Sample records for aleksei panov erkki

  1. Expedition 48 crew portrait with 46S crew (Jeff Williams, Oleg Skripochka, Aleksei Ovchinin) and 47S crew (Anatoli Ivanishin, Kate Rubins, Takuya Onishi). Photo Date: June 26, 2015. Location: Building 8, Room 183 - Photo Studio. Photographer: Bill Stafford.

    NASA Image and Video Library


    Expedition 48 crew portrait with 46S crew (Jeff Williams, Oleg Skripochka, Aleksei Ovchinin) and 47S crew (Anatoli Ivanishin, Kate Rubins, Takuya Onishi). Photo Date: June 26, 2015. Location: Building 8, Room 183 - Photo Studio. Photographer: Bill Stafford.

  2. The histology of the cerebral neurosecretory system in several representatives of Cleroidea (Coleoptera, Insecta).


    Panov, A A


    In Thymalus sp. (Peltidae), Melambia tekkensi (Trogositidae), Trichodes apiarius and Thanasimus formicarius (Cleridae), the composition of cerebral neurosecretory cells (NSC) is similar to that found earlier in Meloidae (Panov 1985a) and Tenebrionidae (Melnikova and Panov 1981; Melnikova 1983). 20 type I NSCs, 16 type II NSCs, 4 type III NSCs, several type IV NSCs and 4 type V NSCs are characteristic of their pars intercerebralis. On the other hand, a reduction of type I and II NSC number to 10 and 12 cells, respectively, was revealed in Malachius affinis, Malachius viridis and Malachius bipustulatus (Melyridae). There are 6 large dorsolateral NSCs and 2 lateral ones in each brain hemisphere of most Cleroidea studied. Their retrocerebral endocrine complex is similar to that of most polyphagous coleopterans: a single nervus corporis cardiaci leaves each brain side, the corpora cardiaca are fused with lateral aorta walls and corresponding corpora allata.

  3. Research on Teaching and the Theory and Practice in Teacher Training. DPA Helsinki Investigations IV = Unterrichtsforschung und die Theorie und Praxis in der Lehrerausbildung. Papers presented at an International Symposium (Helsinki, October 2-3, 1980). Research Report 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komulainen, Erkki, Ed.; And Others

    Eight papers presented at an international symposium on teacher education research are featured in this document. Excerpts from the opening speech by Erkki A. Niskanen, Dean of the Faculty of Education at the University of Helsinki, outline research projects being carried out by teacher educators at the university. A paper by Yrjo Engestrom,…

  4. On Musical and Educational Habit-Taking: Pragmatism, Sociology, and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, J. Scott


    In his recent historical-philosophical offering, "The Enormous Flywheel of Society: Pragmatism's Habitual Conception of Action and Social Theory," Finnish scholar Erkki Kilpinen explores the historical development of pragmatism as a philosophy and describes its varying influence on the development of the social sciences in the United States.…

  5. On Musical and Educational Habit-Taking: Pragmatism, Sociology, and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, J. Scott


    In his recent historical-philosophical offering, "The Enormous Flywheel of Society: Pragmatism's Habitual Conception of Action and Social Theory," Finnish scholar Erkki Kilpinen explores the historical development of pragmatism as a philosophy and describes its varying influence on the development of the social sciences in the United States.…

  6. Probing Tumor Microenvironment with In Vivo Phage Display

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Erkki Ruoslahti CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute La Jolla, CA 92037 REPORT DATE: September 2014 TYPE OF REPORT ...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the...reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215

  7. Probing Tumor Microenvironment with In Vivo Phage Display

    DTIC Science & Technology


    peptides may result in an efficient probe for breast tumor imaging and therapy . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Carcinoma-associated fibroblast; phage display...In Vivo Phage Display PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Erkki Ruoslahti CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute...COVERED 01 July 2012 – 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Probing Tumor Microenvironment with In Vivo Phage Display 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH


    NASA Image and Video Library


    S75-25823 (February 1975) --- Cosmonaut Aleksei A. Leonov (left) and astronaut Thomas P. Stafford display the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) commemorative plaque. The two commanders, of their respective crews, are in the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer at Building 35 at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Two plaques divided into four quarters each will be flown on the ASTP mission. The American ASTP Apollo crew will carry the four United States quarter pieces aboard Apollo; and the Soviet ASTP Soyuz 19 crew will carry the four USSR quarter sections aboard Soyuz. The eight quarter pieces will be joined together to form two complete commemorative plaques after the two spacecraft rendezvous and dock in Earth orbit. One complete plaque then will be returned to Earth by the astronauts; and the other complete plaque will be brought back by the cosmonauts. The plaque is written in both English and Russian. The Apollo crew will consist of astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Donald K. "Deke" Slayton, docking module pilot; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot. The Soyuz 19 crew will consist of cosmonauts Aleksei A. Leonov, command pilot; and Valeri N. Kubasov, flight engineer.

  9. Localized excitons and defects in PbWO4 single crystals: a luminescence and photo-thermally stimulated disintegration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnikov, A.; Nikl, M.; Zazubovich, S.

    The cover picture refers to the article by Aleksei Krasnikov et al., that was selected as Editor's Choice [1]. It depicts a fragment of a lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal lattice structure and illustrates the complex anion (WO4)2- tetrahedra bonded to the Pb2+ cation. Perturbation of the (WO4)2- tetrahedra by defects nearby results in exciton localization near the defects and a slightly different emission spectrum, which is shown in the diagram. Localized excitons are evidenced for the first time in the PbWO4 structure. Under selective irradiation of PbWO4 crystals in the ultraviolet spectral region, the decay of various localized excitons into stable defects takes place, which can be detected by a sensitive thermally stimulated luminescence method. Aleksei Krasnikov is a PhD student at the University of Tartu, Estonia. Martin Nikl holds a position as a senior scientist and head of the Laboratory of Luminescence and Scintillation Materials at the Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Svetlana Zazubovich is a senior scientist at the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu. The research groups of Martin Nikl and Svetlana Zazubovich have been collaborating closely for the last 15 years mainly in the field of optical spectroscopy of wide band-gap scintillation materials

  10. The Relationship Between Dipolarization Fronts and Pi2 Pulsations in the Near-Earth Magnetotail - A MHD Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ream, J. B.; Walker, R. J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; El-Alaoui, M.


    We performed a global MHD simulation of a substorm event on 14 September 2004 in order to investigate the link between Pi2 generation and dipolarization fronts. Pi2 pulsations (T = 40-150 s) measured by ground-based instruments are typically used as an indicator of substorm onset, therefore, understanding how and where they are generated is vital to understanding the series of events leading up to onset. Kepko et al. [1999] suggested that the compression regions and velocity variations associated with earthward propagating dipolarization fronts directly drive Pi2 pulsations. Similarly, Panov et al. [2011] suggested that Pi2 pulsations are generated by the overshoot and rebound of bursty bulk flows. Dipolarization fronts are step-wise enhancements in Bz which are associated with fast (>100km/s) earthward flows and are followed by tailward expansion due to pile-up at the high pressure region where the magnetic field lines transition from a stretched to a dipolar configuration. Cao et al. [2009] have presented observations from Double Star (TC1), Cluster 4 and Polar of a substorm with onset at 18:22 UT. During this event a dipolarization front was observed by Double Star at ~18:25, and dipolarization associated expansion was observed by Cluster 4 at ~18:50 and Polar at ~18:55 UT. The spacecraft were positioned at (-10.2, -1.6, 1.2), (-16.4, 1.6, 2.2) and (-7.5, -1.8, -4.9) RE in GSM coordinates respectively. The simulation was carried out with the UCLA global MHD code [El-Alaoui (2001), Raeder (1998)], using Geotail, located near the bow shock at ~24 RE, as the solar wind monitor. The solar wind magnetic field data were rotated into a minimum variance frame to be used as input for the simulation. The results from the simulation have been compared to observations and do a good job reproducing the structures observed by all three satellites. Around the time of onset, we have identified a dipolarization front near midnight which originates at ~12 RE. We show that as the

  11. Dynamics of charged current sheets at high-latitude magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, S.; Amata, E.; Zelenyi, L.; Dunlop, M.; Andre, M.; Song, P.; Blecki, J.; Buechner, J.; Rauch, J. L.; Skalsky, A.

