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Sample records for alert column operators

  1. Alertness management in flight operations - Strategic napping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Dinges, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Strategic napping in two different flight operation environments is considered to illustrate its application as a fatigue countermeasure. Data obtained from commercial short-haul and long-haul operations demonstrated the utility and current practices of strategic napping. A preplanned cockpit nap acted as an acute 'safety valve' for the sleep loss, circadian disruption, and fatigue that occurs in long-haul flying.

  2. Flight controller alertness and performance during spaceflight shiftwork operations.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S M; Rosekind, M R; Dinges, D F; Miller, D L; Gillen, K A; Gregory, K B; Aguilar, R D; Smith, R M

    1998-09-01

    Decreased alertness and performance associated with fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption are issues faced by a diverse range of shiftwork operations personnel. During Space Transportation System (STS) operations, Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) personnel provide 24-hr. coverage of critical tasks. A joint NASA Johnson Space Center and NASA Ames Research Center project was undertaken to examine these issues in flight controllers during MOD shiftwork operations. An initial operational test of procedures and measures was conducted during the STS-53 mission in December 1992. The study measures included a Background Questionnaire, a subjective daily logbook completed on a 24-hour basis (to report sleep patterns, work periods, etc.), and an 8 minute performance and mood test battery administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each shift period. Seventeen flight controllers representing the 3 Orbit shifts participated. The initial results clearly support the need for further data collection during other STS missions to document baseline levels of alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations. Countermeasure strategies specific to the MOD environment are being developed to minimize the adverse effects of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption engendered by shiftwork operations. These issues are especially pertinent for the night shift operations and the acute phase advance required for the transition of day shift personnel into the night for shuttle launch. Implementation and evaluation of the countermeasure strategies to maximize alertness and performance is planned. As STS missions extend to further EDO (extended duration orbiters), and timelines and planning for 24-hour Space Station operations continue, alertness and performance issues related to sleep and circadian disruption will remain highly relevant in the MOD environment.

  3. Flight controller alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Rosekind, Mark R.; Dinges, David F.; Miller, Donna L.; Gillen, Kelly A.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Aguilar, Ronald D.; Smith, Roy M.

    1994-01-01

    Decreased alertness and performance associated with fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption are issues faced by a diverse range of shiftwork operations. During STS operations, MOD personnel provide 24 hr. coverage of critical tasks. A joint JSC and ARC project was undertaken to examine these issues in flight controllers during MOD shiftwork operations. An initial operational test of procedures and measures was conducted during STS-53 in Dec. 1992. The study measures included a background questionnaire, a subjective daily logbook completed on a 24 hr. basis (to report sleep patterns, work periods, etc.), and an 8 minute performance and mood test battery administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each shift period. Seventeen Flight controllers representing the 3 Orbit shifts participated. The initial results clearly support further data collection during other STS missions to document baseline levels of alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations. These issues are especially pertinent for the night shift operations and the acute phase advance required for the transition of day shift personnel into the night for shuttle launch. Implementation and evaluation of the countermeasure strategies to maximize alertness and performance is planned. As STS missions extend to further extended duration orbiters, timelines and planning for 24 circadian disruption will remain highly relevant in the MOD environment.

  4. An Operational Alert System for the European-Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazet-Roux, G.; Bossu, R.; Carreno, E.; Guilbert, J.; Godey, S.

    2003-12-01

    The European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has been running for several years an operational alert system for potentially damaging earthquakes which occur in the European-Mediterranean region. This alert system, - sub-part of the EMSC real time information service available on the web site (www.emsc-csem.org) - is based on parametric data provided through the Internet by 40 different networks representing 800 stations in the Euro.-Med. region. In case of potentially damaging earthquake, the seismologist on duty connects to EMSC facilities, merges and processes all available data and, as soon as a reliable solution is available, disseminates alert messages by fax and email. Alert messages are sent by fax to official organisations (e.g., Civil Protection Agency, rescue teams, Council of Europe, ECHO, etc.), to the seismological community and to the public by emails (800 emails). Furthermore, data and results are made automatically available in real time on the web. In case of technical problems or maintenance activities, the duty is taken over by IGN (Madrid, Spain), which runs full back-up procedures. EMSC commits itself to a maximum dissemination time (time lag between the occurrence of the earthquake and the messages' dissemination) of 1 hour. This delay is respected in the vast majority of cases with a median dissemination time of less than 40 minutes. We will give an overview of this system and its performances and put a special emphasis on the processing of the recent earthquake in Algeria.

  5. Chemical Safety Alert: Hazards of Delayed Coker Unit (DCU) Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and OSHA jointly publish this Chemical Safety Alert/Safety and Health Information Bulletin (CSA/SHIB) to increase awareness. DCU is a severe form of thermal cracking requiring high temperatures for long periods, for refining crude oils.

  6. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XIV: Alertness Management in Regional Flight Operations Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.

    2002-01-01

    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  7. Radar-based alert system to operate a sewerage network: relevance and operational effectiveness after several years of use.

    PubMed

    Faure, D; Payrastre, O; Auchet, P

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2000, the sewerage network of a very urbanised catchment area in the Greater Nancy Urban Community has been operated according to the alarms generated in real time by a storm alert system using weather radar data. This alert system is based on an automatic identification of intense rain cells in the radar images. This paper presents the characteristics of this alert system and synthesises the main results of two complementary studies realised in 2002 in order to estimate the relevance and the operational effectiveness of the alert system. The first study consisted in an off-line analysis of almost 50,000 intense rain cells detected in four years of historical radar data. The second study was an analysis of the experience feedback after two years of operational use of this alert system. The results of these studies are discussed in function of the initial operational objectives.

  8. Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System - Operational Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    must be understood that the parameter settings used (in the TCAS logic] depend upon a prompt and positive response on the part of the pilot".(3) Since...4.2.1-3) was located in the weather radar position (on the forward panel of the center aisle stand). A separately installed speaker presented the alert...during both the training and test flight, and the reasons for these procedures, every flight crew was observed to make intentional, positive and

  9. Alertness management in two-person long-haul flight operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, M. R.; Gander, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    Long-haul flight operations involve cumulative sleep loss, circadian disruption, and extended and irregular duty schedules. These factors reduce pilot alertness and performance on the flightdeck. Conceptually and operationally, alertness management in flight operations can be divided into preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. Preventive strategies are utilized prior to a duty period to mitigate or reduce the effects of sleep loss, circadian disruption and fatigue during subsequent flight operations. Operational countermeasures are used during operations as acute techniques for maintaining performance and alertness. Results from previous NASA Ames field studies document the sleep loss and circadian disruption in three-person long-haul flying and illustrate the application of preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. One strategy that can be used in both a preventive and operational manner is strategic napping. The application and effectiveness of strategic napping in long-haul operations will be discussed. Finally, long-haul flying in two-person highly automated aircraft capable of extended range operations will create new challenges to maintaining pilot alertness and performance. Alertness management issues in this flight environment will be explored.

  10. Crew Factors in Flight Operations X: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Co, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a 1980 congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center initiated a Fatigue/Jet Lag Program to examine fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in aviation. Research has examined fatigue in a variety of flight environments using a range of measures (from self-report to performance to physiological). In 1991, the program evolved into the Fatigue Countermeasures Program, emphasizing the development and evaluation of strategies to maintain alertness and performance in operational settings. Over the years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has become a collaborative partner in support of fatigue research and other Program activities. From the inception of the Program, a principal goal was to return the information learned from research and other Program activities to the operational community. The objectives of this Education and Training Module are to explain what has been learned about the physiological mechanisms that underlie fatigue, demonstrate the application of this information in flight operations, and offer some specific fatigue countermeasure recommendations. It is intended for all segments of the aeronautics industry, including pilots, flight attendants, managers, schedulers, safety and policy personnel, maintenance crews, and others involved in an operational environment that challenges human physiological capabilities because of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption.

  11. Crew Factors in Flight Operations X: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Co, Elizabeth L.

    1999-01-01

    In response to a 1980 congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center initiated a Fatigue/Jet Lag Program to examine fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in aviation. Research has examined fatigue in a variety of flight environments using a range of measures (from self-report to performance to physiological). In 1991, the program evolved into the Fatigue Countermeasures Program, emphasizing the development and evaluation of strategies to maintain alertness and performance in operational settings. Over the years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has become a collaborative partner in support of fatigue research and other Program activities. From the inception of the Program, a principal goal was to return the information learned from research and other Program activities to the operational community. The objectives of this Education and Training Module are to explain what has been learned about the physiological mechanisms that underlie fatigue, demonstrate the application of this information in flight operations, and offer some specific fatigue counter-measure recommendations. It is intended for all segments of the aeronautics industry, including pilots, flight attendants, managers, schedulers, safety and policy personnel, maintenance crews, and others involved in an operational environment that challenges human physiological capabilities because of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption.

  12. Math for Machine Operators. Workplace Education. Instructor's Guide. Project ALERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary; Copeland, Nancy; Baker, Catherine

    This instructor's guide contains materials for a 40-hour course designed to refresh math skills for current computer numerical control machine operators. The course uses two instructional methods: computer-based multimedia and traditional instruction. The course description lists target audience and general objective. The next section gives…

  13. TALON - The Telescope Alert Operation Network System : intelligent linking of distributed autonomous robotic telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. R.; Wren, J.; Davis, H. R.; Galassi, M. C.; Starr, D. L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2004-01-01

    The internet has brought about great change in the astronomical community, but this interconnectivity is just starting to be exploited for use in instrumentation. Utilizing the internet for communicating between distributed astronomical systems is still in its infancy, but it already shows great potential. Here we present an example of a distributed network of telescopes that performs more efficienfiy in synchronous operation than as individual instruments. RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) is a system of telescopes at LANL that has intelligent intercommunication, combined with wide-field optics, temporal monitoring software, and deep-field follow-up capability all working in closed-loop real-time operation. The Telescope ALert Operations Network (TALON) is a network server that allows intercommunication of alert triggers from external and internal resources and controls the distribution of these to each of the telescopes on the network. TALON is designed to grow, allowing any number of telescopes to be linked together and communicate. Coupled with an intelligent alert client at each telescope, it can analyze and respond to each distributed TALON alert based on the telescopes needs and schedule.

  14. TALON: the telescope alert operation network system: intelligent linking of distributed autonomous robotic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Robert R.; Wren, James; Davis, Heath R.; Galassi, Mark; Starr, Daniel; Vestrand, W. T.; Wozniak, P.

    2004-09-01

    The internet has brought about great change in the astronomical community, but this interconnectivity is just starting to be exploited for use in instrumentation. Utilizing the internet for communicating between distributed astronomical systems is still in its infancy, but it already shows great potential. Here we present an example of a distributed network of telescopes that performs more efficiently in synchronous operation than as individual instruments. RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) is a system of telescopes at LANL that has intelligent intercommunication, combined with wide-field optics, temporal monitoring software, and deep-field follow-up capability all working in closed-loop real-time operation. The Telescope ALert Operations Network (TALON) is a network server that allows intercommunication of alert triggers from external and internal resources and controls the distribution of these to each of the telescopes on the network. TALON is designed to grow, allowing any number of telescopes to be linked together and communicate. Coupled with an intelligent alert client at each telescope, it can analyze and respond to each distributed TALON alert based on the telescopes needs and schedule.

  15. Alertness Management In Flight Operations: A NASA Education and Training Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Lebacqz, Victor J.; Gander, Philippa H.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Weldon, Keri J.; Smith, Roy M.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Since 1980, the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program has been conducting research on sleep, circadian rhythms, and fatigue in a variety of flight operations 1. An original goal of the program was to return the scientific and operational knowledge to the aviation industry. To meet this goal, the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program has created an Education and Training Module entitled, "Strategies for Alertness Management in Flight Operations." The Module was designed to meet three objectives: 1) explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue, 2) demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improve flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness, and 3) offer countermeasure recommendations. The Module is composed of two components: 1) a 60-minute live presentation provided by a knowledgeable individual and 2) a NASA/FAA Technical Memorandum (TM) that contains the presentation materials and appendices with complementary information. The TM is provided to all individuals attending the live presentation. The Module content is divided into three parts: 1) basic information on sleep, sleepiness, circadian rhythms, fatigue, and how flight operations affect these physiological factors, 2) common misconceptions about sleep, sleepiness, and fatigue, and 3) alertness management strategies. The Module is intended for pilots, management personnel, schedulers, flight attendants, and the many other individuals involved in the aviation system.

  16. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XV: Alertness Management in General Aviation Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Cannon, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  17. An Automated Distillation Column for the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Douglas M.; Bruce, David A.; Gooding, Charles H.; Butler, Justin T.

    2005-01-01

    A batch distillation apparatus has been designed and built for use in the undergraduate unit operations laboratory course. The column is fully automated and is accompanied by data acquisition and control software. A mixture of 1­-propanol and 2-­propanol is separated in the column, using either a constant distillate rate or constant composition…

  18. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  19. Verification of a model for foam flotation column operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, J.E.; Rodriguez, J.; McIntyre, G.; Thackston, E.L.; Wilson, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    We report experimental data testing the validity of a mathematical model for the time-dependent operation of a continuous-flow foam floating column.Sodium lauryl sulfate was the surfactant being removed. The responses of the column in steady-state operation and under the influence of rectangular pulses in sodium lauryl sulfates concentration and in hydraulic loading rate were investigated and compared with the results of computer simulation.Effluent surfactant concentrations were well simulated under all conditions. It was found that the fraction of liquid in the Plateau borders varies somewhat with the hydraulic loading rate, which causes some discrepancy between calculated and observed collapsed foamate flow rates.

  20. Head Mounted Alerting for Urban Operations via Tactical Information Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    experiments. Voice synthesis tools were used to create consistent voice-based audio alerts. It was found that synthesized voice alerts were less...speech synthesizer to implement text to speech amplification4. It was found that the use of automated text-to-speech synthesis produced less distracting...prerecorded using a few different speech synthesis packages. Alert severity and soldier activity level were hard-coded based on the best assessment of

  1. Vertebral Column Resection for Kyphoscoliosis in a Patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: An Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Alert.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Faisal R; Al Eissa, Sami; Sayegh, Samir; Al Helal, Fahad; Al-Sharif, Shomoukh A; Annaim, Monerah M; Muhammad, Sheryar; Aziz, Tanweer

    2016-08-31

    A 16-year-old male patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and a back deformity since birth presented with severe kyphoscoliosis. The patient was neurologically intact but had respiratory and cardiac insufficiencies. A two-stage vertebral column resection (VCR) at T9-T10 with multiple level fusion with multimodality intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) was planned.  During the first stage, pedicle screws were placed at multiple spinal levels above and below the VCR level. Upper and lower somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEP), and electromyography were monitored continuously and showed no significant changes. The second stage was performed one week later. Baseline SSEP and TCeMEP responses were present in all extremities. The surgeon was informed of a sudden 70% amplitude drop in TCeMEP in the lower limbs with stable SSEP after ligating one of the left nerves/vessels fully stretching the spinal cord. The surgeon removed the ligation, and an improvement in motor responses followed. Surgery proceeded with the highest levels of caution. Later, there was a sudden loss of TCeMEP and SSEP in the lower limbs bilaterally. The correction was released, mean arterial pressure was increased, and intravenous dexamethasone was administered. The surgical correction was aborted, and the decision was made to close the site. Lower SSEP and TCeMEP responses remained absent until closing, while upper SSEP and TCeMEP responses remained stable. A wake-up test was done after closing. The patient moved his upper limbs but was unable to move his lower limbs bilaterally. The patient was sent for a magnetic resonance imaging scan while intubated and then sent to the intensive care unit. At 24 hours and 36 hours post-operation, the patient had no sensory and motor function below the T8 level. Forty-eight hours post-operation, the patient started to feel sensory stimuli at the T10 level. At one week post-operation, the

  2. Vertebral Column Resection for Kyphoscoliosis in a Patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: An Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Alert

    PubMed Central

    Al Eissa, Sami; Sayegh, Samir; Al Helal, Fahad; Al-Sharif, Shomoukh A; Annaim, Monerah M; Muhammad, Sheryar; Aziz, Tanweer

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old male patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and a back deformity since birth presented with severe kyphoscoliosis. The patient was neurologically intact but had respiratory and cardiac insufficiencies. A two-stage vertebral column resection (VCR) at T9-T10 with multiple level fusion with multimodality intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) was planned.  During the first stage, pedicle screws were placed at multiple spinal levels above and below the VCR level. Upper and lower somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEP), and electromyography were monitored continuously and showed no significant changes. The second stage was performed one week later. Baseline SSEP and TCeMEP responses were present in all extremities. The surgeon was informed of a sudden 70% amplitude drop in TCeMEP in the lower limbs with stable SSEP after ligating one of the left nerves/vessels fully stretching the spinal cord. The surgeon removed the ligation, and an improvement in motor responses followed. Surgery proceeded with the highest levels of caution. Later, there was a sudden loss of TCeMEP and SSEP in the lower limbs bilaterally. The correction was released, mean arterial pressure was increased, and intravenous dexamethasone was administered. The surgical correction was aborted, and the decision was made to close the site. Lower SSEP and TCeMEP responses remained absent until closing, while upper SSEP and TCeMEP responses remained stable. A wake-up test was done after closing. The patient moved his upper limbs but was unable to move his lower limbs bilaterally. The patient was sent for a magnetic resonance imaging scan while intubated and then sent to the intensive care unit. At 24 hours and 36 hours post-operation, the patient had no sensory and motor function below the T8 level. Forty-eight hours post-operation, the patient started to feel sensory stimuli at the T10 level. At one week post-operation, the

  3. Instrument for the measurement and determination of chemical pulse column parameters

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, Norman J.; Morgan, John P.

    1990-01-01

    An instrument for monitoring and measuring pneumatic driving force pulse parameters applied to chemical separation pulse columns obtains real time pulse frequency and root mean square amplitude values, calculates column inch values and compares these values against preset limits to alert column operators to the variations of pulse column operational parameters beyond desired limits.

  4. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M.

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives.

  5. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Investigation of the Efficacy of Modafinil for Maintaining Alertness and Performance in Sustained Military Ground Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    modafinil exhibits a terminal half-life of 9-14 hrs with peak blood concentrations 2-4 hrs after absorption with an oral clearance of 50-60 mL/min (Wong...AFRL-HE-BR-TR-2006-0005 A DOUBLE-BLIND PLACEBO-CONTROLLED INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFICACY OF MODAFINIL FOR MAINTAINING ALERTNESS AND PERFORMANCE IN...CONTROLLED INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFICACY OF MODAFINIL FOR MAINTAINING ALERTNESS AND PERFORMANCE IN SUSTAINED MILITARY GROUND OPERATIONS 5b. GRANT

  6. Crew factors in flight operations 9: Effects of planned cockpit rest on crew performance and alertness in long-haul operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Dinges, David F.; Connell, Linda J.; Rountree, Michael S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Gillen, Kelly A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a planned cockpit rest period to improve alertness and performance in long-haul flight operations. The Rest Group (12 crew members) was allowed a planned 40 minute rest period during the low workload, cruise portion of the flight, while the No-Rest Group (9 crew members) had a 40 minute planned control period when they maintained usual flight activities. Measures used in the study included continuous ambulatory recordings of brain wave and eye movement activity, a reaction time/vigilance task, a wrist activity monitor, in-flight fatigue and alertness ratings, a daily log for noting sleep periods, meals, exercise, flight and duty periods, and the NASA Background Questionnaire. The Rest Group pilots slept on 93 percent of the opportunities, falling asleep in 5.6 minutes and sleeping for 25.8 minutes. This nap was associated with improved physiological alertness and performance compared to the No-Rest Group. The benefits of the nap were observed through the critical descent and landing phases of flight. The nap did not affect layover sleep or the cumulative sleep debt. The nap procedures were implemented with minimal disruption to usual flight operations and there were no reported or identified concerns regarding safety.

  7. Alertness - decreased

    MedlinePlus

    ... alertness, including: Chronic kidney disease Extreme tiredness or lack of sleep High blood sugar level or low blood sugar ... or breathing problems, such as: Abnormal heart rhythm Lack of ... medicines Side effect of almost any medicine, such as those used ...

  8. Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.

  9. NIOSH alert: Request for assistance in preventing electrocutions of crane operators and crew members working near overhead power lines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    In this alert, NIOSH warned that crane operators and crew members may be electrocuted when working near overhead power lines. Five cases were described which resulted in six electrocutions. Case 1 involved a 29 year old who pushed the crane cable on a 1 yard cement bucket into a 7,200 volt power line. Case 2 involved a 33 year old well driller who was electrocuted when a metal pipe lifted by a truck mounted crane contacted a 12,000 volt overhead power line. The third case involved a 24 year old forman for a telecommunications company who was electrocuted when he grabbed the door handle of a truck mounted crane whose boom was in contact with a 7,200 volt overhead power line. Case 4 involved a 37 year old construction laborer electrocuted while pulling a wire rope attached to a crane cable toward a load. The fifth case involved a 20 year old male truck driver and his 70 year old male employer who were electrocuted when the boom of a truck mounted crane contacted a 7,200 volt conductor of an overhead power line.

  10. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    with frequent updates as an 80-character digital string sent from the central analysis computer to pagers throughout the Bay Area in less than 2 seconds. We anticipate that the commercial sector will supply numerous and varied warning receiver systems once an EAS is considered operational. We focus on two prototype demonstration systems: (1) a pager-driven closure switch for opening fire station doors and (2) a pager display sign showing an of warning packet information. We will discuss the specific design features alert message and a display of this prototype system.

  11. Three years of column flotation operating experience at Powell Mountain Coal Company

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Peters, W.J.; Kennedy, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    A joint project was initiated in 1989 between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) and the Powell Mountain Coal Company (PMCC) to evaluated the applicability of column flotation for recovery of fine coal from classifying cyclone refuse at PMCC`s Mayflower Preparation Plant. Laboratory and extensive pilot plant studies were conducted on each of the seams processed by the plant evaluating various column operating parameters. These results were used to design a larger 8-ft. diameter {times} 22-ft. tall column capable of recovering fine coal from the dilute classifying cyclone overflow with a feed capacity of 1,000 gpm. In order to effectively treat the entire plant classifying cyclone overflow stream, a total of four columns operating in parallel were installed in December 1989. This paper outlines three years of operating experience and results obtained with this fine coal recovery circuit.

  12. The COMESEP Alert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Norma; Veronig, Astrid; Rodriguez, Luciano; Vrsnak, Bojan; Vennerstrom, Susanne; Malandraki, Olga; Dalla, Silvia; Srivastava, Nandita; Hesse, Michael; Odstrcil, Dusan; Robbrecht, Eva

    2014-05-01

    Tools for forecasting geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP) radiation storms have been developed under the three-year EU FP7 COMESEP (COronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles) collaborative project. To enhance our understanding of the 3D kinematics and interplanetary propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the structure, propagation and evolution of CMEs have been investigated. In parallel, the sources and propagation of SEPs have been examined and modeled. During the third year of the COMESEP project the produced tools have been validated and implemented into an operational space weather alert system. The COMESEP Alert System provides notifications for the space weather community. To achieve this the system relies on both models and data, the latter including near real-time data as well as historical data. Geomagnetic and SEP radiation storm alerts are based on the COMESEP definition of risk. The COMESEP Alert System has recently been launched. Receiving COMESEP alerts are free of charge, but registration is required. For more information see the project website (http://www.comesep.eu/). This work has received funding from the European Commission FP7 Project COMESEP (263252).

  13. Transient Alerts in LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantor, J.

    During LSST observing, transient events will be detected and alerts generated at the LSST Archive Center at NCSA in Champaign-Illinois. As a very high rate of alerts is expected, approaching ˜ 10 million per night, we plan for VOEvent-compliant Distributor/Brokers (http://voevent.org) to be the primary end-points of the full LSST alert streams. End users will then use these Distributor/Brokers to classify and filter events on the stream for those fitting their science goals. These Distributor/Brokers are envisioned to be operated as a community service by third parties who will have signed MOUs with LSST. The exact identification of Distributor/Brokers to receive alerts will be determined as LSST approaches full operations and may change over time, but it is in our interest to identify and coordinate with them as early as possible. LSST will also operate a limited Distributor/Broker with a filtering capability at the Archive Center, to allow alerts to be sent directly to a limited number of entities that for some reason need to have a more direct connection to LSST. This might include, for example, observatories with significant follow-up capabilities whose observing may temporarily be more directly tied to LSST observing. It will let astronomers create simple filters that limit what alerts are ultimately forwarded to them. These user defined filters will be possible to specify using an SQL-like declarative language, or short snippets of (likely Python) code. We emphasize that this LSST-provided capability will be limited, and is not intended to satisfy the wide variety of use cases that a full-fledged public Event Distributor/Broker could. End users will not be able to subscribe to full, unfiltered, alert streams coming directly from LSST. In this session, we will discuss anticipated LSST data rates, and capabilities for alert processing and distribution/brokering. We will clarify what the LSST Observatory will provide versus what we anticipate will be a

  14. Design and Operation of Cryogenic Distillation Research Column for Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiller, Christopher; Alanson Chiller, Angela; Jasinski, Benjamin; Snyder, Nathan; Mei, Dongming

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by isotopically enriched germanium (76Ge and 73Ge) for monocrystalline crystal growth for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, a cryogenic distillation research column was developed. Without market availability of distillation columns in the temperature range of interest with capabilities necessary for our purposes, we designed, fabricated, tested, refined and operated a two-meter research column for purifying and separating gases in the temperature range from 100-200K. Due to interest in defining stratification, purity and throughput optimization, capillary lines were integrated at four equidistant points along the length of the column such that real-time residual gas analysis could guide the investigation. Interior gas column temperatures were monitored and controlled within 0.1oK accuracy at the top and bottom. Pressures were monitored at the top of the column to four significant figures. Subsequent impurities were measured at partial pressures below 2E-8torr. We report the performance of the column in this paper.

  15. Wireless Emergency Alerts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Main Content Frequently Asked Questions: Wireless Emergency Alerts This section contains answers to a list of frequently asked questions about Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEAs). Why are Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) important ...

  16. Global Environmental Alert Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Grasso, V. F.

    There is a pressing need to build a mechanism which can consolidate scientific information and evidences package this knowledge in a form usable to international and national decision makers and actively disseminate this information to those users Although much information and many data sets are available in the public domain currently there is no information broker who searches and packages the policy relevant material and delivers that information in an easily understandable format to the public and decision makers A Global Environmental Alert Service GEAS could provide information emanating from monitoring earth observing and early warning systems to users in a near real time mode and bridge the gap between the scientific community and policy makers A state-of-art analysis of existing alert systems indicates that efforts are necessary for turning the tide in early warning processes and technologies A comparison analysis of existing warning systems is presented in order to assess feasibility and performance of existing systems of interest Several criteria have been chosen for the comparison analysis so as to provide a comprehensive description of the systems regarding coverage of contents impact and accessibility to information A critical review of existing alert systems reveals a major gap and need for an innovative service Characteristics and operational aspects of such a service are proposed Early warning represents the process to effectively and timely detect a potential risk

  17. Modifying effects of perceived adaptation to shift work on health, wellbeing, and alertness on the job among nuclear power plant operators.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaya; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Tachibana, Naoko; Mutou, Keiko; Kage, Yoshiko; Smith, Lawrence; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived adaptation to shift work and shift-related problems. A total of 608 male operators at nuclear power plants completed a set of validated questionnaires including a modified version of the Standard Shiftwork Index, which covered adaptation to shift work, fit to job content, chronotypes, chronic fatigue, sleep, naps, shift work locus of control (SHLOC), psychological health, social/family life, daytime sleepiness, workload, alertness on the job, and lifestyle factors. Participants were divided into two groups according to their perceived level of adaptation to shift work. The good adaptation group showed better outcomes than the poor adaptation group in terms of fit to job content, chronic fatigue, daytime sleep before night shifts, social and family disruption, SHLOC, psychological health, and alertness during night shifts (ps<0.001). Operators who reported good adaptation also took a more frequent, longer nap and more cigarettes during night shifts (ps<0.05). The cross-sectional study design cannot determine a causal relationship between perceived adaptation and shift work problems, yet the present results suggest that the effects of working shifts may be modified by perceptions of shift work adaptation.

  18. On-line testing of a horizontally-baffled flotation column in an operating coal-cleaning plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eisele, T.C.; Kawatra, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    A horizontal-baffle arrangement has been developed to prevent excessive axial mixing in flotation columns. These baffles have been shown in previous work to improve the grade/recovery performance of both a laboratory-scale column and a pilot-scale column. In this paper, results are given for continuous on-line operation of the pilot-scale baffled column in a commercial coal-cleaning plant. These results show its ability to operate for extended periods without plugging, to produce a consistent-quality product even while the feed quality was fluctuating, and to remove much of the pyritic sulfur from the coal.

  19. Temporal separation and self-rating of alertness as indicators of driver fatigue in commercial motor vehicle operators.

    PubMed

    Belz, Steven M; Robinson, Gary S; Casali, John G

    2004-01-01

    This on-road field investigation employed, for the first time, a completely automated trigger-based data collection system capable of evaluating driver performance in an extended-duration real-world commercial motor vehicle environment. The study examined the use of self-assessment of fatigue (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and temporal separation (minimum time to collision, minimum headway, and mean headway) as indicators of driver fatigue. Without exception, the correlation analyses for both the self-rating of alertness and temporal separation yielded models low in associative ability; neither metric was found to be a valid indicator of driver fatigue. In addition, based upon the data collected for this research, preliminary evidence suggests that driver fatigue onset within a real-world driving environment does not appear to follow the standard progression of events associated with the onset of fatigue within a simulated driving environment. Application of this research includes the development of an on-board driver performance/fatigue monitoring system that could potentially assist drivers in identifying the onset of fatigue.

  20. Alert Triage v 0.1 beta

    SciTech Connect

    Doak, Justin E.; Ingram, Joe; Johnson, Josh; Franklin, Dustin; Shelfburg, Jeff

    2016-01-06

    In the cyber security operations of a typical organization, data from multiple sources are monitored, and when certain conditions in the data are met, an alert is generated in an alert management system. Analysts inspect these alerts to decide if any deserve promotion to an event requiring further scrutiny. This triage process is manual, time-consuming, and detracts from the in-depth investigation of events. We have created a software system that uses supervised machine learning to automatically prioritize these alerts. In particular we utilize active learning to make efficient use of the pool of unlabeled alerts, thereby improving the performance of our ranking models over passive learning. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our system on a large, real-world dataset of cyber security alerts.

  1. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ... People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ...

  2. Jetliner Alert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA research and design has significantly improved crew alert systems. The Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS), developed by Psycho-Linguistic Research Associates, is technologically advanced and able to order alerts by priority. Ames has also developed computer controlled voice synthesizers for readouts during difficult landing approaches. This is available to airplane manufacturers.

  3. Tone-activated, remote, alert communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. D.; Couvillon, L. A.; Hubbard, W. P.; Kollar, F. J.; Postal, R. B.; Tegnelia, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    Pocket sized transmitter, frequency modulated by crystal derived tones, with integral loop antenna provides police with easy operating alert signal communicator which uses patrol car radio to relay signal. Communication channels are time shared by several patrol units.

  4. Visual Alert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A visual alert system resulted from circuitry developed by Applied Cybernetics Systems for Langley as part of a space related telemetry system. James Campman, Applied Cybernetics president, left the company and founded Grace Industries, Inc. to manufacture security devices based on the Langley technology. His visual alert system combines visual and audible alerts for hearing impaired people. The company also manufactures an arson detection device called the electronic nose, and is currently researching additional applications of the NASA technology.

  5. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  6. Alert Notification System Router

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurganus, Joseph; Carey, Everett; Antonucci, Robert; Hitchener, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Alert Notification System Router (ANSR) software provides satellite operators with notifications of key events through pagers, cell phones, and e-mail. Written in Java, this application is specifically designed to meet the mission-critical standards for mission operations while operating on a variety of hardware environments. ANSR is a software component that runs inside the Mission Operations Center (MOC). It connects to the mission's message bus using the GMSEC [Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC)] standard. Other components, such as automation and monitoring components, can use ANSR to send directives to notify users or groups. The ANSR system, in addition to notifying users, can check for message acknowledgements from a user and escalate the notification to another user if there is no acknowledgement. When a firewall prevents ANSR from accessing the Internet directly, proxies can be run on the other side of the wall. These proxies can be configured to access the Internet, notify users, and poll for their responses. Multiple ANSRs can be run in parallel, providing a seamless failover capability in the event that one ANSR system becomes incapacitated.

  7. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    government officials to send targeted text alerts to the public via commercial mo- bile service providers (CMSPs). The SEI is developing integration...capabilities are operational within 30 minutes. Response measure Full operational capabilities within 30 minutes of incident Business goals...months and had its last exercise a month ago. Artifact The text of the alert Response The message is entered into the originating software

  8. Evaluation of Helmet Mounted Display Alerting Symbology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Proposed helicopter helmet mounted displays will be used to alert the pilot to a variety of conditions, from threats to equipment problems. The present research was performed under the NASA Safe All-weather Flight Operations Research (SAFOR) program supported by a joint Army/NASA research agreement. The purpose of the research was to examine ways to optimize the alerting effectiveness of helmet display symbology. The research used two approaches to increasing the effectiveness of alerts. One was to increase the ability of the alert to attract attention by using the entire display surface. The other was to include information about the required response in the alert itself. The investigation was conducted using the NASA Ames Research Center's six-degree-of-freedom vertical motion simulator (VMS) with a rotorcraft cockpit. Helmet display symbology was based on the AH-64's pilot night vision system (PNVS), cruise mode symbology. A standardized mission was developed, that consisted of 11 legs. The mission included four tasks, which allowed variation in the frequency of alerts. The general trend in the data points to a small benefit from both the full-screen alert and the partial information alert.

  9. Operational tools to help stakeholders to protect and alert municipalities facing uncertainties and changes in karst flash floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrell Estupina, V.; Raynaud, F.; Bourgeois, N.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Collet, L.; Haziza, E.; Servat, E.

    2015-06-01

    Flash floods are often responsible for many deaths and involve many material damages. Regarding Mediterranean karst aquifers, the complexity of connections, between surface and groundwater, as well as weather non-stationarity patterns, increase difficulties in understanding the basins behaviour and thus warning and protecting people. Furthermore, given the recent changes in land use and extreme rainfall events, knowledge of the past floods is no longer sufficient to manage flood risks. Therefore the worst realistic flood that could occur should be considered. Physical and processes-based hydrological models are considered among the best ways to forecast floods under diverse conditions. However, they rarely match with the stakeholders' needs. In fact, the forecasting services, the municipalities, and the civil security have difficulties in running and interpreting data-consuming models in real-time, above all if data are uncertain or non-existent. To face these social and technical difficulties and help stakeholders, this study develops two operational tools derived from these models. These tools aim at planning real-time decisions given little, changing, and uncertain information available, which are: (i) a hydrological graphical tool (abacus) to estimate flood peak discharge from the karst past state and the forecasted but uncertain intense rainfall; (ii) a GIS-based method (MARE) to estimate the potential flooded pathways and areas, accounting for runoff and karst contributions and considering land use changes. Then, outputs of these tools are confronted to past and recent floods and municipalities observations, and the impacts of uncertainties and changes on planning decisions are discussed. The use of these tools on the recent 2014 events demonstrated their reliability and interest for stakeholders. This study was realized on French Mediterranean basins, in close collaboration with the Flood Forecasting Services (SPC Med-Ouest, SCHAPI, municipalities).

  10. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 1: Methodology, summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are described in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent when conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume II contains the appendices referenced in Volume I, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  11. Pilots' use of a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier operations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Olsen, M. Christine; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1989-01-01

    Pilots' use of and responses to a traffic alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS 2) in simulated air carrier line operations are discribed in Volume 1. TCAS 2 monitors the positions of nearby aircraft by means of transponder interrogation, and it commands a climb or descent which conflicting aircraft are projected to reach an unsafe closest point-of-approach within 20 to 25 seconds. A different level of information about the location of other air traffic was presented to each of three groups of flight crews during their execution of eight simulated air carrier flights. A fourth group of pilots flew the same segments without TCAS 2 equipment. Traffic conflicts were generated at intervals during the flights; many of the conflict aircraft were visible to the flight crews. The TCAS equipment successfully ameliorated the seriousness of all conflicts; three of four non-TCAS crews had hazardous encounters. Response times to TCAS maneuver commands did not differ as a function of the amount of information provided, nor did response accuracy. Differences in flight experience did not appear to contribute to the small performance differences observed. Pilots used the displays of conflicting traffic to maneuver to avoid unseen traffic before maneuver advisories were issued by the TCAS equipment. The results indicate: (1) that pilots utilize TCAS effectively within the response times allocated by the TCAS logic, and (2) that TCAS 2 is an effective collision avoidance device. Volume 2 contains the appendices referenced in Volume 1, providing details of the experiment and the results, and the text of two reports written in support of the program.

  12. Removal of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) on chemically modified low-cost adsorbent: batch and column operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Palas; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shreya; Das, Biswajit; Das, Kousik

    2013-03-01

    Batch and column operations were performed utilizing thioglycolated sugarcane carbon (TSCC), a low-cost adsorbent, to remove As(III) and As(V) from aqueous systems. Under optimized batch conditions, the TSCC could remove up to 92.7 and 91.4 % for As(III) and As(V), respectively. An artificial neural network model showed the validity of TSCC as a preferable adsorbent for arsenic [As(III) and As(V)] removal in batch studies. In column operations, removal efficiency increases with increase in influent arsenic concentration and adsorbent dose and decreases with increase in flow rate. At an adsorbent dose of 6.0 g, flow rate 3.0 mL min-1, and initial arsenic concentration 1,500 μg L-1, the arsenic uptake capacity of TSCC for As(III) and As(V) was found to be 85.01 and 83.82 μg g-1, respectively. The Thomas model was used to analyze the column experimental data. Results from the column operations indicated that the adsorption behavior of arsenic [As(III) and As(V)] fits exceptionally well with the Thomas model with high correlation coefficient and very low standard error. Examinations of scanning electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy reveal that high arsenic adsorption favors surface complexation on the adsorbent surface.

  13. CISN ShakeAlert: Beta Test Users Receive Earthquake Early Warning Alerts and Provide Feedback for Improving Alert Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, M.; Vinci, M.; Allen, R. M.; Boese, M.; Henson, I. H.; Felizardo, C.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is the ability to detect an earthquake quickly and provide a few seconds of warning before destructive seismic waves arrive. The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is implementing and testing a prototype system, the ShakeAlert system, which includes delivery of earthquake alerts to potential users. The alerts will be used to provide situational awareness, but also to automatically perform an operation that can impact personal safety or reduce losses to critical infrastructures and inventories. We are working with a group of 15 selected Beta Test Users from institutions and industries throughout California that have potential uses for EEW information. ShakeAlert Beta Test Users are currently running the ShakeAlert UserDisplay. In return, they provide feedback which includes suggestions to improve the UserDisplay and other alert delivery mechanisms, as well as information on their potential uses of EEW. Our currently most "advanced" user is the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) System. Their train control system now automatically slows and stops trains based on basic EEW information; EEW alerts are being added as an additional trigger. Beta Test User suggestions are incorporated into revisions of the UserDisplay and other elements of the ShakeAlert system, as appropriate. To form a knowledge base for EEW implementation into a public system, we also collect feedback detailing implementation costs and challenges within the Test User organizations, as well as anticipated benefits and savings. Thus, Beta Test Users are contributing to an operational Earthquake Early Warning system that will meet the needs of the public.

  14. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Inoue, G.; Kawasaki, M.; Yoshioka, H.; Minomura, M.; Murata, I.; Nagahama, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Ibuki, T.

    2010-04-01

    Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the region of 1565-1585 and 1674-1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) to the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570-1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  15. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Inoue, G.; Kawasaki, M.; Yoshioka, H.; Minomura, M.; Murata, I.; Nagahama, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Morino, I.; Ibuki, T.

    2010-08-01

    Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the regions of 1565-1585 and 1674-1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) to obtain the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570-1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  16. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico and their automatic Alert Signals broadcast improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.; Cuellar Martinez, A.; Garcia, A.; Ibarrola, G.; Islas, R.; Maldonado, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Mexican Seismic Alert System (SASMEX), is integrated by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO) that started its service in 2003. The SAS generates automatic broadcast of Public and Preventive Alert Signals to the cities of Mexico, Toluca, Acapulco and Chilpancingo, and SASO by now only to Oaxaca City. Two types of SASMEX Seismic Alert Signal ranges were determinated in accordance with each local Civil Protection Authorities: Public Alert if they expect strong earthquake effects and Preventive Alert Signal, for moderated once. SAS has 12 field sensor stations covering partial segment of the Guerrero coast, and the SASO has 35 field sensor stations operating in the coast, central and north of the Oaxaca, covering the seismic danger territory. Since 1993, the SAS is pioneer in the automatic public alert broadcast services, thanks to the support of the Asociación de Radiodifusores del Valle de México, A.C. (ARVM). Historically in Mexico City, due to their great distance to the coast of Guerrero, the SAS has been issued its Alert Signals with an opportunity average of 60 seconds. In Oaxaca City the SASO gives 30 seconds time opportunity, if the earthquake detected is occurring in the Oaxaca coast region, or less time, if the seismic event hits near of this town. Also the SASO has been supported since its implementation for local commercial radio stations. Today the SAS and SASO have been generated respectively 13 and 3 Public Alert signals, also 63 and 5 Preventive Alerts ones. Nevertheless, the final effectiveness of the SASMEX Alert Signal services is sensible to the particular conditions of the user in risk, they must have their radio receiver or TV set turned on, also they must know what to do if the seismic warning is issued, other way they do not have opportunity to react reducing their vulnerability, mainly at night. These reason justify the support of the

  17. An applicable method for efficiency estimation of operating tray distillation columns and its comparison with the methods utilized in HYSYS and Aspen Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza

    2015-10-01

    Developing general methods that rely on column data for the efficiency estimation of operating (existing) distillation columns has been overlooked in the literature. Most of the available methods are based on empirical mass transfer and hydraulic relations correlated to laboratory data. Therefore, these methods may not be sufficiently accurate when applied to industrial columns. In this paper, an applicable and accurate method was developed for the efficiency estimation of distillation columns filled with trays. This method can calculate efficiency as well as mass and heat transfer coefficients without using any empirical mass transfer or hydraulic correlations and without the need to estimate operational or hydraulic parameters of the column. E.g., the method does not need to estimate tray interfacial area, which can be its most important advantage over all the available methods. The method can be used for the efficiency prediction of any trays in distillation columns. For the efficiency calculation, the method employs the column data and uses the true rates of the mass and heat transfers occurring inside the operating column. It is highly emphasized that estimating efficiency of an operating column has to be distinguished from that of a column being designed.

  18. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Operating experience with pulsed-column holdup estimators

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating pulsed-column holdup are being investigated as part of the Safeguards Assessment task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The CFRP was a major sponsor of test runs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel plant (BNFP) in 1980 and 1981. During these tests, considerable measurement data were collected for pulsed columns in the plutonium purification portion of the plant. These data have been used to evaluate and compare three available methods of holdup estimation.

  19. Global Environmental Alert Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, V. F.; Cervone, G.; Singh, A.; Kafatos, M.

    2006-12-01

    Environmental Alert Service (GEAS) that could provide information from monitoring, Earth observing and early warning systems to users in a near real time mode and bridge the gap between the scientific community and policy makers. Characteristics and operational aspects of GEAS are discussed.

  20. Project "Hypertension Alert."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailors, Emma Lou

    1983-01-01

    "Hypertension Alert," a 1979-80 blood pressure screening-awareness project of the Yonkers, New York Public Schools, is described. Data is analyzed in tables for ethnic composition, and range of blood pressure readings for the high school, junior high school, and elementary school students tested. (Author/JMK)

  1. Solar Radiation Alert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    th an effectve cutoff rgdty of ~0 MV (2)), the FAA’s Cvl Aerospace Medcal Insttute (CAMI) ssues a Solar Radaton Alert (SRA) to the Nat...fluences of other partcles are too small to be of sgnficance n dose calculatons (4, 11). Earth was modeled as a sphere of lqud water of rad

  2. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  3. With Free Google Alert Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    Alert services are a great way of keeping abreast of topics that interest you. Rather than searching the Web regularly to find new content about your areas of interest, an alert service keeps you informed by sending you notices when new material is added to the Web that matches your registered search criteria. Alert services are examples of push…

  4. Column densities resulting from shuttle sublimator/evaporator operation. [optical density of nozzle flow containing water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed disposal of H2O from the shuttle fuel cell operation by ejecting it in vapor form through a supersonic nozzle at the rate of 100 lb/day has been investigated from the point of view of the possible interference to astronomical experiments. If the nozzle is located at the tail and directed along the shuttle longitudinal axis, the resulting column density will be less than 10 to th 12th power molecules/sq cm at viewing angles larger than 48 deg above the longitudinal axis. The molecules in the trail will diffuse rapidly. The column density contribution from molecules expelled on the previous orbit is 1.3 x 10 to the 8th power molecules/sq cm. This contribution diminishes by the inverse square root of the number of orbits since the molecules were expelled. The molecular backscatter from atmospheric molecules is also calculated. If the plume is directed into the flight path, the column density along a perpendicular is found to be 1.5 x 10 to the 11th power molecules/sq cm. The return flux is estimated to be of the order of 10 to the 12th power molecules/sq cm/sec at the stagnation point. With reasonable care in design of experiments to protect them from the backscatter flux of water molecules, the expulsion of 100 lb/day does not appear to create an insurmountable difficulty for the shuttle experiments.

  5. INTEGRAL burst alert service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, H.; Jennings, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Teegarden, B.

    1997-01-01

    The detection, accurate positioning, and spectral analysis of cosmic gamma ray bursts is an objective of the International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission. Due to their unpredictable nature, gamma ray bursts can only be observed in serendipity mode. In order to allow and promote multiwavelength follow-up observations of such events, it is desirable to make the information available to the astrophysics community with a minimum delay through the use of Internet. Ideally, the data dissemination should occur within a few seconds of the start of the burst event so that follow up observations can proceed while gamma rays are still being emitted. The technical feasibility of building such a system to disseminate INTEGRAL burst alerts in real time is currently under consideration, the preliminary results of which are presented. It is concluded that such an alert service is technically feasible.

  6. Volcanic alert in antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-01-01

    On January 14, members of the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP) were alerted to possible volcanic activity on Deception Island, Antarctica. The island, located at latitude 62%57‧S, longitude 60'40‧W, attracts many tourists.COMNAP is a group of national program managers of 25 countries that have government programs in the Antarctic. Its function is to implement measures adopted by the Antarctic Treaty parties, including fostering international cooperation in scientific research.

  7. Alert Messaging in the CMS Distributed Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxa, Zdenek

    2012-12-01

    WMAgent is the core component of the CMS workload management system. One of the features of this job managing platform is a configurable messaging system aimed at generating, distributing and processing alerts: short messages describing a given alert-worthy information or pathological condition. Apart from the framework's sub-components running within the WMAgent instances, there is a stand-alone application collecting alerts from all WMAgent instances running across the CMS distributed computing environment. The alert framework has a versatile design that allows for receiving alert messages also from other CMS production applications, such as PhEDEx data transfer manager. We present implementation details of the system, including its Python implementation using ZeroMQ, CouchDB message storage and future visions as well as operational experiences. Inter-operation with monitoring platforms such as Dashboard or Lemon is described.

  8. The cultivation of Anabaena variabilis in a bubble column operating under bubbly and slug flows.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyun; Choi, Shin Sik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2012-04-01

    In a bubble column reactor with an inner diameter of 6cm and a height of 63cm for the culture of cyanobacteria two different shapes of bubbles can be generated, resulting in bubbly flow or slug flow. Growth of Anabaena variabilis under slug flow (1.9g/l/day) was 1.73 times higher than that under bubbly flow (1.1g/l/day) when the specific irradiation rate was maintained above 10μmol/s/g dry cell. Although a stepwise increase in superficial gas velocity enhanced the average cell growth rate under bubbly flow by 1.57 times, the average cell growth rate during the deceleration phase under bubbly flow (1.98g/l/day) was 0.61 times smaller than that under slug flow (3.22g/l/day). These results demonstrate that the bubble shape in the slug flow was advantageous in regards to the radial circulation of cells.

  9. Effects of the operation parameters on HILIC separation of flavonoids on zwitterionic column.

    PubMed

    Sentkowska, Aleksandra; Biesaga, Magdalena; Pyrzynska, Krystyna

    2013-10-15

    The hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled to mass spectrometry was employed to study retention behavior of several flavonoids from their different groups using the polymeric zwitterionic stationary phase (ZIC-pHILIC). It contains sulfobetaine-bonded ligand with an inner positively charged quaternary ammonium and an outer negatively charged sulfonate functional groups. Two organic solvents - acetonitrile (ACN) and methanol (MeOH) - were compared as a component of mobile phase. Separation parameters such as a content of organic modifier, pH of an eluent and a column temperature were studied. Retention of flavonoids is controlled primarily by a partition between the mobile phase eluent and a water-enriched layer on the hydrophilic stationary phase with some contribution from hydrogen bonding formation. Using MeOH, in contrast to ACN, strongly retained compounds (myricetin, morin, rutin and quercetrin) could be eluted under isocratic conditions. A better sensitivity was achieved with MeOH as mobile phase component, particularly for quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol. The method was applied to the determination of flavonoids in fruit juices.

  10. Building Generalized Inverses of Matrices Using Only Row and Column Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Most students complete their first and only course in linear algebra with the understanding that a real, square matrix "A" has an inverse if and only if "rref"("A"), the reduced row echelon form of "A", is the identity matrix I[subscript n]. That is, if they apply elementary row operations via the Gauss-Jordan algorithm to the partitioned matrix…

  11. Implementing national patient safety alerts.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sally; Taylor, Natalie; Lawton, Rebecca; Slater, Beverley

    National patient safety alerts are sometimes difficult to implement in an effective way. All trusts have to declare compliance with alerts as part of a three-step process to improve patient safety. This article discusses an alternative way of implementing national patient safety alerts and describes how behaviour-change methods can be used to successfully implement lasting changes in practice at ward or departmental level.

  12. Thermodynamic Alerter for Microbursts (TAMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eccles, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: microburst detection, location and measurement; thermal alerter for microbursts prototypes (TAMP); sensor-transmitters (Senstrans) design; TAMP installation; and DAPAD software.

  13. Building generalized inverses of matrices using only row and column operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Most students complete their first and only course in linear algebra with the understanding that a real, square matrix A has an inverse if and only if rref(A), the reduced row echelon form of A, is the identity matrix I n . That is, if they apply elementary row operations via the Gauss-Jordan algorithm to the partitioned matrix [A | I n ] to obtain [rref(A) | P], then the matrix A is invertible exactly when rref(A) = I n , in which case, P = A -1. Many students must wonder what happens when A is not invertible, and what information P conveys in that case. That question is, however, seldom answered in a first course. We show that investigating that question emphasizes the close relationships between matrix multiplication, elementary row operations, linear systems, and the four fundamental spaces associated with a matrix. More important, answering that question provides an opportunity to show students how mathematicians extend results by relaxing hypotheses and then exploring the strengths and limitations of the resulting generalization, and how the first relaxation found is often not the best relaxation to be found. Along the way, we introduce students to the basic properties of generalized inverses. Finally, our approach should fit within the time and topic constraints of a first course in linear algebra.

  14. Iron removal, energy consumption and operating cost of electrocoagulation of drinking water using a new flow column reactor.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Khalid S; Shaw, Andy; Al Khaddar, Rafid; Pedrola, Montserrat Ortoneda; Phipps, David

    2017-03-15

    The goal of this project was to remove iron from drinking water using a new electrocoagulation (EC) cell. In this research, a flow column has been employed in the designing of a new electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) to achieve the planned target. Where, the water being treated flows through the perforated disc electrodes, thereby effectively mixing and aerating the water being treated. As a result, the stirring and aerating devices that until now have been widely used in the electrocoagulation reactors are unnecessary. The obtained results indicated that FCER reduced the iron concentration from 20 to 0.3 mg/L within 20 min of electrolysis at initial pH of 6, inter-electrode distance (ID) of 5 mm, current density (CD) of 1.5 mA/cm(2), and minimum operating cost of 0.22 US $/m(3). Additionally, it was found that FCER produces H2 gas enough to generate energy of 10.14 kW/m(3). Statistically, it was found that the relationship between iron removal and operating parameters could be modelled with R(2) of 0.86, and the influence of operating parameters on iron removal followed the order: C0>t>CD>pH. Finally, the SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images showed a large number of irregularities on the surface of anode due to the generation of aluminium hydroxides.

  15. Treatment of anaerobic digested effluent in biochar-packed vertical flow constructed wetland columns: Role of media and tidal operation.

    PubMed

    Kizito, Simon; Lv, Tao; Wu, Shubiao; Ajmal, Zeeshan; Luo, Hongzhen; Dong, Renjie

    2017-08-15

    Three types of vertical flow constructed wetland columns (VFCWs), packed with corn cob biochar (CB-CW), wood biochar (WB-CW) and gravel (G-CW) under tidal flow operations, were comparatively evaluated to investigate anaerobic digested effluent treatment performance and mechanisms. It was demonstrated that CB-CW and WB-CW provide significantly higher removal efficiencies for organic matter (>59%), NH4(+)-N (>76%), TN (>37%) and phosphorus (>71%), compared with G-CW (22%-49%). The higher pollutants removal ability of biochar-packed VFCWs was mainly attribute to the higher adsorption ability and microbial cultivation in the porous biochar media. Moreover, increasing the flooded/drained ratio from 4/8h to 8/4h of the tidal operation further improved around 10% of the removal of both organics and NH4(+)-N for biochar-packed VFCWs. The phosphorus removal was dependent on the media adsorption capacities through the whole experiment. However, the NH4(+)-N biodegradation by microbial communities was demonstrated to become the dominant removal mechanism in the long term treatment, which compensated the decreased adsorption capacities of the media. The study supported that the use of biochar would increase the treatment performance and elongate the lifespan of CWs under tidal operation.

  16. CISN ShakeAlert: Decision Module Enhancements for Earthquake Alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D. S.; Henson, I.; Allen, R. M.; CISN EEW Team

    2011-12-01

    The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) has been developing CISN ShakeAlert, a prototype end-to-end earthquake early warning system for the purpose of testing earthquake alerts with a small group of users in California. Rather than adopting a single methodology, the CISN is building a system that can accept event detections, magnitude estimates, and ground shaking predictions and observations from several systems at once. The Decision Module is the ShakeAlert component that receives earthquake detections and hazard assessments from multiple independent algorithms and methodologies, aggregates and correlates this information, and provides a single evolving view of the earthquake in progress to be delivered as an alert to people in harm's way. The alert messages generated by the Decision Module include the best or average estimate of earthquake magnitude, location, and can include predicted peak ground motion. As additional information is received from the detection algorithms, the Decision Module updates its view of the event and its assessment of the reliability of the prediction, and continues to distribute updated alert messages. The Decision Module publishes all of its alerts to a subscription-based messaging system, which allows different applications to utilize the earthquake alerts for their specific use and to make decisions based on the assessed reliability estimates from ShakeAlert. The Decision Module is designed to allow the incorporation of a Baysian approach to provide the most likely estimate of the earthquake parameters and their uncertainties. Recent enhancements to the Decision Module include processing of state-of-health packets from the multiple event detection system and the generation of state-of-health messages to allow downstream systems to assess and track the status of the earthquake alert system.

  17. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  18. Education and Training Module in Alertness Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallis, M. M.; Brandt, S. L.; Oyung, R. L.; Reduta, D. D.; Rosekind, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training module (ETM) in alertness management has now been integrated as part of the training regimen of the Pilot Proficiency Awards Program ("WINGS") of the Federal Aviation Administration. Originated and now maintained current by the Fatigue Countermeasures Group at NASA Ames Research Center, the ETM in Alertness Management is designed to give pilots the benefit of the best and most recent research on the basics of sleep physiology, the causes of fatigue, and strategies for managing alertness during flight operations. The WINGS program is an incentive program that encourages pilots at all licensing levels to participate in recurrent training, upon completion of which distinctive lapel or tie pins (wings) and certificates of completion are awarded. In addition to flight training, all WINGS applicants must attend at least one FAA-sponsored safety seminar, FAA-sanctioned safety seminar, or industry recurrent training program. The Fatigue Countermeasures Group provides an FAA-approved industry recurrent training program through an on-line General Aviation (GA) WINGS ETM in alertness management to satisfy this requirement. Since 1993, the Fatigue Countermeasures Group has translated fatigue and alertness information to operational environments by conducting two-day ETM workshops oriented primarily toward air-carrier operations subject to Part 121 of the Federal Aviation Regulations pertaining to such operations. On the basis of the information presented in the two-day ETM workshops, an ETM was created for GA pilots and was transferred to a Web-based version. To comply with the requirements of the WINGS Program, the original Web-based version has been modified to include hypertext markup language (HTML) content that makes information easily accessible, in-depth testing of alertness-management knowledge, new interactive features, and increased informational resources for GA pilots. Upon successful completion of this training module, a participant

  19. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program. Design of an Improved Column Leaching Apparatus for Sediments and Dredged Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    to leachate collec- tion bottles. The collection bottles were kept anaerobic by a constant nitro- ge.i gas purge and water lock seal. Specific flow...using a constant volume pump. Improved sample collection and preservation are incorporated into the column design. However, separate columns for...include a specification for column diameter. 11. Some investigators have conducted studies using more than one col- umn length. Wagenet, Biggar, and Nielsen

  20. BEMFAM delivers AIDS alert.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar (BEMFAM) of Brazil developed a project using integrated communication strategies to alert prostitutes and their clients about the risks of contracting HIV. The project specifically promoted condom use and was conducted within the context of BEMFAM's Integrated Family Planning Program. Villa Mimoza, a prostitution zone in the Estacio neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, was the site of the intervention. This neighborhood harbors 44 houses of prostitution where an estimated 500 female prostitutes receive clients. An agreement was reached with the Association of Prostitutes of the State of Rio de Janeiro whereby it would help mobilize local women, merchants, brothel owners, and clients. Initial needs were assessed by BEMFAM and AIDSCOM through questionnaires and focus groups. It was subsequently resolved that radio programs, counter displays of educational materials in brothels, and posters in brothel rooms would be the most effective channels through which to carry integrated, effective messages to the community. Final evaluation found a change in attitude and an awareness of the importance of measures to prevent AIDS along with a prevalent increase in condom use.

  1. Science Alerts with Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignard, François

    2011-06-01

    Gaia is before all a survey mission designed to observe the sky in a continuous manner. The sky coverage results from the spin of the satellite over a period of 6h, combined with a much slower motion of the spin axis, allowing after six months complete sky coverage. The CCD counts are stored on-board and sent to the ground station every day during the visibility period of the spacecraft by the ground antenna. The satellite design has been optimized for a survey mission, with ground treatment and not for an immediate access to the data, let alone to some scientifically immediately usable information. The processing comprises several more or less independent pipelines, each involving some sort of global processing requiring the accumulation of a substantial amount of data over several weeks or months. However, it remains possible to carry out a quick, but crude in regard of the accuracy achievable on a longer term, analysis of the data stream arriving on the ground to detec! t transient phenomena, like photometric burst or fast motion of solar system objects. This dedicated processing, largely distinct from the general processing, and the associated validation systems put in place, is referred to as Science Alerts within the DPAC community.

  2. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  3. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

    A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also…

  4. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  5. Gaia Science Alerts: Early Validation Phase Data from Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Nicholas; Hodgkin, Simon; van Leeuwen, Floor

    2015-08-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite launched Dec 2013, and after successful completion of its in orbit commissioning in July 2014, begun routine operations, with the aim to accurately measure the astrometric and astrophysical properties of more than a billion stars in our Milky Way.As a significant by product of its observational scanning law, where each point on the sky is observed multiple times (~80 revisits on average) over the nominal 5 year mission, Gaia has significant utility in detecting new transients, both flux (e.g. Supernovae, Flare stars) and positional (e.g. Asteroids).We will present the current status of the Gaia Photometric Science Alerts (PSA) system that has been developed within the Gaia DPAC. The PSA pipeline provides a quick look analysis of the daily data stream from Gaia, and identifies new photometric alerts, from analysis of the object photometric and the low resolution spectro-photometric data. Via a set of filters, those identified as astrophysical in nature, are published to the community. The information provided currently includes positional and flux information.The Gaia Alerts working group has organised a significant early stage followup campaign, providing access to a wide variety of followup facilities. These have been used to provide classification spectra of the Gaia alert candidates, with the early phase data confirming that the alerts issued are indeed largely astrophysical transients, with only a small contamination rate.The presentation will address the early phase issues that have been addressed in localising and classifying alerts in the early phase of Gaia observations (for instance, how lack of early knowledge of the sky as seen by Gaia was mitigated by reference to external image data), and how the alert rate published by the PSA will ramp up towards the end of 2015, with the availability of more Gaia sky data.Information concerning the Gaia alerts system can be found at http://gaia.ac.uk/selected-gaia-science-alerts

  6. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX): Performance and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.

    2013-05-01

    Originally the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) was proposed to integrate the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), operating since 1991, with the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), in services since 2003. And today, after the intense big earthquake activity observed in our world during 2010 and 2011, local governments of Mexico City, Oaxaca Estate, and the Mexican Ministry of the Interior have been promoting the expansion of this technological EEW development. Until 2012 SASMEX better coverage includes 48 new field seismic sensors (FS) deployed over the seismic region of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan and Puebla, with someone enhancements over Guerrero and Oaxaca, to reach 97 FS. During 2013, 35 new FS has been proposed to SASMEX enhancements covering the Chiapas and Veracruz seismic regions. The SASMEX, with the support of the Mexico Valley Broadcasters Association (ARVM) since 1993, automatically issue Public and Preventive earthquake early warning signals in the Cities of Mexico, Toluca, Acapulco, Chilpancingo, and Oaxaca. The seismic warning range in each case is seated in accordance with local Civil Protection Authorities: Public Alert, if they expect strong earthquake effects, and Preventive Alert one, the effect could be moderated. Now the SASMEX warning time opportunity could be different to the 60 sec. average typically generated when SAS warned earthquake effects coming from Guerrero to Mexico City valley. Mexican EEW issued today reach: 16 Public and 62 Preventive Alert in Mexico City; 25 Public and 19 Preventive Alerts in Oaxaca City; also 14 Public and 4 Preventive Alerts in Acapulco; 14 Public and 5 Preventive Alerts in Chilpancingo. The earthquakes events registered by SASMEX FS until now reach 3448. With the support of private and Federal telecommunications infrastructure like, TELMEX, Federal Electric Commission, and the Mexican Security Ministry, it was developed a redundant communication system with pads to link the different

  7. CISN ShakeAlert: The Decision Module for Earthquake Alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, D. S.; Khainovsky, O.; Böse, M.; Solanki, K.; Cua, G. B.; Heaton, T. H.; Allen, R. M.; Cisn Earthquake Early Warning Team

    2010-12-01

    The CISN is currently in the process of developing and implementing CISN ShakeAlert, a prototype end-to-end earthquake early warning system for the purpose of testing earthquake alerts with a small group of users. The Decision Module is the component of this system that takes earthquake detections and hazard assessments from several independent systems, and provides a single view of the earthquake in progress that can be forwarded as an alert to people in harm's way. Over the last few years, several methodologies for earthquake alerts have been tested by the CISN group in California and yet more methodologies are now being tested around the world. A variety of approaches to earthquake early warning have proven to work. Rather than adopting a single methodology, the CISN is building a system that can accept event detections, magnitude estimates, and ground shaking predictions from several systems at once. The Decision Module reconciles and integrates the event information coming from the various systems and provides a unified view of the earthquakes in progress, generating alert messages when appropriate. Initially, the Decision Module will be very basic, providing the capability of identifying earthquake detections from different systems as the same event, and distributing the best or average estimate of earthquake magnitude, location, ground shaking intensity, etc. However, the system is being designed to allow the incorporation of a Baysian approach to provide the most likely estimate of the earthquake parameters and their uncertainties. The Decision Module publishes its results to a subscription-based messaging system to allow different applications to utilize the earthquake alerts for their specific use.

  8. OCD RADIO ALERT RECEIVERS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    for methods of operating a radioalert system were established in conjunction with OCD representatives. Four types of operation were selected. Three...models each of these four receiver types were fabricated and tested. The total of 12 laboratory models were delivered to OCD . Test equipment...suitable for demonstrating the two most promising receiver types was also assembled, and delivered to OCD . A preliminary analysis of the cost of mass

  9. Real-time monitoring of the human alertness level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Robin; del Pozo, Francisco; Hernando, Elena; Gomez, Eduardo; Jimenez, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    Many accidents are associated with a driver or machine operator's alertness level. Drowsiness often develops as a result of repetitive or monotonous tasks, uninterrupted by external stimuli. In order to enhance safety levels, it would be most desirable to monitor the individual's level of attention. In this work, changes in the power spectrum of the electroencephalographic signal (EEG) are associated with the subject's level of attention. This study reports on the initial research carried out in order to answer the following important questions: (i) Does a trend exist in the shape of the power spectrum, which will indicate the state of a subject's alertness state (drowsy, relaxed or alert)? (ii) What points on the cortex are most suitable to detect drowsiness and/or high alertness? (iii) What parameters in the power spectrum are most suitable to establish a workable alertness classification in human subjects? In this work, we answer these questions and combine power spectrum estimation and artificial neural network techniques to create a non-invasive and real - time system able to classify EEG into three levels of attention: High, Relaxed and Drowsiness. The classification is made every 10 seconds o more, a suitable time span for giving an alarm signal if the individual is with insufficient level of alertness. This time span is set by the user. The system was tested on twenty subjects. High and relaxed attention levels were measured in randomise hours of the day and drowsiness attention level was measured in the morning after one night of sleep deprivation.

  10. CAT: the INGV Tsunami Alert Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.

    2014-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the tsunami threat posed by large earthquakes occurring in the Mediterranean sea was formally taken into account by many countries around the Mediterranean basin. In the past, large earthquakes that originated significant tsunamis occurred nearly once per century (Maramai et al., 2014, Annals of Geophysics). The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) received a mandate from the international community to coordinate the establishment of the ICG/NEAMTWS (http://neamtic.ioc-unesco.org) through Resolution IOC-XXIII-14. Since then, several countries (France, Turkey, Greece) have started operating as candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) in the Mediterranean. Italy started operating as cTWP on October 1st, 2014. The Italian cTWP is formed by INGV ("Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)", DPC ("Dipartimento di Protezione Civile") and ISPRA ("Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale"). INGV is in charge of issuing the alert for potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes, ISPRA provides the sea level recordings and DPC is in charge of disseminating the alert. INGV established the tsunami alert center (CAT, "Centro di Allerta Tsunami") at the end of 2013. CAT is co-located with the INGV national seismic surveillance center operated since many years. In this work, we show the technical and personnel organization of CAT, its response to recent earthquakes, and the new procedures under development for implementation. (*) INGV-CAT WG: Amato A., Basili R., Bernardi F., Bono A., Danecek P., De Martini P.M., Govoni A., Graziani L., Lauciani V., Lomax, A., Lorito S., Maramai A., Mele F., Melini D., Molinari I., Nostro C., Piatanesi A., Pintore S., Quintiliani M., Romano F., Selva J., Selvaggi G., Sorrentino D., Tonini R.

  11. NAPS as an Alertness Management Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Smith, Roy M.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Gander, Philippa H.; Lebacqz, J. Victor

    2001-01-01

    Today, 24-hour operations are necessary to meet the demands of our society and the requirements of our industrialized global economy. These around-the-clock demands pose unique physiological challenges for the humans who remain central to safe and productive operations. Optimal alertness and performance are critical factors that are increasingly challenged by unusual, extended, or changing work/rest schedules. Technological advancements and automated systems can exacerbate the challenges faced by the human factor in these environments. Shift work, transportation demands, and continuous operations engender sleep loss and circadian disruption. Both of these physiological factors can lead to increased sleepiness, decreased performance, and a reduced margin of safety. These factors can increase vulnerability to incidents and accidents in operational settings. The consequences can have both societal effects (e.g., major destructive accidents such as Three Mile Island, Exxon Valdez, Bhopal) and personal effects (e.g., an accident driving home after a night shift).

  12. Alertness Management Strategies for Operational Contexts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    or reproductive disorders. In addition, there is evidence from some studies that night work is associated with increased accide’nts. In fact, Folkard...behaviorally based strategies for avoiding insomnia in many situations, but in some cases, hypnotic medications or so- called "sleeping pills" may be necessary...preferable to being sleep deprived. Choosing the best hypnotic for each situation requires consideration of a variety of factors. From a strictly

  13. 75 FR 67201 - Flightcrew Alerting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... that section, the FAA is charged with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by... Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Aircraft Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Data Link.../17/2002. TSO-C157, Aircraft Flight Information Services-Broadcast (FIS-B) Data Link Systems...

  14. Reader Survey for INSECT ALERTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mason E.; Sauer, Richard J.

    To determine what might be done to improve "Insect Alerts," which is a newsletter that carries "information on insect biology, abundance, activity and interpretation of control need," put out through the Michigan Cooperative Extension Service 26 weeks a year, a survey was conducted. A mail questionnaire was sent to all 120 county extension…

  15. Career Alert Planning. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina; And Others

    This instructor's guide to the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program is one of 14 components (see note) of a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are representative of 10 basic…

  16. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked

  17. A method for predicting the performance of packed columns operating with a reactive scrubbing liquid that control gaseous air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Clayton R

    2002-04-01

    A method for predicting the performance of packed columns that control gaseous air pollutants has been developed that exploits the advances in both computer software and hardware commonly used by practicing engineers. The solution of the simultaneous partial differential equations that describe the absorption process in packed columns that occurs in the presence of chemical reaction is obtained by converting the partial differential equations to systems of ordinary differential equations. These systems of ordinary differential equations are then solved using the method of lines along with a variable step, variable order numerical method. The method is applicable to systems in which there are multiple reactions within the liquid phase. The reactions can be of any order and can be reversible. The programming is simple and the machine running time is minimal. The method is illustrated here with an example.

  18. Comparison of alertness levels in ship crew. An experiment on rotating versus fixed watch schedules.

    PubMed

    Arulanandam, Shalini; Tsing, Gregory Chan Chung

    2009-01-01

    A short pilot study was conducted during a shipboard training deployment to compare alertness levels in the same crew members while working a fixed watch schedule, and then a rotating watch schedule. Alertness levels were assessed before and after each duty watch using measurements of oculomotor function (Fitness Impairment Tester). Saccadic velocity was shown to have the greatest correlation with duration of sleep deprivation and was significantly slower (indicating decreased alertness) in the crew working the rotating watch schedule than the crew working the fixed watch schedule. This pilot study corroborates previous studies' recommendations that fixed watch schedules allow better acclimatization of sleep patterns, thus minimizing fatigue and increasing operational alertness.

  19. A Portable Liquid Chromatograph with a Battery-operated Compact Electroosmotic Pump and a Microfluidic Chip Device with a Reversed Phase Packed Column.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Akihiko; Fujii, Mitsutaka; Fujimoto, Takehiro; Sasaki, Shunsuke; Yanagisawa, Ichiro; Tani, Hirofumi; Tokeshi, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    A compact and lightweight liquid chromatography system is presented with overall dimensions of 26 cm width × 18 cm length × 21 cm height and weight of 2 kg. This system comprises a battery-operated compact electroosmotic pump, a manual injector, a microfluidic chip device containing a packed column and an electrochemical detector, and a USB bus-powered potentiostat. The pumping system was designed for microfluidic-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography in which an electroosmotically generated water stream pushes the mobile phase via a diaphragm for the output. The flow rate ranged from 0 to 10 μL/min and had a high degree of precision. The pumping system operated continuously for over 24 h with dry batteries. The column formed in the microfluidic device was packed with 3-μm ODS particles with a length of 30 mm and a diameter of 0.8 mm. The results presented herein demonstrate the performance of the pumping system and the column using alkylphenols, catecholamine, catechin, and amino acids.

  20. Analysis of UAS DAA Alerting in Fast-Time Simulations without DAA Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thipphavong, David P.; Santiago, Confesor; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Lee, Seung Man; Park, Chunki; Refai, Mohamad Said; Snow, James

    2015-01-01

    Realization of the expected proliferation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) depends on the development and validation of performance standards for UAS Detect and Avoid (DAA) Systems. The RTCA Special Committee 228 is charged with leading the development of draft Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) for UAS DAA Systems. NASA, as a participating member of RTCA SC-228 is committed to supporting the development and validation of draft requirements for DAA alerting system performance. A recent study conducted using NASA's ACES (Airspace Concept Evaluation System) simulation capability begins to address questions surrounding the development of draft MOPS for DAA alerting systems. ACES simulations were conducted to study the performance of alerting systems proposed by the SC-228 DAA Alerting sub-group. Analysis included but was not limited to: 1) correct alert (and timeliness), 2) false alert (and severity and duration), 3) missed alert, and 4) probability of an alert type at the time of loss of well clear. The performance of DAA alerting systems when using intent vs. dead-reckoning for UAS ownship trajectories was also compared. The results will be used by SC-228 to inform decisions about the surveillance standards of UAS DAA systems and future requirements development and validation efforts.

  1. Wireless Emergency Alerts: Trust Model Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    service, for- merly known as the Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS). Alert originators (AOs) working at emergency management agencies ( EMAs ...Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the EMAs , and the AOs must all strive to maximize and maintain trust in the WEA ser- vice if it is to be an effective...Alert Service (CMAS), enhances public safety by providing authorized emergency management agen- cies ( EMAs ) with the capability to issue alerts and

  2. The Relationship between Alertness and Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Henik, Avishai

    2012-01-01

    The current study focuses on the relationship between alerting and executive attention. Previous studies reported an increased flanker congruency effect following alerting cues. In the first two experiments, we found that the alertness-congruency interaction did not exist for all executive tasks (it appeared for a flanker task but not for a Stroop…

  3. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection requirements associated with the Commission's Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMS), Second Report... relating to the Commercial Mobile Alert System rules contained in the Commission's Second Report and...

  4. GMDSS False Alerts: A Persistent Problem for the Safety of Navigation at Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzannatos, E. S.

    2004-01-01

    GMDSS alerting was introduced in order to automate the call for search and rescue of a ship in distress, through the utilization of the most modern terrestrial and celestial communication systems. However, the GMDSS suffers from the inefficiencies associated with equipment design, operator competence and, most importantly, with those relevant to the equipment operator interface. The GMDSS inefficiencies are frequently manifested in the form of false alerts, which apart from using resources, degrade the overall effectiveness of the SAR operation. In this paper, the GMDSS post-full-implementation record of false alerts received by the Greek MRCC is presented and analyzed. The observed persistence of high incidence of false alerts dictates the need for the proposal of further measures to combat false alerts, to promote the intended mission of the system and to generally improve the safety of navigation at sea.

  5. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Alerting Pipeline Taxonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    element (or major branch of the tree) and its “ child ” features (offshoots of the major branch). Features may, in turn, have their own “ child ” features...aware of an ab- ducted child o Presidential An alert issued by the presi- dent of the United States  Source_of_Authority Entity that has...deputy officer arrives at the scene first and immediately sends the name, description, and photo of the abducted child along with descriptions of the

  6. Modeling, Analyzing, and Mitigating Dissonance Between Alerting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Lixia; Kuchar, James K.

    2003-01-01

    Alerting systems are becoming pervasive in process operations, which may result in the potential for dissonance or conflict in information from different alerting systems that suggests different threat levels and/or actions to resolve hazards. Little is currently available to help in predicting or solving the dissonance problem. This thesis presents a methodology to model and analyze dissonance between alerting systems, providing both a theoretical foundation for understanding dissonance and a practical basis from which specific problems can be addressed. A state-space representation of multiple alerting system operation is generalized that can be tailored across a variety of applications. Based on the representation, two major causes of dissonance are identified: logic differences and sensor error. Additionally, several possible types of dissonance are identified. A mathematical analysis method is developed to identify the conditions for dissonance originating from logic differences. A probabilistic analysis methodology is developed to estimate the probability of dissonance originating from sensor error, and to compare the relative contribution to dissonance of sensor error against the contribution from logic differences. A hybrid model, which describes the dynamic behavior of the process with multiple alerting systems, is developed to identify dangerous dissonance space, from which the process can lead to disaster. Methodologies to avoid or mitigate dissonance are outlined. Two examples are used to demonstrate the application of the methodology. First, a conceptual In-Trail Spacing example is presented. The methodology is applied to identify the conditions for possible dissonance, to identify relative contribution of logic difference and sensor error, and to identify dangerous dissonance space. Several proposed mitigation methods are demonstrated in this example. In the second example, the methodology is applied to address the dissonance problem between two air

  7. Activated carbon adsorptive removal of azo dye and peroxydisulfate regeneration: from a batch study to continuous column operation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Du, Yue; Deng, Bin; Zhu, Kangmeng; Zhang, Hui

    2016-12-17

    The performance of activated carbon (AC) for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) was investigated in both batch and column studies. The optimal conditions for adsorption process in batch study were found to be a stirring speed of 500 rpm, AC dosage of 5 g/L, and initial AO7 concentration of 100 mg/L. The spent AC was then treated with peroxydisulfate (PDS), and the regenerated AC was used again to adsorb AO7. Both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate models for adsorption kinetics were investigated, and the results showed that the latter model was more appropriate. The effects of regeneration time, PDS concentration, and stirring speed on AO7-spent AC regeneration were investigated in batch studies, and the optimal conditions were time 2 h, stirring speed 700 rpm, and PDS concentration 10 g/L. Under the same adsorption conditions, 89% AO7 could be decolorized by adsorption using regenerated AC. In the column studies, the effect of flow rate was investigated and the adsorption capacity was nearly the same when the flow rate rose from 7.9 to 11.4 mL/min, but it decreased significantly when the flow rate was increased to 15.2 mL/min. The performance of regenerated AC in the column was also investigated, and a slight increase in the adsorption capacity was observed in the second adsorption cycle. However, the adsorption capacity decreased to some extent in the third cycle due to the consumption of C-OH group on the AC surface during PDS regeneration.

  8. Evaluation in Adult Literacy Research. Project ALERT. [Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne Williams, Ed.

    The Adult Literacy and Evaluation Research Team (also known as Project ALERT) was a project conducted by the Detroit Literacy Coalition (DLC) at Wayne State University in 1993-1994 to develop and pilot a user-friendly program model for evaluating literacy operations of community-based organizations throughout Michigan under the provisions of…

  9. Evaluating Alerting and Guidance Performance of a UAS Detect-And-Avoid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seung Man; Park, Chunki; Thipphavong, David P.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge to the routine, safe operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) is the development of detect-and-avoid (DAA) systems to aid the UAS pilot in remaining "well clear" of nearby aircraft. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of alerting criteria and pilot response delay on the safety and performance of UAS DAA systems in the context of routine civil UAS operations in the National Airspace System (NAS). A NAS-wide fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess UAS DAA system performance with a large number of encounters and a broad set of DAA alerting and guidance system parameters. Three attributes of the DAA system were controlled as independent variables in the study to conduct trade-off analyses: UAS trajectory prediction method (dead-reckoning vs. intent-based), alerting time threshold (related to predicted time to LoWC), and alerting distance threshold (related to predicted Horizontal Miss Distance, or HMD). A set of metrics, such as the percentage of true positive, false positive, and missed alerts, based on signal detection theory and analysis methods utilizing the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were proposed to evaluate the safety and performance of DAA alerting and guidance systems and aid development of DAA system performance standards. The effect of pilot response delay on the performance of DAA systems was evaluated using a DAA alerting and guidance model and a pilot model developed to support this study. A total of 18 fast-time simulations were conducted with nine different DAA alerting threshold settings and two different trajectory prediction methods, using recorded radar traffic from current Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations, and supplemented with DAA-equipped UAS traffic based on mission profiles modeling future UAS operations. Results indicate DAA alerting distance threshold has a greater effect on DAA system performance than DAA alerting time threshold or ownship trajectory prediction method

  10. Modeling of column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Yoon, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Many investigators believe that column flotation cells offer significant advantages over standard mechanical machines for the flotation of fine particles. However, because of their unique design and operation, conventional techniques for flotation cell scale-up and design cannot be applied to columns. In an attempt to help alleviate this problem, a population balance model based on first principles has been developed for fine particle flotation in a column. Two different terms have been considered in the model, i.e., transport and rate. Transport terms, incorporating fluid flow and buoyancy, are used to describe the movement of air bubbles, unattached particles and bubble-particle aggregates along the length of the column. Rate terms, which describe the bubble-particle attachment process, have been derived from first principle considerations. Because the model is based on first principles, it can be useful for the design, control, optimization and scale-up of column flotation cells. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  12. Evaluation of zeolite A for the sorptive removal of Cs+ and Sr2+ ions from aqueous solutions using batch and fixed bed column operations.

    PubMed

    El-Kamash, A M

    2008-03-01

    Zeolite A was chemically synthesized and evaluated, as inorganic ion exchange material, for the removal of cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in both batch and fixed bed column operations. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of pH, initial ion concentration and temperature. Simple kinetic and thermodynamic models have been applied to the rate and isotherm sorption data and the relevant kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were determined from the graphical presentation of these models. Breakthrough data were determined in a fixed bed column at room temperature (298 K) under the effect of various process parameters like bed depth, flow rate and initial ion concentration. The results showed that the total metal ion uptake and the overall bed capacity decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing initial ion concentrations and bed depth. The dynamics of the ion exchange process was modeled by bed depth service time (BDST) model. The sorption rate constants (K) were found to increase with increase in flow rate indicating that the overall system kinetics was dominated by external mass transfer in the initial part of the sorption process in the column.

  13. Sleepiness and alertness in American industries

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.M.; Dillingham, J.; Dement, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence that industrial accidents may be caused in part by shiftworkers' lack of alertness has caused growing concern at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and within the scientific community. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was threefold: (1) Is sleepiness on the job specific to utility plants (2) Are performance and safety problems caused by sleepiness specific to utility plants (3) Are specific shift schedules associated with a higher prevalence of sleepiness Findings indicate sleepiness on the job among shiftworkers is a widespread problem, not limited to the nuclear power industry. The most common solution in American industry is to overstaff each shift and discipline sleeping employees. Results show this is not effective. A more proactive solution is recommended including some of the following: (1) Provide employees education to assist adjustment to shiftwork. (2) Design and implement shift schedules that are more compatible with human physiological capabilities. (3) Allow officially sanctioned napping on shift as is done in Japan. (4) Divide 6-, 8-, or 12-h shifts into smaller blocks of 2 to 3 h of primary duty. (5) make the environment where employees work more conductive to alertness. (6) Develop a firehouse type of schedule where some employees sleep throughout the night, but are awakened if operational problems arise. (7) Provide incentives to employees to adjust their life style to the night shift and reward them with time off.

  14. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  15. The agile alert system for gamma-ray transients

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Fioretti, V.; Chen, A. W.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P.; Pellizzoni, A.; and others

    2014-01-20

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  16. The AGILE Alert System for Gamma-Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Tavani, M.; Parmiggiani, N.; Fioretti, V.; Chen, A. W.; Vercellone, S.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P.; Beneventano, D.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; Scalise, E.; Longo, F.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pucella, G.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conforti, V.; Tempesta, P.; Cerone, M.; Sabatini, P.; Annoni, G.; Valentini, G.; Salotti, L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  17. 78 FR 6401 - Seventy Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment AGENCY... RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision... Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment. DATES: The meeting will be held February...

  18. 76 FR 58077 - Seventy-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 147: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal... Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment...: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems...

  19. Alert!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Now more than ever, campus safety is of paramount importance. A reliable emergency mass notification system is one way to ensure the safety of constituents, and Brandeis University (MA) recently invested in a system that does the job. In this article, the author interviews John Turner, the school's director of networks and systems. Turner…

  20. Detection Algorithms of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Ramos Perez, S.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Zavala Guerrero, M.; Sasmex

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a rapid and reliable detection of an earthquake, allows taking advantage with more opportunity time of any possible opportunity warnings to the population. Thus detection algorithms in the sensing field station (FS) of an earthquake early earning system, must have a high rate of correct detection; this condition lets perform numerical processes to obtain appropriate parameters for the alert activation. During the evolution and continuous service of the Mexican Seismic Alert System (SASMEX) in more than 23 operation years, it has used various methodologies in the detection process to get the largest opportunity time when an earthquake occurs and it is alerted. In addition to the characteristics of the acceleration signal observed in sensing field stations, it is necessary the site conditions reducing urban noise, but sometimes it is not present through of the first operation years, however, urban growth near to FS cause urban noise, which should be tolerated while carrying out the relocation process of the station, and in the algorithm design should be contemplating the robustness to reduce possible errors and false detections. This work presents some results on detection algorithms used in Mexico for early warning systems for earthquakes considering recent events and different opportunity times obtained depending of the detections on P and S phases of the earthquake detected in the station. Some methodologies are reviewed and described in detail in this work and the main features implemented in The Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), today both comprise the SASMEX.

  1. Human factors considerations for contraindication alerts.

    PubMed

    van der Sijs, Heleen; Baboe, Imtiaaz; Phansalkar, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Alert fatigue is a ubiquitous problem in clinical decision support systems. Several remedies to alert fatigue have been proposed including improving the specificity of alerts and compliance with human factors principles. Human factors principles that are relevant for drug safety alerting have been identified and operationalized for drug-drug interactions (DDIs), resulting in a previously developed and validated quantitative instrument. Such an instrument is lacking for contraindications. This study describes the operationalization of human factors principles for contraindication alerting. Thirty items associated with 10 human factors principles are included in the instrument: 4 items are new, 5 are similar, and 21 are equal to the DDI-instrument. The instrument was further operationalized to a test protocol. Three independent persons used the test protocol. Inter-rater reliability indicated moderate agreement (κ=0.540) It is feasible to test the implementation of human factors in contraindication alert design with the newly developed instrument.

  2. Alert Override Reasons: A Failure to Communicate

    PubMed Central

    Chused, Amy E.; Kuperman, Gilad J.; Stetson, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the Leapfrog CPOE standard required that all clinical alert overrides be accompanied by an override reason. We wanted to know how many of the free text comments left by clinicians were actually override reasons, and how many were other types of communication. We reviewed 3583 free text comments left voluntarily by clinicians while responding to an alert in a CPOE system. Of the comments received, 58% were override reasons, 28% were acknowledgement of the alert, 9% were content free and over 5% were misdirected communication, written with intent to reach someone who did not receive the alert comments. This is particularly concerning because much of the misdirected communication contained clinical instructions. Those clinical instructions were stored with the alert rather than with any clinical orders, and thus were not viewed by anyone receiving the orders. Our results show that free text alert comments may cause communication failures. PMID:18999082

  3. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

    2015-04-01

    Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery.

  4. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... digital selective call using a distress call format in bands used for terrestrial radio-communication or a... Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert...

  5. Auditory alert systems with enhanced detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and systems for distinguishing an auditory alert signal from a background of one or more non-alert signals. In a first embodiment, a prefix signal, associated with an existing alert signal, is provided that has a signal component in each of three or more selected frequency ranges, with each signal component in each of three or more selected level at least 3-10 dB above an estimated background (non-alert) level in that frequency range. The alert signal may be chirped within one or more frequency bands. In another embodiment, an alert signal moves, continuously or discontinuously, from one location to another over a short time interval, introducing a perceived spatial modulation or jitter. In another embodiment, a weighted sum of background signals adjacent to each ear is formed, and the weighted sum is delivered to each ear as a uniform background; a distinguishable alert signal is presented on top of this weighted sum signal at one ear, or distinguishable first and second alert signals are presented at two ears of a subject.

  6. Outlier detection for patient monitoring and alerting.

    PubMed

    Hauskrecht, Milos; Batal, Iyad; Valko, Michal; Visweswaran, Shyam; Cooper, Gregory F; Clermont, Gilles

    2013-02-01

    We develop and evaluate a data-driven approach for detecting unusual (anomalous) patient-management decisions using past patient cases stored in electronic health records (EHRs). Our hypothesis is that a patient-management decision that is unusual with respect to past patient care may be due to an error and that it is worthwhile to generate an alert if such a decision is encountered. We evaluate this hypothesis using data obtained from EHRs of 4486 post-cardiac surgical patients and a subset of 222 alerts generated from the data. We base the evaluation on the opinions of a panel of experts. The results of the study support our hypothesis that the outlier-based alerting can lead to promising true alert rates. We observed true alert rates that ranged from 25% to 66% for a variety of patient-management actions, with 66% corresponding to the strongest outliers.

  7. Predictive Information: Status or Alert Information?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Bruneau, Daniel; Press, Hayes N.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research investigating the efficacy of predictive information for detecting and diagnosing aircraft system failures found that subjects like to have predictive information concerning when a parameter would reach an alert range. This research focused on where the predictive information should be located, whether the information should be more closely associated with the parameter information or with the alert information. Each subject saw 3 forms of predictive information: (1) none, (2) a predictive alert message, and (3) predictive information on the status display. Generally, subjects performed better and preferred to have predictive information available although the difference between status and alert predictive information was minimal. Overall, for detection and recalling what happened, status predictive information is best; however for diagnosis, alert predictive information holds a slight edge.

  8. Sleep, alertness and alertness management among commercial airline pilots on short-haul and long-haul flights.

    PubMed

    Sallinen, Mikael; Sihvola, Maria; Puttonen, Sampsa; Ketola, Kimmo; Tuori, Antti; Härmä, Mikko; Kecklund, Göran; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    flights involving reduced subjective alertness depended on how alertness was assessed. If it was assessed solely in the flight phase just before starting the landing procedures (top of descent) the phenomenon was less frequent than if the preceding cruise phase was also taken into account. Our results suggest that FDPs covering the whole domicile night should be prioritised over the other FDPs in fatigue management, regardless of whether an FDP is a short-haul or a long-haul. In addition, the identification of fatigue in flight operations requires one to assess pilots' alertness across all flight phases, not only at ToD. Due to limitations in our data, these conclusions can, however, be generalise to only LH FDPs during which pilots can be expected to be well acclimatised to the local time at their home base and SH night FDPs that include at least 3h of flying in the cruise phase.

  9. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  10. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  11. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  12. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  13. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  14. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  15. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  16. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  17. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  18. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  19. 75 FR 20671 - Seventieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 147: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal... Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment meeting. SUMMARY...: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems...

  20. 75 FR 52590 - Seventy-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 147: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal... Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment meeting. SUMMARY...: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems...

  1. The global outbreak alert and response network.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, John S; Drury, Patrick; Arthur, Ray R; Ryan, Michael J; Grein, Thomas; Slattery, Raphael; Suri, Sameera; Domingo, Christine Tiffany; Bejtullahu, Armand

    2014-01-01

    The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was established in 2000 as a network of technical institutions, research institutes, universities, international health organisations and technical networks willing to contribute and participate in internationally coordinated responses to infectious disease outbreaks. It reflected a recognition of the need to strengthen and coordinate rapid mobilisation of experts in responding to international outbreaks and to overcome the sometimes chaotic and fragmented operations characterising previous responses. The network partners agreed that the World Health Organization would coordinate the network and provide a secretariat, which would also function as the operational support team. The network has evolved to comprise 153 institutions/technical partners and 37 additional networks, the latter encompassing a further 355 members and has been directly involved in 137 missions to 79 countries, territories or areas. Future challenges will include supporting countries to achieve the capacity to detect and respond to outbreaks of international concern, as required by the International Health Regulations (2005). GOARN's increasing regional focus and expanding geographic composition will be central to meeting these challenges. The paper summarises some of network's achievements over the past 13 years and presents some of the future challenges.

  2. The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, John S.; Drury, Patrick; Arthur, Ray R.; Ryan, Michael J.; Grein, Thomas; Slattery, Raphael; Suri, Sameera; Domingo, Christine Tiffany; Bejtullahu, Armand

    2014-01-01

    The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was established in 2000 as a network of technical institutions, research institutes, universities, international health organisations and technical networks willing to contribute and participate in internationally coordinated responses to infectious disease outbreaks. It reflected a recognition of the need to strengthen and coordinate rapid mobilisation of experts in responding to international outbreaks and to overcome the sometimes chaotic and fragmented operations characterising previous responses. The network partners agreed that the World Health Organization would coordinate the network and provide a secretariat, which would also function as the operational support team. The network has evolved to comprise 153 institutions/technical partners and 37 additional networks, the latter encompassing a further 355 members and has been directly involved in 137 missions to 79 countries, territories or areas. Future challenges will include supporting countries to achieve the capacity to detect and respond to outbreaks of international concern, as required by the International Health Regulations (2005). GOARN's increasing regional focus and expanding geographic composition will be central to meeting these challenges. The paper summarises some of network's achievements over the past 13 years and presents some of the future challenges. PMID:25186571

  3. Burdach's column.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2006-01-01

    After the Greek physicians Herophilus and Galen, the major anatomical advances in the anatomy of the spinal cord were made possible by the microtome devised by Benedikt Stilling in January 1842. This enabled him to cut the frozen, thin sections and examine them, unstained,with the microscope. The technique founded future investigation of the cord's anatomy. Brown-Séquard, Türck, Clarke, Lissauer, Goll, and Flechsig all contributed. An important result of these progressing anatomical experiments was the identification of the posterior columns. In 1826, the German physiologist Karl Friedrich Burdach (1776-1847) described, from macroscopic study, the fasciculus cuneatus, known as the tract of Burdach: the lateral portion of the posterior columns of the cord that terminate in the nucleus cuneatus of the medulla.

  4. Wireless Sensor Node for Autonomous Monitoring and Alerts in Remote Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor); Panangadan, Anand V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, and computer program products provides personal alert and tracking capabilities using one or more nodes. Each node includes radio transceiver chips operating at different frequency ranges, a power amplifier, sensors, a display, and embedded software. The chips enable the node to operate as either a mobile sensor node or a relay base station node while providing a long distance relay link between nodes. The power amplifier enables a line-of-sight communication between the one or more nodes. The sensors provide a GPS signal, temperature, and accelerometer information (used to trigger an alert condition). The embedded software captures and processes the sensor information, provides a multi-hop packet routing protocol to relay the sensor information to and receive alert information from a command center, and to display the alert information on the display.

  5. 21 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Elements To Be Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING... Considered in Developing a Two-Way Alert System 1. Documentation —Definition of a crisis/emergency and under what circumstances an alert is required —Standard Operating Procedures (SOP's) —Mechanism of...

  6. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version supports interactive selection and graphical display of data generated by the Sandia Cognitive Framework, which simulates the examination of security data by experts of various specialties. Insider Alert also encompasses the configuration and data files input to the Cognitive Framework for this application. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version is a computer program for analyzing data indicative of possible espionage or improper handling of data by employees at Sandia National Laboratories (or other facilities with comparable policies and procedures for managing sensitive information) It prioritizes and displays information for review by security analysts.

  7. Generalized Philosophy of Alerting with Applications for Parallel Approach Collision Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winder, Lee F.; Kuchar, James K.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to develop formal guidelines for the design of hazard avoidance systems. An alerting system is automation designed to reduce the likelihood of undesirable outcomes that are due to rare failures in a human-controlled system. It accomplishes this by monitoring the system, and issuing warning messages to the human operators when thought necessary to head off a problem. On examination of existing and recently proposed logics for alerting it appears that few commonly accepted principles guide the design process. Different logics intended to address the same hazards may take disparate forms and emphasize different aspects of performance, because each reflects the intuitive priorities of a different designer. Because performance must be satisfactory to all users of an alerting system (implying a universal meaning of acceptable performance) and not just one designer, a proposed logic often undergoes significant piecemeal modification before gamma general acceptance. This report is an initial attempt to clarify the common performance goals by which an alerting system is ultimately judged. A better understanding of these goals will hopefully allow designers to reach the final logic in a quicker, more direct and repeatable manner. As a case study, this report compares three alerting logics for collision prevention during independent approaches to parallel runways, and outlines a fourth alternative incorporating elements of the first three, but satisfying stated requirements. Three existing logics for parallel approach alerting are described. Each follows from different intuitive principles. The logics are presented as examples of three "philosophies" of alerting system design.

  8. DAIDALUS: Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Narkawicz, Anthony; Hagen, George; Upchurch, Jason; Dutle, Aaron; Consiglio, Maria; Chamberlain, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DAIDALUS (Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems), a reference implementation of a detect and avoid concept intended to support the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into civil airspace. DAIDALUS consists of self-separation and alerting algorithms that provide situational awareness to UAS remote pilots. These algorithms have been formally specified in a mathematical notation and verified for correctness in an interactive theorem prover. The software implementation has been verified against the formal models and validated against multiple stressing cases jointly developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and NASA. The DAIDALUS reference implementation is currently under consideration for inclusion in the appendices to the Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems presently being developed by RTCA Special Committee 228.

  9. Centralized Alert-Processing and Asset Planning for Sensorwebs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Chien, Steve A.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Tang, Benyang

    2010-01-01

    A software program provides a Sensorweb architecture for alert-processing, event detection, asset allocation and planning, and visualization. It automatically tasks and re-tasks various types of assets such as satellites and robotic vehicles in response to alerts (fire, weather) extracted from various data sources, including low-level Webcam data. JPL has adapted cons iderable Sensorweb infrastructure that had been previously applied to NASA Earth Science applications. This NASA Earth Science Sensorweb has been in operational use since 2003, and has proven reliability of the Sensorweb technologies for robust event detection and autonomous response using space and ground assets. Unique features of the software include flexibility to a range of detection and tasking methods including those that require aggregation of data over spatial and temporal ranges, generality of the response structure to represent and implement a range of response campaigns, and the ability to respond rapidly.

  10. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  11. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  12. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  13. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  14. An electronic alert to decrease Kayexalate ordering

    PubMed Central

    Leaf, David E.; Cheng, Xingxing S.; Sanders, Jason L.; Mendu, Mallika; Schiff, Gordon D.; Mount, David B.; Bazari, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Important safety concerns have recently emerged regarding the use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate), a cation-exchange resin commonly used for the treatment of hyperkalemia. We implemented an electronic alert system at a tertiary care academic medical center to warn providers of the safety concerns of Kayexalate. We assessed the number of Kayexalate prescriptions per month, as well as the number of grams of Kayexalate ordered per month, one year before versus one year after implementing the alert. The mean (±SD) number of Kayexalate orders decreased from 123 (±12) to 76 (±14) orders/month (38% absolute reduction, p < 0.001) after implementing the alert. Additionally, the mean (±SD) amount of Kayexalate prescribed decreased from 3332 (±329) to 1885 (±358) g/month (43% absolute reduction, p < 0.001). We conclude that an electronic alert is an effective tool to decrease Kayexalate ordering. PMID:27183825

  15. Prototype Conflict Alerting Logic for Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Lee C.; Kuchar, James K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a prototype alerting system for a conceptual Free Flight environment. The concept assumes that datalink between aircraft is available and that conflicts are primarily resolved on the flight deck. Four alert stages are generated depending on the likelihood of a conflict. If the conflict is not resolved by the flight crews, Air Traffic Control is notified to take over separation authority. The alerting logic is based on probabilistic analysis through modeling of aircraft sensor and trajectory uncertainties. Monte Carlo simulations were used over a range of encounter situations to determine conflict probability. The four alert stages were then defined based on probability of conflict and on the number of avoidance maneuvers available to the flight crew. Preliminary results from numerical evaluations and from a piloted simulator study at NASA Ames Research Center are summarized.

  16. Chemical Safety Alert: Safer Technology and Alternatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This alert is intended to introduce safer technology concepts and general approaches, explains the concepts and principles, and gives brief examples of the integration of safer technologies into facility risk management activities.

  17. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  18. Aircraft Alerting Systems Criteria Study. Volume 1. Collation and Analysis of Aircraft Alerting Systems Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    and ()provide recommendations for standardization of alerting functions/ methods. The output includes a collation of human factors data pertinent to...alerting sys- tems, cursory test plans for obtaining missing human factors data required to complete definition of and validate the standards...Warning, Warning Systems, Dlocument is available to the U,S. . * Stimulus Response, Human Factors Alerting public through the National Technical Systems

  19. Echo Ranging/Probe Alert Performance Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-04

    contract included technical analyses of acoustic communication equipment, system performance predictions, sea test design and data analysis, and...proposing functional system design alternatives. 2.0 SUMMARY OF WORK PERFORMED The JAYCOR effort focused on the analysis of the Echo Ranging/ Probe Alert...JAYCOR Document No. J640-020-82-2242, 16 August 1982, CONFIDENTIAL. 13. Probe Alert Design System Performance Estimates (U), J.L. Collins, JAYCOR Document

  20. Multilingual Video and Audio News Alerting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    enable searching of multilingual video news sources by a monolingual speaker. In addition to full search capabilities, the system also enables real... Multilingual Video and Audio News Alerting David D. Palmer, Patrick Bray, Marc Reichman, Katherine Rhodes, Noah White Virage Advanced...DATE 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multilingual Video and Audio News Alerting 5a

  1. Public Alerts for Hyper-Hazard Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, G.

    2011-12-01

    Hyper-hazard events pose an exceptional risk to threatened populations around the world. Because of the potentially grave number of casualties, special procedures need to be enacted to alert the public. This paper will consider the decision analysis associated with the provision of public alerts, and what training measures are required. Special focus will be on the issue of false alarms, and the social pyschology of population response to hazard warnings.

  2. Emergency vehicle alert system (EVAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Bill; Crump, Roger; Harper, Warren; Myneni, Krishna

    1995-01-01

    The Emergency Vehicle Alert System (EVAS) program is sponsored by the NASA/MSFC Technology Utilization (TU) office. The program was conceived to support the needs of hearing impaired drivers. The objective of the program is to develop a low-cost, small device which can be located in a personal vehicle and warn the driver, via a visual means, of the approach of an emergency vehicle. Many different technologies might be developed for this purpose and each has its own advantages and drawbacks. The requirements for an acoustic detection system, appear to be pretty stringent and may not allow the development of a reliable, low-cost device in the near future. The problems include variations in the sirens between various types of emergency vehicles, distortions due to wind and surrounding objects, competing background noise, sophisticated signal processing requirements, and omni-directional coverage requirements. Another approach is to use a Radio Frequency (RF) signal between the Emergency Vehicle (EV) and the Personal Vehicle (PV). This approach requires a transmitter on each EV and a receiver in each PV, however it is virtually assured that a system can be developed which works. With this approach, the real technology issue is how to make a system work as inexpensively as possible. This report gives a brief summary of the EVAS program from its inception and concentrates on describing the activities that occurred during Phase 4. References 1-3 describe activities under Phases 1-3. In the fourth phase of the program, the major effort to be expended was in development of the microcontroller system for the PV, refinement of some system elements and packaging for demonstration purposes. An EVAS system was developed and demonstrated which used standard spread spectrum modems with minor modifications.

  3. Operational use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals along with the RGB Airmass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folmer, M.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Air Mass product has been demonstrated in the GOES ]R Proving Ground as a possible decision aid. Forecasters have been trained on the usefulness of identifying stratospheric intrusions and potential vorticity (PV) anomalies that can lead to explosive cyclogenesis, genesis of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), or the transition of tropical cyclones to extratropical cyclones. It has also been demonstrated to distinguish different air mass types from warm, low ozone air masses to cool, high ozone air masses and the various interactions with the PV anomalies. To assist the forecasters in understanding the stratospheric contribution to high impact weather systems, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Total Column Ozone Retrievals have been made available as an operational tool. These AIRS retrievals provide additional information on the amount of ozone that is associated with the red coloring seen in the RGB Air Mass product. This paper discusses how the AIRS retrievals can be used to quantify the red coloring in RGB Air Mass product. These retrievals can be used to diagnose the depth of the stratospheric intrusions associated with different types of weather systems and provide the forecasters decision aid tools that can improve the quality of forecast products.

  4. Alert generation and cockpit presentation for an integrated microburst alerting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Alert generation and cockpit presentation issues for low level wind shear (microburst) alerts are investigated. Alert generation issues center on the development of a hazard criterion which allows integration of both ground based and airborne wind shear detection systems to form an accurate picture of the aviation hazard posed by a particular wind shear situation. A methodology for the testing of a hazard criteria through flight simulation has been developed, and has been used to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of several possible criteria. Also, an experiment to evaluate candidate graphical cockpit displays for microburst alerts using a piloted simulator has been designed.

  5. Alertness can be improved by an interaction between orienting attention and alerting attention in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attention is impaired in schizophrenia. Early attention components include orienting and alerting, as well as executive control networks. Previous studies have shown mainly executive control deficits, while few of them found orienting and alerting abnormalities. Here we explore the different attentive networks, their modulation and interactions in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Twenty-one schizophrenic patients (DSMIV), compared to 21 controls, performed a modified version of the Attention Network Task, in which an orienting paradigm (with valid, invalid and no cues) was combined with a flanker task (congruent/incongruent) and an alerting signal (tone/no tone), to assess orienting, executive control and alerting networks independently. Results Patients showed an abnormal alerting effect and slower overall reaction time compared to controls. Moreover, there was an interaction between orienting and alerting: patients are helped more than controls by the alerting signal in a valid orientation to solve the incongruent condition. Conclusion These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have altered alerting abilities. However, the orienting and alerting cues interact to improve their attention performance in the resolution of conflict, creating possibilities for cognitive remediation strategies. PMID:21729299

  6. Individual alerting efficiency modulates time perception

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiduo; Yang, Wenjing; Yuan, Xiangyong; Bi, Cuihua; Chen, Antao; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Time perception plays a fundamental role in human perceptual and motor activities, and can be influenced by various factors, such as selective attention and arousal. However, little is known about the influence of individual alerting efficiency on perceived duration. In this study, we explored this question by running two experiments. The Attentional Networks Test was used to evaluate individual differences in alerting efficiency in each experiment. Temporal bisection (Experiment 1) and time generalization task (Experiment 2) were used to explore the participants’ perception of duration. The results indicated that subjects in the high alerting efficiency group overestimated interval durations and estimated durations more accurately compared with subjects in the low alerting efficiency group. The two experiments showed that the sensitivity of time was not influenced by individual alerting efficiency. Based on previous studies and current findings, we infer that individual differences in alerting efficiency may influence time perception through modulating the latency of the attention-controlled switch and the speed of the peacemaker within the framework of the internal clock model. PMID:25904881

  7. Some human factors issues in the development and evaluation of cockpit alerting and warning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr.; Larsen, W. E.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A set of general guidelines for evaluating a newly developed cockpit alerting and warning system in terms of human factors issues are provided. Although the discussion centers around a general methodology, it is made specifically to the issues involved in alerting systems. An overall statement of the current operational problem is presented. Human factors problems with reference to existing alerting and warning systems are described. The methodology for proceeding through system development to system test is discussed. The differences between traditional human factors laboratory evaluations and those required for evaluation of complex man-machine systems under development are emphasized. Performance evaluation in the alerting and warning subsystem using a hypothetical sample system is explained.

  8. 76 FR 35810 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Docket No. 04-296; FCC 11-82] Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications... Commission (Commission) seeks comment on proposed changes to its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS) to codify the obligation to process alert messages formatted in the Common Alerting Protocol...

  9. 77 FR 16688 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS) to codify the obligation to process alert... Commission adopts several changes to its Part 11 Emergency Alert System (EAS) rules to more fully codify...

  10. 78 FR 22270 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY: Office... issued Special Fraud Alert on Physician-Owned Entities. Specifically, the Special Fraud Alert addressed... INFORMATION: In our publication of the Special Fraud Alert on Physician-Owned Entities, an inadvertent...

  11. 78 FR 16806 - The Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 The Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS) to Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA). This is intended to conform the name used for the wireless alert system regulated under Commission rules to the name used by the...

  12. 76 FR 80780 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Alert System (EAS) rules to extend the deadline for EAS Participants to be able to receive Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)- formatted EAS alerts to no later than June 30, 2012. This is intended to...

  13. Alert-QSAR. Implications for Electrophilic Theory of Chemical Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Mihai V.; Ionaşcu, Cosmin; Putz, Ana-Maria; Ostafe, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    Given the modeling and predictive abilities of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) for genotoxic carcinogens or mutagens that directly affect DNA, the present research investigates structural alert (SA) intermediate-predicted correlations ASA of electrophilic molecular structures with observed carcinogenic potencies in rats (observed activity, A = Log[1/TD50], i.e., ASA=f(X1SA,X2SA,…)). The present method includes calculation of the recently developed residual correlation of the structural alert models, i.e., ARASA=f(A−ASA,X1SA,X2SA,…). We propose a specific electrophilic ligand-receptor mechanism that combines electronegativity with chemical hardness-associated frontier principles, equality of ligand-reagent electronegativities and ligand maximum chemical hardness for highly diverse toxic molecules against specific receptors in rats. The observed carcinogenic activity is influenced by the induced SA-mutagenic intermediate effect, alongside Hansch indices such as hydrophobicity (LogP), polarizability (POL) and total energy (Etot), which account for molecular membrane diffusion, ionic deformation, and stericity, respectively. A possible QSAR mechanistic interpretation of mutagenicity as the first step in genotoxic carcinogenesis development is discussed using the structural alert chemoinformation and in full accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development QSAR guidance principles. PMID:21954348

  14. COMESEP: a new type of space weather alert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Norma; Veronig, Astrid; Robbrecht, Eva; Vrsnak, Bojan; Vennerstrom, Susanne; Malandraki, Olga; Dalla, Silvia; Srivastava, Nandita; Hesse, Michael; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2013-04-01

    Tools for forecasting geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP) radiation storms are and have been developed under the three-year EU FP7 COMESEP (COronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles) collaborative project. In its final year, the validation and implementation of the produced tools into an operational space weather alert system is now underway. Geomagnetic and SEP radiation storm alerts are being based on the COMESEP definition of risk. The COMESEP alert system will provide notifications for the space weather community. To achieve this the system relies on both models and data, the latter including near real-time data as well as historical data. One of the important outcomes of the scientific analysis has been to identify key ingredients that lead to magnetic storms and SEP events. COMESEP is a unique cross-collaboration effort and bridges the gap between the SEP, coronal mass ejection and terrestrial effects scientific communities. For more information see the project website (http://www.comesep.eu/). This work has received funding from the European Commission FP7 Project COMESEP (263252).

  15. IP telephony based danger alert communication system and its implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Tomala, Karel; Partila, Pavol

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses a danger alert system created as a part of the research project at Department of Telecommunications of Technical University of Ostrava. The aim of the system is to distribute pre-recorded voice messages in order to alert the called party in danger. This article describes individual technologies, which the application uses for its operation as well as issues relating to hardware requirements and transfer line bandwidth load. The article also describes new algorithms, which had to be developed in order to ensure the reliability of the system. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transformation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations). The benefit of such communication compared to others, is the fact, that it uses a phone call and, therefore, it is possible to get feedback who accepted the message and to improve efficiency of alert system. Finally, the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users can be informed via SMS.

  16. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Barbier, L.; Gehrels, N.; Palmer, D.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; BAT Engineering Team

    2000-10-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst MIDEX is a multiwavelength observatory scheduled to be launched in September 2003 to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their x-ray and optical afterglow emission. Swift will exploit these newly discovered GRB afterglow characteristics to make a comprehensive study of ~ 1000 GRBs and use the afterglow phenomenon as a tool for probing their source and evolution. Swift will also be able to use GRBs to probe the early Universe. The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Mission. BAT will observe and locate hundreds of bursts per year to better than 4 arc minutes accuracy. Using this prompt burst location information, Swift can slew quickly (within 20 - 70 s) to point on-board x-ray (XRT) and optical (UVOT) instrumentation at the burst for continued afterglow studies. The BAT instrument consists of a large (5200 cm2) hard x-ray detector plane positioned one meter away from an even larger (2.6 m2) coded aperture mask. The BAT detector plane consists of 128 CdZnTe semiconductor detector modules each containing 256 individual, planar 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CdZnTe detectors that are read out by a pair of XA1 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The BAT mask will be constructed using 5 mm x 5 mm x 1 mm lead tiles attached to a self-supporting 0.4 g/cm2 substrate fabricated from Kevlar fiber/honeycomb materials. With 4 mm square focal plane detector elements and 5 mm square mask pixels, BAT will have angular resolution better than 22 arc minutes and will determine GRB source locations to ~ 4 arc minutes for bursts detected at 5 sigma or brighter. A full description of the BAT instrument and its capabilities will be presented along with results from performance tests of prototype detector modules.

  17. Phasic alertness and residual switch costs in task switching.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Darryl W

    2017-02-01

    Residual switch costs are deficits in task-switching performance that occur despite considerable time to prepare for a task switch. In the present study, the author investigated whether increased phasic alertness modulates residual switch costs. In 2 experiments involving the task-cuing procedure, subjects performed numerical categorization tasks on target digits, with and without an alerting stimulus presented shortly before the target (alert and no-alert trials, respectively). Switch costs were obtained that decreased with a longer cue-target interval, indicating subjects engaged in preparation, but large residual switch costs remained. Alerting effects were obtained in the form of faster overall performance on alert than on no-alert trials, indicating the alerting stimuli increased phasic alertness. Critically, residual switch costs were similar on alert and no-alert trials in both experiments, unaffected by manipulations of alert type, alert availability, and alert-target interval. Implications of the results for understanding the relationship between phasic alertness and cognitive control in task switching are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Subjective alertness rhythms in elderly people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes in the circadian rhythm of subjective alertness and to explore the circadian mechanisms underlying such changes. Using a visual analogue scale (VAS) instrument, 25 older men and women (71 y and older; 15 female, 10 male) rated their subjective alertness about 7 times per day during 5 baseline days of temporal isolation during which habitual bedtimes and waketimes were enforced. Comparisons were made with 13 middle-aged men (37-52 y) experiencing the same protocol. Advancing age (particularly in the men) resulted in less rhythmic alertness patterns, as indicated by lower amplitudes and less reliability of fitted 24-h sinusoids. This appeared in spite of the absence of any reliable age-related diminution in circadian temperature rhythm amplitude, thus suggesting the effect was not due to SCN weakness per se, but to weakened transduction of SCN output. In a further experiment, involving 36 h of constant wakeful bedrest, differences in the amplitude of the alertness rhythm were observed between 9 older men (79 y+), 7 older women (79 y+), and 17 young controls (9 males, 8 females, 19-28 y) suggesting that with advancing age (particularly in men) there is less rhythmic input into subjective alertness from the endogenous circadian pacemaker. These results may explain some of the nocturnal insomnia and daytime hypersomnia that afflict many elderly people.

  19. Comparison of column flotation cells

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Ho, K.

    1995-08-01

    Six commercial column flotation technologies, i.e., Canadian, Flotaire, Jameson, Microcel, Packed-Column, and Turbo-air, were tested for the treatment of Illinois Basin fine coal and the results from each column compared based on separation performance and throughout capacity. The separation performance achieved by each cell approached and, in some cases, exceeded the ultimate performance predicted by release analysis. A comparison of the test results indicates differences in the selectivity obtained by each flotation column on the basis of both ash and sulfur rejection. This finding may be due to variations in cell hydrodynamics and the ability to support a deep froth phase among the different column cells. In addition, throughput capacity of each cell was found to differ, apparently due to the differences in the bubble-particle attachment environment, bubble size, and bubble population. Variations in the operating characteristics, such as reagent additions, aeration rate and wash water rate, were also noted and summarized in this publication.

  20. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  1. Thermal Energy for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2000-12-31

    Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

  2. SAPIR collision alert system as part of IR MWS suite for helicopter fleets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadav, Shavit; Varsano, Louisa; Oz, Saar; Schlisselberg, Raanan

    2009-05-01

    SAPIR system provides a suite of IR based situation awareness functions offered as add on system for ELISRA PAWS family of missile warning solutions. A major operational need for airborne platforms flying in formation is automatic collision alert capability. By using covert IR-MWS technology SAPIR passively tracks and monitors wingman position thereby enabling aircrew to focus on mission goals without compromising their safety. The paper presents results of operational problem study, system design and field testing demonstration of performance for SAPIR collision alert function targeting helicopter fleets.

  3. Alerts of forest disturbance from MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Dan; Kraft, Robin; Wheeler, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the methodology and computational strategy for a forest cover disturbance alerting system. Analytical techniques from time series econometrics are applied to imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to detect temporal instability in vegetation indices. The characteristics from each MODIS pixel's spectral history are extracted and compared against historical data on forest cover loss to develop a geographically localized classification rule that can be applied across the humid tropical biome. The final output is a probability of forest disturbance for each 500 m pixel that is updated every 16 days. The primary objective is to provide high-confidence alerts of forest disturbance, while minimizing false positives. We find that the alerts serve this purpose exceedingly well in Pará, Brazil, with high probability alerts garnering a user accuracy of 98 percent over the training period and 93 percent after the training period (2000-2005) when compared against the PRODES deforestation data set, which is used to assess spatial accuracy. Implemented in Clojure and Java on the Hadoop distributed data processing platform, the algorithm is a fast, automated, and open source system for detecting forest disturbance. It is intended to be used in conjunction with higher-resolution imagery and data products that cannot be updated as quickly as MODIS-based data products. By highlighting hotspots of change, the algorithm and associated output can focus high-resolution data acquisition and aid in efforts to enforce local forest conservation efforts.

  4. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  8. CEI-PEA Alert, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Chancellor Joel I. Klein Announces New Accountability System for NYC Schools; (2) Students Achieve Record-High Scores!; (3) Use Data to Help Your Child Improve Performance; (4)…

  9. Self-Regulation: Calm, Alert, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing awareness among developmental scientists that the better a child can self-regulate, the better she can rise to the challenge of mastering ever more complex skills and concepts. In the simplest terms, self-regulation can be defined as the ability to stay calmly focused and alert, which often involves--but cannot be reduced…

  10. Assessment in Education. IBE Special Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO International Bureau of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    As another year is approaching, the time seems appropriate to look back and reflect on all the things that have been done, and more importantly learned during 2014. Along the same lines, and in order to offer further food for thought, the IBE is happy to share with you its latest Thematic alert on the topic of assessment in education. More…

  11. Innovative Software Tools Measure Behavioral Alertness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    To monitor astronaut behavioral alertness in space, Johnson Space Center awarded Philadelphia-based Pulsar Informatics Inc. SBIR funding to develop software to be used onboard the International Space Station. Now used by the government and private companies, the technology has increased revenues for the firm by an average of 75 percent every year.

  12. Alerting or Somnogenic Light: Pick Your Color

    PubMed Central

    Bourgin, Patrice; Hubbard, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, light exerts pervasive effects on physiology and behavior in two ways: indirectly through clock synchronization and the phase adjustment of circadian rhythms, and directly through the promotion of alertness and sleep, respectively, in diurnal and nocturnal species. A recent report by Pilorz and colleagues describes an even more complex role for the acute effects of light. In mice, blue light acutely causes behavioral arousal, whereas green wavelengths promote sleep. These opposing effects are mediated by melanopsin-based phototransduction through different neural pathways. These findings reconcile nocturnal and diurnal species through a common alerting response to blue light. One can hypothesize that the opposite responses to natural polychromatic light in night- or day-active animals may reflect higher sensitivity of nocturnal species to green, and diurnals to blue wavelengths, resulting in hypnogenic and alerting effects, respectively. Additional questions remain to be clarified. How do different light wavelengths affect other behaviors such as mood and cognition? How do those results apply to humans? How does light pose either a risk or benefit, depending on whether one needs to be asleep or alert? Indeed, in addition to timing, luminance levels, and light exposure duration, these findings stress the need to understand how best to adapt the color spectrum of light to our needs and to take this into account for the design of daily lighting concepts—a key challenge for today’s society, especially with the emergence of LED light technology. PMID:27525420

  13. Project ALERT. Workplace Education. External Evaluators Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippi, Jorie W.; Mikulecky, Larry; Lloyd, Paul

    This document contains four evaluations of Project ALERT (Adult Literacy Enhanced & Redefined through Training), a workplace literacy partnership of Wayne State University, the Detroit Public Schools, and several city organizations, unions, and manufacturers in the automobile industry that was formed to meet employees' job-specific basic skills…

  14. For Emergency Alerts, Some Colleges Try Sirens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Colleges and universities, ever more mindful of campus safety, are installing outdoor sirens. The systems can blast spoken messages or tone alerts of danger--and one of the preset messages on many of the public-address systems warns: "There is a shooter on campus. Seek shelter immediately." As college officials reviewed their…

  15. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts…

  16. 4. Missile Alert Facility, outside gate, view looking southwest. Thalheimer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Missile Alert Facility, outside gate, view looking southwest. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  17. 3. Missile Alert Facility, northwest corner, view from bleachers. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Missile Alert Facility, northwest corner, view from bleachers. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  18. 6. Missile Alert Facility, west side. Thalheimer Whiteman Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Missile Alert Facility, west side. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  19. 8. Missile Alert Facility, northeast corner. Lyon Whiteman Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Missile Alert Facility, northeast corner. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  20. 2. Missile Alert Facility, south side, view from baseball bleachers. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Missile Alert Facility, south side, view from baseball bleachers. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  1. 29. Launch Control Center, view looking in, alert crew mannequin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Launch Control Center, view looking in, alert crew mannequin at end of Launch Control Center. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  2. 1. Missile Alert Facility, east side, view from bleachers on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Missile Alert Facility, east side, view from bleachers on athletic field. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  3. 5. Missile Alert Facility, east and north sides, looking southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Missile Alert Facility, east and north sides, looking southwest. Thalheimer - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  4. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids

  5. EEG quantification of alertness: methods for early identification of individuals most susceptible to sleep deprivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berka, Chris; Levendowski, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Philip; Davis, Gene; Lumicao, Michelle N.; Olmstead, Richard E.; Popovic, Miodrag; Zivkovic, Vladimir T.; Ramsey, Caitlin K.

    2005-05-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) and neurocognitive measures were simultaneously acquired to quantify alertness from 24 participants during 44-hours of sleep deprivation. Performance on a three-choice vigilance task (3C-VT), paired-associate learning/memory task (PAL) and modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and sleep technician-observed drowsiness (eye-closures, head-nods, EEG slowing) were quantified. The B-Alert system automatically classifies each second of EEG on an alertness/drowsiness continuum. B-Alert classifications were significantly correlated with technician-observations, visually scored EEG and performance measures. B-Alert classifications during 3C-VT, and technician observations and performance during the 3C-VT and PAL evidenced progressively increasing drowsiness as a result of sleep deprivation with a stabilizing effect observed at the batteries occurring between 0600 and 1100 suggesting a possible circadian effect similar to those reported in previous sleep deprivation studies. Participants were given an opportunity to take a 40-minute nap approximately 24-hours into the sleep deprivation portion of the study (i.e., 7 PM on Saturday). The nap was followed by a transient period of increased alertness. Approximately 8 hours after the nap, behavioral and physiological measures of drowsiness returned to levels prior to the nap. Cluster analysis was used to stratify individuals into three groups based on their level of impairment as a result of sleep deprivation. The combination of B-Alert and neuro-behavioral measures may identify individuals whose performance is most susceptible to sleep deprivation. These objective measures could be applied in an operational setting to provide a "biobehavioral assay" to determine vulnerability to sleep deprivation.

  6. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Provider alert gateway requirements. 10.320 Section 10.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.320 Provider alert gateway requirements. This section specifies the...

  7. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Provider alert gateway requirements. 10.320 Section 10.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.320 Provider alert gateway requirements. This section specifies the...

  8. 75 FR 4760 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... seeking comment on its proposal to amend the Commission's rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS... issue a national alert. DATES: Comments are due on or before March 1, 2010 and reply comments are due...

  9. 77 FR 26701 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS) rules so that EAS Participants may, but are not... adopted rules specifying the manner in which EAS Participants must be able to receive alert...

  10. 77 FR 33661 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... information collection associated with the Commission's Review of the Emergency Alert System, Fifth Report and...--Emergency Alert System, Fifth Report and Order, FCC 12-7. Form Number: N/A. Respondents: Business or...

  11. 76 FR 12600 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS) to provide for national EAS testing and... a national Presidential alert. DATES: Effective March 8, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  12. 78 FR 19271 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Special Fraud Alert addresses.... Introduction This Special Fraud Alert addresses physician-owned entities that derive revenue from selling,...

  13. Evaluation of the Early Alert Program, Spring 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartnal, Ryan; Hagen, Peter F.

    This report evaluates the Early Alert program at Cuesta College (California). The report is divided into four main sections: services accessed, accessibility, actions taken as a result of receiving an Early Alert letter, and timing and utility of the Early Alert program. These are followed by the demography of the respondents, a brief background…

  14. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  15. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  17. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  18. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277 Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... coast earth stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... coast earth stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  4. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 10.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.320 Provider alert gateway requirements. This section specifies the functions... protocols between the Federal alert gateway and the CMS provider gateway. (d) Geographic targeting. The...

  5. Federal technology alert: Ultrasonic humidifiers

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Humidifiers are used in buildings to maintain humidity levels to ensure quality and handling capabilities in manufacturing processes, to lower the transmission rate of disease-causing bacteria in hospitals, to reduce static electricity in manufacturing clean rooms and in computer rooms, and to provide higher levels of employee comfort in offices. Ultrasonic humidifiers generate a water mist without raising its temperature. An electronic oscillation is converted to a mechanical oscillation using a piezo disk immersed in a reservoir of mineral-free water. The mechanical oscillation is directed at the surface of the water, where at very high frequencies it creates a very fine mist of water droplets. This adiabatic process, which does not heat the supply water, reduces humidifier energy use by 90 to 93% compared with systems that do boil the water. Ultrasonic humidifiers have been demonstrated to be more efficient and to require less maintenance than competing humidifier technologies such as electrode canisters, quartz lamps, and indirect steam-to-steam. They do not require anticorrosive additives that affect the indoor air quality of buildings using direct steam humidifiers. There are two potential disadvantages of ultrasonic humidifiers. They must use mineral-free, deionized water or water treated with reverse osmosis. Treated water reduces maintenance costs because it eliminates calcium deposits, but increases other operating costs. Also, the cool mist from ultrasonic humidifiers absorbs energy from the supply air as it evaporates and provides a secondary cooling effect.

  6. Caffeine: implications for alertness in athletes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Naomi L; Dinges, David F

    2005-04-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed drugs in the world, taken socially and for its alertness- and performance-promoting actions. Extensive reports assert that caffeine increases alertness and cognitive performance levels and, when taken before exercise, demonstrates ergogenic properties. Caffeine ingestion has been associated with increased performance during endurance submaximal, and acute, high-intensity exercise. The exact mechanism of action for the performance effects of caffeine is unknown, although several physiologically and psychologically based theories exist as to how caffeine achieves increased performance capabilities. This paper outlines the known sites of caffeine activity in the body,and discusses these with respect to the effects of caffeine observed during performance assessments.

  7. Impact-based earthquake alerts with the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system: what's next?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Garcia, D.; So, E.; Hearne, M.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the USGS began publicly releasing earthquake alerts for significant earthquakes around the globe based on estimates of potential casualties and economic losses with its Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. These estimates significantly enhanced the utility of the USGS PAGER system which had been, since 2006, providing estimated population exposures to specific shaking intensities. Quantifying earthquake impacts and communicating estimated losses (and their uncertainties) to the public, the media, humanitarian, and response communities required a new protocol—necessitating the development of an Earthquake Impact Scale—described herein and now deployed with the PAGER system. After two years of PAGER-based impact alerting, we now review operations, hazard calculations, loss models, alerting protocols, and our success rate for recent (2010-2011) events. This review prompts analyses of the strengths, limitations, opportunities, and pressures, allowing clearer definition of future research and development priorities for the PAGER system.

  8. Experimental verification of structural alerts for the protein binding of cyclic compounds acting as Michael acceptors.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, N; Schultz, T W; Cronin, M T D; Enoch, S J

    2013-11-01

    This study outlines how a combination of and in vitro data can be used to define the applicability domain of selected structural alerts within the protein binding profilers of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation (OECD) Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Toolbox. Thirty chemicals containing a cyclic moiety were profiled for reactivity using the OECD and Optimised Approach based on Structural Indices Set (OASIS) protein binding profilers. The profiling results identified 22 of the chemicals as being reactive towards proteins. Analysis of the experimentally data showed 19 of these chemicals to be reactive. Subsequent analysis allowed refinements to be suggested to improve the applicability domain of the structural alerts investigated. The accurate definition of the applicability domain for structural alerts within in silico profilers is important due to their use in chemical category in predictive and regulatory toxicology.

  9. Best Practices in Wireless Emergency Alerts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    015 | 33 Value is measured in terms of the types of outcomes expected. For example, a practice that reduc- es property damage from a storm could be...of value to the alert originating community. 3. WEA Best Practices must present information with clarity. They must be clearly written us- ing terms...must be effective. They must show a measurable improvement over al- ternative practices. Based on these guidelines, the researchers further developed

  10. Can Seizure-Alert Dogs predict seizures?

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen W; Goldstein, Laura H

    2011-12-01

    An index observation where a dog was trained to alert to, as well as respond to, human tonic-clonic seizures led to further research and refinement of training techniques. This was followed by anecdotal reports of pet dogs spontaneously anticipating human epileptic seizures. An industry has since developed training Seizure-Alert Dogs (SADs) to give humans warnings of their seizures. In some cases this has been accompanied by a reduction in seizure frequency. SADs may be trained along with the person with epilepsy, responding specifically to that person's seizures, or may be trained separately. Recent sceptical reports of non-epileptic seizures in some people with SADs have cast doubt on dogs' ability to anticipate true epileptic seizures. This may reflect selection criteria for training programmes as well as training methods used, but does not necessarily indicate that SADs might not be able to predict epileptic seizures. Whether the seizures are epileptic or non-epileptic, it is speculated that SADs probably alert to subtle pre-ictal human behaviour changes, but may also be sensitive to heart rate or olfactory cues. As yet, however, no rigorous data exist as to whether seizure prediction by SADS is better than chance, and what false positive and negative prediction rates might be.

  11. Runway Safety Monitor Algorithm for Runway Incursion Detection and Alerting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David F., Jr.; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Runway Safety Monitor (RSM) is an algorithm for runway incursion detection and alerting that was developed in support of NASA's Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) research conducted under the NASA Aviation Safety Program's Synthetic Vision System element. The RSM algorithm provides pilots with enhanced situational awareness and warnings of runway incursions in sufficient time to take evasive action and avoid accidents during landings, takeoffs, or taxiing on the runway. The RSM currently runs as a component of the NASA Integrated Display System, an experimental avionics software system for terminal area and surface operations. However, the RSM algorithm can be implemented as a separate program to run on any aircraft with traffic data link capability. The report documents the RSM software and describes in detail how RSM performs runway incursion detection and alerting functions for NASA RIPS. The report also describes the RIPS flight tests conducted at the Dallas-Ft Worth International Airport (DFW) during September and October of 2000, and the RSM performance results and lessons learned from those flight tests.

  12. Space Debris Alert System for Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgobba, Tommaso

    2013-09-01

    Despite increasing efforts to accurately predict space debris re-entry, the exact time and location of re-entry is still very uncertain. Partially, this is due to a skipping effect uncontrolled spacecraft may experience as they enter the atmosphere at a shallow angle. Such effect difficult to model depends on atmospheric variations of density. When the bouncing off ends and atmospheric re-entry starts, the trajectory and the overall location of surviving fragments can be precisely predicted but the time to impact with ground, or to reach the airspace, becomes very short.Different is the case of a functional space system performing controlled re-entry. Suitable forecasts methods are available to clear air and maritime traffic from hazard areas (so-called traffic segregation).In US, following the Space Shuttle Columbia accident in 2003, a re-entry hazard areas location forecast system was putted in place for the specific case of major malfunction of a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) at re-entry. The Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Calculator (SHAAC) is a system based on ground equipment and software analyses and prediction tools, which require trained personnel and close coordination between the organization responsible for RLV operation (NASA for Shuttle) and the Federal Aviation Administration. The system very much relies on the operator's capability to determine that a major malfunction has occurred.This paper presents a US pending patent by the European Space Agency, which consists of a "smart fragment" using a GPS localizer together with pre- computed debris footprint area and direct broadcasting of such hazard areas.The risk for aviation from falling debris is very remote but catastrophic. Suspending flight over vast swath of airspace for every re-entering spacecraft or rocket upper stage, which is a weekly occurrence, would be extremely costly and disruptive.The Re-entry Direct Broadcasting Alert System (R- DBAS) is an original merging and evolution of the Re

  13. The jet flotation column control system

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhiqiang; Ming Shangzhi; Liu Lijian; Huangfu Jinghua; Huo Sen; Zhang Rongzeng; Yang Hongjun

    1998-12-31

    Compared with the conventional mechanical flotation column, the jet flotation column has the advantages of high selectivity of separation, low investment and production cost, low floor space requirement, low dosage of reagent, easy control; it is more suitable to process fine particles. Recently, many new types of flotation columns have been developed with new methods. Mineral Processing Dept., China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing) designed an aerated, double-jet flotation column in the lab and the industrial trial will be put into operation. One of the significant characteristics of the new type of flotation column is high selectivity of separation, fast bubble mineralization speed. As it is sensitive to various factors, a control system for flotation column has been developed to stabilize the working condition, and this set of control system has been operated in the lab experiment.

  14. 78 FR 61445 - Seventy-Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance...-Sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic...

  15. 78 FR 66419 - Seventy Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems Airborne Equipment AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance... Sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 147, Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Traffic...

  16. The industrial practice and development of flotation column in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jiongtian; Zhang Shuangquan

    1997-12-31

    This paper reviewed the developing course of the flotation column since the 1960`s in China. Based on the practical data from several coal preparation plants, two types of flotation columns (the pressure aerated column and the jetting-cyclone column) were compared by their operation, performance and the reasons why they succeeded in the coal industry in China. The paper points out that the flotation column has come into commercial use and has good application prospects in China.

  17. Professional responsibility and patient retention: alerts for the new dentist.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Getting to know your patients, well beyond recognition of their specific chief dental complaint, is most important in operating a successful and satisfying practice. In addition to the clinical findings and pertinent history alerts, a good understanding of the person being treated can go a long way toward cementing lasting and rewarding doctor-patient relationships. Almost all new patients to the practice are welcome. However, an occasional "difficult" patient can be identified. This is the patient who you will not be able to satisfy, who cultivates misunderstandings, is unfairly over demanding, wastes office time in innumerable ways and eventually causes great frustration for the dentist. These patients may leave the practice in an unpleasant termination. Concerns of litigation arise, and one must also consider the waste of economic and emotional currency, as well as any other negative repercussions that may result. The dentist should become skilled at early identification of potentially risky, disruptive and problematic persons seeking treatment.

  18. Frequency of tsunami alert bulletins in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    To illustrate how likely a California coastal emergency manager is likely to encounter a tsunami alert bulletin, the last century of earthquake history is examined to see how many warnings, watches, or advisories would have been issued if today’s alert protocol were being used. Using the current protocol, eleven tsunami warnings would have been issued. Four of these - 1946, 1952, 1960, and 1964 - were caused by great earthquakes far away and would have resulted in all or nearly all of the California coast being placed in a warning. The sources were located 4.5 to16 hours travel time away from California. All of these events actually caused damage in California and the 1964 tsunami is ranked as a major disaster. The other seven warnings would have been issued for earthquakes in the magnitude 7 to 8 range located close to the US west coast. The 1906 “San Francisco” earthquake would have resulted in a warning for all of Northern California. The 1927 “Lompoc” earthquake would have caused a warning for Southern and Central California and the remaining warnings would have been limited to California’s North Coast. In contrast to far-field events, the travel time between the earthquake and the arrival of the first waves in these near field events is typically a half hour or less. These events did all produce small tsunamis, but none caused damage. Unlike the far-field events where the water level detection system can detect whether a significant wave has been produced before California is put into the warning classification, the near-field events don’t provide the luxury of verification before a warning is issued. Eight tsunami advisory bulletins would likely have been issued in the past century. Of these, six were from large earthquakes elsewhere in the Pacific and two were from North Coast earthquakes located further offshore than the warning events above. Two of these events, 1957 and 2006, caused significant damage in Crescent City. Thirteen earthquake

  19. A mobile care system with alert mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ren-Guey; Chen, Kuei-Chien; Hsiao, Chun-Chieh; Tseng, Chwan-Lu

    2007-09-01

    Hypertension and arrhythmia are chronic diseases, which can be effectively prevented and controlled only if the physiological parameters of the patient are constantly monitored, along with the full support of the health education and professional medical care. In this paper, a role-based intelligent mobile care system with alert mechanism in chronic care environment is proposed and implemented. The roles in our system include patients, physicians, nurses, and healthcare providers. Each of the roles represents a person that uses a mobile device such as a mobile phone to communicate with the server setup in the care center such that he or she can go around without restrictions. For commercial mobile phones with Bluetooth communication capability attached to chronic patients, we have developed physiological signal recognition algorithms that were implemented and built-in in the mobile phone without affecting its original communication functions. It is thus possible to integrate several front-end mobile care devices with Bluetooth communication capability to extract patients' various physiological parameters [such as blood pressure, pulse, saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2), and electrocardiogram (ECG)], to monitor multiple physiological signals without space limit, and to upload important or abnormal physiological information to healthcare center for storage and analysis or transmit the information to physicians and healthcare providers for further processing. Thus, the physiological signal extraction devices only have to deal with signal extraction and wireless transmission. Since they do not have to do signal processing, their form factor can be further reduced to reach the goal of microminiaturization and power saving. An alert management mechanism has been included in back-end healthcare center to initiate various strategies for automatic emergency alerts after receiving emergency messages or after automatically recognizing emergency messages. Within the time

  20. The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  1. ToxAlerts: A Web Server of Structural Alerts for Toxic Chemicals and Compounds with Potential Adverse Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a Web-based platform for collecting and storing toxicological structural alerts from literature and for virtual screening of chemical libraries to flag potentially toxic chemicals and compounds that can cause adverse side effects. An alert is uniquely identified by a SMARTS template, a toxicological endpoint, and a publication where the alert was described. Additionally, the system allows storing complementary information such as name, comments, and mechanism of action, as well as other data. Most importantly, the platform can be easily used for fast virtual screening of large chemical datasets, focused libraries, or newly designed compounds against the toxicological alerts, providing a detailed profile of the chemicals grouped by structural alerts and endpoints. Such a facility can be used for decision making regarding whether a compound should be tested experimentally, validated with available QSAR models, or eliminated from consideration altogether. The alert-based screening can also be helpful for an easier interpretation of more complex QSAR models. The system is publicly accessible and tightly integrated with the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu). The system is open and expandable: any registered OCHEM user can introduce new alerts, browse, edit alerts introduced by other users, and virtually screen his/her data sets against all or selected alerts. The user sets being passed through the structural alerts can be used at OCHEM for other typical tasks: exporting in a wide variety of formats, development of QSAR models, additional filtering by other criteria, etc. The database already contains almost 600 structural alerts for such endpoints as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitization, compounds that undergo metabolic activation, and compounds that form reactive metabolites and, thus, can cause adverse reactions. The ToxAlerts platform is accessible on the Web at http://ochem.eu/alerts, and it is constantly

  2. A fresh look at runway incursions: onboard surface movement awareness and alerting system based on SVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernaleken, Christoph; Mihalic, Lamir; Güttler, Mathias; Klingauf, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    Increasing traffic density on the aerodrome surface due to the continuous worldwide growth in the number of flight operations does not only cause capacity and efficiency problems, but also increases the risk of serious incidents and accidents on the airport movement area. Of these, Runway Incursions are the by far most safety-critical. In fact, the worst-ever accident in civil aviation, the collision of two Boeing B747s on Tenerife in 1977 with 583 fatalities, was caused by a Runway Incursion. Therefore, various Runway Safety programs have recently been initiated around the globe, often focusing on ground-based measures such as improved surveillance. However, as a lack of flight crew situational awareness is a key causal factor in many Runway Incursion incidents and accidents, there is a strong need for an onboard solution, which should be capable of interacting cooperatively with ground-based ATM systems, such as A-SMGCS where available. This paper defines the concept of preventive and reactive Runway Incursion avoidance and describes a Surface Movement Awareness & Alerting System (SMAAS) designed to alert the flight crew if they are at risk of infringing a runway. Both the SVS flight deck displays and the corresponding alerting algorithms utilize an ED 99A/RTCA DO-272A compliant aerodrome database, as well as airport operational, traffic and clearance data received via ADS-B or other data links, respectively. The displays provide the crew with enhanced positional, operational, clearance and traffic awareness, and they are used to visualize alerts. A future enhancement of the system will provide intelligent alerting for conflicts caused by surrounding traffic.

  3. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  4. OTF Proof of Concept: CCSDS Mission Operations Alert Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walt; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Use of multiple vendor frameworks within a component creates thread lockups and fragility conflicts over the control of the main thread. Avoid closed vendor messaging frameworks. The MAL layer does isolate the data elements from the messaging framework but application work dispatch is heavily dominated by the framework chosen. API Language is a major factor in implementation. Message APIs with timeouts seem unavoidable in some environments (GUI). Language environment needs to support callbacks (or threads) from the messaging framework to deal with pub/sub management messages and status. Statusing of application communications demand a local broker agent per physical system or else the use of the AMSstyle registrar heartbeat.

  5. Description of the AILS Alerting Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanant, Paul; Jackson, Mike

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a complete description of the Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) alerting algorithms. The purpose of AILS is to provide separation assurance between aircraft during simultaneous approaches to closely spaced parallel runways. AILS will allow independent approaches to be flown in such situations where dependent approaches were previously required (typically under Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC)). This is achieved by providing multiple levels of alerting for pairs of aircraft that are in parallel approach situations. This document#s scope is comprehensive and covers everything from general overviews, definitions, and concepts down to algorithmic elements and equations. The entire algorithm is presented in complete and detailed pseudo-code format. This can be used by software programmers to program AILS into a software language. Additional supporting information is provided in the form of coordinate frame definitions, data requirements, calling requirements as well as all necessary pre-processing and post-processing requirements. This is important and required information for the implementation of AILS into an analysis, a simulation, or a real-time system.

  6. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1997-01-01

    Instances of pilot non-conformance to alerting system commands have been identified in previous studies. Pilot non-conformance changes the final behavior of the system, and therefore may reduce actual performance from that anticipated. A simulator study has examined pilot non-conformance, using the task of collision avoidance during closely spaced parallel approaches as a case study. Consonance between the display and the alerting system was found to significantly improve subject agreement with automatic alerts. Based on these results, a more general discussion of the factors involved in pilot conformance is given, and design guidelines for alerting systems are given.

  7. Equilibrium uptake, sorption dynamics, process optimization, and column operations for the removal and recovery of malachite green from wastewater using activated carbon and activated slag

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V.K.; Srivastava, S.K.; Mohan, D.

    1997-06-01

    The waste slurry generated in fertilizer plants and slag (blast furnace waste) have been converted into low-cost adsorbents, activated carbon and activated slag, respectively, and these are utilized for the removal of malachite green (a basic dye) from wastewater. In the batch experiments, parameters studied include the effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentration, temperature, and contact time. Kinetic studies have been performed to have an idea of the mechanistic aspects and to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of the process. The uptake of the dye is greater on carbonaceous material than on activated slag. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The presence of anionic surfactants does not affect the uptake of dye significantly. The mass transfer kinetic approach has been applied for the determination of various parameters necessary for the designing of fixed-bed contactors. Chemical regeneration has been achieved with acetone in order to recover the loaded dye and restore the column to its original capacity without dismantling the same.

  8. Flood forecasting and alert system for Arda River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artinyan, Eram; Vincendon, Beatrice; Kroumova, Kamelia; Nedkov, Nikolai; Tsarev, Petko; Balabanova, Snezhanka; Koshinchanov, Georgy

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the set-up and functioning of a flood alert system based on SURFEX-TOPODYN platform for the cross-border Arda River basin. The system was built within a Bulgarian-Greek project funded by the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) Programme and is in operational use since April 2014. The basin is strongly influenced by Mediterranean cyclones during the autumn-winter period and experiences dangerous rapid floods, mainly after intensive rain, often combined with snow melt events. The steep mountainous terrain leads to floods with short concentration time and high river speed causing damage to settlements and infrastructure. The main challenge was to correctly simulate the riverflow in near-real time and to timely forecast peak floods for small drainage basins below 100 km2 but also for larger ones of about 1900 km2 using the same technology. To better account for that variability, a modification of the original hydrological model parameterisation is proposed. Here we present the first results of a new model variant which uses dynamically adjusted TOPODYN river velocity as function of the computed partial streamflow discharge. Based on historical flooding data, river sections along endangered settlements were included in the river flow forecasting. A continuous hydrological forecast for 5 days ahead was developed for 18 settlements in Bulgaria and for the border with Greece, thus giving enough reaction time in case of high floods. The paper discusses the practical implementation of models for the Arda basin, the method used to calibrate the models' parameters, the results of the calibration-validation procedure and the way the information system is organised. A real case of forecasted rapid floods that occurred after the system's finalisation is analysed. One of the important achievements of the project is the on-line presentation of the forecasts that takes into account their temporal variability and uncertainty. The web presentation includes a

  9. Computational Approach to Structural Alerts: Furans, Phenols, Nitroaromatics, and Thiophenes.

    PubMed

    Dang, Na Le; Hughes, Tyler B; Miller, Grover P; Swamidass, S Joshua

    2017-03-14

    Structural alerts are commonly used in drug discovery to identify molecules likely to form reactive metabolites and thereby become toxic. Unfortunately, as useful as structural alerts are, they do not effectively model if, when, and why metabolism renders safe molecules toxic. Toxicity due to a specific structural alert is highly conditional, depending on the metabolism of the alert, the reactivity of its metabolites, dosage, and competing detoxification pathways. A systems approach, which explicitly models these pathways, could more effectively assess the toxicity risk of drug candidates. In this study, we demonstrated that mathematical models of P450 metabolism can predict the context-specific probability that a structural alert will be bioactivated in a given molecule. This study focuses on the furan, phenol, nitroaromatic, and thiophene alerts. Each of these structural alerts can produce reactive metabolites through certain metabolic pathways but not always. We tested whether our metabolism modeling approach, XenoSite, can predict when a given molecule's alerts will be bioactivated. Specifically, we used models of epoxidation, quinone formation, reduction, and sulfur-oxidation to predict the bioactivation of furan-, phenol-, nitroaromatic-, and thiophene-containing drugs. Our models separated bioactivated and not-bioactivated furan-, phenol-, nitroaromatic-, and thiophene-containing drugs with AUC performances of 100%, 73%, 93%, and 88%, respectively. Metabolism models accurately predict whether alerts are bioactivated and thus serve as a practical approach to improve the interpretability and usefulness of structural alerts. We expect that this same computational approach can be extended to most other structural alerts and later integrated into toxicity risk models. This advance is one necessary step toward our long-term goal of building comprehensive metabolic models of bioactivation and detoxification to guide assessment and design of new therapeutic

  10. Optical Flow and Driver's Kinematics Analysis for State of Alert Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Pinto, Javier; Torres-Torriti, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Road accident statistics from different countries show that a significant number of accidents occur due to driver's fatigue and lack of awareness to traffic conditions. In particular, about 60% of the accidents in which long haul truck and bus drivers are involved are attributed to drowsiness and fatigue. It is thus fundamental to improve non-invasive systems for sensing a driver's state of alert. One of the main challenges to correctly resolve the state of alert is measuring the percentage of eyelid closure over time (PERCLOS), despite the driver's head and body movements. In this paper, we propose a technique that involves optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis to improve the robustness of the driver's alert state measurement under pose changes using a single camera with near-infrared illumination. The proposed approach infers and keeps track of the driver's pose in 3D space in order to ensure that eyes can be located correctly, even after periods of partial occlusion, for example, when the driver stares away from the camera. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the approach with a correct eyes detection rate of 99.41%, on average. The results obtained with the proposed approach in an experiment involving fifteen persons under different levels of sleep deprivation also confirm the discriminability of the fatigue levels. In addition to the measurement of fatigue and drowsiness, the pose tracking capability of the proposed approach has potential applications in distraction assessment and alerting of machine operators. PMID:23539029

  11. Optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis for state of alert sensing.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Pinto, Javier; Torres-Torriti, Miguel

    2013-03-28

    Road accident statistics from different countries show that a significant number of accidents occur due to driver's fatigue and lack of awareness to traffic conditions. In particular, about 60% of the accidents in which long haul truck and bus drivers are involved are attributed to drowsiness and fatigue. It is thus fundamental to improve non-invasive systems for sensing a driver's state of alert. One of the main challenges to correctly resolve the state of alert is measuring the percentage of eyelid closure over time (PERCLOS), despite the driver's head and body movements. In this paper, we propose a technique that involves optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis to improve the robustness of the driver's alert state measurement under pose changes using a single camera with near-infrared illumination. The proposed approach infers and keeps track of the driver's pose in 3D space in order to ensure that eyes can be located correctly, even after periods of partial occlusion, for example, when the driver stares away from the camera. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the approach with a correct eyes detection rate of 99.41%, on average. The results obtained with the proposed approach in an experiment involving fifteen persons under different levels of sleep deprivation also confirm the discriminability of the fatigue levels. In addition to the measurement of fatigue and drowsiness, the pose tracking capability of the proposed approach has potential applications in distraction assessment and alerting of machine operators.

  12. Reliability of Lift Alert(™) as a feedback device for detecting changes in body position.

    PubMed

    Ekes, A M; Krister, J D; Loseth, A E; McKenzie, C L

    1995-03-01

    The Lift Alert (™) is a small battery-operated unit, usually worn on the back of a worker's collar that is designed to provide a form of biofeedback about changes in trunk position during lifting tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine how consistent the Lift Alert (™) was at each of five different sensitivity settings (A-E) in detecting changes in trunk flexion in a given individual during a controlled bending maneuver. The subjects were videotaped while performing a series of trials of bending maneuvers at each of the sensitivity settings according to a specific protocol. The videotapes were then converted onto a computer program where the still images were captured and marked for data analysis. The reliability of the Lift Alert (™) was determined by calculating a coefficient of agreement, that is, the percentage of trials that were within both 10 and 15 degrees for each of the trials at a given setting for a single individual. The coefficient of agreement for all trials at all five settings was 0.76 within 10 degrees and 0.92 within 15 degrees. The results of this study suggest that the Lift Alert (™) is a reliable device for detecting changes in trunk flexion during a controlled bending maneuver for a given individual.

  13. Visual cues keep treatment team alert.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    At Good Samaritan Medical Center in West Palm Beach, FL, a throughput initiative that uses colored magnets to indicate anticipated discharges has cut emergency department holding time and increased the number of discharges by 2 p.m. The charge nurse, case manager, and discharge planner meet daily, make their best clinical guess about the patient's discharge and place a red, yellow, or green magnet on a white board at the nurses station. When team members pass the board, they are alerted to anticipated discharges and know to make patients with a green magnet a priority. The case managers and nurses write the expected discharge on a white board in the patient rooms and initiate a discussion with patients and family members to prepare them for discharge.

  14. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  15. Minuteman III Cost Per Alert Hour Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    directly contribute to war fighting capabilities; rather they are more a function of our foreign policy. The Marines implemented many ABC...leWirc 11,314,000 S4,7SO 3,942,000 164.250 Sponsor: AFNWC/LG AFC AIG C PAH Model DLR:; + Cun~·unwbles + Per:;unm:l A/ert HQUTS Cost Per Alert Hou r...t.Jll! l5,7at_.tl l I C!,IIU l ! OSD C AIG C PAH Model Bas@:donOffic@: ofSf:cr@:t aryofO@:f @:ns@: Cost A nalysis lmp rov@:mol’:nt Gro u p f l

  16. The effects of alerting signals in masked priming

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska; Kiesel, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Alerting signals often serve to reduce temporal uncertainty by predicting the time of stimulus onset. The resulting response time benefits have often been explained by facilitated translation of stimulus codes into response codes on the basis of established stimulus-response (S-R) links. In paradigms of masked S-R priming alerting signals also modulate response activation processes triggered by subliminally presented prime stimuli. In the present study we tested whether facilitation of visuo-motor translation processes due to alerting signals critically depends on established S-R links. Alerting signals resulted in significantly enhanced masked priming effects for masked prime stimuli that included and that did not include established S-R links (i.e., target vs. novel primes). Yet, the alerting-priming interaction was more pronounced for target than for novel primes. These results suggest that effects of alerting signals on masked priming are especially evident when S-R links between prime and target exist. At the same time, an alerting-priming interaction also for novel primes suggests that alerting signals also facilitate stimulus-response translation processes when masked prime stimuli provide action-trigger conditions in terms of programmed S-R links. PMID:23882248

  17. Good "Geofences" Make Good Neighbors in Age of Mobile Alerts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Jim

    2013-01-01

    For every institution of higher education, the safety and protection of its campus community is of primary importance. Recent events have shown an increase in campus crime, assaults and even a tragic loss of life. Apps such as Ping4alerts! allow campuses to send hyperlocal smartphone alerts related to public safety, school closings, local events,…

  18. Silver Alerts and the Problem of Missing Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Dawn; Muschert, Glenn W.; Kinney, Jennifer; Robbins, Emily; Petonito, Gina; Manning, Lydia; Brown, J. Scott

    2010-01-01

    In the months following the introduction of the National AMBER (America's Missing: Broadcast Emergency Response) Alert plan used to locate missing and abducted children, Silver Alert programs began to emerge. These programs use the same infrastructure and approach to find a different missing population, cognitively impaired older adults. By late…

  19. 12 CFR 1022.121 - Active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Active duty alerts. 1022.121 Section 1022.121 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.121 Active duty alerts. (a) Duration....

  20. 12 CFR 1022.121 - Active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Active duty alerts. 1022.121 Section 1022.121 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.121 Active duty alerts. (a) Duration....

  1. 12 CFR 1022.121 - Active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Active duty alerts. 1022.121 Section 1022.121 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.121 Active duty alerts. (a) Duration....

  2. An Evaluation of Alert Services: Quantity versus Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandian, Fatemeh; Riahinia, Nosrat; Azimi, Ali; Poursalehi, Nastaran

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Online information vendors currently offer a variety of additional services; among these are alert services which present requested information on recent publications to registered users. This paper aims to investigate a variety of alert services provided by four online information vendors. Design/methodology/approach: A comparison of the…

  3. Delivering Alert Messages to Members of a Work Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftis, Julia; Nickens, Stephanie; Pell, Melissa; Pell, Vince

    2008-01-01

    Global Alert Resolution Network (GARNET) is a software system for delivering emergency alerts as well as less-urgent messages to members of the Goddard Space Flight Center work force via an intranet or the Internet, and can be adapted to similar use in other large organizations.

  4. Inelastic column behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duberg, John E; Wilder, Thomas W , III

    1952-01-01

    The significant findings of a theoretical study of column behavior in the plastic stress range are presented. When the behavior of a straight column is regarded as the limiting behavior of an imperfect column as the initial imperfection (lack of straightness) approaches zero, the departure from the straight configuration occurs at the tangent-modulus load. Without such a concept of the behavior of a straight column, one is led to the unrealistic conclusion that lateral deflection of the column can begin at any load between the tangent-modulus value and the Euler load, based on the original elastic modulus. A family of curves showing load against lateral deflection is presented for idealized h-section columns of various lengths and of various materials that have a systematic variation of their stress-strain curves.

  5. Research and operational products from the combination of a monthly hydrographic station and an oceanic buoy: The Biscay AGL fixed-point water column observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, Alicia; Cano, Daniel; González-Pola, Cesar; Tel, Elena; Rodriguez, Carmen; Ruiz, Manuel; Somavilla, Raquel

    2015-04-01

    Long term time series are an important tool for increasing the knowledge of ocean processes as well as for studying water masses variability in different time scales and changes and tendencies in marine ecosystems. Time series has been classically obtained by oceanographic ships that regularly cover standard sections and stations. From 1991, shelf and slope waters of the Southern Bay of Biscay are regularly sampled in a monthly hydrographic line north of Santander to a depth of 1000 m in early stages and for the whole water column down to 2580 m in recent times. Nearby, in June 2007, the IEO deployed an oceanic-meteorological buoy (AGL Buoy, 43° 50.67'N; 3° 46.20'W, and 40 km offshore, www.boya-agl.st.ieo.es). The long-term hydrographical record have allowed to define the seasonality, trends, and interannual variability at all levels, including the mixing layer and the main water masses North Atlantic Central Water and Mediterranean Water. The relation of these changes with high frequency surface conditions has been examined using the AGL buoy data from 2007 as well as satellite and reanalysis data. On that context and using that combination of sources, some products and quality controlled series of high interest and utility for scientific purposes have been developed and are offered hourly in the web page. Main products obtained are: SST and SSS anomalies, wave significant height character with respect to monthly average, and currents with respect to seasonal averages. Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes (latent and sensible) are computed from the buoy atmospheric and oceanic measurements. Estimations of the mixed layer depth and bulk series at different water levels are provided in a monthly basis. Quality controlled series are provided for sea surface salinity, oxygen and chlorophyll data. Some sensors are particularly affected by biofouling, and monthly visits to the buoy permit to follow these sensors behaviour. Chlorophyll-fluorescence sensor is the main concern

  6. Simulations of Midlatitude Frontal Clouds by Single-Column and Cloud-Resolving Models during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement March 2000 Cloud Intensive Operational Period

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Minghua; Branson, Mark; Cederwall, Richard T.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Eitzen, Zachary A.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Johnson, Karen L.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Klein, Stephen A.; Krueger, Steven K.; Lin, Wuyin; Lohmann, Ulrike; Miller, Mark A.; Randall, David A.; Somerville, Richard C.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Walker, Gregory K.; Wolf, Audrey; Wu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Kuan-Man; Yio, J. John; Zhang, Guang J.; Zhang, Junhua

    2005-03-25

    This study quantitatively evaluates the overall performance of 9 single column models (SCMs) and 4 cloud resolving models (CRMs) in simulating a strong midlatitude frontal cloud system taken from the Spring 2000 Cloud Intensive Observational Period at the ARM Southern Great Plains site. The evaluation data are an analysis product of Constrained Variational Analysis of the ARM-Observations and the cloud data collected from the ARM ground active remote sensors (i.e., cloud radar, lidar, and laser ceilometers) and satellite retrievals. Both the selected SCMs and CRMs can typically capture the bulk characteristics of the frontal system and the frontal precipitation. However, there are significant differences in detailed structures of the frontal clouds. Both CRMs and SCMs overestimate high thin cirrus clouds before the main frontal passage. This is likely caused by the application of grid-scale upward motion in the upper troposphere when in reality only cloud streaks exist in narrow region s of upward sub-grid scale motion. During the passage of a front with strong upward motion, CRMs underestimate middle and low clouds while SCMs overestimate clouds at the levels above 765 hPa. The underestimation in the CRMs is presumably due to the lack of organized stratiform processes that are replaced by convections in the models under strong forcing. The overestimation in the SCMs is likely related to the uniform application of grid-averaged cooling and moistening associated with strong upward motion. All CRMs and some SCMs also underestimated the middle clouds after the frontal passage. This could be related to the lack of organized mesoscale cyclonic advection of hydrometeors behind the moving cyclone. Some of the SCMs simulated more middle clouds after frontal passage due to the long lifetime of cloud ice or prognostic cloud amount in the models. There are also large differences in the model simulations of cloud condensates due to differences in parameterizations, however

  7. Sleep and Alertness Management IV: Effects of Alertness Enhancers Caffeine and Modafinil on Performance in Marmosets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    IV: Effects of F +31 15 284 39 91 Info-DenV@tno.nl alertness enhancers caffeine and modafinil on performance in marmosets Date March 2007 Author(s...modafinil op taakverrichting in marmosets 4Wfysieke aspecten centraal staan. Het Resultaten en conclusies onderzoek is uitdrukkelijk wiet gericht op de Beide...modafinil op taakverrichting in marmosets Cotc en * *aprifrai vermnoeidheid en taakverrichting uit te Onvoldoende rust kan vermoeidheid, stellen of te

  8. Circadian alertness simulator for fatigue risk assessment in transportation: application to reduce frequency and severity of truck accidents.

    PubMed

    Moore-Ede, Martin; Heitmann, Anneke; Guttkuhn, Rainer; Trutschel, Udo; Aguirre, Acacia; Croke, Dean

    2004-03-01

    The Circadian Alertness Simulator (CAS) was developed as a practical tool for assessing the risk of diminished alertness at work. Applications of CAS include assessment of operational fatigue risk, work schedule optimization, and fatigue-related accident investigation. Based on the documented work schedules of employees, sleep and alertness patterns are estimated and a cumulative fatigue score is calculated. The risk assessment algorithms are based on physiological sleep/wake principles including homeostatic and circadian processes. The free parameters of the algorithms were optimized using over 10,000 d of sleep and alertness data sets collected from transportation workers performing their regular jobs. The validity and applicability of the CAS fatigue score was then tested using work/rest and accident data from three trucking operations. Heavy truck drivers involved in DOT-recordable or high-cost accidents were found to have significantly higher CAS fatigue risk scores than accident-free drivers. Implementing a risk-informed, performance-based safety program in a 500 power-unit trucking fleet, where dispatchers and managers were held accountable for minimizing driver CAS fatigue risk scores, significantly reduced the frequency and severity of truck accidents. Further examination of CAS risk assessment validity using scenarios provided in a fatigue modeling workshop indicated that the CAS Model also performed well in estimating alertness with a real-world transportation scenario of railroad locomotive engineer work/rest patterns.

  9. 76 FR 62321 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... certain Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) traffic alert and collision avoidance system...) traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) units with part numbers identified in ACSS...

  10. Impact of microbial activities on the mineralogy and performance of column-scale permeable reactive iron barriers operated under two different redox conditions.

    PubMed

    Van Nooten, Thomas; Lieben, François; Dries, Jan; Pirard, Eric; Springael, Dirk; Bastiaens, Leen

    2007-08-15

    The present study focuses on the impact of microbial activities on the performance of various long-term operated laboratory-scale permeable reactive barriers. The barriers contained both aquifer and Fe0 compartments and had received either sulfate or iron(III)-EDTA to promote sulfate-reducing and iron(III)-reducing bacteria, respectively. After dismantlement of the compartments after almost 3 years of operation, DNA-based PCR-DGGE analysis revealed the presence of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, metal-reducing, and denitrifying bacteria within as well as up- and downgradient of the Fe0 matrix. Under all imposed conditions, the main secondary phases were vivianite, siderite, ferrous hydroxy carbonate, and carbonate green rust as found by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Under sulfate-reduction promoting conditions, iron sulfides were formed in addition, resulting in 7 and 10 times higher degradation rates for PCE and TCE, respectively, compared to unreacted iron. These results indicate that the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in or around iron barriers and the subsequent formation of iron sulfides might increase the barrier reactivity.

  11. Column flotation '88

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 34 selections. Some of the titles are: Column flotation of ultrafine coal: experience at BHP-Utah Coal Limited's Riverside mine; Measurement of rate data in flotation columns; Factors influencing the structure of a 3-phase coal flotation froth; and Microbubble flotation of fine coal.

  12. Inflatable Column Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

  13. JCE Feature Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  14. Circulation in gas-slurry column reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.; Kuhlman, J.; Celik, I.; Gross, R.; Nebiolo, E.; Wang, Yi-Zun.

    1990-08-15

    Circulation in bubble columns, such as those used in fischer-tropsch synthesis, detracts from their performance in that gas is carried on average more rapidly through the column, and the residence time distribution of the gas in the column is widened. Both of these factors influence mass-transfer operations in bubble columns. Circulation prediction and measurement has been undertaken using probes, one-dimensional models, laser Doppler velocimetry, and numerical modeling. Local void fraction was measured using resistance probes and a newly developed approach to determining air/water threshold voltage for the probe. A tall column of eight inch diameter was constructed of Plexiglas and the distributor plate was manufactured to distribute air evenly through the base of the column. Data were gathered throughout the volume at three different gas throughputs. Bubble velocities proved difficult to measure using twin probes with cross-correlation because of radial bubble movement. A series of three-dimensional mean and RMS bubble and liquid velocity measurements were also obtained for a turbulent flow in a laboratory model of a bubble column. These measurements have been made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), to determine velocity distributions non-intrusively. Finally, the gas-liquid flow inside a vertically situated circular isothermal column reactor was simulated numerically. 74 refs., 170 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Processing electrophysiological signals for the monitoring of alertness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Mathematical techniques are described for processing EEG signals associated with varying states of alertness. Fast algorithms for implementing real-time computations of alertness estimates were developed. A realization of the phase-distortionless digital filter is presented which approaches real-time filtering and a transform for EEG signals. This transform provides information for the alertness estimates and can be performed in real time. A statistical test for stationarity in EEG signals is being developed that will provide a method for determining the duration of the EEG signals necessary for estimating the short-time power or energy spectra for nonstationary analysis of EEG signals.

  16. Real-time alerts and reminders using information systems.

    PubMed

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Sandberg, Warren S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2011-09-01

    Adoption of information systems throughout the hospital environment has enabled the development of real-time physiologic alerts and clinician reminder systems. These clinical tools can be made available through the deployment of anesthesia information management systems (AIMS). Creating usable alert systems requires understanding of technical considerations. Various successful implementations are reviewed, encompassing cost reduction, improved revenue capture, timely antibiotic administration, and postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis. Challenges to the widespread use of real-time alerts and reminders include AIMS adoption rates and the difficulty in choosing appropriate areas and approaches for information systems support.

  17. Seismicity alert probabilities at Parkfield, California, revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.; Jones, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    For a decade, the US Geological Survey has used the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment scenario document to estimate the probability that earthquakes observed on the San Andreas fault near Parkfield will turn out to be foreshocks followed by the expected magnitude six mainshock. During this time, we have learned much about the seismogenic process at Parkfield, about the long-term probability of the Parkfield mainshock, and about the estimation of these types of probabilities. The probabilities for potential foreshocks at Parkfield are reexamined and revised in light of these advances. As part of this process, we have confirmed both the rate of foreshocks before strike-slip earthquakes in the San Andreas physiographic province and the uniform distribution of foreshocks with magnitude proposed by earlier studies. Compared to the earlier assessment, these new estimates of the long-term probability of the Parkfield mainshock are lower, our estimate of the rate of background seismicity is higher, and we find that the assumption that foreshocks at Parkfield occur in a unique way is not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. While the exact numbers vary depending on the assumptions that are made, the new alert probabilities are lower than previously estimated. Considering the various assumptions and the statistical uncertainties in the input parameters, we also compute a plausible range for the probabilities. The range is large, partly due to the extra knowledge that exists for the Parkfield segment, making us question the usefulness of these numbers.

  18. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  19. Column continuous transition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangrong

    2007-04-01

    A column continuous transition function is by definition a standard transition function P(t) whose every column is continuous for t[greater-or-equal, slanted]0 in the norm topology of bounded sequence space l[infinity]. We will prove that it has a stable q-matrix and that there exists a one-to-one relationship between column continuous transition functions and increasing integrated semigroups on l[infinity]. Using the theory of integrated semigroups, we give some necessary and sufficient conditions under which the minimal q-function is column continuous, in terms of its generator (of the Markov semigroup) as well as its q-matrix. Furthermore, we will construct all column continuous Q-functions for a conservative, single-exit and column bounded q-matrix Q. As applications, we find that many interesting continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs), say Feller-Reuter-Riley processes, monotone processes, birth-death processes and branching processes, etc., have column continuity.

  20. Developing an Efficient Planetary Space Weather Alert Service using Virtual Observatory Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Benson, Kevin; Le Sidaner, Pierre; André, Nicolas; Tomasik, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this Task is to identify user requirements, develop the way to implement event alerts, and chain those to the 1) planetary event and 2) planetary space weather predictions. The expected service of alerts will be developed with the objective to facilitate discovery or prediction announcements within the PSWD user community in order to watch or warn against specific events. The ultimate objective is to set up dedicated amateur and/or professional observation campaigns, diffuse contextual information for science data analysis, and enable safety operations of planet-orbiting spacecraft against the risks of impacts from meteors or solar wind disturbances. OBSPARIS and UCL will study and adapt VOEvent to those purposes. CNRS-IRAP and SRC will study the way to implement VOEvent as a service for the PSWD tools.

  1. Pilot Preferences for Information Provided and Its Format for Status, Alerts, and Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2004-01-01

    With the increased use of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in flight decks and the computing power available, it is possible to combine status screens, alerts/procedures screens, and control screens onto a single display. This report presents the results of a survey designed to assess the perceived helpfulness and need of various pieces of information that could be included on status and control screens. The results from the survey indicate that operators want parameter ranges that change depending on the current aircraft configuration shown on bow-tie or dial displays. These displays should show the current value, normal range, alert type and range, and predictive information. Respondents wanted to see system relationships to one another for both component control and menu selection. When bringing up these various displays, this information should come up with a single button push. Finally, checklists should sense when a component has changed to the desired state.

  2. Provider and pharmacist responses to warfarin drug–drug interaction alerts: a study of healthcare downstream of CPOE alerts

    PubMed Central

    Boro, Maureen S; Korman, Nancy E; Davoren, J Ben

    2011-01-01

    Objective To categorize the appropriateness of provider and pharmacist responses to warfarin critical drug–drug interaction (cDDI) alerts, assess responses and actions to the cDDI, and determine the occurrence of warfarin adverse drug events (ADE) after alerts. Design An 18-month, retrospective study of acute care admissions at a single Veterans Affairs medical center using computerized provider order entry (CPOE). Measurements Patients included had at least one warfarin cDDI alert. Chart reviews included baseline laboratory values and demographics, provider actions, patient outcomes, and associated factors, including other interacting medications and number of simultaneously processed alerts. Results 137 admissions were included (133 unique patients). Amiodarone, vitamin E in a multivitamin, sulfamethoxazole, and levothyroxine accounted for 75% of warfarin cDDI. Provider responses were clinically appropriate in 19.7% of admissions and pharmacist responses were appropriate in 9.5% of admissions. There were 50 ADE (36.6% of admissions) with warfarin; 80% were rated as having no or mild clinical effect. An increased number of non-critical alerts at the time of the reference cDDI alert was the only variable associated with an inappropriate provider response (p=0.01). Limitations This study was limited by being a retrospective review and the possibility of confounding variables, such as other interacting medications. Conclusion The large number of CPOE alerts may lead to inappropriate responses by providers and pharmacists. The high rate of ADE suggests a need for improved medication management systems for patients on warfarin. This study highlights the possibility of alert fatigue contributing to the high prevalence of inappropriate alert over-ride text responses. PMID:22037888

  3. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy

    1997-01-01

    This research project examined the effects of consonance between cockpit displays and alerting system as a technique to encourage pilots to conform to alerting system commands. An experiment used the task of collision avoidance during closely spaced parallel approaches as a case study, building upon previous experiments which identified instances of non-conformance and conflicts between the alerting criteria preferred by pilots, compared to that used by alerting systems. Using a workstation based, part-task simulator, each of 45 subjects completed 45 experiment runs. In each run, the subjects were told they were flying an approach. Their primary task was to keep their wings level despite turbulence through the use of a sidestick. The sidestick commands did not affect the path of the aircraft, however, so that consistent approach paths were be followed. Their secondary task was to indicate when an aircraft on a parallel approach is blundering towards them, as evidenced by the traffic display. Subjects were asked to press different buttons indicating whether they feel an avoidance maneuver is required by the traffic situation or not. At the completion of each run, subjects were asked to rate their confidence in their decision and, if appropriate, to rate the timeliness of automatic alerts when had been given. Three different automatic alert conditions were tested. The "No Automatic Alerts Given" condition is self-explanatory. In the "Automatic Alerts Based on NTZ Criteria" condition, an automatic alert was given when the NTZ criteria was triggered; this criteria is consistent with subject reactions in other studies, in which subjects were found to react, on average, when the other aircraft was 1350 min to the side of the own aircraft. In the "Automatic Alerts Based on MIT Criteria" condition, an automatic alert was given when the MIT criteria was triggered; this criteria was developed by Carpenter and Kuchar for parallel approaches to have better performance, at the

  4. ISS Update: e-Textiles, Alerting Future Astronauts

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Lynnette Madison talks with students from the University of Minnesota about wearable technology, or e-textiles, containing visual, tactile and audio sensors to alert fut...

  5. Participatory design for drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system.

  6. Maximizing Trust in the Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    CMAS). Alert originators (AOs) at emer- gency management agencies ( EMAs ) must trust WEA to deliver alerts to the public in an accurate and timely...that they receive before they will act on them. Clearly, the AOs, the EMAs , and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) must all strive to...some factors, such as security, FEMA has requirements that an EMA and its contractors must satisfy. System reliability is a shared responsibility as it

  7. Alert management for home healthcare based on home automation analysis.

    PubMed

    Truong, T T; de Lamotte, F; Diguet, J-Ph; Said-Hocine, F

    2010-01-01

    Rising healthcare for elder and disabled people can be controlled by offering people autonomy at home by means of information technology. In this paper, we present an original and sensorless alert management solution which performs multimedia and home automation service discrimination and extracts highly regular home activities as sensors for alert management. The results of simulation data, based on real context, allow us to evaluate our approach before application to real data.

  8. Performance Assessment of Network Intrusion-Alert Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    suspicious ( Albin , 2011). However, if an attack is genuine, the system usually reports the attack only after it has happened since most attacks happen in...we extracted the alert log file to determine whether the tests are detected. Similar experiments were conducted in ( Albin , 2011), which identified...and report. Snort is not able to detect client-side attacks and pcap replay ( Albin , 2011). To reduce the number of “reset outside window” alerts, we

  9. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. In this talk, we describe the BAT instrument response as determined to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies. We will also discuss the public data analysis tools developed to calculate the BAT response to sources at different energies and locations in the FOV. The level of accuracy required for the BAT instrument response used for the hard x-ray survey is significantly higher because this response must be used in the iterative clean algorithm for finding fainter sources. Because the bright sources add a lot of coding noise to the BAT sky image, fainter sources can be seen only after the counts due to the bright sources are removed. The better we know the BAT response, the lower the noise in the cleaned spectrum and thus the more sensitive the survey. Since the BAT detector plane consists of 32768 individual, 4 mm square CZT gamma-ray detectors, the most accurate BAT response would include 32768 individual detector response functions to separate mask modulation effects from differences in detector efficiencies! We describe OUT continuing work to improve the accuracy of the BAT instrument response and will present the current results of Monte Carlo simulations as well as BAT ground calibration data.

  10. Modeling Pilot State in Next Generation Aircraft Alert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, Alan S.; Alexander, Amy L.; Schurr, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit that must convey a large number of potentially complex alerts. Our work focuses on the challenges associated with prioritizing aircraft sensor alerts in a quick and efficient manner, essentially determining when and how to alert the pilot This "alert decision" becomes very difficult in NextGen due to the following challenges: 1) the increasing number of potential hazards, 2) the uncertainty associated with the state of potential hazards as well as pilot slate , and 3) the limited time to make safely-critical decisions. In this paper, we focus on pilot state and present a model for anticipating duration and quality of pilot behavior, for use in a larger system which issues aircraft alerts. We estimate pilot workload, which we model as being dependent on factors including mental effort, task demands. and task performance. We perform a mathematically rigorous analysis of the model and resulting alerting plans. We simulate the model in software and present simulated results with respect to manipulation of the pilot measures.

  11. Gas Chromatograph Method Optimization Trade Study for RESOLVE: 20-meter Column v. 8-meter Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huz, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    RESOLVE is the payload on a Class D mission, Resource Prospector, which will prospect for water and other volatile resources at a lunar pole. The RESOLVE payload's primary scientific purpose includes determining the presence of water on the moon in the lunar regolith. In order to detect the water, a gas chromatograph (GC) will be used in conjunction with a mass spectrometer (MS). The goal of the experiment was to compare two GC column lengths and recommend which would be best for RESOLVE's purposes. Throughout the experiment, an Inficon Fusion GC and an Inficon Micro GC 3000 were used. The Fusion had a 20m long column with 0.25mm internal diameter (Id). The Micro GC 3000 had an 8m long column with a 0.32mm Id. By varying the column temperature and column pressure while holding all other parameters constant, the ideal conditions for testing with each column length in their individual instrument configurations were determined. The criteria used for determining the optimal method parameters included (in no particular order) (1) quickest run time, (2) peak sharpness, and (3) peak separation. After testing numerous combinations of temperature and pressure, the parameters for each column length that resulted in the most optimal data given my three criteria were selected. The ideal temperature and pressure for the 20m column were 95 C and 50psig. At this temperature and pressure, the peaks were separated and the retention times were shorter compared to other combinations. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 operated better at lower temperature mainly due to the shorter 8m column. The optimal column temperature and pressure were 70 C and 30psig. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 8m column had worse separation than the Inficon Fusion 20m column, but was able to separate water within a shorter run time. Therefore, the most significant tradeoff between the two column lengths was peak separation of the sample versus run time. After performing several tests, it was concluded that better

  12. Clinical Decision Support Alert Appropriateness: A Review and Proposal for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Allison B.; Thomas, Eric J.; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Sittig, Dean F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many healthcare providers are adopting clinical decision support (CDS) systems to improve patient safety and meet meaningful use requirements. Computerized alerts that prompt clinicians about drug-allergy, drug-drug, and drug-disease warnings or provide dosing guidance are most commonly implemented. Alert overrides, which occur when clinicians do not follow the guidance presented by the alert, can hinder improved patient outcomes. Methods We present a review of CDS alerts and describe a proposal to develop novel methods for evaluating and improving CDS alerts that builds upon traditional informatics approaches. Our proposal incorporates previously described models for predicting alert overrides that utilize retrospective chart review to determine which alerts are clinically relevant and which overrides are justifiable. Results Despite increasing implementations of CDS alerts, detailed evaluations rarely occur because of the extensive labor involved in manual chart reviews to determine alert and response appropriateness. Further, most studies have solely evaluated alert overrides that are appropriate or justifiable. Our proposal expands the use of web-based monitoring tools with an interactive dashboard for evaluating CDS alert and response appropriateness that incorporates the predictive models. The dashboard provides 2 views, an alert detail view and a patient detail view, to provide a full history of alerts and help put the patient's events in context. Conclusion The proposed research introduces several innovations to address the challenges and gaps in alert evaluations. This research can transform alert evaluation processes across healthcare settings, leading to improved CDS, reduced alert fatigue, and increased patient safety. PMID:24940129

  13. Successful ShakeAlert Performance for the Napa Quake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Vidale, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    ShakeAlert, the demonstration earthquake early warning system, developed by the USGS, UC Berkeley, Caltech, ETH, and the University of Washington, functioned as expected for the August 24, 2014, M6.0 Napa earthquake. The first ShakeAlert was generated by the ElarmS algorithm 5.1 sec after the origin time of the earthquake, and 3.3 sec after the P-wave arrived at the closest station 6.5 km from the epicenter. This initial alert, based on P-wave triggers from four stations, estimated the magnitude to be 5.7. The warning was received at the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory 5 seconds before the S-wave and about 10 sec prior to the onset of the strongest shaking. ShakeAlert beta-testers across the San Francisco Bay Area simultaneously received the alert, including the San Francisco 911 center with 8 sec warning, and the BART train system. BART has implemented an automated train-stopping system that was activated (although no trains were running at 3:20 am). With the available network geometry and communications, the blind zone of the first alert had a radius of 16 km. The four stations that contributed to the first alert all encapsulate data into 1-second packets, but the latency in transmitting data to the processing center ranged from 0.27 to 2.62 seconds. If all the stations were to deliver data in 0.27 seconds, then the alert would have been available 2.3 sec sooner and the blind zone would be reduced to about 8 km. This would also mean that the city of Napa would have received about 1 second of warning. The magnitude estimate and event location were accurate from the initial alert onwards. The magnitude estimate did first increase to 5.8 and then dip to 5.4 2.6 sec after the initial alert, stayed at that level for 2 sec, and then returned to 5.7. The final magnitude estimate was 6.0, consistent with the ANSS catalog.

  14. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  15. Enhanced column flotation of fine and ultrafine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Buttermore, W.H.; Birlingmair, D.H.; Dawson, M.R.; Pollard, J.L.; Enustun, B.V.

    1992-12-01

    A 2-inch diameter, twenty-foot tall, glass laboratory flotation column was modified to incorporate digital control of critical operating parameters. Different column control strategies were explored including location of the froth interface, and manipulation of volumetric flow ratios. Column flotation tests were performed with both fine (-250{mu}m) and ultrafine (-5{mu}m) Pittsburgh seam coal. Both moisture- and ash-free (MAF) recovery, and ash rejection were improved when the partition of the column`s liquid content into froth and tailings was directly controlled. MAF recovery and ash rejection were also enhanced by brief exposure of the coarser feed to pulsed sonic energy.

  16. Effects of historical and predictive information on ability of transport pilot to predict an alert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1994-01-01

    In the aviation community, the early detection of the development of a possible subsystem problem during a flight is potentially useful for increasing the safety of the flight. Commercial airlines are currently using twin-engine aircraft for extended transport operations over water, and the early detection of a possible problem might increase the flight crew's options for safely landing the aircraft. One method for decreasing the severity of a developing problem is to predict the behavior of the problem so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken. To investigate the pilots' ability to predict long-term events, a computer workstation experiment was conducted in which 18 airline pilots predicted the alert time (the time to an alert) using 3 different dial displays and 3 different parameter behavior complexity levels. The three dial displays were as follows: standard (resembling current aircraft round dial presentations); history (indicating the current value plus the value of the parameter 5 sec in the past); and predictive (indicating the current value plus the value of the parameter 5 sec into the future). The time profiles describing the behavior of the parameter consisted of constant rate-of-change profiles, decelerating profiles, and accelerating-then-decelerating profiles. Although the pilots indicated that they preferred the near term predictive dial, the objective data did not support its use. The objective data did show that the time profiles had the most significant effect on performance in estimating the time to an alert.

  17. Eruption column physics

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, G.A.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Comparison of methods of alert acknowledgement by critical care clinicians in the ICU setting

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Andrew M.; Thongprayoon, Charat; Aakre, Christopher A.; Jeng, Jack Y.; Dziadzko, Mikhail A.; Gajic, Ognjen; Pickering, Brian W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic Health Record (EHR)-based sepsis alert systems have failed to demonstrate improvements in clinically meaningful endpoints. However, the effect of implementation barriers on the success of new sepsis alert systems is rarely explored. Objective To test the hypothesis time to severe sepsis alert acknowledgement by critical care clinicians in the ICU setting would be reduced using an EHR-based alert acknowledgement system compared to a text paging-based system. Study Design In one arm of this simulation study, real alerts for patients in the medical ICU were delivered to critical care clinicians through the EHR. In the other arm, simulated alerts were delivered through text paging. The primary outcome was time to alert acknowledgement. The secondary outcomes were a structured, mixed quantitative/qualitative survey and informal group interview. Results The alert acknowledgement rate from the severe sepsis alert system was 3% (N = 148) and 51% (N = 156) from simulated severe sepsis alerts through traditional text paging. Time to alert acknowledgement from the severe sepsis alert system was median 274 min (N = 5) and median 2 min (N = 80) from text paging. The response rate from the EHR-based alert system was insufficient to compare primary measures. However, secondary measures revealed important barriers. Conclusion Alert fatigue, interruption, human error, and information overload are barriers to alert and simulation studies in the ICU setting. PMID:28316887

  19. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice.

  20. Humid tropical forest disturbance alerts using Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Matthew C.; Krylov, Alexander; Tyukavina, Alexandra; Potapov, Peter V.; Turubanova, Svetlana; Zutta, Bryan; Ifo, Suspense; Margono, Belinda; Stolle, Fred; Moore, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    A Landsat-based humid tropical forest disturbance alert was implemented for Peru, the Republic of Congo and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Alerts were mapped on a weekly basis as new terrain-corrected Landsat 7 and 8 images were made available; results are presented for all of 2014 and through September 2015. The three study areas represent different stages of the forest land use transition, with all featuring a variety of disturbance dynamics including logging, smallholder agriculture, and agroindustrial development. Results for Peru were formally validated and alerts found to have very high user’s accuracies and moderately high producer’s accuracies, indicating an appropriately conservative product suitable for supporting land management and enforcement activities. Complete pan-tropical coverage will be implemented during 2016 in support of the Global Forest Watch initiative. To date, Global Forest Watch produces annual global forest loss area estimates using a comparatively richer set of Landsat inputs. The alert product is presented as an interim update of forest disturbance events between comprehensive annual updates. Results from this study are available for viewing and download at http://glad.geog.umd.edu/forest-alerts and www.globalforestwatch.org.

  1. Pilot scale benzene stripping column testing: Review of test data and application to the ITP columns

    SciTech Connect

    Georgeton, G.K.; Gaughan, T.P.; Taylor, G.A.

    1993-09-10

    Radioactive cesium will be removed from aqueous high level waste (HLW) solutions by precipitation with sodium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Benzene is generated due to the radiolysis of TPB, and dissolves into the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and into the water used to wash (WW) the precipitate. These solutions will be processed through stripping columns to reduce the benzene concentration to satisfy limits for disposal of the DSS and for temporary storage of the WW. A pilot scale testing program to evaluate the stripping column operation in support of ITP startup activities has been completed. Equipment and test plans were developed so that data obtained from the pilot scale testing would be directly applicable to full scale column operation and could be used to project hydraulic performance and stripping efficiency of both columns. A review of the test data indicate that the ITP stripping columns will be capable of reducing benzene concentrations in salt solutions to satisfy Saltstone and Tank 22 acceptance limits. An antifoam (AF) will be required to maintain the column differential pressure below the vendor recommendation of 40 inches wc so that design feed rates can be achieved. Additionally, the testing program indicated that the nitrogen rate can be decreased from the ITP column design rates and still satisfy benzene concentration requirements in the product.

  2. Differential 24-hour variation of alertness and subjective tension in process controllers: investigation of the relationship with body temperature and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Magali; Galy, Edith; Mélan, Claudine

    2008-07-01

    The effects of shift and time-on-shift on alertness and perceived tension, as well as related physiological variables, were investigated in satellite controllers working a rapid forward rotating three-shift system. In controlled laboratory conditions, subjective tension and HR have been reported to display circadian variation and marked sensitivity to external factors. We examined whether circadian variations were masked for these particular variables in real-job conditions, unlike for alertness and body temperature, which have been repeatedly shown to display circadian variation in these conditions. This hypothesis was tested in a repeated-measures design by collecting alertness and tension self-reports and recording operators' sublingual temperature on three occasions on each shift and HR continuously throughout shifts. Alertness and body temperature varied according to a typical diurnal trend; subjective tension was only enhanced on the initial recording of each shift (compared to the remaining ones), while HR displayed an intermediary trend. Intra-subject correlations revealed a positive relationship between alertness, oral temperature, and HR, while no such relationship was found for subjective tension. These results support the hypothesis of a close dependence of alertness and temperature, and to a lesser extent for HR, on endogenous mechanisms in this job-situation. In addition, some situation-specific factors, such as job-demand, would affect subjective tension and partially mask the circadian variations in HR.

  3. Columns in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  4. Dynamic malware containment under an epidemic model with alert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianrui; Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan; Wu, Yingbo; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2017-03-01

    Alerting at the early stage of malware invasion turns out to be an important complement to malware detection and elimination. This paper addresses the issue of how to dynamically contain the prevalence of malware at a lower cost, provided alerting is feasible. A controlled epidemic model with alert is established, and an optimal control problem based on the epidemic model is formulated. The optimality system for the optimal control problem is derived. The structure of an optimal control for the proposed optimal control problem is characterized under some conditions. Numerical examples show that the cost-efficiency of an optimal control strategy can be enhanced by adjusting the upper and lower bounds on admissible controls.

  5. Feasibility Testing of the Alert for AFib Intervention

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Pamela J.; Douglas, Kristin Vickers; Barton, Debra L.; Austin, Christine; Delgado, Adriana; DeVon, Holli A.

    2016-01-01

    Improving early detection and treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) is critical because untreated AF is a major contributor to stroke and heart failure. We sought to generate knowledge about the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial to test the effect of the Alert for AFib intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about treatment-seeking for signs and symptoms of AF. Adults ≥65 years old (96% White) at risk for developing AF were randomized to receive the Alert for AFib intervention (n = 40) or an attention control session (n = 40). Feasibility goals for recruitment, participant retention, adherence, perceived satisfaction and burden, and intervention fidelity were met. From baseline to study completion, knowledge (p = .005) and attitudes (p < .001) about treatment-seeking improved more in the intervention group compared with the control group. Results support testing the effectiveness of the Alert for AFib intervention in a large trial. PMID:27387372

  6. The handedness of historiated spiral columns.

    PubMed

    Couzin, Robert

    2016-11-17

    Trajan's Column in Rome (AD 113) was the model for a modest number of other spiral columns decorated with figural, narrative imagery from antiquity to the present day. Most of these wind upwards to the right, often with a congruent spiral staircase within. A brief introductory consideration of antique screw direction in mechanical devices and fluted columns suggests that the former may have been affected by the handedness of designers and the latter by a preference for symmetry. However, for the historiated columns that are the main focus of this article, the determining factor was likely script direction. The manner in which this operated is considered, as well as competing mechanisms that might explain exceptions. A related phenomenon is the reversal of the spiral in a non-trivial number of reproductions of the antique columns, from Roman coinage to Renaissance and baroque drawings and engravings. Finally, the consistent inattention in academic literature to the spiral direction of historiated columns and the repeated publication of erroneous earlier reproductions warrants further consideration.

  7. A Metrics Taxonomy and Reporting Strategy for Rule-Based Alerts

    PubMed Central

    Krall, Michael; Gerace, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Context: Because institutions rely on rule-based alerts as an important component of their safety and quality strategies, they should determine whether the alerts achieve the expected benefit. Objective: To develop and to test a method of reporting outcome metrics for rule-based electronic health record alerts on a large scale. Methods: We empirically developed an action-oriented alerts taxonomy according to structure, actions, and implicit intended process outcomes using a set of 333 rule-based alerts at Kaiser Permanente Northwest. Next we developed a method for producing metrics reports for alert classes. Finally, we applied this method to alert taxa. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were the successful development of a rule-based alerts taxonomy and the demonstration of its application in a reporting strategy. Results: We identified 9 major and 17 overall classes of alerts. We developed a specific metric approach for 5 of these classes, including the 3 most numerous ones in our institution, accounting for 224 (67%) of our alerts. Some alert classes do not readily lend themselves to this approach. Conclusions: We developed a taxonomy for rule-based alerts and demonstrated its application in developing outcome metrics reports on a large scale. This information allows tuning or retiring alerts and may inform the need to develop complementary or alternative approaches to address organizational imperatives. A method that assigns alerts to classes each amenable to a particular reporting strategy could reduce the difficulty of producing metrics reports. PMID:26057684

  8. Diurnal Spectral Sensitivity of the Acute Alerting Effects of Light

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shadab A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Aeschbach, Daniel; Brainard, George C.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated short-wavelength sensitivity for the acute alerting response to nocturnal light exposure. We assessed daytime spectral sensitivity in alertness, performance, and waking electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Between-subjects (n = 8 per group). Setting: Inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit. Participants: Sixteen healthy young adults (mean age ± standard deviation = 23.8 ± 2.7 y). Interventions: Equal photon density exposure (2.8 × 1013 photons/cm2/s) to monochromatic 460 nm (blue) or 555 nm (green) light for 6.5 h centered in the middle of the 16-h episode of wakefulness during the biological day. Results were compared retrospectively to 16 individuals who were administered the same light exposure during the night. Measurements and Results: Daytime and nighttime 460-nm light exposure significantly improved auditory reaction time (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and reduced attentional lapses (P < 0.05), and improved EEG correlates of alertness compared to 555-nm exposure. Whereas subjective sleepiness ratings did not differ between the two spectral conditions during the daytime (P > 0.05), 460-nm light exposure at night significantly reduced subjective sleepiness compared to 555-nm light exposure at night (P < 0.05). Moreover, nighttime 460-nm exposure improved alertness to near-daytime levels. Conclusions: The alerting effects of short-wavelength 460-nm light are mediated by counteracting both the circadian drive for sleepiness and homeostatic sleep pressure at night, but only via reducing the effects of homeostatic sleep pressure during the day. Citation: Rahman SA; Flynn-Evans EE; Aeschbach D; Brainard GC; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Diurnal spectral sensitivity of the acute alerting effects of light. SLEEP 2014;37(2):271-281. PMID:24501435

  9. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  10. The Israeli Nuclear Alert of 1973: Deterrence and Signaling in Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    facility taken by a U.S. Corona satellite in 1971. Courtesy of the Federation of American Scientists via www.nuclearweaponsarchive.org REPORT... F . McCants, Bradley Morris, 5d. PROJECT NUMBER William G. Rosenau 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...many as were ready, would be made operational, along with eight specially marked F -4s that were on twenty-four-hour alert at Tel Nof, the air force

  11. Real Time View of the Functions and Services of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Cuellar Martinez, A.; Inostroza Puk, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) is integrated since March 2012 by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO) that started its services in 2003. SASMEX consists of 97 field seismic sensor station (FS) type triaxial accelerometer, mostly sponsored by the government of Mexico City and secondly by Oaxaca. The SASMEX covers the Pacific seismic hazard among the coast of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca; and the seismic region of Puebla and northern Oaxaca and Guerrero states. This integration lets to warn with better opportunity to the population of Mexico City, Oaxaca Oax., Acapulco Gro., Chilpancingo Gro. and recently Morelia Mich.; cities with a system called EASAS where receives seismic data from FS and emits earthquake early warning signals to the population. The recent sponsorship of Federal Government through the General Coordination of Civil Protection and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, reinforced integration SAS and SASO, and auspiced the development of a Real-Time Monitoring System of functions and services of SASMEX. This work show how is displayed the functions of services of SASMEX through this monitoring system and its possible application by Civil Protection authorities. This monitoring system can indicate the status of FS, the communications system and cities with EASAS. Additionally, when an earthquake occurs and is detected by the SASMEX, the monitoring system shows the messages of FS, whose consist in the characteristics of detection and seismic danger forecasted; in the case of a strong earthquake estimated by more than one FS, the EASAS of each city could automatically issue an Alert Public to its population. The monitoring system allows observing cities with EASAS that activate their alerts, displays a basic earthquake propagation model and how it reaches to other FS. Additionally, the monitoring system shows the

  12. Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System siren testing report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, L.B.

    1997-08-13

    The purpose of the test was to determine the effective coverage of the proposed upgrades to the existing Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System (HSEAS). The upgrades are to enhance the existing HSEAS along the Columbia River from the Vernita Bridge to the White Bluffs Boat Launch as well as install a new alerting system in the 400 Area on the Hanford Site. Five siren sites along the Columbia River and two sites in the 400 Area were tested to determine the site locations that will provide the desired coverage.

  13. The Effects of Ultra-Long-Range Flights on the Alertness and Performance of Aviators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, John A.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Colletti, Laura M.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Brandt, Summer L.; Arsintescu, Lucia; DeRoshia, Charlie W.; Reduta-Rojas, Dinah D.; Chapman, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation assessed the impact of ultra-long-range (ULR) simulator flights, departing either in the morning or late evening, on the alertness and performance of 17 commercial aviators. Immediately prior to and throughout each flight, alertness and performance were assessed via a computerized test of sustained attention, subjective questionnaires, and "hand-flying" tasks. There were fatigue-related effects on the majority of assessments, and the nature of these effects was consistent across the vigilance and self-report measures. However, the operational "hand-flying" manuevers proved insensitive to the impact of fatigue probably due to procedural factors. Regardless, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue associated with prolonged wakefulness in ULR flight operations will interact with flight schedules due to circadian and homeostatic influences. In this study, the pilots departing at night were at a greater initial disadvantage (during cruise) than pilots who departed earlier in the day; whereas those who departed earlier tended to be most impaired towards the end of the flight prior to landing. In real-world operations, airlines should consider the ramifications of flight schedules and what is known about human sleep and circadian rhythms to optimize safety.

  14. The NAS Alert System: a look at the first eight years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Neilson, Matt; Huge, Dane H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database program (http://nas.er.usgs.gov) tracks the distribution of introduced aquatic organisms across the United States. Awareness of, and timely response to, novel species introductions by those involved in nonindigenous aquatic species management and research requires a framework for rapid dissemination of occurrence data as it is incorporated into the NAS database. In May 2004, the NAS program developed an alert system to notify registered users of new introductions as part of a national early detection/rapid response system. This article summarizes information on system users and dispatched alerts from the system's inception through the end of 2011. The NAS alert system has registered over 1,700 users, with approximately 800 current subscribers. A total of 1,189 alerts had been transmitted through 2011. More alerts were sent for Florida (134 alerts) than for any other state. Fishes comprise the largest taxonomic group of alerts (440), with mollusks, plants, and crustaceans each containing over 100 alerts. Most alerts were for organisms that were intentionally released (414 alerts), with shipping, escape from captivity, and hitchhiking also representing major vectors. To explore the archive of sent alerts and to register, the search and signup page for the alert system can be found online at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/AlertSystem/default.aspx.

  15. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 10.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM... file into the format supported by mobile devices. (2) Reception. The CMS provider gateway must support... that each Participating Commercial Mobile Service provider is required to support and perform at...

  16. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... file into the format supported by mobile devices. (2) Reception. The CMS provider gateway must support... Section 10.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM... that each Participating Commercial Mobile Service provider is required to support and perform at...

  17. Structural alerts for estimating the carcinogenicity of pesticides and biocides.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Mombelli, E; Samsera, R

    2011-03-01

    More than 20 years ago, Ashby and Tennant showed the interest of structural alerts for the prediction of the carcinogenicity of chemicals. These structural alerts are functional groups or structural features of various sizes that are linked to the level of carcinogenicity of chemicals. Since this pioneering work it has been possible to refine the alerts over time, as more experimental results have become available and additional mechanistic insights have been gained. To date, one of the most advanced lists of structural alerts for evaluating the carcinogenic potential of chemicals is the list proposed by Benigni and Bossa and that is implemented as a rule-based system in Toxtree and in the OECD QSAR Application Toolbox. In order to gain insight into the applicability of this system to the detection of potential carcinogens we screened about 200 pesticides and biocides showing a high structural diversity. Prediction results were compared with experimental data retrieved from an extensive bibliographical review. The prediction correctness was only equal to 60.14%. Attempts were made to analyse the sources of mispredictions.

  18. The Educational Pipeline: Big Investment, Big Returns. Policy Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Policy Alert" is a publication series that summarizes important policy findings affecting the future of higher education. This issue looks at the benefits of increasing a state's "educational capital," and highlights four key transition points of the "educational pipeline" marking students' progress from high school to completion of a college…

  19. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Cooperative Agreements § 208.36 Reimbursement for Alert. (a) Allowable costs. DHS will reimburse costs... relating to hiring, leasing, or renting vehicles and drivers. (3) The administrative allowance provided in § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when...

  20. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Cooperative Agreements § 208.36 Reimbursement for Alert. (a) Allowable costs. DHS will reimburse costs... relating to hiring, leasing, or renting vehicles and drivers. (3) The administrative allowance provided in § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when...

  1. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Cooperative Agreements § 208.36 Reimbursement for Alert. (a) Allowable costs. DHS will reimburse costs... relating to hiring, leasing, or renting vehicles and drivers. (3) The administrative allowance provided in § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when...

  2. Changing Adolescent Propensities to Use Drugs: Results from Project ALERT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation with over 4,000 seventh and eighth graders in California and Oregon showed that Project ALERT, a curriculum to curb drug use by teaching resistance to pressures, successfully dampened cognitive risk factors for cigarette and marijuana use but had limited impact on beliefs about alcohol. (SK)

  3. Sensitivity to alert rates at moderate force levels

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-07-01

    This analysis extends previous studies of sensitivity to survivability and alert rates to low force levels. Stability and first strike considerations favor reduction of both survivable and vulnerable forces for a range of conditions. Reductions in the number of weapons per vulnerable missile always increases first strike costs, and would have to be offset by non-stability considerations.

  4. Evaluation in Adult Literacy Research. Project ALERT. Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntiri, Daphne Williams, Ed.

    This document contains an evaluation handbook for adult literacy programs and feedback from/regarding the evaluation instruments developed during the project titled Adult Literacy and Evaluation Research Team (also known as Project ALERT), a two-phase project initiated by the Detroit Literacy Coalition (DLC) for the purpose of developing and…

  5. New research and tools lead to improved earthquake alerting protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.

    2009-01-01

    What’s the best way to get alerted about the occurrence and potential impact of an earthquake? The answer to that question has changed dramatically of late, in part due to improvements in earthquake science, and in part by the implementation of new research in the delivery of earthquake information

  6. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  7. Developing, Implementing, and Assessing an Early Alert System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampke, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Early alert systems offer institutions systematic approaches to identifying and intervening with students exhibiting at-risk behaviors. Many of these systems rely on a common format for student referral to central receiving point. Systems at larger institutions often use web-based technology to allow for a scalable (available campus wide) approach…

  8. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... all channels that carry programming to flash for the duration of the EAS emergency message. The audio... as interactive games.] Wireless Cable Systems (BRS/EBS Stations) Wireless cable systems are subject... to flash for the duration of the EAS emergency message. The audio alert must give the channel...

  9. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  10. Physicians’ response to computerised alerts for psychotropic drugs in older persons: a multilevel analysis of the associated alert, patient and physician characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tamblyn, Robyn; Reidel, Kristen; Patel, Vaishali

    2012-01-01

    Objective Computerised drug alerts are expected to reduce patients’ risk of adverse drug events. However, physicians over-ride most drug alerts, because they believe that the benefit exceeds the risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the drug alert, patient and physician characteristics associated with the: (1) occurrence of psychotropic drug alerts for elderly patients and the (2) response to these alerts by their primary care physicians. Setting Primary care, Quebec, Canada. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Sixty-one physicians using an electronic prescribing and drug alert decision-support system in their practice, and 3413 elderly patients using psychotropic drugs. Primary and secondary measures Psychotropic drug class, alert severity, patient risk for fall injuries and physician experience, practice volume and computer use were evaluated in relationship to the likelihood of having: (1) a psychotropic drug alert, (2) the prescription revised in response to an alert. Cluster-adjusted alternating logistic regression was used to assess multilevel predictors of alert occurrence and response. Results In total 13 080 psychotropic drug alerts were generated in 8931 visits. Alerts were more likely to be generated for male patients at higher risk of fall-related injury and for physicians who established the highest alert threshold. In 9.9% of alerts seen, the prescription was revised. The highest revision rate was for antipsychotic alerts (22.6%). Physicians were more likely to revise prescriptions for severe alerts (OR 2.03; 95%CI 1.39 to 2.98), if patients had cognitive impairment (OR 1.95; 95%CI 1.13 to 3.36), and if they made more visits to their physician (OR 1.05 per 5 visits; 95%CI 1 to 1.09). Conclusions Physicians view and respond to a small proportion of alerts, mainly for higher-risk patients. To reduce the risk of psychotropic drug-related fall injuries, a new generation of evidence-based drug alerts should be developed. PMID

  11. Physician Alerts to Prevent Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Gregory; Rosenbaum, Erin J.; Pendergast, William; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Pendleton, Robert C.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Elliott, C. Gregory; Stevens, Scott M.; Patton, William F.; Dabbagh, Ousama; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Catapane, Elaine; Li, Zhongzhen; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis remains underutilized among hospitalized patients. We designed and carried out a large multicenter randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that an alert from a hospital staff member to the Attending Physician will reduce the rate of symptomatic VTE among high-risk patients not receiving prophylaxis. Methods and Results We enrolled patients using a validated point score system to detect hospitalized patients at high risk for symptomatic VTE who were not receiving prophylaxis. 2,493 patients (82% on Medical Services) from 25 study sites were randomized to the intervention group (n=1,238), in which the responsible physician was alerted by another hospital staff member, versus the control group (n=1,255), in which no alert was issued. The primary end point was symptomatic, objectively confirmed VTE within 90 days. Patients whose physicians were alerted were more than twice as likely to receive VTE prophylaxis as controls (46.0% versus 20.6%, p<0.0001). The symptomatic VTE rate was lower in the intervention group (2.7% versus 3.4%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.25), but the difference did not achieve statistical significance. The rate of major bleeding at 30 days in the alert group was similar to the control group (2.1% versus 2.3%, p=0.68). Conclusions A strategy of direct staff member to physician notification increases prophylaxis utilization and leads toward reducing the rate of symptomatic VTE in hospitalized patients. However, VTE prophylaxis continues to be underutilized even after physician notification, especially among Medical Service patients. PMID:19364975

  12. The Montsec Observatory and the Gaia science alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, J. M.; Burgaz, U.; Vilardell, F.; Jordi, C.

    2017-03-01

    The continuous and reiterative scan of the whole sky performed by Gaia ESA's mission during its (at least) 5 years of mission allows to detect transient events (e.g., supernovae, microlensing events, cataclysmic variables, etc) almost in real time among the daily millions of observations. The pipeline in charge to discover these alerts does a quick look analysis of the daily data stream, identify those sources increasing their brightness with respect to previous Gaia observations and also analyse their spectrophotometry to decide if those sources are good candidates to be published as a Gaia Photometric Science Alerts. These events are publicly announced for follow-up observations (both photometric and spectroscopic are needed). Observatories around the world confirm, classify and study them in detail. Observations are put in common and analysed together in a common interface in order to get a single analysis as detailed and precise as possible. Our team in Barcelona contributes to this Gaia science alerts follow-up programme with the 0.8 m robotic telescope Joan Oró (TJO), at the Montsec Observatory (OAdM), located at Sant Esteve de la Sarga (Lleida, Spain) performing photometric observations to derive the lightcurves of the most interesting alerts accessible from the observatory. Until now we have contributed with about 4500 images in multicolour Johnson-Cousins passbands obtained with TJO for a total of 38 Gaia science alerts, becoming the third most contributing observatory in the programme. Here we summarise the procedure to select new targets to be observed by TJO, submit follow-up observations and we explain the analysis we did for some interesting obtained lightcurves.

  13. Computational derivation of structural alerts from large toxicology data sets.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Ernst; Carlsson, Lars; Boyer, Scott

    2014-10-27

    Structural alerts have been one of the backbones of computational toxicology and have applications in many areas including cosmetic, environmental, and pharmaceutical toxicology. The development of structural alerts has always involved a manual analysis of existing data related to a relevant end point followed by the determination of substructures that appear to be related to a specific outcome. The substructures are then analyzed for their utility in posterior validation studies, which at times have stretched over years or even decades. With higher throughput methods now being employed in many areas of toxicology, data sets are growing at an unprecedented rate. This growth has made manual analysis of data sets impractical in many cases. This report outlines a fully automatic method that highlights significant substructures for toxicologically important data sets. The method identifies important substructures by computationally breaking chemical structures into fragments and analyzing those fragments for their contribution to the given activity by the calculation of a p-value and a substructure accuracy. The method is intended to aid the expert in locating and analyzing alerts by automatic retrieval of alerts or by enhancing existing alerts. The method has been applied to a data set of AMES mutagenicity results and compared to the substructures generated by manual curation of this same data set as well as another computationally based substructure identification method. The results show that this method can retrieve significant substructures quickly, that the substructures are comparable and in some cases superior to those derived from manual curation, that the substructures found covers all previously known substructures, and that they can be used to make reasonably accurate predictions of AMES activity.

  14. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G.H.; Mankosa, M.J.; Adel, G.T.; Yoon, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes progress in two areas: advanced instrumentation and column installation. The project is working with both 30-inch and 8-foot columns for coal flotation. The paper describes installation of the instrument package, the control loops, and the data acquisition system. Under the second area of study, a test plan was developed for a parametric study of the 8-foot column operating conditions (feed flow rate, gas flow rate, wash water flow rate, and froth addition) that were determined to influence separation efficiency on the 30-inch column. Results to date are discussed. 7 refs., 4 tabs. (CK)

  15. Enhanced column flotation of fine and ultrafine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Buttermore, W.H.; Birlingmair, D.H.; Dawson, M.R.; Pollard, J.L.; Enustun, B.V.

    1992-01-01

    A 2-inch diameter, twenty-foot tall, glass laboratory flotation column was modified to incorporate digital control of critical operating parameters. Different column control strategies were explored including location of the froth interface, and manipulation of volumetric flow ratios. Column flotation tests were performed with both fine (-250[mu]m) and ultrafine (-5[mu]m) Pittsburgh seam coal. Both moisture- and ash-free (MAF) recovery, and ash rejection were improved when the partition of the column's liquid content into froth and tailings was directly controlled. MAF recovery and ash rejection were also enhanced by brief exposure of the coarser feed to pulsed sonic energy.

  16. Mexican Seismic Alert System's SAS-I algorithm review considering strong earthquakes felt in Mexico City since 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Suarez, G.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Ramos Perez, S.; Camarillo Barranco, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) uses three algorithms for alert activation that involve the distance between the seismic sensing field station (FS) and the city to be alerted; and the forecast for earthquake early warning activation in the cities integrated to the system, for example in Mexico City, the earthquakes occurred with the highest accelerations, were originated in the Pacific Ocean coast, whose distance this seismic region and the city, favors the use of algorithm called Algorithm SAS-I. This algorithm, without significant changes since its beginning in 1991, employs the data that generate one or more FS during P wave detection until S wave detection plus a period equal to the time employed to detect these phases; that is the double S-P time, called 2*(S-P). In this interval, the algorithm performs an integration process of quadratic samples from FS which uses a triaxial accelerometer to get two parameters: amplitude and growth rate measured until 2*(S-P) time. The parameters in SAS-I are used in a Magnitude classifier model, which was made from Guerrero Coast earthquakes time series, with reference to Mb magnitude mainly. This algorithm activates a Public or Preventive Alert if the model predicts whether Strong or Moderate earthquake. The SAS-I algorithm has been operating for over 23 years in the subduction zone of the Pacific Coast of Mexico, initially in Guerrero and followed by Oaxaca; and since March 2012 in the seismic region of Pacific covering the coasts among Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca, where this algorithm has issued 16 Public Alert and 62 Preventive Alerts to the Mexico City where its soil conditions increase damages by earthquake such as the occurred in September 1985. This work shows the review of the SAS-I algorithm and possible alerts that it could generate from major earthquakes recordings detected by FS or seismometers near the earthquakes, coming from Pacific Ocean Coast whose have been felt in Mexico

  17. Implementation of an alert and response system in Haiti during the early stage of the response to the cholera epidemic.

    PubMed

    Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2013-10-01

    The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and

  18. Implementation of an Alert and Response System in Haiti during the Early Stage of the Response to the Cholera Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and

  19. Column flotation: Processes, designs and practices. Process engineering for the chemical, metals and minerals industry, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, J.B. . Flotation Equipment and Process Engineering Dept.)

    1994-01-01

    Practically all mined ores of non-ferrous and rare metals and an increasing share of industrial minerals and coal are processed through flotation. This book presents the analysis of a wide range of problems in the process theory of flotation columns, including the first published analysis of models of flotation froths. The experience of pilot tests and commercial applications of column flotation for mineral processing and in waste water treatment circuits are also considered. This is the first book to consider column flotation design and operation experience and to present data on column parameters. Topics include: design of flotation columns; aerators in flotation columns; experimental methods of column aerohydrodynamics investigation; aerohydrodynamic characteristics of flotation columns; experimental investigation of the flotation process in columns; kinetics aspects of column flotation; scaling-up methods for flotation columns; structure and mass transfer in flotation froths; column flotation practice; and column flotation control.

  20. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-07-29

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers' and cyclists' Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper.

  1. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-01-01

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers’ and cyclists’ Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper. PMID:26230695

  2. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different

  3. CUB DI (Deionization) column control system

    SciTech Connect

    K. C. Seino

    1999-07-02

    For the old MR (Main Ring), deionization was done with two columns in CUB, using an ion exchange process. Typically 65 GPM of LCW flew through a column, and the resistivity was raised from 3 Mohm-cm to over 12 Mohm-cm. After a few weeks, columns lost their effectiveness and had to be regenerated in a process involving backwashing and adding hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. For normal MR operations, LCW returned from the ring and passed through the two columns in parallel for deionization, although the system could have been operated satisfactorily with only one in use. A 3000 gallon reservoir (the Spheres) provided a reserve of LCW for allowing water leaks and expansions in the MR. During the MI (Main Injector) construction period, the third DI column was added to satisfy requirements for the MI. When the third column was added, the old regeneration controller was replaced with a new controller based on an Allen-Bradley PLC (i.e., SLC-5/04). The PLC is widely used and well documented, and therefore it may allow us to modify the regeneration programs in the future. In addition to the above regeneration controller, the old control panels (which were used to manipulate pumps and valves to supply LCW in Normal mode and to do Int. Recir. (Internal Recirculation) and Makeup) were replaced with a new control system based on Sixtrak Gateway and I/O modules. For simplicity, the new regeneration controller is called as the US Filter system, and the new control system is called as the Fermilab system in this writing.

  4. Dispersion characteristics in column flotation of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, F.F.; Lili, L.

    1995-10-01

    The dispersion model of nonideal flow was applied to describe the hydrodynamic state within the flotation column. Residence time distribution (RTD) data of a laboratory flotation column were measured to determine the parameters of the model. The effects of operating variables and column geometry on the Peclet number which reflects the extent of axial dispersion were investigated and a semi-empirical expression of Pe was formulated. The dispersion model was validated for the column flotation of ultrafines coal. Under the conditions of sufficient aeration rate and frother addition, a good agreement between the measured recoveries and predicted data was obtained. The dispersion model with first-order flotation rate process of the flotation column developed in this study is useful in predicting the collection zone recovery of fine coal, and for the flotation column scale-up.

  5. Clinically Inconsequential Alerts: The Characteristics of Opioid Drug Alerts and Their Utility in Preventing Adverse Drug Events in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Genco, Emma K.; Forster, Jeri E.; Flaten, Hanna; Goss, Foster; Heard, Kennon J.; Hoppe, Jason; Monte, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Study objective We examine the characteristics of clinical decision support alerts triggered when opioids are prescribed, including alert type, override rates, adverse drug events associated with opioids, and preventable adverse drug events. Methods This was a retrospective chart review study assessing adverse drug event occurrences for emergency department (ED) visits in a large urban academic medical center using a commercial electronic health record system with clinical decision support. Participants include those aged 18 to 89 years who arrived to the ED every fifth day between September 2012 and January 2013. The main outcome was characteristics of opioid drug alerts, including alert type, override rates, opioid-related adverse drug events, and adverse drug event preventability by clinical decision support. Results Opioid drug alerts were more likely to be overridden than nonopioid alerts (relative risk 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 1.50). Opioid drug-allergy alerts were twice as likely to be overridden (relative risk 2.24; 95% CI 1.74 to 2.89). Opioid duplicate therapy alerts were 1.57 times as likely to be overridden (95% CI 1.30 to 1.89). Fourteen of 4,581 patients experienced an adverse drug event (0.31%; 95% CI 0.15% to 0.47%), and 8 were due to opioids (57.1%). None of the adverse drug events were preventable by clinical decision support. However, 46 alerts were accepted for 38 patients that averted a potential adverse drug event. Overall, 98.9% of opioid alerts did not result in an actual or averted adverse drug event, and 96.3% of opioid alerts were overridden. Conclusion Overridden opioid alerts did not result in adverse drug events. Clinical decision support successfully prevented adverse drug events at the expense of generating a large volume of inconsequential alerts. To prevent 1 adverse drug event, providers dealt with more than 123 unnecessary alerts. It is essential to refine clinical decision support alerting systems to eliminate

  6. Method and apparatus for extraction of low-frequency artifacts from brain waves for alertness detection

    DOEpatents

    Clapp, N.E.; Hively, L.M.

    1997-05-06

    Methods and apparatus automatically detect alertness in humans by monitoring and analyzing brain wave signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave (EEG or MEG) data from the subject, digitizing the data, separating artifact data from raw data, and comparing trends in f-data to alertness indicators, providing notification of inadequate alertness. 4 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for extraction of low-frequency artifacts from brain waves for alertness detection

    DOEpatents

    Clapp, Ned E.; Hively, Lee M.

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus automatically detect alertness in humans by monitoring and analyzing brain wave signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave (EEG or MEG) data from the subject, digitizing the data, separating artifact data from raw data, and comparing trends in f-data to alertness indicators, providing notification of inadequate alertness.

  8. 47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the distress alert orally over the telephony distress traffic channel associated with each DSC channel... DSC channel on which the distress alert was transmitted; and (3) Tune for radiotelephony transmission... telephony distress traffic channel associated with each DSC channel on which the distress alert...

  9. Self-Alert Training: Volitional Modulation of Autonomic Arousal Improves Sustained Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Fitzgerald, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines a new alertness training strategy (Self-Alert Training, SAT) designed to explore the relationship between the top-down control processes governing arousal and sustained attention. In order to maximally target frontal control systems SAT combines a previously validated behavioural self-alerting technique [Robertson, I.…

  10. Characterizing and Managing Intrusion Detection System (IDS) Alerts with Multi-Server/Multi-Priority Queuing Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-26

    CHARACTERIZING AND MANAGING INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM (IDS) ALERTS WITH MULTI-SERVER/MULTI-PRIORITY...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-14-D-24 CHARACTERIZING AND MANAGING INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM (IDS) ALERTS WITH...IDS) ALERTS WITH MULTI-SERVER/MULTI-PRIORITY QUEUING THEORY Christopher C. Olsen, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  11. 75 FR 2105 - Publication of OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on Telemarketing by Durable Medical Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Alert on Telemarketing by Durable Medical Equipment Suppliers AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG... Special Fraud Alert addressing telemarketing by durable medical equipment (DME) suppliers. For the most part, OIG Special Fraud Alerts address national trends in health care fraud, including...

  12. 76 FR 81904 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice of intent to develop... Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts. DATES: To assure consideration... recommendations for developing new or revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us...

  13. 75 FR 26196 - Publication of OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on Telemarketing by Durable Medical Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Publication of OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on... published on January 10, 2010 (75 FR 2105), addressing our recently issued Updated Special Fraud Alert. Specifically, the Updated Special Fraud Alert addressed the statutory provision prohibiting durable...

  14. Developing an Early-Alert System to Promote Student Visits to Tutor Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Qijie; Lewis, Carrie L.; Higdon, Jude

    2015-01-01

    An early-alert system (MavCLASS) was developed and piloted in a large gateway math class with 611 freshman students to identify academically at-risk students and provide alert messages. It was found that there was significant association between the alert messages students received and their visits to the university's tutor center. Further, the…

  15. 75 FR 26269 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Public Alert and Warning Program's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Public Alert and Warning Program's Construction Projects AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... Public Alert and Warning Program (IPAWS). The construction actions will be taken to ensure that FEMA meets its responsibilities under Executive Order 13407, Public Alert and Warning System, by...

  16. Living with the Active Alert Child: Groundbreaking Strategies for Parents. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Linda S.

    Bright, controlling, fearful, and highly energetic, active alert children are frequently misdiagnosed as hyperactive or learning disabled. This book offers guidance for the special challenge of parenting the active alert infant, child, and adolescent. Part 1 of the book profiles the active alert child and examines 11 traits that characterize…

  17. 78 FR 49292 - American Medical Alert Corporation, DBA Tunstall, Clovis, New Mexico; Amended Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration American Medical Alert Corporation, DBA Tunstall, Clovis, New Mexico..., applicable to workers of American Medical Alert Corporation, doing business as Tunstall, Long Island City... of American Medical Alert Corporation, doing business as Tunstall, Clovis, New Mexico, who...

  18. 14 CFR 135.180 - Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.180 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System. (a) Unless otherwise... equipped with an approved traffic alert and collision avoidance system. If a TCAS II system is...

  19. 14 CFR 135.180 - Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.180 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System. (a) Unless otherwise... equipped with an approved traffic alert and collision avoidance system. If a TCAS II system is...

  20. 14 CFR 135.180 - Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.180 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System. (a) Unless otherwise... equipped with an approved traffic alert and collision avoidance system. If a TCAS II system is...

  1. 14 CFR 135.180 - Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.180 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System. (a) Unless otherwise... equipped with an approved traffic alert and collision avoidance system. If a TCAS II system is...

  2. 14 CFR 135.180 - Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.180 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System. (a) Unless otherwise... equipped with an approved traffic alert and collision avoidance system. If a TCAS II system is...

  3. Stationary phases for packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Poole, Colin F

    2012-08-10

    The properties of silica-based, chemically bonded, packed column stationary phases used in supercritical fluid chromatography are described with a focus on column design and retention mechanisms. Supercritical fluid chromatography has benefited substantially from innovations in column design for liquid chromatography even if the separation conditions employed are generally quite different. The mobile phase composition and column operating conditions play an interactive role in modifying selectivity in supercritical fluid chromatography by altering analyte solubility in the mobile phase and through selective solvation of the stationary phase resulting in a wider range and intensity of intermolecular interactions with the analyte. The solvation parameter model is used to identify the main parameters that affect retention in supercritical fluid chromatography using carbon dioxide-methanol as a mobile phase and as a basis for column characterization to facilitate the identification of stationary phases with different separation characteristics for method development. As a caution it is pointed out that these column characterization methods are possibly a product of both the stationary phase chemistry and the column operating conditions and are suitable for use only when columns of similar design and with similar operating conditions are used.

  4. The lateral column lengthening and medial column stabilization procedures.

    PubMed

    Chi, T D; Toolan, B C; Sangeorzan, B J; Hansen, S T

    1999-08-01

    The results of medial column stabilization, lateral column lengthening, and combined medial and lateral procedures were reviewed in the treatment of adult acquired flatfoot secondary to posterior tibialis tendon insufficiency. All bony procedures were accompanied by transfer of the flexor digitorum longus tendon to the medial cuneiform or stump of the posterior tibialis tendon and tendoachilles lengthening or gastrocnemius recession. Medial column fusion was performed for naviculocuneiform and cuneiform first metatarsal sag; lateral column lengthening was performed for calcaneovalgus deformity with a flat pitch angle; and combined procedures were performed for complex combined deformities. At 1 to 4 year followup of 65 feet, 88% of the feet that had lateral column lengthening, 80% that had medial column stabilization, and 88% of the feet that had medial and lateral procedures had a decrease in pain or were pain free. The lateral talar first metatarsal angle improved by 16 degrees in the patients in the lateral column lengthening group, 20 degrees in the patients in the medial column stabilization group, and 24 degrees in the patients in the combined medial and lateral procedures group. The anteroposterior talonavicular coverage angle improved by 14 degrees in the patients in the lateral column lengthening group, 10 degrees in the patients in the medial column stabilization group, and 14 degrees in the patients in the combined medial and lateral procedures group. These techniques effectively correct deformity without disrupting the essential joints of the hindfoot and midfoot.

  5. Design, testing, and simulation of microscale gas chromatography columns

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.L.; Kottenstette, R.; Matzke, C.M.; Frye-Mason, G.C.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Adkins, D.R.; Wong, C.C.

    1998-08-01

    A microscale gas chromatography column is one component in a microscale chemistry laboratory for detecting chemical agents. Several columns were fabricated using the Bosch etch process which allows deep, high aspect ratio channels of rectangular cross-section. A design tool, based on analytical models, was developed to evaluate the effects of operating conditions and column specifications on separation resolution and time. The effects of slip flow, channel configuration, and cross-sectional shape were included to evaluate the differences between conventional round, straight columns and the microscale rectangular, spiral columns. Experimental data were obtained and compared with the predicted flowrates and theoretical number of plates. The design tool was then employed to select more optimum channel dimensions and operating conditions for high resolution separations.

  6. Provider acceptance of an automated electronic alert for acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Janice; Bia, Joshua R.; Ubaid-Ullah, Muhamad; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Wilson, Francis Perry

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical decision support systems, including electronic alerts, ideally provide immediate and relevant patient-specific information to improve clinical decision-making. Despite the growing capabilities of such alerts in conjunction with an expanding electronic medical record, there is a paucity of information regarding their perceived usefulness. We surveyed healthcare providers' opinions concerning the practicality and efficacy of a specific text-based automated electronic alert for acute kidney injury (AKI) in a single hospital during a randomized trial of AKI alerts. Methods Providers who had received at least one electronic AKI alert in the previous 6 months, as part of a separate randomized controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov #01862419), were asked to complete a survey concerning their opinions about this specific AKI alert system. Individual approval of the alert system was defined by a provider's desire to continue receiving the alert after termination of the trial. Results A total of 98 individuals completed the survey, including 62 physicians, 27 pharmacists and 7 non-physician providers. Sixty-nine percent of responders approved the alert, with no significant difference among the various professions (P = 0.28). Alert approval was strongly correlated with the belief that the alerts improved patient care (P < 0.0001), and negatively correlated with the belief that alerts did not provide novel information (P = 0.0001). With each additional 30 days of trial duration, odds of approval decreased by 20% (3–35%) (P = 0.02). Conclusions The alert system was generally well received, although approval waned with time. Approval was correlated with the belief that this type of alert improved patient care. These findings suggest that perceived efficacy is critical to the success of future alert trials. PMID:27478598

  7. Mobility and Cloud: Operating in Intermittent, Austere Network Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    35 viii 2. Piracy Interdiction Use Case.............................................................38 E...38 Figure 11. Operational view: Piracy interdiction operation. .............................................40...Storage Service SAR Search and Rescue SATCOM satellite communications SIPRNET Secret Internet Protocol Router Network SSAS Ship Security Alert System

  8. SC-228 Inclusion of DAA Warning Alert for TCAS Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fern, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This white paper summarizes NASA research results that have informed Special Committee 228 (SC-228) discussions and decisions regarding the inclusion of a warning-level alert within the detect and avoid (DAA) alerting structure for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). For UAS, the removal of the pilot from onboard the aircraft has eliminated the ability of the ground-based pilot in command (PIC) to use out-the-window visual information to make judgments about a potential threat of a loss of well clear with another aircraft. As a result, the DAA traffic display will be the primary source of information that the PIC can use to execute the three primary well clear functions: 1) detect a potential loss of well clear, 2) determine a resolution maneuver, and 3) upload that maneuver to the aircraft via the ground control station (GCS). In addition, pilots are required to coordinate with air traffic control (ATC) prior to maneuvering off of their approved flight plan. In determining an appropriate resolution maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear, the PIC must decide both when and how to maneuver, and both the timeliness and the accuracy (i.e., correctness) of the maneuver are critical to reducing the likelihood and/or severity of a loss of well clear. Alerting information is one of three critical components of the DAA display, along with traffic information elements (e.g., relative heading, speed and altitude) and maneuver guidance. Alerting information and maneuver guidance, in particular, have been found to have a significant impact, both statistically and practically, on pilots' ability to avoid and minimize the severity of losses of well clear While all three display components are key to pilots performing the traffic avoidance task of remaining well clear, in general, alerting information provides crucial information about when a resolution maneuver is required while maneuver guidance assists the pilot in determining how best to maneuver. A fundamental task of the DAA

  9. ECG Holter monitor with alert system and mobile application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teron, Abigail C.; Rivera, Pedro A.; Goenaga, Miguel A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a new approach on the Holter monitor by creating a portable Electrocardiogram (ECG) Holter monitor that will alert the user by detecting abnormal heart beats using a digital signal processing software. The alarm will be triggered when the patient experiences arrhythmias such as bradycardia and tachycardia. The equipment is simple, comfortable and small in size that fit in the hand. It can be used at any time and any moment by placing three leads to the person's chest which is connected to an electronic circuit. The ECG data will be transmitted via Bluetooth to the memory of a selected mobile phone using an application that will store the collected data for up to 24 hrs. The arrhythmia is identified by comparing the reference signals with the user's signal. The diagnostic results demonstrate that the ECG Holter monitor alerts the user when an arrhythmia is detected thru the Holter monitor and mobile application.

  10. Analysis of volcanic activity patterns using MODIS thermal alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, Dave A.; Coppola, Diego; Saunders, Charlotte

    2005-07-01

    We investigate eruptive activity by analysis of thermal-alert data from the MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) thermal infrared satellite instrument, detected by the MODVOLC (MODIS Volcano alert) algorithm. These data are openly available on the Internet, and easy to use. We show how such data can plug major gaps in the conventional monitoring record of volcanoes in an otherwise generally poorly documented region (Melanesia), including: characterising the mechanism of lava effusion at Pago; demonstrating an earlier-than-realised onset of lava effusion at Lopevi; extending the known period of lava lake activity at Ambrym; and confirming ongoing activity at Bagana, Langila and Tinakula. We also add to the record of activity even at some generally better-monitored volcanoes in Indonesia, but point out that care must be taken to recognise and exclude fires.

  11. Study of Integration Considerations for Wireless Emergency Alerts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Valley, California • Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, Washington, D.C. • EAS Committee, Wisconsin • National...Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T).1 This report, Study of Integration Strategy Considerations for Wireless...system. As alerting technology evolves, and as EMA jurisdictions grow and change, the scale and need for coordination increas- es. The subsequent

  12. Hazard alerting and situational awareness in advanced air transport cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. J.; Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Mykityshyn, Mark; Hahn, Edward; Midkiff, Alan

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the Advanced Cockpit Simulation Facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is presented. Though detailed results depend on the specific application, graphical presentation of flight control and alert information has generally been found to be effective for situational awareness and subjectively selected by flight crews. Graphical display is most effective when it is consistent with the pilots cognitive map of the process being displayed or of the situation.

  13. Why Hexagonal Basalt Columns?

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Martin; Anderssohn, Robert; Bahr, Hans-Achim; Weiß, Hans-Jürgen; Nellesen, Jens

    2015-10-09

    Basalt columns with their preferably hexagonal cross sections are a fascinating example of pattern formation by crack propagation. Junctions of three propagating crack faces rearrange such that the initial right angles between them tend to approach 120°, which enables the cracks to form a pattern of regular hexagons. To promote understanding of the path on which the ideal configuration can be reached, two periodically repeatable models are presented here involving linear elastic fracture mechanics and applying the principle of maximum energy release rate. They describe the evolution of the crack pattern as a transition from rectangular start configuration to the hexagonal pattern. This is done analytically and by means of three-dimensional finite element simulation. The latter technique reproduces the curved crack path involved in this transition.

  14. Modulations among the alerting, orienting and executive control networks.

    PubMed

    Callejas, Alicia; Lupiàñez, Juan; Funes, María Jesús; Tudela, Pío

    2005-11-01

    This paper reports a series of experiments that were carried out in order to study the attentional system. Three networks make up this system, and each of them specializes in particular processes. The executive control network specializes in control processes, such as conflict resolution or detection of errors; the orienting network directs the processing system to the source of input and enhances its processing; the alerting network prepares the system for a fast response by maintaining an adequate level of activation in the cognitive system. Recently, Fan and collaborators [J Cogn Neurosci 14(3):340-347, 2002] designed a task to measure the efficiency of each network. We modified Fan's task to test the influences among the networks. We found that the executive control network is inhibited by the alerting network, whereas the orienting network raises the efficiency of the executive control network (Experiment 1). We also found that the alerting network influences the orienting network by speeding up its time course function (Experiment 2). Results were replicated in a third experiment, proving the effects to be stable over time, participants and experimental context, and to be potentially important as a tool for neuropsychological assessment.

  15. Real-Time Mapping alert system; user's manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has an extensive hydrologic network that records and transmits precipitation, stage, discharge, and other water- related data on a real-time basis to an automated data processing system. Data values are recorded on electronic data collection platforms at field monitoring sites. These values are transmitted by means of orbiting satellites to receiving ground stations, and by way of telecommunication lines to a U.S. Geological Survey office where they are processed on a computer system. Data that exceed predefined thresholds are identified as alert values. These alert values can help keep water- resource specialists informed of current hydrologic conditions. The current alert status at monitoring sites is of critical importance during floods, hurricanes, and other extreme hydrologic events where quick analysis of the situation is needed. This manual provides instructions for using the Real-Time Mapping software, a series of computer programs developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for quick analysis of hydrologic conditions, and guides users through a basic interactive session. The software provides interactive graphics display and query of real-time information in a map-based, menu-driven environment.

  16. Discovering structural alerts for mutagenicity using stable emerging molecular patterns.

    PubMed

    Métivier, Jean-Philippe; Lepailleur, Alban; Buzmakov, Aleksey; Poezevara, Guillaume; Crémilleux, Bruno; Kuznetsov, Sergei O; Le Goff, Jérémie; Napoli, Amedeo; Bureau, Ronan; Cuissart, Bertrand

    2015-05-26

    This study is dedicated to the introduction of a novel method that automatically extracts potential structural alerts from a data set of molecules. These triggering structures can be further used for knowledge discovery and classification purposes. Computation of the structural alerts results from an implementation of a sophisticated workflow that integrates a graph mining tool guided by growth rate and stability. The growth rate is a well-established measurement of contrast between classes. Moreover, the extracted patterns correspond to formal concepts; the most robust patterns, named the stable emerging patterns (SEPs), can then be identified thanks to their stability, a new notion originating from the domain of formal concept analysis. All of these elements are explained in the paper from the point of view of computation. The method was applied to a molecular data set on mutagenicity. The experimental results demonstrate its efficiency: it automatically outputs a manageable number of structural patterns that are strongly related to mutagenicity. Moreover, a part of the resulting structures corresponds to already known structural alerts. Finally, an in-depth chemical analysis relying on these structures demonstrates how the method can initiate promising processes of chemical knowledge discovery.

  17. Addressing Inpatient Glycaemic Control with an Inpatient Glucometry Alert System

    PubMed Central

    Seheult, J. N.; Pazderska, A.; Gaffney, P.; Fogarty, J.; Sherlock, M.; Gibney, J.; Boran, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor inpatient glycaemic control has a prevalence exceeding 30% and results in increased length of stay and higher rates of hospital complications and inpatient mortality. The aim of this study was to improve inpatient glycaemic control by developing an alert system to process point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) results. Methods. Microsoft Excel Macros were developed for the processing of daily glucometry data downloaded from the Cobas IT database. Alerts were generated according to ward location for any value less than 4 mmol/L (hypoglycaemia) or greater than 15 mmol/L (moderate-severe hyperglycaemia). The Diabetes Team provided a weekday consult service for patients flagged on the daily reports. This system was implemented for a 60-day period. Results. There was a statistically significant 20% reduction in the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted values >15 mmol/L compared to the preimplementation period without a significant change in the percentage of hypoglycaemic values. The time-to-next-reading after a dysglycaemic POC-BG result was reduced by 14% and the time-to-normalization of a dysglycaemic result was reduced from 10.2 hours to 8.4 hours. Conclusion. The alert system reduced the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted glucose values and the time-to-normalization of blood glucose. PMID:26290664

  18. 'Desa SIAGA', the 'Alert Village': the evolution of an iconic brand in Indonesian public health strategies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Goeman, Lieve; Sofiarini, Rahmi; Djara, Maddi M

    2014-07-01

    In 1999, the Ministry of Women's Empowerment in Indonesia worked with advertisers in Jakarta and international technical advisors to develop the concept of 'Suami SIAGA', the 'Alert Husband', confronting Indonesian males with their responsibilities to be aware of their wives' needs and ensure early access if needed to trained obstetrics care. The model was rapidly expanded to apply to the 'Desa SIAGA', the 'Alert Village', with communities assuming the responsibility for awareness of the risks of pregnancy and childbirth, and supporting registered pregnant mothers with funding and transportation for emergency obstetric assistance, and identified blood donors. Based on the participant observation, interviews and documentary analysis, this article uses a systems perspective to trace the evolution of that iconic 'brand' as new national and international actors further developed the concept and its application in provincial and national programmes. In 2010, it underwent a further transformation to become 'Desa Siaga Aktif', a national programme with responsibilities expanded to include the provision of basic health services at village level, and the surveillance of communicable disease, monitoring of lifestyle activities and disaster preparedness, in addition to the management of obstetric emergencies. By tracking the use of this single 'brand', the study provides insights into the complex adaptive system of policy and programme development with its rich interactions between multiple international, national, provincial and sectoral stakeholders, the unpredictable responses to feedback from these actors and their activities and the resultant emergence of new policy elements, new programmes and new levels of operation within the system.

  19. Buckling of a holey column.

    PubMed

    Pihler-Puzović, D; Hazel, A L; Mullin, T

    2016-09-14

    We report the results from a combined experimental and numerical investigation of buckling in a novel variant of an elastic column under axial load. We find that including a regular line of centred holes in the column can prevent conventional, global, lateral buckling. Instead, the local microstructure introduced by the holes allows the column to buckle in an entirely different, internal, mode in which the holes are compressed in alternate directions, but the column maintains the lateral reflection symmetry about its centreline. The internal buckling mode can be accommodated within a smaller external space than the global one; and it is the preferred buckling mode over an intermediate range of column lengths for sufficiently large holes. For very short or sufficiently long columns a modification of the classical, global, lateral buckling is dominant.

  20. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and column operations for the removal of hazardous dye, Tartrazine from aqueous solutions using waste materials--Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha

    2006-08-25

    Adsorbents, Bottom Ash (a power plant waste) and De-Oiled Soya (an agricultural waste) exhibit good efficacy to adsorb a highly toxic dye, Tartrazine. Through the batch technique equilibrium uptake of the dye is observed at different concentrations, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents and sieve size of adsorbents. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms are successfully employed on both the adsorbents and on the basis of these models the thermodynamic parameters are evaluated. Kinetic investigations reveal that more than 50% adsorption of dye is achieved in about 1h in both the cases, whereas, equilibrium establishment takes about 3-4h. The linear plots obtained in rate constant and mass transfer studies further confirm the applicability of first order rate expression and mass transfer model, respectively. The kinetic data treated to identify rate controlling step of the ongoing adsorption processes indicate that for both the systems, particle diffusion process is predominant at higher concentrations, while film diffusion takes place at lower concentrations. The column studies reveal that about 96% saturation of both the columns is attained during their exhaustion, while about 88 and 84% of the dye material is recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns, respectively.

  1. Revealing the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness using fMRI: methodological peculiarities.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Benjamin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Sack, Alexander T; Sack, Alexander; Heinecke, Armin; Willmes, Klaus; Sturm, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Clinical observations and neuroimaging data revealed a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal-thalamic-brainstem network for intrinsic alertness, and additional left fronto-parietal activity during phasic alertness. The primary objective of this fMRI study was to map the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness as precisely as possible in healthy participants, using a novel assessment paradigm already employed in clinical settings. Both the paradigm and the experimental design were optimized to specifically assess intrinsic alertness, while at the same time controlling for sensory-motor processing. The present results suggest that the processing of intrinsic alertness is accompanied by increased activity within the brainstem, thalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, right insula, and right parietal cortex. Additionally, we found increased activation in the left hemisphere around the middle frontal gyrus (BA 9), the insula, the supplementary motor area, and the cerebellum. Our results further suggest that rather minute aspects of the experimental design may induce aspects of phasic alertness, which in turn might lead to additional brain activation in left-frontal areas not normally involved in intrinsic alertness. Accordingly, left BA 9 activation may be related to co-activation of the phasic alertness network due to the switch between rest and task conditions functioning as an external warning cue triggering the phasic alertness network. Furthermore, activation of the intrinsic alertness network during fixation blocks due to enhanced expectancy shortly before the switch to the task block might, when subtracted from the task block, lead to diminished activation in the typical right hemisphere intrinsic alertness network. Thus, we cautiously suggest that--as a methodological artifact--left frontal activations might show up due to phasic alertness involvement and intrinsic alertness activations might be weakened due to contrasting with fixation blocks, when assessing the

  2. Improving the health forecasting alert system for cold weather and heat-waves in England: a case-study approach using temperature-mortality relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masato, Giacomo; Cavany, Sean; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Dacre, Helen; Bone, Angie; Carmicheal, Katie; Murray, Virginia; Danker, Rutger; Neal, Rob; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    The health forecasting alert system for cold weather and heatwaves currently in use in the Cold Weather and Heatwave plans for England is based on 5 alert levels, with levels 2 and 3 dependent on a forecast or actual single temperature action trigger. Epidemiological evidence indicates that for both heat and cold, the impact on human health is gradual, with worsening impact for more extreme temperatures. The 60% risk of heat and cold forecasts used by the alerts is a rather crude probabilistic measure, which could be substantially improved thanks to the state-of-the-art forecast techniques. In this study a prototype of a new health forecasting alert system is developed, which is aligned to the approach used in the Met Office's (MO) National Severe Weather Warning Service (NSWWS). This is in order to improve information available to responders in the health and social care system by linking temperatures more directly to risks of mortality, and developing a system more coherent with other weather alerts. The prototype is compared to the current system in the Cold Weather and Heatwave plans via a case-study approach to verify its potential advantages and shortcomings. The prototype health forecasting alert system introduces an "impact vs likelihood matrix" for the health impacts of hot and cold temperatures which is similar to those used operationally for other weather hazards as part of the NSWWS. The impact axis of this matrix is based on existing epidemiological evidence, which shows an increasing relative risk of death at extremes of outdoor temperature beyond a threshold which can be identified epidemiologically. The likelihood axis is based on a probability measure associated with the temperature forecast. The new method is tested for two case studies (one during summer 2013, one during winter 2013), and compared to the performance of the current alert system. The prototype shows some clear improvements over the current alert system. It allows for a much greater

  3. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  4. New aspects in the theory and practice of column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, J.; Badenicov, V.

    1995-12-31

    The high efficiency of column flotation allows a reduction in process time, a decrease in the number of cleaner stages and in the volume of the circulating load in the flotation circuit, and, as a result of this, an increase in consistency and reliability of operations. Unique multisectional column flotation apparatuses were developed. To attain that aim particular hydrodynamics and aeration regime is established in each section of the column, operational variables being adjusted according to the floatability of the material. Therefore in multisectional column machines, the material-apparatus feedback can be established, and process variables optimized depending on the characteristics of the floated materials. Successful operation was reported of the new generation of columns with cell volumes of 10 to 80 m{sup 3} and the height of 4--6 m in copper, molybdenum, antimony, tungsten and nickel ores and coal slurry processing at different plants. Operational experience of these cells showed their considerable design and operational advantages and verified the proposed options and relationships. The new apparatus is provided with a pneumohydraulic aerator allowing to control bubble size distribution, the service life of the aerator is not less than two years. A multilevel flotation model was developed and used to work out a technique of column design and process parameters calculation. A method of the apparatus design parameters calculation based on laboratory test results (scaling up) was worked out.

  5. Discovery of an Extreme MeV Blazar with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, R. M.; Markwardt, C. B.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Tueller, J.; Hartman, R.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D> P.; Falcone, A.; Cucchiara, A.; Aller, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift detected bright emission from 15-195 keV from the source SWIFT J0746.3+2548 (J0746 in the following), identified with the optically-faint (R approx. 19), z=2.979 quasar SDSS J074625.87+244901.2. Here we present Swift and multiwavelength observations of this source. The X-ray emission from J0746 is variable on timescales of hours to weeks in 0.5-8 keV and of a few months in 15-195 keV, but there is no accompanying spectral variability in the 0.5-8 keV band. There is a suggestion that the BAT spectrum, initially very hard (photon index Gamma approx. 0.7), steepened to Gamma approx. 1.3 in a few months, together with a decrease of the 15-195 keV flux by a factor approx. 2. The 0.5-8 keV continuum is well described by a power law with Gamma approx. 1.3, and spectral flattening below 1 keV. The latter can be described with a column density in excess of the Galactic value with intrinsic column density Nz(sub H) approx. 10(exp 22)/sq cm , or with a flatter power law, implying a sharp (Delta(Gamma) less than or approx. 1) break across 16 keV in the quasar's rest-frame. The Spectral Energy Distribution of J0746 is double-humped, with the first component peaking at IR wavelengths and the second component at MeV energies. These properties suggest that J0746 is a a blazar with high gamma-ray luminosity and low peak energy (MeV) stretching the blazar sequence to an extreme.

  6. Clinical comparison of the Bactec Mycosis IC/F, BacT/Alert FA, and BacT/Alert FN blood culture vials for the detection of candidemia.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Eva-Lena; Klingspor, Lena; Ullberg, Måns; Ozenci, Volkan

    2012-06-01

    The present study analyzed the performance of Bactec Mycosis IC/F, BacT/Alert FA, and BacT/Alert FN vials in detection and time to detection (TTD) of Candida spp. in 179 simultaneous blood cultures. The Mycosis IC/F, BacT/Alert FA, and BacT/Alert FN vials could detect Candida spp. in 144 (80.45%) of 179, 149 (83.24%) of 179, and 8 (4.47%) of 179 samples, respectively. With the presence of antifungal therapy, the numbers of positive vials were higher in BacT/Alert FA compared to Mycosis IC/F, 87/99 versus 73/99, respectively (P < 0.05). TTD (SD) for C. albicans was shorter in Mycosis IC/F than in BacT/Alert FA vials without antifungal therapy, 20.89 (9.33) versus 28.26 (9.77), respectively (P < 0.01). The detection of Candida spp., with concomitant bacteremia, was higher in Mycosis IC/F than in BacT/Alert FA vials, 28/30 and 19/30, respectively (P = 0.01). The present data show that the use of Bactec Mycosis IC/F together with BacT/Alert FA vials might improve the detection of Candida spp.

  7. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians. PMID:23230533

  8. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G.H.; Mankosa, M.J.; Adel, G.T.; Yoon, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Testing of micro-bubble column flotation continued. Work during this time frame was concentrated on completion of the automated control and data acquisition system and the factorial test plan for evaluating the performance of the 8-foot column (Tasks 2.5 and 3.3). Preliminary results obtained from the factorial test program indicate that higher frother addition and aeration rates result in a higher separation efficiency. Furthermore, an increase in collector dosage results in higher column yields under most conditions. The Allen-Bradley PLC has been installed and program development completed for control of the 8-foot column. A completely automated start-up and shut-down sequence has been developed. This sequence can be initiated by the operator from a plant floor industrial interface. Instrumentation of the 30-inch column has also been completed. Testing of this instrumentation is currently underway. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands During Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy Ruth; Hansman, R. John; Corker, Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Cockpit alerting systems monitor potentially hazardous situations, both inside and outside the aircraft. When a hazard is projected to occur, the alerting system displays alerts and/or command decisions to the pilot. However, pilots have been observed to not conform to alerting system commands by delaying their response or by not following the automatic commands exactly. This non-conformance to the automatic alerting system can reduce its benefit. Therefore, a need exists to understand the causes and effects of pilot non-conformance in order to develop automatic alerting systems whose commands the pilots are more likely to follow. These considerations were examined through flight simulator evaluations of the collision avoidance task during closely spaced parallel approaches. This task provided a useful case-study because the effects of non-conformance can be significant, given the time-critical nature of the task. A preliminary evaluation of alerting systems identified non-conformance in over 40% of the cases and a corresponding drop in collision avoidance performance. A follow-on experiment found subjects' alerting and maneuver selection criteria were consistent with different strategies than those used by automatic systems, indicating the pilot may potentially disagree with the alerting system if the pilot attempts to verify automatic alerts and commanded avoidance maneuvers. A final experiment found supporting automatic alerts with the explicit display of its underlying criteria resulted in more consistent subject reactions. In light of these experimental results, a general discussion of pilot non-conformance is provided. Contributing factors in pilot non-conformance include a lack of confidence in the automatic system and mismatches between the alerting system's commands and the pilots' own decisions based on the information available to them. The effects of non-conformance on system performance are discussed. Possible methods of reconciling mismatches are

  10. Automatic connector joins structural columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemin, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    Connector snap-locks over toothed bolthead mounted on column end, forming rigid joint that will not bend or twist. Connector is used in conventional construction to install temporary structures or as mechanical coupler. Up to nine receptacles can be clustered in one node to join up to nine converging columns.

  11. An Undergraduate Column Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danot, M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for an experiment designed to introduce undergraduate students to the theoretical and technical aspects of column chromatography. The experiment can also be shortened to serve as a demonstration of the column chromatography technique. (JN)

  12. Evaluation of a National Call Center and a Local Alerts System for Detection of New Cases of Ebola Virus Disease - Guinea, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher T; Bulterys, Marc; Martel, Lise D; Dahl, Benjamin A

    2016-03-11

    The epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa began in Guinea in late 2013 (1), and on August 8, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (2). Guinea was declared Ebola-free on December 29, 2015, and is under a 90 day period of enhanced surveillance, following 3,351 confirmed and 453 probable cases of Ebola and 2,536 deaths (3). Passive surveillance for Ebola in Guinea has been conducted principally through the use of a telephone alert system. Community members and health facilities report deaths and suspected Ebola cases to local alert numbers operated by prefecture health departments or to a national toll-free call center. The national call center additionally functions as a source of public health information by responding to questions from the public about Ebola. To evaluate the sensitivity of the two systems and compare the sensitivity of the national call center with the local alerts system, the CDC country team performed probabilistic record linkage of the combined prefecture alerts database, as well as the national call center database, with the national viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) database; the VHF database contains records of all known confirmed Ebola cases. Among 17,309 alert calls analyzed from the national call center, 71 were linked to 1,838 confirmed Ebola cases in the VHF database, yielding a sensitivity of 3.9%. The sensitivity of the national call center was highest in the capital city of Conakry (11.4%) and lower in other prefectures. In comparison, the local alerts system had a sensitivity of 51.1%. Local public health infrastructure plays an important role in surveillance in an epidemic setting.

  13. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  14. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  15. Application of a weather stress index for alerting the public to stressful weather in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P. W.; Chan, S. T.

    2000-12-01

    An operational procedure for alerting the public of stressful weather (exceptionally hot and cold situations) in Hong Kong has been implemented since late 1997. From a 28-year (1968-1995) climatological database, criteria based on a weather stress index (WSI) was established to define stressful weather conditions. A special bulletin is issued to the public when exceptionally high (hot, i.e. [greater-than-or-equal] 97.5%) or low (cold, i.e. [less-than-or-equal] 2.5%) WSI is forecast. The bulletin provides information on current or predicted stressful weather conditions as well as statements on precautionary action to take. A study was also carried out to examine the effects of WSI on mortality rates on days with extreme WSI. Preliminary results indicate that there was a relationship between low WSI and mortality rates in winter. In summer, however, the results were not conclusive.

  16. Personalized Alert Notifications and Evacuation Routes in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Ignacio; Yu, Shuxin; Díaz, Paloma; Acuña, Pablo; Onorati, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The preparedness phase is crucial in the emergency management process for reaching an adequate level of readiness to react to potential threats and hazards. During this phase, emergency plans are developed to establish, among other procedures, evacuation and emergency escape routes. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can support and improve these procedures providing appropriate, updated and accessible information to all people in the affected zone. Current emergency management and evacuation systems do not adapt information to the context and the profile of each person, so messages received in the emergency might be useless. In this paper, we propose a set of criteria that ICT-based systems could achieve in order to avoid this problem adapting emergency alerts and evacuation routes to different situations and people. Moreover, in order to prove the applicability of such criteria, we define a mechanism that can be used as a complement of traditional evacuation systems to provide personalized alerts and evacuation routes to all kinds of people during emergency situations in working places. This mechanism is composed by three main components: CAP-ONES for notifying emergency alerts, NERES for defining emergency plans and generating personalized evacuation routes, and iNeres as the interface to receive and visualize these routes on smartphones. The usability and understandability of proposed interface has been assessed through a user study performed in a fire simulation in an indoor environment. This evaluation demonstrated that users considered iNeres easy to understand, to learn and to use, and they also found very innovative the idea to use smartphones as a support for escaping instead of static signals on walls and doors. PMID:22969373

  17. Disparities in Discontinuing Rosiglitazone Following the 2007 FDA Safety Alert

    PubMed Central

    Qato, Danya M.; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent; Dore, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Responsiveness to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rosiglitazone safety alert, issued on May 21, 2007, has not been examined among vulnerable subpopulations of the elderly. Objective To compare time to discontinuation of rosiglitazone after the safety alert between black and white elderly persons, and across sociodemographic and economic subgroups. Research Design A cohort study. Subjects Medicare fee-for-service enrollees in 2007 who were established users of rosiglitazone identified from a 20% national sample of pharmacy claims. Measures Outcome of interest was time to discontinuation of rosiglitazone after the May alert. We modeled the number of days following the warning to the end of the days’ supply for the last rosiglitazone claim during the study period (May 21, 2007–December 31, 2007) using multivariable proportional hazards models. Results More than 67% of enrollees discontinued rosiglitazone within six months of the advisory. In adjusted analysis, white enrollees (hazard ratio = 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.86–0.94) discontinued rosiglitazone later than the comparison group of black enrollees. Enrollees with a history of low personal income also discontinued later than their comparison group (hazard ratio = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.81–0.87). There were no observed differences across quintiles of area-level socioeconomic status. Conclusions White race and a history of low personal income modestly predicted later discontinuation of rosiglitazone after the FDA’s safety advisory in 2007. The impact of FDA advisories can vary among sociodemographic groups. Policymakers should continue to monitor whether risk management policies reach their intended populations. PMID:26978569

  18. Helicopter acoustic alerting system for high-security facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Robert L.; Hansen, Scott; Park, Chris; Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Helicopters present a serious threat to high security facilities such as prisons, nuclear sites, armories, and VIP compounds. They have the ability to instantly bypass conventional security measures focused on ground threats such as fences, check-points, and intrusion sensors. Leveraging the strong acoustic signature inherent in all helicopters, this system would automatically detect, classify, and accurately track helicopters using multi-node acoustic sensor fusion. An alert would be generated once the threat entered a predefined 3-dimension security zone in time for security personnel to repel the assault. In addition the system can precisely identify the landing point on the facility grounds.

  19. A parametric study of fine coal cleaning using column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Groppo, J.G.; Bland, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Recovery of fine coal is becoming an important and integral part of coal cleaning plants. Conventional froth flotation, which is commonly used in the coal industry, is inefficient at cleaning fine coal which contains large amounts of ultrafine ash or clays. The Kentucky Center for Energy Research Laboratory (KCERL) has been investigating an alternative method, counter-current column flotation, which is widely used in the mineral industry. Through an advanced cell design and counter-current wash of the froth, column flotation can produce a low-ash, clean coal product without sacrificing combustible recovery. An experimental program was conducted using a 2-inch internal diameter Canadian column flotation cell to examine the effect of various operating parameters on clean coal recovery and quality. The study investigated six operational parameters: feed rate, frother concentration, air flow rate, column height, pulp density and wash water rate.

  20. Evaluating two process scale chromatography column header designs using CFD.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Antoniou, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chromatography is an indispensable unit operation in the downstream processing of biomolecules. Scaling of chromatographic operations typically involves a significant increase in the column diameter. At this scale, the flow distribution within a packed bed could be severely affected by the distributor design in process scale columns. Different vendors offer process scale columns with varying design features. The effect of these design features on the flow distribution in packed beds and the resultant effect on column efficiency and cleanability needs to be properly understood in order to prevent unpleasant surprises on scale-up. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides a cost-effective means to explore the effect of various distributor designs on process scale performance. In this work, we present a CFD tool that was developed and validated against experimental dye traces and tracer injections. Subsequently, the tool was employed to compare and contrast two commercially available header designs.

  1. Optimization of bubble column performance for nanoparticle collection.

    PubMed

    Cadavid-Rodriguez, M C; Charvet, A; Bemer, D; Thomas, D

    2014-04-30

    Fibrous media embody the most effective and widely used method of separating ultrafine particles from a carrier fluid. The main problem associated with them is filter clogging, which induces an increasingly marked pressure drop with time and thus imposes regular media cleaning or replacement. This context has prompted the idea of investigating bubble columns, which operate at constant pressure drop, as alternatives to fibrous filters. This study examines the influence of different operating conditions, such as liquid height, air flow rate, bubble size and presence of granular beds on ultrafine particle collection. Experimental results show that bubble columns are characterised by high collection efficiency, when they feature a large liquid height and small diameter bubbling orifices, while their efficiencies remain lower than those of fibrous filters. Gas velocity does not greatly influence collection efficiency, but the inclusion of a granular bed, composed of beads, increases the bubble residence time in the column, thereby increasing the column collection efficiency.

  2. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    A project to evaluate the performance of the Virginia Tech Microbubble Column Flotation (MCF) process in an operating coal preparation plant was initiated during this past quarter. The project is concerned with the collection of process operating data using a 30-inch diameter column, and using this data to scale-up to a prototype, full-scale plant column. The work is being carried out at the Marrowbone Preparation Plant owned by the Shell Mining Corporation. Work has primarily concentrated on finalizing the project work plan (Task 2.1 -- Project Planning), instrumenting the 30-inch diameter column (Task 2.2 -- Advanced Instrumentation) and conducting a preliminary parametric study to evaluate the performance of the column (Task 2.3 -- Detailed Testing). To date, the column has been consistently capable of producing a 9.5% ash product at a 61% combustible recovery from a -150 mesh classifying cyclone overflow containing 55--60% ash at 3--5% solids. Tests conducted over an extended period of time indicate that the column consistently maintains grade in spite of fluctuations in the feed characteristics. 12 figs.

  3. [Computer alert and quality of care: application to the surveillance of hospital infections].

    PubMed

    Safran, E; Pittet, D; Borst, F; Thurler, G; Schulthess, P; Rebouillat, L; Lagana, M; Berney, J P; Berthoud, M; Copin, P

    1994-11-01

    The Centre Informatique of Geneva University Hospital is developing, in the environment of its hospital information system, DIOGENE, a computerized alert system for surveillance of hospital infections. This hospital information system is based on an open distributed architecture and a relational database system, and covers many medical applications. This environment allows the development of alerts useful for detecting patients at risk. The alerts offer to clinicians a mean to control their efficacy in patient care. They are a new application of telematics for surveillance in clinical epidemiology, and are a tool for quality assurance. Two examples of alerts established for hospital infection control activities are presented. The first alert systematically detects all cases of patients colonized by or infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The second alert helps to organize prospective surveillance of bloodstream infections in order to identify some risk factors for infection and propose preventive measures.

  4. Using electronic health record alerts to provide public health situational awareness to clinicians.

    PubMed

    Lurio, Joseph; Morrison, Frances P; Pichardo, Michelle; Berg, Rachel; Buck, Michael D; Wu, Winfred; Kitson, Kwame; Mostashari, Farzad; Calman, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Alerting providers to public health situations requires timeliness and context-relevance, both lacking in current systems. Incorporating decision support tools into electronic health records may provide a way to deploy public health alerts to clinicians at the point of care. A timely process for responding to Health Alert Network messages sent by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene was developed by a network of community health centers. Alerts with order sets and recommended actions were created to notify primary care providers of local disease outbreaks. The process, effect, and lessons learned from alerts for Legionella, toxogenic E coli, and measles outbreaks are described. Electronic alerts have the potential to improve management of diseases during an outbreak, including appropriate laboratory testing, management guidance, and diagnostic assistance as well as to enhance bi-directional data exchange between clinical and public health organizations.

  5. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope Detected Seyfert 1 Galaxies: X-Ray Broadband Properties and Warm Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I K[alpha] emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with Nwarm [approx] 1021 cm-2, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat [Gamma] [approx] 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  6. Automated Inhaled Nitric Oxide Alerts for Adult Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Patient Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Automated inhaled nitric oxide alerts for adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patient identification Slava M. Belenkiy, MD, Andriy I...Josè Salinas, PhD, and Jeremy W. Cannon, MD, San Antonio, Texas BACKGROUND: Recently, automated alerts have been used to identify patients with...initiating ECMO. This case series summarizes our experience with using automated electronic alerts for ECMO team activation focused particularly on an

  7. 981: Evaluation of Burn Sepsis Automated Alerts in an Intensive Care Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    DEC 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 981:Evaluation of Burn Sepsis Automated Alerts in an Intensive Care...BURN SEPSIS AUTOMATED ALERTS IN AN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT Elizabeth Mann-Salinas1, Nicole Caldwell1, Maria Serio-Melvin1, David Luellen1, Kevin Chung1...the burn unit initiated Sepsis Alert soft- ware. Continuous electronic medical record (EMR) screening used novel predic- tors of burn sepsis (Burn6

  8. Seismic behavior of lightweight concrete columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbat, B. G.; Daniel, J. I.; Weinmann, T. L.; Hanson, N. W.

    1982-09-01

    Sixteen full-scale, column-beam assemblies, which represented a portion of a frame subjected to simulated seismic loading, were tested. Controlled test parameters included concrete type, column size, amount of main column steel, size and spacing of column confining hoops, and magnitude of column axial load. The columns were subjected to constant axial load and slow moment reversals at increasing inelastic deformations. Test data showed that properly designed lightweight concrete columns maintained ductility and strength when subjected to large inelastic deformations from load reversals. Confinement requirements for normal weight concrete columns were shown to be applicable to lightweight concrete columns up to thirty percent of the design strength.

  9. Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) Cybersecurity Risk Management Strategy for Alert Originators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    3: Insider Spoofing Colleague’s Identity 27 5.1.4 Risk 4: Unavailable Communication Channel 28 5.2 Prioritize Risks 29 5.3 Select Control Approach...Management 113 D.1.4 Controlling Cybersecurity Risks 113 D.2 CSRA Method Description 114 D.2.1 Establish Operational Context (Task 1) 115 D.2.2 Identify...Risk (Task 2) 118 D.2.3 Analyze Risk (Task 3) 123 D.2.4 Determine Control Approach (Task 4) 129 D.2.5 Determine Control Plan (Task 5) 132 D.3

  10. A simple heat alert system for Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Neville; Skinner, Carol; Loughnan, Margaret; Tapper, Nigel

    2008-05-01

    A simple heat alert system, based solely on predicted maximum and minimum daily temperatures, has been developed for the city of Melbourne in southeast Australia. The system is based upon a demonstration that, when mean daily temperature exceeds a threshold of 30 degrees C (mean of today's maximum temperature and tonight's minimum temperature), the average daily mortality of people aged 65 years or more is about 15-17% greater than usual. Similar numbers of excess deaths also occur when daily minimum temperatures exceed 24 degrees C (increases of 19-21% over expected death rate), so a heat alert system based solely on this widely available weather forecast variable is also feasible. No strong signal of excess heat-related deaths appears when the data are stratified using daily maximum temperatures. This may be because in Melbourne some days with very high maximum temperatures will be affected by the passage of cool changes and cold fronts in the afternoon, leading to a rapid drop in temperature (i.e., some days with high maximum temperatures will not continue to be hot throughout the day and into the evening). A single day with temperatures exceeding the thresholds noted above is sufficient to cause this increase in mortality, rather than requiring an extended heat wave. The increased daily mortality does not appear to represent a short-term advancement of mortality.

  11. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. Results In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. Conclusions The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup. PMID:22166371

  12. Investigating Driver Fatigue versus Alertness Using the Granger Causality Network

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wanzeng; Lin, Weicheng; Babiloni, Fabio; Hu, Sanqing; Borghini, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Driving fatigue has been identified as one of the main factors affecting drivers’ safety. The aim of this study was to analyze drivers’ different mental states, such as alertness and drowsiness, and find out a neurometric indicator able to detect drivers’ fatigue level in terms of brain networks. Twelve young, healthy subjects were recruited to take part in a driver fatigue experiment under different simulated driving conditions. The Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of the subjects were recorded during the whole experiment and analyzed by using Granger-Causality-based brain effective networks. It was that the topology of the brain networks and the brain’s ability to integrate information changed when subjects shifted from the alert to the drowsy stage. In particular, there was a significant difference in terms of strength of Granger causality (GC) in the frequency domain and the properties of the brain effective network i.e., causal flow, global efficiency and characteristic path length between such conditions. Also, some changes were more significant over the frontal brain lobes for the alpha frequency band. These findings might be used to detect drivers’ fatigue levels, and as reference work for future studies. PMID:26251909

  13. Real-Time Mapping alert system; characteristics and capabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, L.A.; Lambert, S.C.; Liebermann, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has an extensive hydrologic network that records and transmits precipitation, stage, discharge, and other water-related data on a real-time basis to an automated data processing system. Data values are recorded on electronic data collection platforms at field sampling sites. These values are transmitted by means of orbiting satellites to receiving ground stations, and by way of telecommunication lines to a U.S. Geological Survey office where they are processed on a computer system. Data that exceed predefined thresholds are identified as alert values. The current alert status at monitoring sites within a state or region is of critical importance during floods, hurricanes, and other extreme hydrologic events. This report describes the characteristics and capabilities of a series of computer programs for real-time mapping of hydrologic data. The software provides interactive graphics display and query of hydrologic information from the network in a real-time, map-based, menu-driven environment.

  14. Alpha synchronization and anxiety: implications for inhibition vs. alertness hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Savostyanov, Alexander N; Levin, Evgenij A

    2006-02-01

    Although there is much evidence that alpha oscillations are linked with processes of perception, attention and semantic memory, their functional significance remains uncertain. Synchronization in the alpha frequency range is taken to be a marker of cognitive inactivity, active inhibition of sensory information, or a means of inhibition of non-task relevant cortical areas. Here we propose an alternative interpretation which posits that higher alpha power during reference interval signifies higher readiness of alpha system to information processing. Predictions derived from the inhibition and alertness hypotheses were tested during presentation of acoustic stimuli (tone 1000 Hz) and neutral words to 30 males (18-25 years) with different levels of trait anxiety. On the whole, predictions derived from the inhibition theory were not confirmed and findings more corresponded to the alertness hypothesis. High-anxiety subjects showed higher alpha power during reference interval simultaneously with higher magnitude of event-related desynchronization and higher amplitude of phase-locked alpha responses. These findings are discussed in terms of functional significance of alpha band synchronization and desynchronization.

  15. Neural network strategies for issuing flood warning alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahart, R.; Dawson, C.; See, L.; Wilby, R.

    2003-04-01

    Most neural network hydrological forecasting involves modelling standard combinations of traditional rainfall-runoff variables in a supervised learning environment. These computational solutions have to date produced reasonable approximations but various problems still exist in the manner of input and output data inadequacies and weak deterministic hydrological relationships. The supervised learning model also puts an arduous burden on the instructor mechanism which requires a comprehensive set of meaningful real-world input-output situations. It is argued that the information content on either side of the equation must be modified if such tools are to achieve improved performance and that alternative relationships might be used to build superior modelling solutions e.g. to predict Fourier Series Parameters instead of Measured Hydrological Variables. This paper thus compares alternative strategies that can be used to deliver neural network flood warning alerts based on a six-hour forecasting horizon for the River Ouse in Yorkshire - a river that experiences major floods. The first solution uses a standard neural network modelling procedure to predict river level outputs which are then classified into four flood alert codes: ALL CLEAR; FLOOD WATCH; FLOOD WARNING; SEVERE FLOOD WARNING. The other solutions use identical data inputs to predict a simpler output function that is easier to learn; comprising the four individual event codes modelled as a set of categorical entities. The non-standard approaches that are considered consist of: [i] single-winner, [ii] thermometer method and [iii] a self-organising map.

  16. Investigating Driver Fatigue versus Alertness Using the Granger Causality Network.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wanzeng; Lin, Weicheng; Babiloni, Fabio; Hu, Sanqing; Borghini, Gianluca

    2015-08-05

    Driving fatigue has been identified as one of the main factors affecting drivers' safety. The aim of this study was to analyze drivers' different mental states, such as alertness and drowsiness, and find out a neurometric indicator able to detect drivers' fatigue level in terms of brain networks. Twelve young, healthy subjects were recruited to take part in a driver fatigue experiment under different simulated driving conditions. The Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of the subjects were recorded during the whole experiment and analyzed by using Granger-Causality-based brain effective networks. It was that the topology of the brain networks and the brain's ability to integrate information changed when subjects shifted from the alert to the drowsy stage. In particular, there was a significant difference in terms of strength of Granger causality (GC) in the frequency domain and the properties of the brain effective network i.e., causal flow, global efficiency and characteristic path length between such conditions. Also, some changes were more significant over the frontal brain lobes for the alpha frequency band. These findings might be used to detect drivers' fatigue levels, and as reference work for future studies.

  17. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  18. Feasibility study of a caregiver seizure alert system in canine epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Coles, Lisa D; Patterson, Edward E; Sheffield, W Douglas; Mavoori, Jaideep; Higgins, Jason; Michael, Bland; Leyde, Kent; Cloyd, James C; Litt, Brian; Vite, Charles; Worrell, Gregory A

    2013-10-01

    A device capable of detecting seizures and alerting caregivers would be a major advance for epilepsy management, and could be used to guide early intervention and prevent seizure-related injuries. The objective of this work was to evaluate a seizure advisory system (SAS) that alerts caregivers of seizures in canines with naturally occurring epilepsy. Four dogs with epilepsy were implanted with a SAS that wirelessly transmits continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG) to an external device embedded with a seizure detection algorithm and the capability to alert caregivers. In this study a veterinarian was alerted by automated text message if prolonged or repetitive seizures occurred, and a rescue therapy protocol was implemented. The performance of the SAS caregiver alert was evaluated over the course of 8 weeks. Following discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs, the dogs experienced spontaneous unprovoked partial seizures that secondarily generalized. Three prolonged or repetitive seizure episodes occurred in 2 of the dogs. On each occasion, the SAS caregiver alert successfully alerted an on call veterinarian who confirmed the seizure activity via remote video-monitoring. A rescue medication was then administered and the seizures were aborted. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a SAS to alert caregivers to the occurrence of prolonged or repetitive seizures and enables rescue medications to be delivered in a timely manner. The SAS may improve the management of human epilepsy by alerting caregivers of seizures, enabling early interventions, and potentially improving outcomes and quality of life of patients and caregivers.

  19. A Probability-Base Alerting Logic for Aircraft on Parallel Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Brenda D.; Kuchar, James K.

    1997-01-01

    This document discusses the development and evaluation of an airborne collision alerting logic for aircraft on closely-spaced approaches to parallel runways. A novel methodology is used when links alerts to collision probabilities: alerting thresholds are set such that when the probability of a collision exceeds an acceptable hazard level an alert is issued. The logic was designed to limit the hazard level to that estimated for the Precision Runway Monitoring system: one accident in every one thousand blunders which trigger alerts. When the aircraft were constrained to be coaltitude, evaluations of a two-dimensional version of the alerting logic show that the achieved hazard level is approximately one accident in every 250 blunders. Problematic scenarios have been identified and corrections to the logic can be made. The evaluations also show that over eighty percent of all unnecessary alerts were issued during scenarios in which the miss distance would have been less than 1000 ft, indicating that the alerts may have been justified. Also, no unnecessary alerts were generated during normal approaches.

  20. High Override Rate for Opioid Drug-allergy Interaction Alerts: Current Trends and Recommendations for Future.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Lai, Kenneth; Wickner, Paige G; Goss, Foster; Dhopeshwarkar, Neil; Chang, Frank; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alert overrides for opioid medications - the most commonly triggered alerts in the computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We conducted an observational analysis of the DAI opioid alerts triggered over the last decade (2004-2013, n=342,338) in two large academic hospitals in Boston (United States). We found an increasing rate of DAI alert overrides culminating in 89.7% in 2013. Allergic reactions included a high proportion (38.2%) of non-immune mediated opioid reactions (e.g. gastrointestinal upset). The DAI alert override rate was high for immune mediated (88.6%) and life threatening reactions (87.8%). Exact allergy-medication matches were overridden less frequently (about 70%) compared to non-exact matches within allergy groups (over 90%). About one-third of the alert override reasons pointed to irrelevant alerts (i.e."Patient has tolerated the medication before") and 44.9% were unknown. Those findings warrant further investigation into providers' reasons for high override rate. User interfaces should evolve to enable less interruptive and more accurate alerts to decrease alert fatigue.

  1. ANTARES: progress towards building a 'broker' of time-domain alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Wang, Zhe; Matheson, Thomas; Narayan, Gautham; Snodgrass, Richard; Kececioglu, John; Scheidegger, Carlos; Axelrod, Tim; Jenness, Tim; Ridgway, Stephen; Seaman, Robert; Taylor, Clark; Toeniskoetter, Jackson; Welch, Eric; Yang, Shuo; Zaidi, Tayeb

    2016-07-01

    The Arizona-NOAO Temporal Analysis and Response to Events System (ANTARES) is a joint effort of NOAO and the Department of Computer Science at the University of Arizona to build prototype software to process alerts from time-domain surveys, especially LSST, to identify those alerts that must be followed up immediately. Value is added by annotating incoming alerts with existing information from previous surveys and compilations across the electromagnetic spectrum and from the history of past alerts. Comparison against a knowledge repository of properties and features of known or predicted kinds of variable phenomena is used for categorization. The architecture and algorithms being employed are described.

  2. Installation of the Pulse-Plate Column Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nick R. Mann

    2009-07-01

    There are three primary types of solvent extraction equipment utilized in the nuclear industry for reprocessing of used nuclear fuel; pulse columns, mixer-settlers, and centrifugal contactors. Considerable research and development has been performed at the INL and throughout the DOE complex on the application of centrifugal contactors for used fuel reprocessing and these contactors offer many significant advantages. However, pulse columns have been used extensively in the past in throughout the world for aqueous separations processes and remain the preferred equipment by many commercial entities. Therefore, a pulse-plate column pilot plant has been assembled as part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative to support experimentation and demonstration of pulse column operation. This will allow the training of personnel in the operation of pulse columns. Also, this capability will provide the equipment to allow for research to be conducted in the operation of pulse columns with advanced solvents and processes developed as part of the fuel cycle research and development being performed in the AFCI program.

  3. Static column and its industrial application in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, M.; Wang, F.; Liu, W.; Xu, E.; Xu, Q.

    1999-07-01

    The column, as an advanced fine coal cleaning equipment, has been developed for more than 20 years. The Microcel, Jameson cell and other types of columns have been used in the coal industry. Since 1990, the cyclonic micro-bubble flotation column has been developed. The test of 1.5 M packed column is underway in the Shitai coal preparation plant. Chinese fine coal is quite difficult to separate. Its native ash content is high and the floatability is difficult. There is not compressed air available in the small coal mine. The high cost for waste-water treatment limited the usage of wash water. It is necessary to study the column under Chinese conditions. Laboratory tests have been done for five coals. Conventional flotation tests were also done in a one-liter flotation cell in order to compare with the results of static column. Compared with a conventional flotation cell, lower ash content and higher combustion recovery are obtained from the static column. In addition, the static column can produce super-low-ash clean coal and treat very fine and high ash content slurry, which is difficult for conventional flotation cell to separate. Test results also show that the construction of the bubble generator and the aeration rate are important for the performance of the static column. An one-meter diameter by six-meter high FXZ-1 static column has been used in four coal preparation plants for more than one year. The results are satisfactory. An additional three columns with the diameter of 1 M and 1.25 M in another 3 coal mines have been fabricated and will be put into use soon. The three-meter column has been designed for MaTou coal preparation plant and is in the course of fabrication now. The static column does not need any high-pressure air and usually does not use wash-water. The power consumption is very low and manual operation is easy. The investment and operating cost is low. In addition, the separation results are quite satisfactory. It has been recommended to be

  4. Self-regenerating column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Park, W.K.

    1995-05-30

    The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

  5. Telescoping columns. [parabolic antenna support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazur, J. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An extendable column is described which consists of several axially elongated rigid structural sections nested within one another. Each section includes a number of rotatably attached screws running along its length. The next inner section includes threaded lugs oriented to threadingly engage the screws. The column is extended or retracted upon rotation of the screws. The screws of each section are selectively rotated by a motor and an engagement mechanism.

  6. The Development of Cockpit Display and Alerting Concepts for Interval Management (IM) in a Near-Term Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Shay, Richard F.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) Interval Management (IM) research team has conducted a wide spectrum of work in the recent past, ranging from development and testing of the concept, procedures, and algorithm. This document focuses on the research and evaluation of the IM pilot interfaces, cockpit displays, indications, and alerting concepts for conducting IM spacing operations. The research team incorporated knowledge of human factors research, industry standards for cockpit design, and cockpit design philosophies to develop innovative displays for conducting these spacing operations. The research team also conducted a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) experiments with commercial pilots and air traffic controllers, in as realistic a high-density arrival operation environment as could be simulated, to evaluate the spacing guidance display features and interface requirements needed to conduct spacing operations.

  7. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  8. Plant practices in fine coal column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, V.L. Jr.; Bethell, P.J.; Stanley, F.L.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1995-10-01

    Five 3 m (10 ft) diameter Microcel{trademark} flotation columns were installed at Clinchfield Coal Company`s Middle Fork preparation facility in order to reduce product ash and increase recovery and plant capacity. The Middle Fork facility is utilized for the recovery of fine coal from a feed stream that consists primarily of 1.5 mm x 0 material. The columns replaced conventional flotation cells for the treatment of the minus 150 {micro}m fraction while spirals are used to upgrade the plus 150 {micro}m material in the plant feed. The addition of the column flotation circuit resulted in an increase in plant capacity in excess of 20 percent while reducing the flotation product ash content by approximately 7 percentage points. Flotation circuit combustible recovery wa increased by 17 percentage points. This paper discusses circuit design, commissioning, and sparging system design. Circuit instrumentation, level control, reagent system control, performance comparisons with conventional flotation, and general operating procedures are also discussed.

  9. Decision Support Alerts for Medication Ordering in a Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) System

    PubMed Central

    Beccaro, M. A. Del; Villanueva, R.; Knudson, K. M.; Harvey, E. M.; Langle, J. M.; Paul, W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine the frequency and type of decision support alerts by location and ordering provider role during Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) medication ordering. Using these data we adjusted the decision support tools to reduce the number of alerts. Design Retrospective analyses were performed of dose range checks (DRC), drug-drug interaction and drug-allergy alerts from our electronic medical record. During seven sampling periods (each two weeks long) between April 2006 and October 2008 all alerts in these categories were analyzed. Another audit was performed of all DRC alerts by ordering provider role from November 2008 through January 2009. Medication ordering error counts were obtained from a voluntary error reporting system. Measurement/Results Between April 2006 and October 2008 the percent of medication orders that triggered a dose range alert decreased from 23.9% to 7.4%. The relative risk (RR) for getting an alert was higher at the start of the interventions versus later (RR= 2.40, 95% CI 2.28-2.52; p< 0.0001). The percentage of medication orders that triggered alerts for drug-drug interactions also decreased from 13.5% to 4.8%. The RR for getting a drug interaction alert at the start was 1.63, 95% CI 1.60-1.66; p< 0.0001. Alerts decreased in all clinical areas without an increase in reported medication errors. Conclusion We reduced the quantity of decision support alerts in CPOE using a systematic approach without an increase in reported medication errors PMID:23616845

  10. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  11. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  12. Real Time Flood Alert System (RTFAS) for Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez-Trujillo, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The Real Time Flood Alert System is a web-based computer program, developed as a data integration tool, and designed to increase the ability of emergency managers to rapidly and accurately predict flooding conditions of streams in Puerto Rico. The system includes software and a relational database to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, water levels in streams and reservoirs, and associated storms to determine hazardous and potential flood conditions. The computer program was developed as part of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey Caribbean Water Science Center and the Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency, and integrates information collected and processed by these two agencies and the National Weather Service.

  13. Media alert in an SIS epidemic model with logistic growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianwen; Zhou, Da; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Dashun; Zhang, Xinan

    2017-03-01

    In general, media coverage would not be implemented unless the number of infected cases reaches some critical number. To reflect this feature, we incorporate the media effect and a critical number of infected cases into the disease transmission rate and consider an susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model with logistic growth. Our model analysis shows that early media alert and strong media effects are preferable to decrease the numbers of infected cases at endemic equilibria. Furthermore, we noticed that the model may have up to three endemic equilibria and bi-stability can occur in a threshold interval for the critical number. Note that the interval depends on parameters for the focal disease and the media effect. It is possible to roughly estimate the interval for re-emerging diseases in a given region. Therefore, the result could be useful to health policymakers. Global stability is also obtained when the model admits a unique endemic equilibrium.

  14. Sensor management for collision alert in orbital object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peiran; Chen, Huimin; Charalampidis, D.; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh

    2011-06-01

    Given the increasingly dense environment in both low-earth orbit (LEO) and geostationary orbit (GEO), a sudden change in the trajectory of any existing resident space object (RSO) may cause potential collision damage to space assets. With a constellation of electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensor platforms and ground radar surveillance systems, it is important to design optimal estimation algorithms for updating nonlinear object states and allocating sensing resources to effectively avoid collisions among many RSOs. Previous work on RSO collision avoidance often assumes that the maneuver onset time or maneuver motion of the space object is random and the sensor management approach is designed to achieve efficient average coverage of the RSOs. Few attempts have included the inference of an object's intent in the response to an RSO's orbital change. We propose a game theoretic model for sensor selection and assume the worst case intentional collision of an object's orbital change. The intentional collision results from maximal exposure of an RSO's path. The resulting sensor management scheme achieves robust and realistic collision assessment, alerts the impending collisions, and identifies early RSO orbital change with lethal maneuvers. We also consider information sharing among distributed sensors for collision alert and an object's intent identification when an orbital change has been declared. We compare our scheme with the conventional (non-game based) sensor management (SM) scheme using a LEO-to-LEO space surveillance scenario where both the observers and the unannounced and unplanned objects have complete information on the constellation of vulnerable assets. We demonstrate that, with adequate information sharing, the distributed SM method can achieve the performance close to that of centralized SM in identifying unannounced objects and making early warnings to the RSO for potential collision to ensure a proper selection of collision avoidance action.

  15. OBS FOMAR POOL: Gibraltar and ALERTES-RIM experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, Jose; Buforn, Elisa; Cabieces, Roberto; Santos, Jose; Sandoval, Nicolas; Roca, Antoni; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from the San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the south Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals, even with associated tsunamis, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) acquired three "LOSTERN" broad band (CMG-40T sensors) OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), and, more recently (2014), the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) acquired another three with Trillium 120 sensors. All of them conform the OBS FOMAR pool. Since January to November 2014, the FOMAR pool has been deployed along the Gibraltar strait (Gibraltar experiment), in collaboration with SECEGSA (Spanish society to study the fix communication through the Gibraltar Strait), to study the local microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. Also, since September 2015, the FOMAR pool has been deployed for 8 months in SW of the San Vicente Cape with an hexagonal array configuration as a part of ALERTES-RIM project. In this work the some preliminary results of the Gibraltar strait and ALERTES-RIM OBS experiment are shown.

  16. Efficacy of Barabasz's Instant Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of ADHD with Neurotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathryn; Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed; Warner, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Tested use of instant alert hypnosis on 16 children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Found that EEG beta-theta ratio means were significantly higher in trials of neurotherapy combined with alert hypnosis than neurotherapy alone. Beta was significantly enhanced, whereas theta was inhibited. Identified improved treatment efficacy and…

  17. Baseline Nonresponse in Project ALERT: Does It Matter? A Rand Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert M.; And Others

    The impact of non-response (NR) in baseline data collection on the ability to analyze treatment effects in Project ALERT (Adolescent Experiences in Resistance Training) was studied. Project ALERT is a multisite, multiyear test of a smoking and drug prevention program for seventh and eighth graders. Questionnaires about drug use and related topics…

  18. Alert Confidence Fusion in Intrusion Detection Systems with Extended Dempster- Shafer Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Dong; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-03-01

    Extend Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence to include differential weightings of alerts drawn from multiple sources. The intent is to support automated (and manual) response to threat by producing more realistic confidence ratings for IDS alerts than is currently available.

  19. Phasic Alertness Can Modulate Executive Control by Enhancing Global Processing of Visual Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that the attention system is composed of several networks that have different functions. One of these networks is responsible for achieving and maintaining an alert state (alerting system), and another for selection and conflict resolution (executive control). There is growing interest in how these attentional networks…

  20. The Influence of Alertness on Spatial and Nonspatial Components of Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, Ellen; Bublak, Peter; Muller, Hermann J.; Schneider, Werner X.; Krummenacher, Joseph; Finke, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether spatial and nonspatial components of visual attention would be influenced by changes in (healthy, young) subjects' level of alertness and whether such effects on separable components would occur independently of each other. The experiments used a no-cue/alerting-cue design with varying cue-target stimulus…

  1. Early Alert: A Report on Two Pilot Projects at Antelope Valley College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewallen, Willard Clark

    Two "early alert" pilot projects were established at Antelope Valley College, in California, to develop a follow-up system to ensure regular monitoring of student progress for early detection of academic difficulty. Two committees were established to explore and develop early alert strategies; the first focusing on basic skills courses…

  2. Daytime Alertness in Parkinson’s Disease: Potentially Dose-Dependent, Divergent Effects by Drug Class

    PubMed Central

    Bliwise, Donald L.; Trotti, Lynn Marie; Wilson, Anthony G.; Greer, Sophia A.; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Juncos, Jorge J.; Factor, Stewart A.; Freeman, Alan; Rye, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease experience difficulties maintaining daytime alertness. Controversy exists regarding whether this reflects effects of anti-Parkinsonian medications, the disease itself or other factors such as nocturnal sleep disturbances. In this study we examined the phenomenon by evaluating medicated and unmedicated Parkinson’s patients with objective polysomnographic measurements of nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness. Methods Patients (n = 63) underwent a 48-hour laboratory-based study incorporating 2 consecutive nights of overnight polysomnography and 2 days of Maintenance of Wakefulness Testing. We examined correlates of individual differences in alertness, including demographics, clinical features, nocturnal sleep variables and class and dosage of anti-Parkinson’s medications. Results Results indicated that: 1) relative to unmediated patients, all classes of dopaminergic medications were associated with reduced daytime alertness and this effect was not mediated by disease duration or disease severity; 2) increasing dosages of dopamine agonists were associated with less daytime alertness, whereas higher levels of levodopa were associated with higher levels of alertness. Variables unrelated to Maintenance of Wakefulness Test defined daytime alertness included age, sex, years with diagnosis, motor impairment score and most nocturnal sleep variables. Conclusions Deficits in objectively assessed daytime alertness in Parkinson’s disease appear to be a function of both the disease and the medications and their doses utilized. The apparent divergent dose-dependent effects of drug class in Parkinson’s disease are anticipated by basic science studies of the sleep/wake cycle under different pharmacological agents. PMID:22753297

  3. Mixed Signals in California: A Mismatch between High Schools and Community Colleges. Policy Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Policy Alert" is a publication series that summarizes important policy findings affecting the future of higher education. This issue is based on an earlier study, "Investigating the Alignment of High School and Community College Assessments in California". The "Policy Alert" summarizes the findings of the study, and…

  4. 77 FR 76434 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... CFR Part 1001 Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector... developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts. DATES: To ensure consideration, public comments must be delivered to... the public on recommendations for developing new or revised safe harbors and Special Fraud...

  5. 76 FR 28789 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the availability of a draft Alert entitled ``Preventing... found at: http://nioshdev.cdc.gov/niosh/docket/review/docket238/default.html . The purpose of this...

  6. State Policies on 2/4 Transfers Are Key to Degree Attainment. Policy Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This "Policy Alert" summarizes an earlier report, State Policy and Community College-Baccalaureate Transfer, which examined the role of state policy in influencing community college-baccalaureate transfer. The "Policy Alert" looks at the importance of two-year to four-year transfer, and offers recommendations for improvement to…

  7. 78 FR 78807 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice of intent to develop... Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts. DATES: To ensure consideration... the public on recommendations for developing new or revised safe harbors and Special Fraud...

  8. "Project ALERT's" Effects on Adolescents' Prodrug Beliefs: A Replication and Extension Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a replication and extension of previous studies of the effects of "Project ALERT", a school-based substance use prevention program, on the prodrug beliefs of adolescents. Specifically, the authors' research examined "Project ALERT's" effects on adolescents' intentions to use substances in the future, beliefs about substance…

  9. Vibration Signaling in Mobile Devices for Emergency Alerting: A Study with Deaf Evaluators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Judith; Tucker, Paula E.; Williams, Norman; Sauro, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, a nationwide Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) is being planned to alert cellular mobile device subscribers to emergencies occurring near the location of the mobile device. The plan specifies a unique audio attention signal as well as a unique vibration attention signal (for mobile devices set to vibrate) to identify…

  10. School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

  11. Winter Weather Tips: Understanding Alerts and Staying Safe this Season | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Jenna Seiss and Kylie Tomlin, Guest Writers, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Maryland residents face the possibility of dangerous winter weather each year—from icy conditions to frigid temperatures. You may be familiar with the different types of winter weather alerts issued by the National Weather Service (NWS), but do you know what each alert means?  

  12. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  13. 14 CFR 91.221 - Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Traffic alert and collision avoidance... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance... collision avoidance system installed in a U.S.-registered civil aircraft must be approved by...

  14. 14 CFR 91.221 - Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Traffic alert and collision avoidance... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance... collision avoidance system installed in a U.S.-registered civil aircraft must be approved by...

  15. 14 CFR 91.221 - Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Traffic alert and collision avoidance... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance... collision avoidance system installed in a U.S.-registered civil aircraft must be approved by...

  16. 14 CFR 91.221 - Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Traffic alert and collision avoidance... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance... collision avoidance system installed in a U.S.-registered civil aircraft must be approved by...

  17. 14 CFR 91.221 - Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Traffic alert and collision avoidance... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance... collision avoidance system installed in a U.S.-registered civil aircraft must be approved by...

  18. Impaired Conflict Resolution and Alerting in Children with ADHD: Evidence from the Attention Network Task (ANT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Katherine A.; Robertson, Ian H.; Barry, Edwina; Mulligan, Aisling; Daibhis, Aoife; Daly, Michael; Watchorn, Amy; Gill, Michael; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An important theory of attention suggests that there are three separate networks that execute discrete cognitive functions. The "alerting" network acquires and maintains an alert state, the "orienting" network selects information from sensory input and the "conflict" network resolves conflict that arises between potential responses.…

  19. Energy Drink vs. Coffee: The Effects on Levels of Alertness in Fatigued Individuals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    supplements , and energy drinks. Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of caffeine to increase alertness and improve cognitive... supplements , and energy drinks. Multiple studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of caffeine to increase alertness and improve cognitive performance in...countermeasure. Caffeine is commonly found in coffee, soft drinks, tea, gum, supplements , and energy drinks. Multiple studies have demonstrated the

  20. Adenovirus purification by two-column, size-exclusion, simulated countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nestola, Piergiuseppe; Silva, Ricardo J S; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Mota, José P B

    2014-06-20

    Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) was successfully separated by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using a simple, yet efficient, two-column, quasi-continuous, simulated moving-bed process operated in an open-loop configuration. The operating cycle is divided into two identical half-cycles, each of them consisting of the following sequence of sub-steps: (i) elution of the upstream column and direction of the effluent of the downstream column to waste; (ii) elution of the upstream column and redirection of its effluent to waste while the downstream column is fed with the clarified bioreaction bulk and its effluent collected as purified product; (iii) operation of the system as in step (i) but collecting the effluent of the downstream column as product; (iv) elution of the upstream column and direction of its effluent to waste while the flow through the downstream column is temporarily halted. Clearance of impurities, namely DNA and host cell protein (HCP), were experimentally assessed. The pilot-scale run yielded a virus recovery of 86%, and a clearance of 90% and 89% for DNA and HCP, respectively, without any fine tunning of the predetermined operating parameters. These figures compare very favorably against single-column batch chromatography for the same volume of size-exclusion resin. However, and most importantly, the virus yield was increased from 57% for the batch system to 86% for the two-column SEC process because of internal recycling of the mixed fractions of contaminated Ad5, even though the two-column process was operated strictly in an open-loop configuration. And last, but not least, the productivity was increased by 6-fold with the two-column process. In conclusion, the main drawbacks of size-exclusion chromatography, namely low productivity and low product titer, were overcome to a considerable extent by an innovative two-column configuration that keeps the mixed fractions inside the system at all times.

  1. Diversion Alert: 1-Year Evaluation Across Northern New England, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This report describes Diversion Alert, a unique online tool aimed at reducing misuse and diversion of prescription drugs, and reports the results of a 1-year evaluation of Diversion Alert’s impact in Maine. We used a quasi-experimental research design to compare survey data in Maine with those of neighboring states (New Hampshire and Vermont, 2013 and 2014). Compared with their counterparts in New Hampshire and Vermont who did not use Diversion Alert, prescribers and pharmacists in Maine who used Diversion Alert increased their communication with patients and other providers involved in their patients’ care, became aware of patients arrested for prescription drugs possession or diversion, used best practices associated with prevention or detection of addiction and diversion more frequently, and attributed positive changes in their prescribing practices to Diversion Alert. In combination with other state and federal programs, Diversion Alert may be an effective tool to help prevent the misuse of opioid medications. PMID:27880633

  2. PubMedAlertMe--standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI software application.

    PubMed

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2008-05-01

    PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip.

  3. Development of an Alert System to Detect Drug Interactions with Herbal Supplements using Medical Record Data

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Melissa; Proulx, Joshua; Shane-McWhorter, Laura; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2014-01-01

    While potential medication-to-medication interaction alerting engines exist in many clinical applications, few systems exist to automatically alert on potential medication to herbal supplement interactions. We have developed a preliminary knowledge base and rules alerting engine that detects 259 potential interactions between 9 supplements, 62 cardiac medications, and 19 drug classes. The rules engine takes into consideration 12 patient risk factors and 30 interaction warning signs to help determine which of three different alert levels to categorize each potential interaction. A formative evaluation was conducted with two clinicians to set initial thresholds for each alert level. Additional work is planned add more supplement interactions, risk factors, and warning signs as well as to continue to set and adjust the inputs and thresholds for each potential interaction. PMID:25954326

  4. A Model for the Effectiveness of Aircraft Alerting and Warning Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.; Neu, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of an alerting system with a single alert was analyzed. The pilot's decision behavior is modeled by the theory of signal detection and therefore accounts for different strengths of cross check information and different pilot criteria. The model includes the effects of the alerting and warning system (CAWS) error rate; the pilot's past experience with the CAWS accuracy; his reliance on the CAWS rather than independent monitoring; missed alerts; and adoption of a minimum error or Neyman-Pearson objective rather than minimum cost objective. It is showwn that for rare events: (1) the expected cost is greatly increased if the pilot ignores the a posteriori information in the existence of an alert; (2) the expected cost is insensitive to CAWS Type 1 errors; and (3) the expected cost is sensitive to CAWS type 2 errors only when the cross check information is ambiguous.

  5. A comparison study of commercially-available column flotation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Paul, B.C.; Ho, K.

    1994-12-31

    A direct comparison of three commercially-available column flotation technologies, i.e., Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Packed-Column, has been conducted using a {minus}100 mesh Illinois No. 5 flotation feed coal sample. The separation performance of each flotation technology was optimized and their performance levels compared on the basis of both ash rejection, sulfur rejection, and throughput capacities. A parametric study using a statistically-designed experimental program was conducted to optimize the critical operating parameter values of each column. The ultimate performance curves for each column were generated by conducting additional tests using the optimized operating parameter values. The throughput capacity of each flotation cell was determined by conducting tests over a range of feed rates at the maximum superficial gas rate while maintaining the other parameters at their optimum values. The separation performance achieved by each of the three flotation cells was found to be comparable to the idealistic flotation performance predicted by release analysis. However, the fraction of wash water reporting to tailings (bias factor) was found to be critical in achieving the near idealistic performance. The bias factor required for the Packed-Column was found to be less than that required by the other two flotation cells. The sulfur rejection achieved by the Microcel and the Packed-Column were found to be greater than that achieved by the Jameson Cell and all three produced sulfur rejections exceeding the values obtained from release analysis. The throughput capacity, on the other hand, differed among the three flotation columns. The Jameson Cell and the Microcel were found to have comparable throughput capacities while the Packed-Column was found to have a lower capacity.

  6. Effects of a malfunctional column on conventional and FeedCol-simulated moving bed chromatography performance.

    PubMed

    Song, Ji-Yeon; Oh, Donghoon; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2015-07-17

    The effects of a malfunctional column on the performance of a simulated moving bed (SMB) process were studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results of conventional four-zone SMB (2-2-2-2 configuration) and FeedCol operation (2-2-2-2 configuration with one feed column) with one malfunctional column were compared with simulation results of the corresponding SMB processes with a normal column configuration. The malfunctional column in SMB processes significantly deteriorated raffinate purity. However, the extract purity was equivalent or slightly improved compared with the corresponding normal SMB operation because the complete separation zone of the malfunctional column moved to a lower flow rate range in zones II and III. With the malfunctional column configuration, FeedCol operation gave better experimental performance (up to 7%) than conventional SMB operation because controlling product purity with FeedCol operation was more flexible through the use of two additional operating variables, injection time and injection length. Thus, compared with conventional SMB separation, extract with equivalent or slightly better purity could be produced from FeedCol operation even with a malfunctional column, while minimizing the decrease in raffinate purity (less than 2%).

  7. Alertness Modulates Conflict Adaptation and Feature Integration in an Opposite Way

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Huang, Xiting; Chen, Antao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies show that the congruency sequence effect can result from both the conflict adaptation effect (CAE) and feature integration effect which can be observed as the repetition priming effect (RPE) and feature overlap effect (FOE) depending on different experimental conditions. Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that a close correlation exists between the neural mechanisms of alertness-related modulations and the congruency sequence effect. However, little is known about whether and how alertness mediates the congruency sequence effect. In Experiment 1, the Attentional Networks Test (ANT) and a modified flanker task were used to evaluate whether the alertness of the attentional functions had a correlation with the CAE and RPE. In Experimental 2, the ANT and another modified flanker task were used to investigate whether alertness of the attentional functions correlate with the CAE and FOE. In Experiment 1, through the correlative analysis, we found a significant positive correlation between alertness and the CAE, and a negative correlation between the alertness and the RPE. Moreover, a significant negative correlation existed between CAE and RPE. In Experiment 2, we found a marginally significant negative correlation between the CAE and the RPE, but the correlation between alertness and FOE, CAE and FOE was not significant. These results suggest that alertness can modulate conflict adaptation and feature integration in an opposite way. Participants at the high alerting level group may tend to use the top-down cognitive processing strategy, whereas participants at the low alerting level group tend to use the bottom-up processing strategy. PMID:24250824

  8. Color-tuned neurons are spatially clustered according to color preference within alert macaque posterior inferior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Conway, Bevil R; Tsao, Doris Y

    2009-10-20

    Large islands of extrastriate cortex that are enriched for color-tuned neurons have recently been described in alert macaque using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and single-unit recording. These millimeter-sized islands, dubbed "globs," are scattered throughout the posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT), a swath of brain anterior to area V3, including areas V4, PITd, and posterior TEO. We investigated the micro-organization of neurons within the globs. We used fMRI to identify the globs and then used MRI-guided microelectrodes to test the color properties of single glob cells. We used color stimuli that sample the CIELUV perceptual color space at regular intervals to test the color tuning of single units, and make two observations. First, color-tuned neurons of various color preferences were found within single globs. Second, adjacent glob cells tended to have the same color tuning, demonstrating that glob cells are clustered by color preference and suggesting that they are arranged in color columns. Neurons separated by 50 microm, measured parallel to the cortical sheet, had more similar color tuning than neurons separated by 100 microm, suggesting that the scale of the color columns is <100 microm. These results show that color-tuned neurons in PIT are organized by color preference on a finer scale than the scale of single globs. Moreover, the color preferences of neurons recorded sequentially along a given electrode penetration shifted gradually in many penetrations, suggesting that the color columns are arranged according to a chromotopic map reflecting perceptual color space.

  9. Runway Incursion Prevention for General Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2006-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) and additional incursion detection algorithm were adapted for general aviation operations and evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in the fall of 2005. RIPS has been designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts for general aviation operations. This paper gives an overview of the system, simulation study, and test results.

  10. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  11. Decision Support from Genetic Algorithms for Ship Collision Avoidance Route Planning and Alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Ming-Cheng; Kao, Sheng-Long; Su, Chien-Min

    When an officer of the watch (OOW) faces complicated marine traffic, a suitable decision support tool could be employed in support of collision avoidance decisions, to reduce the burden and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic. Decisions on routes to avoid collisions could also consider economy as well as safety. Through simulating the biological evolution model, this research adopts the genetic algorithm used in artificial intelligence to find a theoretically safety-critical recommendation for the shortest route of collision avoidance from an economic viewpoint, combining the international regulations for preventing collisions at sea (COLREGS) and the safety domain of a ship. Based on this recommendation, an optimal safe avoidance turning angle, navigation restoration time and navigational restoration angle will also be provided. A Geographic Information System (GIS) will be used as the platform for display and operation. In order to achieve advance notice of alerts and due preparation for collision avoidance, a Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) operator and the OOW can use this system as a reference to assess collision avoidance at present location.

  12. Hybrid first-principles/neural networks model for column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Liu, P.H.; Svoronos, S.A.; Sharma, R.; Abdel-Khalek, N.A.; Cheng, Y.; El-Shall, H.

    1999-03-01

    A new model for phosphate column flotation is presented which for the first time relates the effects of operating variables such as frother concentration on column performance. This is a hybrid model that combines a first-principles model with artificial neural networks. The first-principles model is obtained from material balances on both phosphate particles and gangue (undesired material containing mostly silica). First-order rates of net attachment are assumed for both. Artificial neural networks relate the attachment rate constants to the operating variables. Experiments were conducted in a 6-in.-dia. (152-mm-dia.) laboratory column to provide data for neural network training and model validation. The model successfully predicts the effects of frother concentration, particle size, air flow rate and bubble diameter on grade and recovery.

  13. 78 FR 25749 - Submission of New Drug Application/Abbreviated New Drug Application Field Alert Reports: Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Application Field Alert Reports: Notice of Form FDA 3331--Automated Pilot Program AGENCY: Food and Drug... submit new drug application (NDA) and abbreviated new drug application (ANDA) Field Alert Reports (FARs... program should be sent to district Drug Field Alert Monitors (contact information for each of...

  14. 78 FR 53774 - Guide for the Evaluation of Alert and Notification Systems for Nuclear Power Plants, FEMA-REP-10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Guide for the Evaluation of Alert and Notification Systems for... Agency (FEMA) requests public comments on the Guide for the Evaluation of Alert and Notification Systems... Management Agency (FEMA) issued FEMA-REP-10, Guide for the Evaluation of Alert and Notification Systems...

  15. What to Expect from the Virtual Seismologist: Delay Times and Uncertainties of Initial Earthquake Alerts in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Y.; Cua, G. B.; Clinton, J. F.; Racine, R.; Meier, M.; Cauzzi, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method is a Bayesian approach to regional network-based earthquake early warning (EEW) originally formulated by Cua and Heaton (2007). Implementation of VS into real-time EEW codes has been an on-going effort of the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zürich since 2006, with support from ETH Zürich, various European projects, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). VS is one of three EEW algorithms that form the basis of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a USGS-funded prototype end-to-end EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. In Europe, VS is currently operating as a real-time test system in Switzerland, western Greece and Istanbul. As part of the on-going EU project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction), VS installations in southern Italy, Romania, and Iceland are planned or underway. The possible use cases for an EEW system will be determined by the speed and reliability of earthquake source parameter estimates. A thorough understanding of both is therefore essential to evaluate the usefulness of VS. For California, we present state-wide theoretical alert times for hypothetical earthquakes by analyzing time delays introduced by the different components in the VS EEW system. Taking advantage of the fully probabilistic formulation of the VS algorithm we further present an improved way to describe the uncertainties of every magnitude estimate by evaluating the width and shape of the probability density function that describes the relationship between waveform envelope amplitudes and magnitude. We evaluate these new uncertainty values for past seismicity in California through off-line playbacks and compare them to the previously defined static definitions of uncertainty based on real-time detections. Our results indicate where VS alerts are most useful in California and also suggest where most effective improvements to the VS EEW system

  16. Chromatographic properties PLOT multicapillary columns.

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, O A; Patrushev, Y V; Sidelnikov, V N

    2017-03-10

    Multicapillary columns (MCCs) for gas chromatography make it possible to perform high-speed analysis of the mixtures of gaseous and volatile substances at a relatively large amount of the loaded sample. The study was performed using PLOT MCCs for gas-solid chromatography (GSC) with different stationary phases (SP) based on alumina, silica and poly-(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) polymer as well as porous polymers divinylbenzene-styrene (DVB-St), divinylbenzene-vinylimidazole (DVB-VIm) and divinylbenzene-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DVB-EGD). These MCCs have the efficiency of 4000-10000 theoretical plates per meter (TP/m) and at a column length of 25-30cm can separate within 10-20s multicomponent mixtures of substances belonging to different classes of chemical compounds. The sample amount not overloading the column is 0.03-1μg and depends on the features of a porous layer. Examples of separations on some of the studied columns are considered.

  17. Generating precipitation ensembles for flood alert and risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caseri, Angelica; Javelle, Pierre; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Leblois, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    Floods represent one of the major natural disasters that are often responsible for fatalities and economic losses. Flood warning systems are needed to anticipate the arrival of severe events and mitigate their impacts. Flood alerts are particularly important for risk management and response in the nowcasting of flash floods. In this case, precipitation fields observed in real time play a crucial role and observational uncertainties must be taken into account. In this study, we investigate the potential of a framework which combines a geostatistical conditional simulation method that considers information from precipitation radar and rain gauges, and a distributed rainfall-runoff model to generate an ensemble of precipitation fields and produce probabilistic flood alert maps. We adapted the simulation method proposed by Leblois and Creutin (2013), based on the Turning Band Method (TBM) and a conditional simulation approach, to consider the temporal and spatial characteristics of radar data and rain gauge measurements altogether and generate precipitation ensembles. The AIGA system developed by Irstea and Météo-France for predicting flash floods in the French Mediterranean region (Javelle et al., 2014) was used to transform the generated precipitation ensembles into ensembles of discharge at the outlet of the studied catchments. Finally, discharge ensembles were translated into maps providing information on the probability of exceeding a given flood threshold. A total of 19 events that occurred between 2009 and 2013 in the Var region (southeastern France), a region prone to flash floods, was used to illustrate the approach. Results show that the proposed method is able to simulate an ensemble of realistic precipitation fields and capture peak flows of flash floods. This was shown to be particularly useful at ungauged catchments, where uncertainties on the evaluation of flood peaks are high. The results obtained also show that the approach developed can be used to

  18. Impact of Homeland Security Alert level on calls to a law enforcement peer support hotline.

    PubMed

    Omer, Saad B; Barnett, Daniel J; Castellano, Cherie; Wierzba, Rachel K; Hiremath, Girish S; Balicer, Ran D; Everly, George S

    2007-01-01

    The Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) was established by the Department of Homeland Security to communicate the risk of a terrorist event. In order to explore the potential psychological impacts of HSAS we analyzed the effects of terror alerts on the law enforcement community. We used data from the New Jersey Cop 2 Cop crisis intervention hotline. Incidence Rate Ratios--interpreted as average relative increases in the daily number of calls to the Cop 2 Cop hotline during an increased alert period--were computed from Poisson models. The hotline received a total of 4,145 initial calls during the study period. The mean daily number of calls was higher during alert level elevation compared to prior 7 days (7.68 vs. 8.00). In the Poisson regression analysis, the Incidence Rate Ratios of number of calls received during elevated alert levels compared to the reference period of seven days preceding each change in alert were close to 1, with confidence intervals crossing 1 (i.e. not statistically significant) for all lag periods evaluated. This investigation, in the context of New Jersey law enforcement personnel, does not support the concern that elevating the alert status places undue stress upon alert recipients.

  19. An end-to-end architecture for distributing weather alerts to wireless handsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Karen L.; Nguyen, Hung

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the current National Weather Service's (NWS) system for providing weather alerts in the U.S. and will review how the existing end-to-end architecture is being leveraged to provide non-weather alerts, also known as "all-hazard alerts", to the general public. The paper then describes how a legacy system that transmits weather and all-hazard alerts can be extended via commercial wireless networks and protocols to reach 154 million Americans who carry cell phones. This approach uses commercial SATCOM and existing wireless carriers and services such as Short Messaging Service (SMS) for text and emerging Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) protocol, which would allow for photos, maps, audio and video alerts to be sent to end users. This wireless broadcast alert delivery architecture is designed to be open and to embrace the National Weather Service's mandate to become an "" warning system for the general public. Examples of other public and private sector applications that require timely and intelligent push mechanisms using this alert dissemination approach are also given.

  20. A clinical data warehouse-based process for refining medication orders alerts.

    PubMed

    Boussadi, Abdelali; Caruba, Thibaut; Zapletal, Eric; Sabatier, Brigitte; Durieux, Pierre; Degoulet, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case report is to evaluate the use of a clinical data warehouse coupled with a clinical information system to test and refine alerts for medication orders control before they were fully implemented. A clinical decision rule refinement process was used to assess alerts. The criteria assessed were the frequencies of alerts for initial prescriptions of 10 medications whose dosage levels depend on renal function thresholds. In the first iteration of the process, the frequency of the 'exceeds maximum daily dose' alerts was 7.10% (617/8692), while that of the 'under dose' alerts was 3.14% (273/8692). Indicators were presented to the experts. During the different iterations of the process, 45 (16.07%) decision rules were removed, 105 (37.5%) were changed and 136 new rules were introduced. Extensive retrospective analysis of physicians' medication orders stored in a clinical data warehouse facilitates alert optimization toward the goal of maximizing the safety of the patient and minimizing overridden alerts.

  1. Promoting Safety in Hypnosis: A Clinical Instrument for the Assessment of Alertness.

    PubMed

    Howard, Hedy A

    2017-04-01

    Hypnosis has long demonstrated its power to facilitate various approaches to psychotherapy. Like other potent modalities, hypnosis may produce unwanted effects. Although its negative sequelae are usually mild and transient, more serious complications may occur. Recently, attention has been drawn to the powerful role of failures of dehypnosis or alerting/realerting in producing unwanted effects. Traditionally, alerting has been viewed as a relatively uncomplicated process that requires little more than the simple suggestion that the subject will return or awaken from trance, and exiting from trance has generally been considered the cessation of the phenomena suggested during induction and thereafter. Newer findings challenge these assumptions and suggest that restoring the subject to a prehypnotic baseline level of alertness is of equal or greater importance. Here, I describe the Howard Alertness Scale (HAS), with which subjects can be made aware of their baseline levels of alertness to help them understand the unique ways that their trance states differ from their normal alert states, and assess and measure their subjective perception of alertness before and after hypnosis. Furthermore, regular use of the HAS holds potential to enhance both the therapeutic alliance and the patient's sense of safety and mastery. The development and use of the HAS is discussed along with three vignettes illustrating its clinical application.

  2. Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J

    2006-04-11

    This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients

  3. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  4. A week-long meditation retreat decouples behavioral measures of the alerting and executive attention networks.

    PubMed

    Elliott, James C; Wallace, B Alan; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    PREVIOUS STUDIES HAVE EXAMINED THE INFLUENCE OF MEDITATION ON THREE FUNCTIONALLY DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF ATTENTION: executive control, alerting, and orienting. These studies have consistently found that meditation training improves both executive attention and alerting, but there has not been a consistent and clear effect of meditation training on orienting. In addition, while previous studies have shown that the functional coupling of the alerting and executive networks increases the processing of task irrelevant stimuli, it is unknown if participating in a meditation retreat can decouple these components of attention and lead to improved performance. The current study investigated the influence of a week-long intensive meditation retreat on three components of attention by randomly assigning participants to either pre- or postretreat testing groups. A modified attention network test (ANT) was used. Executive attention was measured as the difference in response time (RT) between congruent and incongruent task irrelevant flankers (conflict effect). Reflexive and volitional orienting were measured by manipulating cue validity and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The coupling of executive attention and alerting was measured by examining flanker interference as a function of the SOA of an alerting cue. The meditation retreat improved task based indices of executive attention, but not reflexive or volitional orienting. There was clear behavioral evidence of coupling between executive attention and alerting in the preretreat group, as the conflict effect peaked when an alerting cue was presented 300 ms before the target. Importantly, there was no increase in the conflict effect for the postretreat group. This is consistent with the notion that the retreat decoupled the executive and alerting networks. These results suggest that previously reported improvements in the executive and alerting networks after meditation training might be mediated by the same underlying

  5. Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

  6. Alert Hypnotic Inductions: Use in Treating Combat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eads, Bruce; Wark, David M

    2015-10-01

    Alert hypnosis can be a valuable part of the treatment protocol for the resolution of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research indicates that combat veterans with PTSD are more hypnotically susceptible than the general population. For that reason, it is hypothesized that they should be better able to use hypnosis in treatment. As opposed to the traditional modality, eyes-open alert hypnosis allows the patient to take advantage of hypnotic phenomena while participating responsibly in work, social life, and recreation. Three case studies are reported on combat veterans with PTSD who learned to overcome their symptoms using alert hypnosis.

  7. Multi-wavelength follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Aurore

    2015-10-01

    Transient sources are often associated with the most violent phenomena in the Universe, where the acceleration of hadrons may occur. Such sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGN) or core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and are promising candidates for the production of high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. The ANTARES telescope, located in the Mediterranean sea, aims at detecting these high energy neutrinos, which could reveal the presence of a cosmic ray accelerator. However, to enhance the sensitivity to transient sources, a method based on multi-wavelength follow-up of neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection. The telescopes start an observation program of the corresponding region of the sky in order to detect a possible electromagnetic counterpart to the neutrino event. The work presented in this thesis covers the development and implementation of an optical image analysis pipeline, as well as the analysis of optical and X-ray data to search for fast transient sources, such as GRB afterglows, and slowly varying transient sources, such as CCSNe.

  8. Lane change behavior with a side blind zone alert system.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Raymond J; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2008-03-01

    This in-traffic study explored the effect of a side blind zone alert (SBZA) system on driver lane change behavior. Such a system may help drivers avoid lane change crashes by warning them with a side mirror display when a vehicle is detected in their blind zone. Participants drove with and without the SBZA system enabled, and were instructed to evaluate vehicle ride characteristics and only given an "incidental" system explanation. Overall, drivers failed to execute "over the shoulder" (blind zone) glances for 68 and 85% of the left and right lane changes, respectively. This suggests that the SBZA display provides information to the driver that often fails to be obtained via over the shoulder glances. In addition, when the SBZA system was enabled there was a 31% reduction in left lane changes attempted without the driver checking the left mirror, and a 23% reduction in right lane changes attempted without the driver checking the inside mirror. These results, coupled with the assumption that "did not see other vehicle" is a principal causal factor in many lane change crashes, suggests that the SBZA system may assist drivers in avoiding lane change crashes.

  9. Women's safety alerts in maternity care: is speaking up enough?

    PubMed

    Rance, Susanna; McCourt, Christine; Rayment, Juliet; Mackintosh, Nicola; Carter, Wendy; Watson, Kylie; Sandall, Jane

    2013-04-01

    Patients' contributions to safety include speaking up about their perceptions of being at risk. Previous studies have found that dismissive responses from staff discouraged patients from speaking up. A Care Quality Commission investigation of a maternity service where serious incidents occurred found evidence that women had routinely been ignored and left alone in labour. Women using antenatal services hesitated to raise concerns that they felt staff might consider irrelevant. The Birthplace in England programme, which investigated the quality and safety of different places of birth for 'low-risk' women, included a qualitative organisational case study in four NHS Trusts. The authors collected documentary, observational and interview data from March to December 2010 including interviews with 58 postnatal women. A framework approach was combined with inductive analysis using NVivo8 software. Speaking up, defined as insistent and vehement communication when faced with failure by staff to listen and respond, was an unexpected finding mentioned in half the women's interviews. Fourteen women reported raising alerts about safety issues they felt to be urgent. The presence of a partner or relative was a facilitating factor for speaking up. Several women described distress and harm that ensued from staff failing to listen. Women are speaking up, but this is not enough: organisation-focused efforts are required to improve staff response. Further research is needed in maternity services and in acute and general healthcare on the effectiveness of safety-promoting interventions, including real-time patient feedback, patient toolkits and patient-activated rapid response calls.

  10. Changing adolescent propensities to use drugs: results from Project ALERT.

    PubMed

    Ellickson, P L; Bell, R M; Harrison, E R

    1993-01-01

    Do successful drug prevention programs suppress the risk factors they were intended to modify? This paper addresses that issue for Project ALERT, a school-based program for seventh and eighth graders that has been shown to curb both cigarette and marijuana use. Evaluated with over 4,000 students in an experimental test that included 30 diverse California and Oregon schools, the curriculum seeks to help young people develop both the motivation to avoid drugs and the skills they need to resist pro-drug pressures. Using regression analyses, we examine the program's impact on the intervening (cognitive) variables hypothesized to affect actual use: adolescent beliefs in their ability to resist, perceived consequences of use, normative perceptions about peer use and tolerance of drugs, and expectations of future use. The analysis depicts program effects for perceptions linked to each target substance (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana), across all students and for those at different levels of risk for future use. Results show that the curriculum successfully dampened cognitive risk factors from each of the above categories for both cigarettes and marijuana, indicating that social influence programs can mitigate a broad range of beliefs associated with the propensity to use drugs. However, it had a limited impact on beliefs about alcohol, the most widely used and socially accepted of the three drugs. Implications for drug prevention programs and practitioners are discussed.

  11. Concatenation of 'alert' and 'identity' segments in dingoes' alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Eloïse C; Allen, Andrew P; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2016-07-27

    Multicomponent signals can be formed by the uninterrupted concatenation of multiple call types. One such signal is found in dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo. This stereotyped, multicomponent 'bark-howl' vocalisation is formed by the concatenation of a noisy bark segment and a tonal howl segment. Both segments are structurally similar to bark and howl vocalisations produced independently in other contexts (e.g. intra- and inter-pack communication). Bark-howls are mainly uttered in response to human presence and were hypothesized to serve as alarm calls. We investigated the function of bark-howls and the respective roles of the bark and howl segments. We found that dingoes could discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar howl segments, after having only heard familiar howl vocalisations (i.e. different calls). We propose that howl segments could function as 'identity signals' and allow receivers to modulate their responses according to the caller's characteristics. The bark segment increased receivers' attention levels, providing support for earlier observational claims that barks have an 'alerting' function. Lastly, dingoes were more likely to display vigilance behaviours upon hearing bark-howl vocalisations, lending support to the alarm function hypothesis. Canid vocalisations, such as the dingo bark-howl, may provide a model system to investigate the selective pressures shaping complex communication systems.

  12. Design considerations for packed columns removing manganese from mining seepage

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.A.; Chuang, N.S. ); Wallace, R.P. )

    1989-04-01

    A field study during 1986 at a reclaimed strip mine are showed that column technology had promise as a low-maintenance, low-cost method of manganese removal and, therefore, design and operation data were needed before proceeding with a pilot plant scale operation. During 1987, three columns were operated in the laboratory to obtain needed design information. Removal efficiency was assessed as a function of hydraulic loading, mass loading, column depth, and pH. The studies yielded good information which could be expressed by simple models. The mechanisms of manganese removal were also assessed. Both batch and flow-through studies using various microbial poisons were conducted to determine whether the removal is biological or physical-chemical. Batch studies using autoclaving, ethanol, and sodium azide showed that adsorption of manganese was a fist step in the process followed by oxidation. Subsequent studies used smaller diameter columns in a continuous flow mode which were poisoned with sodium azide and operated for a longer period of time to avoid assessing only the adsorption step.

  13. Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Chemistry, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Articles are included concerning industry and schools, science and mathematics award scheme, teaching and research, safety, inservice training, Ugandan chemistry, plastics, and 19th century Nuffield. (DF)

  14. Applying human factors principles to alert design increases efficiency and reduces prescribing errors in a scenario-based simulation

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Alissa L; Zillich, Alan J; Melton, Brittany L; Russell, Scott A; Chen, Siying; Spina, Jeffrey R; Weiner, Michael; Johnson, Elizabette G; Daggy, Joanne K; McManus, M Sue; Hawsey, Jason M; Puleo, Anthony G; Doebbeling, Bradley N; Saleem, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To apply human factors engineering principles to improve alert interface design. We hypothesized that incorporating human factors principles into alerts would improve usability, reduce workload for prescribers, and reduce prescribing errors. Materials and methods We performed a scenario-based simulation study using a counterbalanced, crossover design with 20 Veterans Affairs prescribers to compare original versus redesigned alerts. We redesigned drug–allergy, drug–drug interaction, and drug–disease alerts based upon human factors principles. We assessed usability (learnability of redesign, efficiency, satisfaction, and usability errors), perceived workload, and prescribing errors. Results Although prescribers received no training on the design changes, prescribers were able to resolve redesigned alerts more efficiently (median (IQR): 56 (47) s) compared to the original alerts (85 (71) s; p=0.015). In addition, prescribers rated redesigned alerts significantly higher than original alerts across several dimensions of satisfaction. Redesigned alerts led to a modest but significant reduction in workload (p=0.042) and significantly reduced the number of prescribing errors per prescriber (median (range): 2 (1–5) compared to original alerts: 4 (1–7); p=0.024). Discussion Aspects of the redesigned alerts that likely contributed to better prescribing include design modifications that reduced usability-related errors, providing clinical data closer to the point of decision, and displaying alert text in a tabular format. Displaying alert text in a tabular format may help prescribers extract information quickly and thereby increase responsiveness to alerts. Conclusions This simulation study provides evidence that applying human factors design principles to medication alerts can improve usability and prescribing outcomes. PMID:24668841

  15. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    A project to evaluate the performance of the Virginia Tech Microbubble Column Flotation (MCF) process in an operating coal preparation plant was continued during this past quarter. The project is concerned with the collection of process operating data using a 30-inch diameter column, and using these data to scale-up to a prototype, full-scale plant column. The work is being carried out at the Marrowbone Preparation Plant owned by the Shell Mining Corporation. Work during the past reported period primarily concentrated on the completion of a parametric study to evaluate the performance of the 30-inch diameter column. The preliminary results obtained from the parametric study suggest that higher gas flow rates and frother additions appear to have a beneficial effect on separation efficiency. However, under these conditions, a larger wash water flow rate was necessary to offset the increased flow of feed water to the product stream. The parametric testing results indicated that the height of the stabilized froth zone had only a limited impact on the separation efficiency, except under conditions of high feed rates. A more detailed analysis of the response surface data is currently under way. Work in other areas (Task 2.5 - Control systems and Task 3.3 - Column Testing) is continuing, but has progressed at a slower pace than originally anticipated. The appendix contains data on energy recovery, product ash content, sulfur rejection, and separation efficiency. 32 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. The Earth Observation Monitor - Automated monitoring and alerting for spatial time-series data based on OGC web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, J.; Hüttich, C.; Schmullius, C.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial time series data are freely available around the globe from earth observation satellites and meteorological stations for many years until now. They provide useful and important information to detect ongoing changes of the environment; but for end-users it is often too complex to extract this information out of the original time series datasets. This issue led to the development of the Earth Observation Monitor (EOM), an operational framework and research project to provide simple access, analysis and monitoring tools for global spatial time series data. A multi-source data processing middleware in the backend is linked to MODIS data from Land Processes Distributed Archive Center (LP DAAC) and Google Earth Engine as well as daily climate station data from NOAA National Climatic Data Center. OGC Web Processing Services are used to integrate datasets from linked data providers or external OGC-compliant interfaces to the EOM. Users can either use the web portal (webEOM) or the mobile application (mobileEOM) to execute these processing services and to retrieve the requested data for a given point or polygon in userfriendly file formats (CSV, GeoTiff). Beside providing just data access tools, users can also do further time series analyses like trend calculations, breakpoint detections or the derivation of phenological parameters from vegetation time series data. Furthermore data from climate stations can be aggregated over a given time interval. Calculated results can be visualized in the client and downloaded for offline usage. Automated monitoring and alerting of the time series data integrated by the user is provided by an OGC Sensor Observation Service with a coupled OGC Web Notification Service. Users can decide which datasets and parameters are monitored with a given filter expression (e.g., precipitation value higher than x millimeter per day, occurrence of a MODIS Fire point, detection of a time series anomaly). Datasets integrated in the SOS service are

  17. Beam Studies with Electron Columns

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Romanov, A.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-04-01

    We report preliminary results of experimental studies of 'electron columns' in the Tevatron and in a specialized test setup. In the Tevatron, a beam of 150 GeV protons ionizes residual gas and ionization electrons are stored in an electrostatic trap immersed into strong longitudinal magnetic field. Shifts of proton betatron frequencies are observed. In the test setup, we observe effects pointing to accumulation and escape of ionization electrons.

  18. Stability of elastically supported columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, Alfred S; Viscovich, Steven J

    1942-01-01

    A criterion is developed for the stiffness required of elastic lateral supports at the ends of a compression member to provide stability. A method based on this criterion is then developed for checking the stability of a continuous beam-column. A related method is also developed for checking the stability of a member of a pin-jointed truss against rotation in the plane of the truss.

  19. 47 CFR 80.1117 - Procedure for receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... selective calling of receipt of a distress alert in the terrestrial services must comply with ITU-R M.541-9 (incorporated by reference, see § 80.7). (b) Acknowledgement through a satellite of receipt of a distress...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1117 - Procedure for receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... selective calling of receipt of a distress alert in the terrestrial services must comply with ITU-R M.541-9 (incorporated by reference, see § 80.7). (b) Acknowledgement through a satellite of receipt of a distress...