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Sample records for aleppo pine pinus

  1. Plasticity in dendroclimatic response across the distribution range of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis).

    PubMed

    de Luis, Martin; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Novak, Klemen; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Raventós, José; Saz, Miguel Angel; Smith, Kevin T

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the variability of the climate-growth relationship of Aleppo pine across its distribution range in the Mediterranean Basin. We constructed a network of tree-ring index chronologies from 63 sites across the region. Correlation function analysis identified the relationships of tree-ring index to climate factors for each site. We also estimated the dominant climatic gradients of the region using principal component analysis of monthly, seasonal, and annual mean temperature and total precipitation from 1,068 climatic gridpoints. Variation in ring width index was primarily related to precipitation and secondarily to temperature. However, we found that the dendroclimatic relationship depended on the position of the site along the climatic gradient. In the southern part of the distribution range, where temperature was generally higher and precipitation lower than the regional average, reduced growth was also associated with warm and dry conditions. In the northern part, where the average temperature was lower and the precipitation more abundant than the regional average, reduced growth was associated with cool conditions. Thus, our study highlights the substantial plasticity of Aleppo pine in response to different climatic conditions. These results do not resolve the source of response variability as being due to either genetic variation in provenance, to phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of factors. However, as current growth responses to inter-annual climate variability vary spatially across existing climate gradients, future climate-growth relationships will also likely be determined by differential adaptation and/or acclimation responses to spatial climatic variation. The contribution of local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity across populations to the persistence of species under global warming could be decisive for prediction of climate change impacts across populations. In this sense, a more complex forest dynamics modeling approach that

  2. Plasticity in Dendroclimatic Response across the Distribution Range of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis)

    PubMed Central

    de Luis, Martin; Čufar, Katarina; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Novak, Klemen; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.; Raventós, José; Saz, Miguel Angel; Smith, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the variability of the climate-growth relationship of Aleppo pine across its distribution range in the Mediterranean Basin. We constructed a network of tree-ring index chronologies from 63 sites across the region. Correlation function analysis identified the relationships of tree-ring index to climate factors for each site. We also estimated the dominant climatic gradients of the region using principal component analysis of monthly, seasonal, and annual mean temperature and total precipitation from 1,068 climatic gridpoints. Variation in ring width index was primarily related to precipitation and secondarily to temperature. However, we found that the dendroclimatic relationship depended on the position of the site along the climatic gradient. In the southern part of the distribution range, where temperature was generally higher and precipitation lower than the regional average, reduced growth was also associated with warm and dry conditions. In the northern part, where the average temperature was lower and the precipitation more abundant than the regional average, reduced growth was associated with cool conditions. Thus, our study highlights the substantial plasticity of Aleppo pine in response to different climatic conditions. These results do not resolve the source of response variability as being due to either genetic variation in provenance, to phenotypic plasticity, or a combination of factors. However, as current growth responses to inter-annual climate variability vary spatially across existing climate gradients, future climate-growth relationships will also likely be determined by differential adaptation and/or acclimation responses to spatial climatic variation. The contribution of local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity across populations to the persistence of species under global warming could be decisive for prediction of climate change impacts across populations. In this sense, a more complex forest dynamics modeling approach that

  3. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés-Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments 5 years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand, unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation recovery normalises post-fire soil microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors affecting soil properties after 17 years.

  4. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2014-10-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonize soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments five years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Thus, the long-term consequences and post-fire silvicultural management in the form of thinning have a significant effect on the site recovery after fire. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation restoration normalises microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors of soil properties after 17 years.

  5. To grow or to seed: ecotypic variation in reproductive allocation and cone production by young female Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Climent, José; Prada, M Aránzazu; Calama, Rafael; Chambel, M Regina; de Ron, David Sánchez; Alía, Ricardo

    2008-07-01

    Age and size at the first reproduction and the reproductive allocation of plants are linked to different life history strategies. Aleppo pine only reproduces through seed, and, as such, early female reproduction confers high fitness in its infertile highly fire-prone habitats along the Mediterranean coast because life expectancy is short. We investigated the extent of ecotypic differentiation in female reproductive allocation and examined the relation between early female reproduction and vegetative growth. In a common-garden experiment, the threshold age and size at first female reproduction and female reproductive allocation at age seven differed significantly among Aleppo pine provenances of ecologically distinct origin. Significant correlations among reproductive features of the provenances and the ecological traits of origin were found using different analytical tools. In nonlinear models of cone counts vs. stem volume, medium-sized trees (not the largest trees) produced the highest cone yield, confirming that, at the individual level, early female reproduction is incompatible with fast vegetative growth. The contribution of founder effects and adaptation to contrasting fire regimes may be confounding factors. But considering all traits analyzed, the geographical patterns of resource allocation by Aleppo pine suggest ecotypic specialization for either resource-poor (favoring early reproduction) or resource-rich (favoring vegetative growth) habitats.

  6. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    PubMed

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  7. The sexuales of Cinara palaestinensis Hille Ris Lambers, the Aleppo pine aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae Lachninae).

    PubMed

    Binazzi, Francesco; Pennacchio, Fabrizio; Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2016-01-01

    The male and the oviparous female of Cinara palaestinensis Hille Ris Lambers, the Aleppo pine aphid, are recorded for the first time, in populations on Pinus halepensis in Italy. Description and illustrations are provided together with additional notes on taxonomy, ecology and distribution of the species. PMID:27470733

  8. Stable isotopes reveal ecotypic variation of water uptake patterns in Aleppo pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Regina; Voltas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) has a large natural distribution range that encompasses a multitude of thermal and moisture conditions found in the Mediterranean basin. We hypothesized that due to the recurrent incidences of drought stress and high temperatures that occur at varying degrees along its distribution range, populations of Aleppo pine have undergone ecotypic differentiation in soil water uptake patterns. This study analyzed stable isotopic compositions (δ18O and δ2H) of xylem water to identify adaptive divergence associated to the pattern of soil water consumption by roots of Aleppo pine populations originating from the Mediterranean region. The results from this study show that genetic diversity in the extraction pattern of soil water can be found among populations and ecological regions of Aleppo pine under common garden conditions. However, the ability to detect such differences depended on the period of the year examined. In particular, data collection in full summer (end of July) proved to be the most adequate in revealing genetic divergence among populations, while end of spring and, to a lesser extent, end of summer, were less successful for this purpose. Both water uptake patterns (as estimated by δ18O and δ2H) and above-ground growth, exhibited significant relationships with both climatic and geographical variables. This suggests that the underlying variation among populations can be explained by certain characteristics at origin. In addition, we used a bayesian mixing model (SIAR package for R) that incorporated isotopic signatures from xylem and soil water in order to determine the predominant soil layer of water source consumption at the aforementioned periods of the growing season, where water availably ranged from lowest to highest. This allowed us to gain some understanding of Aleppo pines' differential reaction to drought, at the intraspecific level, across the fluctuating conditions of the growing season by comparing the

  9. Morphological characterization of mycorrhizae formed between three Terfezia species (desert truffles) and several Cistaceae and Aleppo pine.

    PubMed

    Zitouni-Haouar, Fatima El-Houaria; Fortas, Zohra; Chevalier, Gerard

    2014-07-01

    Six Cistaceae species, Helianthemum ledifolium, Helianthemum lippii, Fumana procumbens, Cistus albidus, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, and Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) were inoculated with three mycorrhizal desert truffles, Terfezia leptoderma, Terfezia boudieri, and Terfezia claveryi under greenhouse conditions, on soil originating from desert truffle natural habitat in Algeria. The syntheses have led to the formation of typical endomycorrhizae in annual Cistaceae (H. ledifolium) and perennial ones (H. lippii and F. procumbens) and an ectomycorrhiza with a less developed sheath in Cistus species and Aleppo pine. These results demonstrate the plasticity of Terfezia species to form different mycorrhizal types. The formation of an endomycorrhiza with H. ledifolium and F. procumbens and a sheathing ectomycorrhiza with P. halepensis inoculated by T. leptoderma in in vivo culture conditions was obtained for the first time.

  10. Changes in soil respiration after thinning activities in dense Aleppo pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Joan; Alonso, Macià; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are a widespread perturbation in Mediterranean areas, and they have tended to increase during the last decades (Pausas, 2004; Moreno et al, 1998). Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill) is dominant specie in some forest landscapes of western Mediterranean Basin, due to its capacity to colonize abandoned fields, and also due to afforestation practices mainly performed during the 20th century (Ruiz Navarro et al., 2009). Aleppo pine tends to die as consequence of forest fires, although it is able to disperse a high quantity of seeds which easily germinates. These dispersion and germination can result in dense forests with high inter and intra-specific competition, low diversity, low growth, and high fuel accumulation, increasing the risk of new forest fires. These forests of high density present ecological problems and management difficulties that require preventive treatments. Thinning treatments are common in these types of communities, but the management has to be oriented towards strengthening their functions. In the context of global change, better understandings of the implications of forest management practices in the carbon cycle are necessary. The objective of this study was to examine the evolution of seasonal soil respiration after treatment of selective thinning in dense Aleppo pine forests. The study area covers three localities placed in the Valencian Community (E Spain) affected by a forest fire in 1994. Thinning activities were done 16 years after the fire, reducing pine density from around 100,000 individuals per hectare to around 900 individuals per hectare. Soil respiration was measured in situ with a portable soil respiration instrument (LI-6400, LiCor, Lincoln, NB, USA) fitted with a soil respiration chamber (6400-09, LiCor, Lincoln, NB, USA). We installed 12 plots per treatment (control and thinned) and locality, being a total of 72 plots. We carried out 13 measurements covering a period of one year. We also estimated other related

  11. Ecophysiological variables influencing Aleppo pine seed and cone production: a review.

    PubMed

    Ayari, Abdelaziz; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi

    2014-04-01

    The most interesting factors associated with seed and cone production of Aleppo pine were largely reviewed to identify broad patterns and potential effectiveness of reforestation efforts and planning. Aleppo pine cone production and seed yields are relatively variable, with differences between spatial and temporal influences. These differences are considered, mainly between (i) year, (ii) stand characteristics and (iii) individual tree measurements. Annual variability among populations was recorded for cone production per tree, based on influencing factors such as genetic characteristics, wetness, nutrient availability, insect pests and disease. In addition, some factors may affect Aleppo pine tree growth directly but may be affecting seed and cone production indirectly. Therefore, reduced stand density results in less competition among Aleppo pine trees and accompanying understory flora, which subsequently increases the stem diameter and other tree dimensions, including seed production. This review suggests that reforestation planning, particularly thinning, will result in improved tree morphology that will increase Aleppo pine seed and cone crops. Wildfire intensity and stand conditions such as light and soil nutrient status are also examined.

  12. Spatio-temporal variability of Δ13C in tree-rings of Aleppo pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Castillo, Jorge; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Voltas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    Aim: To study the spatiotemporal variability of Δ13C using a tree-ring network of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, we tried to understand some of the environmental drivers behind changes in Δ13C as well as to decide the most optimal sites to infer paleoclimatic information using such variables. We also try to understand key physiological aspects of P. halepensis. Methods: In order to do that, we have collected biannual Δ13C time series (1950-1998) together with mean annual precipitation (MAP), tree-ring width (TRW) and remote sensing (NDVI) data, for 7 different locations along a precipitation gradient. We assessed how correlations between variables changed along that gradient. In addition to that, we have also looked at how that precipitation gradient changed along the years and thus its relationships with the Δ13C at the spatial level, giving us an idea whether changes in MAP at each site could affect the relationship between these two variables. Results: We found that a log model better explains the relationship between Δ13C and MAP and that it reaches a saturation point at values above 800 mm of MAP. Similarly, we found that, in the drier sites, correlations between Δ13C and precipitation were higher than in wetter ones. In addition, the coefficient of variation (CV) of Δ13C was a good indicator of the correlation between Δ13C and MAP. Similarly, the mean and the CV of TRW and summer NDVI were good indicators of the level of such correlation between Δ13C and MAP. On the other hand, the inter-site analysis of the data suggested that during dry years exists a stronger relationship between Δ13C and precipitation than in wet years. Discussion: Our results pointed out that the threshold for water limitation for Aleppo pine was around MAP=800 mm, an amount that might be sufficient for the tree to grow during most of the growing season without altering its water use efficiency (WUE) by closing

  13. Comparing modelled and remotely sensed leaf area dynamics in an Aleppo pine semiarid forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquato, Marta; Medici, Chiara; Friend, Andrew D.; Francés, Félix

    2013-04-01

    Much of the Earth's terrestrial surface is subject to arid climatic water stress. In these regions, plant ecosystems are controlled by water availability, inducing a tight interconnection between the hydrological cycle and the vegetation dynamics. For this reason, and to fully reproduce water-controlled ecosystems' behaviour, it is essential to jointly model vegetation and the hydrological cycle. In this work, the performance of a parsimonious dynamic vegetation model, suitable for the inclusion in a conceptual ecohydrological model, is tested in a semi-arid Aleppo Pine forest area in the south-east of Spain. The model simulates gross primary production (GPP) as a function of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and the light use efficiency (LUE). Net primary production (NPP) is then calculated taking into account maintenance respiration. The modelling is focused particularly on simulating foliar biomass, which is obtained from NPP through an allocation equation based on the maximum LAI sustainable by the system, and considering turnover. An analysis of the information offered by MODIS EVI, NDVI, and LAI products was performed in order to investigate vegetation dynamics in the study site and to select the best indices to be used to evaluate the ecohydrological model's performance. EVI is reported in literature (Huete et al., 2002) to be sensitive to canopy structure, particularly to leaf area index (LAI). In accordance with the phenological cycle timing described for the Aleppo pine in similar climates (Muñoz et al., 2003), the EVI showed maximum values in spring and minimum values in winter. Similar results were found applying the aforementioned vegetation model to the study area. Contrasting simulated LAI with the EVI series, a correlation coefficient r = 0.57 was found. Concerning NDVI, its own definition links this index to the "greenness" of the target, so that it appears highly linked to chlorophyll content and vegetation condition, but only

  14. Modelling drought-induced dieback of Aleppo pine at the arid timberline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, Lisa; Preisler, Yakir; Bert, Didier; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogee, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    During the mid 1960's an ambitious afforestation programme was initiated in the Negev desert of Israel. After five decades enduring harsh growing conditions, the Aleppo pine forest of Yatir is now exhibiting signs of 'drought-induced' dieback. Since 2010, 5-10% of the entire Yatir population have died, however the pattern of mortality is extremely patchy with some areas exhibiting >80% mortality whilst others display none. In this presentation, we reflect on historic climatic and edaphic conditions that have triggered this landscape mosaic of survival and mortality and how physiological and hydraulic traits vary within this patchwork. In addition, we explore how these pine trees have responded physiologically over recent years (1996-2010) to a series of severe drought events using a combined approach that brings together micrometeorological, dendro-isotopic and dendro-climatological datasets alongside process-based modelling. In particular the dataset trends were investigated with the isotope-enabled ecosystem model MuSICA to explore the consequences of subsequent droughts and embolism on modelled carbohydrate and water pool dynamics and their impact on carbon allocation and ecosystem function.

  15. Aleppo pine afforestation in the Massis del Caroig, Eastern Spain. The impact on soil water repellency and infiltration rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Jordán, Antonio; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Paloma Hueso and co-workers (2014; 2015) researched the impact of soil treatment on soil erosion and organic matter recovery in Mediterranean types ecosystems and they demonstrated that the surface wash and the soil quality is determined by the soil management. Afforestation and proper management with fertilizers, mulches and vegetation recovery, are common strategies to flight against soil erosion in Mediterranean type ecosystems García Orenes et al., 2010; Barbera et al., 2012; García Orenes et al., 2012; Mekuria and Aynekulu, 2013; Jiménez et al., 2015; Tengberg et al., 2015; Tesfaye et al., 2015). However, Hueso et al., (2014; 2015) did not paid attention to the impact that water repellency can trigger in the runoff generation and water repellency when soils increase the organic matter. In Eastern Spain, afforestation with Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) was very popular during the XX century, although little is know about his impact on soil hydrology. Many of the impacts of afforestation were found positive (García et al., 2000; Maestre et al., 2003; Bellot et al., 2004; Maestre and Cortina, 2004; Chirino et al., 2006; Querejeta et al., 2008; ). This research shows the impact of Pinus halepensis Mill. on soil water repellency, in comparison to the natural scrubland and the cover of Quercus ilex. Within the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station five types of vegetation covers were selected: Pinus halepensis, Quercus Ilex, Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Brachypodium retusum. The Water Drop Penetration Time method (Cerda and Doerr; 2007; 2008) was applied. A hundred drops were applied at the soil surface, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth 5 times along the year 2013 under different soil moisture content. The results show that the water repllency of the soils is: Pinus Pinus halepensis > Quercus coccifera > Rosmarinus officinalis > Quercus ilex > Thymus vulgaris > Brachypodium retusum. This is related to the higher

  16. Aleppo pine afforestation in the Massis del Caroig, Eastern Spain. The impact on soil water repellency and infiltration rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Jordán, Antonio; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Paloma Hueso and co-workers (2014; 2015) researched the impact of soil treatment on soil erosion and organic matter recovery in Mediterranean types ecosystems and they demonstrated that the surface wash and the soil quality is determined by the soil management. Afforestation and proper management with fertilizers, mulches and vegetation recovery, are common strategies to flight against soil erosion in Mediterranean type ecosystems García Orenes et al., 2010; Barbera et al., 2012; García Orenes et al., 2012; Mekuria and Aynekulu, 2013; Jiménez et al., 2015; Tengberg et al., 2015; Tesfaye et al., 2015). However, Hueso et al., (2014; 2015) did not paid attention to the impact that water repellency can trigger in the runoff generation and water repellency when soils increase the organic matter. In Eastern Spain, afforestation with Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) was very popular during the XX century, although little is know about his impact on soil hydrology. Many of the impacts of afforestation were found positive (García et al., 2000; Maestre et al., 2003; Bellot et al., 2004; Maestre and Cortina, 2004; Chirino et al., 2006; Querejeta et al., 2008; ). This research shows the impact of Pinus halepensis Mill. on soil water repellency, in comparison to the natural scrubland and the cover of Quercus ilex. Within the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station five types of vegetation covers were selected: Pinus halepensis, Quercus Ilex, Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Brachypodium retusum. The Water Drop Penetration Time method (Cerda and Doerr; 2007; 2008) was applied. A hundred drops were applied at the soil surface, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth 5 times along the year 2013 under different soil moisture content. The results show that the water repllency of the soils is: Pinus Pinus halepensis > Quercus coccifera > Rosmarinus officinalis > Quercus ilex > Thymus vulgaris > Brachypodium retusum. This is related to the higher

  17. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  18. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)convicilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. The protein is less abundant than vicilin in low-salt extracts of matur...

  19. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  20. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobacco transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.

  1. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  2. Differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, on Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedenberg, N.A.; Whited, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; Martinson, S.J.; Ayres, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of host use by herbivore pests can have serious consequences for natural and managed ecosystems but are often poorly understood. Here, we provide the first quantification of large differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., and evaluate putative mechanisms for the disparity. Spatially extensive survey data from recent epidemics indicate that, per square kilometre, stands of loblolly versus longleaf pine in four forests (380-1273 km2) sustained 3-18 times more local infestations and 3-116 times more tree mortality. Differences were not attributable to size or age structure of pine stands. Using pheromone-baited traps, we found no differences in the abundance of dispersing D. frontalis or its predator Thanasimus dubius Fabricius between loblolly and longleaf stands. Trapping triggered numerous attacks on trees, but the pine species did not differ in the probability of attack initiation or in the surface area of bark attacked by growing aggregations. We found no evidence for postaggregation mechanisms of discrimination or differential success on the two hosts, suggesting that early colonizers discriminate between host species before a pheromone plume is present. ?? 2007 NRC.

  3. Identification of sex pheromone components of jack pine budworm,Choristoneura pinus pinus freeman.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Kuenen, L P; Tan, S H; Roelofs, W L; Sanders, C J; Alford, A R

    1985-02-01

    Chemical identification and field-trapping experiments have shown that a blend of 85∶15 (E,Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetates and 85∶15 (E,Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ols (in a 9∶1 ratio) are female sex pheromone components for jack pine budworm,Choristoneura pinus pinus. This blend of chemicals, formulated in PVC (0.1 %, w/w) sources is as effective a trap bait as virgin females. Preliminary wind tunnel observations have indicated that this blend, effective as a trap bait, is not equivalent to females.

  4. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention. PMID:17474862

  5. "Pine mouth" syndrome: cacogeusia following ingestion of pine nuts (genus: pinus). An emerging problem?

    PubMed

    Munk, Marc-David

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of cacogeusia, specifically metallogeusia (a perceived metallic or bitter taste) following pine nut ingestion. A 36-year-old male presented with cacogeusia one day following ingestion of 10-15 roasted pine nuts (genus: Pinus). Symptoms became worst on post-exposure day 2 and progressively improved without treatment over 5 days. There were no other symptoms and physical examination was unrevealing. All symptoms resolved without sequalae. We contemporaneously report a rise in pine nut-associated cacogeusia reported online during the first quarter of 2009, and a significant rise in online searches related to pine nut-associated cacogeusia (or what the online public has termed "pine mouth") during this time. Most online contributors note a similar cacogeusia 1-3 days following pine nut ingestion lasting for up to 2 weeks. All cases seem self-limited. Patients occasionally describe abdominal cramping and nausea after eating the nuts. Raw, cooked, and processed nuts (in pesto, for example) are implicated. While there appears to be an association between pine nut ingestion and cacogeusia, little is known about this condition, nor can any specific mechanism of specific cause be identified. It is not known if a specific species of pine nut can be implicated. "Pine mouth" appears to be an emerging problem.

  6. Water use and water use efficiency after thinning in Aleppo pine plantation in Southwest of Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Tarcísio José Gualberto; Damaso Del Campo, Antonio; Gonzáles-Sanchís, María

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean forests need a proactive adaptive silviculture in the face of global change, being their water-use (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE) the key factors to forest managers. Thinning, as a silvicultural practice, has the potential to alter the water potential gradients that exist between soil and canopy. As a result, a change in the amount of water used by trees is produced. The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of the adaptive silviculture on the water-use and water-use efficiency. To that end, both WU and WUE, are measured in an Aleppo pine plantation, where different thinning intensities were applied. The experimental set-up consisted of four plots, three of them corresponding to thinning treatments in 2008 at different intensities High, Middle and Low plus an unthinned plot - control. Additionally, a plot next to the treatment, thinned with High intensity in 1998 was sampled to assess the longer-term effects of thinning. The plots are located at Southwest of Valencia-Spain. WU was measured in four trees per plot on the period April 2009 to May 2011 using HRM sapflow-sensors. WUE was described following the Carbon stable isotope theory by a dendrochronological approach. A stable isotope analysis was performed in the same trees used to measure sapflow. The analysed rings were those correspondent to the 3 previous years to the thinning, and the following after the treatment. The results from this study indicate that stand WU is significantly different (p<0.05) in each tested treatment, being higher in control plot, followed by Low, Medium and Heavy treatments. However, considering only the tree, the average WU was higher in the Heavy treatment. No significantly differences were found between low and control trees. The dendrochronological analyses showed a general variability in ring width during the initial growth (first 15 years). In the following years, the ring widths were very small, probably conditioned by climate conditions. However

  7. Thinning effects on litterfall remaining after 8 years and improved stand resilience in Aleppo pine afforestation (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M N; Navarro, F B

    2016-03-15

    Monthly litterfall was monitored over a 3-year period in afforested Aleppo pines in the Mediterranean semiarid SE Spain with the aim of determining the long-term response of pines to reductions in tree competition and how this forest practice might influence stand resilience. Three thinning intensities applied 5 years earlier were evaluated (T75 = 75% of the basal area removed, T60 = 60% and T48 = 48%), both at the stand and at the tree level. On average, the total annual litterfall varied between 1.30 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.24 SE) in T75 and 3.28 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (±0.78 SE) in the unthinned control. At the stand level, monthly differences among the treatments were found over time in the needles (F = 11.09, df = 3, P = 0.0009) and woody fraction (F = 4.36, df = 3, P = 0.0269) following the thinning gradient: T0 (control)>T48 > T60 > T75, and for the total amount of needles (χ(2) = 9.33, P = 0.025) and twigs (χ(2) = 9.11, P = 0.027) recorded at the end of the study period. High amounts of twig and needle fall were recorded during summer and beginning of autumn, whereas the main miscellanea inputs were registered during the spring, coinciding with the fall of nests and frass from caterpillar outbreaks. At the tree level, the total litterfall fluctuated between 1.5 kg tree yr(-1) in T0 (2nd yr) and 7.0 kg tree yr(-1) in T75 (3rd yr), although mean annual statistical differences among the treatments were found only for the first year of monitoring. However, needle fall was higher for larger pines (T75) than for the smaller ones in control (T0) when the data were analysed over the 3-year-period (F = 3.64, df = 3, P = 0.0247), and the same happened for the woody fraction (F = 3.63, df = 3, P = 0.0250). By contrast, pine trees in the unthinned control registered needle-fall rates (measured as kg m(-2) tree(-1)) that were similar to or higher than those of pine trees in thinned stands, suggesting that defoliation

  8. Drought-related tree mortality in drought-resistant semi-arid Aleppo pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisler, Yakir; Grünzweig, José M.; Rotenberg, Eyal; Rohatyn, Shani; Yakir, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The frequency and intensity of drought events are expected to increase as part of global climate change. In fact, drought related tree mortality had become a widespread phenomenon in forests around the globe in the past decades. This study was conducted at the Yatir FLUXNET site, located in a 45 years old Pinus halepensis dominated forest that successfully sustained low mean annual precipitation (276mm) and extended seasonal droughts (up to 340 days between rain events). However, five recent non-consecutive drought years led to enhanced tree mortality in 2010 (5-10% of the forest population, which was not observed hitherto). The Tree mortality was characterized by patchiness, showing forest zones with either >80% mortality or no mortality at all. Areas of healthy trees were associated with deeper root distribution and increased stoniness (soil pockets & cracks). To help identify possible causes of the increased mortality and its patterns, four tree stress levels were identified based on visual appearance, and studied in more detail. This included examining from spring 2011 to summer 2013 the local trees density, root distribution, annual growth rings, needle length and chlorophyll content, rates of leaf gas exchange, and branch predawn water potential. Tree phenotypic stress level correlated with the leaf predawn water potential (-1.8 and -3.0 in healthy and stressed trees, respectively), which likely reflected tree-scale water availability. These below ground characteristics were also associated, in turn, with higher rate of assimilation (3.5 and 0.8 μmol CO2 m-2s1 in healthy and stress trees, respectively), longer needles (8.2cm and 3.4 cm in healthy and stressed trees, respectively). Annual ring widths showed differences between stress classes, with stressed trees showing 30% narrower rings on average than unstressed trees. Notably, decline in annual ring widths could be identified in currently dead or severely stressed trees 15-20 years prior to mortality or

  9. Large variations in diurnal and seasonal patterns of sap flux among Aleppo pine trees in semi-arid forest reflect tree-scale hydraulic adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grünzweig, José M.; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Adjustments and adaptations of trees to drought vary across different biomes, species and habitats, with important implications for tree mortality and forest dieback associated with global climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between the patterns of variations in water flux dynamics and drought resistance in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) trees in a semi-arid stand (Yatir forest, Israel). We measured sap flow (SF) and variations in stem diameter, complemented with short-term campaigns of leaf-scale measurements of water vapour and CO2 gas exchange, branch water potential and hydraulic conductivity, as well as eddy flux measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) from a permanent flux tower at the site. SF rates were well synchronized with ET, reaching maximum rates during midday in all trees during the rainy season (Dec-Apr). However, during the dry season (May-Nov), the daily trend in the rates of SF greatly varied among trees, allowing classification into three tree classes: 1) trees with SF maximum rate constantly occurring in mid-day (12:00-13:00); 2)trees showing a shift to an early morning SF peak (04:00-06:00); and 3) trees shifting their daily SF peak to the evening (16:00-18:00). This classification did not change during the four years study period, between 2010 and 2014. Checking for correlation of tree parameters as DBH, tree height, crown size, and competition indices with rates of SF, indicated that timing of maximum SF in summer was mainly related to tree size (DBH), when large trees tended to have a later SF maximum. Dendrometer measurements indicated that large trees (high DBH) had maximum daily diameter in the morning during summer and winter, while small trees typically had maximum daily diameter during midday and afternoon in winter and summer, respectively. Leaf-scale transpiration (T) measurements showed typical morning peak in all trees, and another peak in the afternoon in large trees only. Different diurnal

  10. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  11. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  12. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  13. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS ON LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA) FOLLOWING COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantc...

  14. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  15. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  16. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  17. NMR analysis of oils from pine nuts ( Pinus sibirica) and seeds of common pine ( Pinus silvestris L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Gaidukevich, O. A.; Klyuev, A. Yu.; Kulakova, A. N.; Petlitskaya, N. M.; Rykove, S. V.

    2007-07-01

    We studied the fatty-acid composition of oils from pine nuts and seeds of common pine using PMR and 13C NMR and gas chromatography. We found that the main components of the glycerides are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, pinolenic, and cis-9-eicosenoic acids. The oils contain about 2% sn-1,2-diacylglycerides in addition to triglycerides.

  18. Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.

  19. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West.

    PubMed

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A; Long, James N

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine's absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities. PMID:27575596

  20. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West.

    PubMed

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A; Long, James N

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine's absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities.

  1. Differences in defence responses of Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera are affected by water deficit.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; El Kayal, Walid; Copeland, Charles C J; Zaharia, L Irina; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that responses to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera will differ between the evolutionarily co-evolved host lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and the naïve host jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and that these responses will be influenced by water availability. G. clavigera inoculation resulted in more rapid stem lesion development in lodgepole than in jack pine; water deficit delayed lesion development in both species. Decreased hydraulic conductivity was observed in inoculated lodgepole pine seedlings, likely because of tracheid occlusion by fungal hyphae and/or metabolite accumulation. Drought but not inoculation significantly impacted bark abscisic acid levels. Jasmonic and salicylic acid were implicated in local and systemic responses of both species to G. clavigera, with salicylic acid appearing to play a greater role in jack pine response to G. clavigera than lodgepole pine. Water deficit increased constitutive levels and/or attenuated induced responses to G. clavigera for several monoterpenes in lodgepole but not jack pine. Instead, inoculation of well-watered but not water deficit jack pine resulted in a greater number of xylem resin ducts. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying differences in G. clavigera-induced responses between lodgepole and jack pine hosts, and how water availability modulates these responses. PMID:26205849

  2. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West

    PubMed Central

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A.; Long, James N.

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine’s absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities. PMID:27575596

  3. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  4. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  5. Sensitive and specific detection of pine nut (Pinus spp.) by real-time PCR in complex food products.

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Decastelli, Lucia; Arlorio, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Pine nuts are a known source of food allergens and several cases of adverse immunological reaction after ingestion have been reported. To protect allergic consumers, methods to unequivocally detect the presence of pine nuts in complex matrices must be developed. A Taqman-based real time PCR method for the detection of Pinus spp. was set up. A homemade pesto spiked at known concentration of pine nut powder was used as model food. Moreover, DNA was purified from commercial foods declaring or not the presence of pine nuts. The method displayed a very high efficiency and specificity for the genus Pinus. The intrinsic LOD was 1pg of DNA, while the practical LOD evaluated on model foods was 0.1ppm of pine nuts powder, the lowest ever registered for the detection of food allergens via real-time PCR. Finally, the declared presence/absence of pine nut in commercial foods was confirmed.

  6. Biogeochemistry of bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) at treeline

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, R.L. Jr.; Konowalchuk, B.; Rosenberger, M.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Treeline along the front range in Colorado has shifted numerous times during the Holocene and the stems of bristlecone pine persevere in fossil stands above the present limit of tree survival. Bristlecone pine are also interesting because live foliage persist for up to 25 years. We measured foliage nutrient composition of different aged leaves, and also soil nitrogen and phosphorous fractions along an elevation transect in present day stands, and soil N and P fractions that are within fossil (800 yr BP) stands. Foliage N and P vary systematically according to elevation with nitrogen abundance increasing up-slope. Individual trees also show a marked island effect with both N and P soil content highest adjacent to stems. For stems in fossil stands, the island effect has persisted but only for some P fractions but not for nitrogen. Recent trends in foliar N and P contents are discussed in terms of anthropogenic nitrogen saturation at high elevation along the front range in Colorado.

  7. Growth-Form Characteristics of Ancient Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pines (Pinus aristata), Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F. Craig

    2006-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates growth-form characteristics of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) at several sites in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. Most of this study concentrates on 1,000- to 2,500-year-old bristlecone pines; however, the report also describes some of the growth-form characteristics of younger trees (about 20 to less than 1,000 years old) in order to show the continuous changes in tree form from youth to old age. To better describe the trees in this study, some tree-structure nomenclature is introduced and a growth-form classification system is provided. Other topics include the relationship of the trees to their substrate and the potential changes in the growth forms of some bristlecone pines due to damage caused by fire, porcupines, impacts from tumbling boulders, and lightning strikes.

  8. Purification and characterization of the 7S vicilin from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis).

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Chen, Yu-Wei; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2008-09-10

    Pine nuts are economically important as a source of human food. They are also of medical importance because numerous pine nut allergy cases have been recently reported. However, little is known about the proteins in pine nuts. The purpose of this study was to purify and characterize pine nut storage proteins. Reported here is the first detailed purification protocol of the 7S vicilin-type globulin from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by gel filtration, anion exchange, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Reducing SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that purified vicilin consists of four major bands, reminiscent of post-translational protease cleavage of storage proteins during protein body packing in other species. The N-terminal ends of vicilin peptides were sequenced by Edman degradation. Circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that pine nut vicilin is stable up to 80 degrees C and its folding-unfolding equilibrium monitored by intrinsic fluorescence can be interpreted in terms of a two-state model.

  9. Morphological variation of Pinus flexilis (Pinaceae), a bird-dispersed pine, across a range of elevations.

    PubMed

    Schoettle, A W; Rochelle, S G

    2000-12-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) grows across a wider range of elevations than any other tree species in the central Rockies, from ∼1600 m at Pawnee Buttes to >3300 m at Rollins Pass. In this study we investigated two possible explanations for limber pine's success across a broad range of elevations: (1) the sites on which it is found, although separated by >1000 m elevation, may not be very different with respect to environmental factors that affect tree growth, and (2) limber pine growth is insensitive to environmental factors that change with elevation. We compared site characteristics of 12 limber pine stands at elevations ranging from 1630 to 3328 m as well as the growth and morphology of trees in each of these stands. Mean daily air temperature in July decreased linearly with the elevation of the site from 22.8° to 12.6°C. The growth and morphology of limber pine leaves, shoots, and trees were, in general, not related to the elevation or July mean air temperature of the sites. There was, however, a significant decrease in stomatal density with increasing elevation, which may be an acclimational response to restrict water loss at high elevations. Our data suggest that the fundamental and realized niche of limber pine is broad with respect to air temperature. In light of the high gene flow and only slight genetic differentiation among populations of species with bird-dispersed seeds, such as limber pine, it is especially unusual to see similar growth throughout an environmental gradient. Physiological and anatomical plasticity or wide physiological tolerance ranges may enable limber pine to uncouple its growth from its environment.

  10. Morphological variation of Pinus flexilis (Pinaceae), a bird-dispersed pine, across a range of elevations.

    PubMed

    Schoettle, A W; Rochelle, S G

    2000-12-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) grows across a wider range of elevations than any other tree species in the central Rockies, from ∼1600 m at Pawnee Buttes to >3300 m at Rollins Pass. In this study we investigated two possible explanations for limber pine's success across a broad range of elevations: (1) the sites on which it is found, although separated by >1000 m elevation, may not be very different with respect to environmental factors that affect tree growth, and (2) limber pine growth is insensitive to environmental factors that change with elevation. We compared site characteristics of 12 limber pine stands at elevations ranging from 1630 to 3328 m as well as the growth and morphology of trees in each of these stands. Mean daily air temperature in July decreased linearly with the elevation of the site from 22.8° to 12.6°C. The growth and morphology of limber pine leaves, shoots, and trees were, in general, not related to the elevation or July mean air temperature of the sites. There was, however, a significant decrease in stomatal density with increasing elevation, which may be an acclimational response to restrict water loss at high elevations. Our data suggest that the fundamental and realized niche of limber pine is broad with respect to air temperature. In light of the high gene flow and only slight genetic differentiation among populations of species with bird-dispersed seeds, such as limber pine, it is especially unusual to see similar growth throughout an environmental gradient. Physiological and anatomical plasticity or wide physiological tolerance ranges may enable limber pine to uncouple its growth from its environment. PMID:11118417

  11. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs.

  12. Unique Features of the Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Megagenome Revealed Through Sequence Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Liechty, John D.; Stevens, Kristian A.; Wu, Le-Shin; Loopstra, Carol A.; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Dougherty, William M.; Lin, Brian Y.; Zieve, Jacob J.; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Yorke, James A.; Crepeau, Marc W.; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Main, Doreen; Langley, Charles H.; Neale, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The largest genus in the conifer family Pinaceae is Pinus, with over 100 species. The size and complexity of their genomes (∼20–40 Gb, 2n = 24) have delayed the arrival of a well-annotated reference sequence. In this study, we present the annotation of the first whole-genome shotgun assembly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), which comprises 20.1 Gb of sequence. The MAKER-P annotation pipeline combined evidence-based alignments and ab initio predictions to generate 50,172 gene models, of which 15,653 are classified as high confidence. Clustering these gene models with 13 other plant species resulted in 20,646 gene families, of which 1554 are predicted to be unique to conifers. Among the conifer gene families, 159 are composed exclusively of loblolly pine members. The gene models for loblolly pine have the highest median and mean intron lengths of 24 fully sequenced plant genomes. Conifer genomes are full of repetitive DNA, with the most significant contributions from long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. In depth analysis of the tandem and interspersed repetitive content yielded a combined estimate of 82%. PMID:24653211

  13. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens.

  14. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. PMID:17482811

  15. Allometry and biomass of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) in central Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Y; Hwang, J W; Kim, Z S; Lee, W K; Kim, J S

    2001-07-01

    Aboveground tree biomass of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) was determined for a natural forest of Korean pine and mixed deciduous trees and seven age classes of plantation forests in central Korea. Regression analyses of the dry weights of stem wood, stem bark, branches, and needles versus diameter at breast height were used to calculate regression equations of the form of log Y = a + b log X. Biomass of Korean pine in the mixed forest was 118 Mg ha(-1), and biomass in the plantations was linearly related to stand age, ranging from 52.3 Mg ha(-1) in 11 to 20-year-old stands to 317.9 Mg ha(-1) in 71 to 80-year-old stands. The proportions of stem wood and stem bark in the total aboveground biomass decreased with stand age while those of branch and needle increased. Specific leaf area of Korean pine ranging from 35.2 to 52.1 cm2 g(-1) was significantly different among crown positions and needle ages; in general, lower crown position and current needles had the greatest surface area per unit dry weight.

  16. Analytical Modelling of Canopy Interception Loss from a Juvenile Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; Lishman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    In the central interior of British Columbia (BC), Canada, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB) has severely affected the majority of pine species in the region, especially lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson). The loss of mature lodgepole pine stands, including those lost to salvage logging, has resulted in an increase in the number of juvenile pine stands in the interior of BC through planting and natural regrowth. With this change from mature forests to juvenile forests at such a large spatial scale, the water balance of impacted areas may be altered, although the magnitude of such change is uncertain. Previous studies of rainfall partitioning by lodgepole pine and lodgepole pine dominated canopies have focused on mature stands. Thus, rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were measured and canopy interception loss was derived during the growing season of 2010 in a juvenile lodgepole pine dominated stand located approximately 60 km NNW of Kamloops, BC at 51°12'49" N 120°23'43" W, 1290 m above mean sea level. Scaling up from measurements for nine trees, throughfall, stemflow and canopy interception loss accounted for 87.7, 1.8 and 10.5 percent of the 252.9 mm of rain that fell over 38 events during the study period, respectively. The reformulated versions of the Gash and Liu analytical interception loss models estimated cumulative canopy interception loss at 24.7 and 24.6 mm, respectively, compared with the observed 26.5 mm; an underestimate of 1.8 and 1.9 mm or 6.8 and 7.2% of the observed value, respectively. Our results suggest that canopy interception loss is reduced in juvenile stands compared to their mature counterparts and that this reduction is due to the decreased storage capacity offered by these younger canopies. Evaporation during rainfall from juvenile canopies is still appreciable and may be a consequence of the increased proportion of the canopy exposed to wind during events.

  17. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...

  18. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. ) tree-limit surveillance during recent decades, central Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Kullman, L. )

    1993-02-01

    The altitudinal tree-limit of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been surveyed at the population level since the early- and mid-1970s in the Swedish Scandes. Elevational tree-limit advance was recorded for the majority of sites, despite statistically stable, although highly fluctuating climate with clusters of exceptionally cold winters and many relatively cool summers. The new tree-limit derived from pines established in the late 1950s. Tree-limit rise was concurrent with net population decline for the period 1972 to 1991, mainly as a result of failing regeneration. The main factor of individual vitality depression and mortality was deduced to be winter desiccation. The progressive tree-limit has a tendency for slow upslope advance during periods of climatic stability, even if punctuated by shorter events of unfavorable climate. Pine tree-limit dynamics is suggested to be a complex of climate/age/disturbance interactions. The tree-limit may decline altitudinally mainly in response to secular climate cooling, which makes it best suited for surveying sustained climatic trends and analogous paleoclimatic reconstruction. 51 refs., 12 figs., 1 tabs.

  19. Extremely low nucleotide polymorphism in Pinus krempfii Lecomte, a unique flat needle pine endemic to Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baosheng; Khalili Mahani, Marjan; Ng, Wei Lun; Kusumi, Junko; Phi, Hai Hong; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Szmidt, Alfred E

    2014-01-01

    Pinus krempfii Lecomte is a morphologically and ecologically unique pine, endemic to Vietnam. It is regarded as vulnerable species with distribution limited to just two provinces: Khanh Hoa and Lam Dong. Although a few phylogenetic studies have included this species, almost nothing is known about its genetic features. In particular, there are no studies addressing the levels and patterns of genetic variation in natural populations of P. krempfii. In this study, we sampled 57 individuals from six natural populations of P. krempfii and analyzed their sequence variation in ten nuclear gene regions (approximately 9 kb) and 14 mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions (approximately 10 kb). We also analyzed variation at seven chloroplast (cp) microsatellite (SSR) loci. We found very low haplotype and nucleotide diversity at nuclear loci compared with other pine species. Furthermore, all investigated populations were monomorphic across all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions included in our study, which are polymorphic in other pine species. Population differentiation at nuclear loci was low (5.2%) but significant. However, structure analysis of nuclear loci did not detect genetically differentiated groups of populations. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) using nuclear sequence data and mismatch distribution analysis for cpSSR loci suggested recent expansion of the species. The implications of these findings for the management and conservation of P. krempfii genetic resources were discussed. PMID:25360263

  20. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao )

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  1. Effect of drought and osmotic stress on gene expression in Jack Pine. [Pinus banksiana

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.; Mayne, M.; Coleman, J.R.; Blumwald, E. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought and osmotic stress was studied in Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings and cultured cell suspensions, respectively. The pattern of protein syntheses during stress was studied. Seedlings and cells were in vivo labeled with ({sup 35}S)methionine and membrane-bound proteins were isolated. proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by staining and autoradiography. Several changes in protein profiles were induced by stress. Messenger RNAs were isolated, translated in vitro, and complementary DNA libraries from control and stressed plants and cells were constructed in E. coli strain JM109. Antibodies, raised against electroeluted membrane-bound proteins that were significantly induced and/or enhanced during stress, were used to isolate stress-related genes from cDNA libraries.