    E. Amata (2), L. Zelenyi (1), M. Dunlop (3), M. Andre (4), P. Song (5), J. Blecki (6), J. Buechner (7), J.L Rauch, J.G. Trotignon (8), G. Consolini, F. Marcucci (2), B. Nikutowski (7), A. Skalsky, S. Romanov, E. Panov (1) (2) IFSI, Roma, Italy, (3) RAL, UK, (4) IRFU, Uppsala, Sweden, (5) U. Mass. Lowell, USA, (6) SRC, Warsaw, Poland, (7) MPAe, Germany, (8) LPCE, Orleans, France; We study dynamics of thin current sheets over polar cusps from data of Interball-1 and Cluster. At the high-beta magnetopause current sheet width often reaches ion gyroradius scales, that leads to their Hall dynamics in the presence of local surface charges. Respective perpendicular electric fields provide the means for momentum coupling through the current sheets and are able to accelerate ions with gyroradius of the order or larger than the sheet width. At borders of large diamagnetic cavities this mechanism is able to support mass exchange and accelerate/ heat incoming magnetosheath particles. At larger scales the inhomogeneous electric fields at the current sheet borders can accelerate incident plasma downtail along magnetopause via inertial drift. It serves to move external plasma away for dynamic equilibrium supporting. Farther away from magnetopause similar nonlinear electric field wave trains, selfconsistently produced by interaction of reflected from the obstacle waves with magnetosheath fluctuations, destroy the incident flux into accelerated magnetosonic jets and decelerated Alfvenic flows and generate small-scale current sheets due to different sign of electron and ion inertial drift in the nonlinear electric field bursts. We suggest that this direct kinetic energy transformation creates current sheets with anomalous statistics of field rotation angles in the turbulent boundary layer in front of magnetopause, which have been attributed earlier to an intermittent turbulence. We compare measured spectra with a model of nonlinear system with intermittent chaotic behavior. Work was

  12. Metabolic and functional differences between brain and spinal cord mitochondria underlie different predisposition to pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kubalik, Nataliya; Zinchenko, Natalia; Ridings, Daisy M.; Radoff, David A.; Hemendinger, Richelle; Brooks, Benjamin R.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.


    Mitochondrial dysfunctions contribute to neurodegeneration, the locations of which vary among neurodegenerative diseases. To begin to understand what mechanisms may underlie higher vulnerability of the spinal cord motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, compared with brain mitochondria, we studied three major functions of rat brain mitochondria (BM) and spinal cord mitochondria (SCM) mitochondria: oxidative phosphorylation, Ca2+ sequestration, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), using a new metabolic paradigm (Panov et al., J. Biol. Chem. 284: 14448–14456, 2009). We present data that SCM share some unique metabolic properties of the BM. However, SCM also have several distinctions from the BM: 1) With the exception of succinate, SCM show significantly lower rates of respiration with all substrates studied; 2) immunoblotting analysis showed that this may be due to 30–40% lower contents of respiratory enzymes and porin; 3) compared with BM, SCM sequestered 40–50% less Ca2+, and the total tissue calcium content was 8 times higher in the spinal cord; 4) normalization for mitochondria from 1 g of tissue showed that BM can sequester several times more Ca2+ than was available in the brain tissue, whereas SCM had the capacity to sequester only 10–20% of the total tissue Ca2+; and 5) with succinate and succinate-containing substrate mixtures, SCM showed significantly higher state 4 respiration than BM and generated more ROS associated with the reverse electron transport. We conclude that SCM have an intrinsically higher risk of oxidative damage and overload with calcium than BM, and thus spinal cord may be more vulnerable under some pathologic conditions. (250) PMID:21248309

  13. In vitro effects of cholesterol β-D-glucoside, cholesterol and cycad phytosterol glucosides on respiration and reactive oxygen species generation in brain mitochondria.


