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Sample records for alert message processed

  1. Alert Messaging in the CMS Distributed Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxa, Zdenek

    2012-12-01

    WMAgent is the core component of the CMS workload management system. One of the features of this job managing platform is a configurable messaging system aimed at generating, distributing and processing alerts: short messages describing a given alert-worthy information or pathological condition. Apart from the framework's sub-components running within the WMAgent instances, there is a stand-alone application collecting alerts from all WMAgent instances running across the CMS distributed computing environment. The alert framework has a versatile design that allows for receiving alert messages also from other CMS production applications, such as PhEDEx data transfer manager. We present implementation details of the system, including its Python implementation using ZeroMQ, CouchDB message storage and future visions as well as operational experiences. Inter-operation with monitoring platforms such as Dashboard or Lemon is described.

  2. Delivering Alert Messages to Members of a Work Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftis, Julia; Nickens, Stephanie; Pell, Melissa; Pell, Vince

    2008-01-01

    Global Alert Resolution Network (GARNET) is a software system for delivering emergency alerts as well as less-urgent messages to members of the Goddard Space Flight Center work force via an intranet or the Internet, and can be adapted to similar use in other large organizations.

  3. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  4. Alerting prefixes for speech warning messages. [in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucher, N. M.; Voorhees, J. W.; Karl, R. L.; Werner, E.

    1984-01-01

    A major question posed by the design of an integrated voice information display/warning system for next-generation helicopter cockpits is whether an alerting prefix should precede voice warning messages; if so, the characteristics desirable in such a cue must also be addressed. Attention is presently given to the results of a study which ascertained pilot response time and response accuracy to messages preceded by either neutral cues or the cognitively appropriate semantic cues. Both verbal cues and messages were spoken in direct, phoneme-synthesized speech, and a training manipulation was included to determine the extent to which previous exposure to speech thus produced facilitates these messages' comprehension. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of human factors research in cockpit display design.

  5. Alert!: In Emergencies, Schools Use Technology to Get the Message out Quickly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how a growing number of community colleges have begun deploying emergency alert systems that can be used to send information via e-mail and text messaging directly to students' cell phones and other portable devices. Such systems enable authorized campus administrators to send messages to thousands of people within minutes.…

  6. Cockpit Interfaces, Displays, and Alerting Messages for the Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Palmer, Michael T.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the IM cockpit interfaces, displays, and alerting capabilities that were developed for and used in the IMAC experiment, which was conducted at NASA Langley in the summer of 2015. Specifically, this document includes: (1) screen layouts for each page of the interface; (2) step-by-step instructions for data entry, data verification and input error correction; (3) algorithm state messages and error condition alerting messages; (4) aircraft speed guidance and deviation indications; and (5) graphical display of the spatial relationships between the Ownship aircraft and the Target aircraft. The controller displays for IM will be described in a separate document.

  7. Dynamic Message Routing Using Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibler, Thorsten; Karastoyanova, Dimka; Leymann, Frank

    The Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is composable middleware that provides applications with services such as message routing and transformation, service composition, dynamic discovery, transactional support, coordination, security features, and others. In an ESB supporting SOAP message exchange, routing algorithms typically follow the sequential SOAP message processing model, where SOAP headers are the main artefacts used to specify the message route and the processing of the payload by intermediaries along that route. This model supports neither alternative nor parallel message routes. In the case of a failing intermediary node this leads to a failure in the message delivery. Moreover, the execution order of services on SOAP message payloads at the intermediaries cannot be prescribed. In this paper, we demonstrate how these deficiencies of the SOAP message processing model can be addressed. We introduce an approach that allows for specifying SOAP message routing logic in terms of BPEL processes. We show that parallel and alternative routes for SOAP messages can be modelled and executed, and the order of services that process a message at intermediaries can be predefined to accommodate the correct processing sequence as required by the concrete application domain. Features like dynamic discovery of services and flexible service composition are leveraged to enable flexible SOAP message routing.

  8. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall...

  9. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Alert Message Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall...

  10. Time and Process in Message Processing Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basil, Michael D.

    Message processing literature could conceptualize process in one of two distinct ways: a single over-time process as described by J. N. Cappella, versus several processes as described by D. K. Berlo. An examination of literature finds that theories are based on both forms of these over-time processes. However, operationalization rarely measures…

  11. Processing electrophysiological signals for the monitoring of alertness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Mathematical techniques are described for processing EEG signals associated with varying states of alertness. Fast algorithms for implementing real-time computations of alertness estimates were developed. A realization of the phase-distortionless digital filter is presented which approaches real-time filtering and a transform for EEG signals. This transform provides information for the alertness estimates and can be performed in real time. A statistical test for stationarity in EEG signals is being developed that will provide a method for determining the duration of the EEG signals necessary for estimating the short-time power or energy spectra for nonstationary analysis of EEG signals.

  12. Effectiveness of a Mobile Short-Message-Service–Based Disease Outbreak Alert System in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njeru, Ian; Zurovac, Dejan; Tipo, Shikanga O; Kareko, David; Mwau, Matilu; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to test the effectiveness of a text-messaging system used for notification of disease outbreaks in Kenya. Health facilities that used the system had more timely notifications than those that did not (19.2% vs. 2.6%), indicating that technology can enhance disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. PMID:26981628

  13. Community Alert: Using Text Messaging and Social Media to Improve Campus Emergency Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes emergency management and the part that social media technologies and mobile messaging have made when they are included as part of the campus emergency plan. Administrators have found that ample notification and preparedness must be built into campus communication systems. Social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook…

  14. Centralized Alert-Processing and Asset Planning for Sensorwebs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Chien, Steve A.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Tang, Benyang

    2010-01-01

    A software program provides a Sensorweb architecture for alert-processing, event detection, asset allocation and planning, and visualization. It automatically tasks and re-tasks various types of assets such as satellites and robotic vehicles in response to alerts (fire, weather) extracted from various data sources, including low-level Webcam data. JPL has adapted cons iderable Sensorweb infrastructure that had been previously applied to NASA Earth Science applications. This NASA Earth Science Sensorweb has been in operational use since 2003, and has proven reliability of the Sensorweb technologies for robust event detection and autonomous response using space and ground assets. Unique features of the software include flexibility to a range of detection and tasking methods including those that require aggregation of data over spatial and temporal ranges, generality of the response structure to represent and implement a range of response campaigns, and the ability to respond rapidly.

  15. Middleware for Processing Message Queues with Elasticity Support and Sequential Integrity of Asynchronous Message Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Teixeira, Eduardo; Patrícia Favacho de Araújo, Aletéia

    2015-10-01

    Elasticity in computing refers to dynamically adjusting the amount of allocated resources to process a distributed application. In order to achieve this, mechanisms are needed to avoid the phenomenon of the elasticity threshold detection moving constantly up or down. The existing work fails to deliver sequential integrity of asynchronous messages processing and the asymmetries of data distribution to achieve parallel consumption. This paper fills this gaps and proposes a middleware solution to dynamically analyze the flow of message queue, and a mechanism to increase the parallelized consumption based on the output behavior. An architecture for IOD (Increase On Demand) middleware is presented, with support for the increase and decrease of thread's to cope with the growth of message queues, using the technique of limit-based heuristics over a given period of time and grouping messages into sub-queues based on classification criteria.

  16. The message processing and distribution system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, K. L.

    1981-06-01

    A historical approach is used in presenting the life cycle development of the Navy's message processing and distribution system beginning with the planning phase and ending with the integrated logistic support phase. Several maintenance problems which occurred after the system was accepted for fleet use were examined to determine if they resulted from errors in the acquisition process. The critical decision points of the acquisition process are examined and constructive recommendations are made for avoiding the problems which hindered the successful development of this system.

  17. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  18. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  19. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  20. Toward a Hierarchical Processing Model of Audio Advertising Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.; Melson, William H.

    Research shows that information received by one brain hemisphere (e.g., auditory messages entering the right ear) is processed and transferred to the other, interpretation being a combination of right and left brain processing, with high intensity messages shifting control from the left to the right brain. If information is received by one…

  1. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message

  2. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    Using Gray and McNaughton's (2000) revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (r-RST), we examined the influence of personality on processing of words presented in gain-framed and loss-framed anti-speeding messages and how the processing biases associated with personality influenced message acceptance. The r-RST predicts that the nervous system regulates personality and that behaviour is dependent upon the activation of the behavioural activation system (BAS), activated by reward cues and the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), activated by punishment cues. According to r-RST, individuals differ in the sensitivities of their BAS and FFFS (i.e., weak to strong), which in turn leads to stable patterns of behaviour in the presence of rewards and punishments, respectively. It was hypothesised that individual differences in personality (i.e., strength of the BAS and the FFFS) would influence the degree of both message processing (as measured by reaction time to previously viewed message words) and message acceptance (measured three ways by perceived message effectiveness, behavioural intentions, and attitudes). Specifically, it was anticipated that, individuals with a stronger BAS would process the words presented in the gain-frame messages faster than those with a weaker BAS and individuals with a stronger FFFS would process the words presented in the loss-frame messages faster than those with a weaker FFFS. Further, it was expected that greater processing (faster reaction times) would be associated with greater acceptance for that message. Driver licence holding students (N=108) were recruited to view one of four anti-speeding messages (i.e., social gain-frame, social loss-frame, physical gain-frame, and physical loss-frame). A computerised lexical decision task assessed participants' subsequent reaction times to message words, as an indicator of the extent of processing of the previously viewed message. Self-report measures assessed personality and the three message

  3. 76 FR 35810 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... codify the obligation to process alert messages formatted in the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and to... comments and additional information on the rulemaking process, see the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of... EB Docket No. 04-296, 72 FR 62123, November 2, 2007, which incorporated certain Common...

  4. Alerting enhances attentional bias for salient stimuli: evidence from a global/local processing task.

    PubMed

    Weinbach, Noam; Henik, Avishai

    2014-11-01

    The present study examined the role of alerting in modulating attentional bias to salient events. In a global/local processing task, participants were presented with a large arrow (global level) comprised of smaller arrows (local level) pointing in the same or opposite directions and had to indicate the direction of the large or small arrows in different blocks. Saliency of the global and local levels was manipulated, creating global-salient and local-salient conditions. Alerting signals were presented in half of the trials prior to the target. Results revealed a double dissociation in the effects of alerting on global/local interference effects. In a global salient condition, alerting increased global interference and decreased local interference. In a local salient condition, alerting reduced global interference and increased local interference. We demonstrate that within a single task, alerting can increase and reduce conflict based on perceptual saliency. These findings help to better understand disorders like hemispatial neglect in which both arousal and attention to salient events are impaired. These results also challenge previous theories suggesting that alerting acts to increase conflict interference. We argue that alerting is an adaptive mechanism that diverts attention to salient events, but comes at a cost when selective attention to less salient details is required.

  5. A clinical data warehouse-based process for refining medication orders alerts.

    PubMed

    Boussadi, Abdelali; Caruba, Thibaut; Zapletal, Eric; Sabatier, Brigitte; Durieux, Pierre; Degoulet, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case report is to evaluate the use of a clinical data warehouse coupled with a clinical information system to test and refine alerts for medication orders control before they were fully implemented. A clinical decision rule refinement process was used to assess alerts. The criteria assessed were the frequencies of alerts for initial prescriptions of 10 medications whose dosage levels depend on renal function thresholds. In the first iteration of the process, the frequency of the 'exceeds maximum daily dose' alerts was 7.10% (617/8692), while that of the 'under dose' alerts was 3.14% (273/8692). Indicators were presented to the experts. During the different iterations of the process, 45 (16.07%) decision rules were removed, 105 (37.5%) were changed and 136 new rules were introduced. Extensive retrospective analysis of physicians' medication orders stored in a clinical data warehouse facilitates alert optimization toward the goal of maximizing the safety of the patient and minimizing overridden alerts.

  6. Systematic and heuristic processing of majority and minority-endorsed messages: the effects of varying outcome relevance and levels of orientation on attitude and message processing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robin; Hewstone, Miles; Martin, Pearl Y

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the conditions under which majority and minority sources instigate systematic processing of their messages. Both experiments crossed source status (majority vs. minority) with message quality (strong vs. weak arguments). In each experiment, message elaboration was manipulated by varying either motivational (outcome relevance, Experiment 1) or cognitive (orientating tasks, Experiment 2) factors. The results showed that when either motivational or cognitive factors encouraged low message elaboration, there was heuristic acceptance of the majority position without detailed message processing. When the level of message elaboration was intermediate, there was message processing only for the minority source. Finally, when message elaboration was high, there was message processing for both source conditions. These results show that majority and minority influence is sensitive to motivational and cognitive factors that constrain or enhance message elaboration and that both sources can lead to systematic processing under specific circumstances.

  7. Phasic alertness enhances processing of face and non-face stimuli in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, Michal; Weinbach, Noam; Mardo, Elite; Henik, Avishai; Avidan, Galia

    2016-08-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is a severe face processing impairment that occurs in the absence of any obvious brain damage and has often been associated with a more general deficit in deriving holistic relations between facial features or even between non-face shape dimensions. Here we further characterized this deficit and examined a potential way to ameliorate it. To this end we manipulated phasic alertness using alerting cues previously shown to modulate attention and enhance global processing of visual stimuli in normal observers. Specifically, we first examined whether individuals with CP, similarly to controls, would show greater global processing when exposed to an alerting cue in the context of a non-facial task (Navon global/local task). We then explored the effect of an alerting cue on face processing (upright/inverted face discrimination). Confirming previous findings, in the absence of alerting cues, controls showed a typical global bias in the Navon task and an inversion effect indexing holistic processing in the upright/inverted task, while CP failed to show these effects. Critically, when alerting cues preceded the experimental trials, both groups showed enhanced global interference and a larger inversion effect. These results suggest that phasic alertness may modulate visual processing and consequently, affect global/holistic perception. Hence, these findings further reinforce the notion that global/holistic processing may serve as a possible mechanism underlying the face processing deficit in CP. Moreover, they imply a possible route for enhancing face processing in individuals with CP and thus shed new light on potential amelioration of this disorder. PMID:27364232

  8. The Empirical Development of the Normative Message Processing Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aune, R. Kelly; Reynolds, Rodney A.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on five studies on the development, conceptual validation, and behavioral validation of the Normative Message Processing Scale (NMPS). Compares the conceptual and predictive validity of the NMPS to related trait information-processing instruments. Argues for the need to develop an instrument that distinguishes between the tendency to…

  9. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  10. Empowerment in the process of health messaging for rural low-income mothers: an exploratory message design project.