  2. Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Ramos, L; Martinez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2012-05-16

    Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L. (n = 7) have been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl oximes. Besides previously reported components, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose, several soluble carbohydrates have been identified for the first time in this product, including saccharides (galactose, maltose, and planteose) and cyclitols (pinitol, galactinol, galactopinitol A1, fagopyritol B1, and other glycosyl-inositols). Most abundant cyclitols were chiro-inositol, fagopyritol B1, and pinitol, with concentrations ranging from 126.7 to 222.1 mg (100 g)(-1), 94.2 to 177.1 mg (100 g)(-1), and 51.2 to 282.8 mg (100 g)(-1), respectively.

  3. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus).

    PubMed

    Watts, Heather E; Hahn, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins.

  4. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium study of nitrogen species onto radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust.

    PubMed

    Harmayani, Kadek D; Faisal Anwar, A H M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen species (NH3-N, NO3-N, and NO2-N) are found as one of the major dissolved constituents in wastewater or stormwater runoff. In this research, laboratory experiments were conducted to remove these pollutants from the water environment using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust. A series of batch tests was conducted by varying initial concentration, dosage, particle size, pH, and contact time to check the removal performance. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of radiata pine sawdust for removing these contaminants from the aqueous phase (100% removal of NO3-N, and NO2-N; 55% removal of NH3-N). The adsorbent dosage and initial concentration showed a significantly greater effect on the removal process over pH or particle sizes. The optimum dosage for contaminant removal on a laboratory scale was found to be 12 g. Next, the adsorption kinetics were studied using intraparticle diffusion, liquid-film diffusion, and a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption of all species followed a pseudo-second order model but NO2-N adsorption followed both models. In addition, the kinetics of NO2-N adsorption showed two-step adsorption following intraparticle diffusion and liquid-film diffusion. The isotherm study showed that NO3-N and NO2-N adsorption fitted slightly better with the Freundlich model but that NH3-N adsorption followed both Freundlich and Langmuir models. PMID:27438245

  5. Necrotic bark of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a bioindicator of environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chrzan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pH and the concentration of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in aqueous extracts of necrotic bark Pinus sylvestris L. and in adjacent soil, located in two types of forest habitat in different parts in the Niepołomice Forest in southern Poland. The Niepołomice Forest is located about 35 km east of an urban-industrial agglomeration Kraków. Despite the lack of significant differences in pine bark reaction studied, there was a clear difference in contamination of both bark and soil with heavy metals. There was a correlation between the distribution of pollutants in the forest, and the direction of the prevailing winds. More heavy metals were accumulated in the pine bark and soil from the west than the east. The high content of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in the soils most likely results from the inflow of gas and dust pollutants from the urban-industrial agglomeration of Kraków. PMID:25106515

  6. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, A.; Pirkebner, D.; Florian, C.; Oberhuber, W.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner Alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner Alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during the year 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to c. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations were rising in all tissues (branch, stem, root) till end of July, except in needles where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site NSC concentrations in the above ground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in above ground growth, possibly due to elevated below ground carbon demand. In conclusion our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though C-reserves were not exhausted, a sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. PMID:21974742

  7. Carbon stocks across a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Matthew D.; Kolka, Randall K.; Bradford, John B.; Palik, Brian J.; Fraver, Shawn; Jurgensen, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    Forests function as a major global C sink, and forest management strategies that maximize C stocks offer one possible means of mitigating the impacts of increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We studied the effects of thinning, a common management technique in many forest types, on age-related trends in C stocks using a chronosequence of thinned and unmanaged red pine (Pinus resinosa) stands ranging from 9 to 306 years old. Live tree C stocks increased with age to a maximum near the middle of the chronosequence in unmanaged stands, and increased across the entire chronosequence in thinned stands. C in live understory vegetation and C in the mineral soil each declined rapidly with age in young stands but changed relatively little in middle-aged to older stands regardless of management. Forest floor C stocks increased with age in unmanaged stands, but forest floor C decreased with age after the onset of thinning around age 40 in thinned stands. Deadwood C was highly variable, but decreased with age in thinned stands. Total ecosystem C increased with stand age until approaching an asymptote around age 150. The increase in total ecosystem C was paralleled by an age-related increase in total aboveground C, but relatively little change in total belowground C. Thinning had surprisingly little impact on total ecosystem C stocks, but it did modestly alter age-related trends in total ecosystem C allocation between aboveground and belowground pools. In addition to characterizing the subtle differences in C dynamics between thinned and unmanaged stands, these results suggest that C accrual in red pine stands continues well beyond the 60–100 year management rotations typical for this system. Management plans that incorporate longer rotations and thinning in some stands could play an important role in maximizing C stocks in red pine forests while meeting other objectives including timber extraction, biodiversity conservation, restoration, and fuel reduction goals.

  8. Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).

    PubMed

    Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine. PMID:19875883

  9. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  10. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  11. Adaptive Potential of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Populations to the Emerging Pitch Canker Pathogen, Fusarium circinatum

    PubMed Central

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3–7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43–0.58 and 0.51–0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  12. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  13. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  14. Green foliage losses from ponderosa pines induced by Abert squirrels and snowstorms: A comparison. [Sciurus aberti; Pinus pondersosa

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, W.S.; Gaud, W.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Abert squirrels (Sciurus aberti) are obligate herbivores on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). The inner bark of pine shoots is considered one of the predominant food resources obtained by foraging squirrels. As squirrels forage for this resource they induce green needle losses from chosen feed trees. Amounts of induced green needle losses appear to vary according to the availability of alternative foods and squirrel population densities. Weather also induces green needle losses to ponderosa pines. Results of this study indicate that, at least in some years, heavy snowstorms can induce greater amounts of green needle losses than squirrels. Squirrel herbivory was not indicated as a factor in any tree mortality. However, losses due to snowstorms are more severe since they may cause the actual depletion of trees in the forest because of the tree mortality they inflict.

  15. Dispersal ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in its native environment as related to Swedish forestry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Despain, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) covers extensive areas of the mountains of western North America. It has evolved into four subspecies, each adapted to slightly different environmental conditions. All are adapted to reproduce following fire. Subspecies latifolia is the most extensive and economically important in North America. Serotiny is common in this subspecies, but trees bearing nonserotinous cones can be found in most stands, sometimes constituting more that 70% of the trees. Cone crops are produced yearly and seed loss to seed predators, insects and diseases are minimal. Germination and establishment occurs across a broad range of conditions allowing lodgepole pine to grow on poor sites as well as highly productive sites. These characteristics give lodgepole pine the ability to be highly invasive in new areas of suitable habitat.

  16. Decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and pine (Pinus nigra) litter along an Alpine elevation gradient: Decay and nutrient release

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Torsten W.; Duboc, Olivier; Djukic, Ika; Tatzber, Michael; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zehetner, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an important process for cycling of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct and indirect effects of climate on litter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient in a temperate Alpine region. Foliar litter of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Black pine (Pinus nigra) was incubated in litterbags during two years in the Hochschwab massif of the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria. Eight incubation sites were selected following an altitudinal/climatic transect from 1900 to 900 m asl. The average remaining mass after two years of decomposition amounted to 54% (beech) and 50% (pine). Net release of N, P, Na, Al, Fe and Mn was higher in pine than in beech litter due to high immobilization (retention) rates of beech litter. However, pine litter retained more Ca than beech litter. Altitude retarded decay (mass loss and associated C release) in beech litter during the first year only but had a longer lasting effect on decaying pine litter. Altitude comprises a suite of highly auto-correlated characteristics (climate, vegetation, litter, soil chemistry, soil microbiology, snow cover) that influence litter decomposition. Hence, decay and nutrient release of incubated litter is difficult to predict by altitude, except during the early stage of decomposition, which seemed to be controlled by climate. Reciprocal litter transplant along the elevation gradient yielded even relatively higher decay of pine litter on beech forest sites after a two-year adaptation period of the microbial community. PMID:26240437

  17. Plasticity of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) wood-forming tissues during a growing season.

    PubMed

    Paiva, J A P; Garnier-Géré, P H; Rodrigues, J C; Alves, A; Santos, S; Graça, J; Le Provost, G; Chaumeil, G; Da Silva-Perez, D; Bosc, A; Fevereiro, P; Plomion, C

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal effect is the most significant external source of variation affecting vascular cambial activity and the development of newly divided cells, and hence wood properties. Here, the effect of edapho-climatic conditions on the phenotypic and molecular plasticity of differentiating secondary xylem during a growing season was investigated. Wood-forming tissues of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) were collected from the beginning to the end of the growing season in 2003. Data from examination of fibre morphology, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), analytical pyrolysis, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were combined to characterize the samples. Strong variation was observed in response to changes in edapho-climatic conditions. A genomic approach was used to identify genes differentially expressed during this growing season. Out of 3512 studied genes, 19% showed a significant seasonal effect. These genes were clustered into five distinct groups, the largest two representing genes over-expressed in the early- or late-wood-forming tissues, respectively. The other three clusters were characterized by responses to specific edapho-climatic conditions. This work provides new insights into the plasticity of the molecular machinery involved in wood formation, and reveals candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic differences found between early- and late-wood.

  18. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  19. Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers and enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M A; Savage, T J; Croteau, R

    1999-12-01

    The turpentine fraction of conifer oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene olefins and plays important roles in defense and in the mediation of chemical communication between conifer hosts and insect predators. The stereochemistry of the turpentine monoterpenes is critical in these interactions, influencing host recognition, toxicity, and potency of derived pheromones, and the stereochemical composition of these compounds lends insight into their biogenetic origin, with implications for the numbers and types of enzymes responsible and their corresponding genes. Analysis of the oleoresin from several tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) showed the derived turpentine to consist mainly of (+)-(3R:5R)-alpha-pinene and (-)-(3S:5S)-beta-pinene. Cell-free extracts from xylem tissue yielded three monoterpene synthases which together account for the monoterpene isomer and enantiomer content of the turpentine of this tissue. The major products of these enzymes, produced from the universal precursor of monoterpenes, geranyl diphosphate, were shown to be (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively. In most properties (molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa, K(m) for geranyl diphosphate of 3 microM, requirement for monovalent and divalent cations), these enzymes resemble other monoterpene synthases from conifer species.

  20. Genetic variation in Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana. (Lamb.) Holmboe.) populations in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nebi Bilir

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out in a progeny trial established by ten population of Anatolian black pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe.] to estimate genetic variation, heritability, genetic gain and also genetic and phenotypic correlations among the characters based on 9th year results of tree height and branch characters in the trial. Average tree height was 112.7 cm in polled population, while average of branch characters were generally similar. The results of ANOVA showed statistically significant difference (0.05>p) among the population for characters. Family x population interaction was also found statistically significant. Variation among family was lower than that of within families for the characters. Family mean heritability (0.65 < h(f)²) was higher than individual heritability (0.42 < h(i)²) for the characters. Genetic variation among population showed low ratio in total variation, while it was very high among and within the families. It emphasized importance of individual selection in breeding programme. Phenotypic correlation was statistically significant between tree height and branch diameter only. It was also highest in genotypic correlation (r = 0.81).

  1. Multi-site modulation of flux during monolignol formation in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anterola, A. M.; van Rensburg, H.; van Heerden, P. S.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) cell suspension cultures secrete monolignols when placed in 8% sucrose/20 mM KI solution, and these were used to identify phenylpropanoid pathway flux-modulating steps. When cells were provided with increasing amounts of either phenylalanine (Phe) or cinnamic acid, cellular concentrations of immediate downstream products (cinnamic and p-coumaric acids, respectively) increased, whereas caffeic and ferulic acid pool sizes were essentially unaffected. Increasing Phe concentrations resulted in increased amounts of p-coumaryl alcohol relative to coniferyl alcohol. However, exogenously supplied cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids resulted only in increases in their intercellular concentrations, but not that of downstream cinnamyl aldehydes and monolignols. Supplying p-coumaryl and coniferyl aldehydes up to 40, 000-320,000-fold above the detection limits resulted in rapid, quantitative conversion into the monolignols. Only at nonphysiological concentrations was transient accumulation of intracellular aldehydes observed. These results indicate that cinnamic and p-coumaric acid hydroxylations assume important regulatory positions in phenylpropanoid metabolism, whereas cinnamyl aldehyde reduction does not serve as a control point. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Effective gene dispersal and female reproductive success in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Santiago C; Burczyk, Jaroslaw; Nathan, Ran; Nanos, Nikos; Gil, Luis; Alía, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    Understanding population-scale processes that affect allele frequency changes across generations is a long-standing interest in genetic, ecological and evolutionary research. In particular, individual differences in female reproductive success and the spatial scale of gene flow considerably affect evolutionary change and patterns of local selection. In this study, a recently developed maximum-likelihood (ML) method based on established offspring, the Seedling Neighbourhood Model, was applied and exponentially shaped dispersal kernels were fitted to both genetic and ecological data in a widespread Mediterranean pine, Pinus pinaster Aiton. The distribution of female reproductive success in P. pinaster was very skewed (about 10% of trees mothered 50% of offspring) and significant positive female selection gradients for diameter (gamma = 0.7293) and cone crop (gamma = 0.4524) were found. The selective advantage of offspring mothered by bigger trees could be due to better-quality seeds. These seeds may show more resilience to severe summer droughts and microsite variation related to water and nutrient availability. Both approaches, ecological and of parentage, consistently showed a long-distance dispersal component in saplings that was not found in dispersal kernels based on seed shadows, highlighting the importance of Janzen-Connell effects and microenvironmental variation for survival at early stages of establishment in this Mediterranean key forest tree. PMID:17107484

  3. Maturation of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings after exposure to a period of continuous light.

    PubMed

    Lascoux, D M; Notivol Paino, E; Sierra De Grado, R; Kremer, A; Dormling, I

    1993-06-01

    Nine half-sib families of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) of known adult performance were grown in continuous light at either 25 degrees C or 25/20 degrees C for 18 weeks. They were then exposed to a dormancy induction period followed by a dormancy release period and then grown for a further 9 weeks in a 16-h photoperiod at a day/night temperature of 25/20 degrees C. Seedlings exhibited great diversity in morphology at the end of the first growth period. The number of morphogenetic cycles varied between one and three and the form of the apical meristem ranged from a typical rosette to an adult-like bud. The type of seedling obtained at the end of the first growth period strongly influenced later growth, independently of the temperature regime. Maturity was proportional to the number of morphogenetic cycles achieved during the first growth period and was characterized by short growth duration, small primary needles and a high degree of fixed growth. The state of the apical meristem that underwent the dormancy period had less influence on the rate of maturation than the number of morphogenetic cycles. The time course of maturation was endogenously controlled and varied among traits. Conspicuous morphological differences were not associated with changes in the relationship between growth components at the phenotypic level. However, there seemed to be a shift in the genetic correlations between growth components after first budset.

  4. Effective gene dispersal and female reproductive success in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Santiago C; Burczyk, Jaroslaw; Nathan, Ran; Nanos, Nikos; Gil, Luis; Alía, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    Understanding population-scale processes that affect allele frequency changes across generations is a long-standing interest in genetic, ecological and evolutionary research. In particular, individual differences in female reproductive success and the spatial scale of gene flow considerably affect evolutionary change and patterns of local selection. In this study, a recently developed maximum-likelihood (ML) method based on established offspring, the Seedling Neighbourhood Model, was applied and exponentially shaped dispersal kernels were fitted to both genetic and ecological data in a widespread Mediterranean pine, Pinus pinaster Aiton. The distribution of female reproductive success in P. pinaster was very skewed (about 10% of trees mothered 50% of offspring) and significant positive female selection gradients for diameter (gamma = 0.7293) and cone crop (gamma = 0.4524) were found. The selective advantage of offspring mothered by bigger trees could be due to better-quality seeds. These seeds may show more resilience to severe summer droughts and microsite variation related to water and nutrient availability. Both approaches, ecological and of parentage, consistently showed a long-distance dispersal component in saplings that was not found in dispersal kernels based on seed shadows, highlighting the importance of Janzen-Connell effects and microenvironmental variation for survival at early stages of establishment in this Mediterranean key forest tree.

  5. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  6. Trade-Offs between Growth Rate, Tree Size and Lifespan of Mountain Pine (Pinus montana) in the Swiss National Park.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Christof

    2016-01-01

    A within-species trade-off between growth rates and lifespan has been observed across different taxa of trees, however, there is some uncertainty whether this trade-off also applies to shade-intolerant tree species. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between radial growth, tree size and lifespan of shade-intolerant mountain pines. For 200 dead standing mountain pines (Pinus montana) located along gradients of aspect, slope steepness and elevation in the Swiss National Park, radial annual growth rates and lifespan were reconstructed. While early growth (i.e. mean tree-ring width over the first 50 years) correlated positively with diameter at the time of tree death, a negative correlation resulted with lifespan, i.e. rapidly growing mountain pines face a trade-off between reaching a large diameter at the cost of early tree death. Slowly growing mountain pines may reach a large diameter and a long lifespan, but risk to die young at a small size. Early growth was not correlated with temperature or precipitation over the growing period. Variability in lifespan was further contingent on aspect, slope steepness and elevation. The shade-intolerant mountain pines follow diverging growth trajectories that are imposed by extrinsic environmental influences. The resulting trade-offs between growth rate, tree size and lifespan advance our understanding of tree population dynamics, which may ultimately improve projections of forest dynamics under changing environmental conditions.

  7. Trade-Offs between Growth Rate, Tree Size and Lifespan of Mountain Pine (Pinus montana) in the Swiss National Park

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, Christof

    2016-01-01

    A within-species trade-off between growth rates and lifespan has been observed across different taxa of trees, however, there is some uncertainty whether this trade-off also applies to shade-intolerant tree species. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between radial growth, tree size and lifespan of shade-intolerant mountain pines. For 200 dead standing mountain pines (Pinus montana) located along gradients of aspect, slope steepness and elevation in the Swiss National Park, radial annual growth rates and lifespan were reconstructed. While early growth (i.e. mean tree-ring width over the first 50 years) correlated positively with diameter at the time of tree death, a negative correlation resulted with lifespan, i.e. rapidly growing mountain pines face a trade-off between reaching a large diameter at the cost of early tree death. Slowly growing mountain pines may reach a large diameter and a long lifespan, but risk to die young at a small size. Early growth was not correlated with temperature or precipitation over the growing period. Variability in lifespan was further contingent on aspect, slope steepness and elevation. The shade-intolerant mountain pines follow diverging growth trajectories that are imposed by extrinsic environmental influences. The resulting trade-offs between growth rate, tree size and lifespan advance our understanding of tree population dynamics, which may ultimately improve projections of forest dynamics under changing environmental conditions. PMID:26930294

  8. [Development of New Mitochondrial DNA Markers in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for Population Genetic and Phylogeographic Studies].

    PubMed

    Semerikov, V L; Putintseva, Yu A; Oreshkova, N V; Semerikova, S A; Krutovsky, K V

    2015-12-01

    Fragments of genomic DNA of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) homologous to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contigs of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were resequenced in a sample of the Scots pine trees of European, Siberian, Mongolian and Caucasian origin in order to develop mtDNA markers. Flanking non-coding regions of some mitochondrial genes were also investigated and resequenced. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a single minisatellite locus were identified. Caucasian samples differed from the rest by three SNPs. Two SNPs have been linked to an early described marker in.the first intron of the nad7 gene, and all together revealed three haplotypes in European populations. No variable SNPs were found in the Siberian and Mongolian populations. The minisatellite locus contained 41 alleles across European, Siberian and Mongolian populations, but, this locus demonstrated a weak population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.058), probably due to its high mutation rate. PMID:27055298

  9. Host selection by the pine processionary moth enhances larval performance: An experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan J.; Soler, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    The development of a phytophagous insect depends on the nutritional characteristics of plants on which it feeds. Offspring from different females, however, may vary in their ability to develop in different host species and therefore females should place their eggs on host plants that result in the highest performance for the insect offspring. Causes underlying the predicted relationships between host selection and offspring performance may be: (1) a genetic association between larval ability to exploit particular hosts and the female insect's host preference; and (2) phenotypic plasticity of larvae that may be due to (a) maternal effects (e.g. differential investment in eggs) or (b) diet. In this work, we analyse the performance (i.e. hatching success and larval size and mortality) of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) caterpillar developing in Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) or maritime (Pinus pinaster) pines. Larvae of this moth species do not move from the individual pine selected by the mother for oviposition. By means of cross-fostering experiments of eggs batches and silk nests of larvae between these two pine species, we explored whether phenotypic plasticity of offspring traits or genetic correlations between mother and offspring traits account for variation in developmental characteristics of caterpillars. Our results showed that females preferentially selected Aleppo pine for oviposition. Moreover, the offspring had the highest probability of survival and reached a larger body size in this pine species independently of whether or not batches were experimentally cross-fostered. Notably, the interaction between identity of donor and receiver pine species of larvae nests explained a significant proportion of variance of larval size and mortality, suggesting a role of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity of the hatchlings. These results suggest that both female selection of the more appropriate pine species and phenotypic plasticity of larva explain the

  10. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea.

  11. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea. PMID:18758977

  12. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species. PMID:24237338

  13. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species.

  14. Belowground carbon dynamics in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) immediately following diammonium phosphate fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gough, Christopher M; Seiler, John R

    2004-07-01

    Forest soils store an immense quantity of labile carbon (C) and a may be a large potential sink for atmospheric C. Forest management practices such as fertilization may enhance overall C storage in soils, yet changes in physiological processes following nutrient amendments have not been widely investigated. We intensively monitored belowground C dynamics for nearly 200 days following diammonium phosphate fertilization of pot-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in an effort to examine the short-term effects of fertilization on processes involved in soil C sequestration. Soil respiration rates initially increased in fertilized pots relative to controls, followed by a brief reversal in this trend and then a final sustained pattern of elevated rates of soil respiration in the fertilized treatment. Patterns in soil respiration rates over time reflected changes in autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial) components of soil respiration. Root respiration rates were greater in the fertilized treatment 49 days following fertilization and returned to control rates by the end of the study. In contrast, microbial respiration rates and microbial activity per soil C concentration remained depressed over the same time period. Compared with control seedlings, total root biomass was 27% greater in fertilized seedlings harvested at the end of the study, indicating that the elevated soil respiration rates observed toward the end of the study were a result of increased respiring root biomass. We conclude that fertilization, at least over the short-term, may increase soil C sequestration by increasing belowground biomass production and reducing microbial driven C turnover. PMID:15123456

  15. Back to nature: ecological genomics of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Bower, Andrew D; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Coop, Graham; Neale, David B

    2010-09-01

    Genetic variation is often arrayed in latitudinal or altitudinal clines, reflecting either adaptation along environmental gradients, migratory routes, or both. For forest trees, climate is one of the most important drivers of adaptive phenotypic traits. Correlations of single and multilocus genotypes with environmental gradients have been identified for a variety of forest trees. These correlations are interpreted normally as evidence of natural selection. Here, we use a genome-wide dataset of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typed from 1730 loci in 682 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees sampled from 54 local populations covering the full-range of the species to examine allelic correlations to five multivariate measures of climate. Applications of a Bayesian generalized linear mixed model, where the climate variable was a fixed effect and an estimated variance-covariance matrix controlled random effects due to shared population history, identified several well-supported SNPs associating to principal components corresponding to geography, temperature, growing degree-days, precipitation and aridity. Functional annotation of those genes with putative orthologs in Arabidopsis revealed a diverse set of abiotic stress response genes ranging from transmembrane proteins to proteins involved in sugar metabolism. Many of these SNPs also had large allele frequency differences among populations (F(ST) = 0.10-0.35). These results illustrate a first step towards a ecosystem perspective of population genomics for non-model organisms, but also highlight the need for further integration of the methodologies employed in spatial statistics, population genetics and climate modeling during scans for signatures of natural selection from genomic data. PMID:20723060

  16. Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov., isolated from Pinus pinaster wood from a mixed grove of pines trees.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Gabriel; Abreu, Pedro; Proença, Diogo Neves; Santos, Susana; Nobre, Maria Fernanda; Morais, Paula V

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial strain M47C3B(T) was isolated from the endophytic microbial community of a Pinus pinaster tree branch from a mixed grove of pines. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this organism represented one distinct branch within the family Sphingobacteriaceae, most closely related to the genus Mucilaginibacter. Strain M47C3B(T) formed a distinct lineage, closely related to Mucilaginibacter dorajii KACC 14556(T), with which it shared 97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The other members of the genus Mucilaginibacter included in the same clade were Mucilaginibacter lappiensis ATCC BAA-1855(T) sharing 97.0% similarity and Mucilaginibacter composti TR6-03(T) that had a lower similarity (95.7%). The novel strain was Gram-staining-negative, formed rod-shaped cells, grew optimally at 26 °C and at pH 7, and was able to grow with up to 0.3% (w/v) NaCl. The respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids of the strain were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, representing 73.5% of the total fatty acids. The major components of the polar lipid profile of strain M47C3B(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified polar lipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 40.6 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics we propose the name Mucilaginibacter pineti sp. nov. for the novel species represented by strain M47C3B(T) ( = CIP 110632(T) = LMG 28160(T)).

  17. Effects of zinc on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-05-01

    The 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed high sensitivity to chronic exposure to zinc in hydroculture, which manifested in a significant inhibition of growth. Changes in the architecture of the root system and the suppression of its growth were shown to be the most striking effects of the toxic effect of zinc. Based on the data relating to the accumulation of zinc predominantly in the root system (by up to 35 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) and to the reduction in its translocation into the aerial organs, we concluded that P. sylvestris is related to a group of plants that exclude zinc. The seedlings developed a manganese deficiency (revealed by a reduction in Mn content in the roots and needles of up to 3.5 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) but not an iron deficiency (revealed by an increase in iron content of up to 23.7% in the roots and up to 42.3% in the needles at average). The absence of signs of oxidative stress under the effect of the zinc was detected as evidenced by the reduction in the content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals in the seedling organs. The leading role of low molecular weight antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was suggested. Under the influence of zinc, a significant increase in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of ethanol extracts of the seedling organs was found, which was caused by an increase in the total content of (+)-catechin and proanthocyanidins. PMID:26897114

  18. Compression Wood-Responsive Proteins in Developing Xylem of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.)12

    PubMed Central

    Plomion, Christophe; Pionneau, Cédric; Brach, Jean; Costa, Paulo; Baillères, Henri

    2000-01-01

    When a conifer shoot is displaced from its vertical position, compression wood (CW) is formed on the under side and can eventually return the shoot to its original position. Changes in cell wall structure and chemistry associated with CW are likely to result from differential gene/protein expression. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of differentiating xylem proteins was combined with the physical characterization of wooden samples to identify and characterize CW-responsive proteins. Differentiating xylem was harvested from a 22-year-old crooked maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) tree. Protein extracted from different samples were revealed by high-resolution silver stained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed with a computer-assisted system for single spot quantification. Growth strain (GS) measurements allowed xylem samples to be classified quantitatively from normal wood to CW. Regression of lignin and cellulose content on GS showed that an increase in the percentage of lignin and a decrease of the percentage of cellulose corresponded to increasing GS values, i.e. CW. Of the 137 studied spots, 19% were significantly associated with GS effect. Up-regulated proteins included 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (an ethylene forming enzyme), a putative transcription factor, two lignification genes (caffeic O-methyltransferase and caffeoyl CoA-O-methyltransferase), members of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine-synthase gene family, and enzymes involved in nitrogen and carbon assimilation (glutamine synthetase and fructokinase). A clustered correlation analysis was performed to study simultaneously protein expression along a gradient of gravistimulated stressed xylem tissue. Proteins were found to form “expression clusters” that could identify: (a) Gene product under similar control mechanisms, (b) partner proteins, or (c) functional groups corresponding to specialized pathways. The possibility of obtaining regulatory

  19. Spatial pattern of ozone injury in Aleppo pine related to air pollution dynamics in a coastal-mountain region of eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M J; Calatayud, V; Calvo, E

    2000-05-01

    In eastern Spain, studies combining the tracking and meso-scale circulations of air pollutants with the evaluation of their effects on plants have been undertaken since 1994. Meso-scale processes are very important from the point of view of how and where forest ecosystems are affected by point sources and regional air pollution in the Mediterranean area. The first results of these field surveys show that in 1994, 1995 and 1996, the distribution pattern of ozone visual injury (chlorotic mottle) in Pinus halepensis correlated with the penetration of pollutants transported by the sea-breeze into coastal valleys of Castellón (eastern Spain). In this tree species, longer needles are associated with higher chlorotic mottle, and ozone injury seems to be among the factors affecting needle retention and crown transparency.

  20. A Model for Predicting Spring Emergence of Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Korean white pine, Pinus koraiensis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chan Sik; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Nam, Youngwoo; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Lee, Cha Young; Choi, Won I L

    2015-08-01

    Monochamus saltuarius Gebler is a vector that transmits the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Korean white pine, Pinus koraiensis, in Korea. To reduce the damage caused by this nematode in pine forests, timely control measures are needed to suppress the cerambycid beetle population. This study sought to construct a forecasting model to predict beetle emergence based on spring temperature. Logs of Korean white pine were infested with M. saltuarius in 2009, and the infested logs were overwintered. In February 2010, infested logs were then moved into incubators held at constant temperature conditions of 16, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30 or 34°C until all adults had emerged. The developmental rate of the beetles was estimated by linear and nonlinear equations and a forecasting model for emergence of the beetle was constructed by pooling data based on normalized developmental rate. The lower threshold temperature for development was 8.3°C. The forecasting model relatively well predicted the emergence pattern of M. saltuarius collected from four areas in northern Republic of Korea. The median emergence dates predicted by the model were 2.2-5.9 d earlier than the observed median dates. PMID:26470325

  1. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    PubMed

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-12-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection.

  2. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  3. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  4. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forests.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinlong; Kang, Fengfeng; Wang, Luoxin; Yu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Weihong; Song, Xiaoshuai; Zhang, Yanlei; Chen, Feng; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei; Han, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of biomass and carbon (C) storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb), and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH) were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm) were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale. PMID:24736660

  5. Allelopathic effects ofPinus densiflora on undergrowth of red pine forest.

    PubMed

    Kil, B S; Yim, Y J

    1983-08-01

    Correlation between the distributional frequency of undergrowth species of red pine forest and their germination and growth effected by pine extracts and leachates was found. It was made clear by germination and growth tests that pine toxic substances inhibit the germination and growth of low frequency species more than high frequency species in a red pine forest and that these substances are contained in descending concentration in fresh and fallen leaves, roots, pine forest soil, and pine rain. The concentration of pine toxic substances in extracts or leachates was affected by extracting or leaching within a given period of time, requiring a few hours for extracts or a few days for leachates. The amount of dry weight inhibition of the undergrowth treated by pine leachates was expressed as a growth inhibition index (GII) for the comparison of tolerance in various species. GII is a relative value (%) of the test groups against the control and it is an exponential function of the amount of pine toxic substances affecting the dry weight of the undergrowth. The substances were analyzed by paper and gas chromatography. Benzoic acid and 11 phenolic acids were identifed by gas chromatography. Benzoic acid was considered to be a key factor of allelopathy in the red pine forest.

  6. A functional and structural Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) model integrating architecture, biomass and effects of precipitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  7. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  8. Unthinned slow-growing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees contain muted isotopic signals in tree rings as compared to thinned trees

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analysed the oxygen isotopic values of wood (δ18Ow) of 12 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees from control, moderately, and heavily thinned stands and compared them with existing wood-based estimates of carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C), basal area increment (BAI), and g...

  9. Tree rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  10. [Dendroclimatic potentials for the tree rings of Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanensis ) at Xiaolinhai in the western Dabie Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Ling-Ling

    2014-07-01

    By using the dendrochronology research methods, this paper developed the 1915-2011 tree ring-width standard chronology of the Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanesis) at the north slope of western Dabie Mountains in the junction of Hubei, Henan and Anhui provinces. High mean sensitivity (MS) indicated that there was conspicuous high-frequency climate signals and high first-order autocorrelation (AC) showed there were significant lag-effects of tree previous growth. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) indicated that the trees had high levels of common climate signals. Correlations between the tree ring-width standard chronology and climatic factors (1959-2011) revealed the significant influences of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the tree width growth of Huangshan pine by the end of growing season (September and October). Significant positive correlations were found between the tree-ring indices and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of current September and October. In conclusion, the combination of water and heat of September and October is the major effect factor for the growth of Huangshan pine in western Dabie Mountains.

  11. Tree rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology. PMID:21174127

  12. [Dendroclimatic potentials for the tree rings of Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanensis ) at Xiaolinhai in the western Dabie Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Ling-Ling

    2014-07-01

    By using the dendrochronology research methods, this paper developed the 1915-2011 tree ring-width standard chronology of the Huangshan pine (Pinus taiwanesis) at the north slope of western Dabie Mountains in the junction of Hubei, Henan and Anhui provinces. High mean sensitivity (MS) indicated that there was conspicuous high-frequency climate signals and high first-order autocorrelation (AC) showed there were significant lag-effects of tree previous growth. The higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and expressed population signal (EPS) indicated that the trees had high levels of common climate signals. Correlations between the tree ring-width standard chronology and climatic factors (1959-2011) revealed the significant influences of temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the tree width growth of Huangshan pine by the end of growing season (September and October). Significant positive correlations were found between the tree-ring indices and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) of current September and October. In conclusion, the combination of water and heat of September and October is the major effect factor for the growth of Huangshan pine in western Dabie Mountains. PMID:25345032

  13. Tree rings of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  14. Development of a locked nucleic acid real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Pinus armandii in mixed species pine nut samples associated with dysgeusia.

    PubMed

    Handy, Sara M; Timme, Ruth E; Jacob, Salena M; Deeds, Jonathan R

    2013-02-01

    Recent work has shown that the presence of the species Pinus armandii , even when occurring as species mixtures of pine nuts, is correlated with taste disturbance (dysgeusia), also referred to as "pine mouth". Because of this known possibility of pine nut mixtures, a need was identified for a rapid streamlined assay to detect the presence of this species in the presence of other types of pine nuts. A locked nucleic acid probe was employed in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) format to detect a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) unique to this species. This assay was able to detect P. armandii in homogenates down to ∼1% concentration (the lowest level tested) in the presence of several commonly co-occurring and closely related species of pine and should prove to be a useful tool for the detection of this species in food products.

  15. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd.

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  16. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

    PubMed

    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction. PMID:21845434

  17. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

    PubMed

    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction.

  18. Radionuclides in pinon pine (Pinus edulis) nuts from Los Alamos National Laboratory lands and the dose from consumption.

    PubMed

    Fresquez, P R; Huchton, J D; Mullen, M A; Naranjo, L

    2000-09-01

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around the eastern portion of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis). Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of 3H, 137Cs, 90Sr, totU, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (3) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN fromLANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 microSv); this is far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection (all pathway) permissible dose limit of 100 mrem (1000 microSv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.

  19. Differential effects of plant ontogeny and damage type on phloem and foliage monoterpenes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Colgan, L Jessie

    2012-08-01

    Coniferous trees have both constitutive and inducible defences that deter or kill herbivores and pathogens. We investigated constitutive and induced monoterpene responses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to a number of damage types: a fungal associate of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey & R.W. Davidson); two phytohormones, methyl jasmonate (MJ) and methyl salicylate (MS); simulated herbivory; and mechanical wounding. We only included the fungal, MJ and mechanical wounding treatments in the field experiments while all treatments were part of the greenhouse studies. We focused on both constitutive and induced responses between juvenile and mature jack pine trees and differences in defences between phloem and needles. We found that phytohormone applications and fungal inoculation resulted in the greatest increase in monoterpenes in both juvenile and mature trees. Additionally, damage types differentially affected the proportions of individual monoterpenes: MJ-treated mature trees had higher myrcene and β-pinene than fungal-inoculated mature trees, while needles of juveniles inoculated with the fungus contained higher limonene than MJ- or MS-treated juveniles. Although the constitutive monoterpenes were higher in the phloem of juveniles than mature jack pine trees, the phloem of mature trees had a much higher magnitude of induction. Further, induced monoterpene concentrations in juveniles were higher in phloem than in needles. There was no difference in monoterpene concentration between phytohormone applications and G. clavigera inoculation in mature trees, while in juvenile trees MJ was different from both G. clavigera and simulated herbivory in needle monoterpenes, but there was no difference between phytohormone applications and simulated herbivory in the phloem.

  20. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Kume, A; Tsuboi, N; Nakatani, N; Nakane, K; Sakurai, N; Nakagawa, N; Sakugawa, H

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20 degrees C. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NOx or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed.

  1. [GENETIC VARIABILITY OF MATERNAL PLANTS AND SEED EMBRYOS OF KOCH PINE POPULATIONS (PINUS KOCHIANA KLOTZSCH EX KOCH) IN CRIMEA].

    PubMed

    Korshykov, I I; Kalafat, L O; Vynogradova, O M; Podgornyi, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Comparative studies of genetic variability were undertaken for 12 allozyme loci selections of trees and embryos of seed, and also for the crossing systems in five populations of Koch pine of (Pinus kochiana Klotzsch ex Koch) in Crimea. It was shown that in seed embryos the allelic variety peculiar to the maternal plants was restored, however the level of the available (H₀) heterozygosity was considerably lower, 0.286 and 0.189 respectively. For the embryos unlike the trees, in the majority of the analyzed loci the considerable divergence was specific in the actual distribution of genotypes from the theoretically expected according to Hardy- Weinberg law. The proportion of cross pollination at the unilocal (t(s)) estimation varied from 0.384 to 0.673 in the populations, while at the multilocal ones (t(m)) it was 0.639-0.841. PMID:27281923

  2. Effect of simulated acid rain on quantity of epiphytic microfungi on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Ranta, H M

    1990-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain on the phyllosphere microflora of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied experimentally in northern Finland during the summer of 1988. Trees were irrigated with artificial acid rain of pH4 and pH3 (H(2)SO(4) and HNO(3), weight ratio of S:N=2.86:1). Untreated trees and trees irrigated with spring water (pH6) were used as controls. Two sampling heights (0.5m and 2m) were used. The needles were colonized exclusively by epiphytic fungi, mainly Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud. The lower branches had significantly more epiphytic fungi than the upper branches. Compared to the control trees, the numbers of epiphytic fungi were significantly decreased on the needles of trees irrigated with acid rain. Acid rain affected the number of epiphytic fungi equally at both sampling heights. The species composition of the epiphytic fungi was not affected by the acid treatments.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative determination of extractives in heartwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ekeberg, Dag; Flaete, Per-Otto; Eikenes, Morten; Fongen, Monica; Naess-Andresen, Carl Fredrik

    2006-03-24

    A method for quantitative determination of extractives from heartwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) was developed. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.03 mg/g wood and the linear range (r = 0.9994) was up to 10 mg/g with accuracy within +/- 10% and precision of 18% relative standard deviation. The identification of the extractives was performed using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The yields of extraction by Soxhlet were tested for solid wood, small particles and fine powder. Small particles were chosen for further analysis. This treatment gave good yields of the most important extractives: pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, resin acids and free fatty acids. The method is used to demonstrate the variation of these extractives across stems and differences in north-south direction. PMID:16472534

  4. Gene-pool variation in caledonian and European Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) revealed by chloroplast simple-sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Provan, J; Soranzo, N; Wilson, N J; McNicol, J W; Forrest, G I; Cottrell, J; Powell, W

    1998-09-22

    We have used polymorphic chloroplast simple-sequence repeats to analyse levels of genetic variation within and between seven native Scottish and eight mainland European populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Diversity levels for the Scottish populations based on haplotype frequency were far in excess of those previously obtained using monoterpenes and isozymes and confirmed lower levels of genetic variation within the derelict population at Glen Falloch. The diversity levels were higher than those reported in similar studies in other Pinus species. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that small (3.24-8.81%) but significant (p < or = 0.001) portions of the variation existed between the populations and that there was no significant difference between the Scottish and the mainland European populations. Evidence of population substructure was found in the Rannoch population, which exhibited two subgroups. Finally, one of the loci studied exhibited an allele distribution uncharacteristic of the stepwise mutation model of evolution of simple-sequence repeats, and sequencing of the PCR products revealed that this was due to a duplication rather than slippage in the repeat region. An examination of the distribution of this mutation suggests that it may have occurred fairly recently in the Wester Ross region or that it may be evidence of a refugial population.

  5. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper.

    PubMed

    Roitto, M; Rautio, P; Julkunen-Tiitto, R; Kukkola, E; Huttunen, S

    2005-10-01

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg(-1) soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg(-1) soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil.

  6. Fungal endophytic communities on twigs of fast and slow growing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Ros, Antonio V; Müller, Michael M; San Martín, Roberto; Diez, Julio J

    2015-10-01

    Most plant species harbour a diverse community of endophytic, but their role is still unknown in most cases, including ecologically and economically important tree species. This study describes the culturable fungal endophytic community of Pinus sylvestris L. twigs in northern Spain and its relationship with diametric growth of the host. In all, 360 twig samples were collected from 30 Scots pines in fifteen stands. Isolates were obtained from all twig samples and 43 fungal taxa were identified by morphogrouping and subsequent ITS rDNA sequencing. All isolates were Ascomycetes, being Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes the most abundant classes. Half of the species were host generalists while the others were conifer or pine specialists. We found three new endophytic species for the Pinaceae: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Phaeomoniella effusa and Plectania milleri, and additional six new species for P. sylvestris: Daldinia fissa, Hypocrea viridescens, Nigrospora oryzae, Ophiostoma nigrocarpum, Penicillium melinii and Penicillium polonicum. The endophytic community of fast and slow growing trees showed differences in species composition, abundance and evenness, but not in diversity. Phoma herbarum was associated to fast growing trees and Hypocrea lixii to those growing slow. Our results support the hypothesis that some endophytic species may affect growth of P. sylvestris.

  7. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  8. Microfibril angle in wood of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) after irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tulik, Mirela; Rusin, Aleksandra

    2005-03-01

    The secondary cell wall structure of tracheids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), especially the angle of microfibrils in the S(2) layer, was examined in wood deposited prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Microscopic analysis was carried out on wood samples collected in October 1997 from breast height of three pine trees 16, 30 and 42 years old. The polluted site was located in a distance of 5 km south from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where radioactive contamination in 1997 was 3.7 x 10(5) kBq m(-2). Anatomical analysis showed that the structure of the secondary cell wall in tracheids formed after the Chernobyl accident was changed. Changes occurred both in S(2) and S(3) layers. The angle of microfibrils in S(2) layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl accident was different in comparison to this measured in wood formed prior to the disaster. The intensity of the changes, i.e. alteration of the microfibrils angle in S(2) layer and unusual pattern of the S(3) layer, depended on the age of the tree and was most intensive in a young tree.

  9. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS-LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts. PMID:26399186

  10. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  11. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine.

  12. [Distribution of the genetic diversity of the Siberian stone pine, Pinus sibirica Du Tour, along the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N; Belokon', M M; Belokon', Iu S; Politov, D V

    2014-05-01

    The Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the main forest-forming coniferous species of the boreal ecosystems of Western Siberia. We used the isozyme method to analyze 11 ecotypes representing the latitudinal and longitudinal profiles within the species range, including samples from the geographic boundaries of the distribution. The genetic structure of the ecotypes is described on the basis of the variability for 26 isozyme loci encoding for 16 enzyme systems. The greatest genetic diversity was observed in the taiga ecotypes in the central part of the studied area, while the ecotypes along the species range boundaries were shown to be genetically depauperized. Approximately 8.1% of the observed genetic diversity is attributed to differences between the studied ecotypes. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the Fest_2, Pgm_1, Sod_4, and a few otherloci, as well as a correlation between allele frequencies and geographical locations of the populations. The results of multivariate analysis of allelic frequencies as well as cluster analysis allowed us to discriminate three major groups of ecotypes: north-eastern, central and south-western. In view of our results, we compare two hypotheses: one which attributes the spatial distribution of genetic variations to the selectivity for some of the polymorphic allozyme loci, and the other based in the history of the formation of the range of the Siberian stone pine. PMID:25715470

  13. Soil respiration and root biomass responses to burning in calabrian pine (Pinus brutia) stands in Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Bilmis, Tuncay; Altun, Lokman; Yilmaz, Murat

    2010-01-01

    In this study soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-30 year-old calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) stands in Edirne, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2005. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using the soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (> or = 2 mm diameter) and small root (> 2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using the sequential coring method. Soil respiration rates in burned sites were significantly higher than in control sites during the summer season but there was no significant difference in the other seasons. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine and small root biomass were significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 3204 kg ha(-1) for burned and 3772 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Annual soil CO2 releases totaled 515 g Cm(-2) for burned and 418 g C m(-2) for control sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of calabrian pine stands in the study area.

  14. The atmospheric potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds from needles of white pine (Pinus strobus) in Northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, S.; Bertman, S.

    2012-02-01

    The key role that biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) play in atmospheric chemistry requires a detailed understanding of how BVOC concentrations will be affected by environmental change. Large-scale screening of BVOC emissions from whole forest ecosystems is difficult with enclosure methods. Leaf composition of BVOC, as a surrogate for direct emissions, can more easily reflect the distribution of BVOC compounds in a forest. In this study, BVOC composition in needles of 92 white pine trees (Pinus strobus), which are becoming a large part of Midwest forests, are tracked for three summers at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). α-Pinene, the dominant terpene in all samples, accounts for 30-50% of all terpenes on a mole basis. The most abundant sesquiterpenoid was a C15 alcohol identified as germacrene D-4-ol. The relationship between limonene and total other monoterpenes shows two distinct trends in the population of these forests. About 14% (n = 13) of the trees showed high levels of limonene (up to 36% of the total BVOC) in the same trees every year. Assuming that needle concentrations scale with emission rate, we estimate that hydroxyl radical reactivity due to reaction with monoterpenes from white pine increases approximately 6% at UMBS when these elevated concentrations are included. We suggest that chemotypic variation within forests has the potential to affect atmospheric chemistry and that large-scale screening of BVOC can be used to study the importance of BVOC variation.

  15. A comparison of the community diversity of foliar fungal endophytes between seedling and adult loblolly pines (Pinus taeda)

    PubMed Central

    Oono, Ryoko; Lefèvre, Emilie; Simha, Anita; Lutzoni, François

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes represent one of the most ubiquitous plant symbionts on Earth and are phylogenetically diverse. The structure and diversity of endophyte communities have been shown to depend on host taxa and climate, but there have been relatively few studies exploring endophyte communities throughout host maturity. We compared foliar fungal endophyte communities between seedlings and adult trees of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) at the same seasons and locations by culturing and culture-independent methods. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer region and adjacent partial large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (ITS–LSU amplicon) to delimit operational taxonomic units and phylogenetically characterize the communities. Despite the lower infection frequency in seedlings compared to adult trees, seedling needles were receptive to a more diverse community of fungal endophytes. Culture-free method confirmed the presence of commonly cultured OTUs from adult needles but revealed several new OTUs from seedling needles that were not found with culturing methods. The two most commonly cultured OTUs in adults were rarely cultured from seedlings, suggesting that host age is correlated with a selective enrichment for specific endophytes. This shift in endophyte species dominance may be indicative of a functional change between these fungi and their loblolly pine hosts. PMID:26399186

  16. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    PubMed

    Vizcaíno-Palomar, Natalia; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara; Zavala, Miguel A; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover) in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any) was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local) origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  17. [Effect of climate change on net primary productivity of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) at different successional stages of broad-leaved Korean pine forest].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Gao, Lu-Shuang; Zhang, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Pinus koraiensis in broad-leaved Korean pine forests of Changbai Mountain at different successional stages (secondary poplar-birch forest, secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the primitive Korean pine forest) were selected in this paper as the research objects. In this research, the annual growth of net primary productivity (NPP) (1921-2006) of P. koraiensis was obtained by combining the tree-ring chronology and relative growth formulae, the correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and climatic factors was developed, and the annual growth of NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages in relation to climatic variation within different climate periods were analyzed. The results showed that, in the research period, the correlations between climatic factors and NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages were different. With increasing the temperature, the correlations between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar-birch forest and the minimum temperatures of previous and current growing seasons changed from being significantly negative to being significantly positive. The positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the minimum temperature in current spring changed into significantly positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and the temperatures in previous and current growing seasons. The climatic factors had a stronger hysteresis effect on NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest, but NPP of P. koraiensis in the primitive Korean pine forest had weaker correlation with temperature but stronger positive correlation with the precipitation of previous growing season. The increases of minimum and mean temperatures were obvious, but no significant variations of the maximum temperature and precipitation were observed at our site. The climatic variation facilitated the increase of the NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar

  18. Phytoavailability and speciation of aluminum carried by total suspended particulates (TSP) to Masson pine ( Pinus massoniana L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuiliang; Wang, Ping; Fan, Chinbay Q.; Xu, Hui

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) is an abundant metal in airborne particulate matter. Al concentrations carried by total suspended particulates (TSP) of the Nanjing atmosphere were distinctly higher in soils of industrial areas than the background concentration of the soils. This study aimed to assess the influence of the soils varying in their degree of contamination on the soil-to-plant transfer and translocation of Al to Masson pine ( Pinus massoniana L.). A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability and speciation of Al carried by TSP which was collected at urban and industrial sites over a 12-month period in the atmosphere of Nanjing, China. The extractable noncrystalline Al in environmental particulate samples could be operationally fractionated into insoluble (Alin), oxide (Alox), organic (Alor), carbonate (Alca), and exchangeable species (Alex) using Tessier's sequential extraction procedure. The results showed that relatively high Al concentrations in TSP and soil samples were observed at the industrial site due to emissions from a local industry that manufactures Al-based products. The distribution sequence of Al species was quite similar for TSP and soil samples, which was Alin > Alor > Alox > Alca > Alex. The order of industrial particulate matter (IPM) was Alin > Alox > Alca > Alex > Alor. Alor was not detectable. A greater migration of Alex species entered the pine roots and the highest Al contents were accumulated in the roots and declined in the aerial portions. The soil-to-pine Al transfer was extremely low even when grown on industrial Al-contaminated soils. A significant positive correlation was found between the Al contents in pine seedlings and rhizospheric Alex contents. In contrast, there was a strong negative correlation between rhizospheric Alex contents and seedling biomass. For the spiked soils, under the influence of IPM, Al phytoavailability decreased with elevated rhizospheric Al and Alex. Collectively, this study provided evidence

  19. Lodgepole Pine Cambium (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats.): a springtime first peoples' food in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Dilbone, Megan; Turner, Nancy J; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) is a tree species utilized for succulent edible cambium and secondary phloem in the spring by Interior First Peoples of the Pacific Northwest. In this article we present a nutritional analysis of this food based on a pooled sample of 17 trees harvested in the Chilcotin region of British Columbia. We also present enzymatic sugar analysis of raw, dried, and cooked lodgepole pine cambium harvested from the Chilcotin and Okanagan regions in British Columbia. In the discussion we interpret the nutrient values of raw lodgepole pine cambium in comparison to dried and cooked cambium, results from other nutritional studies of pine cambium, and nutrients in some other traditional and nontraditional foods. PMID:23445392

  20. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zinck, John W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD) were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation. PMID:27387485

  1. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Rajora, Om P; Eckert, Andrew J; Zinck, John W R

    2016-01-01

    Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD) were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation. PMID:27387485

  2. The bi-directional exchange of oxygenated VOCs between a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Rasmussen, R.; Baker, B.; Jardine, K.; Nemitz, E.

    2005-11-01

    Using new in-situ field observations of the most abundant oxygenated VOCs (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, C3/C4 carbonyls, MVK+MAC and acetic acid) we were able to constrain emission and deposition patterns above and within a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation with a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) understory. During the day canopy scale measurements showed significant emission of methanol and acetone, while methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were mainly deposited during the day. All oxygenated compounds exhibited strong losses during the night that could not be explained by conventional dry deposition parameterizations. Accompanying leaf level measurements indicated substantial methanol and acetone emissions from loblolly pine. The exchange of acetaldehyde was more complex. Laboratory measurements made on loblolly pine needles indicated that acetaldehyde may be either emitted or taken up depending on ambient concentrations, with the compensation point increasing exponentially with temperature, and that mature needles tended to emit more acetaldehyde than younger needles. Canopy scale measurements suggested mostly deposition. Short-term (approx. 2 h) ozone fumigation in the laboratory had no detectable impact on post-exposure emissions of methanol and acetone, but decreased the exchange rates of acetaldehyde. The emission of a variety of oxygenated compounds (e.g. carbonyls and alcohols) was triggered or significantly enhanced during laboratory ozone fumigation experiments. These results suggest that higher ambient ozone levels in the future might enhance the biogenic contribution of some oxygenated compounds. Those with sufficiently low vapor pressures may potentially influence secondary organic aerosol growth. Compounds recently hypothesized to be primarily produced in the canopy atmosphere via ozone plus terpenoid-type reactions can also originate from the oxidation reaction of ozone with leaf surfaces and inside the leaf

  3. The bi-directional exchange of oxygenated VOCs between a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Baker, B.; Jardine, K.; Nemitz, E.; Guenther, A.

    2005-08-01

    Using new in-situ field observations of the most abundant oxygenated VOCs (methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, C3/C4 carbonyls, MVK+MAC and acetic acid) we were able to constrain emission and deposition patterns above and within a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation with a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) understory. Canopy scale measurements showed significant emission of methanol and acetone, while MVK+MAC, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were mainly deposited during the day. All oxygenated compounds exhibited strong losses during the night that could not be explained by conventional dry deposition parameterizations. Accompanying leaf level measurements indicated that methanol and acetone were primarily emitted from loblolly pine. The exchange of acetaldehyde was more complex. Laboratory measurements made on loblolly pine needles indicated that acetaldehyde may be either emitted or taken up depending on ambient concentrations, with the compensation point increasing exponentially with temperature, and that older needles tended to emit more acetaldehyde than younger needles. Canopy scale measurements suggested mostly deposition. Short-time (approx. 2 h) ozone fumigation had no detectable impact on post-exposure emissions of methanol and acetone, but modified the exchange rates of acetaldehyde. The emission of a variety of oxygenated compounds (e.g. carbonyls and alcohols) was triggered or significantly enhanced during ozone fumigation. These results suggest that increasing ozone levels in the future might enhance the biogenic contribution of some oxygenated compounds; those with sufficiently low vapor pressures may potentially influence secondary organic aerosol growth. Compounds recently hypothesized to be primarily produced in the canopy atmosphere via ozone plus terpenoid-type reactions can also originate from the reaction of ozone with leaf surfaces. This needs to be taken into account when scaling up very reactive biogenic compounds.

  4. Effect of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and rust-resistance breeding on genetic variation in western white pine (Pinus monticola).

    PubMed

    Kim, M-S; Brunsfeld, S J; McDonald, G I; Klopfenstein, N B

    2003-04-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species from western North America that has declined over the past several decades mainly due to the introduction of blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variation in northern Idaho populations of western white pine (including rust-resistant breeding stock) in relation to blister rust. A total of 176 individuals from four populations was analyzed using 163 AFLP loci. Within populations, an average 31.3% of the loci were polymorphic (P), and expected heterozygosity (H(e)) was 0.123. Genetic differentiation values (G(st)) showed that 9.4% of detected genetic variation was explained by differences among populations. The comparison between the rust-resistant breeding stock and a corresponding sample derived from multiple natural populations produced similar values of P (35% vs. 34.4%) and H(e) (0.134 vs. 0.131). No apparent signs of a genetic bottleneck caused by rust-resistance breeding were found. However, a comparison of two natural populations from local geographic areas showed that the population with low pressure from blister rust had higher polymorphism and heterozygosity than the population that had experienced high mortality due to blister rust: P (30.7% vs. 25.1%) and H(e) (0.125 vs. 0.100), respectively. In addition, the population from low blister-rust pressure had twice as many unique alleles as the blister rust-selected population. The genetic distance and Dice's similarity coefficients among the four populations indicated that the local population that survived high blister-rust pressure was genetically similar to the rust-resistant breeding stock.

  5. Acute and long-term effects of irradiation on pine (Pinus silvestris) strands post-Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Arkhipov, N P; Kuchma, N D; Askbrant, S; Pasternak, P S; Musica, V V

    1994-12-11

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the viability of pine stands after the fallout from the damaged nuclear energy plant at Chernobyl (ChNPP) was shown within the territory of the 10-km zone. During the period 1986-1991, irradiated and damaged forest stands, so-called 'red forest', located in this area were systematically classified by observation. Mortality rate, re-establishment, development of tree canopies, reproduction anomalies and stand viability were shown to be dependent on absorbed irradiation dose, on the age of the stand and on forest composition. For pine stands in the acutely affected zone, doses of more than 60 Gy resulted in a massive mortality and no regeneration of pine trees since 1987. The injured trees had burned or had dried-up. The drying process was accelerated by a massive production of pathogenic insects invading the dying trees. Specifically, irradiation doses of 10-60 Gy, 1-10 Gy and 0.1-1 Gy caused high, medium and low injury to the forest stands, respectively. Doses of less than 0.1 Gy did not cause any visible damage to the trees. In 1987, repair processes were displayed by the tree canopies and practically the entire viability of the forest stands had recovered except for trees in the acute and highly affected zones. The young forest was reestablished in the same place as the perished trees and new pine saplings were planted on the reclaimed areas.

  6. Seasonality and Disturbance Events in the Carbon Isotope Record of Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii) Tree Rings from Big Pine Key, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebenack, C.; Anderson, W. T.; Cherubini, P.

    2011-12-01

    The South Florida coastal ecosystem is among the world's subtropical coastlines which are threatened by the potential effects of climate change. A well-developed localized paleohistory is essential in the understanding of the role climate variability/change has on both hydrological dynamics and disturbance event frequency and intensity; this understanding can then aid in the development of better predictive models. High resolution paleoclimate proxies, such as those developed from tree-ring archives, may be useful tools for extrapolating actual climate trends over time from the overlapping long-term and short-term climate cycles, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In South Florida, both the AMO and ENSO strongly influence seasonal precipitation, and a more complete grasp of how these cycles have affected the region in the past could be applied to future freshwater management practices. Dendrochronology records for the terrestrial subtropics, including South Florida, are sparse because seasonality for this region is precipitation driven; this is in contrast to the drastic temperature changes experienced in the temperate latitudes. Subtropical seasonality may lead to the complete lack of visible rings or to the formation of ring structures that may or may not represent annual growth. Fortunately, it has recently been demonstrated that Pinus elliottii trees in South Florida produce distinct annual growth rings; however ring width was not found to significantly correlate with either the AMO or ENSO. Dendrochronology studies may be taken a step beyond the physical tree-ring proxies by using the carbon isotope ratios to infer information about physiological controls and environmental factors that affect the distribution of isotopes within the plant. It has been well established that the stable isotope composition of cellulose can be related to precipitation, drought, large-scale ocean/atmospheric oscillations

  7. Identification and characterization of water-stress-responsive genes in hydroponically grown maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dubos, Christian; Le Provost, Gregoire; Pot, David; Salin, Franck; Lalane, Celine; Madur, Delphine; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Plomion, Christophe

    2003-02-01

    Growth, development and productivity of long-lived organisms such as forest trees are continuously challenged by abiotic stresses, and may also be greatly affected by predicted climatic change. As a first step toward creating stress-resistant maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) varieties by marker-assisted breeding, we describe the identification and characterization of water-stress-responsive genes in hydroponically grown seedlings that were well watered (-0.08 MPa) or subjected to water deprivation (-0.45 MPa) by the addition of polyethylene glycol. The cDNA amplified fragment-length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique was used to identify genes regulated by water deprivation. Approximately 4000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were screened, of which 28 increased and 20 decreased in seedlings subjected to water deprivation. Of these 48 TDFs, 62.6% corresponded to proteins of known function, which indicate the main mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response (photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall synthesis and plant defense). We found that 16.6% of the 48 TDFs were similar to Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh gene products, 10.4% were similar to Pinus taeda L. expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 10.4% did not match any sequences in the public databases. The relative abundance of these transcripts was quantitatively analyzed by reverse northern of both needle and root tissues, confirming the effectiveness of the cDNA-AFLP technique in detecting differentially expressed genes. The identification and characterization of water-stress-responsive genes provide new insights into the nature of the machinery involved in the response to water deprivation in a forest tree.

  8. A mitochondrial DNA minisatellite reveals the postglacial history of jack pine (Pinus banksiana), a broad-range North American conifer.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Julie; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean

    2005-10-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is a broadly distributed North American conifer and its current range was covered by the Laurentian ice sheet during the last glacial maximum. To infer about the history and postglacial colonization of this boreal species, range-wide genetic variation was assessed using a new and highly variable minisatellite-like marker of the mitochondrial genome. Among the 543 trees analysed, 14 distinct haplotypes were detected, which corresponded to different repeat numbers of the 32-nucleotide minisatellite-like motif. Several haplotypes were rare with limited distribution, suggesting recent mutation events during the Holocene. At the population level, an average of 2.6 haplotypes and a mean haplotype diversity (H) of 0.328 were estimated. Population subdivision of genetic diversity was quite high with G(ST) and R(ST) values of 0.569 and 0.472, respectively. Spatial analyses identified three relatively homogeneous groups of populations presumably representative of genetically distinct glacial populations, one west and one east of the Appalachian Mountains in the United States and a third one presumably on the unglaciated northeastern coastal area in Canada. These results indicate the significant role of the northern part of the US Appalachian Mountains as a factor of vicariance during the ice age. A fourth distinct group of populations was observed in central Québec where the continental glacier retreated last. It included populations harbouring haplotypes present into the three previous groups, and it had higher level of haplotype diversity per population (H = 0.548) and lower population differentiation (G(ST) = 0.265), which indicates a zone of suture or secondary contact between the migration fronts of the three glacial populations. Introgression from Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm. was apparent in one western population from Alberta. Altogether, these results indicate that the mitochondrial DNA variation of jack pine is

  9. Growth of mycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings planted in oil sands reclaimed areas.

    PubMed

    Onwuchekwa, Nnenna E; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Quoreshi, Ali; Khasa, Damase P

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal inoculation at the tree nursery seedling production stage on growth and survival was examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) planted in oil sands reclamation sites. The seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme strain # UAMH 5247, Suillus tomentosus strain # UAMH 6252, and Laccaria bicolor strain # UAMH 8232, as individual pure cultures and in combinations. These treatments were demonstrated to improve salinity resistance and water uptake in conifer seedlings. The field responses of seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation varied between plant species, inoculation treatments, and measured parameters. Seedling inoculation resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal colonization rates compared with non-inoculated control, which had also a relatively small proportion of roots colonized by the nursery contaminant fungi identified as Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora americana. Seedling inoculation had overall a greater effect on relative height growth rates, dry biomass, and stem volumes in jack pine compared with white spruce. However, when examined after two growing seasons, inoculated white spruce seedlings showed up to 75% higher survival rates than non-inoculated controls. The persistence of inoculated fungi in roots of planted seedlings was examined at the end of the second growing season. Although the inoculation with H. crustuliniforme triggered growth responses, the fungus was not found in the roots of seedlings at the end of the second growing season suggesting a possibility that the observed growth-promoting effect of H. crustuliniforme may be transient. The results suggest that the inoculation of conifer seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi could potentially be carried out on a large scale in tree nurseries to benefit postplanting performance in oil sands reclamation sites. However, these practices should take into consideration the differences in responses between the different

  10. Missing Rings, Synchronous Growth, and Ecological Disturbance in a 36-Year Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida) Provenance Study.

    PubMed

    Leland, Caroline; Hom, John; Skowronski, Nicholas; Ledig, F Thomas; Krusic, Paul J; Cook, Edward R; Martin-Benito, Dario; Martin-Fernandez, Javier; Pederson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Provenance studies are an increasingly important analog for understanding how trees adapted to particular climatic conditions might respond to climate change. Dendrochronological analysis can illuminate differences among trees from different seed sources in terms of absolute annual growth and sensitivity to external growth factors. We analyzed annual radial growth of 567 36-year-old pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) trees from 27 seed sources to evaluate their performance in a New Jersey Pine Barrens provenance experiment. Unexpectedly, missing rings were prevalent in most trees, and some years-1992, 1999, and 2006-had a particularly high frequency of missing rings across the plantation. Trees from local seed sources (<55 km away from the plantation) had a significantly smaller percentage of missing rings from 1980-2009 (mean: 5.0%), relative to northernmost and southernmost sources (mean: 9.3% and 7.9%, respectively). Some years with a high frequency of missing rings coincide with outbreaks of defoliating insects or dry growing season conditions. The propensity for missing rings synchronized annual variations in growth across all trees and might have complicated the detection of potential differences in interannual variability among seed sources. Average ring width was significantly larger in seed sources from both the southernmost and warmest origins compared to the northernmost and coldest seed sources in most years. Local seed sources had the highest average radial growth. Adaptation to local environmental conditions and disturbances might have influenced the higher growth rate found in local seed sources. These findings underscore the need to understand the integrative impact of multiple environmental drivers, such as disturbance agents and climate change, on tree growth, forest dynamics, and the carbon cycle.

  11. Missing Rings, Synchronous Growth, and Ecological Disturbance in a 36-Year Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida) Provenance Study.

    PubMed

    Leland, Caroline; Hom, John; Skowronski, Nicholas; Ledig, F Thomas; Krusic, Paul J; Cook, Edward R; Martin-Benito, Dario; Martin-Fernandez, Javier; Pederson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Provenance studies are an increasingly important analog for understanding how trees adapted to particular climatic conditions might respond to climate change. Dendrochronological analysis can illuminate differences among trees from different seed sources in terms of absolute annual growth and sensitivity to external growth factors. We analyzed annual radial growth of 567 36-year-old pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) trees from 27 seed sources to evaluate their performance in a New Jersey Pine Barrens provenance experiment. Unexpectedly, missing rings were prevalent in most trees, and some years-1992, 1999, and 2006-had a particularly high frequency of missing rings across the plantation. Trees from local seed sources (<55 km away from the plantation) had a significantly smaller percentage of missing rings from 1980-2009 (mean: 5.0%), relative to northernmost and southernmost sources (mean: 9.3% and 7.9%, respectively). Some years with a high frequency of missing rings coincide with outbreaks of defoliating insects or dry growing season conditions. The propensity for missing rings synchronized annual variations in growth across all trees and might have complicated the detection of potential differences in interannual variability among seed sources. Average ring width was significantly larger in seed sources from both the southernmost and warmest origins compared to the northernmost and coldest seed sources in most years. Local seed sources had the highest average radial growth. Adaptation to local environmental conditions and disturbances might have influenced the higher growth rate found in local seed sources. These findings underscore the need to understand the integrative impact of multiple environmental drivers, such as disturbance agents and climate change, on tree growth, forest dynamics, and the carbon cycle. PMID:27182599

  12. The Role of Population Origin and Microenvironment in Seedling Emergence and Early Survival in Mediterranean Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton)

    PubMed Central

    Vizcaíno-Palomar, Natalia; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara; Zavala, Miguel A.; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover) in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any) was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local) origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes. PMID:25286410

  13. Missing Rings, Synchronous Growth, and Ecological Disturbance in a 36-Year Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida) Provenance Study

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Caroline; Hom, John; Skowronski, Nicholas; Krusic, Paul J.; Cook, Edward R.; Martin-Benito, Dario; Martin-Fernandez, Javier; Pederson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Provenance studies are an increasingly important analog for understanding how trees adapted to particular climatic conditions might respond to climate change. Dendrochronological analysis can illuminate differences among trees from different seed sources in terms of absolute annual growth and sensitivity to external growth factors. We analyzed annual radial growth of 567 36-year-old pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) trees from 27 seed sources to evaluate their performance in a New Jersey Pine Barrens provenance experiment. Unexpectedly, missing rings were prevalent in most trees, and some years—1992, 1999, and 2006—had a particularly high frequency of missing rings across the plantation. Trees from local seed sources (<55 km away from the plantation) had a significantly smaller percentage of missing rings from 1980–2009 (mean: 5.0%), relative to northernmost and southernmost sources (mean: 9.3% and 7.9%, respectively). Some years with a high frequency of missing rings coincide with outbreaks of defoliating insects or dry growing season conditions. The propensity for missing rings synchronized annual variations in growth across all trees and might have complicated the detection of potential differences in interannual variability among seed sources. Average ring width was significantly larger in seed sources from both the southernmost and warmest origins compared to the northernmost and coldest seed sources in most years. Local seed sources had the highest average radial growth. Adaptation to local environmental conditions and disturbances might have influenced the higher growth rate found in local seed sources. These findings underscore the need to understand the integrative impact of multiple environmental drivers, such as disturbance agents and climate change, on tree growth, forest dynamics, and the carbon cycle. PMID:27182599

  14. Did the ambient ozone affect stem increment of Scots Pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) on territories under regional pollution load? Step III of Lithuanian studies.

    PubMed

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Augustaitiene, Ingrida; Cinga, Gintautas; Mazeika, Juozapas; Deltuvas, Romualdas; Juknys, Romualdas; Vitas, Adomas

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to explore if changes in stem increment of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone concentration when the impact of tree dendrometric parameters (age, diameter) and crown defoliation are accounted for. More than 200 dominant and codominant trees from 12 pine stands, for which crown defoliation had been assessed since 1994, were chosen for increment boring and basal area increment computing. Stands are located in Lithuanian national parks, where since 1994-95 Integrated Monitoring Stations have been operating. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient ozone (O3) can have a negative impact on pine tree stem growth under field conditions where O3 exposure is below phytotoxic levels.

  15. Pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hayata) needle extracts sensitize GBM8901 human glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by downregulating autophagy and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chia-Leng; Chen, Chien-Min; Chang, Yan-Zin; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Lin, Chih-Li

    2014-10-29

    Pine needle extracts of Pinus morrisonicola (Hayata) are commonly used as a functional health beverage. However, it remains unclear what the mechanism is underlying the antitumor activity of pine needle extract. The aims of present study were to investigate the anti-glioblastoma effects of pine needle extracts as well as its bioactive compounds. From three different solvent extracts of pine needles, the water extract displayed the strongest cytotoxicity effects on GBM8901 glioblastoma cells. The isolated compounds were identified as pinocembrin, chrysin, and tiliroside. Chrysin was the most active ingredient of pine needle extract for the induction of apoptosis and suppression of migration and invasion. It also markedly inhibited temozolomide (TMZ)-induced autophagy and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression. Because both autophagy and MGMT overexpression have been implicated to TMZ-induced drug resistance in glioblastoma, our results showed that pine needle extract and chrysin may serve as a potential anticancer agent against glioblastoma, especially with regard to sensitizing glioblastoma cells resistant to TMZ.

  16. Phylogeography of Pinus armandii and its relatives: heterogeneous contributions of geography and climate changes to the genetic differentiation and diversification of Chinese white pines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liu; Hao, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Yan; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Cun, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Geographic barriers and Quaternary climate changes are two major forces driving the evolution, speciation, and genetic structuring of extant organisms. In this study, we used Pinus armandii and eleven other Asian white pines (subsection Strobus, subgenus Pinus) to explore the influences of geographic factors and Pleistocene climatic oscillations on species in South China, a region known to be centers of plant endemism and biodiversity hotspots. Range-wide patterns of genetic variation were investigated using chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA markers, with extensive sampling throughout the entire range of P. armandii. Both cpDNA and mtDNA revealed that P. armandii exhibits high levels of genetic diversity and significant population differentiation. Three geographically distinct subdivisions corresponding to the Qinling-Daba Mountains (QDM), Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) and Yungui Plateau (YGP) were revealed in mainland China by cpDNA. Their break zone was located in the southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). A series of massive mountains, induced by the QTP uplift, imposed significant geographic barriers to genetic exchange. The disjunct distribution patterns of ancestral haplotypes suggest that a large continuous population of the white pines may have existed from southwest to subtropical China. Repeated range shifts in response to the Pleistocene glaciations led to the isolation and diversification of the subtropical species. The two Taiwanese white pines share a common ancestor with the species in mainland China and obtain their chloroplasts via long-distance pollen dispersal from North Asian pines. Distinct genetic patterns were detected in populations from the Qinling-Daba Mountains, Yungui Plateau, Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains, and subtropical China, indicating significant contributions of geographic factors to the genetic differentiation in white pines. Our study depicts a clear picture of the evolutionary history of Chinese white pines

  17. Carbon Isotopes in Pinus elliotti from Big Pine Key, Florida: Indicators of Seasonal Precipitation, ENSO and Disturbance Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebenack, C.; Willoughby, H. E.; Anderson, W. T.; Cherubini, P.

    2013-12-01

    The South Florida coastal ecosystem is among the world's subtropical coastlines which are threatened by the potential effects of climate change. A well-developed localized paleohistory is essential in the understanding of the role climate variability/change has on both hydrological dynamics and disturbance event frequency and intensity; this understanding can then aid in the development of better predictive models. High resolution paleoclimate proxies, such as those developed from tree-ring archives, may be useful tools for extrapolating actual climate trends over time from the overlapping long-term and short-term climate cycles, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In South Florida, both the AMO and ENSO strongly influence seasonal precipitation, and a more complete grasp of how these cycles have affected the region in the past could be applied to future freshwater management practices. Dendrochronology records for the terrestrial subtropics, including South Florida, are sparse because seasonality for this region is precipitation driven; this is in contrast to the drastic temperature changes experienced in the temperate latitudes. Subtropical seasonality may lead to the complete lack of visible rings or to the formation of ring structures that may or may not represent annual growth. Fortunately, it has recently been demonstrated that Pinus elliottii trees in South Florida produce distinct annual growth rings; however ring width was not found to significantly correlate with either the AMO or ENSO. Dendrochronology studies may be taken a step beyond the physical tree-ring proxies by using the carbon isotope ratios to infer information about physiological controls and environmental factors that affect the distribution of isotopes within the plant. It has been well established that the stable isotope composition of cellulose can be related to precipitation, drought, large-scale ocean/atmospheric oscillations

  18. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens. PMID:27392610

  19. Molecular identification and relative abundance of cryptic Lophodermium species in natural populations of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Reignoux, Sabrina N A; Green, Sarah; Ennos, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The multi-locus phylogenetic species recognition approach and population genetic analysis of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to delineate Lophodermium taxa inhabiting needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in native pinewoods within Scotland. These analyses revealed three major lineages corresponding to the morphological species Lophodermium seditiosum and Lophodermium conigenum, fruiting on broken branches, and Lophodermium pinastri, fruiting on naturally fallen needles. Within L. pinastri three well supported sister clades were found representing cryptic taxa designated L. pinastri I, L. pinastri II, and L. pinastri III. Significant differences in mean growth rate in culture were found among the cryptic taxa. Taxon-specific primers based on ITS sequences were designed and used to classify over 500 Lophodermium isolates, derived from fallen needles of P. sylvestris in three Scottish and one French pinewood site, into the three L. pinastri cryptic taxa. Highly significant differences in the relative abundance of the three taxa were found among the Scottish pinewood sites, and between the French and all of the Scottish sites.

  20. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on physicochemical properties of biochar obtained from the fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Tae-Su; Choi, Joon Weon

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties and structure of biochar. Biochar was produced by fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) using a fluidized bed reactor at different pyrolysis temperatures (300, 400 and 500 °C). The produced biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, particle size distributions, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The yield of biochar decreased sharply from 60.7% to 14.4%, based on the oven-dried biomass weight, when the pyrolysis temperature rose from 300 °C to 500 °C. In addition, biochars were further carbonized with an increase in pyrolysis temperature and the char's remaining carbons were rearranged in stable form. The experimental results suggested that the biochar obtained at 400 and 500 °C was composed of a highly ordered aromatic carbon structure.

  1. Ozone uptake and effects on transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration in Scots pine. [Pinus sylvestris L

    SciTech Connect

    Skaerby, L.; Troeng, E.; Bostroem, C.

    1987-09-01

    Ozone uptake, transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration were studied in the field by using an open gas exchange system in a 20-year-old stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). A current shoot was treated with ozone concentrations ranging from 120 to 400 ..mu..g x m/sup -3/ during one month. During daytime there was a linear relationship between ozone concentration and ozone uptake, and the deposition rate varied between 0.05 and 0.13 cm x s/sup -1/. Ozone at the highest concentrations seemed to decrease transpiration somewhat during daytime. At night, ozone was taken up only at the highest concentration. Both transpiration and stomatal conductance increased at night when ozone concentration was 250..mu..g x m/sup -3/ and higher. There was no significant influence on the net photosynthetic performance during exposure to ozone. Dark respiration, however, increased throughout the experimental period, and the accumulated respiration was about 60% higher for the ozone-exposed shoot at the end of the experiment.

  2. The effects of drought and disturbance on the growth and developmental instability of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, John H.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Michelle L.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Emlen, John M.; Malol, Jagadish; Bankstahl, Elizabeth; Krzysik, Anthony J.; Balbach, Harold E.; Freeman, D. Carl

    2012-01-01

    Ecological indicators provide early warning of adverse environmental change, helping land managers adaptively manage their resources while minimizing costly remediation. In 1999 and 2000, we studied two such indicators, growth and developmental instability, of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) influenced by mechanized infantry training at Fort Benning, Georgia. Disturbed areas were used for military training; tracked and wheeled vehicles damaged vegetation and soils. Highly disturbed sites had fewer trees, diminished ground cover, warmer soils in the summer, and more compacted soils with a shallower A-horizon. We hypothesized that disturbance would decrease the growth of needles, branches, and tree rings, increase the complexity of tree rings, and increase the developmental instability of needles. Contrary to our expectations, however, disturbance enhanced growth in the first year of the study, possibly by reducing competition. In the second year, a drought reduced growth of branches and needles, eliminating the stimulatory effect of disturbance. Growth-ring widths increased with growing-season precipitation, and decreased with growing-season temperature over the last 40 years. Disturbance had no effect on tree-ring complexity, as measured by the Hurst exponent. Within-fascicle variation of current-year needle length, a measure of developmental instability, differed among the study populations, but appeared unrelated to mechanical disturbance or drought.

  3. The atmospheric potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds from needles of White Pine (Pinus strobus) in Northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, S.; Bertman, S.

    2011-09-01

    The key role biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) play in atmospheric chemistry requires a detailed understanding of how BVOC concentrations will be affected by environmental change. Large-scale screening of ecosystems is difficult with enclosure methods. In this study, BVOC in needles of 71 white pine trees (Pinus strobus), which are becoming a large part of Midwest forests, are tracked for three summers at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). α-pinene, the dominant terpene in all samples, accounts for 30-50% of all terpenes on a mole basis. The most abundant sesquiterpenoid was a C15 alcohol identified as germacrene-D-4-ol. The abundance of this material and its atmospheric relevance has not been considered previously. The relationship between limonene and α-pinene clearly shows two distinct trends in the population of these forests. About 15% of the trees showed high levels of limonene (up to 36% of the total BVOC) in the same trees every year. With this mixture, limonene contributes 11% of the α-pinene contribution to total gas-phase OH loss at UMBS compared to less than 2% considering the composition of the majority trees. Hence we show that chemotypic variation within forests can affect atmospheric chemistry and that large-scale screening of BVOC can be used effectively to study the importance of BVOC variation for predicting atmospheric chemistry in future forests.

  4. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  5. [CYTOGENETIC RESPONSE OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) TO CADMIUM AND NICKEL].

    PubMed

    Belousov, M V; Mashkina, O S

    2015-01-01

    We studied cytogenetic polymorphism of the seeds of Pinus sylvestris L. in response to heavy metals exposure in laboratory settings over 2 years' time. We compared results obtained from the seedlings of different years: 2012 and 2013. With an increase in Ni2+ and Cd2+ concentration we observed a decrease in mitotic activity with concurrent rise in the percentage of cells in the prophase. This fact demonstrates the heavy metals act similar to both fixatives and substances that block cleavage spindle formation. In terms of pathological mitosis and the frequency of micronuclei cells, Cd2+ shows higher mutagenity compared to Ni2+. In addition, in the experimental samples, we have distinguished abnormalities such as fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes and especially C mitosis occurrence, which are not observed in the control. PMID:26495713

  6. Fungal Infection Increases the Rate of Somatic Mutation in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Ganea, Laura-Stefana; Razzak, Abdur M; García Gil, M R

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations are transmitted during mitosis in developing somatic tissue. Somatic cells bearing the mutations can develop into reproductive (germ) cells and the somatic mutations are then passed on to the next generation of plants. Somatic mutations are a source of variation essential to evolve new defense strategies and adapt to the environment. Stem rust disease in Scots pine has a negative effect on wood quality, and thus adversely affects the economy. It is caused by the 2 most destructive fungal species in Scandinavia: Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum. We studied nuclear genome stability in Scots pine under biotic stress (fungus-infected, 22 trees) compared to a control population (plantation, 20 trees). Stability was assessed as accumulation of new somatic mutations in 10 microsatellite loci selected for genotyping. Microsatellites are widely used as molecular markers in population genetics studies of plants, and are particularly used for detection of somatic mutations as their rate of mutation is of a much higher magnitude when compared with other DNA markers. We report double the rate of somatic mutation per locus in the fungus-infected trees (4.8×10(-3) mutations per locus), as compared to the controls (2.0×10(-3) mutations per locus) when individual samples were analyzed at 10 different microsatellite markers. Pearson's chi-squared test indicated a significant effect of the fungal infection which increased the number of mutations in the fungus-infected trees (χ(2) = 12.9883, df = 1, P = 0.0003134).

  7. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  8. Growth, physiological and biochemical response of ponderosa pine pinus ponderosa' to ozone. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, P.J.; Bytnerowicz, A.

    1993-11-01

    In 1989 and 1990, the effects of multi-year ozone exposures on growth, foliar injury and physiological responses in ponderosa pine were examined. Two-year old seedlings were exposed to four ozone treatments in open-top chambers: clean air (subambient levels of oxidants and particles); ambient ozone; twice-ambient ozone; or ambient air. The study was performed at Shirley Meadow in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both years, ambient ozone levels were representative of other forests in the region. While ozone is the most phytotoxic air pollutant, seedlings also experienced elevated concentrations of nitric acid and ammonia. In 1990, ambient ozone significantly increased injury to previous year needles. Premature senescence and alterations in physiological responses were also noted. Exposure to twice-ambient ozone reduced seedling biomass, increased injury and caused decreases in a variety of physiological responses.

  9. Pine polyphenols from Pinus koraiensis prevent injuries induced by gamma radiation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Xu, Yier; Sun, Guicai

    2016-01-01

    Pine polyphenols (PPs) are bioactive dietary constituents that enhance health and help prevent diseases through antioxidants. Antioxidants reduce the level of oxidative damages caused by ionizing radiation (IR). The main purpose of this paper is to study the protective effect of PPs on peripheral blood, liver and spleen injuries in mice induced by IR. ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) male mice were administered orally with PPs (200 mg/kg b.wt.) once daily for 14 consecutive days prior to 7 Gy γ-radiations. PPs showed strong antioxidant activities. PPs significantly increased white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets counts. PPs also significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidases, and the level of glutathione. PPs reduced the spleen morphologic injury. In addition, PPs inhibited mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathways in splenocytes induced by IR. These results indicate that PPs are radioprotective promising reagents. PMID:27069807

  10. High-density SNP assay development for genetic analysis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    PubMed

    Plomion, C; Bartholomé, J; Lesur, I; Boury, C; Rodríguez-Quilón, I; Lagraulet, H; Ehrenmann, F; Bouffier, L; Gion, J M; Grivet, D; de Miguel, M; de María, N; Cervera, M T; Bagnoli, F; Isik, F; Vendramin, G G; González-Martínez, S C

    2016-03-01

    Maritime pine provides essential ecosystem services in the south-western Mediterranean basin, where it covers around 4 million ha. Its scattered distribution over a range of environmental conditions makes it an ideal forest tree species for studies of local adaptation and evolutionary responses to climatic change. Highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are increasingly used to study genetic variation in living organisms and for practical applications in plant and animal breeding and genetic resource conservation. We developed a 9k Illumina Infinium SNP array and genotyped maritime pine trees from (i) a three-generation inbred (F2) pedigree, (ii) the French breeding population and (iii) natural populations from Portugal and the French Atlantic coast. A large proportion of the exploitable SNPs (2052/8410, i.e. 24.4%) segregated in the mapping population and could be mapped, providing the densest ever gene-based linkage map for this species. Based on 5016 SNPs, natural and breeding populations from the French gene pool exhibited similar level of genetic diversity. Population genetics and structure analyses based on 3981 SNP markers common to the Portuguese and French gene pools revealed high levels of differentiation, leading to the identification of a set of highly differentiated SNPs that could be used for seed provenance certification. Finally, we discuss how the validated SNPs could facilitate the identification of ecologically and economically relevant genes in this species, improving our understanding of the demography and selective forces shaping its natural genetic diversity, and providing support for new breeding strategies. PMID:26358548

  11. Fungal Infection Increases the Rate of Somatic Mutation in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Ganea, Laura-Stefana; Razzak, Abdur M; García Gil, M R

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations are transmitted during mitosis in developing somatic tissue. Somatic cells bearing the mutations can develop into reproductive (germ) cells and the somatic mutations are then passed on to the next generation of plants. Somatic mutations are a source of variation essential to evolve new defense strategies and adapt to the environment. Stem rust disease in Scots pine has a negative effect on wood quality, and thus adversely affects the economy. It is caused by the 2 most destructive fungal species in Scandinavia: Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum. We studied nuclear genome stability in Scots pine under biotic stress (fungus-infected, 22 trees) compared to a control population (plantation, 20 trees). Stability was assessed as accumulation of new somatic mutations in 10 microsatellite loci selected for genotyping. Microsatellites are widely used as molecular markers in population genetics studies of plants, and are particularly used for detection of somatic mutations as their rate of mutation is of a much higher magnitude when compared with other DNA markers. We report double the rate of somatic mutation per locus in the fungus-infected trees (4.8×10(-3) mutations per locus), as compared to the controls (2.0×10(-3) mutations per locus) when individual samples were analyzed at 10 different microsatellite markers. Pearson's chi-squared test indicated a significant effect of the fungal infection which increased the number of mutations in the fungus-infected trees (χ(2) = 12.9883, df = 1, P = 0.0003134). PMID:25890976

  12. High-density SNP assay development for genetic analysis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    PubMed

    Plomion, C; Bartholomé, J; Lesur, I; Boury, C; Rodríguez-Quilón, I; Lagraulet, H; Ehrenmann, F; Bouffier, L; Gion, J M; Grivet, D; de Miguel, M; de María, N; Cervera, M T; Bagnoli, F; Isik, F; Vendramin, G G; González-Martínez, S C

    2016-03-01

    Maritime pine provides essential ecosystem services in the south-western Mediterranean basin, where it covers around 4 million ha. Its scattered distribution over a range of environmental conditions makes it an ideal forest tree species for studies of local adaptation and evolutionary responses to climatic change. Highly multiplexed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are increasingly used to study genetic variation in living organisms and for practical applications in plant and animal breeding and genetic resource conservation. We developed a 9k Illumina Infinium SNP array and genotyped maritime pine trees from (i) a three-generation inbred (F2) pedigree, (ii) the French breeding population and (iii) natural populations from Portugal and the French Atlantic coast. A large proportion of the exploitable SNPs (2052/8410, i.e. 24.4%) segregated in the mapping population and could be mapped, providing the densest ever gene-based linkage map for this species. Based on 5016 SNPs, natural and breeding populations from the French gene pool exhibited similar level of genetic diversity. Population genetics and structure analyses based on 3981 SNP markers common to the Portuguese and French gene pools revealed high levels of differentiation, leading to the identification of a set of highly differentiated SNPs that could be used for seed provenance certification. Finally, we discuss how the validated SNPs could facilitate the identification of ecologically and economically relevant genes in this species, improving our understanding of the demography and selective forces shaping its natural genetic diversity, and providing support for new breeding strategies.

  13. Alterations of chemical composition, construction cost and payback time in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees grown under pollution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Guan, Lan-Lan; Sun, Fang-Fang; Wen, Da-Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies show that Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) stands grown at the industrially-polluted site have experienced unprecedented growth decline, but the causal mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, to understand the mechanisms of growth decline of Mason pine strands under pollution stresses, we determined the reactive oxygen species levels and chemical composition of the current-year (C) and one-year-old (C + 1) needles, and calculated the needle construction costs (CCmass) of Masson pine trees grown at an industrially-polluted site and an unpolluted remote site. Pine trees grown at the polluted site had significantly higher levels of hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion in their needles than those grown at the unpolluted site, and the former trees eventually exhibited needle early senescence. The contents of lipids, soluble phenolics and lignins in C and C + 1 needles were significantly higher at the polluted site than at the unpolluted site, but the total amounts of non-construction carbohydrates were lower in non-polluted needles than in polluted needles. Elevated levels of the reactive oxygen species and early senescence in polluted needles together led to significant increases in CCmass and a longer payback time. We infer that the lengthened payback time and needle early senescence under pollution stress may reduce the Masson pine tree growth and consequently accelerate tree decline.

  14. Transpiration and canopy conductance in an inner alpine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Leo, Marco; Oberhuber, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Canopy transpiration (Ec) of a 150-year old Pinus sylvestris L. stand in an inner alpine dry valley, Tyrol, Austria was estimated throughout two growing seasons 2011 and 2012 by means of xylem sap flow measurements. Although there were prolonged periods of limited soil water availability Ec did not show a clear trend with respect to soil water availability and averaged 0.4 ± 0.19 mm day-1 under conditions of non-limiting soil water availability and 0.37 ± 0.17 mm day-1 when soil water availability was limited. This is because canopy conductance declined significantly with increasing evaporative demand and thus significantly reduced tree water loss. The growing season total of Ec was 74 mm and 88 mm in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which is significantly below the values estimated for other P. sylvestris forest ecosystems in Central Europe, and thus reflecting a strong adaptation to soil drought during periods of high evaporative. PMID:27468179

  15. Uptake and distribution of nitrogen from acidic fog within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.)/litter/soil system

    SciTech Connect

    Fenn, M.E.; Leininger, T.D.

    1995-11-01

    The magnitude and importance of wet deposition of N in forests of the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin have not been well characterized. We exposed 3-yr-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedlings growing in native forest soil to acidic fog treatments (pH 3.1) simulating fog chemistry from a pine forest near Los Angeles, California. Fog solutions contained either {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or unlabeled N. The fog treatments were applied in open-top chambers in six 5-hr exposures. Soil treatments within each of the fog exposures were bare soil, soil overlain with L- and F-litter, and soil covered with plastic during the fog events to prevent fogwater from contacting soil. Seedlings were harvested and samples were collected 15 wk after the fog treatments. Uptake of {sup 15}N by roots was by far the dominant pathway for plant assimilation of fog-deposited {sup 15}N. Deposition of N in fog supplied 9.4% and 8.7% of the total N in current-year crown biomass in the litter-overlay and bare-soil treatments, respectively. Total N concentrations in every plant fraction except current-year stems were significantly higher in the bare-soil treatment than in the plastic-covered soil treatment. Less than 5% of the {sup 15}N deposited directly to the seedling crowns was retained by the plants in the covered-soil treatment, whereas 57% of the {sup 15}N deposited to the seedling/litter/soil systems was incorporated into plant biomass. The litter layers retained {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NO{sub 3}. Data from this study suggest that N deposited from fog may be an important source of N for plant growth in forests of the SCAB where fog occurrence and pollution exposure coincide. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The scope for using the volatile profiles of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis as indicators of susceptibility to pine tortoise scale and as predictors of environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Hamilton, Martin A; Sanchez, Michele D; Corcoran, Marcella R; Manco, Bryan N; Malumphy, Chris P

    2015-04-01

    Climate change, unseasonal fire and urbanization are contributing to the decline of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis populations in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). Infestation of pines with the invasive pine tortoise scale (PTS, Toumeyella parvicornis) is accelerating this decline. Pine trees in the Bahamas are larger and healthier and are not infested with PTS although they are subject to some of the same environmental pressures as the trees in TCI. Volatile compounds were collected from wild and nursery-reared P. caribaea var. bahamensis from TCI and the Bahamas and characterized using GC/MS analysis, to look for differences between the compounds detected in insect-infested pines of TCI and the healthy pines of the Bahamas. Ten compounds contributing at least 1% of the total detected peak areas in any one of the samples were selected for further study. Eight of these compounds were identified using authentic standards and mass spectral libraries. The main constituents in the samples were α- and β-pinene as well as β-phellandrene, and, together with β-myrcene, their contents varied the most between samples collected at different locations. Principal-component analysis showed that the two structural isomers of pinene, together with β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, contributed 98.4% of the variance between samples. There was a positive relationship between the concentrations of the two structural isomers of pinene and between levels of β-myrcene and β-phellandrene. The results are discussed in relation to the biology and adaptations of invasive scale insects, the importance of monoterpenes in pine as a defense against insect predation, whether these compounds can be used as indicators of tree health, and future directions for research into conserving the Caicos pine. PMID:25879508

  17. Photosynthesis and growth response of red spruce and loblolly pine to soil-applied lead and simulated acid rain. [Picea rubens; Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, J.R.; Paganelli, D.J.

    1987-09-01

    Soils from red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands were amended with either 0, 150, 300, 600 or 1200 mg/kg Pb as PbCl/sub 2/. Six-month-old spruce and six-week-old pine seedlings were planted in their respective native soils and treated for 19 weeks with simulated rain of either pH 4.5 or 3.0. Rain was applied directly to the soil at a rate of 1.5 cm per week. Net photosynthesis, height, and needle, shoot, and root dry weights were measured at the completion of the experiment. In both soils, pH decreased and nitrate concentration increased with the application of a simulated rain solution of pH 3.0. Despite these changes in soil chemistry, simulated rain pH had no significant effect on the growth of either species. Red spruce photosynthesis was 35% higher; however, at a pH of 3.0. Loblolly pine photosynthesis was not affected by solution pH. Growth and photosynthesis of red spruce were inhibited even at the 150 mg/kg Pb level, with additional Pb resulting in increasing inhibition. Growth of loblolly pine seedlings was less sensitive to Pb, and decreased only at the higher concentrations. Loblolly pine photosynthesis exhibited no decline even at the highest Pb level. These results suggest that both red spruce and loblolly pine are more sensitive to soil Pb than to acid precipitation. In addition, loblolly pine appears to be more tolerant of Pb than red spruce, when both species are grown in their respective native soils.

  18. Morphological and physiological responses of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. ) seedlings to elevated carbox dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Alemayehu, M.; Huluka, G.; Biswas, P.K.; Hileman, D.R. )

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of loblolly pine were planted in June 1993 in the ground in open-top chambers and exposed to three levels of carbon dioxide (0, 150 and 300 [mu]mol mol[sup [minus]1] above ambient) in an experiment designed to last at least 2 years. Morphological measurements (plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and number of flushes) were made monthly, beginning at the measurements (plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and number of flushes) were made monthly, beginning at the time of planting. Gas exchange determinations were made monthly from July until November 1993 using the Li-Cor LI 6200 portable photosynthesis system. Stem diameter, plant height and the number of flushes were significantly greater at the highest CO[sub 2] treatment starting in July, August and October, respectively. There was no consistent effect of CO[sub 2] on the number of branches. In the first month of gas exchange measurements (July), CO[sub 2] enrichment had not significant effect on net photosynthetic rates, but led to decreased transpiration rates. In all succeeding months, net leaf photosynthetic rates increased regulation of the CO[sub 2] enrichment effect on photosynthesis.

  19. Regulated gene expression by glucocorticoids in cultured Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Newton, Ronald J

    2004-07-01

    The effects of six glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, 6-methylprednisolone, prednisolone, prednisone, and triamcinolone) on inducible gene expression, based on the chimaeric transcriptional activator GVG and carried by the binary expression vector pINDEX3-m-gfp5-ER, were evaluated in transgenic Virginia pine cell cultures. The concentration that activated GVG transcription factor activity, the level of inducible m-gfp5-ER expression, and the kinetics of inducible m-gfp5-ER expression were determined for each glucocorticoid. Transgenic cells produced green fluorescence upon blue light excitation after treatment with prednisolone, prednisone, 6-methylprednisolone, dexamethasone, triamcinolone, and hydrocortisone. Green fluorescence was observed at 6-12 h after treatment of all six glucocorticoids at concentrations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg l(-1). Differential expression of gfp was confirmed by northern blot analysis and by quantitative fluorescence analyses of confocal images taken by a LSM 510 Laser Scanning Microscope. Fresh and dry weight increases of transgenic cell cultures were not affected by all six glucocorticoids at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg l(-1). It is shown that triamcinolone had the most potent effect on the GVG system. Different glucocorticoids can therefore be used to regulate the GVG transcriptional activator and to induce gene expression in transgenic plant cells, and this property could be useful in establishing an optimum system of transgene regulation.

  20. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction of inositols from pine nuts (Pinus pinea L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, J; Sanz, M L; Ramos, L

    2014-06-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been used for the first time to extract bioactive inositols from pine nuts. The influence of extraction time, temperature and cycles of extraction in the yield and composition of the extract was studied. A quadratic lineal model using multiple linear regression in the stepwise mode was used to evaluate possible trends in the process. Under optimised PLE conditions (50°C, 18 min, 3 cycles of 1.5 mL water each one) at 10 MPa, a noticeable reduction in extraction time and solvent volume, compared with solid-liquid extraction (SLE; room temperature, 2h, 2 cycles of 5 mL water each one) was achieved; 5.7 mg/g inositols were extracted by PLE, whereas yields of only 3.7 mg/g were obtained by SLE. Subsequent incubation of PLE extracts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37°C, 5h) allowed the removal of other co-extracted low molecular weight carbohydrates which may interfere in the bioactivity of inositols.

  1. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic

  2. The effects of acid rain and ozone on biomass and leaf area parameters of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.).

    PubMed

    Shelburne, V B; Reardon, J C; Paynter, V A

    1993-03-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seedlings in 24 open-top chambers were exposed to combinations of ozone (carbon-filtered (control), ambient, 1.7 x ambient, and 2.5 x ambient) and acidic precipitation (pH 5.3, 4.3 and 3.3) for 16 months (1989 harvest) or 28 months (1990 harvest). Although the effects of acid rain were generally not significant, there was a trend toward increased aboveground biomass and leaf area in seedlings subjected to the low pH treatments. Because N concentrations in the soils generally increased with decreasing pH, we concluded that the effects of acid rain on aboveground biomass and leaf area were a consequence of an increasing concentration of soil N. In the 1989 harvest, seedlings in the 2.5 x ambient ozone treatment had significantly less biomass in all aboveground plant components and significantly less total leaf area than seedlings in the 1.7 x ambient ozone treatment. In the 1990 harvest, there were no significant effects of ozone on total aboveground biomass, although there was a trend toward reduced biomass in seedlings in the 2.5 x ambient ozone treatment. Both total leaf area and leaf biomass were significantly less in seedlings exposed to 2.5 x ambient ozone for 28 months than in both control seedlings and seedlings in the 1.7 x ambient ozone treatment. The greater, but not always significant, aboveground biomass and leaf area of seedlings in the 1.7 x ambient ozone treatment compared with control seedlings may be associated with the observed increase in soil nitrate concentration as a result of increased rates of leaf senescence and litterfall.

  3. Relationships between tree size, crown shape, gender segregation and sex allocation in Pinus halepensis, a Mediterranean pine tree

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Goubitz, Shirrinka; Werger, Marinus J. A.; Shmida, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Sex allocation has been studied mainly in small herbaceous plants but much less in monoecious wind-pollinated trees. The aim of this study was to explore changes in gender segregation and sex allocation by Pinus halepensis, a Mediterranean lowland pine tree, within tree crowns and between trees differing in their size or crown shape. Methods The production of new male and female cones and sex allocation of biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus were studied. The relationship between branch location, its reproductive status and proxies of branch vigour was also studied. Key Results Small trees produced only female cones, but, as trees grew, they produced both male and female cones. Female cones were produced mainly in the upper part of the crown, and male cones in its middle and lower parts. Lateral branch density was correlated with the number of male but not female cones; lateral branches were more dense in large than in small trees and even denser in hemispherical trees. Apical branches grew faster, were thicker and their phosphorus concentration was higher than in lateral shoots. Nitrogen concentration was higher in cone-bearing apical branches than in apical vegetative branches and in lateral branches with or without cones. Allocation to male relative to female function increased with tree size as predicted by sex allocation theory. Conclusions The adaptive values of sex allocation and gender segregation patterns in P. halepensis, in relation to its unique life history, are demonstrated and discussed. Small trees produce only female cones that have a higher probability of being pollinated than the probability of male cones pollinating; the female-first strategy enhances population spread. Hemispherical old trees are loaded with serotinous cones that supply enough seeds for post-fire germination; thus, allocation to males is more beneficial than to females. PMID:21586528

  4. Vulnerability to cavitation, hydraulic efficiency, growth and survival in an insular pine (Pinus canariensis)

    PubMed Central

    López, Rosana; López de Heredia, Unai; Collada, Carmen; Cano, Francisco Javier; Emerson, Brent C.; Cochard, Hervé; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims It is widely accepted that hydraulic failure due to xylem embolism is a key factor contributing to drought-induced mortality in trees. In the present study, an attempt is made to disentangle phenotypic plasticity from genetic variation in hydraulic traits across the entire distribution area of a tree species to detect adaptation to local environments. Methods A series of traits related to hydraulics (vulnerability to cavitation and hydraulic conductivity in branches), growth performance and leaf mass per area were assessed in eight Pinus canariensis populations growing in two common gardens under contrasting environments. In addition, the neutral genetic variability (FST) and the genetic differentiation of phenotypic variation (QST) were compared in order to identify the evolutionary forces acting on these traits. Key Results The variability for hydraulic traits was largely due to phenotypic plasticity. Nevertheless, the vulnerability to cavitation displayed a significant genetic variability (approx. 5 % of the explained variation), and a significant genetic × environment interaction (between 5 and 19 % of the explained variation). The strong correlation between vulnerability to cavitation and survival in the xeric common garden (r = –0·81; P < 0·05) suggests a role for the former in the adaptation to xeric environments. Populations from drier sites and higher temperature seasonality were less vulnerable to cavitation than those growing at mesic sites. No trade-off between xylem safety and efficiency was detected. QST of parameters of the vulnerability curve (0·365 for P50 and the slope of the vulnerability curve and 0·452 for P88) differed substantially from FST (0·091), indicating divergent selection. In contrast, genetic drift alone was found to be sufficient to explain patterns of differentiation for xylem efficiency and growth. Conclusions The ability of P. canariensis to inhabit a wide range of ecosystems seemed to be associated

  5. Seasonality and Disturbance Events in the Carbon Isotope Record of Pinus elliottii Tree Rings from Big Pine Key, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebenack, C.; Anderson, W. T.; Cherubini, P.

    2012-12-01

    The South Florida coastal ecosystem is among the world's subtropical coastlines which are threatened by the potential effects of climate change. A well-developed localized paleohistory is essential in the understanding of the role climate variability/change has on both hydrological dynamics and disturbance event frequency and intensity; this understanding can then aid in the development of better predictive models. High resolution paleoclimate proxies, such as those developed from tree-ring archives, may be useful tools for extrapolating actual climate trends over time from the overlapping long-term and short-term climate cycles, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In South Florida, both the AMO and ENSO strongly influence seasonal precipitation, and a more complete grasp of how these cycles have affected the region in the past could be applied to future freshwater management practices. Dendrochronology records for the terrestrial subtropics, including South Florida, are sparse because seasonality for this region is precipitation-driven; this is in contrast to the drastic temperature changes experienced in the temperate latitudes. Subtropical seasonality may lead to the complete lack of visible rings or to the formation of ring structures that may or may not represent annual growth. Fortunately, it has recently been demonstrated that Pinus elliottii trees in South Florida produce distinct annual growth rings; however ring width was not found to significantly correlate with either the AMO or ENSO. Dendrochronology studies may be taken a step beyond the physical tree-ring proxies by using the carbon isotope ratios to infer information about physiological controls and environmental factors that affect the distribution of isotopes within the plant. It has been well established that the stable isotope composition of cellulose can be related to precipitation, drought, large-scale ocean/atmospheric oscillations

  6. Water availability and genetic effects on water relations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Martin, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    The effect of water availability on water relations of 11-year-old loblolly pine stands was studied over two growing seasons in material from two contrasting seed sources. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased transpiration rate, and maximum daily transpiration rate on irrigated plots was similar for both seasons, reaching values of 4.3 mm day(-)(1). Irrigation also changed soil water extraction patterns. In the rain-fed control plots, 73% of the average daily transpiration was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of the soil profile. Under irrigated conditions, 92% of transpired water was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of soil, with 79% of transpired water coming from the upper 0.35 m of the profile; only 10% of total transpiration in this treatment was extracted from the soil below 1 m. There was an irrigation x seed source interaction in the response of canopy conductance to water vapor (G(C)) to vapor pressure deficit (D). Under water-limited conditions, trees from the South Carolina seed source (SC) had stronger stomatal control than trees from the Florida seed source (FL), but this difference was not present when water was not limiting. The transpiration-induced water potential gradient from roots to shoots (DeltaPsi) was relatively constant across treatments (P = 0.52) and seed sources (P = 0.72), averaging 0.75 MPa. This reflects strong stomatal control that maintains relatively constant DeltaPsi but at the same time allows leaf water potential (Psi(l)) to fluctuate dramatically in synchrony with soil water potential (Psi(s)). The two seed sources evaluated also showed differences in foliar N and delta(13)C, possibly reflecting differences in adaptation to ambient humidity and water availability regimes in their respective ranges. These differences among seed sources under different water availability scenarios may be informative to natural resource managers and breeders as they design tree improvement and genetic deployment programs for

  7. Characterizing Soil Organic Carbon Recalcitrance in Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill) Stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnor, J. R.; Samuelson, L. J.; Anderson, P. H.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Boot, C. M.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Heckman, K. A.; Jackson, J. A.; Johnsen, K. H.; Stokes, T.; Swanston, C.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, longleaf pine (LLP) stands in the southeastern US experienced frequent fires. Today managed LLP stands are burned at 2-5 year intervals to reduce fuels and hardwood competition and manage for biodiversity. These are not stand replacing fires, though considerable amounts of biomass are burned and the conversion rate to biochemically stabilized black carbon (BC) is unknown. The primary mechanisms for long-term carbon sequestration in soil are mineral association, biochemical transformation (e.g. pyrogenesis) and physical protection. We quantified the recalcitrance of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its oxidation resistant fraction (SOCR; defined as residual SOC following H2O2 treatment and dilute HNO3 digestion) using radiocarbon dating (SOC and SOCR) and benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers for polyaromatic C associated with BC. Mineral stabilized C is largely represented by SOCR contents and BC by total BPCA contents. Soils were collected by depth (0-10, 10-20, 20-50, 50-100 cm) at 14 managed LLP stands in Louisiana (LA), Georgia (GA) and North Carolina (NC) burned every two to five years. Across all sites, SOC and SOCR contents declined with soil depth, though SOCR:SOC increased with depth (0.13, 0.15, 0.22, 0.31). SOCR was more 14C depleted than SOC and Δ14C values became more negative with soil depth (SOCR: -195, -318, -458, -553 vs. SOC 23, -39, -156, -334), indicating that SOCR had a much longer mean residence time. The Δ14C values correspond to mean ages of SOCR ranging from 1777 to 6969 years and of SOC from 84 to 3319 years. We obtained very low BPCA yield from SOCR, and it is unclear whether BC was absent or not accessible with the BPCA method. Preliminary analysis of total BPCA (bulk soil) indicates interactions between soil series and depth. Total BPCA concentration of SOC in the upper 10 cm was 136 g kg-1 C in LA and more than six times the concentration in GA and NC. On deep sands in NC, the highest BPCA concentration

  8. Limitations of Photosynthesis in Pinus taeda L. (Loblolly Pine) at Low Soil Temperatures 1

    PubMed Central

    Day, Thomas A.; Heckathorn, Scott A.; DeLucia, Evan H.

    1991-01-01

    The relative importance of stomatal and nonstomatal limitations to net photosynthesis (A) and possible signals responsible for stomatal limitations were investigated in unhardened Pinus taeda seedlings at low soil temperatures. After 2 days at soil temperatures between 13 and 7°C, A was reduced by 20 to 50%, respectively. The reduction in A at these moderate root-chilling conditions appeared to be the result of stomatal limitations, based on the decrease in intercellular CO2 concentrations (ci). This conclusion was supported by A versus ci analysis and measurements of O2 evolution at saturating CO2, which suggested increases in stomatal but not biochemical limitations at these soil temperatures. Nonuniform stomatal apertures, which were demonstrated with abscisic acid, were not apparent 2 days after root chilling, and results of our A versus ci analysis appear valid. Bulk shoot water potential (ψ) declined as soil temperature dropped below 16°C. When half the root system of seedlings was chilled, shoot ψ and gas-exchange rates did not decline. Thus, nonhydraulic root-shoot signals were not implicated in stomatal limitations. The initial decrease in leaf conductance to water vapor after root chilling appeared to precede any detectable decrease in bulk fascicle ψ, but may be in response to a decrease in turgor of epidermal cells. These reductions in leaf conductance to water vapor, which occurred within 30 minutes of root chilling, could be delayed and temporarily reversed by reducing the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit, suggesting that hydraulic signals may be involved in initiating stomatal closure. By independently manipulating the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit of individual fascicles, we could induce uptake of water vapor through stomata, suggesting that nonsaturated conditions occur in the intercellular airspaces. There was an anomaly in our results on seedlings maintained for 2 days at soil temperatures below 7°C. Lower A appeared primarily the

  9. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  10. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-01-01

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora. PMID:26690126

  12. Variation in Gross Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Communities Along a Chronosequence of Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Stands, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, E. A.; Turner, M. G.; Metzger, K. M.; Balser, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    Soils and vegetation were analyzed in 20 forest stands in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA that varied in age from 50 to 350 years and had initiated following stand-replacing fire. Our goal was to determine how nitrogen (N) availability (NH4+) varied among post-fire, mature lodgpole pine (Pinus contorta) stands and to determine whether that variability was related to stand age, stand tree density, microbial community composition and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). Gross N mineralization was measured using a laboratory isotopic dilution technique, and microbial community composition was measured using a hybrid Fatty-Acid-Methyl-Esther/ Phospho-Lipid Fatty Acid procedure. Gross nitrogen mineralization rates ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 μ gN g soil-1 d-1 (average=1.44+/-0.24 μ gN g soil-1 d-1). Gross N mineralization rates declined with increasing stand age: 2.11 +/- 0.41 (50-100 yr), 1.83 +/- 0.75 (125-175 yr), 0.99 +/- 0.24 (200-250 yr), 0.82 +/- 0.21 (300-350 yr). Gross mineralization rates in the 50-100 age class were significantly higher than in the 200-250 and 300-350 age classes. Gross mineralization was positively related to stand ANPP (p=0.0186, R2=0.96), negatively related to stand foliar N averaged by age-class (p=0.0219, R2=0.96), and was not significantly related to tree density. The first principal component (PC1), which explained 53% of the variation in microbial community composition, was correlated with age class. PC1 was strongly controlled by a fungal lipid (18:2 ω 6c). The proportion of microbial lipids in specified functional guilds differed among age classes but did not differ with stand density. These results are consistent with other studies reporting declines in N availability with increasing time-since-fire, which we attribute to changes in ANPP and changes in microbial community composition.

  13. Carbon Isotopes in Pinus elliotti cellulose from Big Pine Key, Florida: Indicators of Seasonal Precipitation, ENSO and Disturbance Events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebenack, C.; Willoughby, H. E.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.; Cherubini, P.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term, high-resolution paleoclimate data has never been more important as a means of putting global climate change in context. The inherent complexities of natural climate variability require a very long paleoproxy record that spans many cycles of overlapping multi-scale climate oscillations, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in order to distinguish the true effects of climate change. The tropical region has important linkages to global climate regulation and its annual stability makes it highly sensitive to climate change. It is predicted that tropical ecosystems will experience greater climate-related stress than those located at the poles. Yet, this region has an underrepresentation of high-resolution terrestrial paleoclimate records, such as those derived from the tree ring archives. South Florida, like many areas of the subtropics, has few tree species that are suitable for dendrochronological studies due to non-visible or seasonally inconsistent ring production. This study examines the potential of Pinus elliottii trees from Big Pine Key as a high-resolution terrestrial paleoclimate proxy for South Florida. The trees were difficult to cross-date using standard dendrochronology techniques. Instead, a chronology extending from 1927 to 2005 was developed by cross-dating patterns in the δ13C records. There is a strong, but complex, correlation between δ13C, ENSO and the AMO. The δ13C record trends with ENSO during the cool phase of the AMO, but there is an inverse relationship between δ13C and ENSO during the warm phases. The transition in the relationship between δ13C and ENSO occurs about 5 years before the AMO phase shift. In addition, preliminary analysis shows that about 45% of the variance in the carbon isotope chronology is related to precipitation and the ENSO signal is captured through the timing of that precipitation. During El Niño years, there is an increase in dry season

  14. Atmospheric occurrence, homologue patterns and source apportionment of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in Shanghai, China: Biomonitoring with Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Zhou, Jun; Lei, Bing-Li; Zhou, Jing-Ming; Xu, Si-Yue; Hu, Bao-Ping; Wang, De-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Wu, Ming-Hong

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive survey was conducted to Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles widely distributed in Shanghai in order to investigate the levels and homologue group patterns of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), to identify and quantitatively assess source contributions to the total CPs in pine needle samples. The concentration ranged from not detected (ND) to 13,600ngg(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) value of 63.7ngg(-1) for ΣSCCPs, from 12.4 to 33,500ngg(-1) with a GM value of 677ngg(-1) for ΣMCCPs, and from 14.0 to 45,700ngg(-1) with a GM value of 768ngg(-1) for total CPs. For different sampling units, the pollution levels both for SCCPs and MCCPs in pine needles were in the same orders: Pudong>suburbs>Puxi>Chongming. These significant differences in SCCPs and MCCPs among four sampling units could be associated with difference in industrial activities and to some extent also in population density. All pine needle samples (n=131) were divided into 2 groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for SCCPs and MCCPs, the most abundant homologue groups in the bulk of pine needle samples were C11Cl5-7 and C13Cl5-7 for SCCPs, and C14Cl7-8 and C15Cl7-8 for MCCPs. Correlation analysis suggested that SCCPs and MCCPs in pine needles in the studied area may be derived from different sources. Four sources for pine needles were identified by the FA-MLR model; their relative contributions to the total CP burden in pine needles were 18.0% for F1 (attributed to commercial SCCP mixture), 42.2% for F2 (attributed to commercial MCCP mixture), 29.3% for F3 (attributed to LRAT), and 10.5% for F4 (unknown source). CP contamination of atmospheric air by point sources and long-range atmospheric transport in Shanghai should receive more attention by local government. PMID:27096489

  15. Multielemental fractionation in pine nuts (Pinus pinea) from different geographic origins by size-exclusion chromatography with UV and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, T

    2006-07-21

    Pine nuts (Pinus pinea) from different geographical origin in Spain and Portugal have been investigated concerning total element content and metal-biomolecules size distribution patterns Mn, Zn, Ni and Cu. All the studied metals were at the highest concentration in pine nuts from Faro and at the lowest from Cataluña. The most abundant element in samples was Mn at concentrations in the range of 26 microg g(-1) (Cataluña) to 559 microg g(-1) (Faro). Zn was also present at high concentration in samples, from 25 microg g(-1) (Cataluña) to 113 microg g(-1) (Faro). To a deeper insight to obtain classification rules for samples, pine nuts were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with UV detection and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two columns were used covering the molecular weigh range from < 10 to 70 kDa that allowed the discrimination of the studied samples. Data reveal that the most differential UV-profile with low molecular weight (LMW) column was obtained with pine nuts from Huelva. This column allows good discrimination in the range of 2126-1352 Da in which a lot of peaks can be used to differentiate samples. The UV profiles obtained with the high molecular weight (HMW) column allows a poorer differentiation of samples, but pine nuts from Huelva, Castilla and Madrid are clearly distinguished to the others. In relation to fractionation patterns of metals, Mn allows a good discrimination between samples (LMW column), Cu was the only one associated to fractions at MW > 70 kDa in sample from Cádiz, and profiles of Ni and Zn are clearly different in terms of abundance of peaks. All these chromatographic profiles for elements give valuable information about the geographical origin of the studied samples and the differences found are discussed in this work.

  16. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. PMID

  17. A preliminary investigation into the use of Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) tree cores as historic passive samplers of POPs in outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The suitability of Red Pine trees (Pinus Resinosa) to act as passive samplers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in outdoor air and to provide historic information on air concentration trends was demonstrated in this preliminary investigation. Red Pine tree cores from Toronto, Canada, were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), alkylated-PAHs, nitro and oxy-PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (novel BFRs). The PBDEs and novel BFRs demonstrated a similar relative contribution in cores representing 30 years of tree growth, to that reported in contemporary air samples. Analysis of tree ring segments of 5-15 years resulted in detectable concentrations of some PAHs and alk-PAHs and demonstrated a transition from petrogenic sources to pyrogenic sources over the period 1960-2015. A simple uptake model was developed that treats the tree rings as linear-phase passive air samplers. The bark infiltration factor, IFBARK, is a key parameter of the model that reflects the permeability of the bark to allow chemicals to be transferred from ambient air to the outer tree layer (cambium). An IFBARK of about 2% was derived for the Red Pine trees based on tree core and air monitoring data.

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (∑18PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant. PMID:27392626

  19. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (∑18PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant.

  1. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    PubMed

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  2. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: Implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, Douglas; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with

  3. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  4. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    PubMed

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  5. Seasonal fluctuation of different edaphic microarthropod population densities in relation to soil moisture and temperature in a pine, Pinus kesiya Royle plantation ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Vikram

    1984-03-01

    Seasonal fluctuations of soil and litter microarthropod populations in a pine, Pinus kesiya Royle plantation of North Eastern India were investigated between November 1976 and November 1977. Three major groups were recognized: (a) Collembola, (b) Acarina and (c) miscellaneous. Collembola was the most abundant group and was dominated by Isotoma trispinata (MacGillivray). The total microarthropod density ranged from 26,800 per m2 to 145,200 per m2. Collembola densities ranged from 10,000 to 121,200 per m2, Acarina densities ranged from 8,800 to 41,600 per m2, and the miscellaneous group ranged from 1,200 to 6,400 per m2. Soil moisture was positively correlated with total arthropod, Collembola and Acarina densities. Soil temperature was positively correlated only with Acarina. Densities of Collembola and Acarina were negatively correlated.

  6. Performance of Planted Herbaceous Species in Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) Plantations: Overstory Effects of Competition and Needlefall

    SciTech Connect

    Dagley, C.M.

    2001-07-03

    Research to determine the separate effects of above-ground and below-ground competition and needlefall of over-story pines on under-story plant performance. Periodic monitoring of over-story crown closure, soil water content, temperature, and nutrients were conducted. Results indicate competition for light had a more determental effect on performance of herbaceous species in longleaf pine plantations than that resulting from competition for below-ground resources.

  7. Conservation and divergence of gene expression plasticity following c. 140 million years of evolution in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (Picea glauca×Picea engelmannii).

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Sam; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Suren, Haktan; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-07-01

    Species respond to environmental stress through a combination of genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, both of which may be important for survival in the face of climatic change. By characterizing the molecular basis of plastic responses and comparing patterns among species, it is possible to identify how such traits evolve. Here, we used de novo transcriptome assembly and RNAseq to explore how patterns of gene expression differ in response to temperature, moisture, and light regime treatments in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (a natural hybrid population of Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii). We found wide evidence for an effect of treatment on expression within each species, with 6413 and 11,658 differentially expressed genes identified in spruce and pine, respectively. Comparing patterns of expression among these species, we found that 74% of all orthologs with differential expression had a pattern that was conserved in both species, despite 140 million yr of evolution. We also found that the specific treatments driving expression patterns differed between genes with conserved versus diverged patterns of expression. We conclude that natural selection has probably played a role in shaping plastic responses to environment in these species. PMID:24750196

  8. Conservation and divergence of gene expression plasticity following c. 140 million years of evolution in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (Picea glauca×Picea engelmannii).

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Sam; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Suren, Haktan; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N

    2014-07-01

    Species respond to environmental stress through a combination of genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, both of which may be important for survival in the face of climatic change. By characterizing the molecular basis of plastic responses and comparing patterns among species, it is possible to identify how such traits evolve. Here, we used de novo transcriptome assembly and RNAseq to explore how patterns of gene expression differ in response to temperature, moisture, and light regime treatments in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (a natural hybrid population of Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii). We found wide evidence for an effect of treatment on expression within each species, with 6413 and 11,658 differentially expressed genes identified in spruce and pine, respectively. Comparing patterns of expression among these species, we found that 74% of all orthologs with differential expression had a pattern that was conserved in both species, despite 140 million yr of evolution. We also found that the specific treatments driving expression patterns differed between genes with conserved versus diverged patterns of expression. We conclude that natural selection has probably played a role in shaping plastic responses to environment in these species.

  9. Has Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) co-evolved with Dothistroma septosporum in Scotland? Evidence for spatial heterogeneity in the susceptibility of native provenances.

    PubMed

    Perry, Annika; Brown, Anna V; Cavers, Stephen; Cottrell, Joan E; Ennos, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in pathogen pressure leads to genetic variation in, and evolution of, disease-related traits among host populations. In contrast, hosts are expected to be highly susceptible to exotic pathogens as there has been no evolution of defence responses. Host response to pathogens can therefore be an indicator of a novel or endemic pathosystem. Currently, the most significant threat to native British Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests is Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) caused by the foliar pathogen Dothistroma septosporum which is presumed to be exotic. A progeny-provenance trial of 6-year-old Scots pine, comprising eight native provenances each with four families in six blocks, was translocated in April 2013 to a clear-fell site in Galloway adjacent to a DNB-infected forest. Susceptibility to D. septosporum, measured as DNB severity (estimated percentage nongreen current-year needles), was assessed visually over 2 years (2013-2014 and 2014-2015; two assessments per year). There were highly significant differences in susceptibility among provenances but not among families for each annual assessment. Provenance mean susceptibility to D. septosporum was negatively and significantly associated with water-related variables at site of origin, potentially due to the evolution of low susceptibility in the host in response to high historical pathogen pressure. PMID:27606006

  10. Water uptake and oil distribution during imbibition of seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) monitored in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Terskikh, Victor V; Feurtado, J Allan; Ren, Chengwei; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kermode, Allison R

    2005-04-01

    Dry or fully imbibed seeds of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) were studied using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of the dry seed revealed many of the gross anatomical features of seed structure. Furthermore, the non-invasive nature of MRI allowed for a study of the dynamics of water and oil distribution during in situ imbibition of a single seed with time-lapse chemical shift selective MRI. During soaking of the dry seed, water penetrated through the seed coat and megagametophyte. The cotyledons of the embryo (located in the chalazal end of the seed) were the first to show hydration followed by the hypocotyl and later the radicle. After penetrating the seed coat, water in the micropylar end of the seed likely also contributed to further hydration of the embryo; however, the micropyle itself did not appear to be a site for water entry into the seed. A model that describes the kinetics of the earlier stages of imbibition is proposed. Non-viable pine seeds captured with MRI displayed atypical imbibition kinetics and were distinguished by their rapid and uncontrolled water uptake. The potential of MR microimaging for detailed studies of water uptake and distribution during the soaking, moist chilling ("stratification"), and germination of conifer seeds is discussed.

  11. Mongolian pines (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the Hulun Buir steppe, China, respond to climate in adjustment to the local water supply.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The growth response of Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) to climate was studied at three sites in the Hulun Buir steppe on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Correlation analysis revealed two patterns of response: (1) trees on two sites in the upstream section of the Yimin River are strongly limited by temperature and precipitation during the growing season from April to September, and (2) trees in the convergence area of the downstream section of the Yimin River and of the midstream section of the Hailar River are sensitive to precipitation during winter (December-January) and early spring (April) as well as to the early growing season temperature (April and June). These responses can be attributed to the positions where groundwater, recharged by the runoff from summer to autumn (July-September), could supply sufficient water needed for tree growth. Therefore, the patterns of growth-climate responses and of climate variation trends in this steppe region should be considered for the management and afforestation of Mongolian pines. PMID:24292925

  12. Mongolian pines ( Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the Hulun Buir steppe, China, respond to climate in adjustment to the local water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The growth response of Mongolian pine ( Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) to climate was studied at three sites in the Hulun Buir steppe on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Correlation analysis revealed two patterns of response: (1) trees on two sites in the upstream section of the Yimin River are strongly limited by temperature and precipitation during the growing season from April to September, and (2) trees in the convergence area of the downstream section of the Yimin River and of the midstream section of the Hailar River are sensitive to precipitation during winter (December-January) and early spring (April) as well as to the early growing season temperature (April and June). These responses can be attributed to the positions where groundwater, recharged by the runoff from summer to autumn (July-September), could supply sufficient water needed for tree growth. Therefore, the patterns of growth-climate responses and of climate variation trends in this steppe region should be considered for the management and afforestation of Mongolian pines.

  13. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, T.; El-Kassaby, Y. A.

    2015-08-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet, very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We selected 83 logepole pine populations covering 22 ecosystem zones of B.C. and through their geographic coordinate, 197 climatic variables were generated accordingly for the reference (1961-1990) and future (2041-2070) periods. We found that dynamic climatic variables rather than constant geographic variables are the true environmental driving forces in seed dormancy and size variations and thus provide reliable predictors in response to global climate change. Evapotranspiration and precipitation in the plant-to-seed chronology are the most critical climate variables for seed dormancy and size variations, respectively. Hence, we predicted that levels of seed dormancy in lodgepole pine would increase across large tracts of B.C. in 2050s. Winter-chilling is able to increase the magnitude of life-history plasticity and lower the bet-hedge strategy in the seed-to-plant transition; however, winter-chilling is likely to be insufficient in the north of 49° N in 2050s, which may delay germination while unfavourable conditions during dry summers may result in adverse consequences in the survival of seedlings owing to extended germination span.

  14. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Tongli; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-05-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We selected 83 logepole pine populations covering 22 ecosystem zones of B.C. and through their geographic coordinate, 197 climatic variables were generated accordingly for the reference (1961-1990) and future (2041-2070) periods. We found that dynamic climatic variables rather than constant geographic variables are the true environmental driving forces in seed dormancy and size variations and thus provide reliable predictors in response to global climate change. Evapotranspiration and precipitation in the plant-to-seed chronology are the most critical climate variables for seed dormancy and size variations, respectively. Hence, we predicted that levels of seed dormancy in lodgepole pine would increase across large tracts of B.C. in 2050s. Winter-chilling is able to increase the magnitude of life-history plasticity and lower the bet-hedge strategy in the seed-to-plant transition; however, winter-chilling is likely to be insufficient in the north of 49° N in 2050s, which may delay germination while unfavorable conditions during dry summers may result in adverse consequences in the survival of seedlings owing to extended germination span. These findings provide useful information to studies related to assessments of seed transfer and tree adaptation.

  15. Effects of NaCl on responses of ectomycorrhizal black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Jones, Melanie D; MacKinnon, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Black spruce (Picea mariana), white spruce (Picea glauca) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) were inoculated with Suillus tomentosus and subjected to potassium fluoride (1 mM KF and 5 mM KF) in the presence and absence of 60 mM NaCl. The NaCl and KF treatments reduced total dry weights in jack pine and black spruce seedlings, but they did not affect total dry weights in white spruce seedlings. The addition of 60 mM NaCl to KF treatment solutions alleviated fluoride-induced needle injury in ectomycorrhizal (ECM) black spruce and white spruce, but had little effect in jack pine seedlings. Both KF and 60 mM NaCl treatments reduced E values compared with non-treated control seedlings. However, with the exception of small reductions of K(r) by NaCl treatments in black spruce, the applied KF and NaCl treatments had little effect on K(r) in ECM plants. Chloride tissue concentrations in NaCl-treated plants were not affected by the presence of KF in treatment solutions. However, shoot F concentrations in ECM black spruce and white spruce treated with 5 mM KF + 60 mM NaCl were significantly reduced compared with the 5 mM KF treatment. The results point to a possible competitive inhibition of F transport by Cl. We also suggest that the possibility that aquaporins may be involved in the transmembrane transport of F should be further investigated.

  16. Effects of copper deficiency and copper toxicity on organogenesis and some physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-09-01

    The morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied under deficiency (1.2 nM) and chronic exposure to copper (0.32, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 μM CuSO4) in hydroculture. The deposit of copper in the seed allowed the seedlings to develop under copper deficiency without visible disruption of growth. The high sensitivity of Scots pine to the toxic effects of copper was shown, which manifested as a significant inhibition of growth and development. The loss of dominance of the main root and a strong inhibition of lateral root development pointed to a lack of adaptive reorganization of the root system architecture under copper excess. A preferential accumulation of copper in the root and a minor translocation in aerial organs confirmed that Scots pine belongs to a group of plants that exclude copper. Selective impairment in the absorption of manganese was discovered, under both deficiency and excess of copper in the nutrient solution, which was independent of the degree of development of the root system. Following 10 μM CuSO4 exposure, the absorption of manganese and iron from the nutrient solution was completely suppressed, and the development of seedlings was secured by the stock of these micronutrients in the seed. The absence of signs of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was shown under deficiency and excess of copper, as evidenced by the steady content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Against this background, no changes in total superoxide dismutase activity in the organs of seedlings were revealed, and the increased content of low-molecular-weight antioxidants was observed in the roots under 1 μM and in the needles under 5 μM CuSO4 exposures. PMID:27225009

  17. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (<2 mm), soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil. PMID:18604588

  18. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation on coal mine spoils reclaimed with maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Agacli-Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Sever, Hakan; Makineci, Ender

    2009-08-01

    Mining operations on open coal mines in Agacli-Istanbul have resulted in the destruction of vast amounts of land. To rehabilitate these degraded lands, plantations on this area began in 1988. Twelve tree species were planted, however, the most planted tree species was maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). This study performed on 14 sample plots randomly selected in maritime pine plantations on coal mine soil/spoils in 2005. Soil samples were taken from eight different soil layers (0-1, 1-3, 3-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) into the soil profile. On soil samples; fine soil fraction (<2 mm), soil acidity (pH), organic carbon (C(org)) and total nitrogen (N(t)) contents were investigated, and results were compared statistically among soil layers. As a result, 17 years after plantations, total forest floor accumulation determined as 17,973.20 kg ha(-1). Total nitrogen and organic matter amounts of forest floor were 113.90 and 14,640.92 kg ha(-1) respectively. Among soil layers, the highest levels of organic carbon (1.77%) and total nitrogen (0.096%) and the lowest pH value (pH 5.38) were found in 0-1 cm soil layer, and the variation differs significantly among soil layers. Both organic carbon and total nitrogen content decreased, pH values increased from 0-1 to 5-10 cm layer. In conclusion, according to results obtained maritime pine plantations on coal mine spoils; slow accumulation and decomposition of forest floor undergo simultaneously. Depending on these changes organic carbon and total nitrogen contents increased in upper layer of soil/spoil.

  19. Effect of soil acidification on the growth of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seedlings in a granite-derived forest soil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Su; Jin, Hyun-O; Lee, Choong-Hwa; Kim, Young-Chai; Kayama, Masazumi

    2005-01-01

    The growth of pine trees has diminished in recent years in industrial areas of Korea. Soil acidification is believed to be responsible. To study its effects, we grew seedlings of three-year-old Korean pine in brown forest soil derived from granite, which had been treated with an acid solution, for 182 days. The anion mol ratio in the solution was SO4(2-):NO3-:Cl-=5:3:2, which is the average in the total precipitation in Korea; six H+ ion concentrations in the soil were studied (0 (control), 10, 30, 60 and 90 mmol H+.kg-1). With increasing amounts of H+ added to the soil, the concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Al and Mn increased, especially below a soil pH of 3.8. The concentrations of Ca, Mg and K in pine needles and stems increased with increasing H+ added to the soil, whereas their concentrations in the root decreased. Conversely, the concentration of N and P in each organ of the pine plant was higher in all treatments than in controls. Also, the concentrations of Al and Mn increased significantly in all organs of the plant with increasing H+. We also estimated the effect of deliberate soil acidification on tree growth, using the molar ratio (Ca+Mg+K)/Al as an indicator of soil acidification. A strong positive correlation was found between the total dry mass (TDM) of seedlings and the (Ca+Mg+K)/Al molar ratio calculated from the concentrations of water-soluble elements in soil (r=0.99, p<0.001). When the (Ca+Mg+K)/Al molar ratio reached 1.0, the relative TDM had fallen to 40%. These results show that deliberate soil acidification reduces the growth of the Korean pine less than it does the Red pine, which has been the dominant species in Korea.

  20. The effect of simulated acid rain on the biochemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Shumejko, P; Ossipov, V; Neuvonen, S

    1996-01-01

    The effects of prolonged simulated acid rain on the biochemistry of Scots pine needles were studied in Finnish Lapland. Pine trees were exposed by spraying the foliage and soil with either clean water or simulated acid rain (SAR; both sulphuric and nitric acids) over the period 1985-1991. The concentrations of carbohydrates (starch, glucose, fructose, sucrose) in one-year-old pine needles were not affected by SAR-treatments. The SAR-treatments did not have significant effects on protein bound amino acids, which was true also for most of the free amino acids. However, the citrulline concentration was over three-fold greater in the foliage of pines exposed to SAR of pH 3 compared to irrigated controls. The concentrations of total phenolics, individual low molecular weight phenolics and soluble proanthocyanidins were not affected by the treatments, but insoluble proanthocyanidins had increased in acid-treated trees. Some of the studied biochemical compounds showed significant differences between two sub-areas (similar treatments) only 120 m apart.

  1. [Dose dependence of the frequency of morphological changes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Ioshchenko, V I; Bondar', Iu O

    2009-01-01

    Patterns and main parameters of the dynamics of radioactive contamination of organs of Scots pine in the plantations of Chernobyl zone are presented. On the basis of this data and within the frameworks of the microdosimetric approach, the dosimetric model for the apical meristem of the pine trees was created. The dose rates were calculated for the trees of the experimental array growing at three sites in the exclusion zone and one outside, which differed by three orders of magnitude of the trees' radioactive contamination levels. Comparable high, up to several Gy/y, levels of the dose rate of chronic irradiation were shown for the plantation at the Red Forest site. Such an expressed radiation factor results in a high frequency of the morphological changes at this site. The dose rate-effect dependence was formulated for this type of the radiobiological effects. PMID:19368333

  2. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. PMID:23791043

  3. [Dose dependence of the frequency of morphological changes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Ioshchenko, V I; Bondar', Iu O

    2009-01-01

    Patterns and main parameters of the dynamics of radioactive contamination of organs of Scots pine in the plantations of Chernobyl zone are presented. On the basis of this data and within the frameworks of the microdosimetric approach, the dosimetric model for the apical meristem of the pine trees was created. The dose rates were calculated for the trees of the experimental array growing at three sites in the exclusion zone and one outside, which differed by three orders of magnitude of the trees' radioactive contamination levels. Comparable high, up to several Gy/y, levels of the dose rate of chronic irradiation were shown for the plantation at the Red Forest site. Such an expressed radiation factor results in a high frequency of the morphological changes at this site. The dose rate-effect dependence was formulated for this type of the radiobiological effects.

  4. Toxic effects of cadmium and zinc on ectomycorrhizal colonization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from soil inoculum

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley-Whitaker, J.; Cairney, J.W.G.; Meharg, A.A.

    2000-03-01

    Scots pine seedlings colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi from natural soil inoculum were exposed to a range of Cd or Zn concentrations to investigate the effects of metals on ECM fungi-Scots pine associations in a realistic soil environment. Experiments focused on the relationship between the sensitivity of ECM fungi and their host plants, the influence of metals on ECM community dynamics on Scots pine roots, and the effects of metal exposure on ECM colonization from soil-borne propagules. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was inhibited by Cd and Zn, with a decrease in the proportion of ECM-colonized root tips. Shoot and root biomass, total root length, and total root-tip density, however, were unaffected by Cd or Zn. A decrease in the diversity of ECM morphotypes also occurred, which could have a negative effect on tree vigor. Overall, colonization by ECM fungi was more sensitive than seedling growth to Cd and Zn, and this could have serious implications for successful tree establishment on metal-contaminated soils.

  5. Impact of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantings on long term (137)Cs and (90)Sr recycling from a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Yves; Colle, Claude; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Levchuk, Svjatoslav; Van Hees, May; Hurtevent, Pierre; Kashparov, Valery

    2009-12-01

    Plantings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest was shown to greatly influence the long term redistribution of radioactivity contained in sub-surfaces trenches. After 15 years of growth, aboveground biomass of the average tree growing on waste trench no.22 had accumulated 1.7 times more (137)Cs than that of trees growing off the trench, and 5.4 times more (90)Sr. At the scale of the trench and according to an average tree density of 3300 trees/ha for the study zone, tree contamination would correspond to 0.024% of the (137)Cs and 2.52% of the (90)Sr contained in the buried waste material. A quantitative description of the radionuclide cycling showed a potential for trees to annually extract up to 0.82% of the (90)Sr pool in the trench and 0.0038% of the (137)Cs. A preferential (90)Sr uptake from the deep soil is envisioned while pine roots would take up (137)Cs mostly from less contaminated shallow soil layers. The current upward flux of (90)Sr through vegetation appeared at least equal to downward loss in waste material leaching as reported by Dewiere et al. (2004, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 74, 139-150). Using a prospective calculation model, we estimated that maximum (90)Sr cycling can be expected to occur at 40 years post-planting, resulting in 12% of the current (90)Sr content in the trench transferred to surface soils through biomass turnover and 7% stored in tree biomass. These results are preliminary, although based on accurate methodology. A more integrated ecosystem study leading to the coupling between biological and geochemical models of radionuclide cycling within the Red Forest seems opportune. Such a study would help in the adequate management of that new forest and the waste trenches upon which they reside. PMID:19525043

  6. Soil water stress affects both cuticular wax content and cuticle-related gene expression in young saplings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cuticle is a hydrophobic barrier located at the aerial surface of all terrestrial plants. Recent studies performed on model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have suggested that the cuticle may be involved in drought stress adaptation, preventing non-stomatal water loss. Although forest trees will face more intense drought stresses (in duration and intensity) with global warming, very few studies on the role of the cuticle in drought stress adaptation in these long-lived organisms have been so far reported. Results This aspect was investigated in a conifer, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), in a factorial design with two genetic units (two half-sib families with different growth rates) and two treatments (irrigated vs non-irrigated), in field conditions. Saplings were grown in an open-sided greenhouse and half were irrigated three times per week for two growing seasons. Needles were sampled three times per year for cuticular wax (composition and content) and transcriptome (of 11 genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis) analysis. Non-irrigated saplings (i) had a higher cuticular wax content than irrigated saplings and (ii) overexpressed most of the genes studied. Both these trends were more marked in the faster growing family. Conclusions The higher cuticular wax content observed in the non-irrigated treatment associated with strong modifications in products from the decarbonylation pathway suggest that cuticular wax may be involved in drought stress adaptation in maritime pine. This study provides also a set of promising candidate genes for future forward genetic studies in conifers. PMID:23815794

  7. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Gökhan; Korkut, Süleyman; Korkut, Derya Sevim

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Yenice-Zonguldak Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for varying durations. The physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties were determined. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and compression strength, and Janka-hardness were determined. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements by the stylus method were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Four main roughness parameters, mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness (Ry) obtained from the surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant difference was determined (p=0.05) between physical and technological properties, and surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Ry, Rq) for three temperatures and three durations of heat treatment. Based on the findings in this study, the results showed that density, swelling, compression strength, Janka-hardness and surface roughness values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. Camiyani Black Pine wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in strength values in areas where working, stability, and surface smoothness, such as in window frames, are important factors.

  8. Genetic divergence and signatures of natural selection in marginal populations of a keystone, long-lived conifer, Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) from Northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Vikram E; Rajora, Om P

    2014-01-01

    Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and Ne than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and Ne between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance.

  9. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Gökhan; Korkut, Süleyman; Korkut, Derya Sevim

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of Camiyani Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana var. pallasiana) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Yenice-Zonguldak Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for varying durations. The physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties were determined. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and compression strength, and Janka-hardness were determined. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements by the stylus method were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Four main roughness parameters, mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness (Ry) obtained from the surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant difference was determined (p=0.05) between physical and technological properties, and surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Ry, Rq) for three temperatures and three durations of heat treatment. Based on the findings in this study, the results showed that density, swelling, compression strength, Janka-hardness and surface roughness values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. Camiyani Black Pine wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in strength values in areas where working, stability, and surface smoothness, such as in window frames, are important factors. PMID:17604619

  10. Warming and the dependence of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) establishment on summer soil moisture within and above its current elevation range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2013-01-01

    Continued changes in climate are projected to alter the geographic distributions of plant species, in part by affecting where individuals can establish from seed. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes uphill redistribution of subalpine tree populations by reducing cold limitation at high elevation and enhancing drought stress at low elevation. We seeded limber pine (Pinus flexilis) into plots with combinations of infrared heating and water addition treatments, at sites positioned in lower subalpine forest, the treeline ecotone, and alpine tundra. In 2010, first-year seedlings were assessed for physiological performance and survival over the snow-free growing season. Seedlings emerged in midsummer, about 5–8 weeks after snowmelt. Low temperature was not observed to limit seedling photosynthesis or respiration between emergence and October, and thus experimental warming did not appear to reduce cold limitation at high elevation. Instead, gas exchange and water potential from all sites indicated a prevailing effect of summer moisture stress on photosynthesis and carbon balance. Infrared heaters raised soil growing degree days (base 5 °C, p p 3 m-3 consistently corresponded with moderate and severe indications of drought stress in midday stem water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and respiration. Seedling survival was greater in watered plots than in heated plots (p = 0.01), and negatively related to soil growing degree days and duration of exposure to θ 3 m-3 in a stepwise linear regression model (p < 0.0001). We concluded that seasonal moisture stress and high soil surface temperature imposed a strong limitation to limber pine seedling establishment across a broad elevation gradient, including at treeline, and that these limitations are likely to be enhanced by further climate warming.

  11. Effects of pre-treatment on the nitrogen isotope composition of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) tree-rings as affected by high N input.

    PubMed

    Caceres, M Larry Lopez; Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nobori, Yoshihiro

    2011-11-15

    Temporal changes in the acquisition of nitrogen (N) are recorded in tree-rings together with unique N isotopic values. Some debate continues regarding the importance of wood pre-treatment in isotope analysis and, thus, this study focuses on the removal of labile components to determine the intrinsic nature of N in tree-rings. The total concentration and stable isotopic value of N in annual tree-rings were determined for two cores from Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) from areas colonized by black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). One core sample was also collected from a control site, without cormorants. Sharp increases in tree-ring δ(15)N values associated with migration of the cormorant population indicate positive incorporation of N from soils, whereas a less pronounced trend was observed for ring samples for periods without or substantially less migration, and for those obtained from the control site. All labile N components were removed by repeated extraction with toluene/ethanol (1:1) solution. Radial translocation of labile N is limited in tree-rings from Japanese black pine, providing intrinsic records on N acquisition. The difference in N isotopic values (up to 7.0‰) following pre-treatment was statistically significant for trees affected by the avian colony, whereas the pre-treatment of the control samples did not influence N values. The implication is that in agreement with previous studies pre-treatment is not necessary when trees are exposed to natural N concentrations in the soil but the removal of enriched δ(15)N labile components is necessary when woody plants are exposed to unusually high inputs of N into soils. However, the temporal trend in tree-ring δ(15)N series of the avian N affected trees did not change. Thus, if the priority is not the value but the trend then pre-treatment is not necessary. PMID:22006393

  12. WEAK CROSSABILITY BARRIER BUT STRONG JUVENILE SELECTION SUPPORTS ECOLOGICAL SPECIATION OF THE HYBRID PINE PINUS DENSATA ON THE TIBETAN PLATEAU

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Meng, Jingxiang; Wang, Baosheng; Zhang, Lisha; Xu, Yulan; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Li, Yue; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Determining how a new hybrid lineage can achieve reproductive isolation is a key to understanding the process and mechanisms of homoploid hybrid speciation. Here, we evaluated the degree and nature of reproductive isolation between the ecologically successful hybrid species Pinus densata and its parental species P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. We performed interspecific crosses among the three species to assess their crossability. We then conducted reciprocal transplantation experiments to evaluate their fitness differentiation, and to examine how natural populations representing different directions of introgression differ in adaptation. The crossing experiments revealed weak genetic barriers among the species. The transplantation trials showed manifest evidence of local adaptation as the three species all performed best in their native habitats. Pinus densata populations from the western edge of its distribution have evolved a strong local adaptation to the specific habitat in that range; populations representing different directions of introgressants with the two parental species all showed fitness disadvantages in this P. densata habitat. These observations illustrate that premating isolation through selection against immigrants from other habitat types or postzygotic isolation through selection against backcrosses between the three species is strong. Thus, ecological selection in combination with endogenous components and geographic isolation has likely played a significant role in the speciation of P. densata. PMID:25065387

  13. Linkages between soil respiration and its physical and biological drivers at multiple spatial scales in a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrett, M. S.; Schwendenman, L.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationships between soil respiration and some physical and biological properties of the soil that drive it, including soil temperature, soil water content, and litter depth. We also examined spatial patterns of each factor at the hillslope scale (13,000 m2) and the individual plot scale (25 m2) to identify spatial correlations using geostatistics. Our study area in the Medicine Bow Mountains of Wyoming encompasses adjacent North- and South-facing slopes at 2800 m elevation. Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest dominates the watershed, and spruce (Picea engelmannii), fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and aspen (Populus tremuloides) are also present where soils are moist. Within each spatial scale, semi-variograms were used to identify the spatial range of soil respiration and its drivers. At the plot scale, soil respiration drivers exhibited stronger spatial patterns than soil respiration. At the hillslope scale, aspect played an important role in the relationships between soil respiration and these drivers. Drivers of soil respiration are still poorly understood at varying spatial scales; this project aims to better quantify these linkages for improved modeling of carbon fluxes at the watershed scale.

  14. Novel biosorbent with high adsorption capacity prepared by chemical modification of white pine (Pinus durangensis) sawdust. Adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Rabago, J J; Leyva-Ramos, R

    2016-03-15

    The natural sawdust (NS) from white pine (Pinus durangensis) was chemically modified by a hydrothermal procedure using citric, malonic and tartaric acids. The adsorption capacity of modified sawdust (MS) towards Pb(II) was considerably enhanced due to the introduction of carboxylic groups on the surface of MS during the modification, and the adsorption capacity was almost linearly dependent on the concentration of carboxylic sites. The NS surface was acidic, and the MS surface became more acidic after the modification. At T = 25 °C and pH = 5, the maximum adsorption capacity of the optimal MS towards Pb(II) was 304 mg/g, which is exceptionally high compared to NS and other MS reported previously. The adsorption capacity of MS was considerably reduced from 304 to 154 mg/g by decreasing the solution pH from 5 to 3 due to electrostatic interactions. The adsorption of Pb(II) on MS was reversible at pH = 2, but not at pH = 5. The contribution percentage of ion exchange to the overall adsorption capacity ranged from 70 to 99% and 10-66% at the initial pH of 3 and 5, respectively. Hence, the adsorption of Pb(II) on MS was mainly due to ion exchange at pH = 3 and to both ion exchange and electrostatic attraction at pH = 5.

  15. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part I: Lipophilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Sundberg, A.; Vuorinen, T.

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm -1. Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at ˜1650 cm -1 due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  16. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood. Part I: lipophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, M; Willför, S; Jääskeläinen, A-S; Sundberg, A; Vuorinen, T

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm(-1). Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at approximately 1650 cm(-1) due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  17. Humus characteristics and seasonal changes of soil arthropod communities in a natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Meric; Makineci, Ender

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the effects of conversion of natural stands into plantations, soil invertebrate micro- and macroarthropod communities were evaluated for their abundance and richness in a sessile oak (SO; Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (AP; Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. Sites were sampled four times a year in 3-month intervals from May 2009 to February 2010. Humus characteristics such as total mass; carbon, lignin, and cellulose contents; and C/N ratio were significantly different between SO and AP. Statistically significant differences were detected on soil pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, and electrical conductivity between the two sites. The number of microarthropods was higher in AP than in the SO site. The annual mean abundance values of microarthropods in a square meter were 67,763 in AP and 50,542 in SO, and the annual mean abundance values of macroarthropods were 921 m(-2) in AP and 427 m(-2) in SO. Among the soil microarthropods, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups. Shannon's diversity index was more affected by evenness than species number despite the species diversity (H') of soil arthropods being generally higher in the SO stand. The abundance of microarthropods showed clear seasonal trends depending upon the humidity of the soil.

  18. The response of ecosystem carbon pools to management approaches that increase the growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. G.; Bacon, A. R.; Bracho, R. G.; Grunwald, S.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Jokela, E. J.; Markewitz, D.; Cucinella, J.; Akers, K.; Ross, C. W.; Peter, G. F.; Fox, T. D.; Martin, T.; Kane, M.

    2015-12-01

    Extending from Virginia to east Texas in the southeastern United States, managed pine forests are an important component of the region's carbon cycle. One objective of the Pine Integrated Network: Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation project (PINEMAP) is to improve estimates of how ecosystem carbon pools respond to the management strategies used to increase the growth of loblolly pine forests. Experimental studies (108 total) that had historically been used to understand forest productivity and stand dynamics by university-forest industry cooperatives have now been measured for the carbon stored in the trees, coarse-wood, forest floor, understory and soils to 1-meter (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-50 cm, and 50-100 cm). The age of the studied forests ranged from 4-26 years at the time of sampling, with 26 years very near the period when these forests are commonly harvested. The study sites encapsulated a wide regional range in precipitation (1080 mm -1780 mm) and potential evapotranspiration (716 mm - 1200 mm). The most prevalent three soil orders measured were Ultisols (62%), Alfisols (19%), and Spodosols (10%) with Entisols, Inceptisols and 1 Histosol making up the remainder (9%). Across all study sites, 455 experimental plots were measured. The plots had as a treatment either fertilization, competition control, and stand density control (thinning), including every possible combination of treatments and also 'no treatment'. The most common treatment regime, at 36% of the total number of plots, was the combination of competition control, fertilization, and thinning. The distribution of treatments relative to soils and climate prevented a simple analysis of single treatment effects and instead necessitated an examination how the carbon accumulation rate in wood, which is commonly measured and modeled in these forests, corresponded to the response of other C pools (e.g. forest floor and soil).

  19. Acidity-controlled selective oxidation of alpha-pinene, isolated from Indonesian pine's turpentine oils (pinus merkusii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masruri; Farid Rahman, Mohamad; Nurkam Ramadhan, Bagus

    2016-02-01

    Alpha-pinene was isolated in high purity from turpentine oil harvested from Pinus merkusii plantation. The recent investigation on selective oxidation of alpha-pinene using potassium permanganate was undertaken under acidic conditions. The result taught the selective oxidation of alpha-pinene in acidic using potassium permanganate lead to the formation of 2-(3-acetyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutyl)acetaldehyde or pinon aldehyde. The study method applied reaction in various different buffer conditions i.e. pH 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively, and each reaction product was monitored using TLC every hour. Product determination was undertaken on spectrometry basis such as infrared, ultra violet-visible, gas chromatography- and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  20. Mortality in Subalpine Forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA: Differential Response of Pines (Pinus albicaulis and P. flexilis) to Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.; Delany, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Widespread forest mortality in high-elevation forests has been increasing across western North American mountains in recent years, with climate, insects, and disease the primary causes. Subalpine forests in the eastern Sierra Nevada, by contrast, have experienced far less mortality than other ranges, and mortality events have been patchy and episodic. This situation, and lack of significant effect of non-native white-pine blister rust, enable investigation of fine-scale response of two subalpine Sierran species, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, PiAl) and limber pine (P. flexilis, PiFl), to climate variability. We report similarities and differences between the two major mortality events in these pines in the last 150 years: 1988-1992 for PiFl and 2006-ongoing for PiAl. In both species, the events occurred within monotypic, closed-canopy, relatively young stands (< 200 yrs PiAl, < 300 yrs in PiFl); were localized to central-eastern Sierra Nevada; and occurred at 2740-2840 m along the eastern edge of the escarpment on north/northeast aspects with slopes > 40%. Mortality patches averaged 40-80 ha in both species, with mean stand mortality of trees > 10 cm diameter 91% in PiAl and 60% in PiFl. The ultimate cause of tree death was mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in both species, with increasing 20th/21st C minimum temperatures combined with drought the pre-conditioning factors. Overall growth in the past 150 years suggests that PiFl is more drought hardy than PiAl but responds sensitively to the combined effects of drought and increasing warmth. After the 1988-1992 drought, surviving PiFl recovered growth. PiAl trees grew very poorly during that drought, and continued poor growth in the years until 2006 when the mortality event occurred in PiAl. A significant species effect is the apparent difference in levels of within-stand genetic diversity for climate factors. Differential growth between 19th C (cool, wet) and 20th/21st C (warming, drying) of Pi

  1. Soil moisture variation and dynamics across a wildfire burn boundary in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani; Kanarek, Michael R.

    2014-11-01

    A year after the most destructive wildfire in Texas (USA) history which occurred in and around Bastrop State Park, we established a 165 m-long study transect, bridging burned and unburned areas, to study post-wildfire soil moisture dynamics. Soil moisture content (θ) was monitored indirectly approximately monthly for half a year using a variety of methods with different measurement scales including: 2D electrical resistivity (ER) imaging and surface and vertical profiles using probes which measure soil dielectric properties. The burned section, where the majority of loblolly pine trees were killed, had higher θ and lower ER whereas the unburned end which is still populated by live pine trees had lower θ and higher ER. This pattern persisted from the ground surface and down to ∼2 m and through the study period even after a rainfall event which made the whole transect generally wetter but with the burned end showing a much stronger wetting response to the storm. The differences in θ cannot be explained by differences in soil texture with the burned end with sand soil and the unburned end with less permeable loamy sand. The differing results may be explained by loss of canopy cover and by reduced transpiration at the burned end where the dead roots may also potentially serve as macropores. Thus, after fires and until new vegetation cover has grown, the burned areas will store and transmit more water which could lead to increased groundwater recharge and promote the recovery or invasion of certain types of vegetation.

  2. Chronic irradiation of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: dosimetry and radiobiological effects.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Kashparov, Valery A; Melnychuk, Maxim D; Levchuk, Svjatoslav E; Bondar, Yulia O; Lazarev, Mykola; Yoschenko, Maria I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 y old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y(-1)) to approximately 7 Gy y(-1) in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified, and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established. PMID:21878765

  3. Chronic irradiation of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: dosimetry and radiobiological effects.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Kashparov, Valery A; Melnychuk, Maxim D; Levchuk, Svjatoslav E; Bondar, Yulia O; Lazarev, Mykola; Yoschenko, Maria I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 y old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y(-1)) to approximately 7 Gy y(-1) in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified, and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  4. Amphibian and reptile community response to coarse woody debris manipulations in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Audrey, K.; Moseley, Kurtis, R.; McCay, Timothy, S.; Castleberry, Steven, B .; Kilgo, John, C.; Ford, W., Mark

    2008-07-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) has been identified as a key microhabitat component for groups that are moisture and temperature sensitive such as amphibians and reptiles. However, few experimental manipulations have quantitatively assessed amphibian and reptile response to varying CWD volumes within forested environments. We assessed amphibian and reptile response to large-scale, CWD manipulation within managed loblolly pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States from 1998 to 2005. Our study consisted of two treatment phases: Phase I treatments included downed CWD removal (removal of all downed CWD), all CWD removal (removal of all downed and standing CWD), pre-treatment snag, and control; Phase II treatments included downed CWD addition (downed CWD volume increased 5-fold), snag addition (standing CWD volume increased 10-fold), all CWD removal (all CWD removed), and control. Amphibian and anuran capture rates were greater in control than all CWD removal plots during study Phase I. In Phase II, reptile diversity and richness were greater in downed CWD addition and all CWD removal than snag addition treatments. Capture rate of Rana sphenocephala was greater in all CWD removal treatment than downed CWD addition treatment. The dominant amphibian and snake species captured are adapted to burrowing in sandy soil or taking refuge under leaf litter. Amphibian and reptile species endemic to upland southeastern Coastal Plain pine forests may not have evolved to rely on CWD because the humid climate and short fire return interval have resulted in historically low volumes of CWD.

  5. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  6. In situ genetic association for serotiny, a fire-related trait, in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster).

    PubMed

    Budde, Katharina B; Heuertz, Myriam; Hernández-Serrano, Ana; Pausas, Juli G; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Verdú, Miguel; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is a major ecological driver of plant evolution. Understanding the genetic basis of plant adaptation to wildfire is crucial, because impending climate change will involve fire regime changes worldwide. We studied the molecular genetic basis of serotiny, a fire-related trait, in Mediterranean maritime pine using association genetics. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set was used to identify genotype : phenotype associations in situ in an unstructured natural population of maritime pine (eastern Iberian Peninsula) under a mixed-effects model framework. RR-BLUP was used to build predictive models for serotiny in this region. Model prediction power outside the focal region was tested using independent range-wide serotiny data. Seventeen SNPs were potentially associated with serotiny, explaining approximately 29% of the trait phenotypic variation in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. Similar prediction power was found for nearby geographical regions from the same maternal lineage, but not for other genetic lineages. Association genetics for ecologically relevant traits evaluated in situ is an attractive approach for forest trees provided that traits are under strong genetic control and populations are unstructured, with large phenotypic variability. This will help to extend the research focus to ecological keystone non-model species in their natural environments, where polymorphisms acquired their adaptive value.

  7. Effects of longterm elevated carbon dioxide concentration, nitrogen and water availability on the physiology of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) branches

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, R.; Dougherty, P.M. )

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine to what extent elevated CO[sub 2] alters carbon fixation of loblolly pine when water and nutrition are limiting. Three branches per tree were enclosed in polytene chambers and exposed to ambient, 1.5*ambient and 2*ambient levels of CO[sub 2] respectively for a 12 month period. A 2*2 factorial of nutrition and water was employed. Monthly instantaneous measures of maximum photosynthesis (amax), stomatal conductance and other physiological parameters were taken on needles. Branches exposed to 2* ambient CO[sub 2] in the fertilized and irrigated plots showed significantly higher amax values compared to the other treatment level combinations and showed no signs of acclimation. Results suggest that response to elevated CO[sub 2] levels depends greatly on whether nutrition and water are limiting.

  8. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible. PMID:25834246

  9. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible.

  10. Individual Tree Variation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds from Needles of White Pine (Pinus strobus) in Northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, S.; Bertman, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    Estimating emission rates of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) is a continuing challenge for understanding photochemistry and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in forested areas. Needle BVOC concentrations of white pine trees regrowing after major disturbance early in the 20th century in northern Michigan forests will help us predict future BVOC composition. BVOC concentration in needles of 71 understory white pine were tracked in a wide area of the forests on the property of University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS), over the last three growing seasons since the summer of 2008. The large sample size of this study allows a statistical look at the variability of BVOC content of an area of forest. Year-old needles harvested from individual trees were solvent extracted and analyzed using GC-MS. The dominant BVOC in all samples was α-pinene, which accounts for 30-50% of all BVOC on a per mole basis. However, about a tenth of the trees showed anomalously high levels of D-limonene of up to 36% of the total BVOC mass, whereas in most samples the relative composition of D-limonene was between 2-4%. This phenomenon was observed in specific trees and always the same trees every year although they were not close to each other in the forest. We hypothesize that this variation might be due to genetic variation, which relates to biosynthesis. As these young forests continue to succeed, terpenes will begin to rival or replace isoprene as the dominant BVOC in the near-canopy atmosphere. Since Limonene reacts faster with hydroxyl radical and ozone and yields more SOA than α-pinene, individual tree variation could be a significant factor in the BVOC impact on atmospheric chemistry. Analysis of annual, seasonal and branch height variation will be discussed.

  11. Genetic diversity of the endemic flat-needle pine Pinus krempfii (Pinaceae) from Vietnam revealed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Phong, D T; Lieu, T T; Hien, V T T; Hiep, N T

    2015-01-01

    Pinus krempfii Lecomte (Pinaceae) is an endemic tree to Vietnam with restricted habitats at higher altitudes in the highlands. In this study, genetic variation of four populations of P. krempfii was assessed using 17 microsatellite markers (single sequence repeats). Of these 17 markers, eight were polymorphic, and among the 42 putative alleles amplified, 32 were polymorphic (accounting for 76.19%). The Cong Troi population was found to be the most genetically diverse (Shannon's information index, I = 0.415, and percentage of polymorphic bands, PPB = 52.95%), whereas the Hon Giao population was found to have the lowest diversity (I = 0.330 and PPB = 47.06%). The genetic diversity at species level was also estimated (I = 0.414, PPB = 76.19%). Molecular variance was found to be low among populations (11.94%) and high among individuals within the populations (88.06%). Private alleles were not detected in the Hon Giao population. The Yang Ly population had a positive FIS (inbreeding coefficient) value of 0.071, while the three remaining populations had negative values (-0.116 for Cong Troi, -0.316 for Chu Yang Sin, and -0.350 for Hon Giao). The results obtained show an excess of homozygosity in the Yang Ly population, and also suggest a deficiency of heterozygosity for this population. Several approaches and measures of conservation for P. krempfii are discussed and proposed. PMID:26214454

  12. Evaluation of the age related systematic patterns of stable oxygen and carbon isotope values of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagavciuc, Viorica; Popa, Ionel; Persoiu, Aurel; Kern, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Tree-ring derived stable isotope time series are becoming increasingly important parameters in investigation of past environmental changes. However, potential age related trend-bias on these parameters, and the proper handling of it, is still not well understood. We here present measurements on a new multicentennial data set of annually resolved stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope compositions from 3 living and 4 subfossil Stone pine (Pinus cembra) samples collected at a timberline habitat in the Eastern Carpathians (Romania) to evaluate any potential systematic ontogenetic pattern on their δ18O and δ13C data. Oldest analyzed ring represented 129th, 135th and 142th cambial year in the living and 115th, 130th, 165th and 250th cambial year in the subfossil samples. The fact that Stone pine samples are backbone of the longest dendrochronological series both in the Alps and the Carpathians arouses special interest concerning their potential in stable isotope dendroclimatological research. Whole-ring samples were prepared to alpha-cellulose by the modified Jayme-Wise method. Cellulose samples were analyzed by a high-temperature pyrolysis system (Thermo Quest TC-EA) coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finningan Delta V). A ring by ring (i.e., non-pooled) approach was followed since age-related trends are by definition intrinsic to individual tree-ring series so pooling of rings may distort the detection of the trends. Raw measured δ13C values have been corrected for changes in the atmospheric CO2 regarding both its stable isotope signature and mixing ratio. Neither isotopic parameter showed any age related variance bias suggesting a homoscedastic character. Alignment of the δ13C data by cambial age revealed a relatively short period (~40 years) of systematic behaviour manifested in a ~1‰ enrichment in 13C over a <40 year-long period after germination. While a moderate but persistent positive trend (~0.33‰ per 100years, p<10-10) can

  13. Processes, dynamics and modelling of radiocaesium cycling in a chronosequence of Chernobyl-contaminated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations.

    PubMed

    Goor, François; Thiry, Yves

    2004-06-01

    In a large forested area affected by the Chernobyl radioactive fallout, especially in CIS, the lasting recycling of radiocaesium (137Cs) by the trees is a source of long-term contamination of woody products. The quantitative description of the 137Cs dynamics in contaminated forest is a prerequisite to predictive modelling and further management of such territories. Three even-aged mono-specific Scots pine stands (17, 37 and 57 years old) were selected in a contaminated woodland in southeastern Belarus to constitute an adequate chronosequence. We determined the potassium and radiocaesium annual fluxes involved in the biological cycling in each stand using a well-documented calculation methodology. Qualitatively, 137Cs was shown to be rapidly recycled in trees through the same pathways as K and to redistribute similarly between the tree components. Compared to K, a higher fraction of 137Cs, corresponding to about the half of the annual uptake, is immobilised in perennial organs. With tree development, trunk wood and bark become prevailing sinks for 137Cs since they represent an increasing pool of biomass. In the pine chronosequence, the current root absorption, respectively, mobilizes 0.53, 0.32 and 0.31% year(-1) of the total 137Cs pool in soil. Variations in the 137Cs uptake do not reflect differences in the 137Cs balance between stands. In the two older stands, 51 and 71% of the current tree contamination are related to earlier accumulation subsequent to the initial fallout interception and recycling. The soil is the dominant source of long-term tree contamination. A simple modelling based on the measured 137Cs fluxes indicates that, for young stands, radioactive decay-corrected contamination would stabilize after reaching a maximum of 25 years after the 137Cs deposition. Stemwood presents a maximum of 15 years after the deposition and decrease afterwards mainly through radioactive decay. In the older stands, the decontamination is constant without local maximum

  14. Trace gas emissions from a chronosequence of bark beetle-infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, U.; Pendall, E.; Ewers, B. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2011-12-01

    Severe outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) and associated blue stain fungi have killed millions of hectares of coniferous forests in Western North America. This unprecedented disturbance has critically impacted ecosystem biogeochemistry and net carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes. However, the effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and drivers of biogeochemical processes that trigger GHG emissions following MPB infestations are not well understood. Such information can help assess regional-level changes in ecosystem C and N budgets and large-scale disturbance impacts on gas exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem. The overall objective of this research was to assess the immediate responses of GHG fluxes and soil C and N mineralization rates along a chronosequence of recently infested (1-yr, 3-yr and 4-yr ago) and uninfested (150-yr, 20-yr and 15-yr old) lodgepole pine stands in Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. We hypothesize that MPB-induced tree mortality significantly changes stand-level hydrology, soil organic matter quality and chemistry of aboveground and belowground plant inputs. Consequently, these modifications influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and methane (CH4) assimilation. Biweekly GHG measurements using static chambers were carried out during three consecutive snow-free growing seasons. Our results suggest that a stand infested within a year already shows a 20% increase in spring N2O production and a small decline in summer CH4 assimilation when compared to uninfested stands. Stands infested three and four years prior to our measurements produce over three times more N2O and assimilate three to five times less CH4 when compared to uninfested stands. In addition, a notable increase in soil moisture content and soil mineral N concentrations following early onset of the MPB infestation was also observed. An overall increase in N2O production and decline in CH4 assimilation following MPB infestation may

  15. Timing and magnitude of C partitioning through a young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand using 13C labeling and shade treatments

    DOE PAGES

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Garten, Jr., Charles T.; Norby, Richard J.; Childs, Joanne; Brice, Deanne Jane; Evans, R. M.; Gu, Lianhong; Thornton, Peter E.; Weston, David J.

    2011-12-30

    The dynamics of rapid changes in carbon (C) partitioning within forest ecosystems are not well understood, which limits improvement of mechanistic models of C cycling. Our objective was to inform model processes by describing relationships between C partitioning and accessible environmental or physiological measurements, with a special emphasis on short-term C flux through a forest ecosystem. We exposed eight 7-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees to air enriched with 13CO2 and then implemented adjacent light shade (LS) and heavy shade (HS) treatments in order to manipulate C uptake and flux. The impacts of shading on photosynthesis, plant water potential,more » sap flow, basal area growth, root growth, and soil CO2 efflux rate (CER) were assessed for each tree over a three-week period. The progression of the 13C label was concurrently tracked from the atmosphere through foliage, phloem, roots, and surface soil CO2 efflux. The HS treatment significantly reduced C uptake, sap flow, stem growth and fine root standing crop, and resulted in greater residual soil water content to 1 m depth. Sap flow was strongly correlated with CER on the previous day, but not the current day, with no apparent treatment effect on the relationship. Although there were apparent reductions in new C flux belowground, the heavy shade treatment did not noticeably reduce the magnitude of belowground autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration based on surface soil CO2 efflux rate (CER), which was overwhelmingly driven by soil temperature and moisture. The 13C label was immediately detected in foliage on label day (half-life = 0.5 d), progressed through phloem by day 2 (half-life = 4.7 d), roots by day 2-4, and subsequently was evident as respiratory release from soil which peaked between days 3-6. The δ13C of soil CO2 efflux was strongly correlated with phloem 13C on the previous day, or two days earlier. While the 13C label was readily tracked through the ecosystem, the fate of root

  16. Effects of litter addition on ectomycorrhizal associates of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Kenneth W; New, Michael H; Makhija, Shilpa; Parker, V Thomas

    2003-07-01

    Increasing soil nutrients through litter manipulation, pollution, or fertilization can adversely affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities by inhibiting fungal growth. In this study, we used molecular genetic methods to determine the effects of litter addition on the EM community of a Pinus contorta stand in Yellowstone National Park that regenerated after a stand-replacing fire. Two controls were used; in unmodified control plots nothing was added to the soil, and in perlite plots perlite, a chemically neutral substance, was added to maintain soil moisture and temperature at levels similar to those under litter. We found that (i) species richness did not change significantly following perlite addition (2.6 +/- 0.3 species/core in control plots, compared with 2.3 +/- 0.3 species/core in perlite plots) but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following litter addition (1.8 +/- 0.3 species/core); (ii) EM infection was not affected by the addition of perlite but increased significantly (P < 0.001) in response to litter addition, and the increase occurred only in the upper soil layer, directly adjacent to the added litter; and (iii) Suillus granulatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, and agaricoid DD were the dominant organisms in controls, but the levels of W. mikolae and agaricoid DD decreased significantly in response to both perlite and litter addition. The relative levels of S. granulatus and a fourth fungus, Cortinariaceae species 2, increased significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) following litter addition. Thus, litter addition resulted in some negative effects that may be attributable to moisture-temperature relationships rather than to the increased nutrients associated with litter. Some species respond positively to litter addition, indicating that there are differences in their physiologies. Hence, changes in the EM community induced by litter accumulation also may affect ecosystem function. PMID:12839743

  17. Effects of litter addition on ectomycorrhizal associates of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, Kenneth W.; New, Michael H.; Makhija, Shilpa; Parker, V. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Increasing soil nutrients through litter manipulation, pollution, or fertilization can adversely affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities by inhibiting fungal growth. In this study, we used molecular genetic methods to determine the effects of litter addition on the EM community of a Pinus contorta stand in Yellowstone National Park that regenerated after a stand-replacing fire. Two controls were used; in unmodified control plots nothing was added to the soil, and in perlite plots perlite, a chemically neutral substance, was added to maintain soil moisture and temperature at levels similar to those under litter. We found that (i) species richness did not change significantly following perlite addition (2.6 +/- 0.3 species/core in control plots, compared with 2.3 +/- 0.3 species/core in perlite plots) but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following litter addition (1.8 +/- 0.3 species/core); (ii) EM infection was not affected by the addition of perlite but increased significantly (P < 0.001) in response to litter addition, and the increase occurred only in the upper soil layer, directly adjacent to the added litter; and (iii) Suillus granulatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, and agaricoid DD were the dominant organisms in controls, but the levels of W. mikolae and agaricoid DD decreased significantly in response to both perlite and litter addition. The relative levels of S. granulatus and a fourth fungus, Cortinariaceae species 2, increased significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) following litter addition. Thus, litter addition resulted in some negative effects that may be attributable to moisture-temperature relationships rather than to the increased nutrients associated with litter. Some species respond positively to litter addition, indicating that there are differences in their physiologies. Hence, changes in the EM community induced by litter accumulation also may affect ecosystem function.

  18. Impact of afforestation with Loblolly Pines (Pinus taeda L.) in the Southeastern US on regional and global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, L. N.; Riley, W. J.; Collins, W.

    2011-12-01

    Native southern US pines (i.e., Loblolly) have excellent potential as bioenergy feedstocks. However, the land cover change due to expansion of biofuels may impact climate through biophysical feedbacks. Here, we examined the local and remote consequences of biofuel feedstock expansion on climate and hydrology using a global climate model, the NCAR Community Earth System Model version 4 (CCSM4). We considered a plausible DOE biofuel feedstock goal by afforesting 19 million acres of C4 grasslands in the Southeastern US with an optimized Loblolly plant functional type. Changes in sensible and latent heat fluxes were related to increased surface roughness, reduced bare-ground evaporation, and changes in stomatal conductance. These mechanisms led to a 1°C cooling over the Southeastern US during the summer; in winter, we observed a cooling of up to 0.3°C between 40-60°N, a weakened Aleutian Low, and a wetter Australia. A weakened Aleutian Low shifted the North Pacific storm track poleward in our future Loblolly scenarios. These local and global impacts suggest that biophysical feedbacks need to be considered when evaluating the benefits of bioenergy feedstock production.

  19. A Comparison of Population Differentiation across Four Classes of Gene Marker in Limber Pine (Pinus Flexilis James)

    PubMed Central

    Latta, R. G.; Mitton, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined genetic differentiation among seven populations of limber pine using four classes of gene marker. Among-population differentiation was much higher for maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms than for paternally inherited chloroplast DNA, indicating that wind-dispersed pollen is the main agent of gene flow. Chloroplast DNA differentiation is consistent with gene flow estimated in a prior paternity analysis. Using the estimates of seed and pollen flow derived from mtDNA and cpDNA differentiation, we predicted the value of F(st) expected at nuclear loci. Allelic frequency differentiation at seven allozyme loci was relatively homogeneous across loci and consistent with the level of differentiation predicted from the organellar haplotypes. By contrast four of the nine randomly applied polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers we examined were more strongly differentiated than this prediction, suggesting the action of diversifying selection. However, the differentiated RAPDs and mtDNA were concordant in dividing the populations into two groups, suggesting some historical division. Simulations show that such historical division can increase the interlocus variance in F(st), but neither a historical nor an equilibrium model could account for the joint distribution of F(st) estimates across both allozyme and RAPD loci. Thus at least one group of loci appears to be experiencing natural selection. PMID:9215916

  20. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  1. A Lagrangian dispersion model for predicting CO2 sources, sinks, and fluxes in a uniform loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katul, Gabriel; Oren, Ram; Ellsworth, David; Hsieh, Cheng-I.; Phillips, Nathan; Lewin, Keith

    1997-04-01

    A canopy Lagrangian turbulent scalar transport model for predicting scalar fluxes, sources, and sinks within a forested canopy was tested using CO2 concentration and flux measurements. The model formulation is based on the localized near-field theory (LNF) proposed by Raupach [1989a, b]. Using the measured mean CO2 concentration profile, the vertical velocity variance profile, and the Lagrangian integral timescale profile within and above a forested canopy, the proposed model predicted the CO2 flux and source (or sink) profiles. The model testing was carried out using eddy correlation measurements at 9 m in a uniform 13 m tall Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) stand at the Blackwood division of the Duke Forest near Durham, North Carolina. The tree height and spacing are relatively uniform throughout. The measured vertical profile leaf area index (LAI) was characterized by three peaks, with a maximum LAI occurring at 6.5 m, in qualitative agreement with the LNF source-sink predicted profile. The LNF CO2 flux predictions were in better agreement with eddy correlation measurements (coefficient of determination r2 = 0.58; and standard error of estimate equal to 0.16 mg kg-1 m s-1) than K theory. The model reproduced the mean diurnal CO2 flux, suggesting better performance over longer averaging time periods. Two key simplifications to the LNF formulation were considered, namely, the near-Gaussian approximation to the vertical velocity and the absence of longitudinal advection. It was found that both of these assumptions were violated throughout the day, but the resulting CO2 flux error at 9 m was not strongly related to these approximations. In contrast to the forward LNF approach utilized by other studies, this investigation demonstrated that the inverse LNF approach is sensitive to near-field corrections.

  2. [Composition and seasonal dynamics of litter falls in a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zuo-qiang; Li, Bu-hang; Bai, Xue-jiao; Lin, Fei; Shi, Shuai; Ye, Ji; Wang, Xu-gao; Hao, Zhan-qing

    2010-09-01

    In order to understand the composition and spatiotemporal dynamics of the litter falls at community level in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, litter falls were collected from 150 containers in a 25 hm2 permanent plot in 2008. The leaf litters in the containers were from 35 tree species, accounting for 67.3% of the total number (52) of the tree species with DBH > or =1 cm in the plot. The litter falls had a weight 29.39 kg, equivalent to 3918.4 kg x hm(-2) among which, broad leaves, miscellany, needle leaves, and branches occupied 61.7%, 18.0%, 11.7%, and 8.6%, respectively. About 83.8% of the broad leaves were from Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Acer mono, and Ulmus japonica. The litter falls showed an evident seasonal dynamics, with the peaks occurred from 13 September to 10 October, e.g., the litter falls from T. amurensis and Pinus koraiensis peaked in 13-26 September, while those from Q. mongolica, U. japonica, and A. pseudo-sieboldianum peaked in 27 September to 10 October. There was a great difference in the mass of the litter falls among the containers, e.g., with 150-200 g litters in 68 containers and >500 g litters in 1 container. The species number of the litter falls in a container was 18 in maximum, and was 12 in common (32 containers). Litter falls mass was positively proportional to the sum of the basal area at breast height of parent trees in the plot, and the amount of the litter falls in the containers was related with the locations of the containers, exhibiting an evident spatial heterogeneity in the plot. PMID:21265134

  3. Nucleotide polymorphisms in a pine ortholog of the Arabidopsis degrading enzyme cellulase KORRIGAN are associated with early growth performance in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, José Antonio; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, María Angeles; Boury, Christophe; de María, Nuria; Eveno, Emmanuelle; Aranda, Ismael; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Brach, Jean; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Cervera, María Teresa

    2015-09-01

    We have carried out a candidate-gene-based association genetic study in Pinus pinaster Aiton and evaluated the predictive performance for genetic merit gain of the most significantly associated genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used a second generation 384-SNP array enriched with candidate genes for growth and wood properties to genotype mother trees collected in 20 natural populations covering most of the European distribution of the species. Phenotypic data for total height, polycyclism, root-collar diameter and biomass were obtained from a replicated provenance-progeny trial located in two sites with contrasting environments (Atlantic vs Mediterranean climate). General linear models identified strong associations between growth traits (total height and polycyclism) and four SNPs from the korrigan candidate gene, after multiple testing corrections using false discovery rate. The combined genomic breeding value predictions assessed for the four associated korrigan SNPs by ridge regression-best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) and cross-validation accounted for up to 8 and 15% of the phenotypic variance for height and polycyclic growth, respectively, and did not improve adding SNPs from other growth-related candidate genes. For root-collar diameter and total biomass, they accounted for 1.6 and 1.1% of the phenotypic variance, respectively, but increased to 15 and 4.1% when other SNPs from lp3.1, lp3.3 and cad were included in RR-BLUP models. These results point towards a desirable integration of candidate-gene studies as a means to pre-select relevant markers, and aid genomic selection in maritime pine breeding programs. PMID:26093373

  4. Early physiological consequences of fire as an abiotic stressor in metabolic source and sink of young Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.).

    PubMed

    Alexou, Maria; Dimitrakopoulos, Alexandros P

    2014-12-01

    Climatic change causes gradual deforestation, partly through forest fires. However, fire has not been seen as an oxidative stressor on surviving forest trees. In addition, discrimination of stress-induced responses from acclimation steps cannot be examined under prolonged stress. Thus, four young Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) trees, a fire-related species, were subjected to a simulation of a crown-fire event to evaluate its impact on the availability of soluble carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and the redox status near fire-afflicted tissue. Total soluble sugars, amino acids and non-structural (NS) proteins in needles and phloem, the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AsA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in needles were investigated together with the phloem transport velocity. To examine the temporal progress of these parameters, samples were obtained prior to fire (pre-fire), 2 h after fire, the following day (Day 1) and the following week (Week 1). Findings were categorized into shock reactions (2 h) and acclimation steps. Phloem transport accelerated 2 h postfire by almost 30% and correlated negatively to phloem sugars. At the same time the phloem ratio of sugars/amino acids correlated negatively to needle ROS. The trees' main response at 2 h and particularly on Day 1 was a massive increase in phloem NS proteins. The acclimation process involved also significant increases in needle NS proteins and AsA, as well as significant depletion of phloem amino acids by 65% by Week 1. The highest availability of soluble C and N was recorded on Day 1 in the phloem. Regression models explained significantly the variability of most soluble compounds postfire. Our findings suggest sink control over the source and an advanced role of phloem transport in defense processes. PMID:25430884

  5. MicroRNAs, polyamines, and the activities antioxidant enzymes are associated with in vitro rooting in white pine (Pinus strobus L.).

    PubMed

    Fei, Yunjun; Xiao, Bo; Yang, Man; Ding, Qiong; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanism of in vitro rooting in conifer is not fully understood. After establishment of a regeneration procedure in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) using mature embryos as explants to induce shoot formation on medium containing 3 μM IAA, 6 μM BA and 6 μM TDZ and induce root formation on medium containing 0.001-0.05 μM IAA, 0.001-0.05 μM IBA, 0.001-0.05 μM TDZ, we have investigated the changes of polyamine content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes during in vitro rooting in P. strobus. Our results demonstrated that putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) did not increase in P. strobus during the first week of rooting on medium supplemented with 0.01 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), whereas the levels of Put, Spd, and Spm increased during the 1st-3rd week of culture on medium with IAA, and then decreased on medium with IAA. No such a change in Put, Spd, and Spm was observed on medium without IAA. Measurement of antioxidant enzyme activity demonstrated that the activities of polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and peroxidase slightly increased in the first week of culture and reached to the highest peak in the 3rd-5th week of culture. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that miR160 was increased on the 7th day, miR162, miR397, and miR408 was increased from the 21th to 35th day, miR857 was increased on the 35th day, and miR827 was increased on the 49th day. These results demonstrated that enhanced polyamine biosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and microRNAs are correlated with the root induction and formation in P. strobus. PMID:27069836

  6. Nucleotide polymorphisms in a pine ortholog of the Arabidopsis degrading enzyme cellulase KORRIGAN are associated with early growth performance in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, José Antonio; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, María Angeles; Boury, Christophe; de María, Nuria; Eveno, Emmanuelle; Aranda, Ismael; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Brach, Jean; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Cervera, María Teresa

    2015-09-01

    We have carried out a candidate-gene-based association genetic study in Pinus pinaster Aiton and evaluated the predictive performance for genetic merit gain of the most significantly associated genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used a second generation 384-SNP array enriched with candidate genes for growth and wood properties to genotype mother trees collected in 20 natural populations covering most of the European distribution of the species. Phenotypic data for total height, polycyclism, root-collar diameter and biomass were obtained from a replicated provenance-progeny trial located in two sites with contrasting environments (Atlantic vs Mediterranean climate). General linear models identified strong associations between growth traits (total height and polycyclism) and four SNPs from the korrigan candidate gene, after multiple testing corrections using false discovery rate. The combined genomic breeding value predictions assessed for the four associated korrigan SNPs by ridge regression-best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) and cross-validation accounted for up to 8 and 15% of the phenotypic variance for height and polycyclic growth, respectively, and did not improve adding SNPs from other growth-related candidate genes. For root-collar diameter and total biomass, they accounted for 1.6 and 1.1% of the phenotypic variance, respectively, but increased to 15 and 4.1% when other SNPs from lp3.1, lp3.3 and cad were included in RR-BLUP models. These results point towards a desirable integration of candidate-gene studies as a means to pre-select relevant markers, and aid genomic selection in maritime pine breeding programs.

  7. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    PubMed

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini. PMID:27394232

  8. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    PubMed

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini.

  9. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P 50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P 50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27313594

  10. Indirect Evidence for Genetic Differentiation in Vulnerability to Embolism in Pinus halepensis

    PubMed Central

    David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paudel, Indira; Mizrachi, Maayan; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervé; Lukyanov, Victor; Badel, Eric; Capdeville, Gaelle; Shklar, Galina; Cohen, Shabtai

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is increasing mean temperatures and in the eastern Mediterranean is expected to decrease annual precipitation. The resulting increase in aridity may be too rapid for adaptation of tree species unless their gene pool already possesses variation in drought resistance. Vulnerability to embolism, estimated by the pressure inducing 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (P50), is strongly associated with drought stress resistance in trees. Yet, previous studies on various tree species reported low intraspecific genetic variation for this trait, and therefore limited adaptive capacities to increasing aridity. Here we quantified differences in hydraulic efficiency (xylem hydraulic conductance) and safety (resistance to embolism) in four contrasting provenances of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) in a provenance trial, which is indirect evidence for genetic differences. Results obtained with three techniques (bench dehydration, centrifugation and X-ray micro-CT) evidenced significant differentiation with similar ranking between provenances. Inter-provenance variation in P50 correlated with pit anatomical properties (torus overlap and pit aperture size). These results suggest that adaptation of P. halepensis to xeric habitats has been accompanied by modifications of bordered pit function driven by variation in pit aperture. This study thus provides evidence that appropriate exploitation of provenance differences will allow continued forestry with P. halepensis in future climates of the Eastern Mediterranean. PMID:27313594

  11. The treeline as a refuge: are elevational gradients in Mountain Pine Beetle-caused mortality common in Pinus albicaulis populations at treeline?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, C. T.; Tobalske, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change-induced mountain pine beetle outbreaks are a major cause of recent declines in high-elevation whitebark pine in the US Northern Rocky Mountains. Whitebark pine is a major component of subalpine forests in western North America. It is often the dominant tree species at treeline, where it readily forms krummholz, a stunted, shrub-like growth form. Whitebark pine appears to be relatively naïve to beetle attack; it has poor physical defense compared to that of lodgepole pine. However, anecdotal accounts suggest that whitebark krummholz may be resistant to beetle attack. I investigate the potential for treeline habitats to serve as a refuge from mountain pine beetle attack. I sampled recent beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality across treeline ecotones at 10 sites. I compared treeline mortality gradients with other forest edges to determine if mortality patterns are unique to treeline edges. Preliminary results from this study indicate that treeline habitats evaded mountain pine beetle attack during recent outbreaks. If treeline individuals are long-lived or can reproduce, treeline habitats may be viable refugia for whitebark pine populations.

  12. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  13. Coarse woody debris and pine litter manipulation effects on movement and microhabitat use of Ambystoma talpoideum in a Pinus taeda stand.

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, K. R.; Castleberry, S. B.; Ford, W. M.

    2004-01-25

    We examined effects of coarse woody debris (CWD) and pine litter (PL) manipulations on movement and microhabitat use by mole salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Individuals were tracked within field enclosures using harmonic radar detection from 3 December 2002 to 1 August 2003. Enclosure study one (ES1) consisted of three treatments: (1) high CWD/high PL; (2) low CWD/low PL; (3) high CWD/low PL. Enclosure study two (ES2) consisted of two treatment types: complete PL removal and unmanipulated control. Activity of A. talpoideum within ES1 high CWD/low PL, low CWD/high PL and high CWD/high PL treatments did not differ. Individuals subject to ES2 PL removal treatments moved during more nights than individuals in control treatments. During night surveys ES2 PL removal treatments moved on a greater percentage of nights, and were active for longer periods of time, than individuals in control treatments. A. talpoideum exposed to low PL treatments may have utilized CWD as a means of compensating for inadequate microclimate conditions provided by reduced pine litter depth. Our results suggest that reduction of CWD and pine litter has little effect on A. talpoideum activity levels. Conversely, complete pine litter removal prompts individual salamanders to move more frequently and for longer periods, thereby potentially being subjected to increased desiccation and predation risk.Within managed pine forests in the southeastern United States, forest management practices that minimize pine litter and CWD removal can help to maintain suitable habitat for amphibian groups such as ambystomatid salamanders.

  14. Resilience to seasonal heat wave episodes in a Mediterranean pine forest.

    PubMed

    Tatarinov, Fedor; Rotenberg, Eyal; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Ogée, Jérôme; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Short-term, intense heat waves (hamsins) are common in the eastern Mediterranean region and provide an opportunity to study the resilience of forests to such events that are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity. The response of a 50-yr-old Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) forest to hamsin events lasting 1-7 d was studied using 10 yr of eddy covariance and sap flow measurements. The highest frequency of heat waves was c. four per month, coinciding with the peak productivity period (March-April). During these events, net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and canopy conductance (gc ) decreased by c. 60%, but evapotranspiration (ET) showed little change. Fast recovery was also observed with fluxes reaching pre-stress values within a day following the event. NEE and gc showed a strong response to vapor pressure deficit that weakened as soil moisture decreased, while sap flow was primarily responding to changes in soil moisture. On an annual scale, heat waves reduced NEE and gross primary productivity by c. 15% and 4%, respectively. Forest resilience to short-term extreme events such as heat waves is probably a key to its survival and must be accounted for to better predict the increasing impact on productivity and survival of such events in future climates. PMID:27000955

  15. Defoliation effects on enzyme activities of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus granulatus in a Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) stand in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Ken; Ishkhanova, Galina; Henson, Joan

    2008-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) basidiomycete fungi are obligate mutualists of pines and hardwoods that receive fixed C from the host tree. Though they often share most recent common ancestors with wood-rotting fungi, it is unclear to what extent EM fungi retain the ability to express enzymes that break down woody substrates. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the dominant EM fungus in a pure pine system retains the ability to produce enzymes that break down woody substrates in a natural setting, and that this ability is inducible by reduction of host photosynthetic potential via partial defoliation. To achieve this, pines in replicate blocks were defoliated 50% by needle removal, and enzyme activities were measured in individual EM root tips that had been treated with antibiotics to prevent possible bacterial activity. Results indicate that the dominant EM fungal species (Suillus granulatus) expressed all enzymes tested (endocellulase D: -glucosidase, laccase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, phosphatase and protease), and that activities of these enzymes increased significantly (P < 0.001) in response to defoliation. Thus, this EM fungus (one of the more specialized mutualists of pine) has the potential to play a significant role in C, N and P cycling in this forested ecosystem. Therefore, many above-ground factors that reduce photosynthetic potential or divert fixed C from roots may have wide-reaching ecosystem effects.

  16. Combined use of total metal content and size fractionation of metal biomolecules to determine the provenance of pine nuts (Pinus pinea).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, T

    2007-07-01

    Four essential elements (Mn, Ni, Zn, and Cu) and their molecular-size distribution patterns have been determined, for twenty four samples of pine nuts from eight areas in Spain and Portugal (Huelva, Cádiz, Badajoz, Cataluña, Castilla, Madrid, Faro, and Coimbra), by size-exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to UV and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection. The variability observed in total element content and the size-exclusion profiles of elements in samples from distant areas were considered as chemical descriptors for characterization of geographic origin. A pattern-recognition technique, the display method principal component analysis, was used as visualization technique to determine the provenance of the pine nuts collected. The results obtained confirmed that size fractionation profiles give more information for assessing the provenance of pine nuts than the total elements composition traditionally used for this purpose. Combination of these chemical descriptors was the most suitable choice for the samples studied. Figure This paper shows the application of an analytical approach based on total elements concentrations and the relative abundance of metal-biomolecules, estimated by the size-exclusion fractions, as chemical descriptors to determine the provenance of pine nuts. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been used as a visualization technique.

  17. Spatial variability of throughfall in a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with deciduous admixture as influenced by canopy cover and stem distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Boczoń, Andrzej; Hildebrand, Robert; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation cover affects the amount of precipitation, its chemical composition and its spatial distribution, and this may have implications for the distribution of water, nutrients and contaminants in the subsurface soil layer. The aim of this study was a detailed diagnosis of the spatio-temporal variability in the amount of throughfall (TF) and its chemical components in a 72-year-old pine stand with an admixture of oak and birch. The spatio-temporal variability in the amount of TF water and the concentrations and deposition of the TF components were studied. The components that are exchanged in canopy (H+, K, Mg, Mn, DOC, NH4+) were more variable than the components whose TF deposition is the sum of wet and dry (including gas) deposition and which undergo little exchange in the canopy (Na, Cl, NO3-, SO42-). The spatial distribution was temporally stable, especially during the leafed period. This study also investigated the effect of the selected pine stand characteristics on the spatial distribution of throughfall and its chemical components; the characteristics included leaf area index (LAI), the proportion of the canopy covered by deciduous species and pine crowns, and the distance from the nearest tree trunk. The LAI measured during the leafed and leafless periods had the greatest effect on the spatial distribution of TF deposition. No relationship was found between the spatial distribution of the amount of TF water and (i) the LAI; (ii) the canopy cover of broadleaf species or pines; or (iii) the distance from the trunks.

  18. Ozone exposure-response relationships for biomass and root/shoot ratio of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Landolt, W; Bühlmann, U; Bleuler, P; Bucher, J B

    2000-09-01

    Current-year seedlings of beech, ash, Norway spruce and Scots pine were exposed during one growing season to different, but moderate, ozone (O(3)) scenarios representative for Switzerland (50, 85, 100% ambient, 50% ambient+30 nl l(-1)) in open-top chambers (OTCs) and to ambient O(3) concentrations in the field. Biomass significantly decreased with increasing O(3) dose in all species except for spruce. Losses of 25.5% (ash), 17.4% (beech), 9.9% (Scots pine) were found per 10 microl l(-1) h accumulated O(3) exposure over a threshold concentration of 40 nl l(-1) during daylight hours (AOT40). Ratios of root/shoot biomass (RSR) also significantly decreased with increasing AOT40 levels in beech and ash, but not in Norway spruce and Scots pine. The data show that the deciduous species beech and ash were more susceptible to O(3) with respect to RSR and biomass than the coniferous species Norway spruce and Scots pine.

  19. Effect of raw humus under two adult Scots pine stands on ectomycorrhization, nutritional status, nitrogen uptake, phosphorus uptake and growth of Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Horst; Schäfer, Tina; Storbeck, Veronika; Härtling, Sigrid; Rudloff, Renate; Köck, Margret; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (EM) formation improves tree growth and nutrient acquisition, particularly that of nitrogen (N). Few studies have coupled the effects of naturally occurring EM morphotypes to the nutrition of host trees. To investigate this, pine seedlings were grown on raw humus substrates collected at two forest sites, R2 and R3. Ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were identified, and their respective N uptake rates from organic (2-(13)C, (15)N-glycine) and inorganic ((15)NH(4)Cl, Na(15)NO(3), (15)NH(4)NO(3), NH(4)(15)NO(3)) sources as well as their phosphate uptake rates were determined. Subsequently, the growth and nutritional status of the seedlings were analyzed. Two dominant EM morphotypes displayed significantly different mycorrhization rates in the two substrates. Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. (RL) was dominant in R2 and Suillus bovinus (Pers.) Kuntze (SB) was dominant in R3. (15)N uptake of RL EM was at all times higher than that of SB EM. Phosphate uptake rates by the EM morphotypes did not differ significantly. The number of RL EM correlated negatively and the number of SB EM correlated positively with pine growth rate. Increased arginine concentrations and critical P/N ratios in needles indicated nutrient imbalances of pine seedlings from humus R2, predominantly mycorrhizal with RL. We conclude that different N supply in raw humus under Scots pine stands can induce shifts in the EM frequency of pine seedlings, and this may lead to EM formation by fungal strains with different ability to support tree growth.

  20. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine ( pinus ponderosa' dougl. ex laws). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.C.; Sorensen, F.C.

    1992-03-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with short, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation were highest in the region having the steepest precipitation gradients. Most of the variation occurred, however, within locations.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure and Soil Characteristics of Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta) and Adjacent Stands of Old Growth Mixed Conifer in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Robert B.; Parker, V. Thomas; Cullings, Kenneth W.; Sun, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Forest development patterns following disturbance are known to influence the physical and chemical attributes of soils at different points in time. Changes in soil resources are thought to have a corresponding effect on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure. We used molecular methods to compare below-ground ECM species richness, composition, and abundance between adjacent stands of homogenous lodgepole pine and old growth mixed conifer in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). In each stand-type we collected soil cores to both identify mycorrhizae and assess soil chemistry. Although no statistical difference was observed in the mean number of ECM root tips per core between stand types, the total number of species identified (85 versus 35) and the mean number of species per core (8.8 +/- 0.6 versus 2.5 +/- 0.3) were significantly higher in lodgepole pine. Differences between the actual and estimated species richness levels indicated that these forest types support a high number of ECM species and that undersampling was severe. Species compositions were widely disparate between stands where only four species were shared out of a total of 116. Soil analysis also revealed that mixed conifer was significantly lower in pH, but higher in organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, and ammonium when compared to lodgepole pine stands. Species richness per core was correlated with these chemical data, however, analysis of covariance indicated that stand type was the only statistically significant factor in the observed difference in species richness. Our data suggest that ECM fungal richness increases as homogenous lodgepole pine stands grow and mature, but declines after Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir colonize. Despite difficulties linking species composition with soil chemistry, there are a variety of physical and chemical factors that could be influencing ECM community structure. Future field experiments are necessary to test some of the mechanisms potentially operating

  2. Fluoranthene fumigation and exogenous scavenging of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in evergreen Japanese red pine seedlings (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.).

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), and *OH is known to be a major mechanism of damage in biological systems. This study investigated and compared effectiveness of scavenging ROI generated in fluoranthene (FLU) pre-fumigated Japanese red pine seedlings. Three kinds of eco-physiological assessments were used to express the impact of the different fumigants used inside the green house. Gas exchange measurements showed negative changes induced by 10 microM FLU on Japanese pine seedlings during a 10 d exposure period whilst no negative change was found during a 5 d exposure period. Moreover, during a 14 d FLU exposure incorporating ROI scavengers, results revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chemical contents and needle dry mass per unit area of the seedlings were affected. The negative effects of FLU on the conifer were dependent on both the dose and period of FLU fumigation. Peroxidase (PERO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and mannitol (MANN) were all effective scavengers of ROI. MANN scavenged *OH, the most lethal of the ROI. For practicable use, MANN is more economical, and may be the best ROI scavenger among the three considered. It can be concluded that efficient scavenging of ROI in biological systems is important to mitigate the negative effects of FLU on Japanese red pine trees.

  3. Interactive effects of simultaneous ozone and fluoranthene fumigation on the eco-physiological status of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb et. Zucc.).

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Forest decline has long been attributed to air pollution and acid rain/fog, with ozone having a record for damaging trees. This study investigated eco-physiological changes on Japanese red pine caused by simultaneous fumigation of O(3) (O) and fluoranthene (F) over a 90 day period. Seedlings were exposed individually or in combinations to 10 muM fluoranthene and O(3) (3 ppm and 6 ppm in 60 days and 90 days, respectively) inside growth chambers. Eco-physiological parameters monitored included gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chlorophyll content, and visual appearance. After 90 days, O + F treatment showed deleterious effects on visual needle appearance and the net photosynthesis rate near saturated irradiance. In addition, decreased levels in stomatal conductance, photochemical efficiency of PS II in the dark, and total chlorophyll and Chl a: Chl b were observed. F only treatment showed similar results but in lesser magnitude compared with F + O treatment. O treatment alone showed no significant negative effect, probably due to its low concentration in the 60 day treatment. The addition of mannitol (OH radical scavenger) mitigated O + F and F negative effects. Fluoranthene deposited on Japanese red pine presents great eco-physiological damage risk, even at low O(3) concentration. Furthermore, the effects of O(3) assisted phyto-toxicity of fluoranthene on red pine may have relevance to other plant species.

  4. Genome-Wide Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with the High Yielding of Oleoresin in Secondary Xylem of Masson Pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb) by Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinghua; Zhou, Zhichun; Wei, Yongcheng; Shen, Danyu; Feng, Zhongping; Hong, Shanping

    2015-01-01

    Masson pine is an important timber and resource for oleoresin in South China. Increasing yield of oleoresin in stems can raise economic benefits and enhance the resistance to bark beetles. However, the genetic mechanisms for regulating the yield of oleoresin were still unknown. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome and compare the gene expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes. A total of 40,690,540 reads were obtained and assembled into 137,499 transcripts from the secondary xylem tissues. We identified 84,842 candidate unigenes based on sequence annotation using various databases and 96 unigenes were candidates for terpenoid backbone biosynthesis in pine. By comparing the expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes, 649 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. GO enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed that multiple pathways were related to high yield of oleoresin. Nine candidate genes were validated by QPCR analysis. Among them, the candidate genes encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS) and (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase were up-regulated in the high oleoresin-yielding genotype, while tricyclene synthase revealed lower expression level, which was in good agreement with the GC/MS result. In addition, DEG encoding ABC transporters, pathogenesis-related proteins (PR5 and PR9), phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein and ethylene responsive transcription factors (ERFs) were also confirmed to be critical for the biosynthesis of oleoresin. The next-generation sequencing strategy used in this study has proven to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to the yield of oleoresin in masson pine. The candidate genes encoding GGPS, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene, tricyclene synthase, ABC transporters, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein, phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase, ERFs and pathogen

  5. Comparison of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (Piciodes borealis) Nestling Diet in Old-Growth and Old-Field Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Engstrom, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult woodpecker diets in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine in the South. Roaches were the number one prey for the woodpeckers based on either biomass or numbers. The latter ranged from 37% to 57% of the prey numbers and 55%-73% of the biomass. Morisita's index of similarity between old-field and old growth varied from 0.89 to 0.95. The authors conclude that the prey base is similar in both conditions and that old-growth provides similar foraging habitat.

  6. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    PubMed

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  7. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  8. Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. Methods In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Doğlat, Kürtyurdu and Çatağıl in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. Results The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. Conclusion In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields. PMID:24673846

  9. Tree mortality following prescribed fire and a storm surge event in Slash Pine (pinus elliottii var. densa) forests in the Florida Keys, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sah, Jay P.; Ross, Michael S.; Snyder, James R.; Ogurcak, Danielle E.

    2010-01-01

    In fire-dependent forests, managers are interested in predicting the consequences of prescribed burning on postfire tree mortality. We examined the effects of prescribed fire on tree mortality in Florida Keys pine forests, using a factorial design with understory type, season, and year of burn as factors. We also used logistic regression to model the effects of burn season, fire severity, and tree dimensions on individual tree mortality. Despite limited statistical power due to problems in carrying out the full suite of planned experimental burns, associations with tree and fire variables were observed. Post-fire pine tree mortality was negatively correlated with tree size and positively correlated with char height and percent crown scorch. Unlike post-fire mortality, tree mortality associated with storm surge from Hurricane Wilma was greater in the large size classes. Due to their influence on population structure and fuel dynamics, the size-selective mortality patterns following fire and storm surge have practical importance for using fire as a management tool in Florida Keys pinelands in the future, particularly when the threats to their continued existence from tropical storms and sea level rise are expected to increase.

  10. Host selection behavior of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) attackingPinus ponderosa, with special emphasis on the western pine beetle,Dendroctonus brevicomis.

    PubMed

    Moeck, H A; Wood, D L; Lindahl, K Q

    1981-01-01

    Detection of weakened hosts from a distance by bark beetles through olfaction was investigated in field experiments. No significant numbers of Scolytidae were attracted to anaerobically treated pine bolts, stem disks, or sugar and ponderosa pine bark including phloem. Treatment of living trees with cacodylic acid induced attacks byDendroctonus brevicomis, D. ponderosae, Ips latidens, Gnathotrichus retusus, andPityophthorus scalptor, beginning two weeks after treatment. There was no significant difference between landing rates ofD. brevicomis andD. ponderosae on screened treated trees and screened controls. There was a significant increase in landing rates ofG. retusus andI. latidens, because both species had penetrated the screen and produced pheromones. Tree frilling alone did not increase the landing rate of bark beetles. Freezing of the lower trunk with dry ice did not increase significantly the landing rate ofD. brevicomis, D. ponderosae, G. retusus, orI. latidens on screened trees, whereas unscreened frozen trees were attacked by all four species. There was no significantly higher landing rate byD. brevicomis, D. ponderosae, I. paraconfusus, I. latidens, G. retusus, orHylurgops subcostulatus on screened trees evidencing symptoms of severe infection by the root pathogenVerticicladiella wagenerii, than on symptornless trees. These experiments show thatD. brevicomis, D. ponderosae, I. paraconfusus, I. latidens, andG. retusus land, apparently indiscriminately, on healthy and stressed hosts. Thus, in these species host discrimination must occur after landing and prior to sustained feeding.

  11. Tree Mortality following Prescribed Fire and a Storm Surge Event in Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii var. densa ) Forests in the Florida Keys, USA

    DOE PAGES

    Sah, Jay P.; Ross, Michael S.; Snyder, James R.; Ogurcak, Danielle E.

    2010-01-01

    In fire-dependent forests, managers are interested in predicting the consequences of prescribed burning on postfire tree mortality. We examined the effects of prescribed fire on tree mortality in Florida Keys pine forests, using a factorial design with understory type, season, and year of burn as factors. We also used logistic regression to model the effects of burn season, fire severity, and tree dimensions on individual tree mortality. Despite limited statistical power due to problems in carrying out the full suite of planned experimental burns, associations with tree and fire variables were observed. Post-fire pine tree mortality was negatively correlated withmore » tree size and positively correlated with char height and percent crown scorch. Unlike post-fire mortality, tree mortality associated with storm surge from Hurricane Wilma was greater in the large size classes. Due to their influence on population structure and fuel dynamics, the size-selective mortality patterns following fire and storm surge have practical importance for using fire as a management tool in Florida Keys pinelands in the future, particularly when the threats to their continued existence from tropical storms and sea level rise are expected to increase.« less

  12. [Species composition, structure, and spatial distribution of shrubs in broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue-Jiao; Li, Bu-Hang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Li-Wei; Yuan, Zuo-Qiang; Lin, Fei; Hao, Zhan-Qing

    2010-08-01

    Based on the shrub census of 600 quadrats (5 mx5 m) in a 25 hm2 plot of broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, this paper analyzed the species composition, structure, and spatial distribution of shrubs in the forest. A total of 18 shrub species, including 6435 shrub individuals and 11369 stems, were found in the census, with Philadelphus schrenkii, Corylus mandshurica, and Acer barbinerve being the dominant species. P. schrenkii had the highest amounts of individuals and stems, occupying 40.6% and 33.4% of the total, respectively. There existed great differences in the clumpy ratio, stem number per clump, crown size, and basal diameter among the shrub species, and the height of different shrub species also varied significantly, with obvious vertical stratification observed in the community. The dominant species P. schrenkii had a wide distribution, while Sorbaria sorbifolia, Spiraea chamaedryfolia, S. salicifolia, and Euonymus pauciflorus had obvious heterogeneous distributions.

  13. An investigation of the effects of simulated acid rain and elevated ozone on the physiology of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings and mature trees

    SciTech Connect

    Momen, B.

    1993-12-31

    This study investigated the combined effects of simulated acid rain and ozone on foliar water relations, carbon and nitrogen contents, gas exchange, and respiration of ponderosa pine seedlings and mature trees grown in the field at the USDA Forest Service Tree Improvement Center in Chico, California. Acid rain levels (pH 5.1 and 3) were applied weekly on foliage only, from January to April, 1992. Plants were exposed to ozone levels (ambient and twice ambient) during the day only, from August to December, 1990, and from September to November, 1992. Results suggested that elevated ozone, particularly in combination with strong acid, caused osmotic adjustment that may benefit plants during drought. The observed effects of pollutants are similar to the reported effects of drought on plant water relations. Elevated ozone decreased foliar nitrogen content and thus increased the C:N ratio, particularly in seedlings. Stomatal conductance was not affected by pollutants but net photosynthesis was decreased by elevated ozone, especially in mature trees. The greater sensitivity of net photosynthesis of mature trees to elevated ozone was contrary to all other plant characteristics investigated. Elevated ozone increased seedling respiration. Under controlled, temperature, light, and vapor pressure deficit conditions, net photosynthesis responded positively to increases in plant age, light intensity, and rain pH, but negatively to increases in tissue age, heat, and ozone concentration. Overall results indicated that acid rain and elevated ozone declined the carbon pool of ponderosa pine due to increased respiration and decreased net photosynthesis. Pollutant effects were more profound in mid-summer when ozone concentrations were highest. On many occasions the effects of acid rain and ozone levels interacted. Seedlings were more sensitive to pollutants than mature trees.

  14. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  15. Cloning of Pinus sylvestris SCARECROW gene and its expression pattern in the pine root system, mycorrhiza and NPA-treated short roots.

    PubMed

    Laajanen, Kaisa; Vuorinen, Irmeli; Salo, Vanamo; Juuti, Jarmo; Raudaskoski, Marjatta

    2007-01-01

    The SCARECROW (SCR) gene is central to root radial patterning. Its expression has not been investigated in conifers with morphologically different root types. Additional interest in SCR functions in the Pinus sylvestris root system comes from the effect of ectomycorrhiza formation on the short root apical structure. Here, the P. sylvestris SCR gene (PsySCR) was cloned and its expression investigated by northern blot and in situ hybridization of primary, lateral and short roots and mycorrhiza. Short root dichotomization was induced by auxin transport inhibitor (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)). PsySCR has conserved GRAS family protein motifs at the C-terminus and a variable N-terminus. PsySCR expression occurred in young root tissue and mycorrhiza. In root sections the PsySCR signal runs through the tip in initials for stele and root cap column and becomes upwards-restricted to endodermis in all root types. The PsySCR expression pattern suggests for the first time a regulatory role for SCR in maintaining the endodermal characteristics and radial patterning of roots with open meristem organization. The specific PsySCR localization is also an excellent marker for investigation of the dichotomization process in short roots.

  16. Effects of Ion Implantation on in Vitro Pollen Germination and Cellular Organization of Pollen Tube in Pinus thunbergii Parl. (Japanese Black Pine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoping; Huang, Qunce; Yang, Lusheng; Dai, Ximei; Qin, Guangyong; Huo, Yuping

    2006-09-01

    Low-energy ion implantation, as a new technology to produce mutation in plant breeding, has been widely applied in agriculture in China. But so far there is a little understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for its biological effects at the cellular level. Here we report the biological effects of a nitrogen ion beams of 30 keV on the pollen grains of Pinus thunbergii Parl. In general, ion implantation inhibited pollen germination. The dose-response curve presented a particular saddle-like pattern. Ion implantation also changed the dimension of the elongated tubes and significantly induced tip swelling. Confocal microscopy indicated that the pollen tube tips in P. thunbergii contained an enriched network of microtubules. Ion implantation led to the disruption of microtubules especially in swollen tips. Treatment with colchicine demonstrated that tip swelling was caused by the disruption of microtubules in the tip, indicating a unique role for microtubules in maintaining the tip integrality of the pollen tube in conifer. Our results suggest that ion implantation induce the disruption of microtubule organization in pollen and pollen tubes and subsequently cause morphological abnormalities in the pollen tubes. This study may provide a clue for further investigation on the interaction between low-energy ion beams and pollen tube growth.

  17. [Genetic Variation, Population Structure and Differentiation in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Northeast of the Russian Plain as Inferred from the Molecular Genetic Analysis Data].

    PubMed

    Vidyakin, A I; Boronnikiva, S V; Nechayeva, Yu S; Nechayeva, Ya S; Prysimivskaya, Ya V; Boboshina, I V

    2015-12-01

    The DNA polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris from Severodvinsk, Upper Vetluga, and Vetluga-Vyatka populations, which were isolated earlier based on specific features of the geographic variation of allometric cone indices, was examined by the ISSR method. It was demonstrated that the Severodvinsk population of P. sylvestris differed from the chorologically adjacent Upper Vetluga population with respect to all of the examined genetic indices, and the Upper Vetluga population differed from the Vetluga-Vyatka population. It was suggested that the main the reason for the lack of statistically significant differences between Upper Vetluga and Vetluga-Vyatka samples of P. silvestris with respect to genetic variation indices (P95, H(E), n(a), n(e)) may be their formation based on the gene pools of two glacial refugia. It was demonstrated that the proportion of the interpopulation component of total genetic diversity (G(ST)), as calculated based on the ISSR marker polymorphism, reached a value of 0.488, which was an order of magnitude higher than the previous estimates obtained based on data from allozyme analysis. It was concluded that P. sylvestris cone allometric indices reflected the specificity of spatial population subdivision, like the genetic diversity and population genetic structure indices calculated based on ISSR-marker polymorphism. Population isolation and mapping based on two-step phenogenetic studies is suggested. PMID:27055300

  18. Exploring natural variation of Pinus pinaster Aiton using metabolomics: Is it possible to identify the region of origin of a pine from its metabolites?

    PubMed

    Meijón, Mónica; Feito, Isabel; Oravec, Michal; Delatorre, Carolina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Majada, Juan; Valledor, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Natural variation of the metabolome of Pinus pinaster was studied to improve understanding of its role in the adaptation process and phenotypic diversity. The metabolomes of needles and the apical and basal section of buds were analysed in ten provenances of P. pinaster, selected from France, Spain and Morocco, grown in a common garden for 5 years. The employment of complementary mass spectrometry techniques (GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS) together with bioinformatics tools allowed the reliable quantification of 2403 molecular masses. The analysis of the metabolome showed that differences were maintained across provenances and that the metabolites characteristic of each organ are mainly related to amino acid metabolism, while provenances were distinguishable essentially through secondary metabolism when organs were analysed independently. Integrative analyses of metabolome, environmental and growth data provided a comprehensive picture of adaptation plasticity in conifers. These analyses defined two major groups of plants, distinguished by secondary metabolism: that is, either Atlantic or Mediterranean provenance. Needles were the most sensitive organ, where strong correlations were found between flavonoids and the water regime of the geographic origin of the provenance. The data obtained point to genome specialization aimed at maximizing the drought stress resistance of trees depending on their origin.

  19. Impacts of Forest Management, Climate, and Productivity on Soil CO2 Efflux from Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda L.) Stands Located on the Virginia piedmont and the South Carolina coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, C. M.; Seiler, J. R.; Wiseman, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests occupy over 13 million hectares or nearly 1.5% of the total land area in the United States. Typically, over 70% of stored carbon (C) in forests resides in soils, emphasizing the need to better understand the impact forest management has on belowground processes affecting C storage. We measured soil CO2 efflux (Ec) from loblolly pine stands located on the Virginia piedmont (VAp) and SC coastal plain (SCcp) in efforts to quantify soil C loss from sites differing in climate, productivity, and common management practices. VAp sites were less productive and subjected to a cooler climate than SCcp sites. VAp sites were burned prior to planting as a form of weed and slash reduction while SCcp sites were bedded to raise planting rows above the water table. Ec was measured monthly for one year in four replicated age classes (1 to >20 years) on both VAp and SCcp sites using a closed dynamic chamber. Spatial variability for a given site was accounted for by taking measurements both near the base of the tree and between rows. Concurrent with Ec measurements, soil temperature (top 10 cm), soil moisture (top 10 cm), stand age, and site index were recorded. Empirical models were developed for the VAp and SCcp sites to assess the relationship between Ec and potential drivers. Soil temperature (top 10 cm) was the major Ec driver on both VAp and SCcp sites, explaining half or more of the variance. Stand age was positively correlated with Ec on VAp sites, but we observed no relationship between stand age and Ec on the SCcp sites. Using the empirical models developed from small chamber measurements, we scaled up soil C losses to the stand level for a 20-year rotation. We estimate a total efflux rate of 278.6 Mg C/ha over a 20-year rotation for SCcp and 210.9 Mg C/ha over the same time period for VAp. The contribution of heterotrophic respiration to Ec was greatest early in the rotation on the SCcp sites, where soils were tilled and

  20. Timing and magnitude of C partitioning through a young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand using 13C labeling and shade treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Garten, Jr., Charles T.; Norby, Richard J.; Childs, Joanne; Brice, Deanne Jane; Evans, R. M.; Gu, Lianhong; Thornton, Peter E.; Weston, David J.

    2011-12-30

    The dynamics of rapid changes in carbon (C) partitioning within forest ecosystems are not well understood, which limits improvement of mechanistic models of C cycling. Our objective was to inform model processes by describing relationships between C partitioning and accessible environmental or physiological measurements, with a special emphasis on short-term C flux through a forest ecosystem. We exposed eight 7-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees to air enriched with 13CO2 and then implemented adjacent light shade (LS) and heavy shade (HS) treatments in order to manipulate C uptake and flux. The impacts of shading on photosynthesis, plant water potential, sap flow, basal area growth, root growth, and soil CO2 efflux rate (CER) were assessed for each tree over a three-week period. The progression of the 13C label was concurrently tracked from the atmosphere through foliage, phloem, roots, and surface soil CO2 efflux. The HS treatment significantly reduced C uptake, sap flow, stem growth and fine root standing crop, and resulted in greater residual soil water content to 1 m depth. Sap flow was strongly correlated with CER on the previous day, but not the current day, with no apparent treatment effect on the relationship. Although there were apparent reductions in new C flux belowground, the heavy shade treatment did not noticeably reduce the magnitude of belowground autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration based on surface soil CO2 efflux rate (CER), which was overwhelmingly driven by soil temperature and moisture. The 13C label was immediately detected in foliage on label day (half-life = 0.5 d), progressed through phloem by day 2 (half-life = 4.7 d), roots by day 2-4, and subsequently was evident as respiratory release from soil which peaked between days 3-6. The δ13C of soil CO2 efflux was strongly correlated with phloem 13C on the

  1. Growth-Mortality Relationships in Piñon Pine (Pinus edulis) during Severe Droughts of the Past Century: Shifting Processes in Space and Time

    PubMed Central

    Macalady, Alison K.; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1) analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2) determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3) derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees’ ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15–30 year) average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84) and correctly classified ∼70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and

  2. Growth-mortality relationships in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) during severe droughts of the past century: shifting processes in space and time.

    PubMed

    Macalady, Alison K; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1) analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2) determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3) derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees' ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15-30 year) average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84) and correctly classified ∼ 70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and/or increases

  3. Anaphylaxis induced by pine nuts in two young girls.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, M Dolores; Lombardero, Manuel; San Ireneo, Mercedes Martinez; Muñoz, M Carmen

    2003-08-01

    Pine nuts are the seeds of Pinus pinea. There are few reported cases of allergy to pine nut. We describe two young girls with anaphylaxis caused by small amounts of pine nuts. Specific IgE to pine nut was demonstrated by skin prick tests and RAST but no IgE to other nuts and pine pollen was detected. The patients had IgE against a pine nut protein band with apparent molecular weights of approximately 17 kDa that could be considered as the main allergen. Our patients were monosensitized to pine nut and the 17-kDa protein could be correlated with the severe clinical symptoms.

  4. The evaluation of different forest structural indices to predict the stand aboveground biomass of even-aged Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Kunduz, Northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ercanli, İlker; Kahriman, Aydın

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effect of stand structural diversity, including the Shannon, improved Shannon, Simpson, McIntosh, Margelef, and Berger-Parker indices, on stand aboveground biomass (AGB) and developed statistical prediction models for the stand AGB values, including stand structural diversity indices and some stand attributes. The AGB prediction model, including only stand attributes, accounted for 85 % of the total variance in AGB (R (2)) with an Akaike's information criterion (AIC) of 807.2407, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of 809.5397, Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC) of 818.0426, and root mean square error (RMSE) of 38.529 Mg. After inclusion of the stand structural diversity into the model structure, considerable improvement was observed in statistical accuracy, including 97.5 % of the total variance in AGB, with an AIC of 614.1819, BIC of 617.1242, SBC of 633.0853, and RMSE of 15.8153 Mg. The predictive fitting results indicate that some indices describing the stand structural diversity can be employed as significant independent variables to predict the AGB production of the Scotch pine stand. Further, including the stand diversity indices in the AGB prediction model with the stand attributes provided important predictive contributions in estimating the total variance in AGB.

  5. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Anne C S; Macdonald, S Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  6. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Anne C. S.; Macdonald, S. Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A.

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  7. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Anne C S; Macdonald, S Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  8. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    PubMed

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. PMID:24681362

  9. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    PubMed

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management.

  10. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  11. Soil CO2 Efflux and Its Components Responded Differently to Throughfall Exclusion and Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Luedtke, C.; Akers, K.; McGuire, M.; Aubrey, D. P.; Teskey, R. O.

    2014-12-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (RS) is an important component of forest ecosystem carbon budgets and net ecosystem CO2 exchange, but little is known about how RS and its components respond to decreasing soil moisture and changes in soil fertility. The experiment design was a 2 X 2 factorial combination of fertilization (2 levels) and precipitation (throughfall exclusion, 2 levels) replicated in four blocks. We measured RS along with soil temperature (Ts) and soil moisture (WS) from 2012 to 2014 in a loblolly pine plantation in Washington, GA. The autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic (RH) components of soil CO2 efflux were separated using trenched plots. Our objectives were to (1) quantify impacts of throughfall exclusion and fertilization on RS and its components (RA, RH).and (2) determine soil CO2efflux and its components individually response to environmental factors and biological factors in throughfall exclusion and fertilization treatments. Annual mean RS was 2.11, 1.73, 2.09 and 1.92 for treatments of control, fertilization, throughfall exclusion and combination of fertilization and throughfall exclusion, respectively, from 2012 to 2013. The apparent Q10 for RS was 2.26, 2.25, 2.12 and 2.35 in the four treatments, respectively. There were no significant differences in RS among treatments except between the Ws treatments. However, there was slight reduction in RS and RA in fertilization and the fertilization plus throughfall exclusion treatment. In all treaments, Ts explained more than 80% of variation in RS. The contribution of CO2-derived from ectomycorrhizal hyphae was less than 15%. RS and RH was better predicted by TS in the dormant season than the growing season, indicating that additional factors such as root growth and photosynthesis became more important contributors to RS during the growing season. Fertilization slightly decreased RS mainly from a decrease in RH. Throughfall exclusion increased the contribution of RA to RS. We concluded that soil moisture had more

  12. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Handy, Sara M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-03-14

    Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.

  13. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating <7000 years BP. Owls and other taphonomic agents may deposit pine nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  14. Anaphylaxis to pine nuts and immunological cross-reactivity with pine pollen proteins.

    PubMed

    Senna, G; Roncarolo, D; Dama, A; Mistrello, G

    2000-01-01

    Despite the wide use of pine nuts, the fruit of Pinus pinea, only a few reports of allergic reactions to them have been published. We present herein a case of food allergy to pine nuts in a patient who showed no clinical symptoms to pine pollen despite the presence in her serum of specific IgE antibodies. In order to verify whether the reaction against pine nuts was IgE mediated, specific IgE against pine nuts and pollen were evaluated by skin-prick test, prick by prick and RAST. Immunoblotting and immunoblotting-inhibition were used to evaluate the allergenic components of both extracts and their cross-reactivity. Prick by prick with fresh pine nuts and RAST with pine nut and pine pollen extracts showed that the patient had high levels of specific IgE against both extracts. Immunoblotting experiments showed the presence in serum of IgE antibodies against several components in pine nuts and pollen. Immunoblotting-inhibition experiments demonstrated the presence of some cross-reacting components. These data confirm the existence of food allergy induced by pine nuts. This sensitization to pine nuts developed with no symptoms of pine pollinosis. Development of pollinosis may require a longer time of exposure to allergens. Based on the cross-reactivity between pine nut and pine pollen extracts, cosensitization to these two allergens could be possible.

  15. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible.

  16. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines.

    PubMed

    Vander Wall, Stephen B

    2008-07-01

    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pine warbler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the pine warbler (Dendroica pinus) are described in this publication, which is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. Habitat use information is presented in a synthesis of the literature on the species-habitat requirements of the pine warbler, followed by the development of the HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word, and mathematical, and is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  18. Pinus halepensis tree-ring widths at the periphery of the eastern Mediterranean forest growth as a possible proxy for recontruction of vegetation greeness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababneh, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    The IPCC report (2014) signifies the importance of understanding the dynamic and elastic relationship between global climate change and forest growth as ramifications are still uncertain despite increased experimental efforts (IPCC 2014, Frank et al.,2015). Further, understanding and modeling this relationship is over emphasized in arid to semi-arid areas such as the Middle East where limited natural resources have proven record of correlation with conflict (e.g.Kelley et al., 2015). This work reports on the response of a forest stand of Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) from north Jordan to variability in precipitation using instrumental and satellite derived data. The site is located in north Jordan on the transitional zones from forest to steppe of the eastern Mediterranean as classified by the European Forest Genetic Resources Programme (EUFORGEN, 2015). The aim is to model the relationship between annual earlywood, latewood and tree-ring width indices with instrumental data, reanalysis data and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the period from 1976-2012 for a possible use of tree-ring widths as vegetation greenness proxy. The highest significant correlation (p< 0.005, α =0.05) is between current year's growth and prior spring precipitation (instrumental and reanalysis) and NDVI. Reanalysis data correlates significantly (p<0.005, α =0.05, r: 0.85) with instrumental data (1976-2012) but is limited by the records' length. There is definitely a proven correlation between seasonal tree-ring widths and vegetation index that offers the potential for reconstruction of vegetation index if applied at the regional level and could be extrapolated to desert areas that lacks proxy data with annually resolved resolution such as tree-rings.

  19. Traditional medicine in Syria: folk medicine in Aleppo governorate.

    PubMed

    Alachkar, Amal; Jaddouh, Ahmad; Elsheikh, Muhammad Salem; Bilia, Anna Rita; Vincieri, Franco Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The use of Traditional Arabic Medicine (TAM) for various diseases has been popular but scarcely studied in Syria. In the present study, we carried out ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological research on the plants traditionally used to cure various diseases in northern Syria. The information was collected from the city and villages of the Aleppo governorate "Mohaafazah" in the north of Syria, collecting data directly on the basis of a detailed survey of inhabitants and herbalists. In this survey, we found that hundreds of plant species are still in use in TAM for the treatment of various diseases. We selected the most common 100 species, used in the treatment of more than 25 diseases. Among these plants, 53 are used for treating gastrointestinal disorders, 38 for respiratory system diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and cough, 34 for skin diseases, 21 for diabetes, 17 for kidney and urinary disorders, 16 for cardiac disorders, 14 for infertility and sexual impotency, 13 for treating liver diseases, 13 for several types of cancer, 9 for enhancing breast milk excretion, 8 for weight loss, 5 for reducing cholesterol, and three for weight gain. Plants were collected and identified: scientific Latin names, local names, the used parts of the plant, the herbal preparations and the local medical uses are described. Scientific literature concerning the activity of the investigated species is also reported and discussed according to their traditional uses.

  20. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  1. Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of needles of Pinus nigra and Pinus resinosa: evaluation of the electrolyte leakage method.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, M L; Palta, J P; Reich, P B

    1992-10-01

    Seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance of needles of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees were measured by an electrolyte leakage method and by visual observation. During most of the year, freezing stress resistance determined by the two methods gave similar results. The electrolyte leakage method provided a good estimate of seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance except for red pine needles in their most winter-hardy state. To obtain a reliable estimate of freezing stress resistance in winter-hardy red pine needles it was necessary to combine the electrolyte leakage method with visual observations. When red pine needles survived exposure to -80 degrees C or lower, electrolyte leakage was never more than 30% even when the needles were exposed to a slow freeze-thaw stress of -196 degrees C. However, rapid freezing of red pine needles to -196 degrees C resulted in electrolyte leakage of over 80%. Red pine needles attained a much higher freezing stress resistance during the winter than Austrian pine. Red pine needles also acclimated and deacclimated faster than Austrian pine needles. An index of injury was developed based on the electrolyte leakage method ((R(2) + R(1))/2, where R(1) is the minimum % electrolyte leakage from noninjured tissue and R(2) is the maximum % electrolyte leakage at the highest injury) that reliably predicted freezing stress resistance of pine needles for most of the year. Important aspects for developing a successful index of injury for pine needles are: use of cut needles, vacuum infiltration and shaking during incubation in water.We conclude that: (1) during cold acclimation the cell wall properties of the pine needles changed and these changes, which appeared to differ in the two species, might explain the very low leakage of electrolytes from winter-hardy needles of red pine; (2) pine needles survive winter by developing the ability to tolerate extracellular ice formation, because

  2. Severe White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine Alters Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack Density, Emergence Rate, and Body Size.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Edith M; Six, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality.

  3. Severe White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine Alters Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack Density, Emergence Rate, and Body Size.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Edith M; Six, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality. PMID:26314009

  4. AmeriFlux US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Litvak, Marcy

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine site is located in the 1200km2 Jemez River basin of the Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico at the southern margin of the Rocky Mountain ecoregion. The Ponderosa Pine forest is the warmest and lowest (below 2700m) zone of the forests in the Valles Caldera National Preserve. Its vegetation is composed of a Ponderosa Pine (Pinus Ponderosa) overstory and a Gambel Oak (Quercus gambelii) understory.

  5. The response of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) to lodgepole pine trees baited with verbenone and exo-brevicomin.

    PubMed

    Shore, T L; Safranyak, L; Lindgren, B S

    1992-04-01

    exo-brevicomin, a multifunctional pheromone of the mountain pine beetle,Dendroctonus ponderosae, was tested at release rates of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/day alone and in combination with the antiaggregation pheromone verbenone against unbaited controls. Significantly more lodgepole pinePinus contorta var.latifolia trees were attacked, and at higher densities, with both release rates ofexo-brevicomin than with all other treatments. Verbenone significantly reduced the response of mountain pine beetles toexo-brevicomin. Verbenone alone did not reduce the number of trees attacked by mountain pine beetle or the attack density when compared to the unbaited controls.

  6. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  7. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species. PMID:23760570

  8. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  9. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  10. Diel Variations in Needle Water Isotopic Composition in Two Pine Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal fluctuations of leaf water stable isotopes (d18O and dD) were measured for Jeffrey (Pinus jeffreyi) and lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. Two trees per species were sampled every few hours on October 15-16, 2005 and June 19-20, 2006. Diurnal gas exchange (stomatal conductance, tran...

  11. Fundamental tree growth processes severely suffer from water stress. The example of Pinus halepensis Mill. in South-eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Francois; Vennetier, Michel; Ouarmim, Samira; Caraglio, Yves; Misson, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Plant architecture processes are commonly neglected in the studies about climate change impact. In terms of biomass, primary growth (i.e. lateral and principal twig growth) and leaf production are far more important than secondary growth (i.e. radial growth). Polycyclism, or the ability for a plant to produce several flushes in the same growth season, is a key process of plant development. Aleppo pine is a good model to study polycyclism: it is known to produce up to four annual flushes in one growth season: one to three in spring and sometimes one after summer drought. Architectural development i.e. ranching rate, annual branch length growth and number of needles and fruiting are positively correlated with the production of multiple flushes per year. These tree growth processes are likely to be impacted by the anticipated climate trend over the next century, particularly repeated and more severe water stresses, However, Aleppo pine architecture is not well-described in the literature and an important lack of knowledge prevents any possible prediction for the 21st century. Thus, the objectives of this study were (i) to describe architectural processes on Aleppo pine in the Mediterranean region for the last 15 years, (ii) to untangle interrelationship between climate and twig status in the evolution of tree architecture and (iii) to look for a possible impact of climate change. Since 1998, climate was far hotter and drier than normal in South-eastern France: each process of tree architecture was significantly affected, particularly after 2003 heat-wave, which delayed effect remains till 2008, exacerbated by repeated droughts. Morphologically, polycyclism is primarily influenced by twig vigour, hierarchy and position (low, middle or top crown). Climatically, tree architectural development for a given year depends mainly on water availability in preceding growth season and to a less extent on rainfall during winter and summer temperatures of current and preceding year

  12. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Aleppo, Syria.

    PubMed

    Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Al Najjar, Mona; Mahfoud, Maysa

    2012-10-01

    This study describes and analyzes Acinetobacter baumannii antibiotic susceptibly profile in Aleppo, Syria, thus providing vital information for guiding treatment of A baumannii infections. Two hundred sixty nonrepetitive A baumannii isolates were studied over 3.5 years. Resistance rates are at the higher end of globally reported levels. Newer cephalosporins and β-lactamase-resistant agents are becoming practically ineffective. Better activity is limited to carbapenems and colistin, which elicited the highest susceptibility levels.

  13. Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.

    PubMed

    Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

    2011-09-01

    The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations. PMID:21724584

  14. Loblolly pine and slash pine responses to acute aluminum and acid exposures.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jaroslaw; Friend, Alexander L

    2006-09-01

    In response to concerns about aluminum and HCl exposure associated with rocket motor testing and launches, survival and growth of full-sib families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) were evaluated in a nursery bed experiment. Each species was exposed to a single soil application of aluminum chloride (0.33 M AlCl(3), pH 2.5), hydrochloric acid (0.39 M HCl, pH 0.6) or water, with or without mycorrhizal inoculation with Pisolithus tinctorius (Coker and Couch). After 20 weeks without inoculation, survival in AlCl(3) and HCl treatments averaged 52% for loblolly pine and 72% for slash pine. Inoculation improved survival of loblolly pine, receiving HCl from 49 to 73%, and of those receiving AlCl3, from 55 to 90%. Inoculation also resulted in improved survival and growth of individual families in AlCl(3), but not in HCl treatments. Results illustrate the relative resistance of both pine species to the acute treatments supplied, the improvement in resistance associated with mycorrhizal inoculation and the importance of field testing, following hydroponic screening, to verify the resistance to soil-supplied stresses.

  15. Short-Term Soil Responses for an Emulated Loblolly Pine Silvopasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine (Pinus spp. L.) stands are often overstocked early in the tree rotation, prior to initial thinning. While pre- and/or post-thinning fertilizer applications are best management practices to optimize growth of southern pines, fertilization has questionable economic value due to poor N utilizati...

  16. Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) is distributed throughout the western half of North America, where it is the most widely adapted and ubiquitous conifer. Ponderosa Pine contains isocupressic acid, a diterpene acid, which has been shown to be responsible for its abortifacient activity. The objectiv...

  17. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  18. INTERACTION OF GRASS COMPETITION AND OZONE STRESS ON C/N RATIO IN PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individual ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings were grown with three levels of blue wild-rye grass (Elymus glaucus Buckl.) (0,32, or 88 plants m-2) to determine if the presence of a natural competitor altered ponderosa pine seedling response to ozone. Gras...

  19. Allergy to pine nuts in a bird fancier.

    PubMed

    Jansen, A; Vermeulen, A; Dieges, P H; van Toorenenbergen, A W

    1996-10-01

    A patient is described with the bird-egg syndrome who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating some of her parrot's food (pine nuts: Pinus pinea). Specific IgE against this nut and another pine nut (P. cembra) was demonstrated by RAST. Cross-reactivity between these botanically related seeds was shown by RAST inhibition. Besides avian antigens, bird food antigens should be taken into consideration when symptoms of allergy occur on exposure to birds.

  20. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    PubMed

    Lanner, R M; Connor, K F

    2001-04-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senescence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To test a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statistically significant age-related changes in tracheid diameter, or in several other parameters of xylem and phloem related to cambial function. The hypothesis of continuously declining annual shoot growth increments was tested by comparing trees of varying ages in regard to stem unit production and elongation. No statistically significant age-related differences were found. The hypothesis that aging results from an accumulation of deleterious mutations was addressed by comparing pollen viability, seed weight, seed germinability, seedling biomass accumulation, and frequency of putative mutations, in trees of varying ages. None of these parameters had a statistically significant relationship to tree age. Thus, we found no evidence of mutational aging. It appears that the great longevity attained by some Great Basin bristlecone pines is unaccompanied by deterioration of meristem function in embryos, seedlings, or mature trees, an intuitively necessary manifestation of senescence. We conclude that the concept of senescence does not apply to these trees. PMID:11295507

  1. COMBINED EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON ANTIOXIDATIVE AND PHOTOPROTECTIVE DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN NEEDLES OF PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine interactive effects of important environmental stresses on biochemical defense mechanisms of tree seedlings, we studied responses to elevated O3 and elevated atmospheric CO2 on antioxidative and photoprotective systems in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Do...

  2. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  3. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  4. Controlling herbaceous competition in pasture planted with loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Three treatments designed to control herbaceous vegetation competing with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings planted in grazed and ungrazed pasture were tested. Effects of the treatments on seedling survival and growth during the first 3 years after planting were determined. The treatments were directed application of herbicides (glyphosate in the first 2 years and hexazinone in the third year), rotary mowing, and mulching with pine straw around individual pine seedlings.

  5. Speciation of manganese binding to biomolecules in pine nuts (Pinus pinea) by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detectors followed by identification by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arias-Borrego, Ana; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José L

    2008-10-01

    Advances in analytical methodology for speciation of manganese in pine nuts are presented in this work. The approach is based on the use of orthogonal chromatographic systems, namely size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of the extracts and strong anion exchange (IEC) of the fractions collected by the first column. In both columns, manganese elution is first monitored by a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with an octopole reaction cell and an ultraviolet (UV) detector. SEC is performed by using two columns covering the molecular weight range from <10 to 70 kDa that allows an initial screening of the molecular weight of the Mn species. The higher resolution capability of the low molecular weight range column is the reason to use the latter for further experiments. The fraction from SEC-ICP-MS in which Mn is present at highest concentration is submitted to IEC-ICP-MS allowing Mn-citrate and MnCl(2) identification by retention time matching with standards. The concentration of these species is estimated to be 75 and 125 microg kg(-1) (as Mn), respectively, in the pine nuts samples and the presence of Mn-citrate is confirmed by nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nESI-QqTOF-MS). In the same fraction, a third Mn-containing peak is detected in the IEC-UV-ICP-MS chromatogram. This peak corresponds to a protein containing Mn that was later submitted to a tryptic digestion and analyzed by nESI-QqTOF. The MS/MS data of a doubly charged peptide are used to obtain the sequence of the protein with the Mascot search engine. The peak turned out to be isocitrate dehydrogenase, a protein commonly associated with Mn.

  6. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    PubMed

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  7. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  8. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  9. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

  10. Automatic determination of trunk diameter, crown base and height of scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Based on analysis of 3D point clouds gathered from multi-station terrestrial laser scanning. (Polish Title: Automatyczne okreslanie srednicy pnia, podstawy korony oraz wysokosci sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus Silvestris L.) Na podstawie analiz chmur punktow 3D pochodzacych z wielostanowiskowego naziemnego skanowania laserowego)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Wężyk, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in recent years resulted in its recognition and implementation in many industries, including forestry and nature conservation. The use of the 3D TLS point clouds in the process of inventory of trees and stands, as well as in the determination of their biometric features (trunk diameter, tree height, crown base, number of trunk shapes), trees and lumber size (volume of trees) is slowly becoming a practice. In addition to the measurement precision, the primary added value of TLS is the ability to automate the processing of the clouds of points 3D in the direction of the extraction of selected features of trees and stands. The paper presents the original software (GNOM) for the automatic measurement of selected features of trees, based on the cloud of points obtained by the ground laser scanner FARO. With the developed algorithms (GNOM), the location of tree trunks on the circular research surface was specified and the measurement was performed; the measurement covered the DBH (l: 1.3m), further diameters of tree trunks at different heights of the tree trunk, base of the tree crown and volume of the tree trunk (the selection measurement method), as well as the tree crown. Research works were performed in the territory of the Niepolomice Forest in an unmixed pine stand (Pinussylvestris L.) on the circular surface with a radius of 18 m, within which there were 16 pine trees (14 of them were cut down). It was characterized by a two-storey and even-aged construction (147 years old) and was devoid of undergrowth. Ground scanning was performed just before harvesting. The DBH of 16 pine trees was specified in a fully automatic way, using the algorithm GNOM with an accuracy of +2.1%, as compared to the reference measurement by the DBH measurement device. The medium, absolute measurement error in the cloud of points - using semi-automatic methods "PIXEL" (between points) and PIPE (fitting the cylinder) in the FARO Scene 5.x

  11. Evolutionary fire ecology: lessons learned from pines.

    PubMed

    Pausas, Juli G

    2015-05-01

    Macroevolutionary studies of the genus Pinus provide the oldest current evidence of fire as an evolutionary pressure on plants and date back to ca. 125 million years ago (Ma). Microevolutionary studies show that fire traits are variable within and among populations, especially among those subject to different fire regimes. In addition, there is increasing evidence of an inherited genetic basis to variability in fire traits. Added together, pines provide compelling evidence that fire can exert an evolutionary pressure on plants and, thus, shape biodiversity. In addition, evolutionary fire ecology is providing insights to improve the management of pine forests under changing conditions. The lessons learned from pines may guide research on the evolutionary ecology of other taxa.

  12. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  13. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. Pines counter these threats by producing secondary metabolite...

  14. Pine needle abortion in cattle update: Metabolite detection in sera and fetal fluids from abortion case samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle abortions associated with consumption of pine needles during late gestation are a serious poisonous plant problem in the Western US. Most cases of abortion have been associated with consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the causative agent was identified as the labdane diterpen...

  15. Socio-demographic correlates of psychiatric morbidity among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Asfar, Taghrid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; Kilzieh, Nael

    2002-05-01

    Interest in mental morbidity as an important component of health is increasing worldwide. Women generally suffer more than men from common mental disorders, and discrimination against women adds to their mental sufferings. Studies looking into the socio-demographic correlates of women's mental morbidity are lacking in most Arab countries. In this study we wanted to determine the spread and socio-demographic correlates of mental distress among low-income women in Aleppo, Syria. A sample of 412 women was recruited from 8 randomly selected primary care centers in Aleppo. Response rate was 97.2%, mean age of participants 28 + 8.4 years, where married women constituted 87.9%. A special questionnaire was prepared for the study purpose, utilizing the SRQ-20 non-psychotic items and questions about background information considered relevant to the mental health of women in the studied population. Interviews were conducted in an anonymous one-to-one fashion. The prevalence of psychiatric distress in our sample was 55.6%. Predictors of women's mental health in the logistic regression analysis were; physical abuse, women's education, polygamy, residence, age and age of marriage. Among these predictors, women's illiteracy, polygamy and physical abuse were the strongest determinants of mental distress leading to the worse outcomes. Our data show that mental distress is common in the studied population and that it is strongly associated with few, possibly modifiable, factors.

  16. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar. PMID:21374054

  17. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  18. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  19. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  20. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  1. Frequency and direction of hybridization in sympatric populations of Pinus taeda and P. echinata (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards-Burke, M; Hamrick, J; Price, R

    1997-07-01

    Two naturally occurring, sympatric, northern Georgia populations of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) and P. echinata Mill. (shortleaf pine) were examined with respect to genetic diversity within populations and the frequency, spatial distribution, and morphology of putative hybrids. Shortleaf pine predominated at the "road" site while loblolly pine predominated at the "granite outcrop" site. Hybrid individuals were identified by their IDH allozyme genotype, the only such locus known to be fixed for different alleles in the two species. All allozymatically detectable hybrids (34 at the road site and two at the granite outcrop site) were juveniles that were distributed in open, sunny patches. A similar pattern of recruitment was seen for juveniles of the parental species. Hybrids were spatially distant from mature shortleaf pine, suggesting that shortleaf pine was not the seed parent. Discriminant analysis on needle characteristics indicated that loblolly pine was easily distinguished from shortleaf pine and the hybrids, but that shortleaf pine and the hybrids were barely distinguishable from each other. A diagnostic cpDNA restriction site marker indicated that shortleaf pine sired all the hybrids at both sites. No evidence of later generation hybridization was found.

  2. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill. in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Nicholas J; Renninger, Heidi J; Clark, Kenneth L; Schäfer, Karina V R

    2016-08-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots, one experiencing prescribed fire and one control (unburned) plot for comparison before and after the fire. We found that photosynthetic capacity in terms of Rubisco-limited carboxylation rate and intrinsic water-use efficiency was unaffected, while light compensation point and dark respiration rate were significantly lower in the burned vs control plots post-fire. Furthermore, quantum yield in pines in the pine-dominated stands was less affected than pines in the mixed oak/pine stand, as there was an increase in quantum yield in the oak/pine stand post-fire compared with the control (unburned) plot. We attribute this to an effect of forest type but not fire per se. Average daily sap-flux rates of the pine trees increased compared with control (unburned) plots in pine-dominated stands and decreased in the oak/pine stand compared with control (unburned) plots, potentially due to differences in fuel consumption and pre-fire sap-flux rates. Finally, when reference canopy stomatal conductance was analyzed, pines in the pine-dominated stands were more sensitive to changes in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), while stomatal responses of pines in the oak/pine stand were less affected by VPD. Therefore, prescribed fire affects physiological functioning and water use of pines, but the effects may be modulated by forest stand type and fuel consumption pattern, which suggests that these factors may need to be taken into account for forest management in fire-dominated systems. PMID:27259637

  3. Effect of water stress and fungal inoculation on monoterpene emission from an historical and a new pine host of the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Evenden, Maya L; Blanchet, F Guillaume; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2011-09-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) has killed millions of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees in Western Canada, and recent range expansion has resulted in attack of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in Alberta. Establishment of MPB in the Boreal forest will require use of jack pine under a suite of environmental conditions different from those it typically encounters in its native range. Lodgepole and jack pine seedlings were grown under controlled environment conditions and subjected to either water deficit or well watered conditions and inoculated with Grosmannia clavigera, a MPB fungal associate. Soil water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored over the duration of the six-week study. Monoterpene content of bark and needle tissue was measured at the end of the experiment. β-Phellandrene, the major monoterpene in lodgepole pine, was almost completely lacking in the volatile emission profile of jack pine. The major compound in jack pine was α-pinene. The emission of both compounds was positively correlated with stomatal conductance. 3-Carene was emitted at a high concentration from jack pine seedlings, which is in contrast to monoterpene profiles of jack pine from more southern and eastern parts of its range. Fungal inoculation caused a significant increase in total monoterpene emission in water deficit lodgepole pine seedlings right after its application. By 4 weeks into the experiment, water deficit seedlings of both species released significantly lower levels of total monoterpenes than well watered seedlings. Needle tissue contained lower total monoterpene content than bark. Generally, monoterpene tissue content increased over time independent from any treatment. The results suggest that monoterpenes that play a role in pine-MPB interactions differ between lodgepole and jack pine, and also that they are affected by water availability. PMID:21874397

  4. Effect of water stress and fungal inoculation on monoterpene emission from an historical and a new pine host of the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Evenden, Maya L; Blanchet, F Guillaume; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2011-09-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) has killed millions of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees in Western Canada, and recent range expansion has resulted in attack of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in Alberta. Establishment of MPB in the Boreal forest will require use of jack pine under a suite of environmental conditions different from those it typically encounters in its native range. Lodgepole and jack pine seedlings were grown under controlled environment conditions and subjected to either water deficit or well watered conditions and inoculated with Grosmannia clavigera, a MPB fungal associate. Soil water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored over the duration of the six-week study. Monoterpene content of bark and needle tissue was measured at the end of the experiment. β-Phellandrene, the major monoterpene in lodgepole pine, was almost completely lacking in the volatile emission profile of jack pine. The major compound in jack pine was α-pinene. The emission of both compounds was positively correlated with stomatal conductance. 3-Carene was emitted at a high concentration from jack pine seedlings, which is in contrast to monoterpene profiles of jack pine from more southern and eastern parts of its range. Fungal inoculation caused a significant increase in total monoterpene emission in water deficit lodgepole pine seedlings right after its application. By 4 weeks into the experiment, water deficit seedlings of both species released significantly lower levels of total monoterpenes than well watered seedlings. Needle tissue contained lower total monoterpene content than bark. Generally, monoterpene tissue content increased over time independent from any treatment. The results suggest that monoterpenes that play a role in pine-MPB interactions differ between lodgepole and jack pine, and also that they are affected by water availability.

  5. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    PubMed

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  6. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  7. A single ectomycorrhizal fungal species can enable a Pinus invasion.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñnez, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Like all obligately ectomycorrhizal plants, pines require ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts to complete their life cycle. Pines introduced into regions far from their native range are typically incompatible with local ectomycorrhizal fungi, and, when they invade, coinvade with fungi from their native range. While the identities and distributions of coinvasive fungal symbionts of pine invasions are poorly known, communities that have been studied are notably depauperate. However, it is not yet clear whether any number of fungal coinvaders is able to support a Pinaceae invasion, or whether very depauperate communities are unable to invade. Here, we ask whether there is evidence for a minimum species richness of fungal symbionts necessary to support a pine/ectomycorrhizal fungus coinvasion. We sampled a Pinus contorta invasion front near Coyhaique, Chile, using molecular barcoding to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. We report that the site has a total richness of four species, and that many invasive trees appear to be supported by only a single ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus luteus. We conclude that a single ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus can suffice to enable a pine invasion. PMID:26236856

  8. Growth of longleaf and loblolly pine planted on South Carolina Sandhill sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Cram, Michelle, M.; Outcalt, Kenneth, W.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2010-07-01

    Performance of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) were compared 15–19 years after outplanting on 10 different sites in the sandhillsof South Carolina. The study was established from 1988 to 1992 with bareroot seedlings artificially inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally inoculated with mycorrhizae in the nursery. A containerized longleaf pine treatment with and without Pt inoculation was added to two sites in 1992. Effects of the Pt nursery treatment were mixed, with a decrease in survival of bareroot longleaf pine on two sites and an increase in survival on another site. The containerized longleaf pine treatment substantially increased survival, which led to greater volume compared with bareroot longleaf pine. Loblolly pine yielded more volume than longleaf pine on all sites but one, where survival was negatively affected by fire. Depth of sandy surface horizon affected mean annual height growth of both loblolly and longleaf pine. Height growth per year decreased with an increase in sand depth for both species. Multiple regression analysis of volume growth(ft3/ac per year) for both species indicated a strong relationship to depth of sandy soil and survival. After 15–19 years, loblolly pine has been more productive than longleaf pine, although longleaf pine productivity may be equal to or greater than that of loblolly pine on the soils with the deepest sandy surface layers over longer rotations.

  9. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, C.W.; Graybill, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva, have produced a continuous tree-ring sequence back to 6700 BC for the White Mountains of California and to 3258 BC for east-central Nevada. The primary focus of the project is to provide dendrochronolgically-dated decade samples for an interlaboratory calibration of the /sup 14/C time scale. The primary climatic signal that can be isolated in both the California and Nevada series is annual moisture variability. Current efforts are directed at calibration of the tree-ring series with instrumented climatic series.

  10. Bioconversion of beetle-killed lodgepole pine using SPORL: Process scale-up design, lignin co-product, and high solids fermentation without detoxification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mountain pine beetle killed Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) wood chips were pretreated using an acidic sulfite solution of approximately pH = 2.0 at a liquor to wood ratio of 3 and sodium bisulfite loading of 8 wt % on wood. The combined hydrolysis factor (CHF), formulated from rea...

  11. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  12. Pine needle holders for use in gas exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Edwards, N T

    1989-12-01

    Simple holders for positioning pine needles in a gas exchange cuvette are described. The holders make it easy to enclose a standard length of needles in the cuvette in a single plane without mutual shading. The holders also make it possible, following gas exchange measurements, to harvest for further analysis just those needle portions that were enclosed in the leaf chamber. Field observations, which were made with a gas exchange cuvette incorporating the needle holders, on the relationship between carbon exchange rate and photon flux density in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles are reported.

  13. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Kendall, K.C.; Reinhart, D.P.; Tomback, D.F.; Arno, S.F.; Keane, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)—necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  14. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine.

    PubMed

    Progar, R A; Blackford, D C; Cluck, D R; Costello, S; Dunning, L B; Eager, T; Jorgensen, C L; Munson, A S; Steed, B; Rinella, M J

    2013-02-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine. The success of verbenone treatments has varied greatly in previous studies because of differences in study duration, beetle population size, tree size, or other factors. To determine the ability of verbenone to protect lodgepole pine over long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks, we applied verbenone treatments annually for 3 to 7 yr at five western United States sites. At one site, an outbreak did not develop; at two sites, verbenone reduced lodgepole pine mortality in medium and large diameter at breast height trees, and at the remaining two sites verbenone was ineffective at reducing beetle infestation. Verbenone reduced mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine trees in treated areas when populations built gradually or when outbreaks in surrounding untreated forests were of moderate severity. Verbenone did not protect trees when mountain pine beetle populations rapidly increase. PMID:23448035

  15. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine.

    PubMed

    Progar, R A; Blackford, D C; Cluck, D R; Costello, S; Dunning, L B; Eager, T; Jorgensen, C L; Munson, A S; Steed, B; Rinella, M J

    2013-02-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine. The success of verbenone treatments has varied greatly in previous studies because of differences in study duration, beetle population size, tree size, or other factors. To determine the ability of verbenone to protect lodgepole pine over long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks, we applied verbenone treatments annually for 3 to 7 yr at five western United States sites. At one site, an outbreak did not develop; at two sites, verbenone reduced lodgepole pine mortality in medium and large diameter at breast height trees, and at the remaining two sites verbenone was ineffective at reducing beetle infestation. Verbenone reduced mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine trees in treated areas when populations built gradually or when outbreaks in surrounding untreated forests were of moderate severity. Verbenone did not protect trees when mountain pine beetle populations rapidly increase.

  16. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C

    2011-01-01

    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components. PMID:21217795

  17. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C

    2011-01-01

    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components.

  18. Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle epidemic.

    PubMed

    Treu, Roland; Karst, Justine; Randall, Morgan; Pec, Gregory J; Cigan, Paul W; Simard, Suzanne W; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cahill, James F

    2014-04-01

    Forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosa) is rapidly transforming western North American landscapes. The rapid and widespread death of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) will likely have cascading effects on biodiversity. One group particularly prone to such declines associated with MPB are ectomycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic organisms that can depend on pine for their survival, and are critical for stand regeneration. We evaluated the indirect effects of MPB on above- (community composition of epigeous sporocarps) and belowground (hyphal abundance) occurrences of ectomycorrhizal fungi across 11 forest stands. Along a gradient of mortality (0-82% pine killed), macromycete community composition changed; this shift was driven by a decrease in the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Both the proportion of species that were ectomycorrhizal and hyphal length in the soil declined with increased MPB-caused pine mortality; < 10% of sporocarp species were ectomycorrhizal in stands with high pine mortality compared with > 70% in stands without MPB attacks. The rapid range expansion of a native insect results not only in the widespread mortality of an ecologically and economically important pine species, but the effect of MPB may also be exacerbated by the concomitant decline of fungi crucial for recovery of these forests. PMID:24933827

  19. Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle epidemic.

    PubMed

    Treu, Roland; Karst, Justine; Randall, Morgan; Pec, Gregory J; Cigan, Paul W; Simard, Suzanne W; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cahill, James F

    2014-04-01

    Forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosa) is rapidly transforming western North American landscapes. The rapid and widespread death of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) will likely have cascading effects on biodiversity. One group particularly prone to such declines associated with MPB are ectomycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic organisms that can depend on pine for their survival, and are critical for stand regeneration. We evaluated the indirect effects of MPB on above- (community composition of epigeous sporocarps) and belowground (hyphal abundance) occurrences of ectomycorrhizal fungi across 11 forest stands. Along a gradient of mortality (0-82% pine killed), macromycete community composition changed; this shift was driven by a decrease in the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Both the proportion of species that were ectomycorrhizal and hyphal length in the soil declined with increased MPB-caused pine mortality; < 10% of sporocarp species were ectomycorrhizal in stands with high pine mortality compared with > 70% in stands without MPB attacks. The rapid range expansion of a native insect results not only in the widespread mortality of an ecologically and economically important pine species, but the effect of MPB may also be exacerbated by the concomitant decline of fungi crucial for recovery of these forests.

  20. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins.

    PubMed

    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L

    2012-04-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates. PMID:22507014

  1. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins.

    PubMed

    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L

    2012-04-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates.

  2. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-06-11

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii.

  3. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  4. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp.

  5. Rapid changes in the range limits of Scots pine 4000 years ago

    SciTech Connect

    Gear, A.J.; Huntley, B. )

    1991-02-01

    Paleoecological data provide estimates of response rates to past climate changes. Fossil Pinus sylvestris stumps in far northern Scotland demonstrate former presence of pine trees where conventional pollen evidence of pine forests is lacking. Radiocarbon, dendrochronological, and fine temporal-resolution palynological data show that pine forest were present for about four centuries some 4,000 years ago; the forests expanded and then retreated rapidly some 70 to 80 kilometers. Despite the rapidity of this response to climate change, it occurred at rates slower by an order of magnitude than those necessary to maintain equilibrium with forecast climate changes attributed to the greenhouse effect.

  6. PARTITIONING OF WATER FLUX IN A SIERRA NEVADA PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION. (R826601)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus pond...

  7. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived
    estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can a...

  8. Lodgepole pine provenances differ in chemical defense capacities against foliage and stem diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximization of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) growth in the face of climate change and new pest outbreaks requires an understanding of the natural variability of quantitative resistance to disease. We assessed trees for the severity of foliar d...

  9. An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective o...

  10. Coexistence and competition between Tomicus Yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in yunnan pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...

  11. Coexistence and competition between tomicus yunnanensis and T. minor (Coeoptera: Scolytidae)in yunnan pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the competition and cooperation between Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) when they coexist together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) growing in Yunnan province in southwest China. We observed that T. yunnanensis bark beetles beg...

  12. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  13. SEASONAL PATTERNS OF FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubes were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) stands around three different tree age classes (16, 45, and > 250 yr old) to examine root spatial distribution in relation to canopy size and tree distribution, and to determine if rates of fine...

  14. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ON SURVIVAL OF PONDEROSA PINE FINE ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used minihizaotrons to assess the effects of elevated CO2N and season on the life-span of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws.) fine roots. CO2 levels were ambient air (A), ambient air + 175 ?mol mol-1 (A+175) and ambient air + 350 ?mol mol-1 (A+350). N treatments ...

  15. Comparison between soil and biomass carbon in adjacent hardwood and red pine forests

    SciTech Connect

    Perala, D.A.; Rollinger, J.L.; Wilson, D.M.

    1995-06-01

    The distribution of carbon in soil and biomass was studied across Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, USA, in 40 pole-sized red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations paired with adjacent hardwood stands. Pine and hardwood stands shared a common boundary and soil. Hardwood stands were mixed species, naturally regenerated second growth following logging. Carbon in total, standing crop averaged the same in both hardwood and red pine forest types, although the hardwoods averaged 14 years older than red pine. Coarse woody debris, shrubs, and herbs contained little carbon. Only the forest floor carbon pool was significantly different between forest types. Forest floor had a greater mass beneath red pine than hardwoods. There was no difference in total ecosystem carbon between red pine and hardwood stands. Total mineral soil aggregated across the depth profile contained the same total amount of carbon in both pine and hardwood stands; however, the carbon was found in different vertical patterns. Amounts of carbon in the upper levels of soil (0--4 cm) were higher under hardwoods, and amounts were higher under red pine at the 8--16 cm and 16--32 cm soil depths. Where July air temperatures were relatively cool, red pine stored carbon more efficiently both in the forest floor and deep in the soil. Red pine also sequestered more carbon in mineral soil with increasing April--September precipitation.

  16. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during ... sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. ...

  17. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili) and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus) maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes). As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5%) of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information) and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including microarray hybridisation), and

  18. Identification of the botanical origin of pine nuts found in food products by gas-liquid chromatography analysis of fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Giuffrida, Francesca; Dionisi, Fabiola

    2010-02-24

    Pine nuts are traditionally used in various part of the world for the preparation of desserts or sauces or in salads. Local production is not sufficient to cope with the high demand of pine nuts around the world, and countries such as China or Pakistan are exporting much of their production to Western countries. Almost all the nuts that are traditionally consumed belong to the Pinus genus, but over the past years, the number of consumer complaints following consumption of commercial pine nuts increased. Some consumers experienced taste disturbance lasting for up to two weeks after consumption. Food safety agencies raised some concerns regarding pine nuts imported from Asia and their association with taste disturbance. However, even though a formal association has not been found to date, the Pinus genus comprises species that are not classified as edible and could be eventually used to adulterate edible species. Pinus spp. seed lipids are known to contain very specific polyunsaturated fatty acids know as Delta5-olefinic acids. Seed fatty acid profile of conifers had been used in the past as a taxonomic marker, and in the present study to identify the botanical origin of pine nut in nine commercial products. Fast gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was used to resolve the complete fatty acid profile of Pinus spp. samples in less than 5 min. A diagnostic index based on the relative levels of the main fatty acids including distinctive Delta5-olefinic acids was used to identify botanical origins. Results revealed the occurrence of the following Pinus spp. in commercial products: P. pinea, P. koraiensis, P. gerardiana, P. armandii and P. massoniana. The later two species, known as Chinese white pine and Chinese red pine, are only cultivated in China and are not listed as common source of edible pine nuts by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The present study shows that the botanical origin of pine nuts can be identified in products based on the fatty acid profile.

  19. Fire, red squirrels, whitebark pine, and Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podruzny, Shannon; Reinhart, D.P.; Mattson, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) habitats are important to Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) as refugia and sources of food. Ecological relationships between whitebark pine, red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and grizzly bear use of pine seeds on Mt. Washburn in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were examined during 1984-86. Following large-scale fires in 1988, we repeated the study in 1995-97 to examine the effects of fire on availability of whitebark pine seed in red squirrel middens and on bear use of middens. Half of the total length of the original line transects burned. We found no red squirrel middens in burned areas. Post-fire linear-abundance (no./km) of active squirrel middens that were pooled from burned and unburned areas decreased 27% compared to pre-fire abundance, but increased in unburned portions of some habitat types. Mean size of active middens decreased 54% post-fire. Use of pine seeds by bears (linear abundance of excavated middens) in pooled burned and unburned habitats decreased by 64%, likely due to the combined effects of reduced midden availability and smaller midden size. We discourage any further large-scale losses of seed producing trees from management-prescribed fires or timber harvesting until the effects of fire on ecological relationships in the whitebark pine zone are better understood.

  20. Effects of aerially applied glyphosate and hexazinone on hardwoods and pines in a loblolly pine plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1993-09-01

    Areas in a 4-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation were treated with aerially applied Roundup (glyphosate), Pronone 10G (hexazinone), and Velpar L (hexazinone) plus Lo Drift (a spray additive). All herbicides were applied with appropriate helicopter-mounted equipment. The proportion of free-to-grow pine trees increased over a 2-year period in both the treated and untreated areas, but the increase was slightly greater in the treated areas. Final loblolly pine height, d.b.h., and volume per tree did not differ significantly among the four treatments. About 1,200 hardwood trees and 4,700 shrubs over 3 ft tall per acre were present at the beginning of the study.

  1. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  4. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  5. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed. PMID:17356853

  6. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed.

  7. Crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of a vicilin-type seed storage protein from Pinus koraiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method in hanging drops. The cupin superfamily of proteins includes the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins. Many members of this family of proteins are known allergens. In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method in hanging drops. The crystals belong to the primitive cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 148.174 Å. Two vicilin molecules were present in the asymmetric unit and the Matthews coefficient was determined to be 2.90 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with a corresponding solvent content of ∼58%. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained using the program Phaser. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  8. Aromatic biosynthesis in pine tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Pinus elliotti is a woody plant species responsive to gravity and capable of synthesizing large quantities of lignin. Lignification begins very quickly after germination; lignin is detected in the vascular region within 4 days after germination and rapidly progresses up the hypocotyl. Young pine seedlings bend in response to geostimulation for about 10 days after germination, with the most rapid response time occurring in 4- to 5-day-old seedlings. Various chemicals were used to establish their effects on the geotropic response in this gymnosperm species. IAA completely arrests the geotropic response for 18 to 24 hr. Afterward the seedlings respond geostimulation as if they were not treated. The same pattern of response will occur with a second IAA treatment. If the synthetic auxin, 2-4,D, is used, the georesponse is permanently blocked. The method of application does not appear to be critical; addition of auxin to only one side of the seedling gave results similar to those obtained by treating the entire seedling.

  9. Use of lodgepole pine cover types by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are a large and dynamic part of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) habitat in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Research in other areas suggests that grizzly bears select for young open forest stands, especially for grazing and feeding on berries. Management guidelines accordingly recommend timber harvest as a technique for improving habitat in areas potentially dominated by lodgepole pine. In this paper I examine grizzly bear use of lodgepole pine forests in the Yellowstone area, and test several hypotheses with relevance to a new generation of management guidelines. Differences in grizzly bear selection of lodgepole pine cover types (defined on the basis of stand age and structure) were not pronounced. Selection furthermore varied among years, areas, and individuals. Positive selection for any lodgepole pine type was uncommon. Estimates of selection took 5-11 years or 4-12 adult females to stabilize, depending upon the cover type. The variances of selection estimates tended to stabilize after 3-5 sample years, and were more-or-less stable to slightly increasing with progressively increased sample area. There was no conclusive evidence that Yellowstone's grizzlies favored young (<40 yr) stands in general or for their infrequent use of berries. On the other hand, these results corroborated previous observations that grizzlies favored open and/or young stands on wet and fertile sites for grazing. These results also supported the proposition that temporally and spatially robust inferences require extensive, long-duration studies, especially for wide-ranging vertebrates like grizzly bears.

  10. A trial investigating the symptoms related to pine nut syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ballin, N Z

    2012-09-01

    During the last few years, thousands of cases of pine nut-related dysgeusia have been reported. The symptoms involved are predominantly related to taste disturbances such as a constant bitter or metallic taste. The taste disturbance has been reported to occur 1-2 days after ingestion of pine nuts from the species of Pinus armandii. This paper describes a small trial where six volunteers consumed six to eight pine nuts suspected to cause dysgeusia. Incubation periods, symptoms and their duration were recorded. The trial showed that all subjects had developed symptoms of pine nut-related dysgeusia. Four out of six subjects experienced the classical bitter and metallic taste 1-2 days after ingestion. Two subjects experienced minor symptoms such as dryness and a sensation of enlarged tonsils. After the disappearance of symptoms, laboratory tests determined the pine nuts to originate from the species of P. armandii. A follow-up conversation with the subjects after 1 year showed no recurrent symptoms.

  11. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  12. Nitrogen Cycling Responses to Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbance in a High Elevation Whitebark Pine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

  13. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  14. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy. PMID:23321106

  15. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy.

  16. Molecular identification of Phytoplasmas infecting diseased pine trees in the UNESCO-protected Curonian Spit of Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although mainly known as pathogens that affect angiosperms, phytoplasmas have recently been detected in diseased coniferous plants. In 2008-2014, we observed, in the Curonian Spit of western Lithuania and in forests of southern Lithuania (Varena district), diseased trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvest...

  17. USE OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN STABLE ISOTOPES TO DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE OF WHITEBARK PINE NUTS TO YELLOWSTONE GRIZZLY BEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a masting species that produces relatively large, fat and protein-rich nuts that are consumed by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Trees produce abundant nut crops in some years and poor crops in other years. Grizzly bear survival in ...

  18. Perception of Pine Trees among Citizens of the Balearic Islands: Analysis and Description of Some Mistaken Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sureda-Negre, Jaume; Catalan-Fernandez, Albert; Comas-Forgas, Ruben; Fagan, Geoffrey; Llabres-Bernat, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze evidence regarding the dissemination of mistaken ideas concerning the presence and function of pine trees ("Pinus halepensis") in a Mediterranean archipelago: the Balearic Islands (Spain). The main errors concerning the natural vegetation that are disseminated among citizens by the forest management sector are…

  19. Determination of Basic Density and Moisture Content of Loblolly Pine Wood Disks using a NIR Hyperspectral Imaging System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging for the estimation of basic density (BD) and moisture content (MC) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) disks is reported. A total of 125 wood disks ranging in age from 13 to 19 years were analysed. Hyperspectral images were collected using an imagin...

  20. Aggregation pheromones of bark beetles, pityogenes quadridens and P. bidentatus, colonizing scotch pine: olfactory avoidance of interspecific competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bark beetles Pityogenes bidentatus and P. quadridens (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) compete for bark areas on branches of Scotch pine, Pinus sylvestris. Hindguts and head/thoraxes of males and females of both species feeding in hosts were extracted in pentane and analyzed by gas chromat...

  1. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON A PONDEROSA PINE PLANT/LITTER/SOIL MESOCOSM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study individual and combined impacts of two important atmospheric trace gases, CO2 and O3, on C and N cycling in forest ecosystems; a four-year experiment using a small-scale ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedling/soil/litter system was initiated in April, 1998. Th...

  2. Suitability of live and fire-killed small-diameter ponderosa and lodgepole pine trees for manufacturing a new structural wood composite.

    PubMed

    Linton, J M; Barnes, H M; Seale, R D; Jones, P D; Lowell, E C; Hummel, S S

    2010-08-01

    Finding alternative uses for raw material from small-diameter trees is a critical problem throughout the United States. In western states, a lack of markets for small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) can contribute to problems associated with overstocking. To test the feasibility of producing structural composite lumber (SCL) beams from these two western species, we used a new technology called steam-pressed scrim lumber (SPSL) based on scrimming technology developed in Australia. Both standing green and fire-killed ponderosa and lodgepole pine logs were used in an initial test. Fire-killed logs of both species were found to be unsuitable for producing SPSL but green logs were suitable for producing SPSL. For SPSL from green material, ponderosa pine had significantly higher modulus of rupture and work-to-maximum load values than did SPSL from lodgepole pine. Modulus of elasticity was higher for lodgepole pine. The presence of blows was greater with lodgepole pine than with ponderosa. Blows had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of ponderosa pine but no significant effect on the mechanical properties of SPSL from lodgepole pine. An evaluation of non-destructive testing methods showed that X-ray could be used to determine low density areas in parent beams. The use of a sonic compression wave tester for NDE evaluation of modulus of rupture showed some promise with SPSL but requires further research. PMID:20378344

  3. Suitability of live and fire-killed small-diameter ponderosa and lodgepole pine trees for manufacturing a new structural wood composite.

    PubMed

    Linton, J M; Barnes, H M; Seale, R D; Jones, P D; Lowell, E C; Hummel, S S

    2010-08-01

    Finding alternative uses for raw material from small-diameter trees is a critical problem throughout the United States. In western states, a lack of markets for small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) can contribute to problems associated with overstocking. To test the feasibility of producing structural composite lumber (SCL) beams from these two western species, we used a new technology called steam-pressed scrim lumber (SPSL) based on scrimming technology developed in Australia. Both standing green and fire-killed ponderosa and lodgepole pine logs were used in an initial test. Fire-killed logs of both species were found to be unsuitable for producing SPSL but green logs were suitable for producing SPSL. For SPSL from green material, ponderosa pine had significantly higher modulus of rupture and work-to-maximum load values than did SPSL from lodgepole pine. Modulus of elasticity was higher for lodgepole pine. The presence of blows was greater with lodgepole pine than with ponderosa. Blows had a negative effect on the mechanical properties of ponderosa pine but no significant effect on the mechanical properties of SPSL from lodgepole pine. An evaluation of non-destructive testing methods showed that X-ray could be used to determine low density areas in parent beams. The use of a sonic compression wave tester for NDE evaluation of modulus of rupture showed some promise with SPSL but requires further research.

  4. Temporal Isotopic Variations of Leaf Water in Pine Needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Feng, X.; Faiia, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Understanding the isotopic variations in a plant's leaf water is important for a number of climatological and biogeochemical studies. Leaf water isotopic composition is affected by the isotopic composition of the source water and the relative humidity of the air, both of which are related to climate. This dependency is the basis for climate reconstruction using isotopic compositions of tree-ring cellulose. The isotopic composition of leaf water is also important for the assessment of terrestrial biological productivity and the quantification of the Dole effect. We have studied the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic variations in leaf water of biennial needles from red pine (Pinus resinosa) and white pine (Pinus strobes) in Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. We have examined the leaf water δD and δ18O values along pine needles from base to tip, and the isotopic differences between young and old leaves. Within a needle, progressive enrichments of both oxygen-18 and deuterium were observed toward the tip, ranging for δD from -60.1 to 9.4 permil in white pine and -67.1 to -34.9 permil in red pine, and for δ18O from -3.1 to 19.1 for white pine and -7.3 to 5.5 permil in red pine. For both species, δD and δ18O were higher in old leaves than in young leaves. The isotopic difference between old and young leaves was most pronounced earlier in the growing season; the gap narrowed with time and finally disappeared in early fall. Early in the growing season, the δD values of young needles were -21 and -30 permil in white and red pine, respectively, and that of old needles were -3.0 and -8.0 permil, respectively. The δ18O values showed similar trends, and the δD vs. δ18O slope for the young leaves decreased from 3.6 in spring to ~1 in early autumn. Our observations can be simulated using the progressive isotopic enrichment model proposed by Barnes and Farquhar for monocotyledoneous leaves. Two variables, the transpiration rate and length of the needle, can explain the observed

  5. Morphological and niche divergence of pinyon pines.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Medrano, Alejandra; Scantlebury, Daniel Patrick; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Piñero, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The environmental variables that define a species ecological niche should be associated with the evolutionary patterns present in the adaptations that resulted from living in these conditions. Thus, when comparing across species, we can expect to find an association between phylogenetically independent phenotypic characters and ecological niche evolution. Few studies have evaluated how organismal phenotypes might mirror patterns of niche evolution if these phenotypes reflect adaptations. Doing so could contribute on the understanding of the origin and maintenance of phenotypic diversity observed in nature. Here, we show the pattern of niche evolution of the pinyon pine lineage (Pinus subsection Cembroides); then, we suggest morphological adaptations possibly related to niche divergence, and finally, we test for correlation between ecological niche and morphology. We demonstrate that niche divergence is the general pattern within the clade and that it is positively correlated with adaptation. PMID:27092235

  6. Overstory and understory relationships in longleaf pine plantations 14 years after thinning and woody control.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Timothy, B.

    2011-09-09

    To develop silvicultural strategies for restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas, mortality and growth of overstory pines and midstory hardwoods and abundance and species richness of herbs were studied for 14 years after pine thinning and nonpine woody control. Pine cover in thinned stands was about half of that in nonthinned stands through year 5, but it lagged by only 8% and 3% in years 9 and 14, respectively, because of vigorous crown responses. Despite a cumulative mortality of 64% of hardwood stems from prescribed fires in years 0, 4, and 9, hardwood basal area in thinned stands (2.1 m2/ha) was three times that in nonthinned stands (0.7 m2/ha) in year 14. Thinning was associated with 13%-22% more cover and six to eight more species of herbs in years 3-8 but only 6% more cover and two more species in year 14 because of accelerated growth of pine cover and hardwood basal area. However, similar increases in cover and richness of herb species in the woody control treatment were retained through year 14 because it had sustained reductions in hardwood and shrub abundance. Silvicultural strategies that substantially delay encroachment by pines, hardwoods, and shrubs will be those most effective at retaining herb species in longleaf pine savannas, including planting pines at wide spacing, periodic thinning and woody control, and frequent burning.

  7. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  8. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ(13)C and δ(18)O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain.

  9. Vegetation composition and structure of southern coastal plain pine forests: An ecological comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedman, C.W.; Grace, S.L.; King, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems are characterized by a diverse community of native groundcover species. Critics of plantation forestry claim that loblolly (Pinus taeda) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii) forests are devoid of native groundcover due to associated management practices. As a result of these practices, some believe that ecosystem functions characteristic of longleaf pine are lost under loblolly and slash pine plantation management. Our objective was to quantify and compare vegetation composition and structure of longleaf, loblolly, and slash pine forests of differing ages, management strategies, and land-use histories. Information from this study will further our understanding and lead to inferences about functional differences among pine cover types. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 49 overstory plots across Southlands Experiment Forest in Bainbridge, GA. Nested plots, i.e. midstory, understory, and herbaceous, were replicated four times within each overstory plot. Over 400 species were identified. Herbaceous species richness was variable for all three pine cover types. Herbaceous richness for longleaf, slash, and loblolly pine averaged 15, 13, and 12 species per m2, respectively. Longleaf pine plots had significantly more (p < 0.029) herbaceous species and greater herbaceous cover (p < 0.001) than loblolly or slash pine plots. Longleaf and slash pine plots were otherwise similar in species richness and stand structure, both having lower overstory density, midstory density, and midstory cover than loblolly pine plots. Multivariate analyses provided additional perspectives on vegetation patterns. Ordination and classification procedures consistently placed herbaceous plots into two groups which we refer to as longleaf pine benchmark (34 plots) and non-benchmark (15 plots). Benchmark plots typically contained numerous herbaceous species characteristic of relic longleaf pine/wiregrass communities found in the area. Conversely

  10. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    PubMed

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  11. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    PubMed

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  12. Use of the chloroplast gene ycf1 for the genetic differentiation of pine nuts obtained from consumers experiencing dysgeusia.

    PubMed

    Handy, Sara M; Parks, Matthew B; Deeds, Jonathan R; Liston, Aaron; de Jager, Lowri S; Luccioli, Stefano; Kwegyir-Afful, Ernest; Fardin-Kia, Ali R; Begley, Timothy H; Rader, Jeanne I; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2011-10-26

    Pine nuts are a part of traditional cooking in many parts of the world and have seen a significant increase in availability/use in the United States over the past 10 years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) field offices received 411 complaints from U.S. consumers over the past three years regarding taste disturbances following the consumption of pine nuts. Using analysis of fatty acids by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, previous reports have implicated nuts from Pinus armandii (Armand Pine) as the causative species for similar taste disturbances. This method was found to provide insufficient species resolution to link FDA consumer complaint samples to a single species of pine, particularly when samples contained species mixtures of pine nuts. Here we describe a DNA based method for differentiating pine nut samples using the ycf1 chloroplast gene. Although the exact cause of pine nut associated dysgeusia is still not known, we found that 15 of 15 samples from consumer complaints contained at least some Pinus armandii, confirming the apparent association of this species with taste disturbances.

  13. Monoterpene metabolism in female mountain pine beetles,Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attacking ponderosa pine.

    PubMed

    Pierce, H D; Conn, J E; Oehlschlager, A C; Borden, J H

    1987-06-01

    Abdominal volatiles of female mountain pine beetles,Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, fed in ponderosa pine,Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, and in lodgepole pine,P. contorta var.latifolia Engelmann, were analyzed by gas chromatography and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and were found to comprise host oleoresin components and beetle-produced alliylic alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones derived from host monoterpenes. Neitherexo- andendo-brevicomin nor frontalin were detected. Three metabolic pathways are proposed to account for the distribution of beetle-produced monoterpene alcohols. The first pathway involves hydroxylation of monoterpene substrates on allylic methyl groups which areE to a methylene or vinyl group. This oxidation pathway is indiscriminate with respect to substrate and probably functions to detoxify monoterpenes. A second pathway, which hydroxylates theendo-cyclic methyleneE to a vinyl methyl group of bicyclic monoterpenes to give almost exclusively thetrans alcohol, is hypothesized to be involved in pheromone production. A third detoxification pathway involves anti-Markovnikov addition of water to theexo-cyclic double bond of β-phellandrene to give predominantlytrans-2-p-menthen-7-ol.

  14. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively.

  15. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. PMID:26041181

  16. Needles of Pinus halepensis as Biomonitors of Bioaerosol Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped. PMID:25379901

  17. Early Holocene pinyon ( Pinus monophylla) in the northeastern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, David B.; Rhode, David

    1990-01-01

    Fine-grained excavation and analysis of a stratigraphic column from Danger Cave, northeastern Great Basin, suggests prehistoric hunter-gatherers were collecting and using singleleaf pinyon ( Pinus monophylla) near the site for at least the last 7500 yr. Human use of the cave began after the retreat of Lake Bonneville from the Gilbert level, shortly before 10,000 yr B.P. In stratum 9, culturally deposited pine nut hulls appear in the sequence by about 7900 yr B.P. and are continuously present thereafter. A hull fragment in stratum 10 is directly dated to 7410 ± 120 yr B.P. These dates are at least 2000 yr earlier than expected by extrapolation to macrofossil records from the east-central and central Great Basin, and necessitate some revision of current biogeographical models of late Quaternary pinyon migration.

  18. An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, William W; Logan, Jesse A; Kern, Wilson R

    2013-03-01

    An innovative aerial survey method called the Landscape Assessment System (LAS) was used to assess mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae)-caused mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) across the species distribution in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; 894 774 ha). This large-scale implementation of the LAS method consisted of 8673 km of flight lines, along which 4653 geo-tagged, oblique aerial photos were captured at the catchment level (a subset of 12-digit USGS hydrologic units) and geographic information system (GIS) processed. The Mountain Pine Beetle-caused Mortality Rating System, a landscape-scale classification system designed specifically to measure the cumulative effects of recent and older MPB attacks on whitebark pine, was used to classify mortality with a rating from 0 to 6 based on the amount of red (recent attack) and gray (old attack) trees visible. The approach achieved a photo inventory of 79% of the GYE whitebark pine distribution. For the remaining 21%, mortality levels were estimated based on an interpolated surface. Results that combine the photo-inventoried and interpolated mortality indicate that nearly half (46%) of the GYE whitebark pine distribution showed severe mortality (3-4 or 5.3-5.4 rating), 36% showed moderate mortality (2-2.9 rating), 13% showed low mortality (1-1.9 rating), and 5% showed trace levels of mortality (0-0.9). These results reveal that the proliferation of MPB in the subalpine zone of the GYE due to climate warming has led to whitebark pine mortality that is more severe and widespread than indicated from either previous modeling research or USDA Forest Service Aerial Detection surveys. Sixteen of the 22 major mountain ranges of the GYE have experienced widespread moderate-to-severe mortality. The majority of catchments in the other six mountain ranges show low-to-moderate mortality. Refugia from MPB outbreaks, at least for now, also exist and correspond to locations that have colder

  19. Examining Patterns of Carbon Assimilation and Allocation to Defense Processes in a Restored Southern Pine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritger, H.; Novick, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Southern pine forests provide many important ecosystem services, including biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and softwood timber production, which is a vital component of local economies in the American South. However, all southern pine forests are sensitive to damage from infestations of bark beetles and drought events, which can lead to declines in productivity that may cause mortality in extreme cases, and which may increase in frequency in the future due to ongoing climate change. This study explores how southern pine management for restored, old-growth like conditions, in contrast with management for timber production, affects stand scale drought response and tree resistance to bark beetle herbivory by leveraging a suite of data from a new eddy covariance flux monitoring site in a 65-year-old restored loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine forest situated in the Crossett Experimental Forest (Arkansas, USA). The sensitivity of ecosystem scale fluxes of CO2 and H2O to drought is interpreted through a synthesis with other long-running Ameriflux sites located in southern pine forests. The effects of the management regime on resin production, which is the pine trees' main defense against beetle attacks, are assessed by comparing monthly resin flow observations collected over the course of the 2013 growing season in the restored stand and in a co-located stand of even-age planted loblolly pines managed for timber production. Results show that loblolly in the uneven-aged stand consistently produced much larger amounts of resin than loblolly in the even-aged stand, and shortleaf pines were the lowest producers throughout the growing season. No significant relationship between resin flow and diameter at breast height was observed within or across species and sites; thus, species and management effects are independent of their effect on tree size.

  20. Stripping of soil-applied hexazinone, picloram, and tebuthiuron for loblolly pine site preparation. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1993-05-01

    Herbicides were applied to prepare two upland sites for planting of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) after clearcut harvesting: (1) picloram pellets, (2) hexazinone liquid, (3) a slurry of tebuthiuron soluble powder, and (4) following underplanting, a liquid formulation of picloram + 2,4-D was injected into residual hardwoods. The herbicides in treatments 1 through 3 were applied in 4-inch-wide parallel strips spaced 9.8 feet apart in April 1981. Vegetable on all plots was prescribe burned in August 1981, and the plots were planted in January 1982 with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedlings. Planting rows were evenly spaced between the chemically treated strips. Loblolly pine survival, height, and diameter growth were not affected by treatment at either site through five growing seasons.

  1. Berry production in three whitebark pine forest types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.; Kendall, K.C.; Forcella, F.

    1990-01-01

    In the whitebark pine /whortleberry (Pinus albicaulis/Vaccinium scoparium) habitat type of southwestern Montana, whortleberry plants produced seven to 69 berries/m2 x yr in 1974. In subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) habitat types of northwestern Montana, huckleberry plants (Vaccinium globulare) may produce from 13 to 228 berries/m2 X yr. While removal of competing trees increases production, thinning the understory apparently reduces berry production in direct proportion to the shrubs removed; there is no compensatory production indicative of shrub-shrub competition in fully vegetated plots. Fifty-to 100-fold variation in production among years in Vaccinium globulare berry production is attributed to variation in weather conditions.

  2. Resin duct characteristics associated with tree resistance to bark beetles across lodgepole and limber pines.

    PubMed

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Kane, Jeffrey M; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2014-04-01

    Bark beetles have recently killed billions of trees, yet conifer defenses are formidable and some trees resist attack. A primary anti-insect defense of pines is oleoresin from a system of resin ducts throughout the tree. Resin defense traits are heritable, and evidence suggests that resin duct characteristics are associated with resistance to insects. However, comparisons of resin ducts in trees killed by bark beetles to trees that resisted attack are unavailable. We compared vertical resin duct characteristics (number, density, and size) and growth rates from trees that were "resistant" (survived mass attack) versus "susceptible" (killed by attack) to bark beetles in lodgepole (Pinus contorta) and limber (Pinus flexilis) pines. Resistant trees of both species had significantly more resin ducts in recent growth than susceptible trees. Discriminant analysis (DA) correctly categorized 84% of lodgepole and 92% of limber pines as susceptible/resistant based on combinations of resin duct and growth characteristics from recent 5- through 20-year growth intervals. DA models using measures from only the most recent 5 years of growth correctly categorized 72 and 81% of lodgepole and limber pines, respectively. Comparing resistant to susceptible trees independent of species identity led to the correct categorization of 82% of trees based on factors from 5- to 20-year intervals, and 73% of trees using only resin duct counts from the most recent 5 years. We conclude that resin duct characteristics can be used to assess tree resistance to bark beetles across pine species, and offer a metric for management to enhance pest resistance.

  3. Evolution of conifer diterpene synthases: diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in lodgepole pine and jack pine involves monofunctional and bifunctional diterpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

  4. Evolution of Conifer Diterpene Synthases: Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis in Lodgepole Pine and Jack Pine Involves Monofunctional and Bifunctional Diterpene Synthases1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Dawn E.; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L.; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

  5. Soil-ecological conditions of Korean pine growth in its natural area and upon introduction in the European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voityuk, M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic expediency and soil-ecological potential of introducing Korean pine ( Pinus koraiensis) in the forest zone of the European part of Russia are discussed. The specificity of soil-ecological conditions and technologies applied for growing Korean pine in some tree farms in the Far East region and in the European part of Russia are compared. The main soil-ecological factors and optimum soil parameters for the successful development of Korean pine in its natural and introduction areas are determined. It is shown that development of Korean pine seedlings on well-drained soils depends on the contents of potassium, humus, and physical clay in the soils. The seedlings gain maximum size upon their growing on soddypodzolic soils (Retisols). The analysis of mineral nutrition of pine seedlings of different ages, soil conditions, and seasonal growth phases shows that the contents of potassium and some microelements play the leading role in the successful growth of introduced Korean pine.

  6. Frequencies of Null Alleles at Enzyme Loci in Natural Populations of Ponderosa and Red Pine

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Fred W.; Knudsen, Kathy L.; Blake, George M.

    1982-01-01

    Pinus ponderosa and P. resinosa population samples have mean frequencies of enzymatically inactive alleles of 0.0031 and 0.0028 at 29 and 27 enzyme loci, respectively. Such alleles are rare and are apparently maintained by selection-mutation balance. Ponderosa pine have much higher amounts of allozymic and polygenic phenotypic variation than red pine, yet both species have similar frequencies of null alleles. Thus, null alleles apparently do not contribute to polygenic variation, as has been suggested. The concordance between allozymic and polygenic variation adds support to the view that allozyme studies may be valuable in predicting the relative amount of polygenic variation in populations. PMID:17246067

  7. The effects of food irradiation on quality of pine nut kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gölge, Evren; Ova, Gülden

    2008-03-01

    Pine nuts ( Pinus pinae) undergo gamma irradiation process with the doses 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The changes in chemical, physical and sensory attributes were observed in the following 3 months of storage period. The data obtained from the experiments showed the peroxide values of the pine nut kernels increased proportionally to the dose. On contrary, irradiation process has no effect on the physical quality such as texture and color, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes.

  8. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and patterns of diversification for Pinus (Pinaceae): phylogenetic tests of fossil-based hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Hall, Benjamin D

    2006-07-01

    Pines comprise one of the largest coniferous genera, are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, and have an abundant fossil record. Distributions of fossils have been used to derive a three-step hypothesis of early pine evolution, which postulates a Mesozoic origin for the genus, east-west expansions across Laurasia, and retraction into Eocene refugia. Here, we present phylogenetic tests of this hypothesis using chloroplast sequence data from four loci for 83 pine species. We used the fossil-based hypothesis to derive null expectations concerning monophyly of taxonomic groups, dates of cladogenesis, and patterns of diversification. Phylogenetic analyses using several algorithms subsequently provided rigorous tests of these expectations. Our inferred phylogenies illustrated broad congruence with taxonomic groups, but highlighted consistent problems within subgenus Strobus. Estimated minimum dates of divergence derived from relaxed clock methods were largely consistent with the fossil record and yielded a date for the ingroup node of Pinus of 128+/-4 mya, depending upon the calibration used for subgenus Pinus. Ancestral area reconstructions showed Pinus to have most likely originated in Eurasia. Major clades differed in biogeographic patterns, but were consistent with the fossil-based hypothesis. We found weak support, however, for a change in diversification rate in the Eocene as interpretations of fossil distributions would have predicted.

  9. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-10-01

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm{sup 3} sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of {sup 137}CS and {sup 90}Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and I.5% of the {sup 90}Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and 4.5% of the {sup 90}Sr. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils.

  10. Phototactic Behavior of the Armand Pine Bark Weevil, Pissodes punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Luo, Chang W.; Kuang, Rong P.; Li, Hong W.; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Ying J.

    2013-01-01

    The Armand pine bark weevil, Pissodes punctatus Langor et Zhang (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a destructive bark weevil on the Armand pine, Pinus armandii Franch (Pinales: Pinaceae), an important timbering tree in southern China. This study examined the phototactic behavior ïéP. punctatus through observation of behavioral characteristics, response to nine monochromatic lights (ranging from 340 nm to 689 nm with about 40-nm step), and response to five intensities (ranging from 1 lux to 200 lux) of the most attractive light. The results demonstrated that P. punctatus was most active in the day, and kept still at night (or in a dark room). P. punctatus could be attracted to eight of nine monochromatic lights, the exception being red light (649 nm), which implied broad sensitivity to the spectrum of light. P. punctatus was most sensitive to violet (415 nm), ultraviolet (340 nm), and green (504 nm) light, suggesting there might be at least three types of photoreceptors in the compound eyes of this weevil. Furthermore, low intensities elicited an increased phototactic response, and high intensities a decreased phototactic response, under both violet and UV light. Thus, P. punctatus were found to be phototactic insects, and the phototactic behavior of P. punctatus is both a color and intensity preference. The information provided here provides a basis for the improvement of trapping devices for detection and survey of P. punctatus, as well as a basis for the development of alternate control strategies for this important pest of Armand pine and other pine trees. PMID:23879189

  11. [Dendrochronology of Chinese pine in Mulan-Weichang, Hebei Province: a primary study].

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming-xing; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhen-ju; Zhou, Chang-hong; Wu, Tao

    2008-11-01

    Dendroclimatic methods were used to investigate the relationships between the growth of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) and the climatic parameters in Mulan-Weichang of Hebei Province. The results showed that Chinese pine presented high sensitivity to climatic changes, and its earlywood width showed the highest sensitivity. There was a significant negative correlation between the tree-ring width chronology of Chinese pine and the air temperature in May-June. The precipitation and relative humidity in June had strong positive effects on the growth of earlywood, the precipitation from September to next September had significant positive effects on Chinese pine growth, and the relative humidity in winter more strongly affected the growth of latewood than of earlywood. There was a definite correlation between the tree-ring width chronology of Chinese pine and the large scale climate fluctuation. From 1951 to 2006, the increase of air temperature in study area was significant, and the sensitivity of Chinese pine to the variations of local temperature and precipitation decreased, presenting an inverse transforming trend with increasing temperature. Greater differences were observed between the reconstructed and observed data of mean temperature in May - June in a century scale, suggesting that the tree-ring growth of Chinese pine in study area had a greater fluctuation of sensitivity to the variation of climatic factors.

  12. [Dendrochronology of Chinese pine in Mulan-Weichang, Hebei Province: a primary study].

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming-xing; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhen-ju; Zhou, Chang-hong; Wu, Tao

    2008-11-01

    Dendroclimatic methods were used to investigate the relationships between the growth of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) and the climatic parameters in Mulan-Weichang of Hebei Province. The results showed that Chinese pine presented high sensitivity to climatic changes, and its earlywood width showed the highest sensitivity. There was a significant negative correlation between the tree-ring width chronology of Chinese pine and the air temperature in May-June. The precipitation and relative humidity in June had strong positive effects on the growth of earlywood, the precipitation from September to next September had significant positive effects on Chinese pine growth, and the relative humidity in winter more strongly affected the growth of latewood than of earlywood. There was a definite correlation between the tree-ring width chronology of Chinese pine and the large scale climate fluctuation. From 1951 to 2006, the increase of air temperature in study area was significant, and the sensitivity of Chinese pine to the variations of local temperature and precipitation decreased, presenting an inverse transforming trend with increasing temperature. Greater differences were observed between the reconstructed and observed data of mean temperature in May - June in a century scale, suggesting that the tree-ring growth of Chinese pine in study area had a greater fluctuation of sensitivity to the variation of climatic factors. PMID:19238829

  13. Countervailing effects on pine and oak leaf litter decomposition in human-altered Mediterranean ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, Efrat; Canham, Charles D; Kigel, Jaime; Perevolotsky, Avi

    2015-04-01

    Species affect the dynamics of litter decay through the intrinsic properties of their litter, but also by influencing the environmental conditions imposed by their canopy, roots, and litter layers. We examined how human-induced changes in the relative abundances of two dominant Mediterranean trees-Pinus halepensis and Quercus calliprinos-impact leaf litter decomposition. A reciprocal transplant experiment tested decomposition of pine, oak, and mixed leaf litter in oak woodland and pine forest ecosystems with different relative abundances of pine and oak. Using likelihood methods, we tested the importance and magnitude of the environmental effects of local species abundance, litter layer composition, and soil properties on litter mass loss. Oak litter decomposition was slower than pine, and had an antagonistic effect on mixed litter decay. These results differ from other reported pine-oak associations, and are probably associated with a higher content of tannins and phenols in oak compared to pine litter in our study sites. The environmental effects of the two species were opposite to their litter decomposition dynamics. An increased proportion of pine in the oak woodlands and a higher content of pine needles in the litter layer of pine forests reduced decay rates. The presence of more oak and broadleaf litter in the litter layer accelerated decomposition in pine forests. Our results highlight the importance of considering multidimensional species effects mediated by both chemical and physical properties, and imply that man-made changes in the composition and configuration of plant communities may result in complex unpredicted consequences to ecosystem biogeochemistry.

  14. Monitoring direct and indirect climate effects on whitebark pine ecosystems at Crater Lake National park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.B.; Odion, D.C.; Sarr, D.A.; Irvine, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is the distinctive, often stunted, and picturesque tree line species in the American West. As a result of climate change, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have moved up in elevation, adding to nonnative blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) disease as a major cause of mortality in whitebark pine. At Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, whitebark pine is declining at the rate of 1% per year. The Klamath Network, National Park Service, has elected to monitor whitebark pine and associated high-elevation vegetation. This program is designed to sample whitebark pine throughout the park to look for geographic patterns in its exposure to and mortality from disease and beetles. First-year monitoring has uncovered interesting patterns in blister rust distribution. Incidence of rust disease was higher on the west side of the park, where conditions are wetter and more humid than on the east side. However, correlating climate alone with rust disease is not straightforward. On the east side of the park, the odds of blister rust infection were much greater in plots having Ribes spp., shrubs that act as the alternate host for a portion of the rust's life cycle. However, on the park's west side, there was not a statistically significant increase in blister rust in plots with Ribes. This suggests that different species of Ribes associated with whitebark pine can increase pine exposure to blister rust disease. There is also convincing evidence of an association between total tree density and the incidence of blister rust. Warmer temperatures and possibly increased precipitation will affect both whitebark pine and Ribes physiology as well as tree density and mountain pine beetle numbers, all of which may interact with blister rust to cause future changes in tree line communities at Crater Lake. The Klamath Network monitoring program plans to document and study these ongoing changes.

  15. First report on class 1 integrons and Trimethoprim-resistance genes from dfrA group in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) from the Aleppo area in Syria.

    PubMed

    Al-Assil, Bodour; Mahfoud, Maysa; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2013-05-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) introduces advantageous genetic elements into pathogenic bacteria using tools such as class1 integrons. This study aimed at investigating the distribution of these integrons among uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolated from patients in Aleppo, Syria. It also set to uncover the frequencies of the clinically relevant DfrA1 and DfrA17,7, as well as various associations leading to reduced susceptibility. This study involved 75 Trimethoprim-resistant E. coli isolates from in- and outpatients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from 3 major hospitals in Aleppo. Bacterial identification, resistance and extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) production testing were performed according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Detection of integrons and DfrA genes was done using PCR and statistical significance was inferred through χ2 (Fisher's) test. Class1 integrons were detected in 54.6% of isolates while DfrA1 and DfrA17,7 were found in 16% and 70.6% of tested samples respectively. Furthermore, only DfrA17,7 were strongly associated with class1 integrons, as were reduced susceptibility to the majority of individual antibiotics, multidrug resistance and ESBL production. This study demonstrated the high prevalence of class1 integrons among UPEC strains in Aleppo, Syria, as well as their significant associations with MDR. This data give information for local healthcare provision using antibiotic chemotherapy.

  16. Pine mouth (pine nut) syndrome: description of the toxidrome, preliminary case definition, and best evidence regarding an apparent etiology.

    PubMed

    Munk, Marc-David

    2012-11-01

    Pine mouth syndrome (PMS), otherwise known as pine nut syndrome, is a relatively new condition. At least several thousand cases have now been described in the literature. The author describes the PMS toxidrome, offers a preliminary case definition, and discusses current best evidence regarding the etiology and risk factors related to the development of PMS.A clinically compatible case of PMS must include taste disturbance, usually characterized as bitter or metallic, following the ingestion of affected pine nuts by 1 to 3 days. Affected nuts would appear to include all, or some portion, of nuts harvested from species Pinus armandii (Chinese white pine), but could include nuts from other species. The specific toxin that is apparently present in affected nuts has not yet been isolated, and the mechanism of toxicity and factors determining PMS susceptibility need to be further detailed. There are no proven therapies for PMS. The only treatment is to cease ingesting implicated nuts and to wait for symptoms to abate.

  17. Induced defenses change the chemical composition of pine seedlings and influence meal properties of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Fedderwitz, Frauke; Björklund, Niklas; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-10-01

    The defense of conifers against phytophagous insects relies to a large extent on induced chemical defenses. However, it is not clear how induced changes in chemical composition influence the meal properties of phytophagous insects (and thus damage rates). The defense can be induced experimentally with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is a substance that is produced naturally when a plant is attacked. Here we used MeJA to investigate how the volatile contents of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissues influence the meal properties of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)). Phloem and needles (both weevil target tissues) from MeJA-treated and control seedlings were extracted by n-hexane and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). The feeding of pine weevils on MeJA-treated and control seedlings were video-recorded to determine meal properties. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that phloem and needle contents of MeJA-treated seedlings had different volatile compositions compared to control seedlings. Levels of the pine weevil attractant (+)-α-pinene were particularly high in phloem of control seedlings with feeding damage. The antifeedant substance 2-phenylethanol occurred at higher levels in the phloem of MeJA-treated than in control seedlings. Accordingly, pine weevils fed slower and had shorter meals on MeJA-seedlings. The chemical compositions of phloem and needle tissues were clearly different in control seedlings but not in the MeJA-treated seedlings. Consequently, meal durations of mixed meals, i.e. both needles and phloem, were longer than phloem meals on control seedlings, while meal durations on MeJA seedlings did not differ between these meal contents. The meal duration influences the risk of girdling and plant death. Thus our results suggest a mechanism by which MeJA treatment may protect conifer seedlings against pine weevils. PMID:27417987

  18. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  19. Modeling mountain pine beetle habitat suitability within Sequoia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    Understanding significant changes in climate and their effects on timber resources can help forest managers make better decisions regarding the preservation of natural resources and land management. These changes may to alter natural ecosystems dependent on historical and current climate conditions. Increasing mountain pine beetle (MBP) outbreaks within the southern Sierra Nevada are the result of these alterations. This study better understands MPB behavior within Sequoia National Park (SNP) and model its current and future habitat distribution. Variables contributing to MPB spread are vegetation stress, soil moisture, temperature, precipitation, disturbance, and presence of Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. These variables were obtained using various modeled, insitu, and remotely sensed sources. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to calculate the statistical significance of each variable contributing to MPB spread and also created maps identifying habitat suitability. Results indicate vegetation stress and forest disturbance to be variables most indicative of MPB spread. Additionally, the model was able to detect habitat suitability of MPB with a 45% accuracy concluding that a geospatial driven modeling approach can be used to delineate potential MPB spread within SNP.

  20. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  1. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones.

  2. First Report of a New ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pini’-related strain Associated with Witches’-broom of Virginia pine in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2015, a pine tree (Pinus virginiana Mill.) in Laurel, Maryland was observed to have abnormal shoot branching and witches’ broom symptoms. Total nucleic acids were extracted from needles collected from a symptomatic branch. Polymerase chain reaction assays (PCRs) for amplification of th...

  3. Pine nut allergy in perspective.

    PubMed

    Falliers, C J

    1989-03-01

    Anaphylaxis and other acute allergic reactions following the ingestion of pine--or pinon--nuts are documented and reviewed in perspective. Systemic allergic reactions to other relatively uncommon or "exotic" foods are also considered. Although hypersensitivity to more than one type of "nuts" is reported by some individuals, no significant cross-reactivity between any of these, or between pine pollen, pine resin, and pine nuts has been demonstrated.

  4. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    PubMed

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  5. Effects of Dwarf Mistletoe on Stand Structure of Lodgepole Pine Forests 21-28 Years Post-Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Central Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Agne, Michelle C.; Shaw, David C.; Woolley, Travis J.; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E.

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21–28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  6. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    PubMed

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  7. Pine Needles for the Screening of Perfluorinated Alkylated Substances (PFASs) along Ski Tracks.

    PubMed

    Chropeňová, Mária; Karásková, Pavlína; Kallenborn, Roland; Gregušková, Eva Klemmová; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) are today considered persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulative contaminants. Perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are currently listed as priority substances under the UNEP global convention for the regulation of POPs. A previous study reported higher levels of PFASs in pine needles near ski areas. Their application as stain repellents in modern outdoor clothes and in ski waxes is assumed to be a potential source. Pine trees (Pinus mugo in Slovakia and Pinus sylvestris in Norway) were chosen for sampling in ski resorts. Relative distributions, overall concentrations, trend estimates, elevation patterns, and distance from primary sources were assessed. PFOA was the predominant PFAS constituent in pine needles from Slovakia (8-93%). In Norway, the most-abundant PFAS was perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA: 3-66%). A difference in product composition (particularly in ski waxes) and differences in Norwegian and Slovakian regulations are considered to be the primary reason for these differences. Open application of PFOA in industry and products has been banned in Norway since 2011. The replacement of PFOA with short-chain substitutes is thus considered the reason for the observed pattern differences in the analyzed pine needles. Regular monitoring and screening programs are recommended. PMID:27457263

  8. Pine Needles for the Screening of Perfluorinated Alkylated Substances (PFASs) along Ski Tracks.

    PubMed

    Chropeňová, Mária; Karásková, Pavlína; Kallenborn, Roland; Gregušková, Eva Klemmová; Čupr, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) are today considered persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulative contaminants. Perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are currently listed as priority substances under the UNEP global convention for the regulation of POPs. A previous study reported higher levels of PFASs in pine needles near ski areas. Their application as stain repellents in modern outdoor clothes and in ski waxes is assumed to be a potential source. Pine trees (Pinus mugo in Slovakia and Pinus sylvestris in Norway) were chosen for sampling in ski resorts. Relative distributions, overall concentrations, trend estimates, elevation patterns, and distance from primary sources were assessed. PFOA was the predominant PFAS constituent in pine needles from Slovakia (8-93%). In Norway, the most-abundant PFAS was perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA: 3-66%). A di