    Panov, Alexander; Kubalik, Nataliya; Brooks, Benjamin R; Shaw, Christopher A


    The cluster of neurodegenerative disorders in the western Pacific termed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS-PDC) has been repeatedly linked to the use of seeds of various species of cycad. Identification and chemical synthesis of the most toxic compounds in the washed cycad seeds, a variant phytosteryl glucosides, and even more toxic cholesterol β-D-glucoside (CG), which is produced by the human parasite Helicobacter pylori, provide a possibility to study in vitro the mechanisms of toxicity of these compounds. We studied in detail the effects of CG on the respiratory activities and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by nonsynaptic brain and heart mitochondria oxidizing various substrates. The stimulatory effects of CG on respiration and ROS generation showed strong substrate dependence, suggesting involvement of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II). Maximal effects on ROS production were observed with 1 μmol CG/1 mg mitochondria. At this concentration the cycad toxins β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside and stigmasterol-β-D-glucoside had effects on respiration and ROS production similar to CG. However, poor solubility precluded full concentration analysis of these toxins. Cholesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol had no effect on mitochondrial functions studied at concentrations up to 100 μmol/mg protein. Our results suggest that CG may influence mitochondrial functions through changes in the packing of the bulk membrane lipids, as was shown earlier by Deliconstantinos et al. (Biochem Cell Biol 67:16-24, 1989). The neurotoxic effects of phytosteryl glucosides and CG may be associated with increased oxidative damage of neurons. Unlike heart mitochondria, in activated neurons mitochondria specifically increase ROS production associated with succinate oxidation (Panov et al., J Biol Chem 284:14448-14456, 2009).

  14. First Calderón Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundell, William; Somersalo, Erkki


    The Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) awarded the first Calderón Prize to Matti Lassas for his outstanding contributions to the field of inverse problems, especially in geometric inverse problems. The Calderón Prize is given to a researcher under the age of 40 who has made distinguished contributions to the field of inverse problems broadly defined. The first Calderón Prize Committee consisted of Professors Adrian Nachman, Lassi Päivärinta, William Rundell (chair), and Michael Vogelius. William Rundell For the Calderón Prize Committee Prize ceremony The ceremony awarding the Calderón Prize. Matti Lassas is on the left. He and William Rundell are on the right. Photos by P Stefanov. Brief Biography of Matti Lassas Matti Lassas was born in 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, and studied at the University of Helsinki. He finished his Master's studies in 1992 in three years and earned his PhD in 1996. His PhD thesis, written under the supervision of Professor Erkki Somersalo was entitled `Non-selfadjoint inverse spectral problems and their applications to random bodies'. Already in his thesis, Matti demonstrated a remarkable command of different fields of mathematics, bringing together the spectral theory of operators, geometry of Riemannian surfaces, Maxwell's equations and stochastic analysis. He has continued to develop all of these branches in the framework of inverse problems, the most remarkable results perhaps being in the field of differential geometry and inverse problems. Matti has always been a very generous researcher, sharing his ideas with his numerous collaborators. He has authored over sixty scientific articles, among which a monograph on inverse boundary spectral problems with Alexander Kachalov and Yaroslav Kurylev and over forty articles in peer reviewed journals of the highest standards. To get an idea of the wide range of Matti's interests, it is enough to say that he also has three US patents on medical imaging applications. Matti is

  15. Rigorous Relativistic Methods for Addressing {P}- and {T}-NONCONSERVATION in Heavy-Element Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleig, Timo


    A new and rigorous method for accurate ab-initio calculations of the electron electric dipole moment {P,T}-odd interaction constant is presented. The approach uses string-based Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and Dirac four-component spinors as one-particle basis functions, and the {P,T}-odd constant is obtained as an expectation value over these correlated wavefunctions. The method has been applied to the HfF^+ molecular ion to determine spectroscopic constants for four low-lying electronic states. For one of these states (Ω = 1) we have determined a new accurate benchmark value for the effective electric field E_{ eff} correlating 34 valence and outer atomic core electrons and using wavefunction expansions with nearly 5 \\cdot 10^8 coefficients. For the Ω = 1 state of the ThO molecule the first ab-initio result for the electron EDM interaction constant is presented. Aspects of modern all-electron relativistic many-body approaches applicable to both atoms and molecules will be discussed, including perspectives for the treatment of other interesting candidate systems and {P}- or {P,T}-non-conserving effects in molecular systems. %Zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy was used to probe the vibrational levels in the ground electronic state of the chlorobenzene cation using a two-color photoionization scheme via the S{_1} electronic state of the neutral. Exciting through different S{_1} vibrational levels has revealed mixing of some S{_1} normal coordinates in the ground state of the cation. A previously-identified Fermi resonance in the S{_1} state of the neutral is also confirmed by the ZEKE spectra. The adiabatic ionization energy is measured as 73 170±5 cm^{-1}. S. Knecht, H. J. Å. Jensen and T. Fleig J. Chem. Phys. {132}, 014108 (2010 T. Fleig, H. J. Å. Jensen, J. Olsen and L. Visscher J. Chem. Phys. {124}, 104106 (2006) T. Fleig and M. K. Nayak Phys. Rev. X {XXX}, XXXX (submitted). T. G. Wright, S. I. Panov and T. A. Miller J. Chem

  16. High Energy Electrons and Gamma Rays from the ATIC-2 Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbert, J. B.; ATIC Collaboration


    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment is primarily designed to measure the spectra of nuclear cosmic rays (protons to nickel). It is composed of a segmented BGO calorimeter (18 radiation lengths deep) following a carbon target (0.75 nuclear interaction lengths) interleaved with scintillator tracking layers. A Silicon matrix detector at the entrance identifies the incident particle charge. Utilizing simulations such as Fluka and Geant we have investigated the ability of this design to differentiate electron (gamma) initiated showers from hadronic showers. The differences in shower development between the two populations are sufficient to differentiate them for measurements of electron spectra into the TeV region, as confirmed by accelerator tests at CERN and by the ATIC-1 test flight in 2000-01. ATIC had a successful science flight in 2002-03 from McMurdo, Antarctica returning about 19 days of flight data. This exposure is sufficient to record electrons into the TeV region and measure gamma rays at 100's of GeV. The majority of gamma rays are of atmospheric origin and provide a test for this technique. The preliminary electron spectrum from the ATIC-2 flight is presented and compared to previous high energy measurements, principally from emulsion chambers. Possible astrophysical interpretations of the results are discussed. The ATIC Collaboration: J.H. Adams,2 H.S. Ahn,3 G.L. Bashindzhagyan,4 K.E. Batkov,4 J. Chang,6,7 M. Christl,2 A.R. Fazely,5, O. Ganel,3 R.M. Gunasingha,5 T.G. Guzik,1 J. Isbert,1 K.C. Kim,3 E.N. Kouznetsov,4 M.I. Panasyuk,4 A.D. Panov,4 W.K.H. Schmidt,6 E.S. Seo,3 N.V. Sokolskaya,4 J.Z. Wang,3 J.P. Wefel,1 J. Wu,3 V.I. Zatsepin,4 (1) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (2) Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA (3) University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (4) Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (5) Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (6

  17. Microseismicity Induced by Fluid Pressure Drop (Laboratory Study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turuntaev, Sergey; Zenchenko, Evgeny; Melchaeva, Olga


    Pore pressure change in saturated porous rocks may result in its fracturing (Maury et Fourmaintraux, 1993) and corresponding microseismic event occurrences. Microseismicity due to fluid injection is considered in numerous papers (Maxwell, 2010, Shapiro et al., 2005). Another type of the porous medium fracturing is related with rapid pore pressure drop at some boundary. The mechanism of such fracturing was considered by (Khristianovich, 1985) as a model of sudden coal blowing and by (Alidibirov, Panov, 1998) as a model of volcano eruptions. If the porous saturated medium has a boundary where it directly contacted with fluid under the high pressure (in a hydraulic fracture or in a borehole), and the pressure at that boundary is dropped, the conditions for tensile cracks can be achieved at some distance from the boundary. In the paper, the results of experimental study of saturated porous sample fracturing due to pore pressure rapid drop are discussed. The samples (82 mm high, ∅60 mm) were made of quartz sand, which was cemented by "liquid glass" glue with mass fraction 1%. The sample (porosity 35%, uniaxial unconfined compression strength 2.5 MPa) was placed in a mould and saturated by oil. The upper end of the sample contacted with the mould upper lid, the lower end contacted with fluid. The fluid pressure was increased to 10 MPa and then discharged through the bottom nipple. The pressure increases/drops were repeated 30-50 times. Pore pressure and acoustic emission (AE) were registered by transducers mounted into upper and bottom lids of the mould. It was found, that AE sources (corresponded to microfracturing) were spreading from the open end to the closed end of the sample, and that maximal number of AE events was registered at some distance from the opened end. The number of AE pulses increased with every next pressure drop, meanwhile the number of pulses with high amplitudes diminished. It was found that AE maximal rate corresponded to the fluid pressure

  18. A Review of Ideas Concerning Life Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindilis, L. M.


    Since the times of Antiquity the and for a long time the idea of self-origination of life was the dominant one. It reappeared again after microorganisms were discovered (XVII century). The possibility of abiogenesis at microbial level was discussed for more than a century. Pateur demonstrated that spontaneous origination of microorganisms in sterile broth was due to those same microorganisms transported by dust particles. Thus proving that every form of life originates from the parental life form. So the question arises: how did the first microorganisms appear on the Earth. There are three possible versions: 1) accidental origination of a viable form; 2) primal organisms were transported to the Earth from outer space; 3) they were formed on the Earth in the process of prebiotic chemical evolution. We discuss the problems of prebiotic evolution from simple monomers up to living cells. An important item of nowadays conceptions of life origination is the hypothesis of the ancient world of RNA as possible precursor of life on Earth. The discovery in carbonaceous chondrites of traces of bacterial life evidences the existence of life in the Solar System even before the formation of the Earth. The idea of life as brought to the Earth out of Cosmos originated under the impression of self-origination hypothesis downfall. It went through several stages (Helmholtz, W. Thompson, XIX century; Arrhenius, early XX century; Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, second half of XX century) and presently evokes constantly growing interest. The panspermia theory does not solve the problem of origination of life, only moves it onto other planets. According to V.A. Mazur, the probability of accidental formation of RNA molecule is negligible not only on the Earth, but in the whole Universe over all the time span of its existence. But it is practically equal to unit in the domain formed at the inflation stage of the evolution of the Universe. A.D.Panov considered panspermia in the Galaxy at the level

  19. Russian psychology at the turn of the 21st century and post-Soviet reforms in the humanities disciplines.


    Vassilieva, Julia


    The author traces the changes in Russian psychology in the past 25 years and links these changes to the earlier Russian legacy of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) and Aleksei N. Leontiev (1903-1979). The move into the 21st century coincided for Russian psychology as well as for the Russian society at large with the reforms of perestroika, leading to greater openness in the academic sphere. In particular, Russian psychology was able to connect in a more free and fundamental way with its own heritage and with various developments around the world. The author discusses how these factors affected continuity and innovation with regard to the 2 dominant theoretical perspectives in Russian psychology--the cultural-historical theory of Vygotsky and the theory of activity, initially developed by Leontiev. The author argues that while there are now original and substantial shifts within Russian psychology--namely toward the new paradigm characterized by various researchers as "organic psychology," "nonclassical psychology," or even "post-non-classical" psychology--the issues of agency and meaning, which were central for the previous generation of Russian psychologists, such as Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria, Zaporozhets, Rubinstein, and others, continue to inform the development of the discipline in the 21st century.

  20. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.


    West, J B


    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology.

  1. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Westwick, Peter J.


    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  2. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwick, Peter J.


    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of "space-strike weapons" - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: "I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery." "I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics," said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  3. [Famous scientist in the area of military-medical geography (to the 100th anniversary of the birth of A.A. Shoshin)].


    Shelepov, A M; Soldatov, E A


    The articale is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of famous domestic scientist in the area of military-medical geography, organization of health care and pedagogy, laureate of USSR state prize, Ph.D.Med, professor colonel of medical service Aleksei Alekseevich Shoshin (1913-1978). In 1953 he published his study guide "Short course in military-medical geography" and determined aims and tasks of course, clued peculiarities of the influence of physiographic conditions on health, sanitary status and medical support of the forces; gave military medical-geographic characteristics of the main landscape zones and methodology of territory research for possible unit sites. In 1962 AN USSR Publisher published his monograph "Principle of medical geography". In 1964 was published his book "Military-medical geography". In January 1966 A.A.Shoshin was elected as Head of social hygiene and public health organization Chair of the Leningrad pediatric medical institute. He chaired till the end of his life.

  4. Thermal history, exhumation, uplift, and long-term landscape evolution of the Eastern Great and Northern Lesser Caucasus, Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilger, Tatiana; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Mosar, Jon


    Caucasus: a perspective from Azerbaijan. Geological Society, , Special Publications 340 1: 261-280; London. Nikishin, A.M., Ziegler, P., Panov, D.I., Nazarevich, B.P., Brunet, M.-F., Stephenson, R.A., Bolotov, S.N., Korataev, M.V. & Tiknomirov, P.L. 2001. Mesozoic and Cainozoic evolution of the Scythian Platform - Black Sea - Caucasus domain. In: Ziegler, P., Cavazza, W., Robertson, A.H.F. & Crasquin-Soleau, S. (éd.) Peri-Tethys Memoir 6 - Peri-Tethyan rift/wrench basins and passive margins. Mémoires du Muséum natn. Hist. nat., 186: 295-346; Paris. Sholpo, V.N 1993. Strucure of inversion anticlinoria in the core of the Greater Caucasus: an advection hypothesis. Geotectonics 23: 245-251.

  5. Nonlinearly enhanced linear absorption under filamentation in mid-infrared (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipilo, Daniil; Panov, Nicolay; Andreeva, Vera; Kosareva, Olga G.; Saletski, Alexander M.; Xu, Huai-Liang; Polynkin, Pavel


    the filament is formed. In the developed filament all the partial losses due to plasma, harmonic generation and absorption on vibrational lines grow up rapidly with the propagation distance, and the absorption on vibrational lines overwhelms all the rest ones. Indeed the new mechanism is revealed - the linear absorption is enhanced by the nonlinear spectral broadening. Thus, the nonlinearly enhanced linear absorption (NELA) is formed. The rotational transitions are estimated to consume as much energy as the free electron generation mechanism [5], which is less than NELA for 3.9-µm filament. In conclusion, in the 3.9-µm filament the excitations of molecular absorption lines are estimated to provide the major optical losses in the atmosphere as compared with plasma and high-frequency conversion. [1] A. V. Mitrofanov et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 8368 (2015). [2] P. Panagiotopoulos et al., Nat. Photonics 9, 543 (2015). [3] R. J. Mathar, Appl. Opt. 43, 928 (2004). [4] N. A. Panov et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 041801 (2016). [5] S. Zahedpour et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 143601 (2014).

  6. PREFACE: First International Congress of the International Association of Inverse Problems (IPIA): Applied Inverse Problems 2007: Theoretical and Computational Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, Gunther


    This volume represents the proceedings of the fourth Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) international conference and the first congress of the Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) which was held in Vancouver, Canada, June 25 29, 2007. The organizing committee was formed by Uri Ascher, University of British Columbia, Richard Froese, University of British Columbia, Gary Margrave, University of Calgary, and Gunther Uhlmann, University of Washington, chair. The conference was part of the activities of the Pacific Institute of Mathematical Sciences (PIMS) Collaborative Research Group on inverse problems ( This event was also supported by grants from NSF and MITACS. Inverse Problems (IP) are problems where causes for a desired or an observed effect are to be determined. They lie at the heart of scientific inquiry and technological development. The enormous increase in computing power and the development of powerful algorithms have made it possible to apply the techniques of IP to real-world problems of growing complexity. Applications include a number of medical as well as other imaging techniques, location of oil and mineral deposits in the earth's substructure, creation of astrophysical images from telescope data, finding cracks and interfaces within materials, shape optimization, model identification in growth processes and, more recently, modelling in the life sciences. The series of Applied Inverse Problems (AIP) Conferences aims to provide a primary international forum for academic and industrial researchers working on all aspects of inverse problems, such as mathematical modelling, functional analytic methods, computational approaches, numerical algorithms etc. The steering committee of the AIP conferences consists of Heinz Engl (Johannes Kepler Universität, Austria), Joyce McLaughlin (RPI, USA), William Rundell (Texas A&M, USA), Erkki Somersalo (Helsinki University of Technology

  7. PREFACE New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications New developments in nanopore research—from fundamentals to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Edel, Joshua B.; Winterhalter, Mathias


    , Di Cao and Stuart Lindsay Probing DNA with micro- and nanocapillaries and optical tweezers L J Steinbock, O Otto, D R Skarstam, S Jahn, C Chimerel, J L Gornall and U F Keyser Fabrication of nanopores with embedded annular electrodes and transverse carbon nanotube electrodes Zhijun Jiang, Mirna Mihovilovic, Jason Chan and Derek Stein Fabrication and electrical characterization of a pore-cavity-pore device D Pedone, M Langecker, A M Münzer, R Wei, R D Nagel and U Rant Use of tunable nanopore blockade rates to investigate colloidal dispersions G R Willmott, R Vogel, S S C Yu, L G Groenewegen, G S Roberts, D Kozak, W Anderson and M Trau Facilitated translocation of polypeptides through a single nanopore Robert Bikwemu, Aaron J Wolfe, Xiangjun Xing and Liviu Movileanu Mechanistic insight into gramicidin-based detection of protein-ligand interactions via sensitized photoinactivation Tatyana I Rokitskaya, Michael X Macrae, Steven Blake, Natalya S Egorova, Elena A Kotova, Jerry Yang and Yuri N Antonenko Sequence-dependent unfolding kinetics of DNA hairpins studied by nanopore force spectroscopy Stephan Renner, Andrey Bessonov, Ulrich Gerland and Friedrich C Simmel Hydration properties of mechanosensitive channel pores define the energetics of gating A Anishkin, B Akitake, K Kamaraju, C-S Chiang and S Sukharev Dynamic translocation of ligand-complexed DNA through solid-state nanopores with optical tweezers Andy Sischka, Andre Spiering, Maryam Khaksar, Miriam Laxa, Janine König, Karl-Josef Dietz and Dario Anselmetti Force fluctuations assist nanopore unzipping of DNA V Viasnoff, N Chiaruttini, J Muzard and U Bockelmann Control and reversal of the electrophoretic force on DNA in a charged nanopore Binquan Luan and Aleksei Aksimentiev The properties of the outer membrane localized Lipid A transporter LptD Raimund Haarmann, Mohamed Ibrahim, Mara Stevanovic, Rolf Bredemeier and Enrico Schleiff Structural and dynamical properties of the porins OmpF and OmpC: insights from

  8. FOREWORD: The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti


    information [7] and in Stockholm he had, again, very successful postdocs such as Ulf Leonhardt. Finally, in 2005, Stig Stenholm retired, although he is still active, writing papers, taking part in conferences and making research visits. We honoured his 70th birthday at the CEWQO2009 conference, and hope that the future provides us with further opportunities for such events. Looking at the obituary of Dirk ter Haar, I see that his style with students reminds me of Stig's approach. In my opinion, Stig expects independence and initiative from a student, giving perhaps a broad topic in which the student is expected to find his or her own way, whilst working perhaps with a postdoc. Juha Javanainen has talked about the 'sink or swim' style (not referring to Stig, though). There is a famous series of children's books about Moomin trolls by Tove Jansson (another Swedish-speaking Finn like Stig). In one of them, the Moomin find in early spring a small flower in a patch of land uncovered by snow, pushing its way up. One of them wants to cover it against frost during the night, but another says 'Don't, it'll fare better later if it has some difficulties at first'. At CEWQO2009 Stig gave the full list of his finished PhD students: Rainer Salomaa (1973), Temba Dlodlo (1980), Juha Javanainen (1980), Markus Lindberg (1985), Matti Kaivola (1985), Birger Ståhlberg (1985), Kalle-Antti Suominen (1992), Mackillo Kira (1995), Päivi Törmä (1996), Asta Paloviita (1997), Patrik Öhberg (1998), Martti Havukainen (1999), Erika Andersson (2000), Pawel Piwnicki (2001), Åsa Larson (2001), Markku Jääskeläinen (2003), and Jonas Larson (2005). One should also mention Erkki Kyrölä, who eventually graduated at Rochester and Olli Serimaa, who never graduated but published some important early-stage laser cooling work. As a final note I must mention a passion that Stig and I share, namely books. I have nearly 400 professional physics and mathematics books, but I am certain that the size of Stig