    PubMed

    Aldoory, Linda; Braun, Bonnie; Maring, Elisabeth Fost; Duggal, Mili; Briones, Rowena Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Rural, low-income mothers face challenges to their health equal to or greater than those of low-income mothers from urban areas. This study put health message design into the hands of low-income rural mothers. The current study filled a research gap by analyzing a participatory process used to design health messages tailored to the everyday lives of rural low-income mothers. A total of forty-three mothers participated in nine focus groups, which were held from 2012 to 2013, in eight states. The mothers were from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Participants discussed food security, physical activity, and oral health information. They created messages by considering several elements: visuals, length of message, voice/perspective, self-efficacy and personal control, emotional appeals, positive and negative reinforcements, and steps to health behavior change. This study was innovative in its focus on empowerment as a key process to health message design.

  11. An MFC-based online monitoring and alert system for activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-Hua; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-10-27

    In this study, based on a simple, compact and submersible microbial fuel cell (MFC), a novel online monitoring and alert system with self-diagnosis function was established for the activated sludge (AS) process. Such a submersible MFC utilized organic substrates and oxygen in the AS reactor as the electron donor and acceptor respectively, and could provide an evaluation on the status of the AS reactor and thus give a reliable early warning of potential risks. In order to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of this online monitoring and alert system, a series of tests were conducted to examine the response of this system to various shocks imposed on the AS reactor. The results indicate that this online monitoring and alert system was highly sensitive to the performance variations of the AS reactor. The stability, sensitivity and repeatability of this online system provide feasibility of being incorporated into current control systems of wastewater treatment plants to real-time monitor, diagnose, alert and control the AS process.

  12. An MFC-Based Online Monitoring and Alert System for Activated Sludge Process

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gui-Hua; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, based on a simple, compact and submersible microbial fuel cell (MFC), a novel online monitoring and alert system with self-diagnosis function was established for the activated sludge (AS) process. Such a submersible MFC utilized organic substrates and oxygen in the AS reactor as the electron donor and acceptor respectively, and could provide an evaluation on the status of the AS reactor and thus give a reliable early warning of potential risks. In order to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of this online monitoring and alert system, a series of tests were conducted to examine the response of this system to various shocks imposed on the AS reactor. The results indicate that this online monitoring and alert system was highly sensitive to the performance variations of the AS reactor. The stability, sensitivity and repeatability of this online system provide feasibility of being incorporated into current control systems of wastewater treatment plants to real-time monitor, diagnose, alert and control the AS process. PMID:25345502

  13. An MFC-based online monitoring and alert system for activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gui-Hua; Wang, Yun-Kun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, based on a simple, compact and submersible microbial fuel cell (MFC), a novel online monitoring and alert system with self-diagnosis function was established for the activated sludge (AS) process. Such a submersible MFC utilized organic substrates and oxygen in the AS reactor as the electron donor and acceptor respectively, and could provide an evaluation on the status of the AS reactor and thus give a reliable early warning of potential risks. In order to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of this online monitoring and alert system, a series of tests were conducted to examine the response of this system to various shocks imposed on the AS reactor. The results indicate that this online monitoring and alert system was highly sensitive to the performance variations of the AS reactor. The stability, sensitivity and repeatability of this online system provide feasibility of being incorporated into current control systems of wastewater treatment plants to real-time monitor, diagnose, alert and control the AS process. PMID:25345502

  14. A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; De Agostini, A.; Stevan, G.; Tessari, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-11-01

    The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence. In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy). The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso. Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall Depth-Duration-Frequency (DDF) curves

  15. Affective and executive network processing associated with persuasive antidrug messages.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Ian S; Yzer, Marco C; Luciana, Monica; Vohs, Kathleen D; MacDonald, Angus W

    2013-07-01

    Previous research has highlighted brain regions associated with socioemotional processes in persuasive message encoding, whereas cognitive models of persuasion suggest that executive brain areas may also be important. The current study aimed to identify lateral prefrontal brain areas associated with persuasive message viewing and understand how activity in these executive regions might interact with activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Seventy adolescents were scanned using fMRI while they watched 10 strongly convincing antidrug public service announcements (PSAs), 10 weakly convincing antidrug PSAs, and 10 advertisements (ads) unrelated to drugs. Antidrug PSAs compared with nondrug ads more strongly elicited arousal-related activity in the amygdala and medial pFC. Within antidrug PSAs, those that were prerated as strongly persuasive versus weakly persuasive showed significant differences in arousal-related activity in executive processing areas of the lateral pFC. In support of the notion that persuasiveness involves both affective and executive processes, functional connectivity analyses showed greater coactivation between the lateral pFC and amygdala during PSAs known to be strongly (vs. weakly) convincing. These findings demonstrate that persuasive messages elicit activation in brain regions responsible for both emotional arousal and executive control and represent a crucial step toward a better understanding of the neural processes responsible for persuasion and subsequent behavior change.

  16. Multiband space time processing for torpedo alert sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhao, Anbang

    2013-12-01

    A space time processing technology using harmonic CW wave is introduced to enhance the detecting performance of motion target based on active towed sonar based on CW wave. The detecting ability of CW wave and harmonic CW wave in multi-path channel is analyzed comparatively. The simulation results indicate that in multi-path channel harmonic CW wave is provided with a better performance.

  17. Applying the Extended Parallel Process Model to workplace safety messages.

    PubMed

    Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra; Deshpande, Sameer; Lavack, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The extended parallel process model (EPPM) proposes fear appeals are most effective when they combine threat and efficacy. Three studies conducted in the workplace safety context examine the use of various EPPM factors and their effects, especially multiplicative effects. Study 1 was a content analysis examining the use of EPPM factors in actual workplace safety messages. Study 2 experimentally tested these messages with 212 construction trainees. Study 3 replicated this experiment with 1,802 men across four English-speaking countries-Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results of these three studies (1) demonstrate the inconsistent use of EPPM components in real-world work safety communications, (2) support the necessity of self-efficacy for the effective use of threat, (3) show a multiplicative effect where communication effectiveness is maximized when all model components are present (severity, susceptibility, and efficacy), and (4) validate these findings with gory appeals across four English-speaking countries.

  18. Mobile phone text messaging intervention to improve alertness and reduce sleepiness and fatigue during shiftwork among emergency medicine clinicians: study protocol for the SleepTrackTXT pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental and physical fatigue while at work is common among emergency medical services (EMS) shift workers. Extended shifts (for example 24 hours) and excessive amounts of overtime work increase the likelihood of negative safety outcomes and pose a challenge for EMS fatigue-risk management. Text message-based interventions are a potentially high-impact, low-cost platform for sleep and fatigue assessment and distributing information to workers at risk of negative safety outcomes related to sleep behaviors and fatigue. Methods/Design We will conduct a pilot randomized trial with a convenience sample of adult EMS workers recruited from across the United States using a single study website. Participants will be allocated to one of two possible arms for a 90-day study period. The intervention arm will involve text message assessments of sleepiness, fatigue, and difficulty with concentration at the beginning, during, and end of scheduled shifts. Intervention subjects reporting high levels of sleepiness or fatigue will receive one of four randomly selected intervention messages promoting behavior change during shiftwork. Control subjects will receive assessment only text messages. We aim to determine the performance characteristics of a text messaging tool for the delivery of a sleep and fatigue intervention. We seek to determine if a text messaging program with tailored intervention messages is effective at reducing perceived sleepiness and/or fatigue among emergency medicine clinician shift workers. Additional aims include testing whether a theory-based behavioral intervention, delivered by text message, changes ‘alertness behaviors’. Discussion The SleepTrackTXT pilot trial could provide evidence of compliance and effectiveness that would support rapid widespread expansion in one of two forms: 1) a stand-alone program in the form of a tailored/individualized sleep monitoring and fatigue reduction support service for EMS workers; or 2) an add-on to a multi

  19. INITIATE: An Intelligent Adaptive Alert Environment.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Borna; Abidi, Samina Raza; Ahmad, Ahmad Marwan; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a large volume of alerts generated by medical Alert Generating Systems (AGS) such as drug-drug interaction softwares or clinical decision support systems over-whelms users and causes alert fatigue in them. Some of alert fatigue effects are ignoring crucial alerts and longer response times. A common approach to avoid alert fatigue is to devise mechanisms in AGS to stop them from generating alerts that are deemed irrelevant. In this paper, we present a novel framework called INITIATE: an INtellIgent adapTIve AlerT Environment to avoid alert fatigue by managing alerts generated by one or more AGS. We have identified and categories the lifecycle of different alerts and have developed alert management logic as per the alerts' lifecycle. Our framework incorporates an ontology that represents the alert management strategy and an alert management engine that executes this strategy. Our alert management framework offers the following features: (1) Adaptability based on users' feedback; (2) Personalization and aggregation of messages; and (3) Connection to Electronic Medical Records by implementing a HL7 Clinical Document Architecture parser.

  20. Development of a replicable process for translating science into practical health education messages.

    PubMed

    Tyus, Nadra C; Freeman, Randall J; Gibbons, M Christopher

    2006-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages. PMID:17019920

  1. Automated Planning of Science Products Based on Nadir Overflights and Alerts for Onboard and Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; McLaren, David A.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Mandl, Daniel; Hengemihle, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    A set of automated planning algorithms is the current operations baseline approach for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the proposed Hyper spectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. For this operations concept, there are only local (e.g. non-depletable) operations constraints, such as real-time downlink and onboard memory, and the forward sweeping algorithm is optimal for determining which science products should be generated onboard and on ground based on geographical overflights, science priorities, alerts, requests, and onboard and ground processing constraints. This automated planning approach was developed for the HyspIRI IPM concept. The HyspIRI IPM is proposed to use an X-band Direct Broadcast (DB) capability that would enable data to be delivered to ground stations virtually as it is acquired. However, the HyspIRI VSWIR and TIR instruments will produce approximately 1 Gbps data, while the DB capability is 15 Mbps for a approx. =60X oversubscription. In order to address this mismatch, this innovation determines which data to downlink based on both the type of surface the spacecraft is overflying, and the onboard processing of data to detect events. For example, when the spacecraft is overflying Polar Regions, it might downlink a snow/ice product. Additionally, the onboard software will search for thermal signatures indicative of a volcanic event or wild fire and downlink summary information (extent, spectra) when detected, thereby reducing data volume. The planning system described above automatically generated the IPM mission plan based on requested products, the overflight regions, and available resources.

  2. Enhancing the effects of a narrative message through experiential information processing: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Hisler, Garrett

    2015-01-01

    First-person narratives are becoming a popular means to communicate health risk information. Although studies show they can increase risk perception and motivate health behaviours compared to statistical messages, more research on the conditions in which they are particularly likely to have effects is needed. In this study, we tested a moderator related to how information is processed. Specifically, we hypothesised that thinking in terms of emotions and personal experiences - known as experiential information processing - would increase people's responsiveness to a narrative. Female college students (N = 138) who reported indoor tanning were randomly assigned to read a first-person narrative message or a statistical message about the risks of skin cancer. Prior to reading the message, the women received instructions that would activate either experiential or rational information processing. Participants then reported their risk perceptions of skin cancer, worry about skin cancer and behaviour intentions related to skin cancer. Analyses showed that message type and information processing interacted to influence risk perceptions and worry. Consistent with hypotheses, participants reported the highest risk perception and worry when they used an experiential information system prior to reading the narrative message. There were no effects on behaviour intentions. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Understanding the effectiveness of the entertainment-education strategy: an investigation of how audience involvement, message processing, and message design influence health information recall.

    PubMed

    Quintero Johnson, Jessie M; Harrison, Kristen; Quick, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that entertainment-education (EE) is a promising health communication strategy. The purpose of this study was to identify some of the factors that facilitate and hinder audience involvement with EE messages. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors introduce a construct they call experiential involvement, which describes the experience of being cognitively and emotionally involved with EE messages and is a product of transportation into an EE text and identification with EE characters. Using an experimental design, the authors also investigated how reports of experiential involvement and health information recall varied depending on the degree to which the educational content was well integrated with the narrative content in EE messages. Findings indicated that integration significantly influenced health information recall. Results indicated that experiential involvement and the perception that the health topic in EE messages was personally relevant predicted participants' systematic processing of the information in EE messages. Contrary to expectation, personal relevance did not predict experiential involvement, and systematic message processing was negatively related to health information recall. Implications for the construction of EE messages and the study of the EE strategy are discussed.

  4. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  5. Parts, Materials, and Processes Experience Summary. Volume 1; [Catalog of ALERT and Other Information on Basic Design, Reliability, Quality and Applications Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The ALERT program, a system for communicating common problems with parts, materials, and processes, is condensed and catalogued. Expanded information on selected topics is provided by relating the problem area (failure) to the cause, the investigations and findings, the suggestions for avoidance (inspections, screening tests, proper part applications), and failure analysis procedures. The basic objective of ALERT is the avoidance of the recurrence of parts, materials, and processed problems, thus improving the reliability of equipment produced for and used by the government.

  6. Dynamic Motivational Processing of Antimarijuana Messages: Coactivation Begets Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zheng; Solloway, Tyler; Tchernev, John M.; Barker, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    In the theoretical framework of dynamic motivational activation, this study reveals the dynamics of antimarijuana public service announcement (PSA) processing, especially the processing of co-occurring positive and negative content. It specifies the important role of endogenous feedback dynamics of the information processing system and teases them…

  7. Effects of Mobile Instant Messaging on Collaborative Learning Processes and Outcomes: The Case of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyewon; Lee, MiYoung; Kim, Minjeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of mobile instant messaging on collaborative learning processes and outcomes. The collaborative processes were measured in terms of different types of interactions. We measured the outcomes of the collaborations through both the students' taskwork and their teamwork. The collaborative…

  8. For Emergency Alerts, Some Colleges Try Sirens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Colleges and universities, ever more mindful of campus safety, are installing outdoor sirens. The systems can blast spoken messages or tone alerts of danger--and one of the preset messages on many of the public-address systems warns: "There is a shooter on campus. Seek shelter immediately." As college officials reviewed their…

  9. The effects of frame, appeal, and outcome extremity of antismoking messages on cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Leshner, Glenn; Cheng, I-Huei

    2009-04-01

    Research on the impact of antismoking advertisements in countermarketing cigarette advertising is equivocal. Although many studies examined how different message appeal types influence people's attitudes and behavior, there have been few studies that have explored the mechanism of how individuals attend to and remember antismoking information. This study examined how message attributes of antismoking TV ads (frame, appeal type, and outcome extremity) interacted to influence people's attention (secondary task reaction time) and memory (recognition). Antismoking public service announcements were chosen that were either loss- or gain-framed, had either a health or social appeal, or had either a more or less extreme outcome described in the message. Among the key findings were that loss-framed messages with more extreme outcomes required the most processing resources (i.e., had the slowest secondary task reaction times) and were the best remembered (i.e., were best recognized). These findings indicate ways that different message attributes affect individuals' cognitive processing, and they are discussed in light of prior framing and persuasion research. PMID:19415554

  10. 47 CFR 36.379 - Message processing expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... administrative and miscellaneous expense associated with the processing of individual toll tickets and local... subcategories, as specified in § 36.379(b), based on the relative percentage assignment of the balance...

  11. Mood and threat to attitudinal freedom: delineating the role of mood congruency and hedonic contingency in counterattitudinal message processing.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian; Aydinli, Arzu

    2013-08-01

    The present research examined when happy individuals' processing of a counterattitudinal message is guided by mood-congruent expectancies versus hedonic considerations. Recipients in positive, neutral, or negative mood read a strong or weak counterattitudinal message which either contained a threat to attitudinal freedom or did not contain such a threat. As expected, a freedom-threatening counterattitudinal message was more mood threatening than a counterattitudinal message not threatening freedom. Furthermore, as predicted by the mood-congruent expectancies approach, people in positive mood processed a nonthreatening counterattitudinal message more thoroughly than people in negative mood. Message processing in neutral mood lay in between. In contrast, as predicted by the hedonic-contingency view, a threatening counterattitudinal message was processed less thoroughly in positive mood than in neutral mood. In negative mood, processing of a threatening counterattitudinal message was as low as in positive mood. These findings suggest that message processing is determined by mood congruency unless hedonic considerations override expectancy-based processing inclinations.

  12. Developing an Early-Alert System to Promote Student Visits to Tutor Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Qijie; Lewis, Carrie L.; Higdon, Jude

    2015-01-01

    An early-alert system (MavCLASS) was developed and piloted in a large gateway math class with 611 freshman students to identify academically at-risk students and provide alert messages. It was found that there was significant association between the alert messages students received and their visits to the university's tutor center. Further, the…

  13. Public health communications and alert fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care providers play a significant role in large scale health emergency planning, detection, response, recovery and communication with the public. The effectiveness of health care providers in emergency preparedness and response roles depends, in part, on public health agencies communicating information in a way that maximizes the likelihood that the message is delivered, received, deemed credible and, when appropriate, acted on. However, during an emergency, health care providers can become inundated with alerts and advisories through numerous national, state, local and professional communication channels. We conducted an alert fatigue study as a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial which aimed to identify the most effective methods of communicating public health messages between public health agencies and providers. We report an analysis of the effects of public health message volume/frequency on recall of specific message content and effect of rate of message communications on health care provider alert fatigue. Methods Health care providers enrolled in the larger study (n=528) were randomized to receive public health messages via email, fax, short message service (SMS or cell phone text messaging) or to a control group that did not receive messages. For 12 months, study messages based on real events of public health significance were sent quarterly with follow-up telephone interviews regarding message receipt and topic recall conducted 5–10 days after the message delivery date. During a pandemic when numerous messages are sent, alert fatigue may impact ability to recall whether a specific message has been received due to the “noise” created by the higher number of messages. To determine the impact of “noise” when study messages were sent, we compared health care provider recall of the study message topic to the number of local public health messages sent to health care providers. Results We calculated the mean number of

  14. Demographic variation in how the social brain processes news messages.

    PubMed

    Irene Ingeborg van Driel, M A; Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Ozen Bas, M A; Kleemans, Mariska

    2016-01-01

    A high capacity for visual perception distinguishes Homo sapiens from other primates. This human ability to detect social cues and retain visual records of social networks has been tested mostly with static facial images in laboratory settings. However, media consumption has become closely entangled with the way social life is navigated. Therefore, the study reported here tested demographic differences (gender and education) in visual information processing of social and nonsocial objects featured in audiovisual news content. Women recognized (accuracy) and recalled (salience) social images better than men. On the other hand, men were more skilled at recognizing, but not recalling, nonsocial images. Participants with lower educational levels recognized and recalled fewer images than individuals with higher educational levels. Interactions between demographic variables and time suggest that memory records for social images are more stable than those for nonsocial images. Memory may have survival-relevant importance, serving navigational functions that vary across environmental demands, resulting in differences across demographic groups. PMID:27378023

  15. Demographic variation in how the social brain processes news messages.

    PubMed

    Irene Ingeborg van Driel, M A; Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Ozen Bas, M A; Kleemans, Mariska

    2016-01-01

    A high capacity for visual perception distinguishes Homo sapiens from other primates. This human ability to detect social cues and retain visual records of social networks has been tested mostly with static facial images in laboratory settings. However, media consumption has become closely entangled with the way social life is navigated. Therefore, the study reported here tested demographic differences (gender and education) in visual information processing of social and nonsocial objects featured in audiovisual news content. Women recognized (accuracy) and recalled (salience) social images better than men. On the other hand, men were more skilled at recognizing, but not recalling, nonsocial images. Participants with lower educational levels recognized and recalled fewer images than individuals with higher educational levels. Interactions between demographic variables and time suggest that memory records for social images are more stable than those for nonsocial images. Memory may have survival-relevant importance, serving navigational functions that vary across environmental demands, resulting in differences across demographic groups.

  16. Form cues and content difficulty as determinants of children's cognitive processing of televised educational messages.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T A; Wright, J C; Huston, A C

    1987-06-01

    An experiment was designed to assess the effects of formal production features and content difficulty on children's processing of televised messages about nutrition. Messages with identical content (the same script and visual shot sequence) were made in two forms: child program forms (animated film, second-person address, and character voice narration with sprightly music) and adult program forms (live photography, third-person address, and adult male narration with sedate background music). For each form, messages were made at three levels of content difficulty. Easier versions were longer, more redundant, and used simpler language; difficult versions presented information more quickly with less redundancy and more abstract language. Regardless of form or difficulty level, each set of bits presented the same basic information. Kindergarten children (N = 120) were assigned to view three different bits of the same form type and difficulty embedded in a miniprogram. Visual attention to child forms was significantly greater than to adult forms; free and cued recall scores were also higher for child than for adult forms. Although all recall and recognition scores were best for easy versions and worst for difficult versions, attention showed only minor variation as a function of content difficulty. Results are interpreted to indicate that formal production features, independently of content, influence the effort and level of processing that children use to understand televised educational messages.

  17. CISN ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System Monitoring Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, I. H.; Allen, R. M.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    CISN ShakeAlert is a prototype earthquake early warning system being developed and tested by the California Integrated Seismic Network. The system has recently been expanded to support redundant data processing and communications. It now runs on six machines at three locations with ten Apache ActiveMQ message brokers linking together 18 waveform processors, 12 event association processes and 4 Decision Module alert processes. The system ingests waveform data from about 500 stations and generates many thousands of triggers per day, from which a small portion produce earthquake alerts. We have developed interactive web browser system-monitoring tools that display near real time state-of-health and performance information. This includes station availability, trigger statistics, communication and alert latencies. Connections to regional earthquake catalogs provide a rapid assessment of the Decision Module hypocenter accuracy. Historical performance can be evaluated, including statistics for hypocenter and origin time accuracy and alert time latencies for different time periods, magnitude ranges and geographic regions. For the ElarmS event associator, individual earthquake processing histories can be examined, including details of the transmission and processing latencies associated with individual P-wave triggers. Individual station trigger and latency statistics are available. Detailed information about the ElarmS trigger association process for both alerted events and rejected events is also available. The Google Web Toolkit and Map API have been used to develop interactive web pages that link tabular and geographic information. Statistical analysis is provided by the R-Statistics System linked to a PostgreSQL database.

  18. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  19. Opening the mind to close it: considering a message in light of important values increases message processing and later resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T

    2008-02-01

    Past research showed that considering a persuasive message in light of important rather than unimportant values creates attitudes that resist later attack. The traditional explanation is that the attitudes come to express the value or that a cognitive link between the value and attitude enhances resistance. However, the current research showed that another explanation is plausible. Similar to other sources of involvement, considering important rather than unimportant values increases processing of the message considered in light of those values. This occurs when the values are identified as normatively high or low in importance and when the perceived importance differs across participants for the same values. The increase in processing creates resistance to later attacks, and unlike past research, individual-level measures of initial amount of processing mediate value importance effects on later resistance to change. Important values motivate processing because they increase personal involvement with the issue, rather than creating attitudes that represent or express core values.

  20. Generalized Philosophy of Alerting with Applications for Parallel Approach Collision Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winder, Lee F.; Kuchar, James K.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to develop formal guidelines for the design of hazard avoidance systems. An alerting system is automation designed to reduce the likelihood of undesirable outcomes that are due to rare failures in a human-controlled system. It accomplishes this by monitoring the system, and issuing warning messages to the human operators when thought necessary to head off a problem. On examination of existing and recently proposed logics for alerting it appears that few commonly accepted principles guide the design process. Different logics intended to address the same hazards may take disparate forms and emphasize different aspects of performance, because each reflects the intuitive priorities of a different designer. Because performance must be satisfactory to all users of an alerting system (implying a universal meaning of acceptable performance) and not just one designer, a proposed logic often undergoes significant piecemeal modification before gamma general acceptance. This report is an initial attempt to clarify the common performance goals by which an alerting system is ultimately judged. A better understanding of these goals will hopefully allow designers to reach the final logic in a quicker, more direct and repeatable manner. As a case study, this report compares three alerting logics for collision prevention during independent approaches to parallel runways, and outlines a fourth alternative incorporating elements of the first three, but satisfying stated requirements. Three existing logics for parallel approach alerting are described. Each follows from different intuitive principles. The logics are presented as examples of three "philosophies" of alerting system design.

  1. Predictive Information: Status or Alert Information?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Bruneau, Daniel; Press, Hayes N.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research investigating the efficacy of predictive information for detecting and diagnosing aircraft system failures found that subjects like to have predictive information concerning when a parameter would reach an alert range. This research focused on where the predictive information should be located, whether the information should be more closely associated with the parameter information or with the alert information. Each subject saw 3 forms of predictive information: (1) none, (2) a predictive alert message, and (3) predictive information on the status display. Generally, subjects performed better and preferred to have predictive information available although the difference between status and alert predictive information was minimal. Overall, for detection and recalling what happened, status predictive information is best; however for diagnosis, alert predictive information holds a slight edge.

  2. Same Old Problem, New Name? Alerting Students to the Nature of the Problem-Solving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Magen, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Students frequently misconceive the process of problem-solving, expecting the linear process required for solving an exercise, rather than the convoluted search process required to solve a genuine problem. In this paper we present an activity designed to foster in students realization and appreciation of the nature of the problem-solving process,…

  3. Alert Notification System Router

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurganus, Joseph; Carey, Everett; Antonucci, Robert; Hitchener, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Alert Notification System Router (ANSR) software provides satellite operators with notifications of key events through pagers, cell phones, and e-mail. Written in Java, this application is specifically designed to meet the mission-critical standards for mission operations while operating on a variety of hardware environments. ANSR is a software component that runs inside the Mission Operations Center (MOC). It connects to the mission's message bus using the GMSEC [Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC)] standard. Other components, such as automation and monitoring components, can use ANSR to send directives to notify users or groups. The ANSR system, in addition to notifying users, can check for message acknowledgements from a user and escalate the notification to another user if there is no acknowledgement. When a firewall prevents ANSR from accessing the Internet directly, proxies can be run on the other side of the wall. These proxies can be configured to access the Internet, notify users, and poll for their responses. Multiple ANSRs can be run in parallel, providing a seamless failover capability in the event that one ANSR system becomes incapacitated.

  4. The agile alert system for gamma-ray transients

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Fioretti, V.; Chen, A. W.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P.; Pellizzoni, A.; and others

    2014-01-20

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  5. The AGILE Alert System for Gamma-Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Tavani, M.; Parmiggiani, N.; Fioretti, V.; Chen, A. W.; Vercellone, S.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P.; Beneventano, D.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; Scalise, E.; Longo, F.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pucella, G.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conforti, V.; Tempesta, P.; Cerone, M.; Sabatini, P.; Annoni, G.; Valentini, G.; Salotti, L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  6. Distraction Effects of Smoking Cues in Antismoking Messages: Examining Resource Allocation to Message Processing as a Function of Smoking Cues and Argument Strength

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungkyoung; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from previous studies on smoking cues and argument strength in antismoking messages have shown that the presence of smoking cues undermines the persuasiveness of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) with weak arguments. This study conceptualized smoking cues (i.e., scenes showing smoking-related objects and behaviors) as stimuli motivationally relevant to the former smoker population and examined how smoking cues influence former smokers’ processing of antismoking PSAs. Specifically, by defining smoking cues and the strength of antismoking arguments in terms of resource allocation, this study examined former smokers’ recognition accuracy, memory strength, and memory judgment of visual (i.e., scenes excluding smoking cues) and audio information from antismoking PSAs. In line with previous findings, the results of the study showed that the presence of smoking cues undermined former smokers’ encoding of antismoking arguments, which includes the visual and audio information that compose the main content of antismoking messages. PMID:25477766

  7. Integrating stage and continuum models to explain processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation among sedentary college students.

    PubMed

    Rosen, C S

    2000-03-01

    Concepts from the transtheoretical model (J.O. Prochaska, C.C. DiClemente, & J.C. Norcross, 1992), theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985), and the elaboration likelihood model (R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, 1986b) were used to examine how exercise readiness impacted processing of exercise messages and exercise initiation. Sedentary college students (n = 147) were assessed for exercise attitude, intent, behavior, and stage of change. Students also listed their thoughts after reading messages with either strong or weak arguments for exercise. Attitude predicted depth of message processing, but stage of change did not. Stage of change and intent at baseline predicted exercise adoption at 1- to 3-month follow-up (n = 134), with baseline activity moderating the effect of intent. Tailoring messages to recipients' depth of processing and interactive effects of intent and behavior on exercise adoption should be considered in future research. PMID:10762101

  8. 77 FR 26701 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS) rules so that EAS Participants may, but are not... adopted rules specifying the manner in which EAS Participants must be able to receive alert messages... so that EAS Participants may, but are not required to, employ the TTS functions described in the...

  9. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-01-01

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers’ and cyclists’ Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper. PMID:26230695

  10. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-01-01

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers' and cyclists' Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper. PMID:26230695

  11. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-07-29

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers' and cyclists' Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper.

  12. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... distress message format, which is relayed through space stations. (b) The distress alert must be sent... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... authority of the person responsible for the ship, aircraft or other vehicle carrying the mobile station...

  17. Effects of Cognitive Complexity and Emotional Upset on Processing Supportive Messages: Two Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Supportive Communication Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodie, Graham D.; Burleson, Brant R.; Holmstrom, Amanda J.; McCullough, Jennifer D.; Rack, Jessica J.; Hanasono, Lisa K.; Rosier, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    We report tests of hypotheses derived from a theory of supportive communication outcomes that maintains the effects of supportive messages are moderated by factors influencing the motivation and ability to process these messages. Participants in two studies completed a measure of cognitive complexity, which provided an assessment of processing…

  18. Validating and Extending the Three Process Model of Alertness in Airline Operations

    PubMed Central

    Ingre, Michael; Van Leeuwen, Wessel; Klemets, Tomas; Ullvetter, Christer; Hough, Stephen; Kecklund, Göran; Karlsson, David; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors in the transport sector and bio-mathematical sleepiness, sleep and fatigue modeling is increasingly becoming a valuable tool for assessing safety of work schedules and rosters in Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS). The present study sought to validate the inner workings of one such model, Three Process Model (TPM), on aircrews and extend the model with functions to model jetlag and to directly assess the risk of any sleepiness level in any shift schedule or roster with and without knowledge of sleep timings. We collected sleep and sleepiness data from 136 aircrews in a real life situation by means of an application running on a handheld touch screen computer device (iPhone, iPod or iPad) and used the TPM to predict sleepiness with varying level of complexity of model equations and data. The results based on multilevel linear and non-linear mixed effects models showed that the TPM predictions correlated with observed ratings of sleepiness, but explorative analyses suggest that the default model can be improved and reduced to include only two-processes (S+C), with adjusted phases of the circadian process based on a single question of circadian type. We also extended the model with a function to model jetlag acclimatization and with estimates of individual differences including reference limits accounting for 50%, 75% and 90% of the population as well as functions for predicting the probability of any level of sleepiness for ecological assessment of absolute and relative risk of sleepiness in shift systems for safety applications. PMID:25329575

  19. Validating and extending the three process model of alertness in airline operations.

    PubMed

    Ingre, Michael; Van Leeuwen, Wessel; Klemets, Tomas; Ullvetter, Christer; Hough, Stephen; Kecklund, Göran; Karlsson, David; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors in the transport sector and bio-mathematical sleepiness, sleep and fatigue modeling is increasingly becoming a valuable tool for assessing safety of work schedules and rosters in Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS). The present study sought to validate the inner workings of one such model, Three Process Model (TPM), on aircrews and extend the model with functions to model jetlag and to directly assess the risk of any sleepiness level in any shift schedule or roster with and without knowledge of sleep timings. We collected sleep and sleepiness data from 136 aircrews in a real life situation by means of an application running on a handheld touch screen computer device (iPhone, iPod or iPad) and used the TPM to predict sleepiness with varying level of complexity of model equations and data. The results based on multilevel linear and non-linear mixed effects models showed that the TPM predictions correlated with observed ratings of sleepiness, but explorative analyses suggest that the default model can be improved and reduced to include only two-processes (S+C), with adjusted phases of the circadian process based on a single question of circadian type. We also extended the model with a function to model jetlag acclimatization and with estimates of individual differences including reference limits accounting for 50%, 75% and 90% of the population as well as functions for predicting the probability of any level of sleepiness for ecological assessment of absolute and relative risk of sleepiness in shift systems for safety applications.

  20. Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2014-08-12

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI composed of data communications endpoints, each endpoint including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI, including establishing a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying, for tasks representing processes of execution of the parallel application, a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI including a plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks; receiving in endpoints of the geometry an instruction for a collective operation; and executing the instruction for a collective operation through the endpoints in dependence upon the geometry, including dividing data communications operations among the plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks.

  1. Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-02-11

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface ('PAMI') of a parallel computer, the PAMI composed of data communications endpoints, each endpoint including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI, including establishing a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying, for tasks representing processes of execution of the parallel application, a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI including a plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks; receiving in endpoints of the geometry an instruction for a collective operation; and executing the instruction for a collective opeartion through the endpoints in dependence upon the geometry, including dividing data communications operations among the plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks.

  2. Processing data communications events by awakening threads in parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2016-03-15

    Processing data communications events in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that execute a parallel application, with the PAMI including data communications endpoints, and the endpoints are coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through other data communications resources, including determining by an advance function that there are no actionable data communications events pending for its context, placing by the advance function its thread of execution into a wait state, waiting for a subsequent data communications event for the context; responsive to occurrence of a subsequent data communications event for the context, awakening by the thread from the wait state; and processing by the advance function the subsequent data communications event now pending for the context.

  3. Processing communications events in parallel active messaging interface by awakening thread from wait state

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-10-22

    Processing data communications events in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that execute a parallel application, with the PAMI including data communications endpoints, and the endpoints are coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through other data communications resources, including determining by an advance function that there are no actionable data communications events pending for its context, placing by the advance function its thread of execution into a wait state, waiting for a subsequent data communications event for the context; responsive to occurrence of a subsequent data communications event for the context, awakening by the thread from the wait state; and processing by the advance function the subsequent data communications event now pending for the context.

  4. Message passing in PUMA

    SciTech Connect

    Maccabe, A.B. |; Wheat, S.R.

    1993-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the message passing primitives provided by PUMA (Performance-oriented, User-managed Messaging Architecture). Message passing in PUMA is based on the concept of a portal--an opening in the address space of an application process. Once an application process has established a portal, other processes can write values into the memory associated with the portal using a simple send operation. Because messages are written directly into the address space of the receiving process, there is not need to buffer messages in the PUMA kernel. This simplifies the design of the kernel, increasing its reliability and portability. Moreover, because messages are mapped directly into the address space of the application process, the application can manage the messages that it receives without needing direct support from the kernel.

  5. The effects of fear appeal message repetition on perceived threat, perceived efficacy, and behavioral intention in the extended parallel process model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingyuan Jolie; Smith, Sandi W

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of moderately repeated exposure (three times) to a fear appeal message on the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM) variables of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions for the recommended behaviors in the message, as well as the proportions of systematic and message-related thoughts generated after each message exposure. The results showed that after repeated exposure to a fear appeal message about preventing melanoma, perceived threat in terms of susceptibility and perceived efficacy in terms of response efficacy significantly increased. The behavioral intentions of all recommended behaviors did not change after repeated exposure to the message. However, after the second exposure the proportions of both systematic and all message-related thoughts (relative to total thoughts) significantly decreased while the proportion of heuristic thoughts significantly increased, and this pattern held after the third exposure. The findings demonstrated that the predictions in the EPPM are likely to be operative after three exposures to a persuasive message.

  6. BEMFAM delivers AIDS alert.

    PubMed

    1993-05-01

    The Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar (BEMFAM) of Brazil developed a project using integrated communication strategies to alert prostitutes and their clients about the risks of contracting HIV. The project specifically promoted condom use and was conducted within the context of BEMFAM's Integrated Family Planning Program. Villa Mimoza, a prostitution zone in the Estacio neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, was the site of the intervention. This neighborhood harbors 44 houses of prostitution where an estimated 500 female prostitutes receive clients. An agreement was reached with the Association of Prostitutes of the State of Rio de Janeiro whereby it would help mobilize local women, merchants, brothel owners, and clients. Initial needs were assessed by BEMFAM and AIDSCOM through questionnaires and focus groups. It was subsequently resolved that radio programs, counter displays of educational materials in brothels, and posters in brothel rooms would be the most effective channels through which to carry integrated, effective messages to the community. Final evaluation found a change in attitude and an awareness of the importance of measures to prevent AIDS along with a prevalent increase in condom use.

  7. Selection and Transmission Processes for Information in the Emerging Media Environment: Psychological Motives and Message Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Joseph N.; Kim, Hyun Suk; Albarracín, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    The emerging media environment introduced fundamental changes in the quality and format of information available to the public, which can now flexibly seek, alter, and disseminate the information they receive. Therefore, the two processes of information selection and information retransmission are crucial for understanding the reach of any information available in the online information environment. From this starting point, we examine the common psychological motives driving information selection and transmission of attitude-relevant information: Defense and accuracy motives adding a focus on interpersonal motives. We also review message factors that can activate psychological motives leading to selection of retransmission of information, such as the desire for novelty and emotional stimulation. We speculate about the directions for the next generation of research necessary to understand exposure as a core outcome in media effects research and theory. PMID:26190944

  8. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ... People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ...

  9. Jetliner Alert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA research and design has significantly improved crew alert systems. The Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (EICAS), developed by Psycho-Linguistic Research Associates, is technologically advanced and able to order alerts by priority. Ames has also developed computer controlled voice synthesizers for readouts during difficult landing approaches. This is available to airplane manufacturers.

  10. Coastal alert

    SciTech Connect

    Holing, D.

    1990-01-01

    This book explains: how offshore drilling affects the environment and the quality of life; how the government auctions off our threatened coast to the oil industry; how offshore oil and gas are developed; how the lease sale process works; how energy alternatives can replace offshore drilling; how citizen action works and how one can become involved; letters and press announcements; important contacts. The author believes that America needs to get off the energy consumption treadmill and onto the track that leads to reliance on renewable resources and energy efficiency. This book is intended to tell citizens how they can help bring about this transition and protect unique coastal resources.

  11. Alerts in mobile healthcare applications: requirements and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kafeza, Eleanna; Chiu, Dickson K W; Cheung, S C; Kafeza, Marina

    2004-06-01

    Recent advances in mobile technologies have greatly extended traditional communication technologies to mobile devices. At the same time, healthcare environments are by nature "mobile" where doctors and nurses do not have fixed workspaces. Irregular and exceptional events are generated in daily hospital routines, such as operations rescheduling, laboratory/examination results, and adverse drug events. These events may create requests that should be delivered to the appropriate person at the appropriate time. Those requests that are classified as urgent are referred to as alerts. Efficient routing and monitoring of alerts are keys to quality and cost-effective healthcare services. Presently, these are generally handled in an ad hoc manner. In this paper, we propose the use of a healthcare alert management system to handle these alert messages systematically. We develop a model for specifying alerts that are associated with medical tasks and a set of parameters for their routing. We design an alert monitor that matches medical staff and their mobile devices to receive alerts, based on the requirements of these alerts. We also propose a mechanism to handle and reroute, if necessary, an alert message when it has not been acknowledged within a specific deadline.

  12. Processing Social Information in Messages: Social Group Familiarity, Fiction/Non-fiction Labels, and Subsequent Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.

    A study examined how the relative familiarity of a social group described in a message may affect the impact of ostensibly fiction and nonfiction messages on subsequent beliefs about social groups. The 24 paid subjects each received one of four sets of prose excerpts. Each set consisted of four excerpts that were labelled as fiction or nonfiction…

  13. A lightweight messaging-based distributed processing and workflow execution framework for real-time and big data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2014-05-01

    To achieve a rapid, simple and reliable parallel processing of different types of tasks and big data processing on any compute cluster, a lightweight messaging-based distributed applications processing and workflow execution framework model is proposed. The framework is based on Apache ActiveMQ and Simple (or Streaming) Text Oriented Message Protocol (STOMP). ActiveMQ , a popular and powerful open source persistence messaging and integration patterns server with scheduler capabilities, acts as a message broker in the framework. STOMP provides an interoperable wire format that allows framework programs to talk and interact between each other and ActiveMQ easily. In order to efficiently use the message broker a unified message and topic naming pattern is utilized to achieve the required operation. Only three Python programs and simple library, used to unify and simplify the implementation of activeMQ and STOMP protocol, are needed to use the framework. A watchdog program is used to monitor, remove, add, start and stop any machine and/or its different tasks when necessary. For every machine a dedicated one and only one zoo keeper program is used to start different functions or tasks, stompShell program, needed for executing the user required workflow. The stompShell instances are used to execute any workflow jobs based on received message. A well-defined, simple and flexible message structure, based on JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), is used to build any complex workflow systems. Also, JSON format is used in configuration, communication between machines and programs. The framework is platform independent. Although, the framework is built using Python the actual workflow programs or jobs can be implemented by any programming language. The generic framework can be used in small national data centres for processing seismological and radionuclide data received from the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear

  14. Testing the Theoretical Design of a Health Risk Message: Reexamining the Major Tenets of the Extended Parallel Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Thomas D.; Bracken, Cheryl Campanella

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the fear control/danger control responses that are predicted by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). In a campaign designed to inform college students about the symptoms and dangers of meningitis, participants were given either a high-threat/no-efficacy or high-efficacy/no-threat health risk message, thus testing the…

  15. 47 CFR 11.56 - Obligation to process CAP-formatted EAS messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any... Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) Common Alerting Protocol Version 1.2 (July 1, 2010... Standards (OASIS), 25 Corporate Drive, Suite 103, Burlington, MA 01803-4238, call 781-425-5073, or go...

  16. 47 CFR 11.56 - Obligation to process CAP-formatted EAS messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any... Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) Common Alerting Protocol Version 1.2 (July 1, 2010... Standards (OASIS), 25 Corporate Drive, Suite 103, Burlington, MA 01803-4238, call 781-425-5073, or go...

  17. 47 CFR 11.56 - Obligation to process CAP-formatted EAS messages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any... Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) Common Alerting Protocol Version 1.2 (July 1, 2010... Standards (OASIS), 25 Corporate Drive, Suite 103, Burlington, MA 01803-4238, call 781-425-5073, or go...

  18. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico and their automatic Alert Signals broadcast improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.; Cuellar Martinez, A.; Garcia, A.; Ibarrola, G.; Islas, R.; Maldonado, S.

    2009-12-01

    Government of the Federal District through the Authority of the Historical Center, in 2008 to innovate the SAS installing VHF transmitters, similar to the communication technology like the National Weather Radio (NWR) and Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME) called NWR-SAME, following the code standards of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Emergency Alert Systems (EAS) of United States to enhance the effectiveness in the Alert Signals required in real time communication . This technology also will be implemented in the SASO. The SASMEX seismic data base includes accelerations gathered during more than 2200 earthquakes detected since 1993.

  19. Visual Alert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A visual alert system resulted from circuitry developed by Applied Cybernetics Systems for Langley as part of a space related telemetry system. James Campman, Applied Cybernetics president, left the company and founded Grace Industries, Inc. to manufacture security devices based on the Langley technology. His visual alert system combines visual and audible alerts for hearing impaired people. The company also manufactures an arson detection device called the electronic nose, and is currently researching additional applications of the NASA technology.

  20. Earthquake Early Warning: User Education and Designing Effective Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Sellnow, D. D.; Jones, L.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and partners are transitioning from test-user trials of a demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) to deciding and preparing how to implement the release of earthquake early warning information, alert messages, and products to the public and other stakeholders. An earthquake early warning system uses seismic station networks to rapidly gather information about an occurring earthquake and send notifications to user devices ahead of the arrival of potentially damaging ground shaking at their locations. Earthquake early warning alerts can thereby allow time for actions to protect lives and property before arrival of damaging shaking, if users are properly educated on how to use and react to such notifications. A collaboration team of risk communications researchers and earth scientists is researching the effectiveness of a chosen subset of potential earthquake early warning interface designs and messages, which could be displayed on a device such as a smartphone. Preliminary results indicate, for instance, that users prefer alerts that include 1) a map to relate their location to the earthquake and 2) instructions for what to do in response to the expected level of shaking. A number of important factors must be considered to design a message that will promote appropriate self-protective behavior. While users prefer to see a map, how much information can be processed in limited time? Are graphical representations of wavefronts helpful or confusing? The most important factor to promote a helpful response is the predicted earthquake intensity, or how strong the expected shaking will be at the user's location. Unlike Japanese users of early warning, few Californians are familiar with the earthquake intensity scale, so we are exploring how differentiating instructions between intensity levels (e.g., "Be aware" for lower shaking levels and "Drop, cover, hold on" at high levels) can be paired with self-directed supplemental

  1. A Seismic Index Related to the Eruption Process of Tungurahua Volcano and its Potential use as an Early Alert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepes, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    For opened systems an index that uses the mean diary released energy (MDRE) is proposed. The seismic signals that are detected due to the volcanic activity as tremors, explosions, long period, hybrid and volcano tectonic events have different physical interpretations and occur at different levels of energy. The MDRE index takes into account the energy and number of events of each type of event, being a normalized and pondered measure that tries to integrate the physical variables. Applying the MDRE index to the Tungurahua volcano, we have observed an acceptable relation with the principal phenomena of the 1999 2006 eruption period. The diary values of the index, its velocity and acceleration have shown significant changes few days before July 14, 2006 and August 16, 2006, dates of the two more big eruptions of Tungurahua volcano from 1999. For this reason we believe that the index may be added to a real time procedure to construct early alerts.

  2. Expressing Emotions as Evidence in Osteoporosis Narratives: Effects on Message Processing and Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkman, Julie E.; Parrott, Roxanne L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of different narratives expressing positive or negative emotions, and varying the narrator's perspective on the arousal of discrete emotions, dominant cognitions, perceived evidence quality, and perceived message effectiveness related to osteoporosis behavioral intentions. Formative research led to the creation of…

  3. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  4. EPIC: A C++ Service Oriented Inter-process Messaging Framework and its Usage in the PFS Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, C.; Chabaud, P.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    We present EPIC: a C++ library for managing inter process communication in the Prime Focus Spectrograph Data Reduction Pipeline (PFS/DRP). The aim of EPIC is to provide a consistent framework for building distributed softwares that can be efficiently used in various kind of astronomical data processing pipeline. The Prime Focus Spectrograph multi-fiber system will allow more than 2000 simultaneous spectral observations of astronomical targets at the same time, leading the need of a high throughput system for processing data reduction of each observations. This framework provide a load balanced, messages and services oriented system, where nodes communicate with each other using a set of C++ APIs.

  5. Sirens and Telephone Alerts

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the Cass (ND) and Clay (MN) Emergency Planning Partnerships. Adapted with funding provided by Fargo Cass Public Health through the Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) English – Sirens and Telephone Alerts - ...

  6. TJC: HCOs need to be on alert for HIT problems related to sociotechnical factors, take steps to improve safety culture, process, and leadership.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Noting that too many errors related to health information technology (HIT) are resulting in adverse consequences, The Joint Commission (TJC) has issued a Sentinel Event Alert, urging health care providers to take steps to improve their safety culture, approach to process improvement, and leadership in this area. In this latest alert, the accrediting agency is taking particular aim at risks posed by sociotechnical factors--or the ways in which HIT is implemented and used. Experts say that many of these risks are, in fact, exemplified at a higher level in the emergency setting, where providers are under constant pressure to see more patients and move them though the system faster. In an analysis of 3,375 sentinel events that resulted in permanent patient harm or death between January 1, 2010, and June 20, 2013, The Joint Commission (TJC) found that 120 events included HIT-related contributing factors. Many of the problems cited by TJC relate to orders or medicines being prescribed for the wrong patients. These can result from toggling errors or pop-up screens where providers are asked to click on the appropriate patient or medicine, and they mistakenly click on the wrong selection. In the ED, experts recommend the creation of a multidisciplinary performance improvement group to continuously monitor the ED information system (EDIS), recognize problems, and work with the vendor to resolve them. Also important is a quick and easy way for providers to report HIT-related problems. Experts add that emergency providers need to be fully engaged in the process of selecting HIT that they will be using, and that health care organizations should arrange for usability assessments before purchasing HIT.

  7. Virtual file system on NoSQL for processing high volumes of HL7 messages.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Ishihara, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The Standardized Structured Medical Information Exchange (SS-MIX) is intended to be the standard repository for HL7 messages that depend on a local file system. However, its scalability is limited. We implemented a virtual file system using NoSQL to incorporate modern computing technology into SS-MIX and allow the system to integrate local patient IDs from different healthcare systems into a universal system. We discuss its implementation using the database MongoDB and describe its performance in a case study.

  8. Virtual file system on NoSQL for processing high volumes of HL7 messages.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Ishihara, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The Standardized Structured Medical Information Exchange (SS-MIX) is intended to be the standard repository for HL7 messages that depend on a local file system. However, its scalability is limited. We implemented a virtual file system using NoSQL to incorporate modern computing technology into SS-MIX and allow the system to integrate local patient IDs from different healthcare systems into a universal system. We discuss its implementation using the database MongoDB and describe its performance in a case study. PMID:25991240

  9. The Theory of Active Involvement: Processes Underlying Interventions that Engage Adolescents in Message Planning and/or Production

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk-taking and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing anti-risk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. The paper articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory’s notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective-taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This paper provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents. PMID:23980581

  10. The theory of active involvement: processes underlying interventions that engage adolescents in message planning and/or production.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk taking, and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing antirisk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. This article articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory's notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This article provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents.

  11. The COMESEP Alert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Norma; Veronig, Astrid; Rodriguez, Luciano; Vrsnak, Bojan; Vennerstrom, Susanne; Malandraki, Olga; Dalla, Silvia; Srivastava, Nandita; Hesse, Michael; Odstrcil, Dusan; Robbrecht, Eva

    2014-05-01

    Tools for forecasting geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP) radiation storms have been developed under the three-year EU FP7 COMESEP (COronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles) collaborative project. To enhance our understanding of the 3D kinematics and interplanetary propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the structure, propagation and evolution of CMEs have been investigated. In parallel, the sources and propagation of SEPs have been examined and modeled. During the third year of the COMESEP project the produced tools have been validated and implemented into an operational space weather alert system. The COMESEP Alert System provides notifications for the space weather community. To achieve this the system relies on both models and data, the latter including near real-time data as well as historical data. Geomagnetic and SEP radiation storm alerts are based on the COMESEP definition of risk. The COMESEP Alert System has recently been launched. Receiving COMESEP alerts are free of charge, but registration is required. For more information see the project website (http://www.comesep.eu/). This work has received funding from the European Commission FP7 Project COMESEP (263252).

  12. Personalized Alert Notifications and Evacuation Routes in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aedo, Ignacio; Yu, Shuxin; Díaz, Paloma; Acuña, Pablo; Onorati, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The preparedness phase is crucial in the emergency management process for reaching an adequate level of readiness to react to potential threats and hazards. During this phase, emergency plans are developed to establish, among other procedures, evacuation and emergency escape routes. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) can support and improve these procedures providing appropriate, updated and accessible information to all people in the affected zone. Current emergency management and evacuation systems do not adapt information to the context and the profile of each person, so messages received in the emergency might be useless. In this paper, we propose a set of criteria that ICT-based systems could achieve in order to avoid this problem adapting emergency alerts and evacuation routes to different situations and people. Moreover, in order to prove the applicability of such criteria, we define a mechanism that can be used as a complement of traditional evacuation systems to provide personalized alerts and evacuation routes to all kinds of people during emergency situations in working places. This mechanism is composed by three main components: CAP-ONES for notifying emergency alerts, NERES for defining emergency plans and generating personalized evacuation routes, and iNeres as the interface to receive and visualize these routes on smartphones. The usability and understandability of proposed interface has been assessed through a user study performed in a fire simulation in an indoor environment. This evaluation demonstrated that users considered iNeres easy to understand, to learn and to use, and they also found very innovative the idea to use smartphones as a support for escaping instead of static signals on walls and doors. PMID:22969373

  13. Subjective assessment of usefulness and appropriate presentation mode of alerts and reminders in the outpatient setting.

    PubMed Central

    Krall, M. A.; Sittig, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    There is very little known about the limits of alerting in the setting of the outpatient Electronic Medical Record (EMR). We are interested in how users value and prefer such alerts. One hundred Kaiser Permanente primary care clinicians were sent a four-page questionnaire. It contained questions related to the usability and usefulness of different approaches to presenting reminder and alert information. The survey also contained questions about the desirability of six categories of alerts. Forty-three of 100 questionnaires were returned. Users generally preferred an active, more intrusive interaction model for "alerts" and a passive, less intrusive model for order messages and other types of reminders and notifications. Drug related alerts were more highly rated than health maintenance or disease state reminders. Users indicated that more alerts would make the system "more useful" but "less easy to use". PMID:11825206

  14. RISMA: A Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm for Alerts Generation, Performance Analysis and Monitoring Real-Time Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of real-time systems is a challenging and complicated process. So, there is a continuous need to improve the monitoring process through the use of new intelligent techniques and algorithms for detecting exceptions, anomalous behaviours and generating the necessary alerts during the workflow monitoring of such systems. The interval-based or period-based theorems have been discussed, analysed, and used by many researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI), philosophy, and linguistics. As explained by Allen, there are 13 relations between any two intervals. Also, there have also been many studies of interval-based temporal reasoning and logics over the past decades. Interval-based theorems can be used for monitoring real-time interval-based data processing. However, increasing the number of processed intervals makes the implementation of such theorems a complex and time consuming process as the relationships between such intervals are increasing exponentially. To overcome the previous problem, this paper presents a Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm (RISMA) for processing, monitoring, and analysing the behaviour of interval-based data, received from real-time sensors. The proposed intelligent algorithm uses the Interval State Machine (ISM) approach to model any number of interval-based data into well-defined states as well as inferring them. An interval-based state transition model and methodology are presented to identify the relationships between the different states of the proposed algorithm. By using such model, the unlimited number of relationships between similar large numbers of intervals can be reduced to only 18 direct relationships using the proposed well-defined states. For testing the proposed algorithm, necessary inference rules and code have been designed and applied to the continuous data received in near real-time from the stations of International Monitoring System (IMS) by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory

  15. An extension of the extended parallel process model (EPPM) in television health news: the influence of health consciousness on individual message processing and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyehyun

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of health consciousness in processing TV news that contains potential health threats and preventive recommendations. Based on the extended parallel process model (Witte, 1992), relationships among health consciousness, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and message acceptance/rejection were hypothesized. Responses collected from 175 participants after viewing four TV health news stories were analyzed using the bootstrapping analysis (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Results confirmed three mediators (i.e., perceived severity, response efficacy, self-efficacy) in the influence of health consciousness on message acceptance. A negative association found between health consciousness and perceived susceptibility is discussed in relation to characteristics of health conscious individuals and optimistic bias of health risks. PMID:21416420

  16. Contributors to Frequent Telehealth Alerts Including False Alerts for Patients with Heart Failure: A Mixed Methods Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishna, K.; Bowles, K.; Zettek-Sumner, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Telehealth data overload through high alert generation is a significant barrier to sustained adoption of telehealth for managing HF patients. Objective To explore the factors contributing to frequent telehealth alerts including false alerts for Medicare heart failure (HF) patients admitted to a home health agency. Materials and Methods A mixed methods design that combined quantitative correlation analysis of patient characteristic data with number of telehealth alerts and qualitative analysis of telehealth and visiting nurses’ notes on follow-up actions to patients’ telehealth alerts was employed. All the quantitative and qualitative data was collected through retrospective review of electronic records of the home heath agency. Results Subjects in the study had a mean age of 83 (SD = 7.6); 56% were female. Patient co-morbidities (p<0.05) of renal disorders, anxiety, and cardiac arrhythmias emerged as predictors of telehealth alerts through quantitative analysis (n = 168) using multiple regression. Inappropriate telehealth measurement technique by patients (54%) and home healthcare system inefficiencies (37%) contributed to most telehealth false alerts in the purposive qualitative sub-sample (n = 35) of patients with high telehealth alerts. Conclusion Encouraging patient engagement with the telehealth process, fostering a collaborative approach among all the clinicians involved with the telehealth intervention, tailoring telehealth alert thresholds to patient characteristics along with establishing patient-centered telehealth outcome goals may allow meaningful generation of telehealth alerts. Reducing avoidable telehealth alerts could vastly improve the efficiency and sustainability of telehealth programs for HF management. PMID:24454576

  17. Project "Hypertension Alert."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailors, Emma Lou

    1983-01-01

    "Hypertension Alert," a 1979-80 blood pressure screening-awareness project of the Yonkers, New York Public Schools, is described. Data is analyzed in tables for ethnic composition, and range of blood pressure readings for the high school, junior high school, and elementary school students tested. (Author/JMK)

  18. Directory to ALERT Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA. Information/Utilization Div.

    This directory, a companion to ALERT Sourcebook of Elementary Curricula, Programs, and Projects, provides a list of schools that are currently using the various Sourcebook programs and that are willing to receive visitors or answer inquiries. This list is not comprehensive but is geographically representative. Organized by subject matter, the…

  19. Seismic Computerized Alert Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 the USGS devised a model for a Seismic Computerized Alert Network (SCAN) that would use continuous monitoring of seismic data from existing types of instruments to provide automatic, highly-reliable early warnings of earthquake shaking. In a large earthquake, substantial damaging ground motions may occur at great distances from the earthquake's epicenter.

  20. CISN ShakeAlert: Next Generation ElarmS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyuk, H. S.; Brown, H.; Allen, R. M.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Henson, I. H.; Hellweg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a method for recognizing and characterizing earthquakes in progress and sending immediate alerts to surrounding population centers, ideally seconds before damaging ground shaking begins. Magnitude, location, and origin time are estimated from P-wave arrivals at seismic stations close to the hypocenter. ElarmS is an EEW algorithm developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It is part of CISN ShakeAlert, a state-wide EEW system operating within the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN). ElarmS consists of two primary modules: (1) continuous waveform processing of real time seismic data, which runs in parallel at UC Berkeley, Caltech, and USGS Menlo Park, and (2) a single state-wide event detection algorithm at UC Berkeley. The event detection module analyzes incoming data from the three waveform processing streams and identifies earthquakes in progress. In March 2011, ElarmS began sending event messages to the ShakeAlert Decision Module for events in the San Francisco Bay Area and Central Coast. At the same time, we have been developing ElarmS-2 or E2, updated waveform processing and event detection modules, based on C++ for speed and adaptability. New, more flexible communication software connects the remote waveform processing modules to the event detector. The new event detection module (E2) uses the existing location and magnitude relations, but has an updated method of associating triggers together to form events. Now E2 is the operational system and has been processing and publishing statewide real-time data since April 2012. Its new capabilities include a) A split event check to prevent double event alerts for a single event b) Linear teleseismic filtering to reduce triggers on teleseismic arrivals c) Use of 1-second data package from BK network to increase speed d) Replay capability for past earthquake events e) Improved magnitude determination for southern California f) Improved estimation of event location g

  1. PubMedAlertMe--standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI software application.

    PubMed

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2008-05-01

    PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip.

  2. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) - Application in Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendholt, Matthias; Hammitzsch, Martin; Wächter, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In conjunction with the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element (-DE) [2] these data formats can be used for warning message dissemination in early warning systems for natural hazards. Application took place in the DEWS (Distance Early Warning System) [3] project where CAP serves as central message format containing both human readable warnings and structured data for automatic processing by message receivers. In particular the spatial reference capabilities are of paramount importance both in CAP and EDXL. Affected areas are addressable via geo codes like HASC (Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes) [4] or UN/LOCODE [5] but also with arbitrary polygons that can be directly generated out of GML [6]. For each affected area standardized criticality values (urgency, severity and certainty) have to be set but also application specific key-value-pairs like estimated time of arrival or maximum inundation height can be specified. This enables - together with multilingualism, message aggregation and message conversion for different dissemination channels - the generation of user-specific tailored warning messages. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] EDXL-DE, http://docs.oasis-open.org/emergency/edxl-de/v1.0/EDXL-DE_Spec_v1.0.pdf [3] DEWS, http://www.dews-online.org [4] HASC, "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998" ISBN 0-7864-0729-8 [5] UN/LOCODE, http://www.unece.org/cefact/codesfortrade/codes_index.htm [6] GML, http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/gml

  3. Clinical Decision Support Alert Appropriateness: A Review and Proposal for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Allison B.; Thomas, Eric J.; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Sittig, Dean F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many healthcare providers are adopting clinical decision support (CDS) systems to improve patient safety and meet meaningful use requirements. Computerized alerts that prompt clinicians about drug-allergy, drug-drug, and drug-disease warnings or provide dosing guidance are most commonly implemented. Alert overrides, which occur when clinicians do not follow the guidance presented by the alert, can hinder improved patient outcomes. Methods We present a review of CDS alerts and describe a proposal to develop novel methods for evaluating and improving CDS alerts that builds upon traditional informatics approaches. Our proposal incorporates previously described models for predicting alert overrides that utilize retrospective chart review to determine which alerts are clinically relevant and which overrides are justifiable. Results Despite increasing implementations of CDS alerts, detailed evaluations rarely occur because of the extensive labor involved in manual chart reviews to determine alert and response appropriateness. Further, most studies have solely evaluated alert overrides that are appropriate or justifiable. Our proposal expands the use of web-based monitoring tools with an interactive dashboard for evaluating CDS alert and response appropriateness that incorporates the predictive models. The dashboard provides 2 views, an alert detail view and a patient detail view, to provide a full history of alerts and help put the patient's events in context. Conclusion The proposed research introduces several innovations to address the challenges and gaps in alert evaluations. This research can transform alert evaluation processes across healthcare settings, leading to improved CDS, reduced alert fatigue, and increased patient safety. PMID:24940129

  4. With Free Google Alert Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    Alert services are a great way of keeping abreast of topics that interest you. Rather than searching the Web regularly to find new content about your areas of interest, an alert service keeps you informed by sending you notices when new material is added to the Web that matches your registered search criteria. Alert services are examples of push…

  5. Using Natural Language Processing to Enable In-depth Analysis of Clinical Messages Posted to an Internet Mailing List: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Kreinacke, Marcos; Spallek, Heiko; Song, Mei; O'Donnell, Jean A

    2011-01-01

    Background An Internet mailing list may be characterized as a virtual community of practice that serves as an information hub with easy access to expert advice and opportunities for social networking. We are interested in mining messages posted to a list for dental practitioners to identify clinical topics. Once we understand the topical domain, we can study dentists’ real information needs and the nature of their shared expertise, and can avoid delivering useless content at the point of care in future informatics applications. However, a necessary first step involves developing procedures to identify messages that are worth studying given our resources for planned, labor-intensive research. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to develop a workflow for finding a manageable number of clinically relevant messages from a much larger corpus of messages posted to an Internet mailing list, and to demonstrate the potential usefulness of our procedures for investigators by retrieving a set of messages tailored to the research question of a qualitative research team. Methods We mined 14,576 messages posted to an Internet mailing list from April 2008 to May 2009. The list has about 450 subscribers, mostly dentists from North America interested in clinical practice. After extensive preprocessing, we used the Natural Language Toolkit to identify clinical phrases and keywords in the messages. Two academic dentists classified collocated phrases in an iterative, consensus-based process to describe the topics discussed by dental practitioners who subscribe to the list. We then consulted with qualitative researchers regarding their research question to develop a plan for targeted retrieval. We used selected phrases and keywords as search strings to identify clinically relevant messages and delivered the messages in a reusable database. Results About half of the subscribers (245/450, 54.4%) posted messages. Natural language processing (NLP) yielded 279

  6. INTEGRAL burst alert service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, H.; Jennings, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Teegarden, B.

    1997-01-01

    The detection, accurate positioning, and spectral analysis of cosmic gamma ray bursts is an objective of the International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission. Due to their unpredictable nature, gamma ray bursts can only be observed in serendipity mode. In order to allow and promote multiwavelength follow-up observations of such events, it is desirable to make the information available to the astrophysics community with a minimum delay through the use of Internet. Ideally, the data dissemination should occur within a few seconds of the start of the burst event so that follow up observations can proceed while gamma rays are still being emitted. The technical feasibility of building such a system to disseminate INTEGRAL burst alerts in real time is currently under consideration, the preliminary results of which are presented. It is concluded that such an alert service is technically feasible.

  7. The Role of Unconscious Information Processing in the Acquisition and Learning of Instructional Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Bakar, Zainudin Abu; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates how the unconscious information processing can create satisfactory learning outcomes, and can be used to ameliorate the challenges of teaching students to regulate their learning processes. The search for the ideal model of human information processing as regards achievement of teaching and learning objectives is a…

  8. Volcanic alert in antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-01-01

    On January 14, members of the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP) were alerted to possible volcanic activity on Deception Island, Antarctica. The island, located at latitude 62%57‧S, longitude 60'40‧W, attracts many tourists.COMNAP is a group of national program managers of 25 countries that have government programs in the Antarctic. Its function is to implement measures adopted by the Antarctic Treaty parties, including fostering international cooperation in scientific research.

  9. President's Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Andy

    2007-01-01

    In this message from the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) president, Andy Stephenson stresses the need for technology, innovation, design, and engineering (TIDE) education. He cites the recent report--"Preparing for the Perfect Storm, a Report on the Forum, Taking Action Together: Developing a National Plan to Address the "T &…

  10. Subtle Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  11. Voice Messaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara D.; Tisdale, Judy Jones; Krapels, Roberta H.

    2001-01-01

    Surveys corporate use of voice message systems by interviewing employees in four different companies. Finds that all four companies viewed their voicemail systems as a supplement to personal contact (not a replacement) and provided training, but had no formal method to assess customer satisfaction with their system. Suggests business communication…

  12. E-Mail and Word Processing in the ESL Classroom: How the Medium Affects the Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesenbach-Lucas, Sigrun; Weasenforth, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether electronic mail writing will improve academic writing abilities. Nonnative students in an intermediate pre-academic English-as-a-Second-Language course responded to writing prompts using electronic mail and word processing. Their writing was examined for differences in uses of cohesive features, length of text produced in each…

  13. A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and

  14. IP telephony based danger alert communication system and its implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Tomala, Karel; Partila, Pavol

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses a danger alert system created as a part of the research project at Department of Telecommunications of Technical University of Ostrava. The aim of the system is to distribute pre-recorded voice messages in order to alert the called party in danger. This article describes individual technologies, which the application uses for its operation as well as issues relating to hardware requirements and transfer line bandwidth load. The article also describes new algorithms, which had to be developed in order to ensure the reliability of the system. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transformation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations). The benefit of such communication compared to others, is the fact, that it uses a phone call and, therefore, it is possible to get feedback who accepted the message and to improve efficiency of alert system. Finally, the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users can be informed via SMS.

  15. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX): Performance and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.

    2013-05-01

    Cities, trough VHF and UHF radio signals, Fiber Optics, and Satellite technologies, to reach more reliability and availability SASMEX functions and services. To increase the seismic early warning efficiency the Mexico City Historical Center Authorities, promoted the installation of the NOAA VHF radio transmitters system to cover the Mexico City valley, operating with the Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME) called NWR-SAME, and with the Emergency Alert Systems (EAS) protocol of United States. As an enhancement of the NOAA receiver protocol, it was innovated to permit fast Public Alert issue, in no more than 2 sec. The new receiver applied in Mexico is called SARMEX™. Local and federal authorities acquired 90,000 SARMEX™ receivers to be distributed manly in public schools of Mexican cities covered by the SASMEX™ signals; the measure with the aim to promote better natural hazard prevention attitude in the Mexican young population segment.

  16. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  17. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  18. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  19. 75 FR 67201 - Flightcrew Alerting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... are considered to be categories of alerts. \\1\\ Published in the Federal Register (41 FR 55467) on... proposed rulemaking (NPRM), Notice No. 09-05, published in the Federal Register on July 9, 2009 (74 FR..., color requirements, and performance for flightcrew alerting to reflect changes in technology...

  20. Self-Alert Training: Volitional Modulation of Autonomic Arousal Improves Sustained Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Fitzgerald, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines a new alertness training strategy (Self-Alert Training, SAT) designed to explore the relationship between the top-down control processes governing arousal and sustained attention. In order to maximally target frontal control systems SAT combines a previously validated behavioural self-alerting technique [Robertson, I.…

  1. A Metrics Taxonomy and Reporting Strategy for Rule-Based Alerts.

    PubMed

    Krall, Michael; Gerace, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An action-oriented alerts taxonomy according to structure, actions, and implicit intended process outcomes using a set of 333 rule-based alerts at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) was developed. The authors identified 9 major and 17 overall classes of alerts and developed a specific metric approach for 5 of these classes, including the 3 most numerous ones in KPNW, accounting for 224 (67%) of the alerts.

  2. A Metrics Taxonomy and Reporting Strategy for Rule-Based Alerts.

    PubMed

    Krall, Michael; Gerace, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An action-oriented alerts taxonomy according to structure, actions, and implicit intended process outcomes using a set of 333 rule-based alerts at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) was developed. The authors identified 9 major and 17 overall classes of alerts and developed a specific metric approach for 5 of these classes, including the 3 most numerous ones in KPNW, accounting for 224 (67%) of the alerts. PMID:26057684

  3. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  4. IR panoramic alerting sensor concepts and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2003-09-01

    During the last decade, protection of military and civilian operational platforms against weapons like guns, grenades, missiles, Unmanned Combat Aerial (and surface) Vehicles (UCAV's) and mines, has been an issue of increased importance due to the improved kill-probability of these threats. The standard countermeasure package of armour, guns, decoys, jammers, camouflage nets and smokes is inadequate when not accompanied by a suitable sensor package, primarily consisting of an alerting device, triggering consecutive steps in the countermeasure-chain. In this process of alert four different detection techniques are considered: pre-alert, giving the directions of possible attack, detection of an action of attack, identification of the threat and finally the precise localization (3-D). The design of the alerting device is greatly depending on the platform, on which it will be used, the associated and affordable cost and the nature of the threat. A number of sensor packages, considered, developed and evaluated at TNO-FEL is presented for simple, medium size and large and expensive platforms. In recent years the requirements for these sensors have become more and more strigent due to the growing number of scenarios. The attack can practically be from any direction, implying the need for a large Field of Regard (FOR), the attack range can vary considerably and the type of threat can be very diverse, implying great flexibility and dynamic range and rapid response of the sensor. Especially the localization at short ranges is a challenging issue. Various configurations including advantages and drawbacks are discussed.

  5. Alerts of forest disturbance from MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Dan; Kraft, Robin; Wheeler, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the methodology and computational strategy for a forest cover disturbance alerting system. Analytical techniques from time series econometrics are applied to imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to detect temporal instability in vegetation indices. The characteristics from each MODIS pixel's spectral history are extracted and compared against historical data on forest cover loss to develop a geographically localized classification rule that can be applied across the humid tropical biome. The final output is a probability of forest disturbance for each 500 m pixel that is updated every 16 days. The primary objective is to provide high-confidence alerts of forest disturbance, while minimizing false positives. We find that the alerts serve this purpose exceedingly well in Pará, Brazil, with high probability alerts garnering a user accuracy of 98 percent over the training period and 93 percent after the training period (2000-2005) when compared against the PRODES deforestation data set, which is used to assess spatial accuracy. Implemented in Clojure and Java on the Hadoop distributed data processing platform, the algorithm is a fast, automated, and open source system for detecting forest disturbance. It is intended to be used in conjunction with higher-resolution imagery and data products that cannot be updated as quickly as MODIS-based data products. By highlighting hotspots of change, the algorithm and associated output can focus high-resolution data acquisition and aid in efforts to enforce local forest conservation efforts.

  6. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  7. Narrative message targets within the decision-making process to undergo screening colonoscopy among Latinos: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hennelly, Marie Oliva; Sly, Jamilia R; Villagra, Cristina; Jandorf, Lina

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a preventable yet leading cause of cancer mortality among Latinos in the USA. Cultural targeting and narrative messaging are two strategies to increase the low screening colonoscopy rates among Latinos. This study identifies key messages for educational interventions aiming to increase screening colonoscopy used among Latinos and proposes a model to understand the relationship between factors involved in colonoscopy decision-making. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 Latino participants primarily of Puerto Rican descent on the topics of CRC knowledge, barriers and facilitators to colonoscopy use, and the use of narrative in colorectal health messaging. Knowledge about colorectal anatomy and the anesthesia component of colonoscopy procedure is low. Fear of procedure-related pain and fear of treatment-related burden following a cancer diagnosis are significant barriers to colonoscopy. Fear of disease-related suffering and death following a cancer diagnosis and fear of regret are strong facilitators and can be augmented by cancer narratives. Storytelling is commonly used in Latino culture and is an acceptable method to educate the Latino community about CRC screening via colonoscopy. Machismo is a unique barrier to colonoscopy for Latino men via homophobia and reluctance to seek healthcare. A preliminary model to understand factors in colonoscopy decision-making among Latinos is presented. Counseling practices and educational interventions that use culturally targeted narrative health messaging to mediate fears and increase colonoscopy knowledge may increase screening colonoscopy use among Latinos.

  8. Risk-Taking Tendencies and Radon Messages: A Field Experiment Testing an Information Processing Model for Risk Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, M. A.; Valenti, JoAnn Myer

    Using radon (a naturally-occurring radioactive gas linked to lung cancer) as the health risk factor, a study examined which risk-taking tendencies interact with different health-risk message strategies. A phone survey pretested 837 randomly selected homeowners from three Florida counties with the highest levels of radon in the state (706 agreed to…

  9. Interaction Involvement in Cross-Culture Computer-Mediated Communication: Examination of a Communication Process in Dyadic Instant Messaging Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Thao Duyen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores how participants express and interpret verbal cues of interaction involvement in dyadic conversations via text-based Instant Messaging (IM). Moreover, it seeks to discover differences in the way American participants and Chinese participants use verbal cues when they are highly, or lowly involved. Based on previous…

  10. Frequency of tsunami alert bulletins in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    events would only have reached the watch level in the past century. All were caused by large earthquakes at least four hours travel time away from California and were cancelled before any parts of the state were placed in either an advisory or warning. Many of these events would, however, have resulted in warnings for other parts of the United States before they were cancelled. The message from this exercise for emergency managers is that tsunami alert bulletins are not as rare as they might have thought and that there is about 15% likelihood that a new dispatcher will encounter a tsunami alert bulletin in their first six months on the job.

  11. Examining the use of forceful language when designing exercise persuasive messages for adults: a test of conceptualizing reactance arousal as a two-step process.

    PubMed

    Quick, Brian L; Considine, Jennifer R

    2008-09-01

    This investigation tests a conceptualization of reactance as a two-step process. This conceptualization was recently tested with college students, but research testing this conceptualization among primarily adult samples does not currently exist. Psychological reactance theory (PRT) states that individuals exposed to a threat or elimination of a freedom will experience reactance and subsequently be motivated to restore the freedom. Specifically, it is hypothesized that individuals will perceive persuasive messages containing forceful language as a threat to their personal freedom, which will be followed by reactance, manifested in a latent variable composed of anger and negative cognitions. This hypothesis was tested within the context of persuasive messages aimed at encouraging members (N = 247) to participate in weight lifting or group exercise programs at a health and fitness center. Results support conceptualizing reactance as a 2-step process. In addition, results indicate that a primarily adult sample responds unfavorably to forceful persuasive messages advocating the aforementioned exercise activities. In finding support for conceptualizing reactance as a two-step process, we encourage health campaigners and PRT researchers to employ this measure to provide consistency to future PRT studies.

  12. Mixed messages

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  13. Intolerance of uncertainty and attentional networks: Unique associations with alerting.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    The present study sought to extend our understanding as to how intolerance of uncertainty (IU) relates to information-processing by investigating associations between IU and attentional networks, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention. Based upon prior research, IU was expected to cluster with alerting. An unselected sample of college students (N=86; 79% women) completed self-report measures of IU and state anxiety, as well as the attention network test. Among the attentional networks, IU only shared a positive association with alerting and the association remained intact after statistically controlling for state anxiety. State anxiety did not moderate the association between IU and alerting. Although two IU dimensions (prospective and inhibitory) both shared a positive association with alerting, only prospective IU was associated with alerting after statistically controlling for state anxiety. The results provide evidence that IU relates to an overfunctioning of the alerting attentional network, which may suggest a role of hypervigilance and a greater influence of bottom-up processing in relation to IU. Implications for how these results advance our understanding of possible links between IU and anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:27068067

  14. Contributions to a neurophysiology of meaning: the interpretation of written messages could be an automatic stimulus-reaction mechanism before becoming conscious processing of information.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roberto; Convertini, Livia S; Quatraro, Sabrina; Ressa, Stefania; Velasco, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though the interpretation of natural language messages is generally conceived as the result of a conscious processing of the message content, the influence of unconscious factors is also well known. What is still insufficiently known is the way such factors work. We have tackled interpretation assuming it is a process, whose basic features are the same for the whole humankind, and employing a naturalistic approach (careful observation of phenomena in conditions the closest to "natural" ones, and precise description before and independently of data statistical analysis). Methodology. Our field research involved a random sample of 102 adults. We presented them with a complete real world-like case of written communication using unabridged message texts. We collected data (participants' written reports on their interpretations) in controlled conditions through a specially designed questionnaire (closed and opened answers); then, we treated it through qualitative and quantitative methods. Principal Findings. We gathered some evidence that, in written message interpretation, between reading and the attribution of conscious meaning, an intermediate step could exist (we named it "disassembling") which looks like an automatic reaction to the text words/expressions. Thus, the process of interpretation would be a discontinuous sequence of three steps having different natures: the initial "decoding" step (i.e., reading, which requires technical abilities), disassembling (the automatic reaction, an unconscious passage) and the final conscious attribution of meaning. If this is true, words and expressions would firstly function like physical stimuli, before being taken into account as symbols. Such hypothesis, once confirmed, could help explaining some links between the cultural (human communication) and the biological (stimulus-reaction mechanisms as the basis for meanings) dimension of humankind. PMID:26528419

  15. Contributions to a neurophysiology of meaning: the interpretation of written messages could be an automatic stimulus-reaction mechanism before becoming conscious processing of information.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Roberto; Convertini, Livia S; Quatraro, Sabrina; Ressa, Stefania; Velasco, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though the interpretation of natural language messages is generally conceived as the result of a conscious processing of the message content, the influence of unconscious factors is also well known. What is still insufficiently known is the way such factors work. We have tackled interpretation assuming it is a process, whose basic features are the same for the whole humankind, and employing a naturalistic approach (careful observation of phenomena in conditions the closest to "natural" ones, and precise description before and independently of data statistical analysis). Methodology. Our field research involved a random sample of 102 adults. We presented them with a complete real world-like case of written communication using unabridged message texts. We collected data (participants' written reports on their interpretations) in controlled conditions through a specially designed questionnaire (closed and opened answers); then, we treated it through qualitative and quantitative methods. Principal Findings. We gathered some evidence that, in written message interpretation, between reading and the attribution of conscious meaning, an intermediate step could exist (we named it "disassembling") which looks like an automatic reaction to the text words/expressions. Thus, the process of interpretation would be a discontinuous sequence of three steps having different natures: the initial "decoding" step (i.e., reading, which requires technical abilities), disassembling (the automatic reaction, an unconscious passage) and the final conscious attribution of meaning. If this is true, words and expressions would firstly function like physical stimuli, before being taken into account as symbols. Such hypothesis, once confirmed, could help explaining some links between the cultural (human communication) and the biological (stimulus-reaction mechanisms as the basis for meanings) dimension of humankind.

  16. Contributions to a neurophysiology of meaning: the interpretation of written messages could be an automatic stimulus-reaction mechanism before becoming conscious processing of information

    PubMed Central

    Convertini, Livia S.; Quatraro, Sabrina; Ressa, Stefania; Velasco, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Even though the interpretation of natural language messages is generally conceived as the result of a conscious processing of the message content, the influence of unconscious factors is also well known. What is still insufficiently known is the way such factors work. We have tackled interpretation assuming it is a process, whose basic features are the same for the whole humankind, and employing a naturalistic approach (careful observation of phenomena in conditions the closest to “natural” ones, and precise description before and independently of data statistical analysis). Methodology. Our field research involved a random sample of 102 adults. We presented them with a complete real world-like case of written communication using unabridged message texts. We collected data (participants’ written reports on their interpretations) in controlled conditions through a specially designed questionnaire (closed and opened answers); then, we treated it through qualitative and quantitative methods. Principal Findings. We gathered some evidence that, in written message interpretation, between reading and the attribution of conscious meaning, an intermediate step could exist (we named it “disassembling”) which looks like an automatic reaction to the text words/expressions. Thus, the process of interpretation would be a discontinuous sequence of three steps having different natures: the initial “decoding” step (i.e., reading, which requires technical abilities), disassembling (the automatic reaction, an unconscious passage) and the final conscious attribution of meaning. If this is true, words and expressions would firstly function like physical stimuli, before being taken into account as symbols. Such hypothesis, once confirmed, could help explaining some links between the cultural (human communication) and the biological (stimulus-reaction mechanisms as the basis for meanings) dimension of humankind. PMID:26528419

  17. The psychology of nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Heather; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer thinking about nutrition decisions and how firms can use consumers' awareness of the links between nutrients and health generated by public health messages to market products, including ones, which have little nutritional value. We approach this issue by tracking the development of public health messages based on scientific research, dissemination of those messages in the popular press, and use of nutrition claims in food advertisements to assess whether firms are timing the use of nutrition claims to take advantage of heuristic-based decision-making. Our findings suggest that the timing of the development of nutrition information, its dissemination in the press, and use in advertising accords well with a heuristic processing model in which firms take advantage of associations between nutrient information and health in their advertisements. However, the demonstrated relationships may not be causal. Further research will be needed to provide stronger and more comprehensive evidence regarding the proposed message hijacking process. If the message hijacking framework is borne out: (1) simple overall health rating scales could significantly improve consumer decision-making, (2) the impact of misleading advertisements could be mitigated by encouraging a multidimensional view of nutrition, and (3) more intensive regulation of product labeling could limit the impact of hijacked messages. Overall, this paper considers a novel hypothesis about the impact of public health messages on nutrition and health. PMID:19548517

  18. Global Environmental Alert Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, V. F.; Cervone, G.; Singh, A.; Kafatos, M.

    2006-12-01

    Environmental Alert Service (GEAS) that could provide information from monitoring, Earth observing and early warning systems to users in a near real time mode and bridge the gap between the scientific community and policy makers. Characteristics and operational aspects of GEAS are discussed.

  19. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  20. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  1. Participatory design for drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system.

  2. Participatory design for drug-drug interaction alerts.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Almerares, Alfredo; Stanziola, Enrique; Risk, Marcelo; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of decision support systems, in the point of care, to alert drug-drug interactions has been shown to improve quality of care. Still, the use of these systems has not been as expected, it is believed, because of the difficulties in their knowledge databases; errors in the generation of the alerts and the lack of a suitable design. This study expands on the development of alerts using participatory design techniques based on user centered design process. This work was undertaken in three stages (inquiry, participatory design and usability testing) it showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction in the system. PMID:25991099

  3. Provider management strategies of abnormal test result alerts: a cognitive task analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, Mona K; Wilson, Lindsay; Sittig, Dean F; Espadas, Donna; Davis, Traber; Singh, Hardeep

    2010-01-01

    Objective Electronic medical records (EMRs) facilitate abnormal test result communication through “alert” notifications. The aim was to evaluate how primary care providers (PCPs) manage alerts related to critical diagnostic test results on their EMR screens, and compare alert-management strategies of providers with high versus low rates of timely follow-up of results. Design 28 PCPs from a large, tertiary care Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were purposively sampled according to their rates of timely follow-up of alerts, determined in a previous study. Using techniques from cognitive task analysis, participants were interviewed about how and when they manage alerts, focusing on four alert-management features to filter, sort and reduce unnecessary alerts on their EMR screens. Results Provider knowledge of alert-management features ranged between 4% and 75%. Almost half (46%) of providers did not use any of these features, and none used more than two. Providers with higher versus lower rates of timely follow-up used the four features similarly, except one (customizing alert notifications). Providers with low rates of timely follow-up tended to manually scan the alert list and process alerts heuristically using their clinical judgment. Additionally, 46% of providers used at least one workaround strategy to manage alerts. Conclusion Considerable heterogeneity exists in provider use of alert-management strategies; specific strategies may be associated with lower rates of timely follow-up. Standardization of alert-management strategies including improving provider knowledge of appropriate tools in the EMR to manage alerts could reduce the lack of timely follow-up of abnormal diagnostic test results. PMID:20064805

  4. Emergency vehicle alert system (EVAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Bill; Crump, Roger; Harper, Warren; Myneni, Krishna

    1995-01-01

    The Emergency Vehicle Alert System (EVAS) program is sponsored by the NASA/MSFC Technology Utilization (TU) office. The program was conceived to support the needs of hearing impaired drivers. The objective of the program is to develop a low-cost, small device which can be located in a personal vehicle and warn the driver, via a visual means, of the approach of an emergency vehicle. Many different technologies might be developed for this purpose and each has its own advantages and drawbacks. The requirements for an acoustic detection system, appear to be pretty stringent and may not allow the development of a reliable, low-cost device in the near future. The problems include variations in the sirens between various types of emergency vehicles, distortions due to wind and surrounding objects, competing background noise, sophisticated signal processing requirements, and omni-directional coverage requirements. Another approach is to use a Radio Frequency (RF) signal between the Emergency Vehicle (EV) and the Personal Vehicle (PV). This approach requires a transmitter on each EV and a receiver in each PV, however it is virtually assured that a system can be developed which works. With this approach, the real technology issue is how to make a system work as inexpensively as possible. This report gives a brief summary of the EVAS program from its inception and concentrates on describing the activities that occurred during Phase 4. References 1-3 describe activities under Phases 1-3. In the fourth phase of the program, the major effort to be expended was in development of the microcontroller system for the PV, refinement of some system elements and packaging for demonstration purposes. An EVAS system was developed and demonstrated which used standard spread spectrum modems with minor modifications.

  5. The DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) gene is associated with alerting attention.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Li, Jin; Li, Jun; Lei, Xuemei; Lin, Chongde

    2013-06-01

    DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) is involved in the synthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. It has been suggested that genes involved in the dopamine, norepinephrine, and cholinergic systems play an essential role in the efficiency of human attention networks. Attention refers to the cognitive process of obtaining and maintaining the alert state, orienting to sensory events, and regulating the conflicts of thoughts and behavior. The present study tested seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DDC gene for association with attention, which was assessed by the Attention Network Test to detect three networks of attention, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention, in a healthy Han Chinese sample (N=451). Association analysis for individual SNPs indicated that four of the seven SNPs (rs3887825, rs7786398, rs10499695, and rs6969081) were significantly associated with alerting attention. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that alerting was associated with the haplotype G-A-T for SNPs rs7786398-rs10499695-rs6969081. These associations remained significant after correcting for multiple testing by max(T) permutation. No association was found for orienting and executive attention. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the DDC gene in alerting attention. A better understanding of the genetic basis of distinct attention networks would allow us to develop more effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of deficient or underdeveloped alerting attention as well as its related prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Reader Survey for INSECT ALERTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mason E.; Sauer, Richard J.

    To determine what might be done to improve "Insect Alerts," which is a newsletter that carries "information on insect biology, abundance, activity and interpretation of control need," put out through the Michigan Cooperative Extension Service 26 weeks a year, a survey was conducted. A mail questionnaire was sent to all 120 county extension…

  7. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  8. The Relationship between Alertness and Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Henik, Avishai

    2012-01-01

    The current study focuses on the relationship between alerting and executive attention. Previous studies reported an increased flanker congruency effect following alerting cues. In the first two experiments, we found that the alertness-congruency interaction did not exist for all executive tasks (it appeared for a flanker task but not for a Stroop…

  9. Finite-Fault and Other New Capabilities of CISN ShakeAlert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Heaton, T. H.; Hudnut, K. W.; Hauksson, E.

    2013-12-01

    ShakeAlert installation at Caltech. Real-time position and displacement time series from around 100 GPS sensors are obtained in JSON format from RTK/PPP(AR) solutions using the RTNet software at USGS Pasadena. However, we have also started to investigate the usage of onsite (in-receiver) processing using NetR9 with RTX and tracebuf2 output format. A number of changes to the ShakeAlert processing, xml message format, and the usage of this information in the UserDisplay software were necessary to handle the new finite-fault and slip information from the FinDer and GPSlip algorithms. In addition, we have developed a framework for end-to-end off-line testing with archived and simulated waveform data using the Earthworm tankplayer. Detailed background information about the algorithms, processing, and results from these test runs will be presented.

  10. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  11. Preparing EBS messages

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  12. Successful ShakeAlert Performance for the Napa Quake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Vidale, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    ShakeAlert, the demonstration earthquake early warning system, developed by the USGS, UC Berkeley, Caltech, ETH, and the University of Washington, functioned as expected for the August 24, 2014, M6.0 Napa earthquake. The first ShakeAlert was generated by the ElarmS algorithm 5.1 sec after the origin time of the earthquake, and 3.3 sec after the P-wave arrived at the closest station 6.5 km from the epicenter. This initial alert, based on P-wave triggers from four stations, estimated the magnitude to be 5.7. The warning was received at the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory 5 seconds before the S-wave and about 10 sec prior to the onset of the strongest shaking. ShakeAlert beta-testers across the San Francisco Bay Area simultaneously received the alert, including the San Francisco 911 center with 8 sec warning, and the BART train system. BART has implemented an automated train-stopping system that was activated (although no trains were running at 3:20 am). With the available network geometry and communications, the blind zone of the first alert had a radius of 16 km. The four stations that contributed to the first alert all encapsulate data into 1-second packets, but the latency in transmitting data to the processing center ranged from 0.27 to 2.62 seconds. If all the stations were to deliver data in 0.27 seconds, then the alert would have been available 2.3 sec sooner and the blind zone would be reduced to about 8 km. This would also mean that the city of Napa would have received about 1 second of warning. The magnitude estimate and event location were accurate from the initial alert onwards. The magnitude estimate did first increase to 5.8 and then dip to 5.4 2.6 sec after the initial alert, stayed at that level for 2 sec, and then returned to 5.7. The final magnitude estimate was 6.0, consistent with the ANSS catalog.

  13. Modeling, Analyzing, and Mitigating Dissonance Between Alerting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Lixia; Kuchar, James K.

    2003-01-01

    Alerting systems are becoming pervasive in process operations, which may result in the potential for dissonance or conflict in information from different alerting systems that suggests different threat levels and/or actions to resolve hazards. Little is currently available to help in predicting or solving the dissonance problem. This thesis presents a methodology to model and analyze dissonance between alerting systems, providing both a theoretical foundation for understanding dissonance and a practical basis from which specific problems can be addressed. A state-space representation of multiple alerting system operation is generalized that can be tailored across a variety of applications. Based on the representation, two major causes of dissonance are identified: logic differences and sensor error. Additionally, several possible types of dissonance are identified. A mathematical analysis method is developed to identify the conditions for dissonance originating from logic differences. A probabilistic analysis methodology is developed to estimate the probability of dissonance originating from sensor error, and to compare the relative contribution to dissonance of sensor error against the contribution from logic differences. A hybrid model, which describes the dynamic behavior of the process with multiple alerting systems, is developed to identify dangerous dissonance space, from which the process can lead to disaster. Methodologies to avoid or mitigate dissonance are outlined. Two examples are used to demonstrate the application of the methodology. First, a conceptual In-Trail Spacing example is presented. The methodology is applied to identify the conditions for possible dissonance, to identify relative contribution of logic difference and sensor error, and to identify dangerous dissonance space. Several proposed mitigation methods are demonstrated in this example. In the second example, the methodology is applied to address the dissonance problem between two air

  14. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  15. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  16. "Fraud alert": joint venture arrangements.

    PubMed

    Vipperman, R M

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services recently issued a special "Fraud Alert" identifying those characteristics of joint venture arrangements that it views as indicators of potentially unlawful activity. As discussed in this article, participants in joint ventures should examine their arrangements to see if one or more of the questionable features are present, and, if so, should take steps to eliminate them, to the extent possible.

  17. Remote Monitoring of Cardiac Implantable Devices: Ontology Driven Classification of the Alerts.

    PubMed

    Rosier, Arnaud; Mabo, Philippe; Temal, Lynda; Van Hille, Pascal; Dameron, Olivier; Deleger, Louise; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Jacques, Julie; Chazard, Emmanuel; Laporte, Laure; Henry, Christine; Burgun, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients that benefit from remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices, such as pacemakers and defibrillators, is growing rapidly. Consequently, the huge number of alerts that are generated and transmitted to the physicians represents a challenge to handle. We have developed a system based on a formal ontology that integrates the alert information and the patient data extracted from the electronic health record in order to better classify the importance of alerts. A pilot study was conducted on atrial fibrillation alerts. We show some examples of alert processing. The results suggest that this approach has the potential to significantly reduce the alert burden in telecardiology. The methods may be extended to other types of connected devices. PMID:27071877

  18. Description of the AILS Alerting Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanant, Paul; Jackson, Mike

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a complete description of the Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) alerting algorithms. The purpose of AILS is to provide separation assurance between aircraft during simultaneous approaches to closely spaced parallel runways. AILS will allow independent approaches to be flown in such situations where dependent approaches were previously required (typically under Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC)). This is achieved by providing multiple levels of alerting for pairs of aircraft that are in parallel approach situations. This document#s scope is comprehensive and covers everything from general overviews, definitions, and concepts down to algorithmic elements and equations. The entire algorithm is presented in complete and detailed pseudo-code format. This can be used by software programmers to program AILS into a software language. Additional supporting information is provided in the form of coordinate frame definitions, data requirements, calling requirements as well as all necessary pre-processing and post-processing requirements. This is important and required information for the implementation of AILS into an analysis, a simulation, or a real-time system.

  19. Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Cernohous, Bob R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-11-18

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer are provided. Embodiments include establishing by a parallel application a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI, including associating with the geometry a list of collective algorithms valid for use with the endpoints of the geometry. Embodiments also include registering in each endpoint in the geometry a dispatch callback function for a collective operation and executing without blocking, through a single one of the endpoints in the geometry, an instruction for the collective operation.

  20. SMC Message Browser Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, Benjamin C.

    2013-01-01

    I work directly with the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) software engineers who develop, test and release custom and commercial software in support of the Kennedy Space Center Spaceport Command and Control System. (SCCS). SMC uses Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Enterprise Management Systems (EMS) software which provides a centralized subsystem for configuring, monitoring, and controlling SCCS hardware and software used in the Control Rooms. There are multiple projects being worked on using the COTS EMS software. I am currently working with the HP Operations Manager for UNIX (OMU) software which allows Master Console Operators (MCO) to access, view and interpret messages regarding the status of the SCCS hardware and software. The OMU message browser gets cluttered with messages which can make it difficult for the MCO to manage. My main project involves determining ways to reduce the number of messages being displayed in the OMU message browser. I plan to accomplish this task in two different ways: (1) by correlating multiple messages into one single message being displayed and (2) to create policies that will determine the significance of each message and whether or not it needs to be displayed to the MCO. The core idea is to lessen the number of messages being sent to the OMU message browser so the MCO can more effectively use it.

  1. Persuasive email messages for patient communication.

    PubMed

    Walji, Muhammad; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Johnson, Todd; Bernstam, Elmer; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-01-01

    To improve health and reduce costs, we need to encourage patients to make better health care decisions. Since email is widely available, it may be useful for patient-directed interventions. However, we know little about how the contents of an email message can influence a health-related decision. We propose a model to understand how patients may process persuasive email messages.

  2. Alert!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Now more than ever, campus safety is of paramount importance. A reliable emergency mass notification system is one way to ensure the safety of constituents, and Brandeis University (MA) recently invested in a system that does the job. In this article, the author interviews John Turner, the school's director of networks and systems. Turner…

  3. Making the Most of Alert Notification Systems: Eleven Tips for Using Emergency Communication Solutions in Your District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Districts are finding that alert notification systems that deliver automated phone messages are an effective way to reach parents and employees. Implementing the technology is one thing and getting the most out of it is another. This article presents the Districts' goal to get in touch with parents and employees in emergency situations. Andy…

  4. Message in a molecule

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tanmay; Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient times, steganography, the art of concealing information, has largely relied on secret inks as a tool for hiding messages. However, as the methods for detecting these inks improved, the use of simple and accessible chemicals as a means to secure communication was practically abolished. Here, we describe a method that enables one to conceal multiple different messages within the emission spectra of a unimolecular fluorescent sensor. Similar to secret inks, this molecular-scale messaging sensor (m-SMS) can be hidden on regular paper and the messages can be encoded or decoded within seconds using common chemicals, including commercial ingredients that can be obtained in grocery stores or pharmacies. Unlike with invisible inks, however, uncovering these messages by an unauthorized user is almost impossible because they are protected by three different defence mechanisms: steganography, cryptography and by entering a password, which are used to hide, encrypt or prevent access to the information, respectively. PMID:27138465

  5. Message in a molecule.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tanmay; Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient times, steganography, the art of concealing information, has largely relied on secret inks as a tool for hiding messages. However, as the methods for detecting these inks improved, the use of simple and accessible chemicals as a means to secure communication was practically abolished. Here, we describe a method that enables one to conceal multiple different messages within the emission spectra of a unimolecular fluorescent sensor. Similar to secret inks, this molecular-scale messaging sensor (m-SMS) can be hidden on regular paper and the messages can be encoded or decoded within seconds using common chemicals, including commercial ingredients that can be obtained in grocery stores or pharmacies. Unlike with invisible inks, however, uncovering these messages by an unauthorized user is almost impossible because they are protected by three different defence mechanisms: steganography, cryptography and by entering a password, which are used to hide, encrypt or prevent access to the information, respectively.

  6. Message in a molecule.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tanmay; Selvakumar, Karuthapandi; Motiei, Leila; Margulies, David

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient times, steganography, the art of concealing information, has largely relied on secret inks as a tool for hiding messages. However, as the methods for detecting these inks improved, the use of simple and accessible chemicals as a means to secure communication was practically abolished. Here, we describe a method that enables one to conceal multiple different messages within the emission spectra of a unimolecular fluorescent sensor. Similar to secret inks, this molecular-scale messaging sensor (m-SMS) can be hidden on regular paper and the messages can be encoded or decoded within seconds using common chemicals, including commercial ingredients that can be obtained in grocery stores or pharmacies. Unlike with invisible inks, however, uncovering these messages by an unauthorized user is almost impossible because they are protected by three different defence mechanisms: steganography, cryptography and by entering a password, which are used to hide, encrypt or prevent access to the information, respectively. PMID:27138465

  7. AMS: Area Message Service for SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.

    1993-04-01

    The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require and application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI `C` and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process.

  8. Combining message-passing and inter-process communication in SMP-hybrid cluster for efficient parallel medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sean C. S.; Schmidt, Bertil

    2004-11-01

    Efficient analysis of medical images to assist physician"s decision making is an important task. However, the analysis of such images often requires sophisticated segmentation and classification algorithms. An approach to speed up these time consuming operations is to use parallel processing. In this paper a new parallel system for medical image analysis is presented. The system combines distributed and shared memory architectures using MPI and the inter-process communication switching mechanism (IPC). MPI is used to communicate between nodes and shared-memory IPC is used to perform shared memory operations among processors within a node. We show how to map a clinical endoscopic image analysis algorithm efficiently onto this architecture. This results in an implementation with significant runtime savings.

  9. Fire Alerts for the Geospatial Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFerren, Graeme; Roos, Stacey; Terhorst, Andrew

    The Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is a joint initiative between CSIR and Eskom, the South African electricity utility. AFIS infers fire occurrences from processed, remotely sensed data and triggers alarms to Eskom operators based on the proximity of fire events to Eskom's infrastructure. We intend on migrating AFIS from a narrowly focussed “black-box” application to one servicing users in multiple fire-related scenarios, enabling rapid development and deployment of new applications through concept-based queries of data and knowledge repositories. Future AFIS versions would supply highly tuned, meaningful and customized fire alerts to users based on an open framework of Geo-spatial Web services, ontologies and software agents. Other Geospatial Web applications may have to follow a similar path via Web services and standards-based architectures, thereby providing the foundation for the Geospatial Web.

  10. The Message Reporting System in the ATLAS DAQ System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprini, M.; Fedorko, I.; Kolos, S.

    2008-06-01

    The Message Reporting System (MRS) in the ATLAS data acquisition system (DAQ) is one package of the Online Software which acts as a glue of various elements of DAQ, High Level Trigger (HLT) and Detector Control System (DCS). The aim of the MRS is to provide a facility which allows all software components in ATLAS to report messages to other components of the distributed DAQ system. The processes requiring a MRS are on one hand applications that report error conditions or information and on the other hand message processors that receive reported messages. A message reporting application can inject one or more messages into the MRS at any time. An application wishing to receive messages can subscribe to a message group according to defined criteria. The application receives messages that fulfill the subscription criteria when they are reported to MRS. The receiver message processing can consist of anything from simply logging the messages in a file/terminal to performing message analysis. The inter-process communication is achieved using the CORBA technology. The design, architecture and the used technology of MRS are reviewed in this paper.

  11. Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael; Chen, Dong; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-10-04

    A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

  12. School Bus Alert System Reduces Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleasnick, Stephen G.

    1985-01-01

    The school bus alert monitor is a computerized school bus alert and warning sytem that notifies parents of school bus arrival via radio frequency technology. The system also has been shown to enhance the self esteem of disabled transportation users. (CL)

  13. Auditory alert systems with enhanced detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and systems for distinguishing an auditory alert signal from a background of one or more non-alert signals. In a first embodiment, a prefix signal, associated with an existing alert signal, is provided that has a signal component in each of three or more selected frequency ranges, with each signal component in each of three or more selected level at least 3-10 dB above an estimated background (non-alert) level in that frequency range. The alert signal may be chirped within one or more frequency bands. In another embodiment, an alert signal moves, continuously or discontinuously, from one location to another over a short time interval, introducing a perceived spatial modulation or jitter. In another embodiment, a weighted sum of background signals adjacent to each ear is formed, and the weighted sum is delivered to each ear as a uniform background; a distinguishable alert signal is presented on top of this weighted sum signal at one ear, or distinguishable first and second alert signals are presented at two ears of a subject.

  14. 14 CFR 25.1322 - Flightcrew alerting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Be prioritized within each category, when necessary. (2) