L. rufa have two to five instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 2, 44, 42, and 12%, respectively. The life cycle was shorter for males than females. We developed temperature-dependent developmental equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages. The ability of L. rufa to reproduce at a relative humidity of 55% and temperatures of 22.5-30.0 degrees C and at relative humidities of 63-75% and temperatures of 22.5-37.5 degrees C, in addition to being able to survive at 40.0 degrees C, suggests that this species would be expected to have a broader distribution than other Liposcelis species. These data provide a better understanding of L. rufa population dynamics and can be used to help develop effective management strategies for this psocid.

  19. Fine structure of acrosome biogenesis and of mature sperm in the bivalve molluscs Glycymeris sp. (Pteriomorphia) and Eurhomalea rufa (Heterodonta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Rosa; Sousa, Mário; Torres, Artur; Oliveira, Elsa; Baldaia, Luis

    2003-03-01

    Proacrosomal vesicles form during the pachytene stage, being synthetized by the Golgi complex in Glycymeris sp., and by both the Golgi and the rough endoplasmic reticulum in Eurhomalea rufa. During early spermiogenesis, a single acrosomal vesicle forms and its apex becomes linked to the plasma membrane while it migrates. In Glycymeris sp., the acrosomal vesicle then turns cap-shaped (1.8 μm) and acquires a complex substructure. In E. rufa, proacrosomal vesicles differentiate their contents while still at the premeiotic stage; as the acrosomal vesicle matures and its contents further differentiate, it elongates and becomes longer than the nucleus (3.2 μm), while the subacrosomal space develops a perforatorium. Before condensation, chromatin turns fibrillar in Glycymeris sp., whereas it acquires a cordonal pattern in E. rufa. Accordingly, the sperm nucleus of Glycymeris sp. is conical and elongated (8.3 μm), and that of E. rufa is short and ovoid (1.1 μm). In the midpiece (Glycymeris sp.: 1.1 μm; E. rufa: 0.8 μm), both species have four mitochondria encircling two linked orthogonal (Glycymeris sp.) or orthogonal and tilted (30-40°; E. rufa) centrioles. In comparison with other Arcoida species, sperm of Glycymeris sp. appear distinct due to the presence of an elongated nucleus, a highly differentiated acrosome, and four instead of five mitochondria. The same occurs with E. rufa regarding other Veneracea species, with the acrosome of the mature sperm strongly resembling that of the recent Mytilinae.

  20. Growth and development of chicks of two species of partridge: the grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and the chukar (Alectoris chukar).

    PubMed

    Pis, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    1. In two partridge species, the grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and chukar (Alectoris chukar), from hatching up to 120 d, the growth rate and development of body mass, wing, tarsus, and bill length were measured and fitted by Gompertz equations. 2. As a typical precocial species, partridges hatched with relatively well developed legs and bills, and wing growth followed a gradual development of thermoregulation. 3. Gompertz growth constants for body mass growth were 0·039 and 0·038 for grey partridges and chukars, respectively. 4. The allometric relationship between tarsus length and body mass followed a geometric similarity (1/3 power) in both grey partridges and chukars.

  1. Female choice in the red mason bee, Osmia rufa (L.) (Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Conrad, Taina; Paxton, Robert J; Barth, Friedrich G; Francke, Wittko; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    Females are often thought to use several cues and more than one modality in selection of a mate, possibly because they offer complementary information on a mate's suitability. In the red mason bee, Osmia rufa, we investigated the criteria a female uses to choose a mating partner. We hypothesized that the female uses male thorax vibrations and size as signs of male viability and male odor for kin discrimination and assessment of genetic relatedness. We therefore compared males that had been accepted by a female for copulation with those rejected, in terms of their size, their immediate precopulatory vibrations (using laser vibrometry), the genetic relatedness of unmated and mated pairs (using microsatellite markers) and emitted volatiles (using chemical analyses). Females showed a preference for intermediate-sized males that were slightly larger than the modal male size. Furthermore, male precopulatory vibration burst duration was significantly longer in males accepted for copulation compared with rejected males. Vibrations may indicate vigor and assure that males selected by females are metabolically active and healthy. Females preferentially copulated with males that were genetically more closely related, possibly to avoid outbreeding depression. Volatiles of the cuticular surface differed significantly between accepted and rejected males in the relative amounts of certain hydrocarbons, although the relationship between male odor and female preference was complex. Females may therefore also use differences in odor bouquet to select among males. Our investigations show that O. rufa females appear to use multiple cues in selecting a male. Future investigations are needed to demonstrate whether odor plays a role in kin recognition and how the multiple cues are integrated in mate choice by females.

  2. Prolonged postdiapause: influence on some indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of the red mason bee, Osmia rufa.

    PubMed

    Dmochowska, Kamila; Giejdasz, Karol; Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Zółtowska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Bees of the genus Osmia are being used in crop pollination at an increasing rate. However, a short life expectancy of adult individuals limits the feasibility of their use. Cocoons of the red mason bee, Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), can be stored at 4° C in a postdiapause state, and adult bees can be used for pollination outside their natural flight period. The period of storage in this form has an unfavorable influence on the survival rate, life expectancy, and fertility of the bee. It was suggested that the negative results are connected with exhaustion of energy reserves. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined the contents of protein, carbohydrates, lipids, and the activities of some enzymes, and their degradation in red mason bees that emerged in spring according to their biological clock and in summer after elongated diapause. It was found that postdiapause artificially elongated by 3 months caused significant decreases in body weight, total sugar, glycogen, lipids, and protein content in O. rufa. Glucose level was highest in bees that emerged in the summer, which was coincident with increased activities of maltase and trehalase. The activities of sucrase and cellobiase were not changed, while amylase activity was considerably decreased. The activities of triacylglycerols lipase and C2, C4, C10 carboxylesterases were highest in bees that emerged in July. Low temperatures restrict O. rufa emergence, and during prolonged postdiapause, metabolic processes lead to significant reductions of structural and energetic compounds.

  3. Prolonged Postdiapause: Influence on some Indicators of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism of the Red Mason Bee, Osmia rufa

    PubMed Central

    Dmochowska, Kamila; Giejdasz, Karol; Fliszkiewicz, Monika; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Bees of the genus Osmia are being used in crop pollination at an increasing rate. However, a short life expectancy of adult individuals limits the feasibility of their use. Cocoons of the red mason bee, Osmia rufa L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), can be stored at 4° C in a postdiapause state, and adult bees can be used for pollination outside their natural flight period. The period of storage in this form has an unfavorable influence on the survival rate, life expectancy, and fertility of the bee. It was suggested that the negative results are connected with exhaustion of energy reserves. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined the contents of protein, carbohydrates, lipids, and the activities of some enzymes, and their degradation in red mason bees that emerged in spring according to their biological clock and in summer after elongated diapause. It was found that postdiapause artificially elongated by 3 months caused significant decreases in body weight, total sugar, glycogen, lipids, and protein content in O. rufa. Glucose level was highest in bees that emerged in the summer, which was coincident with increased activities of maltase and trehalase. The activities of sucrase and cellobiase were not changed, while amylase activity was considerably decreased. The activities of triacylglycerols lipase and C2, C4, C10 carboxylesterases were highest in bees that emerged in July. Low temperatures restrict O. rufa emergence, and during prolonged postdiapause, metabolic processes lead to significant reductions of structural and energetic compounds. PMID:24219557

  4. The effect of wood ant Formica rufa nests on distribution and growth of Impatients parviflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holec, Michal; Holcová, Diana; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The effect of wood ants Formica rufa on distribution of introduces invasive jewelweed Impatiens parviflora was studied in oak forest in North west of the Czech Republic. Jewelweed occured only rarely in the forest floor, the average density was 3.2 plant m-2 here while on and around the ant nest mounds the jewelweed density reached 85.4 plant m-2. Jevelweed growing on the nest mounds were also significantly taller, bigger, with more flowers and produced more seeds that plants in surrounding forest floor. Better growth of jevelweed in ant nests apparently corresponds with significantly higher content of nitrates and available phosporus in the nest compare to forest floor. Seed collection experiment show that ants do not selectively collect jevelweed seeds but may collect them randomly in about the same rates as other organic material. This non targeted collection however may be sufficient to make sure that some seeds get close or in to the nest where population can grow vigorously due to suitable soil conditions.

  5. Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia

    PubMed Central

    Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Samuels, Gary J.; Dodd, Sarah L.; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2006-01-01

    The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1α gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri. PMID:18490991

  6. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  7. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Daniel E; Kofahl, Nathan; Fellers, Gary D; Gates, Natalie B; Houser, Dorian S

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210+/-32 mL d(-1)) and field metabolic rates (1,488+/-486 kJ d(-1)) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals.

  8. Effects of two water disinfectants (chloramine T and peracetic acid) on the epidermis and gills of Garra rufa used in human ichthyotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sirri, R; Zaccaroni, A; Di Biase, A; Mordenti, O; Stancampiano, L; Sarli, G; Mandrioli, L

    2013-01-01

    Doctor fish (Garra rufa) have recently been used for aesthetic purposes and as a medical treatment in patients with psoriasis (ichthyotherapy). For this particular kind of human therapy it is essential to guarantee adequate hygienic conditions for both people and fish. The aim of this study was to test two concentrations of water disinfectants, chloramine T and peracetic acid, on Garra rufa to ascertain possible exposure damage to the epidermis and gills. Fish were exposed to 2 mg/l and 10 mg/l of chloramine T and to 15 microl/l and 45 microl/l of peracetic acid in a 40-minute static bath up to six times a day for one week. The epidermis and gills were checked for histological changes and the number of epidermal mucous cells, club cells and taste buds were quantified; mucous cells were also characterized histochemically to detect alterations in mucin production. No mortality or severe histological changes were found in treated or control fish. Cell count showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mucous cells (mean 49.1 +/- 6.7 vs 37.0 +/- 13.1 of controls) in animals treated with peracetic acid independently of the dose. Club cell number showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in fish treated with 2 mg/l of chloramine T (mean 74.3 +/- 15.6) and with 45 microl/1 of peracetic acid (mean 78.17 +/- 10.5) compared to controls (mean 107.0 +/- 19.2). Histochemical evaluation of mucous cells did not reveal changes in mucin type in fish exposed to the two disinfectants. The results suggest a good tolerability of Garra rufa to the two disinfectants at the concentrations tested.

  9. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa (Rodentia: Aplodontiidae), from Oregon.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Two mountain beavers, Aplodontia rufa , were collected in Lincoln County, Oregon, and examined for coccidia. Both were infected with 2 new species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria chitkoae n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 24.5 × 20.2 μm, with a shape index (SI) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule of several fragments was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.5 × 7.9 μm, SI was 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies were present, but a parastieda body was absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a cluster of moderately coarse granules with many scattered fine granules. Stout sporozoites were 14.7 × 2.9 μm in situ, with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Oocysts of Eimeria lewisi n. sp. were ovoidal, with a smooth single-layered wall, and measured 13.7 × 7.8 μm, SI was 1.7. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) were present. Sporocysts were 6.6 × 4.2 μm, with SI of 1.6. A Stieda body was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a small cluster of several granules. Sporozoites were granular, 8.2 × 1.8 μm in situ, with a posterior refractile body. These are the first coccidians reported from the mountain beaver.

  10. Polyploidy Analysis and Attenuation of Oxidative Stress in Hepatic Tissue of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with an Aqueous Extract of Vochysia rufa

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Izabela Barbosa; Manzan-Martins, Camilla; de Gouveia, Neire Moura; Calábria, Luciana Karen; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Moraes, Alberto da Silva; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Due to its hypoglycemic effect Vochysia rufa is frequently used in Uberlandia, Brazil, to treat DM. Despite its popularity, there is little information about its effect on hepatic tissue. Therefore, we evaluated the histoarchitecture, oxidative stress parameters, and polyploidy of liver tissue from streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of Vochysia rufa (AEV). Histology was determined by fixing the livers, processing, and staining with HE. Oxidative stress was determined by evaluating CAT, GPx, and SOD activity in liver homogenates and hepatic mitochondria fraction and by measuring GST, GSH levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Polyploidy was determined by subjecting isolated hepatocyte nuclei to flow cytometry. In the diabetic group, GST activity and GSH rates decreased whereas liver homogenate analysis showed that GPx, SOD activity and MDA increased. AEV treatment restored all parameters to normal levels. The oxidative stress analysis of hepatic mitochondria fraction showed similar results. Lower polyploid cell populations were found in the diabetic rat livers, even after glibenclamide treatment. Thus, AEV treatment efficiently reduced hepatic oxidative stress caused by STZ-induced diabetes and produced no morphological changes in the histological analysis. PMID:25763088

  11. Influence of methoprene and temperature on diapause termination in adult females of the over-wintering solitary bee, Osmia rufa L.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2011-12-01

    Females of Osmia rufa, as most species in this genus, enter an obligatory diapause, overwintering as an imago inside a cocoon until the ensuing spring when after emergence - mating, egg development and oviposition occur. Diapause in this species is initiated in November, undergoes 2 months of a pre-wintering period that is terminated at the end of January, after 1 month of maintenance. In this study, factors that affect the termination of adult diapause in the female of this species were investigated. The experimental material consisted of bees that were brought from nests kept in natural conditions 1 month prior to natural termination of diapause. Three different experimental treatments were planned to evaluate the potential effect of methoprene and temperature on diapause termination. During the 5 day experimental period the first group of females was kept at 4°C, the second group at 15°C and the last group of females was kept at 20°C. All groups of females were treated with methoprene topically at a dose of 200 μg. After methoprene application a significant increase (p<0.001) in the size of terminal oocytes was recorded in the three experimental groups. However, no changes in the size of terminal oocytes between acetone treated and untreated control groups were observed. The number of oocytes progressively increased following topical application of methoprene compared to non-treated or acetone treated females. In successive applications of 200 μg methoprene gradual changes in ovary and fat body protein concentration were observed. As compared to controls, protein content in ovaries isolated from methoprene-treated females increased, whereas it decreased in fat body. The least differences in oocyte size and protein concentration in ovary and fat body between control groups and with methoprene application occurred at 4°C. Differences increased and were higher in females kept at 20°C and increased rapidly after methoprene application. Exposure to increasing

  12. Fire effects on the Point Reyes Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia rufa phaea) at Point Reyes National Seashore, 10 years after the Vision Fire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, Gary M.; Osbourn, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The 1995 Vision Fire burned 5000 ha and destroyed 40% of the habitat of the Point Reyes Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia rufa phaea). Surveys immediately post-fire and in 2000 showed that only 0.4 to 1.7% of Mountain Beavers within the burn area survived. In 2000, dense, ground-hugging Blue-blossom Ceanothus (Ceanothus thrysiflorus) appeared to make coastal scrub thickets much less suitable for Mountain Beavers even though the number of burrows at our 11 study sites had returned to 88% of pre-fire numbers. In 2005 (10 y post-fire), the habitat appeared to be better for Mountain Beavers; Blue-blossom Ceanothus had diminished and vegetation more typical of northern coastal scrub, such as Coyote Brush (Baccharis pilularis) overstory with a lower layer of herbaceous vegetation, had greatly increased; but the number of Mountain Beaver burrows had declined to 52% of pre-fire numbers and there was little change in the number of sites occupied between our 2000 and 2005 surveys. With the expected successional changes in thicket structure, Mountain Beaver populations are likely to recover further, but there will probably be considerable variation in how each population stabilizes.

  13. Effects of phosphorus application on photosynthetic carbon and nitrogen metabolism, water use efficiency and growth of dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa) subjected to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenggang; Wang, Yanjie; Pan, Kaiwen; Jin, Yanqiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa Yi), one of the staple foods for the endangered giant pandas, is highly susceptible to water deficit due to its shallow roots. In the face of climate change, maintenance and improvement in its productivity is very necessary for the management of the giant pandas' habitats. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant responses to water deficit are poorly known. To investigate the effects of P application on photosynthetic C and N metabolism, water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of dwarf bamboo under water deficit, a completely randomized design with two factors of two watering (well-watered and water-stressed) and two P regimes (with and without P fertilization) was arranged. P application hardly changed growth, net CO2 assimilation rate (P(n)) and WUE in well-watered plants but significantly increased relative growth rate (RGR) and P(n) in water-stressed plants. The effect of P application on RGR under water stress was mostly associated with physiological adjustments rather than with differences in biomass allocation. P application maintained the balance of C metabolism in well-watered plants, but altered the proportion of nitrogenous compounds in N metabolism. By contrast, P application remarkably increased sucrose-metabolizing enzymes activities with an obvious decrease in sucrose content in water-stressed plants, suggesting an accelerated sucrose metabolism. Activation of nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes in water-stressed plants was attenuated after P application, thus slowing nitrate reduction and ammonium assimilation. P application hardly enlarged the phenotypic plasticity of dwarf bamboo in response to water in the short term. Generally, these examined traits of dwarf bamboo displayed weak or negligible responses to water-P interaction. In conclusion, P application could accelerate P(n) and sucrose metabolism and slow N metabolism in water-stressed dwarf bamboo, and as a result improved RGR and alleviated damage from soil

  14. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus).

  15. Detecting hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives.

    PubMed

    Randi, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of free-ranging domestic or feral carnivores (dogs, cats) or ungulates (pigs, goats), and massive releases of captive-reproduced game stocks (galliforms, waterfowl) is raising fear that introgressive hybridization with wild populations might disrupt local adaptations, leading to population decline and loss of biodiversity. Detecting introgression through hybridization is problematic if the parental populations cannot be sampled (unlike in classical stable hybrid zones), or if hybridization is sporadic. However, the use of hypervariable DNA markers (microsatellites) and new statistical methods (Bayesian models), have dramatically improved the assessment of cryptic population structure, admixture analyses and individual assignment testing. In this paper, I summarize results of projects aimed to identify occurrence and extent of introgressive hybridization in European populations of wolves (Canis lupus), wildcats (Felis silvestris), rock partridges and red-legged partridges (Alectoris graeca and Alectoris rufa), using genetic methods. Results indicate that introgressive hybridization can be locally pervasive, and that conservation plans should be implemented to preserve the integrity of the gene pools of wild populations. Population genetic methods can be fruitfully used to identify introgressed individuals and hybridizing populations, providing data which allow evaluating risks of outbreeding depression. The diffusion in the wild of invasive feral animals, and massive restocking with captive-reproduced game species, should be carefully controlled to avoid loss of genetic diversity and disruption of local adaptations.

  16. Ecological studies of the psocids Liposcelis brunnea, L. rufa, L. pearmani, and Lepinotus reticulatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psocids (Psocoptera) are an emerging problem in grain storages, grain processing facilities, and product warehouses in the United States and many other countries. Development of effective pest management programs for psocids is dependent on having sound knowledge of their ecology. Given the limited ...

  17. Effects of dietary protein and energy concentrations on performance and carcase characteristics of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) raised in captivity.

    PubMed

    Ozek, K; Yazgan, O; Bahtiyarca, Y

    2003-07-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of starter and grower diets with differing crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations on the body weight (BW), live weight gain (LWG), feed consumption (FC), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcase, breast+back, rump, wing, neck and abdominal fat weights of chukar partridge raised in captivity. 2. Chukar partridges were fed on starter diets containing 4 concentrations of CP (160, 200, 240, 280 g/kg) and 4 concentrations of ME (10.9, 11.7, 12.6, 13.4 MJ/kg) from hatch to 8 weeks of age; they were fed on grower diets containing 4 concentrations of CP (150, 175, 200, 225 g/kg) and 4 concentrations of ME (11.9, 12.6, 13.2, 13.8 MJ/kg) from 9 to 16 weeks of age. All diets contained at least 5.5 g/kg methionine, 15 g/kg lysine and 10 g/kg methionine+cystine. Sixteen starter and 16 grower diets were arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial design with 4 levels of CP and 4 levels of ME. Each treatment was replicated three times with each replicate consisting of 5 males and 5 females. 3. Partridges fed on a starter diet containing 160 g CP/kg were significantly lighter at 8 weeks of age than those in groups given diets containing a higher CP. However, at 16 weeks of age, the differences in BW among treatments had disappeared. Throughout, there were no significant effects of ME concentration on BW and LWG. 4. The daily mean FC for the 0 to 8 week and 0 to 16 week periods was not affected by dietary CP concentration. For the 9 to 16 week period, the partridges fed on a grower diet containing 225 g CP/kg consumed more feed than those given a diet containing 175 g CP/kg. 5. The highest FCR for the 0 to 8 week period was in partridges fed on a starter diet containing 160 g CP/kg. For the 9 to 16 week period, the lowest FCR was in partridges fed on a grower diet containing 150 g CP/kg. For the 0 to 16 week period, there was not a significant effect of dietary CP concentration on FCR. The daily mean FC and the FCR for the 0 to 8, 9 to 16 and 0 to 16 week periods decreased when the ME concentration of the starter and grower diets increased. 6. The carcase, rump and breast+back weights of the male partridges increased when the ME content of the diets increased. Weights of all carcase components of the male partridges were significantly greater than those of the carcase components of the females. 7. There were no significant interactions between CP and ME concentrations on BW, LWG, FC, FCR and carcase characteristics. 8. We conclude that the starter diet for chukar partridges raised for meat production should contain at least 200 g CP/kg, 11.7 MJ ME/kg, and the grower diet should contain 150 g CP/kg, 12.6 MJ ME/kg.

  18. Measuring oxidative stress: the confounding effect of lipid concentration in measures of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Romero-Haro, Ana A; Sternalski, Audrey; Muriel, Jaime; Mougeot, Francois; Gil, Diego; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation products are widely used as markers of oxidative damage in the organism. To properly interpret the information provided by these markers, it is necessary to know potential sources of bias and control confounding factors. Here, we investigated the relationship between two indicators of lipid mobilization (circulating levels of triglycerides and cholesterol) and two common markers of oxidative damage (plasma levels of malondialdehyde and hydroperoxides; the latter estimated from the d-ROMs assay kit). The following five avian species were studied: red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor), marsh harrier (Circus aeroginosus), and Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus). In all cases, plasma triglyceride levels positively and significantly correlated with lipid peroxidation markers, explaining between 8% and 34% of their variability. Plasma cholesterol, in contrast, showed a significant positive relationship only among spotless starling nestlings and a marginally significant association in zebra finches. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation marker levels covary with circulating lipid levels. We discuss the potential causes and implications of this covariation and recommend that future studies that measure oxidative damage using lipid peroxidation markers report both raw and relative levels (i.e., corrected for circulating triglycerides). Whether the observed pattern also holds for other tissues and in other taxa would deserve further research.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism authentication of raw meats from game birds.

    PubMed

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Fajardo, Violeta; Martín, Irene; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis has been applied to the identification of meats from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), woodpigeon (Columba palumbus), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos). PCR amplification was performed using a set of primers flanking a conserved region of approximately 720 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Restriction site analysis based on sequence data from this DNA fragment permitted the selection of AluI and BfaI endonucleases for species identification. The restriction profiles obtained when amplicons were digested with the chosen enzymes allowed the unequivocal identification of all game bird species analyzed. However, the use of the PCR-RFLP technique described is limited to raw meat authentication. It is not suitable for cooked products because thermal treatment strongly accelerates DNA degradation leading to difficulties in amplifying the 720 bp fragment.

  20. Fractal geometry of a complex plumage trait reveals bird's quality.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Jovani, Roger; Mougeot, François

    2013-03-22

    Animal coloration is key in natural and sexual selection, playing significant roles in intra- and interspecific communication because of its linkage to individual behaviour, genetics and physiology. Simple animal traits such as the area or the colour intensity of homogeneous patches have been profusely studied. More complex patterns are widespread in nature, but they escape our understanding because their variation is difficult to capture effectively by standard, simple measures. Here, we used fractal geometry to quantify inter-individual variation in the expression of a complex plumage trait, the heterogeneous black bib of the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). We show that a higher bib fractal dimension (FD) predicted better individual body condition, as well as immune responsiveness, which is condition-dependent in our study species. Moreover, when food intake was experimentally reduced during moult as a means to reduce body condition, the bib's FD significantly decreased. Fractal geometry therefore provides new opportunities for the study of complex animal colour patterns and their roles in animal communication.

  1. Sublethal Pb exposure produces season-dependent effects on immune response, oxidative balance and investment in carotenoid-based coloration in red-legged partridges.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Coll, Núria; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Mougeot, François; Vidal, Dolors; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-03-17

    Ingestion of lead (Pb) shot pellets constitutes the main cause of Pb poisoning in avifauna. We studied the effects of sublethal Pb exposure on immunity, carotenoid-based coloration, oxidative stress and trade-offs among these types of responses during spring and autumn in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa). We evaluated constitutive immunity testing lysozyme and natural antibody levels, and blood bactericidal and phagocytic activities. We studied induced immunity by testing PHA and humoral responses. We analyzed fecal parasite and bacterial abundance and oxidative stress biomarkers. Pb exposure in spring reduced natural antibody levels, whereas in autumn, it reduced lysozyme levels and increased phagocytic activity. Pb exposure increased PHA response in both seasons, and decreased T-independent humoral response in autumn. Pb exposure also increased noncoliform and decreased coliform Gram-negative gut bacteria. In spring, Pb exposure decreased antioxidant levels and increased coloration in males, whereas in autumn, it increased retinol levels but reduced coloration in both genders. Our results suggest that in spring, Pb-exposed females used antioxidants to cope with oxidative stress at the expense of coloration, whereas Pb-exposed males increased coloration, which may reflect an increased breeding investment. In autumn, both genders prioritized oxidative balance maintenance at the expense of coloration.

  2. Predator-prey relationships in a Mediterranean vertebrate system: Bonelli's eagles, rabbits and partridges.

    PubMed

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Gil-Sánchez, José M; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Barea-Azcón, José M; Virgós, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    How predators impact on prey population dynamics is still an unsolved issue for most wild predator-prey communities. When considering vertebrates, important concerns constrain a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of predator-prey relationships worldwide; e.g. studies simultaneously quantifying 'functional' and 'numerical responses' (i.e., the 'total response') are rare. The functional, the numerical, and the resulting total response (i.e., how the predator per capita intake, the population of predators and the total of prey eaten by the total predators vary with prey densities) are fundamental as they reveal the predator's ability to regulate prey population dynamics. Here, we used a multi-spatio-temporal scale approach to simultaneously explore the functional and numerical responses of a territorial predator (Bonelli's eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus) to its two main prey species (the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and the red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa) during the breeding period in a Mediterranean system of south Spain. Bonelli's eagle responded functionally, but not numerically, to rabbit/partridge density changes. Type II, non-regulatory, functional responses (typical of specialist predators) offered the best fitting models for both prey. In the absence of a numerical response, Bonelli's eagle role as a regulating factor of rabbit and partridge populations seems to be weak in our study area. Simple (prey density-dependent) functional response models may well describe the short-term variation in a territorial predator's consumption rate in complex ecosystems.

  3. Astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone in the skin of birds: a chromatic convergence of two metabolic routes with different precursors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael; Guzmán Bernardo, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa Carmen; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Carotenoids are organic pigments involved in several important physiological functions and may serve as indicators of individual quality in animals. These pigments are only obtained by animals from the diet, but they can be later transformed into other carotenoids by specific enzymatic reactions. The diet of farm-reared and probably wild red-legged partridges ( Alectoris rufa) is mainly based on cereals that contain high levels of lutein and zeaxanthin. These two carotenoids are also predominant in internal tissues and blood of red-legged partridges. However, in their integuments, astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone (the last one identified in this work) are mainly present in their free form and esterified with fatty acids. According to available literature about carotenoid metabolism in animals, we propose that astaxanthin ( λ max = 478 nm) and papilioerythrinone ( λ max = 452-478 nm) are the result of a chromatic convergence of the transformation of dietary zeaxanthin and lutein, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained in this work provide the first identification by liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer system of papilioerythrinone ( m/z 581.3989 [M + H]+) in the skin (i.e., not feathers) of a vertebrate. Astaxanthin and papilioerythrinone are very close in terms of chemical structure and coloration, and the combination of these two keto-carotenoids is responsible for the red color of the ornaments in red-legged partridges.

  4. Real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Bagaza virus.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Dolores; Rocha, Ana; Tena-Tomás, Cristina; Vigo, Marta; Agüero, Montserrat; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2012-09-01

    In September 2010, an outbreak of disease in 2 wild bird species (red-legged partridge, Alectoris rufa; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) occurred in southern Spain. Bagaza virus (BAGV) was identified as the etiological agent of the outbreak. BAGV had only been reported before in Western Africa (Central African Republic, Senegal) and in India. The first occurrence of BAGV in Spain stimulated a demand for rapid, reliable, and efficacious diagnostic methods to facilitate the surveillance of this disease in the field. This report describes a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method based on a commercial 5'-Taq nuclease-3' minor groove binder DNA probe and primers targeting the Bagaza NS5 gene. The method allowed the detection of BAGV with a high sensitivity, whereas other closely related flaviviruses (Usutu virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus) were not detected. The assay was evaluated using field samples of red-legged partridges dead during the outbreak (n = 11), as well as samples collected from partridges during surveillance programs (n = 81). The results were compared to those obtained with a pan-flaviviral hemi-nested RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, which was employed originally to identify the virus involved in the outbreak. The results obtained with both techniques were 100% matching, indicating that the newly developed real-time RT-PCR is a valid technique for BAGV genome detection, useful in both diagnosis and surveillance studies.

  5. Monitoring of the Bagaza virus epidemic in wild bird species in Spain, 2010.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, I; Zorrilla, I; Rodríguez, E; Rayas, E; Camacho, L; Redondo, I; Gómez-Guillamón, F

    2013-04-01

    By the end of August 2010, high mortalities in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were detected in several hunting states in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). Retrospective epidemiological studies revealed that the first clinical signs had been observed in late July-early August. The most common clinical signs were incoordination, disorientation and ataxia. The estimated mean morbidity rates were 37% in partridges and 11% in pheasants. The estimated mean mortality rates were 23% in partridges and 6% in pheasants. The estimated mean case-fatality rates were 38% and 8% in partridges and pheasants, respectively. A total of 19 clinically affected birds from 18 affected hunting states were analysed between August and November 2011. Histopathological analyses revealed encephalitis, myocarditis, leiomyositis, meningoencephalitis and neuritis as the most frequently observed lesions. Molecular analyses identified Bagaza virus (BAGV) as the causative agent of the epidemic. Further studies are needed to determine the source of introduction of the virus into Europe and to elucidate whether wild birds play a role in the epidemiology of BAGV. Surveillance in susceptible bird species, including partridges and pheasants, may be useful for the early detection of BAGV in an area.

  6. Assessing the Risk of Fipronil-Treated Seed Ingestion and Associated Adverse Effects in the Red-Legged Partridge.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Camarero, Pablo R; Mougeot, François; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-11-17

    Fipronil is an insecticide commonly used in agriculture, but there are growing concerns over its environmental impacts (e.g., harmful effects on pollinators). Fipronil-treated seed ingestion might threaten granivorous farmland birds, in particular, Gallinaceous birds that are particularly sensitive to this insecticide. We report here on exposure risk and effects in a game bird of high socioeconomic importance, the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). We fed captive birds with untreated maize (controls) or with a mixture of untreated-treated maize (ratio 80:20; exposed birds) during 10 days at the beginning of the breeding period (n = 12 pairs in each group). We first show that exposed partridges did not reject treated seeds but reduced food intake and lost body condition. We further studied the effects of treated seed ingestion on adult survival, oxidative balance, plasma biochemistry, carotenoid-based coloration, cellular immune response, steroid hormone levels, and reproduction. Fipronil exposure altered blood biochemistry and sexual hormone levels and reduced cellular immune response, antioxidant levels, and carotenoid-based coloration. Exposed pairs also had reduced egg fecundation rate and produced eggs with fewer antioxidants and offspring that had reduced cellular immune response. These negative effects on adult partridges, their reproductive performance, and offspring quality highlight that fipronil-treated seed ingestion is a significant threat to wild birds.

  7. Adverse effects of thiram-treated seed ingestion on the reproductive performance and the offspring immune function of the red-legged partridge.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; García-de Blas, Esther; Camarero, Pablo R; Mougeot, Francois; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    Pesticide research traditionally has focused on compounds with high acute toxicity or persistence, but the adverse sublethal effects of pesticides with different properties also may have important consequences on exposed wildlife. The authors studied the effects of thiram, a fungicide used for seed coating with known effects as endocrine disruptor. Red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa; n = 15 pairs per treatment group) were fed wheat treated with 0%, 20%, or 100% of the thiram application rate used in autumn (25 d) and late winter (10 d) to mimic cereal sowing periods. The authors studied the effects on reproductive performance, carotenoid-based ornamentation and cellular immune responsiveness of adult partridges, and their relationship with changes in oxidative stress biomarkers and plasma biochemistry. The authors also studied the effect of parental exposure on egg antioxidant content and on the survival, growth, and cellular immune response of offspring. Exposure to thiram-coated seeds delayed egg laying, reduced clutch size, and affected egg size and eggshell thickness. Partridges exposed to the 20% thiram dose exhibited reduced egg fertility and brood size (55% and 28% of controls, respectively). Chick survival was unaffected by parental exposure to treated seeds, but adverse effects on their growth rate and cellular immune response were apparent. These effects on reproduction and immune function may have important demographic consequences on farmland bird populations.

  8. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    PubMed

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus.

  9. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for endangered red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) at wintering and migratory sites in Argentina.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Verónica L; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M

    2010-04-01

    We obtained hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for adult, long-distance migrant Red Knots at their southernmost wintering site in Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) and at the first stopover site in San Antonio Oeste (Río Negro, Argentina). Lymphocytes (L) followed by heterophils (H) were the most abundant leukocytes. H/L ratio and glucose levels were significantly higher at Río Grande, possibly because of the stress of migration and molting. Packed cell volume results ranged widely, probably in response to increased oxygen demand for migration. Protein profiles and lipids were higher at the stopover site and attributable to birds storing reserves for subsequent flights.

  10. 78 FR 60023 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for the Rufa Red Knot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... knots make one of the longest distance migrations known in the animal kingdom, traveling up to 19,000... dynamics (e.g., rates and patterns of ice sheet growth versus loss). Scientists are working to improve...

  11. Anatomical and histological structure of the tongue and histochemical characteristics of the lingual salivary glands in the Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar, Gray 1830).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, S; Sağsöz, H; Akbalik, M E

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to examine the morphology of the tongue and the histochemical features of the lingual salivary glands in this species. 2. The tongue was elongated, terminating in a rather sharp, dagger-like apex. On the surface of the tongue and situated between the body and root of the tongue, two rows of conical papillae, the sharp apices of which pointed towards the posterior part of the tongue, were observed. The keratinised epithelium lining the dorsal surface lacked typical gustatory papillae. However, it was observed that taste buds were present in the epithelium of the lingual body and root. The tongue was supported by a structure composed of hyaline cartilage, the paraglossum, which extended from the lingual root to the apex. Simple branched tubular glands, which were encapsulated by connective tissue, were embedded within the submucosa in the body (anterior salivary glands) and root (posterior salivary glands) of the tongue. It was observed that the secretion of the lingual glands contained neutral mucins, proteoglycans containing carboxylic acid, weak and strong sulphated groups, N-acetylated sialomucins, but lacked glycogen. 3. It was demonstrated that, the general morphological features, papillary distribution of the tongue and the histological structure of the mucosa epithelium and the supportive elements displayed similarity to those of other domestic avian species. It was also determined that, in view of the particular feeding types, in the partridge, the presence of the papillary crest was not correlated with diet.

  12. Effects of sex and protein and energy levels in the diet on the blood parameters of the chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar).

    PubMed

    Ozek, K; Bahtiyarca, Y

    2004-04-01

    1. The effects of sex and dietary composition were investigated in 48 male and 48 female 16-week old chukar partridges. 2. Sixteen starter and 16 grower diets were arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial design with 4 concentration of crude protein (CP) and 4 concentration of metabolizable energy (ME). 3. Blood samples were collected at 16 weeks of age and analysed for total protein, triglycerides, uric acid, total cholesterol, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and chlorine. 4. There were no significant effects of sex on the measured parameters. 5. Serum total protein was highest in partridges fed on a diet containing 200/175 g CP/kg (starter grower). Serum cholesterol concentrations of partridge fed the diet with 240/200 or 280/225 g CP/kg were significantly higher than that for partridge fed diets containing a lower gCP/kg. 6. Serum total protein and glucose levels significantly decreased as dietary energy level was increased. Serum triglycerides and calcium were highest in partridge fed on the diets containing 13.39/13.81 and 11.71/12.55 ME MJ/kg, respectively. Serum phosphorus and chloride levels were highest in partridges given the diet containing 10.88/11.92 ME MJ/kg. 7. There were significant interactions between the effects of CP and ME on serum triglycerides, sodium and potassium levels. 8 The results of this study suggested that dietary CP, and especially ME concentration, significantly affect blood parameters in chukar partridge.

  13. Serologic testing for avian influenza viruses in wild birds: comparison of two commercial competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Rodríguez, Vanessa; Sommer, Dagmar; Blanco, Juan Manuel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Höfle, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Serologic testing of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance poses problems due to species differences and nonspecific inhibitors that may be present in sera of wild birds. Recently available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits offer a new species-independent approach. In this study we compare two commercial competitive cELISAs, using a total of 184 serum and plasma samples from 23 species of wild birds belonging to 10 orders. Thirteen samples were from experimentally high pathogenicity AI and low pathogenicity AI infected red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), 77 samples were from a flock of sentinel hybrid ducks confirmed infected by AI by real-time PCR, and 94 samples were from wild birds admitted to a rehabilitation center. Both ELISAs detected AI antibodies in the experimentally infected partridges, whereas hemagglutination inhibition (HI) was negative. Concordance in results between the two ELISAs was 51.5%. When specific subtype-H5/H7 HI-positive samples were considered for comparison, ELISA 1 appeared to perform better on ducks, whereas ELISA 2 appeared to perform better in other wild bird species. Overall, 68.2% of H5/H7 positive samples tested positive by ELISA 1 and 36% by ELISA 2. Both ELISAs detected AIV-antibody-positive samples negative by specific HI against 9 of the 16 existing hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. Presumably this reflects either higher sensitivity of cELISA when compared to HI, presence of antibodies against HA subtypes not tested, or unspecific reactions. Performance of ELISA 1 on ducks appears to be comparable to in-house cELISA previously used by other authors in wild birds, but requires a relatively large sample volume. Alternatively, although ELISA 2 required a smaller sample volume, it was less effective at identifying HI-positive samples. The results reflect the necessity of validation of cELISA tests for individual species or at least families, as required by the OIE.

  14. Effect of Game Management on Wild Red-Legged Partridge Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Fernández, Silvia; Arroyo, Beatriz; Casas, Fabián; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Viñuela, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of game and fish populations has increased investment in management practices. Hunting and fishing managers use several tools to maximize harvest. Managers need to know the impact their management has on wild populations. This issue is especially important to improve management efficacy and biodiversity conservation. We used questionnaires and field bird surveys in 48 hunting estates to assess whether red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa young/adult ratio and summer abundance were related to the intensity of management (provision of supplementary food and water, predator control and releases of farm-bred partridges), harvest intensity or habitat in Central Spain. We hypothesized that partridge abundance would be higher where management practices were applied more intensively. Variation in young/adult ratio among estates was best explained by habitat, year and some management practices. Density of feeders and water points had a positive relationship with this ratio, while the density of partridges released and magpies controlled were negatively related to it. The variables with greatest relative importance were feeders, releases and year. Variations in post-breeding red-legged partridge abundance among estates were best explained by habitat, year, the same management variables that influenced young/adult ratio, and harvest intensity. Harvest intensity was negatively related to partridge abundance. The other management variables had the same type of relationship with abundance as with young/adult ratio, except magpie control. Variables with greatest relative importance were habitat, feeders, water points, releases and harvest intensity. Our study suggests that management had an overall important effect on post-breeding partridge abundance. However, this effect varied among tools, as some had the desired effect (increase in partridge abundance), whereas others did not or even had a negative relationship (such as release of farm-reared birds) and can be

  15. Experimental approaches to test pesticide-treated seed avoidance by birds under a simulated diversification of food sources.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-10-15

    Pesticide coated seeds are known to be potentially toxic for birds, but the risk of poisoning will depend on how likely the individuals are to consume them. To refine the risk assessment of coated seed consumption by birds we studied the consumption and avoidance of seeds treated with imidacloprid, thiram, maneb or rhodamine B under different scenarios of food unpredictability (diversity or changes in food sources). In a first set of experiments, we examined during four days the amount of ingested food by red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) when offered untreated seeds, treated seeds or both. In the latter case, we also assessed the effect of a daily interchange in the position of feeders containing treated and untreated food. A second experiment, conducted with imidacloprid only, consisted of offering, during 27 h, fixed overall amounts of treated and untreated food, equally distributed in a different number of feeders per pen (1, 2, 4 or 8 feeders of each type of food) in order to diversify food sources. All the tested pesticide-treated seeds were avoided in two-choice experiments, and imidacloprid and thiram were also avoided in one-choice experiments. We found that imidacloprid treated seeds were avoided, probably as a consequence of a conditioned aversion effect due to the post-ingestion distress. However, under a diversification of two-choice food sources with multiple feeders, imidacloprid-treated seeds were ingested by partridges at increasing amounts that can produce sublethal effects or even death. Thiram treated seeds were also initially avoided in one-choice experiment, but probably mediated by a sensory repellence that progressively decreased with time. Our results reveal that the risk of pesticide exposure in birds may increase by unpredictability of food resources or prolonged availability of coated seeds, so pesticide registration for seed coating should consider worst-case scenarios to avoid negative impacts on farmland birds.

  16. Bioaccessibility of Pb from Ammunition in Game Meat Is Affected by Cooking Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Rafael; Baos, Ana R.; Vidal, Dolors; Camarero, Pablo R.; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of lead (Pb) ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe) can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w.) than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g). The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75%) and wine (4.51%) than in uncooked meat (0.7%). Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA) show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. Conclusions/Significance Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account. PMID:21264290

  17. Laying the Foundations for a Human-Predator Conflict Solution: Assessing the Impact of Bonelli's Eagle on Rabbits and Partridges

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Gil-Sánchez, José M.; Barea-Azcón, José M.; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Background Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable –in conservation terms– Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the predation impact (‘kill rate’ and ‘predation rate’, i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3–2.5%) for both prey and seasons. Conclusions/Significance The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the ‘partridge-eating eagle’ in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area. PMID:21818399

  18. Thermoregulation strategies in ants in comparison to other social insects, with a focus on red wood ants ( Formica rufa group)

    PubMed Central

    Kadochová, Štěpánka; Frouz, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Temperature influences every aspect of ant biology, especially metabolic rate, growth and development. Maintenance of high inner nest temperature increases the rate of sexual brood development and thereby increases the colony fitness. Insect societies can achieve better thermoregulation than solitary insects due to the former’s ability to build large and elaborated nests and display complex behaviour. In ants and termites the upper part of the nest, the mound, often works as a solar collector and can also have an efficient ventilation system. Two thermoregulatory strategies could be applied. Firstly the ants use an increased thermal gradient available in the mound for brood relocation. Nurse workers move the brood according to the thermal gradients to ensure the ideal conditions for development. A precise perception of temperature and evolution of temperature preferences are needed to make the correct choices. A second thermoregulatory strategy used by mound nesting ants is keeping a high temperature inside large nests. The unique thermal and insulation properties of the nest material help to maintain stable conditions, which is the case of the Wood ant genus Formica. Ants can regulate thermal loss by moving nest aggregation and alternating nest ventilation. Metabolic heat produced by ant workers or associated micro organisms is an important additional source of heat which helps to maintain thermal homeostasis in the nest. PMID:24715967

  19. Thermoregulation strategies in ants in comparison to other social insects, with a focus on red wood ants ( Formica rufa group).

    PubMed

    Kadochová, Stěpánka; Frouz, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Temperature influences every aspect of ant biology, especially metabolic rate, growth and development. Maintenance of high inner nest temperature increases the rate of sexual brood development and thereby increases the colony fitness. Insect societies can achieve better thermoregulation than solitary insects due to the former's ability to build large and elaborated nests and display complex behaviour. In ants and termites the upper part of the nest, the mound, often works as a solar collector and can also have an efficient ventilation system. Two thermoregulatory strategies could be applied. Firstly the ants use an increased thermal gradient available in the mound for brood relocation. Nurse workers move the brood according to the thermal gradients to ensure the ideal conditions for development. A precise perception of temperature and evolution of temperature preferences are needed to make the correct choices. A second thermoregulatory strategy used by mound nesting ants is keeping a high temperature inside large nests. The unique thermal and insulation properties of the nest material help to maintain stable conditions, which is the case of the Wood ant genus Formica. Ants can regulate thermal loss by moving nest aggregation and alternating nest ventilation. Metabolic heat produced by ant workers or associated micro organisms is an important additional source of heat which helps to maintain thermal homeostasis in the nest.

  20. Supplementations of Hyparrhenia rufa -dominated hay with groundnut cake- wheat bran mix: effects on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of Somali goats.

    PubMed

    Betsha, Simret; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-08-01

    A digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance experiment was conducted using twenty yearling male Somali goats weighing 23.4 +/- 2.02 (mean+/-SD). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of supplementation with graded levels of mixture of groundnut cake and wheat bran at a ratio of 3:1 on DM basis on feed intake, apparent digestibility and N balance in Somali goats. The experimental design was a completely randomized design consisting of five animals in each treatment. The dietary treatments included ad libitum feeding of hay (T1, control), and daily supplementation with 200 (T2, low) 300 (T3, medium) and 400 g DM (T4, high) of the concentrate mix. Increased level of supplementation reduced (P < 0.001) daily hay DM intake. Digestibility of crude protein (CP) was higher (P < 0.001) for the supplemented goats. Urinary nitrogen, total nitrogen excretion and retention increased (P < 0.01) with the level of supplementation. It was concluded that supplementation with groundnut -wheat bran mixture promoted feed intake and digestibility of DM, CP, and N retention in Somali goats fed hay. However, supplementation at the medium level appeared to be more effective since it promoted similar N balance with the high level of supplementation.

  1. Specific carotenoid pigments in the diet and a bit of oxidative stress in the recipe for producing red carotenoid-based signals

    PubMed Central

    García-de Blas, Esther; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Colorful ornaments have been the focus of sexual selection studies since the work of Darwin. Yellow to red coloration is often produced by carotenoid pigments. Different hypotheses have been formulated to explain the evolution of these traits as signals of individual quality. Many of these hypotheses involve the existence of a signal production cost. The carotenoids necessary for signaling can only be obtained from food. In this line, carotenoid-based signals could reveal an individual’s capacity to find sufficient dietary pigments. However, the ingested carotenoids are often yellow and became transformed by the organism to produce pigments of more intense color (red ketocarotenoids). Biotransformation should involve oxidation reactions, although the exact mechanism is poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that carotenoid biotransformation could be costly because a certain level of oxidative stress is required to correctly perform the conversion. The carotenoid-based signals could thus reveal the efficiency of the owner in successfully managing this challenge. In a bird with ketocarotenoid-based ornaments (the red-legged partridge; Alectoris rufa), the availability of different carotenoids in the diet (i.e. astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein) and oxidative stress were manipulated. The carotenoid composition was analyzed and quantified in the ornaments, blood, liver and fat. A number of oxidative stress biomarkers were also measured in the same tissues. First, we found that color and pigment levels in the ornaments depended on food levels of those carotenoids used as substrates in biotransformation. Second, we found that birds exposed to mild levels of a free radical generator (diquat) developed redder bills and deposited higher amounts of ketocarotenoids (astaxanthin) in ornaments. Moreover, the same diquat-exposed birds also showed a weaker resistance to hemolysis when their erythrocytes were exposed to free radicals, with females also enduring higher oxidative

  2. A novel feruloyl esterase from rumen microbial metagenome: Gene cloning and enzyme characterization in the release of mono- and diferulic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feruloyl esterase (FAE) gene was isolated from a rumen microbial metagenome, cloned into E. coli, and expressed in active form. The enzyme (RuFae4) was classified as a Type D feruloyl esterase based on its action on synthetic substrates and ability to release diferulates. The RuFae4 alone releas...

  3. Detecting land-use/land-cover change in rural-urban fringe areas using extended change-vector analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunyang; Wei, Anni; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2011-08-01

    Detecting land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes in rural-urban fringe areas (RUFAs) timely and accurately using satellite imagery is essential for land-use planning and management in China. Although traditional spectral-based change-vector analysis (CVA) can effectively detect LULC change in many cases, it encounters difficulties in RUFAs because of deficiencies in the spectral information of satellite images. To detect LULC changes in RUFAs effectively, this paper proposes an extended CVA approach that incorporates textural change information into the traditional spectral-based CVA. The extended CVA was applied to three different pilot RUFAs in China with different remotely sensed data, including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) images. The results demonstrated the improvement of the extended CVA compared to the traditional spectral-based CVA with the overall accuracy increased between 4.66% and 8.00% and the kappa coefficient increased between 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The advantage of the extended CVA lies in its integration of both spectral and textural change information to detect LULC changes, allowing for effective discrimination of LULC changes that are spectrally similar but texturally different in RUFAs. The extended CVA has great potential to be widely used for LULC-change detection in RUFAs, which are often heterogeneous and fragmental in nature, with rich textural information.

  4. Wintering Ecology of Shrubland Birds: Linking Landscape and Habitat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Sparrow Spizella passerina 11 2 3 12 28 Chukar Alectoris chukar 14 14 Cooper’s Hawk Accipiter cooperii 1 1 1 3 Costa’s Hummingbird...Cassin’s Sparrow Aimophila cassinii 8 8 Curve-billed Thrasher Toxostoma curvirostre 1 1 Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina 8 8 Crissal

  5. New host/parasite record for very rare chewing louse Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay, 1938) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) on endemic mountain partridges of Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Mohamed Gamal El-Den; Alahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The endemic avifauna of Arabia is unique and characteristic through the whole region. Little is known about these birds and their ectoparasites. The Arabian partridge Alectoris melanocephala (Rüppell, 1835) and Philby's partridge Alectoris philbyi Lowe, 1934 are two endemic species which are distributed through the Sarawat Mountains in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Captive breeding population of these birds were examined for chewing lice at the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) near Ta'if. Only one rare species of louse, Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay 1938), was found to infest these birds. The occurrence of such species is considered a first record of the genus Cuculotogaster from Saudi Arabia, and the association of C. arabicus with Philby's partridge is considered a new host/parasite association. The clear diagnostic characters, high definition photos, and drawing of male genitalia are available through this paper.

  6. Impact of fencing on the conservation of wildlife habitat in a sub-mountainous open scrub forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Mansoor; Naz, Nargis; Ashraf, Muhammad; Aqeel Ahmad, M. Sajid; Nawaz, Tahira; Chaudhry, Abdul Aleem

    2012-11-01

    In Pakistan, Lehri/Jindi evergreen open scrub forest is a characteristic habitat of critically or locally endangered species including Punjab urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) and leopard (Panthera pardus), and the important game species desert hare (Lepus nigricollis), black francolin (Francolinus francolinus), grey francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus), see-see partridge (Ammoperdix griseogularis) and chukor partridge (Alectoris chukar). Four separate fenced enclosures were established to maintain captive Punjab urial population in a semi-wild state. Vegetation surveys were conducted through permanently laid quadrats to explore its impact on native flora in 1987-1992 before the fencing was installed and then 2003-2007 over a decade after the fencing was installed.

  7. Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of physiopathological importance.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Maria Luiza V; Sampaio, Misako U

    2009-09-01

    Obtained from leguminous seeds, various plant proteins inhibit animal proteinases, including human, and can be considered for the development of compounds with biological activity. Inhibitors from the Bowman-Birk and plant Kunitz-type family have been characterized by proteinase specificity, primary structure and reactive site. Our group mostly studies the genus Bauhinia, mainly the species bauhinioides, rufa, ungulata and variegata. In some species, more than one inhibitor was characterized, exhibiting different properties. Although proteins from this group share high structural similarity, they present differences in proteinase inhibition, explored in studies using diverse biological models.

  8. Detection of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) genome and its replicative RNA form in various hosts and possible ways of spread.

    PubMed

    Celle, Olivier; Blanchard, Philippe; Olivier, Violaine; Schurr, Frank; Cougoule, Nicolas; Faucon, Jean-Paul; Ribière, Magali

    2008-05-01

    Detection of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is reported for the first time in two species of ants (Camponotus vagus and Formica rufa) and in Varroa destructor. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method was used to detect and quantify CBPV in infected bees, ants and mites. A minus-strand-specific RT-PCR was used to assess viral replication. These results suggest a new way by which the infection may be spread and other sites of viral persistence in the close apiary environment.

  9. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching to 14 days-post-hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e. wing-assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. PMID:25165451

  10. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified.

  11. Genotoxic evaluation of the River Paranaíba hydrographic basin in Monte Carmelo, MG, Brazil, by the Tradescantia micronucleus

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Carlos F.; Pereira, Boscolli B.; de Campos-Junior, Edimar O.; Sousa, Eduardo F.; Souto, Henrique N.; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pollutants have adverse effects on human health and on other organisms that inhabit or use water resources. The aim of the present study was to assess the environmental quality of three watercourses in Monte Carmelo, MG, Brazil, using the micronucleus test on Tradescantia. For each treatment, 15 plants were exposed to water samples for 24 h. The control group was exposed to formaldehyde (0.2%) and the negative control to Hoagland solution. Subsequently the plants were placed in Hoagland solution for 24 h to recover. Cells were stained with 2% acetic carmine and examined by light microscopy. Three hundred tetrads were analyzed per slide. The frequency of genotoxic alterations was expressed as the number of micronuclei per 100 tetrads, and the groups were compared by ANOVA. At all sample sites for each watercourse significant genotoxicity indices were observed. The results suggest that in the Mumbuca creek, the current situation of effluent discharge should be reconsidered by the municipal environmental authorities. The increase in micronucleus frequency denoted for water samples of the Mumbuca creek, Lambari river and Perdizes river emphasizes the need to adopt environmental vigilance strategies, such as biological monitoring. PMID:26692158

  12. Pathogens of wild maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Curi, Nelson Henrique; Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Campos Cordeiro Malta, Marcelo; Magni, Elisa Maria Vaz; Sábato, Marco Aurelio Lima; Araújo, Amanda Soriano; Lobato, Zelia Inês Portela; Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Santos, Hudson Andrade; Ragozo, Alessandra Alves Mara; de Souza, Silvio Luís Pereira

    2012-10-01

    The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered Neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. Diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. We performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from Galheiro Natural Private Reserve, Perdizes City, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. We found high prevalences of antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV; 13/14), canine parvovirus (CPV; 4/14), canine adenovirus type 2 (13/14), canine coronavirus (5/11), canine parainfluenza virus (5/5), and Toxoplasma gondii (6/8), along with Ancylostomidae eggs in all feces samples. Antibodies against Leishmania sp. were found in one of 10 maned wolves, and all samples were negative for Neospora caninum. Evidence of high exposure to these viral agents was also observed in unvaccinated domestic dogs from neighboring farms. High prevalence of viral agents and parasites such as CDV, CPV, and Ancylostomidae indicates that this population faces considerable risk of outbreaks and chronic debilitating parasites. This is the first report of exposure to canine parainfluenza virus in Neotropical free-ranging wild canids. Our findings highlight that canine pathogens pose a serious hazard to the viability of maned wolves and other wild carnivore populations in the area and emphasize the need for monitoring and protecting wildlife health in remaining fragments of the Cerrado biome.

  13. High-density interspecific genetic maps of kiwifruit and the identification of sex-specific markers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Yifei; VanBuren, Robert; Yao, Xiaohong; Zhong, Caihong; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planchon) is an important specialty fruit crop that suffers from narrow genetic diversity stemming from recent global commercialization and limited cultivar improvement. Here, we present high-density RAD-seq-based genetic maps using an interspecific F1 cross between Actinidia rufa ‘MT570001’ and A. chinensis ‘Guihai No4’. The A. rufa (maternal) map consists of 2,426 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with a total length of 2,651 cM in 29 linkage groups (LGs) corresponding to the 29 chromosomes. The A. chinensis (paternal) map consists of 4,214 SNP markers over 3,142 cM in 29 LGs. Using these maps, we were able to anchor an additional 440 scaffolds from the kiwifruit draft genome assembly. Kiwifruit is functionally dioecious, which presents unique challenges for breeding and production. Three sex-specific simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers can be used to accurately sex type male and female kiwifruit in breeding programmes. The sex-determination region (SDR) in kiwifruit was narrowed to a 1-Mb subtelomeric region on chromosome 25. Localizing the SDR will expedite the discovery of genes controlling carpel abortion in males and pollen sterility in females. PMID:26370666

  14. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  15. High-density interspecific genetic maps of kiwifruit and the identification of sex-specific markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Yifei; VanBuren, Robert; Yao, Xiaohong; Zhong, Caihong; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-10-01

    Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planchon) is an important specialty fruit crop that suffers from narrow genetic diversity stemming from recent global commercialization and limited cultivar improvement. Here, we present high-density RAD-seq-based genetic maps using an interspecific F1 cross between Actinidia rufa 'MT570001' and A. chinensis 'Guihai No4'. The A. rufa (maternal) map consists of 2,426 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with a total length of 2,651 cM in 29 linkage groups (LGs) corresponding to the 29 chromosomes. The A. chinensis (paternal) map consists of 4,214 SNP markers over 3,142 cM in 29 LGs. Using these maps, we were able to anchor an additional 440 scaffolds from the kiwifruit draft genome assembly. Kiwifruit is functionally dioecious, which presents unique challenges for breeding and production. Three sex-specific simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers can be used to accurately sex type male and female kiwifruit in breeding programmes. The sex-determination region (SDR) in kiwifruit was narrowed to a 1-Mb subtelomeric region on chromosome 25. Localizing the SDR will expedite the discovery of genes controlling carpel abortion in males and pollen sterility in females.

  16. Do resources or natural enemies drive bee population dynamics in fragmented habitats?

    PubMed

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Schiele, Susanne

    2008-05-01

    The relative importance of bottom-up or top-down forces has been mainly studied for herbivores but rarely for pollinators. Habitat fragmentation might change driving forces of population dynamics by reducing the area of resource-providing habitats, disrupting habitat connectivity, and affecting natural enemies more than their host species. We studied spatial and temporal population dynamics of the solitary bee Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in 30 fragmented orchard meadows ranging in size from 0.08 to 5.8 ha in an agricultural landscape in central Germany. From 1998 to 2003, we monitored local bee population size, rate of parasitism, and rate of larval and pupal mortality in reed trap nests as an accessible and standardized nesting resource. Experimentally enhanced nest site availability resulted in a steady increase of mean local population size from 80 to 2740 brood cells between 1998 and 2002. Population size and species richness of natural enemies increased with habitat area, whereas rate of parasitism and mortality only varied among years. Inverse density-dependent parasitism in three study years with highest population size suggests rather destabilizing instead of regulating effects of top-down forces. Accordingly, an analysis of independent time series showed on average a negative impact of population size on population growth rates but provides no support for top-down regulation by natural enemies. We conclude that population dynamics of O. rufa are mainly driven by bottom-up forces, primarily nest site availability.

  17. The Ghost in the Shell : Local and Remote Forcing of a Coastal Bivalve Inhabiting the Humboldt Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The external skeleton of mollusc bivalves, the shell, can furnish a recording of the environmental changes to which the organisms and population are exposed during their lives. The bivalve's growth is subjected to the thermocline variability; which itself is affected by environmental and climatic events. A highly variable environment such as the Humboldt current system (HCS) requires tools capable of recording its variations over a wide range of periodicities. Upwelling, Coastal trapped waves (CTWs), El Niño Southern Oscillation, and Pacific decadal oscillation events contribute to this environmental and climatic variability. The thermocline depth is modified by these different events at their own time-scales (respectively, daily to weekly, intraseasonally, interseasonally to interannually, and on a decadal scale). The thermocline variation translates into changes in Sea surface temperature (SST) and in the qualitative and quantitative productivity of phytoplankton. These two environmental factors are critical to bivalve growth.The sclerochronological (increment width) and sclerochemical (δ18O and δ13C) study consisted on the analysis of the Chilean bivalve Eurhomalea rufa, collected in 2005, as a recorder of the environmental HCS variability. The calibration step identified daily, monthly, and annual marks in the growth patterns of E. rufa. The results confirmed that the thermocline variability mainly drives the bivalve's activity and led to the establishment of a paleotemperature equation. Moreover, periodogram and wavelet analyses exposed the respective impacts of each environmental event from daily to interannual periodicities. In particular, the growth pattern of E. rufa follows SST variability at an intraseasonal periodicity (~ 60 days) which is remotely induced by CTWs. CTWs are generated by Kelvin oceanic waves, which are formed primarily by eastward equatorial Pacific winds (e.g. Shaffer et al. 1997; Montecino and Lange 2009).Sclerochronological studies

  18. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of

  19. Wolbachia transmission dynamics in Formica wood ants

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The role of Wolbachia endosymbionts in shaping the mitochondrial diversity of their arthropod host depends on the effects they have on host reproduction and on the mode of transmission of the bacteria. We have compared the sequence diversity of wsp (Wolbachia surface protein gene) and the host mtDNA in a group of Formica ant species that have diverged approximately 0.5 million years ago (MYA). The aim was to study the relationship of Wolbachia and its ant hosts in terms of vertical and horizontal transmission of the bacteria. Results All studied ant species were doubly infected with two Wolbachia strains (wFex1 and wFex4) all over their geographical distribution area in Eurasia. The most common haplotypes of these strains were identical with strains previously described from a more distantly related Formica ant, with an estimated divergence time of 3.5 – 4 MYA. Some strain haplotypes were associated to the same or closely related mtDNA haplotypes as expected under vertical transmission. However, in several cases the wsp haplotypes coexisted with distant mtDNA haplotypes, a pattern which is more compatible with horizontal transmission of the bacteria. Conclusion Two lines of evidence suggest that the sharing of Wolbachia strains by all F. rufa species is rather due to horizontal than vertical transmission. First, the fact that endosymbiont strains identical to those of F. rufa ants have been found in another species that diverged 3.5–4 MYA strongly suggests that horizontal transfer can and does occur between Formica ants. Second, the frequent sharing of identical Wolbachia strains by distant mitochondrial lineages within the F. rufa group further shows that horizontal transmission has occurred repeatedly. Nevertheless, our dataset also provides some evidence for longer-term persistence of infection, indicating that Wolbachia infection within this host clade has been shaped by both horizontal and vertical transmission of symbionts. The fact that all

  20. Development of microsatellite markers for the apomictic triploid fern Myriopteris lindheimeri (Pteridaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Grusz, Amanda L.; Pryer, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for investigating the population dynamics of Myriopteris lindheimeri (Pteridaceae), an apomictic triploid fern endemic to deserts of the southwestern United States and Mexico. Methods and Results: Using 454 sequencing, 21 microsatellite markers were developed. Of these, 14 were polymorphic with up to five alleles per locus and eight markers amplified in one or more congeneric close relatives (M. covillei, M. fendleri, M. aurea, and M. rufa). To demonstrate marker utility, M. lindheimeri samples from three Arizona populations were genotyped at nine loci. For each population, diversity measures including percent polymorphic loci, frequency of heterozygotes across all loci, and genotypic diversity were calculated. Across the three populations, on average, 63% of loci were polymorphic, the average frequency of heterozygotes (across all loci) was 0.32, and average genotypic diversity was 0.34. Conclusions: These markers provide a foundation for future studies exploring polyploidy and apomixis in myriopterid ferns. PMID:26649266

  1. A revision and phylogenetic analysis of Stoiba Spaeth 1909 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chulwoo; Chaboo, Caroline S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Stoiba Spaeth, 1909 is revised with a phylogenetic analysis of 38 adult morphological characters for nine Stoiba species and 11 outgroup species (Mesomphaliini, Ischyrosonychini, and Hemisphaerotini). Four Cuban species of Stoiba were not sampled. Parsimony analysis located the four most parsimonious trees. The strict consensus (CI=0.59, RI=0.78, Steps=83) resolved the monophyly of Stoiba. The monophyly of Stoiba is supported by pale yellow antennae, antennomere VII broader than its length, and rounded basal line of pronotum. An illustrated key to ten species of Stoiba is provided along with a distribution map of 11 species. Stoiba rufa Blake is synonymized with Stoiba swartzii (Thunberg) by a morphological comparison which includes female genitalia. PMID:23129988

  2. The heavy metals cadmium, lead and mercury in raw materials of animal origin: evaluation of data from practice.

    PubMed

    Busch, J; Knödler, M; Kühn, M; Lipinski, A; Steinhoff, B

    2015-01-01

    Raw materials from animal origin are widely used in homoeopathy. Due to the lack of dedicated limits, the quality requirements for herbal drugs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and/or the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (Homöopathisches Arzneibuch, HAB), including limits for heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and mercury, have been applied. A recent database evaluation shows that for some raw materials of animal origin the Ph. Eur. limits for herbal drugs cannot be met in practice. For this reason proposals for new limits for cadmium, lead and mercury are made based on recent experiences from the companies' daily practice. These specific limits are suggested to be included in the individual monographs of the Ph. Eur. or at least the German HAB, respectively, for Ambra grisea, Euspongia officinalis, Formica rufa and Sepia officinalis.

  3. Babesia moshkovskii (Schurenkova, 1938) Laird and Lari, 1957; from the prairie falcon, Falco mexicanus, in Wyoming; with comments on other parasites found in this host.

    PubMed

    Croft, R E; Kingston, N

    1975-04-01

    Babesia moshkovskiiwas found in the blood of 6 of 30 downy (D) Prairie Falcons and in none of 5 adults (A) from Wyoming. Intestinal parasites included Neodiplostomum (C) spathula (A,3), Cladotaenia globifera, (A,1), Physaloptera sp., (A,1), and Serratospiculum amaculatum, (a,4). ornithodorus concanensis, (D,3), Thrassis francisi, (D,1), Opisocrostis sp., (D.1), Degeeriella rufa, (D,2), Simulium (E.) canonicola (D,2), and an unidentified hippoboscid fly, (D,2) were external parasites. It is considered that the soft tick, O. concanensis, is the most likely vector of the hematozoon. The morphological forms of B.moshkovskii are described and discussed. This is the first report of an avian babesoid on this continent.

  4. Intrinsic stability of Brassicaceae plasma membrane in relation to changes in proteins and lipids as a response to salinity.

    PubMed

    Chalbi, Najla; Martínez-Ballesta, Ma Carmen; Youssef, Nabil Ben; Carvajal, Micaela

    2015-03-01

    Changes in plasma membrane lipids, such as sterols and fatty acids, have been observed as a result of salt stress. These alterations, together with modification of the plasma membrane protein profile, confer changes in the physical properties of the membrane to be taken into account for biotechnological uses. In our experiments, the relationship between lipids and proteins in three different Brassicaceae species differing in salinity tolerance (Brassica oleracea, B. napus and Cakile maritima) and the final plasma membrane stability were studied. The observed changes in the sterol (mainly an increase in sitosterol) and fatty acid composition (increase in RUFA) in each species led to physical adaptation of the plasma membrane to salt stress. The in vitro vesicles stability was higher in the less tolerant (B. oleracea) plants together with low lipoxygenase activity. These results indicate that the proteins/lipids ratio and lipid composition is an important aspect to take into account for the use of natural vesicles in plant biotechnology.

  5. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Farashi, Azita; Kaboli, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimian, Hassan; Coad, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944) is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is “Vulnerable” according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956) within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822. PMID:24493966

  6. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Farashi, Azita; Kaboli, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimian, Hassan; Coad, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops Bruun & Kaiser, 1944) is a rare and endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known from a single locality in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran. This species is "Vulnerable" according to the IUCN Red List and is one of the top four threatened freshwater fish species in Iran. Yet, the taxonomic position of I. typhlops is uncertain. We examined phylogenetic relationships of this species with other species of the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Our results show that I. typhlops is monophyletic and is sister taxon of a cluster formed by Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) and Garra barreimiae (Fowler & Steinitz, 1956) within a clade that includes other species of the genus Garra. Based on previous molecular and morphological studies, as well as our new results, we recommend that I. typhlops should be transferred to the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822.

  7. Fire effects on the Point Reyes Mountain Beaver at Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, Gary M.; Pratt, David; Griffin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    In October 1995, a wildlands fire burned 5,000 ha on the Point Reyes peninsula, California, USA. In most of the nonforested areas, the fire effectively cleared the ground of litter and vegetation and revealed thousands of Point Reyes mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa phaea) burrow openings. In the first 6 months after the fire, we surveyed burned coastal scrub and riparian habitat to (1) count the number of burrow openings that existed at the time of the fire, and (2) evaluate whether signs of post-fire mountain beaver activity were evident. We estimated that only 0.4–1.7% of mountain beavers within the burn area survived the fire and immediate post-fire period. We monitored mountain beaver activity for 5 years at 8 sites where mountain beavers survived, and found little or no recovery. We estimate that the mountain beaver population will take 15–20 years post-fire to recover.

  8. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  9. GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany)

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Gabriele; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, approx. 3,000 Red Wood Ant (RWA; Formica rufa-group) mounds had been identified and correlated with tectonically active gas-permeable faults, mostly strike-slip faults. Linear alignment of RWA mounds and soil gas anomalies distinctly indicate the course of these faults, while clusters of mounds indicate crosscut zones of fault systems, which can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. This demonstrates that RWA are bioindicators for identifying active fault systems and useful where information on the active regime is incomplete or the resolution by technical means is insufficient. Abstract In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group) sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic fault zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip fault systems documented by quartz and ore veins and fault planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant fault systems. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO2, Helium, Radon and H2S) reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H2S in the fault systems, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel

  10. The Updated Phylogenies of the Phasianidae Based on Combined Data of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yong-Yi; Dai, Kun; Cao, Xue; Murphy, Robert W.; Shen, Xue-Juan; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of species in the Phasianidae, Order Galliformes, are the object of intensive study. However, convergent morphological evolution and rapid species radiation result in much ambiguity in the group. Further, matrilineal (mtDNA) genealogies conflict with trees based on nuclear DNA retrotransposable elements. Herein, we analyze 39 nearly complete mitochondrial genomes (three new) and up to seven nuclear DNA segments. We combine these multiple unlinked, more informative genetic markers to infer historical relationships of the major groups of phasianids. The nuclear DNA tree is largely congruent with the tree derived from mt genomes. However, branching orders of mt/nuclear trees largely conflict with those based on retrotransposons. For example, Gallus/Bambusicola/Francolinus forms the sister-group of Coturnix/Alectoris in the nuclear/mtDNA trees, yet the tree based on retrotransposable elements roots the former at the base of the tree and not with the latter. Further, while peafowls cluster with Gallus/Coturnix in the mt tree, they root at the base of the phasianids following Gallus in the tree based on retrotransposable elements. The conflicting branch orders in nuclear/mtDNA and retrotransposons-based trees in our study reveal the complex topology of the Phasianidae. PMID:24748132

  11. When hatchlings outperform adults: locomotor development in Australian brush turkeys (Alectura lathami, Galliformes)

    PubMed Central

    Dial, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Brandon E.

    2011-01-01

    Within Galliformes, megapods (brush turkey, malleefowl, scrubfowl) exhibit unique forms of parental care and growth. Hatchlings receive no post-hatching parental care and exhibit the most exaggerated precocial development of all extant birds, hatching with fully developed, flight-capable forelimbs. Rather than flying up to safety, young birds preferentially employ wing-assisted incline running. Newly hatched Australian brush turkeys (Alectura lathami) are extraordinarily proficient at negotiating all textured inclined surfaces and can flap-walk up inclines exceeding the vertical. Yet, as brush turkeys grow, their forelimb-dependent locomotor performance declines. In an attempt to elucidate how hatchlings perform so well, we analysed hindlimb forces and forelimb kinematics. We measured ground reaction forces (GRFs) for animals spanning the entire growth range (110–2000 g) as they ascended a variably positioned inclined ramp that housed a forceplate. These data are compared with a similar dataset for a chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) that exhibit a growth strategy typical of most other Galliformes and that demonstrate improved incline performance with increasing age. The brush turkeys' ontogenetic decline in incline running performance is accompanied by loss of traction at steep angles, reduced GRFs and increased wing-loading. We hypothesize that Australian brush turkeys, in contrast to other Galliformes, develop from forelimb-dominated young that exploit a variable terrain (e.g. mound nests, boulders, embankments, cliffs, bushes and trees) into hindlimb-dominated adults dependent on size and running speed to avoid predation. PMID:21047855

  12. A review of picobiine mites (Acari: Syringophilidae: Picobiinae) parasitising African birds.

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Hromada, Martin

    2013-07-01

    A fauna of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with African birds is revised. Two new monotypic genera are proposed, Gunabopicobia gen. n. for Picobia zumpti Lawrence, 1959 and Lawrencipicobia gen. n. for Picobia poicephali Skoracki et Dabert, 2002. These new genera differ from other genera of the subfamily by the following features: in females of Gunabopicobia, propodonotal setae vi are situated anterior to the level of setae ve; the narrow lateral propodonotal shields bear bases of setae vi, ve, si and se; the bases of setae 1a-1a are coalesced; the genital setae and the opisthosomal lobes are absent; the leg I with full set of solenidia and apodemes I are devoid of the thorn-like protuberances in the middle part. In females of Lawrencipicobia, the bases of setae 1a-1a are not coalesced; the propodonotal shield is entire; the genital setae are present; legs I are with full set of solenidia. Additionally, two new species belonging to Picobia Haller, 1878 are described, Picobia illadopsae sp. n. parasitising Illadopsis rufipennis (Sharpe) (Passeriformes: Pellorneidae) in Kenya and Picobia phoenicuri sp. n. infecting Phoenicurus moussieri (Olphe-Galliard) in Tunisia. The following species are redescribed, Columbiphilus alectoris (Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000), Lawrencipicobia poicephali (Skoracki et Dabert, 2001) comb. n. and Picobia phoeniculi (Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000). The key to the genera of the Picobiinae is provided.

  13. Three-Dimensional, High-Resolution Skeletal Kinematics of the Avian Wing and Shoulder during Ascending Flapping Flight and Uphill Flap-Running

    PubMed Central

    Baier, David B.; Gatesy, Stephen M.; Dial, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have shown that birds use their wings not only for flight, but also when ascending steep inclines. Uphill flap-running or wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is used by both flight-incapable fledglings and flight-capable adults to retreat to an elevated refuge. Despite the broadly varying direction of travel during WAIR, level, and descending flight, recent studies have found that the basic wing path remains relatively invariant with reference to gravity. If so, joints undergo disparate motions to maintain a consistent wing path during those specific flapping modes. The underlying skeletal motions, however, are masked by feathers and skin. To improve our understanding of the form-functional relationship of the skeletal apparatus and joint morphology with a corresponding locomotor behavior, we used XROMM (X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology) to quantify 3-D skeletal kinematics in chukars (Alectoris chukar) during WAIR (ascending with legs and wings) and ascending flight (AF, ascending with wings only) along comparable trajectories. Evidence here from the wing joints demonstrates that the glenohumeral joint controls the vast majority of wing movements. More distal joints are primarily involved in modifying wing shape. All bones are in relatively similar orientations at the top of upstroke during both behaviors, but then diverge through downstroke. Total excursion of the wing is much smaller during WAIR and the tip of the manus follows a more vertical path. The WAIR stroke appears “truncated” relative to ascending flight, primarily stemming from ca. 50% reduction in humeral depression. Additionally, the elbow and wrist exhibit reduced ranges of angular excursions during WAIR. The glenohumeral joint moves in a pattern congruent with being constrained by the acrocoracohumeral ligament. Finally, we found pronounced lateral bending of the furcula during the wingbeat cycle during ascending flight only, though the phasic pattern in chukars is

  14. Conservation priority of global Galliformes species based on phylogenetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youhua

    2014-06-01

    In this study, based on phylogenetic diversity (PD), I develop a conservation strategy for Galliformes species around the world. A cladogram of 197 Galliformes species derived from a previous study was used for calculating PD metrics. Branch length is an important aspect of the phylogenetic information a tree can convey, but 2 traditionally-used metrics, the number of phylogenetic groups to which a taxon belongs (I) and the proportion that each taxon contributes to the total diversity of the group (W), are fully node-based and do not take branch length into account. Therefore, to measure PD more appropriately, I combined a branch-related metric, pendant edge (P), in addition to I and W. A final combined rank for Galliformes species was obtained by summing the ranks of the 3 metrics. My results showed that the 5% top priority species for conserving evolutionary potential were Galloperdix lunulata, Haematortyx sanguiniceps, Margaroperdix madagarensis, Syrmaticus soemmerringii, Coturnix pectoralis, Polyplectron napoleonis, Alectoris melanocephala, Xenoperdix udzungwensis, Afropavo congensis and Syrmaticus reevesii. The current species priority ranking based on pylogenetic diversity and the official International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) ranking of Galliformes species was significantly correlated when considering the 5 categories of IUCN (critical endangered, endangered, vulnerable, near threatened and least concern). This indicated the feasibility of introducing the PD index into the network of IUCN regional Red List assessment. The 5% top priority countries selected using the complementarity principle possessing diversified Galliformes genetic resources were China, Indonesia, Mexico, India, Colombia, Australia, Brazil, Angola, Congo and Japan (in descending order). China, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, India and Colombia are consistently selected among the 4 top priority sets of richness, rarity, endemicity and PD. This result indicated that the priority

  15. Impact of transient climate change upon Grouse population dynamics in the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirovano, Andrea; Bocchiola, Daniele

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the effect of short to medium term weather condition, and of transient global warming upon wildlife species life history is essential to predict the demographic consequences therein, and possibly develop adaptation strategies, especially in game species, where hunting mortality may play an important role in population dynamics. We carried out a preliminary investigation of observed impact of weather variables upon population dynamics indexes of three alpine Grouse species (i.e. Rock Ptarmigan, Lagopus Mutus, Black Grouse, Tetrao Tetrix, Rock Partridge, Alectoris Graeca), nested within central Italian Alps, based upon 15 years (1995-2009) of available censuses data, provided by the Sondrio Province authority. We used a set of climate variables already highlighted within recent literature for carrying considerable bearing on Grouse population dynamics, including e.g. temperature at hatching time and during winter, snow cover at nesting, and precipitation during nursing period. We then developed models of Grouses' population dynamics by explicitly driving population change according to their dependence upon the significant weather variables and population density and we evaluated objective indexes to assess the so obtained predictive power. Eventually, we develop projection of future local climate, based upon locally derived trends, and upon projections from GCMs (A2 IPCC storyline) already validated for the area, to project forward in time (until 2100 or so) the significant climatic variables, which we then use to force population dynamics models of the target species. The projected patterns obtained through this exercise are discussed and compared against those expected under stationary climate conditions at present, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  16. Ontogeny of lift and drag production in ground birds

    PubMed Central

    Heers, Ashley M.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Dial, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    The juvenile period is often a crucial interval for selective pressure on locomotor ability. Although flight is central to avian biology, little is known about factors that limit flight performance during development. To improve understanding of flight ontogeny, we used a propeller (revolving wing) model to test how wing shape and feather structure influence aerodynamic performance during development in the precocial chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar, 4 to >100 days post hatching). We spun wings in mid-downstroke posture and measured lift (L) and drag (D) using a force plate upon which the propeller assembly was mounted. Our findings demonstrate a clear relationship between feather morphology and aerodynamic performance. Independent of size and velocity, older wings with stiffer and more asymmetrical feathers, high numbers of barbicels and a high degree of overlap between barbules generate greater L and L:D ratios than younger wings with flexible, relatively symmetrical and less cohesive feathers. The gradual transition from immature feathers and drag-based performance to more mature feathers and lift-based performance appears to coincide with ontogenetic transitions in locomotor capacity. Younger birds engage in behaviors that require little aerodynamic force and that allow D to contribute to weight support, whereas older birds may expand their behavioral repertoire by flapping with higher tip velocities and generating greater L. Incipient wings are, therefore, uniquely but immediately functional and provide flight-incapable juveniles with access to three-dimensional environments and refugia. Such access may have conferred selective advantages to theropods with protowings during the evolution of avian flight. PMID:21307057

  17. Flapping before Flight: High Resolution, Three-Dimensional Skeletal Kinematics of Wings and Legs during Avian Development.

    PubMed

    Heers, Ashley M; Baier, David B; Jackson, Brandon E; Dial, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small "protowings", and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained. Such traits are often thought to preclude extinct theropods from powered flight, yet young birds with similarly rudimentary anatomies flap-run up slopes and even briefly fly, thereby challenging longstanding ideas on skeletal and feather function in the theropod-avian lineage. Though skeletons and feathers are the common link between extinct and extant theropods and figure prominently in discussions on flight performance (extant birds) and flight origins (extinct theropods), skeletal inter-workings are hidden from view and their functional relationship with aerodynamically active wings is not known. For the first time, we use X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology to visualize skeletal movement in developing birds, and explore how development of the avian flight apparatus corresponds with ontogenetic trajectories in skeletal kinematics, aerodynamic performance, and the locomotor transition from pre-flight flapping behaviors to full flight capacity. Our findings reveal that developing chukars (Alectoris chukar) with rudimentary flight apparatuses acquire an "avian" flight stroke early in ontogeny, initially by using their wings and legs cooperatively and, as they acquire flight capacity, counteracting ontogenetic increases in aerodynamic output with greater skeletal channelization. In conjunction with previous work, juvenile birds thereby demonstrate that the initial function of developing wings is to enhance leg

  18. Flapping before Flight: High Resolution, Three-Dimensional Skeletal Kinematics of Wings and Legs during Avian Development

    PubMed Central

    Heers, Ashley M.; Baier, David B.; Jackson, Brandon E.; Dial, Kenneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the greatest transformations in vertebrate history involve developmental and evolutionary origins of avian flight. Flight is the most power-demanding mode of locomotion, and volant adult birds have many anatomical features that presumably help meet these demands. However, juvenile birds, like the first winged dinosaurs, lack many hallmarks of advanced flight capacity. Instead of large wings they have small “protowings”, and instead of robust, interlocking forelimb skeletons their limbs are more gracile and their joints less constrained. Such traits are often thought to preclude extinct theropods from powered flight, yet young birds with similarly rudimentary anatomies flap-run up slopes and even briefly fly, thereby challenging longstanding ideas on skeletal and feather function in the theropod-avian lineage. Though skeletons and feathers are the common link between extinct and extant theropods and figure prominently in discussions on flight performance (extant birds) and flight origins (extinct theropods), skeletal inter-workings are hidden from view and their functional relationship with aerodynamically active wings is not known. For the first time, we use X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology to visualize skeletal movement in developing birds, and explore how development of the avian flight apparatus corresponds with ontogenetic trajectories in skeletal kinematics, aerodynamic performance, and the locomotor transition from pre-flight flapping behaviors to full flight capacity. Our findings reveal that developing chukars (Alectoris chukar) with rudimentary flight apparatuses acquire an “avian” flight stroke early in ontogeny, initially by using their wings and legs cooperatively and, as they acquire flight capacity, counteracting ontogenetic increases in aerodynamic output with greater skeletal channelization. In conjunction with previous work, juvenile birds thereby demonstrate that the initial function of developing wings is to enhance leg

  19. Three-dimensional, high-resolution skeletal kinematics of the avian wing and shoulder during ascending flapping flight and uphill flap-running.

    PubMed

    Baier, David B; Gatesy, Stephen M; Dial, Kenneth P

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have shown that birds use their wings not only for flight, but also when ascending steep inclines. Uphill flap-running or wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is used by both flight-incapable fledglings and flight-capable adults to retreat to an elevated refuge. Despite the broadly varying direction of travel during WAIR, level, and descending flight, recent studies have found that the basic wing path remains relatively invariant with reference to gravity. If so, joints undergo disparate motions to maintain a consistent wing path during those specific flapping modes. The underlying skeletal motions, however, are masked by feathers and skin. To improve our understanding of the form-functional relationship of the skeletal apparatus and joint morphology with a corresponding locomotor behavior, we used XROMM (X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology) to quantify 3-D skeletal kinematics in chukars (Alectoris chukar) during WAIR (ascending with legs and wings) and ascending flight (AF, ascending with wings only) along comparable trajectories. Evidence here from the wing joints demonstrates that the glenohumeral joint controls the vast majority of wing movements. More distal joints are primarily involved in modifying wing shape. All bones are in relatively similar orientations at the top of upstroke during both behaviors, but then diverge through downstroke. Total excursion of the wing is much smaller during WAIR and the tip of the manus follows a more vertical path. The WAIR stroke appears "truncated" relative to ascending flight, primarily stemming from ca. 50% reduction in humeral depression. Additionally, the elbow and wrist exhibit reduced ranges of angular excursions during WAIR. The glenohumeral joint moves in a pattern congruent with being constrained by the acrocoracohumeral ligament. Finally, we found pronounced lateral bending of the furcula during the wingbeat cycle during ascending flight only, though the phasic pattern in chukars is opposite of

  20. Prevalence and Morphological Characterization of Cheilospirura hamulosa, Diesing, 1861 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea), from Partridges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Maryam; Rouhani, Soheila; Mobedi, Iraj; Rostami, Ali; Khazan, Hoshang; Ahoo, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study reports data on the prevalence, morphology, and morphometry of the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa on the basis of light and stereoscopic microscopy and also camera lucida. Specimens were recovered after necropsies of 100 partridges (Alectoris chukar) from Taleqan County in Alborz Province, Iran. The prevalence of C. hamulosa in partridges was of 30% with a mean intensity of 3.9 and range of infection of 1–12. The mean length and width of females were 17.5 ± 2.14 and 0.39 ± 0.04 mm, while those of males were 12.2 ± 0.67 and 0.3 ± 0.06 mm, respectively. The characteristic digitiform tail was observed in females, and the unequal spicules, caudal alae, and ten pairs of caudal papillae were seen in males. The taxonomic characteristic longitudinal cordons and muscular and glandular oesophagus were observed in both sexes. Ratio between cordons and body length in males and females was 1 : 1.33 and 1 : 1.68, respectively. Ratio between long and short spicules in males was 1 : 2.3. The average size of embryonated eggs was 51.25 × 29.5 μm. In the present study, C. hamulosa (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) is recorded for the first time from partridges in Iran. Therefore, the morphological characters described in this study will be useful in the future diagnostic and taxonomic studies of Acuarioidea family. PMID:26693346

  1. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  2. Summer spatial patterning of chukars in relation to free water in Western Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, R.T.; Bissonette, J.A.; Flinders, J.T.; Hooten, M.B.; Wilson, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Free water is considered important to wildlife in arid regions. In the western United States, thousands of water developments have been built to benefit wildlife in arid landscapes. Agencies and researchers have yet to clearly demonstrate their effectiveness. We combined a spatial analysis of summer chukar (Alectoris chukar) covey locations with dietary composition analysis in western Utah. Our specific objectives were to determine if chukars showed a spatial pattern that suggested association with free water in four study areas and to document summer dietary moisture content in relation to average distance from water. The observed data for the Cedar Mountains study area fell within the middle of the random mean distance to water distribution suggesting no association with free water. The observed mean distance to water for the other three areas was much closer than expected compared to a random spatial process, suggesting the importance of free water to these populations. Dietary moisture content of chukar food items from the Cedar Mountains (59%) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that of birds from Box Elder (44%) and Keg-Dugway (44%). Water developments on the Cedar Mountains are likely ineffective for chukars. Spatial patterns on the other areas, however, suggest association with free water and our results demonstrate the need for site-specific considerations. Researchers should be aware of the potential to satisfy water demand with pre-formed and metabolic water for a variety of species in studies that address the effects of wildlife water developments. We encourage incorporation of spatial structure in model error components in future ecological research. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  3. Initial transference of wild birds to captivity alters stress physiology.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Earle, Kristen A; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining wild animals in captivity has long been used for conservation and research. While often suggested that captivity causes chronic stress, impacts on the underlying stress physiology are poorly understood. We used wild-caught chukar (Alectoris chukar) as a model avian species to assess how the initial 10 days of captivity alters the corticosterone (CORT) secretory pathway. In the first few days of captivity, birds lost weight, had lower hematocrit and demonstrated changes in CORT concentrations. Both baseline and restraint-stress-induced CORT concentrations decreased by days 3-5 of captivity and remained significantly lower throughout the 10 days although stress-induced concentrations began to recover by day 9. To delineate potential mechanisms underlying these CORT changes, we evaluated alterations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Although chukar appear to be resistant to arginine vasotocin's (AVT) effects on CORT release, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulated CORT release; however, ACTH stimulation did not differ during the 10 days of captivity. In contrast, negative feedback axis sensitivity, as determined by both dexamethasone suppression as well as endogenous negative feedback, decreased by day 5 but was regained by day 9. In addition, the combined stressors of capture and long distance transport eliminated the animals' ability to mount an acute CORT response on the day following the move. Therefore, introduction into captivity appeared to shift the chukar into a temporary state of chronic stress that began to recover within 9days. The duration of these alterations likely varies due to differences in capture techniques, transport distance, and species studied.

  4. Colony-Level Differences in the Scaling Rules Governing Wood Ant Compound Eye Structure

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Craig D.; Niven, Jeremy E.

    2016-01-01

    Differential organ growth during development is essential for adults to maintain the correct proportions and achieve their characteristic shape. Organs scale with body size, a process known as allometry that has been studied extensively in a range of organisms. Such scaling rules, typically studied from a limited sample, are assumed to apply to all members of a population and/or species. Here we study scaling in the compound eyes of workers of the wood ant, Formica rufa, from different colonies within a single population. Workers’ eye area increased with body size in all the colonies showing a negative allometry. However, both the slope and intercept of some allometric scaling relationships differed significantly among colonies. Moreover, though mean facet diameter and facet number increased with body size, some colonies primarily increased facet number whereas others increased facet diameter, showing that the cellular level processes underlying organ scaling differed among colonies. Thus, the rules that govern scaling at the organ and cellular levels can differ even within a single population. PMID:27068571

  5. Deep-sea bigscales, pricklefishes, gibberfishes and whalefishes (Teleostei: Stephanoberycoidei) off Brazil: new records, range extensions for the south-western Atlantic Ocean and remarks on the taxonomy of Poromitra.

    PubMed

    Mincarone, M M; Di Dario, F; Costa, P A S

    2014-11-01

    The Stephanoberycoidei includes 23 genera and c. 94 species of deep-sea teleosts commonly known as bigscales, pricklefishes, gibberfishes and whalefishes. Stephanoberycoidei is one of the least known groups of deep-sea fishes, in spite of their apparent relative abundance in meso and bathypelagic depths. Nine species of the Stephanoberycoidei are reported here for the first time in Brazilian waters, and most of them represent new range extensions for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. Those species are Melamphaes polylepis, Melamphaes typhlops, Poromitra sp. and Scopeloberyx robustus (Melamphaidae), Acanthochaenus luetkenii and Stephanoberyx monae (Stephanoberycidae), Rondeletia bicolor and Rondeletia loricata (Rondeletiidae) and Gyrinomimus sp. (Cetomimidae). Occurrences of the pricklefish Scopelogadus mizolepis (Melamphaidae), the gibberfish Gibberichthys pumilus (Gibberichthyidae) and the velvet whalefish Barbourisia rufa (Barbourisiidae) are confirmed in the Brazilian exclusive economic zone, but previously published records of Poromitra capito and Melamphaes simus (Melamphaidae) in the region most likely represent misidentifications. Validities of the recently described Poromitra kukuevi and Poromitra indooceanica are discussed in light of new specimens of the genus collected in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. An identification key for the 13 species of Stephanoberycoidei reported off Brazil is also provided.

  6. The Impaired Viability of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines by the Recombinant Plant Kallikrein Inhibitor*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joana Gasperazzo; Diniz, Paula Malloy Motta; de Paula, Cláudia Alessandra Andrade; Lobo, Yara Aparecida; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Paschoalin, Thaysa; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Maza, Paloma Korehisa; Toledo, Marcos Sergio; Suzuki, Erika; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer, and kallikreins play an important role in the establishment of this disease. rBbKIm is the recombinant Bauhinia bauhinioides kallikreins inhibitor that was modified to include the RGD/RGE motifs of the inhibitor BrTI from Bauhinia rufa. This work reports the effects of rBbKIm on DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. rBbKIm inhibited the cell viability of DU145 and PC3 cells but did not affect the viability of fibroblasts. rBbKIm caused an arrest of the PC3 cell cycle at the G0/G1 and G2/M phases but did not affect the DU145 cell cycle, although rBbKIm triggers apoptosis and cytochrome c release into the cytosol of both cell types. The differences in caspase activation were observed because rBbKIm treatment promoted activation of caspase-3 in DU145 cells, whereas caspase-9 but not caspase-3 was activated in PC3 cells. Because angiogenesis is important to the development of a tumor, the effect of rBbKIm in this process was also analyzed, and an inhibition of 49% was observed in in vitro endothelial cell capillary-like tube network formation. In summary, we demonstrated that different properties of the protease inhibitor rBbKIm may be explored for investigating the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145. PMID:23511635

  7. Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P

    2015-07-01

    We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ≥ 90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees.

  8. Phosphorus supplementation of Nellore steers fed Yaragua/Stylo mixture in the Peruvian tropics.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, M G; Reyes, C; Clavo, N; Rodriguez, J; Valdivia, R; McDowell, L R

    1987-08-01

    Twenty-four yearling 11-month old Nellore steers initially weighing 180 kg were assigned to three treatments in a randomised complete block experiment lasting 392 days. Animals grazed continuously either Yaragua grass (Hyparrhenia rufa) or Yaragua/Stylo legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) and received the following treatments: A) Control, Yaragua plus common salt, B) Yaragua/Stylo plus common salt, and C) Yaragua/Stylo plus dicalcium phosphate/common salt (1:1). Mineral consumption in the three groups averaged 52 g per animal day-1. At 13 months daily liveweight gains/steer were 0.182, 0.409 and 0.483 kg for treatments of Yaragua, Yaragua/Stylo, and Yaragua/Stylo plus dicalcium phosphate/common salt mixture. Daily liveweight gains per ha were 0.488, 1.289, and 1.522 kg steer-1 for Yaragua, Yaragua/Stylo plus common salt and Yaragua/Stylo plus dicalcium phosphate/common salt. Steers receiving a legume (stylo) in the diet more than doubled weight gains (P less than 0.05) compared to controls with dicalcium phosphate further (P less than 0.05) increasing these gains.

  9. The establishment of species-specific primers for the molecular identification of ten stored-product psocids based on ITS2 rDNA.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Cui, Bing-Yi; Li, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Fan; Yang, Qian-Qian; Kučerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Cao, Yang; Li, Fu-Jun

    2016-02-16

    Psocids are important stored product pests found worldwide that can be spread through grain trade. Most stored-product psocids, including eggs, nymphs, and adults, are very small (~1 mm) and difficult to identify morphologically. Here, we collected 10 economically important stored-product Liposcelis spp. psocids (L. bostrychophila, L. entomophila, L. decolor, L. paeta, L. brunnea, L. corrodens, L. mendax, L. rufa, L. pearmani, and L. tricolor) from 35 geographical locations in 5 countries (China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, and the United States). The ITS2 rDNA gene was extracted and sequenced. The interspecific genetic distance of the stored-product psocids was significantly higher than the intraspecific genetic distance according to the barcoding gap analysis. Ten pairs of species-specific primers based on the ITS2 rDNA were developed for psocid identification. The sensitivity estimation indicated that the species-specific primers could correctly amplify the target ITS2 gene and successfully identify psocids at 1.0 ng/mL. Additionally, these species-specific primers could quantify specificity and identify 10 stored-product psocids; this approach could also be used to accurately identify other stored-product psocids. This work provides a practical approach for the precise examination of 10 stored-product psocid species and also contributes to the development of an identification method using ITS2 rDNA.

  10. An inconspicuous, conspicuous new species of Asian pipesnake, genus Cylindrophis (Reptilia: Squamata: Cylindrophiidae), from the south coast of Jawa Tengah, Java, Indonesia, and an overview of the tangled taxonomic history of C. ruffus (Laurenti, 1768).

    PubMed

    Kieckbusch, Max; Mecke, Sven; Hartmann, Lukas; Ehrmantraut, Lisa; O'shea, Mark; Kaiser, Hinrich

    2016-03-20

    We describe a new species of Cylindrophis currently known only from Grabag, Purworejo Regency, Jawa Tengah Pro-vince (Central Java), Java, Indonesia. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the presence of a single, eponymous subocular scale between the 3rd and 4th or 4th and 5th supralabial, preventing contact between the 4th or 5th supralabial and the orbit, and by having the prefrontal in narrow contact with or separated from the orbit. We preface our description with a detailed account of the tangled taxonomic history of the similar and putatively wide-ranging species C. ruffus, which leads us to (1) remove the name Scytale scheuchzeri from the synonymy of C. ruffus, (2) list the taxon C. rufa var. javanica as species inquirenda, and (3) synonymize C. mirzae with C. ruffus. We provide additional evidence to confirm that the type locality of C. ruffus is Java. Cylindrophis subocularis sp. nov. is the second species of Asian pipesnake from Java.

  11. GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany).

    PubMed

    Berberich, Gabriele; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-05-17

    In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group) sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic fault zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip fault systems documented by quartz and ore veins and fault planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant fault systems. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO₂, Helium, Radon and H₂S) reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H₂S in the fault systems, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel.

  12. Ant mound as an optimal shape in constructal design: solar irradiation and circadian brood/fungi-warming sorties.

    PubMed

    Kasimova, R G; Tishin, D; Obnosov, Yu V; Dlussky, G M; Baksht, F B; Kacimov, A R

    2014-08-21

    Sizes, shapes, ambient and in-dome temperature, incoming solar radiation and illumination are measured on a Formica rufa anthill in a mixed forest of the Volga-Kama National Reserve in Russia. These data are used in a conceptual model of insolation of a right conical surface by direct-beam, descending atmospheric and ascending ground-reflected radiation. Unlike a standard calculation of the energy flux intercepted by a solar panel, the anthill is a 3-D structure and double-integration of the cosine of the angle between the solar beams and normal to the surface is carried out for a "cozy trapezium", where the insects expose themselves and the brood to "morning" sunbathing pulses (Jones and Oldroyd, 2007). Several constructal design problems are formulated with the criteria involving either a pure solar energy gained by the dome or this energy, as a mathematical criterion, penalized by additive terms of mechanical energy (potential and friction) lost by the ants in their diurnal forays from a "heartland" of the nest to the sun-basking zone on the surface. The unique and global optima are analytically found, with the optimal tilt angle of the cone explicitly expressed through the zenith angle of the Sun and meteorological constants for the isotropic sky model.

  13. Biologically Inspired Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jaeho; Yang, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Ha Gon; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Yoo, Seunghyup; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2016-05-11

    Many animal species employ highly conspicuous traits as courtship signals for successful mating. Fireflies utilize their bioluminescent light as visual courtship signals. In addition to efficient bioluminescent light emission, the structural components of the firefly lantern also contribute to the enhancement of conspicuous optical signaling. Recently, these firefly lantern ultrastructures have attracted much interest and inspired highly efficient light management approaches. Here we report on the unique optical function of the hierarchical ultrastructures found in a firefly (Pyrocoelia rufa) and their biological inspiration of highly efficient organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications. The hierarchical structures are comprised of longitudinal nanostructures and asymmetric microstructures, which were successfully replicated using geometry-guided resist reflow, replica molding, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oxidation. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the bioinspired OLEDs was enhanced by up to 61%. The bioinspired OLEDs clearly showed side-enhanced super-Lambertian emission with a wide-viewing angle. The highly efficient light extraction and wide-angle illumination suggest how the hierarchical structures likely improve the recognition of firefly optical courtship signals over a wide-angle range. At the same time, the biologically inspired designs provide a new paradigm for designing functional optical surfaces for lighting or display applications.

  14. The Parasite Fauna of the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Nanna D; Skirnisson, Karl; Nielsen, Ólafur K

    2015-10-01

    We examined 46 Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) carcasses from Iceland for parasites, including 29 first-year birds and 17 second-year birds and older. Endoparasites observed were the trematodes Cryptocotyle lingua (prevalence 8%), Cryptocotyle concavum (4%), and Strigea sp. (8%); the cestode Mesocestoides sp. (27%); and the nematodes Eucoleus contortus (76%) and Serratospiculum guttatum (7%). Ectoparasites included the astigmatan mite Dubininia accipitrina (47%), a mesostigmatan rhynonyssid mite (4%), the tick Ixodes caledonicus (20%), the mallophagans Degeeriella rufa (90%) and Nosopon lucidum (7%), the flea Ceratophyllus vagabundus (7%), and the louse fly Ornithomya chloropus (7%). Cryptocotyle lingua, C. concavum, S. guttatum, D. accipitrina, I. caledonicus, and N. lucidum are new host records. Of the five most common parasites (prevalence ≥ 20%) only Mesocestoides sp. showed a significant age relationship, being more prevalent in adult falcons (P = 0.021). Eucoleus contortus was also more prevalent in adults with marginal statistical significance (P = 0.058). Frounce, caused by E. contortus (possibly also by Trichomonas gallinae, which was not searched for in the survey) was highly prevalent (43%), but did not show a relationship with host age (P = 0.210). Birds with frounce were in poorer body condition than healthy birds (P = 0.015).

  15. Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-11-24

    Garra mondica, new species, from the Mond River drainage in Iran is distinguished from its congeners by having 7½ branched dorsal-fin rays; the breast, belly and back in front of the dorsal-fin origin naked and 9+8 branched caudal-fin rays. Garra mondica is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin, except an unidentified species from the Kol River, by having two fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region. The identity of G. gymnothorax, a nominal species from the Karun River drainage, and G. crenulata, a nominal species from Central Iran, are discussed. Garra populations examined from the Karun have a unique mtDNA COI barcode sequence, but their diagnostic characters are not consistent with the description and syntypes of G. gymnothorax. G. crenulata is considered as a synonym of G. rufa. Two populations of Garra from the Kol River have a sequence of the COI barcode region very similar to G. mondica, but cannot be identified as G. mondica and their identity cannot be resolved here.

  16. Domesticating nature? Surveillance and conservation of migratory shorebirds in the "Atlantic Flyway".

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kristoffer

    2014-03-01

    Using a recent environmental controversy on the U.S. east coast over the conservation of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) as a lens, I present a history of North American efforts to understand and conserve migratory shorebirds. Focusing on a few signal pieces of American legislation and their associated bureaucracies, I show the ways in which migratory wildlife have been thoroughly enrolled in efforts to quantify and protect their populations. Interactions between wildlife biologists and endangered species have been described by some scholars as "domestication"-a level of surveillance and intervention into nonhuman nature that constitutes a form of dependence. I pause to reflect on this historical trajectory, pointing out the breaks and continuities with older forms of natural history. Using the oft-mobilized Foucauldian metaphor of the panopticon as a foil, I question the utility and ethics of too-easily declaring "domesticated" wildlife an act of "biopower." Instead, I argue that Jacob von Uexküll's "umwelt" from early ecology and ethology, and more contemporary Science and Technology Studies (STS) analyses emphasizing multiple ontologies, offer more illuminating accounts of endangered species science. Neither science, conservation, nor history are well-served by the conflation of wildlife "surveillance" with the language of Foucauldian discipline.

  17. Complexity of bioindicator selection for ecological, human, and cultural health: Chinook salmon and red knot as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Powers, Charles; Brown, Kevin; Clarke, James; Dey, Amanda; Kosson, David

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing bioindicators of ecological health that are also useful indicators for human health. Yet, human health assessment usually encompasses physical/chemical exposures and not cultural well-being. In this paper, we propose that bioindicators can be selected for all three purposes. We use Chinook or king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, a sandpiper) as examples of indicators that can be used to assess human, ecological, and cultural health. Even so, selecting endpoints or metrics for each indicator species is complex and is explored in this paper. We suggest that there are several endpoint types to examine for a given species, including physical environment, environmental stressors, habitat, life history, demography, population counts, and cultural/societal aspects. Usually cultural endpoints are economic indicators (e.g., number of days fished, number of hunting licenses), rather than the importance of a fishing culture. Development of cultural/societal endpoints must include the perceptions of local communities, cultural groups, and tribal nations, as well as governmental and regulatory communities (although not usually so defined, the latter have cultures as well). Endpoint selection in this category is difficult because the underlying issues need to be identified and used to develop endpoints that tribes and stakeholders themselves see as reasonable surrogates of the qualities they value. We describe several endpoints for salmon and knots that can be used for ecological, human, and cultural/societal health. PMID:25666646

  18. The establishment of species-specific primers for the molecular identification of ten stored-product psocids based on ITS2 rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Cui, Bing-Yi; Li, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Fan; Yang, Qian-Qian; Kučerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Cao, Yang; Li, Fu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Psocids are important stored product pests found worldwide that can be spread through grain trade. Most stored-product psocids, including eggs, nymphs, and adults, are very small (~1 mm) and difficult to identify morphologically. Here, we collected 10 economically important stored-product Liposcelis spp. psocids (L. bostrychophila, L. entomophila, L. decolor, L. paeta, L. brunnea, L. corrodens, L. mendax, L. rufa, L. pearmani, and L. tricolor) from 35 geographical locations in 5 countries (China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, and the United States). The ITS2 rDNA gene was extracted and sequenced. The interspecific genetic distance of the stored-product psocids was significantly higher than the intraspecific genetic distance according to the barcoding gap analysis. Ten pairs of species-specific primers based on the ITS2 rDNA were developed for psocid identification. The sensitivity estimation indicated that the species-specific primers could correctly amplify the target ITS2 gene and successfully identify psocids at 1.0 ng/mL. Additionally, these species-specific primers could quantify specificity and identify 10 stored-product psocids; this approach could also be used to accurately identify other stored-product psocids. This work provides a practical approach for the precise examination of 10 stored-product psocid species and also contributes to the development of an identification method using ITS2 rDNA. PMID:26880378

  19. Differential scaling within an insect compound eye.

    PubMed

    Perl, Craig D; Niven, Jeremy E

    2016-03-01

    Environmental and genetic influences cause individuals of a species to differ in size. As they do so, organ size and shape are scaled to available resources whilst maintaining function. The scaling of entire organs has been investigated extensively but scaling within organs remains poorly understood. By making use of the structure of the insect compound eye, we show that different regions of an organ can respond differentially to changes in body size. Wood ant (Formica rufa) compound eyes contain facets of different diameters in different regions. When the animal body size changes, lens diameters from different regions can increase or decrease in size either at the same rate (a 'grade' shift) or at different rates (a 'slope' shift). These options are not mutually exclusive, and we demonstrate that both types of scaling apply to different regions of the same eye. This demonstrates that different regions within a single organ can use different rules to govern their scaling, responding differently to their developmental environment. Thus, the control of scaling is more nuanced than previously appreciated, diverse responses occurring even among homologous cells within a single organ. Such fine control provides a rich substrate for the diversification of organ morphology.

  20. Effects of horseshoe crab harvest in delaware bay on red knots: Are harvest restrictions working?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niles, L.J.; Bart, J.; Sitters, H.P.; Dey, A.D.; Clark, K.E.; Atkinson, P.W.; Baker, Allan J.; Bennett, K.A.; Kalasz, K.S.; Clark, N.A.; Clark, J.; Gillings, S.; Gates, A.S.; Gonzalez, P.M.; Hernandez, D.E.; Minton, C.D.T.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Porter, R.R.; Ross, R.K.; Veitch, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Each May, red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) congregate in Delaware Bay during their northward migration to feed on horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) and refuel for breeding in the Arctic. During the 1990s, the Delaware Bay harvest of horseshoe crabs for bait increased 10-fold, leading to a more than 90% decline in the availability of their eggs for knots. The proportion of knots achieving weights of more than 180 grams by 26-28 May, their main departure period, dropped from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4 over 1997-2007. During the same period, the red knot population stopping in Delaware Bay declined by more than 75%, in part because the annual survival rate of adult knots wintering in Tierra del Fuego declined. Despite restrictions, the 2007 horseshoe crab harvest was still greater than the 1990 harvest, and no recovery of knots was detectable. We propose an adaptive management strategy with recovery goals and annual monitoring that, if adopted, will both allow red knot and horseshoe crab populations to recover and permit a sustainable harvest of horseshoe crabs.

  1. Stakeholder contributions to assessment, monitoring, and conservation of threatened species: black skimmer and red knot as case studies.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Larry; Tsipoura, Nellie; Mizrahi, David; Dey, Amanda; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2017-02-01

    Stakeholder contributions to conservation projects often occur during the problem formulation stage, yet the role of stakeholders throughout the process is seldom considered. We examine the diversity of state and federal agencies, conservation organizations, other non-governmental organizations, environmental justice communities, consultants, industry, and the general public in the conservation of red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) and black skimmer (Rynchops niger) in New Jersey. We suggest that (1) governmental agencies provide the legal, regulatory, and management framework, but it is often the universities, conservation organizations, consultants, and the public that conduct the research and perform activities that lead to increased research and conservation efforts; (2) departments within agencies may have conflicting mandates, making it difficult to resolve differences in actions; (3) there is often conflict among and within state agencies and conservation organizations about roles and priorities; and (4) the role of the public is critical to ongoing research and conservation efforts. Identification of all the relevant stakeholders is necessary to recognizing competing claims, identifying the threats, deciding how to manage the threats, and enhancing population viability. Conflicts occur even within an agency when one department oversees science and protection of populations and another oversees and fosters an industry (aquaculture or fisheries, or permits for off-road vehicles). Conflicts also occur between resource agencies, industry, and conservation organizations. Recognizing the different stakeholders and their mandates, and encouraging participation in the process, leads to a better understanding of the threats, risks, and possible solutions when conflicts arise. Tracking stakeholder viewpoints and actions can lead to increased involvement and conflict resolution.

  2. Comparing models of Red Knot population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Predictive population modeling contributes to our basic scientific understanding of population dynamics, but can also inform management decisions by evaluating alternative actions in virtual environments. Quantitative models mathematically reflect scientific hypotheses about how a system functions. In Delaware Bay, mid-Atlantic Coast, USA, to more effectively manage horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) harvests and protect Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations, models are used to compare harvest actions and predict the impacts on crab and knot populations. Management has been chiefly driven by the core hypothesis that horseshoe crab egg abundance governs the survival and reproduction of migrating Red Knots that stopover in the Bay during spring migration. However, recently, hypotheses proposing that knot dynamics are governed by cyclical lemming dynamics garnered some support in data analyses. In this paper, I present alternative models of Red Knot population dynamics to reflect alternative hypotheses. Using 2 models with different lemming population cycle lengths and 2 models with different horseshoe crab effects, I project the knot population into the future under environmental stochasticity and parametric uncertainty with each model. I then compare each model's predictions to 10 yr of population monitoring from Delaware Bay. Using Bayes' theorem and model weight updating, models can accrue weight or support for one or another hypothesis of population dynamics. With 4 models of Red Knot population dynamics and only 10 yr of data, no hypothesis clearly predicted population count data better than another. The collapsed lemming cycle model performed best, accruing ~35% of the model weight, followed closely by the horseshoe crab egg abundance model, which accrued ~30% of the weight. The models that predicted no decline or stable populations (i.e. the 4-yr lemming cycle model and the weak horseshoe crab effect model) were the most weakly supported.

  3. Stable isotope and pen feeding trial studies confirm the value of horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus eggs to spring migrant shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Link, W.A.; Osenton, P.C.; Carter, Daniel B.; Weber, R.G.; Clark, N.A.; Teece, M.A.; Mizrahi, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We used stable isotope (SI) methods in combination with pen feeding trials to determine the importance of eggs of the Atlantic horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus to migratory fattening of red knots Calidris canutus rufa and ruddy turnstones Arenaria interpres morinella during spring stopover in Delaware Bay. By manifesting measurable fractionation (ca +3?) and rapid turnover, blood plasma *15 nitrogen proved a functional marker for SI diet tracking during the short 3-week stopover. Blood samples from free-ranging knots (3 data sets) and turnstones (1 data set) produced similar convergence of plasma *15 N signatures with increasing body mass that indicated highly similar diets. Asymptotes deviated slightly (0.3? to 0.7?) from that of captive shorebirds fed a diet of only crab eggs during stopover, thus confirming a strong crab egg-shorebird linkage. The plasma *15N crab-egg diet asymptote was enriched ca +4.5? and therefore readily discriminated from that of either blue mussels Mytilus edulis or coquina clams Donax variabilis, the most likely alternative prey of knots in Delaware Bay. Crab eggs were highly palatable to captive knots and turnstones which achieved rates of mass gain (3?11 g/d) comparable to that of free-ranging birds. Peak consumption rates during hyperphagic events were 23,940 and 19,360 eggs/bird/d, respectively. The empirical conversions of eggs consumed to body mass gained (5,017 eggs/g for knots and 4,320 eggs/g for turnstones) indicate the large quantities of crab eggs required for the maintenance of these shorebird populations during stopover.

  4. Discovery and Development of Chemical Attractants Used to Trap Pestiferous Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter; Zhang, Qing-He

    2016-07-01

    Chemical attractants for trapping temperate social wasps have been discovered during the screening of chemicals as attractants for flies, the study of pentatomid bug pheromones, and the testing of volatiles of fermented sweet baits. Wasp attraction to these chemicals seems to be related to either food-finding or prey-finding behavior. Of these attractive chemicals, commercial lures marketed in North America for trapping wasps generally contain heptyl butyrate, or the combination of acetic acid and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Heptyl butyrate is a very good attractant for two major pest wasp species in North America and minor wasp pests in the Vespula rufa species group. The combination of acetic acid with isobutanol attracted nearly all North American pest species of social wasps, including yellowjackets (Vespula and Dolichovespula), a hornet (Vespa crabro), and several paper wasps (Polistes spp.). The testing of wasp chemical attractants in different geographic areas demonstrated responses of many wasp taxa and showed a broad potential scope for the marketing of trap lures. Comparisons of compounds structurally similar to isobutanol revealed similar activity with 2-methyl-1-butanol, which is now used commercially because of a vapor pressure that is more favorable than isobutanol for formulations and dispensers. Doses and concentrations needed for good wasp catches were determined for heptyl butyrate, acetic acid, isobutanol, and 2-methyl-1-butanol, either formulated in water or dispensed from a controlled release device. Trap designs were developed based on consumer considerations; visual appeal, ease and safety of use, and low environmental impact. The resultant lures and traps are marketed in numerous physical and on-line retail outlets throughout the United States and southern Canada.

  5. Neighbourhood Society: Nesting Dynamics, Usurpations and Social Behaviour in Solitary Bees

    PubMed Central

    Černá, Kateřina; Zemenová, Monika; Macháčková, Lenka; Kolínová, Zdislava; Straka, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecific cleptoparasitism represents a facultative strategy advantageous for reducing time and energy costs. However, only a few studies about nesting dynamics have described intraspecific cleptoparasitic behaviour in obligate solitary bees. We focused on nesting dynamics with the characterisation of nest owner replacements and frequency of true usurpation in four aggregating species belonging to different phylogenetic lineages – Andrena vaga (Andrenidae), Anthophora plumipes (Apidae), Colletes cunicularius (Colletidae), and Osmia rufa (Megachilidae). Our study, based on the regular observation of individually marked females, shows that nest owner replacement affects 10–45% of nests across all of the studied species and years. However, 39–90% of these nests had been abandoned before owner change and thus true nest usurpations represent only a part of observed nest replacement cases. Females tend to abandon their nests regularly and found new ones when they live long enough, which is in accordance with risk-spreading strategy. We suggest that the original facultative strategy of observed solitary bees during nest founding is not cleptoparasitism per se but rather reuse of any pre-existing nest (similar to “entering” strategy in apoid wasps). This is supported by gradual increase of nests founded by “entering” during the season with an increase in the number of available nests. Although the frequent reuse of conspecific nests results in frequent contact between solitary females, and rarely, in the short-term coexistence of two females in one nest, we detected unexpectedly low level of conflict in these neighbourhood societies. We suggest that nesting dynamics with regular nest switching and reusing reduces long-term and costly intraspecific aggression, a key factor for the origin and evolution of sociality. PMID:24066074

  6. Honeydew feeding in the solitary bee Osmia bicornis as affected by aphid species and nectar availability.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Roger; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg; Babendreier, Dirk

    2009-12-01

    Like honey bees (Apis mellifera), non-Apis bees could exploit honeydew as a carbohydrate source. In addition to providing carbohydrates, this may expose them to potentially harmful plant products secreted in honeydew. However, knowledge on honeydew feeding by solitary bees is very scarce. Here we determine whether the polylectic solitary bee Osmia bicornis (=O. rufa) collects honeydew under semi-field conditions, and whether this is affected by aphid species and presence of floral nectar. Bees were provided with oilseed rape plants containing flowers and/or colonies of either Myzus persicae or Brevicoryne brassicae. We used the total sugar level of the bee crop as a measure of the individual's nutritional state and the oligosaccharide erlose as indicator for honeydew consumption. Erlose was present in honeydews from both aphid species, while absent in oilseed rape nectar, nor being synthesized by O. bicornis. When bees were confined to a single honeydew type as the only carbohydrate source, consumption of M. persicae honeydew was confirmed for 47% of the bees and consumption of B. brassicae honeydew for only 3%. Increased mortality in the latter treatment provided further evidence that B. brassicae honeydew is an unsuitable food source for O. bicornis. All bees that were given the choice between honeydew and floral nectar showed significantly increased total sugar levels. However, the fact that no erlose was detected in these bees indicates that honeydew was not consumed when suitable floral nectar was available. This study demonstrates that honeydew exploitation by O. bicornis is dependent on honeydew type and the presence of floral nectar.

  7. Migration stopovers and the conservation of arctic-breeding Calidris sandpipers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Long-distance migration, one of the most physically demanding events in the animal kingdom, is well developed in many species of Charadriidae and Scolopacidae. Some shorebirds renowned for their extraordinary long-distance migrations, notably American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica), Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa), and White-rumped Sandpiper (C. fuscicollis), travel as many as 15,000 km between southern South American wintering grounds and Canadian Arctic breeding areas. Migration strategies of shorebirds vary in many aspects. There are remarkable accounts of shorebirds, such as northbound Red Knots, that stage a few key sites for 2-3 weeks and lay on extensive body stores, then fly nonstop for distances of [greater than or equal to] 2,500 km (Harrington 2001, Piersma et al. 2005). Less well known are the examples of populations that refuel only briefly at stopover sites, disperse broadly on the landscape, and fly shorter distances between sites (Skagen 1997, Haig et al. 1998, Warnock et al. 1998). This latter pattern applies to many long-distance migrant shorebirds that cross the interior plains of North America during spring and fall migrations. For them, interior wetland complexes provide critical refueling resources along the direct routes between summering and wintering grounds (Skagen et al. 1999). In this issue of The Auk, Krapu et al. (2006) describe patterns and implications of fat deposition by Semipalmated Sandpipers (C. pusilla), White-rumped Sandpipers, and Bairda??s Sandpipers (C. bairdii) refueling during northward migration across the prairies of mid-continental North Americaa?|

  8. Demographic consequences of migratory stopover: linking red knot survival to horseshoe crab spawning abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Smith, David; Kalasz, Kevin S.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Dey, Amanda D.; Clark, Nigel A.; Atkinson, Philip W.; Minton, Clive D.T.; Kendall, William

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how events during one period of the annual cycle carry over to affect survival and other fitness components in other periods is essential to understanding migratory bird demography and conservation needs. Previous research has suggested that western Atlantic red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations are greatly affected by horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) egg availability at Delaware Bay stopover sites during their spring northward migration. We present a mass-based multistate, capturerecapture/resighting model linking (1) red knot stopover mass gain to horseshoe crab spawning abundance and (2) subsequent apparent annual survival to mass state at the time of departure from the Delaware Bay stopover area. The model and analysis use capture-recapture/resighting data with over 16,000 individual captures and 13,000 resightings collected in Delaware Bay over a 12 year period from 1997–2008, and the results are used to evaluate the central management hypothesis that red knot populations can be influenced by horseshoe crab harvest regulations as part of a larger adaptive management effort. Model selection statistics showed support for a positive relationship between horseshoe crab spawning abundance during the stopover and the probability of red knots gaining mass (parameter coefficient from the top model b = 1.71, SE = 0.46). Our analyses also supported the link between red knot mass and apparent annual survival, although average estimates for the two mass classes differed only slightly. The addition of arctic snow depth as a covariate influencing apparent survival improved the fit of the data to the models (parameter coefficient from the top model b = 0.50, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate that managing horseshoe crab resources in the Delaware Bay has the potential to improve red knot population status.

  9. Acquisition and expression of memories of distance and direction in navigating wood ants.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A Sofia D; Philippides, Andrew; Collett, Tom S; Niven, Jeremy E

    2015-11-01

    Wood ants, like other central place foragers, rely on route memories to guide them to and from a reliable food source. They use visual memories of the surrounding scene and probably compass information to control their direction. Do they also remember the length of their route and do they link memories of direction and distance? To answer these questions, we trained wood ant (Formica rufa) foragers in a channel to perform either a single short foraging route or two foraging routes in opposite directions. By shifting the starting position of the route within the channel, but keeping the direction and distance fixed, we tried to ensure that the ants would rely upon vector memories rather than visual memories to decide when to stop. The homeward memories that the ants formed were revealed by placing fed or unfed ants directly into a channel and assessing the direction and distance that they walked without prior performance of the food-ward leg of the journey. This procedure prevented the distance and direction walked being affected by a home vector derived from path integration. Ants that were unfed walked in the feeder direction. Fed ants walked in the opposite direction for a distance related to the separation between start and feeder. Vector memories of a return route can thus be primed by the ants' feeding state and expressed even when the ants have not performed the food-ward route. Tests on ants that have acquired two routes indicate that memories of the direction and distance of the return routes are linked, suggesting that they may be encoded by a common neural population within the ant brain.

  10. [Research Award providing funds for a tracking video camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The award provided funds for a tracking video camera. The camera has been installed and the system calibrated. It has enabled us to follow in real time the tracks of individual wood ants (Formica rufa) within a 3m square arena as they navigate singly in-doors guided by visual cues. To date we have been using the system on two projects. The first is an analysis of the navigational strategies that ants use when guided by an extended landmark (a low wall) to a feeding site. After a brief training period, ants are able to keep a defined distance and angle from the wall, using their memory of the wall's height on the retina as a controlling parameter. By training with walls of one height and length and testing with walls of different heights and lengths, we can show that ants adjust their distance from the wall so as to keep the wall at the height that they learned during training. Thus, their distance from the base of a tall wall is further than it is from the training wall, and the distance is shorter when the wall is low. The stopping point of the trajectory is defined precisely by the angle that the far end of the wall makes with the trajectory. Thus, ants walk further if the wall is extended in length and not so far if the wall is shortened. These experiments represent the first case in which the controlling parameters of an extended trajectory can be defined with some certainty. It raises many questions for future research that we are now pursuing.

  11. Effects of elevated CO₂ and temperature on photosynthesis and leaf traits of an understory dwarf bamboo in subalpine forest zone, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongping; Zhang, Yuanbin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Korpelainen, Helena; Berninger, Frank; Li, Chunyang

    2013-06-01

    The dwarf bamboo (Fargesia rufa Yi), growing understory in subalpine dark coniferous forest, is one of the main foods for giant panda, and it influences the regeneration of subalpine coniferous forests in southwestern China. To investigate the effects of elevated CO₂, temperature and their combination, the dwarf bamboo plantlets were exposed to two CO₂ regimes (ambient and double ambient CO₂ concentration) and two temperatures (ambient and +2.2°C) in growth chambers. Gas exchange, leaf traits and carbohydrates concentration were measured after the 150-day experiment. Elevated CO₂ significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate (Anet ), intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi ) and carbon isotope composition (δ¹³C) and decreased stomatal conductance (g(s)) and total chlorophyll concentration based on mass (Chl(m)) and area (Chl(a)). On the other hand, elevated CO₂ decreased specific leaf area (SLA), which was increased by elevated temperature. Elevated CO₂ also increased foliar carbon concentration based on mass (C(m)) and area (C(a)), nitrogen concentration based on area (N(a)), carbohydrates concentration (i.e. sucrose, sugar, starch and non-structural carbohydrates) and the slope of the A(net)-N(a) relationship. However, elevated temperature decreased C(m), C(a) and N(a). The combination of elevated CO₂ and temperature hardly affected SLA, C(m), C(a), N(m), N(a), Chl(m) and Chl(a). Variables Anet and Na had positive linear relationships in all treatments. Our results showed that photosynthetic acclimation did not occur in dwarf bamboo at elevated CO₂ and it could adjust physiology and morphology to enable the capture of more light, to increase WUE and improve nutritional conditions.

  12. Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2005-12-01

    The number of avian species in which coronaviruses have been detected has doubled in the past couple of years. While the coronaviruses in these species have all been in coronavirus Group 3, as for the better known coronaviruses of the domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus [IBV], in Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), there is experimental evidence to suggest that birds are not limited to infection with Group 3 coronaviruses. In China coronaviruses have been isolated from peafowl (Pavo), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris; also isolated in Brazil), partridge (Alectoris) and also from a non-gallinaceous bird, the teal (Anas), all of which were being reared in the vicinity of domestic fowl. These viruses were closely related in genome organization and in gene sequences to IBV. Indeed, gene sequencing and experimental infection of chickens indicated that the peafowl isolate was the H120 IB vaccine strain, while the teal isolate was possibly a field strain of a nephropathogenic IBV. Thus the host range of IBV does extend beyond the chicken. Most recently, Group 3 coronaviruses have been detected in greylag goose (Anser anser), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and pigeon (Columbia livia). It is clear from the partial genome sequencing of these viruses that they are not IBV, as they have two additional small genes near the 3' end of the genome. Twenty years ago a coronavirus was isolated after inoculation of mice with tissue from the coastal shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). While it is not certain whether the virus was actually from the shearwater or from the mice, recent experiments have shown that bovine coronavirus (a Group 2 coronavirus) can infect and also cause enteric disease in turkeys. Experiments with some Group 1 coronaviruses (all from mammals, to date) have shown that they are not limited to replicating or causing disease in a single host. SARS-coronavirus has a wide host range. Clearly there is the potential for

  13. Aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-05-01

    Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is a form of locomotion in which a bird flaps its wings to aid its hindlimbs in climbing a slope. WAIR is used for escape in ground birds, and the ontogeny of this behavior in precocial birds has been suggested to represent a model analogous to transitional adaptive states during the evolution of powered avian flight. To begin to reveal the aerodynamics of flap-running, we used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and measured air velocity, vorticity, circulation and added mass in the wake of chukar partridge Alectoris chukar as they engaged in WAIR (incline 65-85 degrees; N=7 birds) and ascending flight (85 degrees, N=2). To estimate lift and impulse, we coupled our DPIV data with three-dimensional wing kinematics from a companion study. The ontogeny of lift production was evaluated using three age classes: baby birds incapable of flight [6-8 days post hatching (d.p.h.)] and volant juveniles (25-28 days) and adults (45+ days). All three age classes of birds, including baby birds with partially emerged, symmetrical wing feathers, generated circulation with their wings and exhibited a wake structure that consisted of discrete vortex rings shed once per downstroke. Impulse of the vortex rings during WAIR was directed 45+/-5 degrees relative to horizontal and 21+/-4 degrees relative to the substrate. Absolute values of circulation in vortex cores and induced velocity increased with increasing age. Normalized circulation was similar among all ages in WAIR but 67% greater in adults during flight compared with flap-running. Estimated lift during WAIR was 6.6% of body weight in babies and between 63 and 86% of body weight in juveniles and adults. During flight, average lift was 110% of body weight. Our results reveal for the first time that lift from the wings, rather than wing inertia or profile drag, is primarily responsible for accelerating the body toward the substrate during WAIR, and that partially developed wings, not yet

  14. Ontogeny of aerodynamics in mallards: comparative performance and developmental implications.

    PubMed

    Dial, Terry R; Heers, Ashley M; Tobalske, Bret W

    2012-11-01

    Wing morphology correlates with flight performance and ecology among adult birds, yet the impact of wing development on aerodynamic capacity is not well understood. Recent work using chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), a precocial flier, indicates that peak coefficients of lift and drag (C(L) and C(D)) and lift-to-drag ratio (C(L):C(D)) increase throughout ontogeny and that these patterns correspond with changes in feather microstructure. To begin to place these results in a comparative context that includes variation in life-history strategy, we used a propeller and force-plate model to study aerodynamic force production across a developmental series of the altricial-flying mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). We observed the same trend in mallards as reported for chukar in that coefficients of vertical (C(V)) and horizontal force (C(H)) and C(V):C(H) ratio increased with age, and that measures of gross-wing morphology (aspect ratio, camber and porosity) in mallards did not account for intraspecific trends in force production. Rather, feather microstructure (feather unfurling, rachis width, feather asymmetry and barbule overlap) all were positively correlated with peak C(V):C(H). Throughout ontogeny, mallard primary feathers became stiffer and less transmissive to air at both macroscale (between individual feathers) and microscale (between barbs/barbules/barbicels) levels. Differences between species were manifest primarily as heterochrony of aerodynamic force development. Chukar wings generated measurable aerodynamic forces early (<8 days), and improved gradually throughout a 100 day ontogenetic period. Mallard wings exhibited delayed aerodynamic force production until just prior to fledging (day 60), and showed dramatic improvement within a condensed 2-week period. These differences in timing may be related to mechanisms of escape used by juveniles, with mallards swimming to safety and chukar flap-running up slopes to take refuge. Future comparative work should test

  15. The masquerade game: marine mimicry adaptation between egg-cowries and octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P.; Ní Almhain, Íde; Ardila-Espitia, Néstor E.; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime; Forero-Shelton, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Background matching, as a camouflage strategy, is one of the most outstanding examples of adaptation, where little error or mismatch means high vulnerability to predation. It is assumed that the interplay of natural selection and adaptation are the main evolutionary forces shaping the great diversity of phenotypes observed in mimicry; however, there may be other significant processes that intervene in the development of mimicry such as phenotypic plasticity. Based on observations of background mismatching during reproduction events of egg-cowries, sea snails of the family Ovulidae that mimic the octocoral where they inhabit, we wondered if they match the host species diversity. Using observations in the field and molecular systematics, we set out to establish whether the different egg-cowrie color/shape polymorphisms correspond to distinct lineages restricted to specific octocoral species. Methods. Collection and observations of egg-cowries and their octocoral hosts were done using SCUBA diving between 2009 and 2012 at two localities in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), Malpelo Island and Cabo Corrientes (Colombia). Detailed host preference observations were done bi-annually at Malpelo Island. We analyzed the DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genes COIand 16S rDNA, extensively used in phylogenetic and DNA barcoding studies, to assess the evolutionary relationship among different egg-cowrie colorations and morphologies. Results. No genetic divergence among egg-cowries associated to different species of the same octocoral genus was observed based on the two mitochondrial genes analyzed. For instance, all egg-cowrie individuals from the two sampled localities observed on 8 different Pacifigorgia-Eugorgia species showed negligible mitochondrial divergence yet large morphologic divergence, which suggests that morphologies belonging to at least two sea snail species, Simnia avena(=S. aequalis) and Simnialena rufa, can cross-fertilize. Discussion. Our study

  16. The masquerade game: marine mimicry adaptation between egg-cowries and octocorals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Juan A; Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P; Ní Almhain, Íde; Ardila-Espitia, Néstor E; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime; Forero-Shelton, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Background matching, as a camouflage strategy, is one of the most outstanding examples of adaptation, where little error or mismatch means high vulnerability to predation. It is assumed that the interplay of natural selection and adaptation are the main evolutionary forces shaping the great diversity of phenotypes observed in mimicry; however, there may be other significant processes that intervene in the development of mimicry such as phenotypic plasticity. Based on observations of background mismatching during reproduction events of egg-cowries, sea snails of the family Ovulidae that mimic the octocoral where they inhabit, we wondered if they match the host species diversity. Using observations in the field and molecular systematics, we set out to establish whether the different egg-cowrie color/shape polymorphisms correspond to distinct lineages restricted to specific octocoral species. Methods. Collection and observations of egg-cowries and their octocoral hosts were done using SCUBA diving between 2009 and 2012 at two localities in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), Malpelo Island and Cabo Corrientes (Colombia). Detailed host preference observations were done bi-annually at Malpelo Island. We analyzed the DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genes COIand 16S rDNA, extensively used in phylogenetic and DNA barcoding studies, to assess the evolutionary relationship among different egg-cowrie colorations and morphologies. Results. No genetic divergence among egg-cowries associated to different species of the same octocoral genus was observed based on the two mitochondrial genes analyzed. For instance, all egg-cowrie individuals from the two sampled localities observed on 8 different Pacifigorgia-Eugorgia species showed negligible mitochondrial divergence yet large morphologic divergence, which suggests that morphologies belonging to at least two sea snail species, Simnia avena(=S. aequalis) and Simnialena rufa, can cross-fertilize. Discussion. Our study

  17. The New World filarial genus Molinema Freitas & Lent, 1939 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae), with a description of four new species parasitic in the Echimyidae (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Guerrero, R; Bain, O

    2001-03-01

    Four new species of Molinema (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae), parasites of echimyid rodents in South America, are described: M. algardneri n. sp. from Proechimys amphichoricus, M. barbarae n. sp. from P. cayennensis, both in Venezuela (Rio Negro and Cerro La Neblina, respectively), M. peruviensis n. sp. from P. steerei in Peru (lower Urubamba), and M. nattereri n. sp. (= Filaria diacantha Molin, 1858 pro parte) from Echimys ? didelphoides (= Loncheres rufa) in Brazil (Matto Grosso). They differ from each other and from the previously described species in the following characters: flat or concave head, cephalic ratio (distance between cephalic papillae in median view/lateral view), size and shape of the buccal capsule, length of the oesophagus, cuticular ornamentation of the female body, length of the ovijector, thick or slim female tail, area rugosa, long or short filament in the left spicule, heel in the right spicule, respective position of postcloacal papilla pairs 5 and 6, shape of the caudal lappets, terminal point present or absent, and the microfilariae. Molinema, which belongs to the worldwide Dipetalonema line, is distributed in two of the ten families of the Caviomorpha (South American Hystrichognathi have extended their distribution in South America since the early Oligocene). Nine species are parasitic in the Echimyidae (suborder Caviida); they have a short oesophagus and a complete or reduced set of precloacal papillae (four or three pairs). Two species are parasitic in the Erethizontidae (Erethizontida) and might be more primitive in having a well-developed oesophagus. However, the type-species M. diacantha, of which a female specimen was studied, has a large buccal capsule and has evolved concave head, while M. arbuta has a reduced buccal capsule and primitive flat head. This last species is a parasite of a Nearctic porcupine and probably represents a small line of Molinema which migrated to the north with its hosts when communications were established

  18. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  19. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyraporagen. n., Caribenagen. n., and Antillenagen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianaesp. n., Avicularia lynnaesp. n., and Avicularia caeisp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate

  20. Euophryine jumping spiders of the Afrotropical Region-new taxa and a checklist (Araneae: Salticidae: Euophryinae).

    PubMed

    Wesołowska, Wanda; Azarkina, Galina N; Russell-Smith, Anthony

    2014-04-15

    Two new genera, Rumburak gen. nov. and Yimbulunga gen. nov., of euophryine jumping spiders are established from the Afrotropical Region. Thirty three new species included in this subfamily are diagnosed and described: Chinophrys trifasciata sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), Euophrys bifida sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. cochlea sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. elizabethae sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. falciger sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. gracilis sp. nov. (♂♀, Lesotho, South Africa), E. griswoldi sp. nov. (♂, Namibia), E. limpopo sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), E. maseruensis sp. nov. (♂, Lesotho), E. meridionalis sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. miranda sp. nov. (♀, South Africa), E. nana sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), E. recta sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), E. subtilis sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), Rumburak bellus sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), R. hilaris sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), R. lateripunctatus sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), R. mirabilis sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), R. tuberatus (♂, South Africa), R. virilis (♂♀, South Africa), Tanzania parvulus sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. striatus sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), Thyenula alotama sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. cheliceroides sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), T. clarosignata sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. dentatidens sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), T. haddadi (♂♀, South Africa), T. montana sp. nov. (♂, Lesotho), T. rufa sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. tenebrica sp. nov. (♀, South Africa), T. virgulata sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), T. vulnifica sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa) and Yimbulunga foordi sp. nov. (♂, South Africa). Two species names are newly synonymized: Thyenula hortensis Wesołowska & Cumming, 2008 with T. munda (Peckham & Peckham, 1903) and Thyenula nelshoogte Zhang & Maddison, 2012 with T. laxa Zhang & Maddison, 2012.  Three new combinations are proposed: Heliophanus kittenbergeri (Caporiacco, 1947) (ex Euophrys

  1. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., Avicularia lynnae sp. n., and Avicularia caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected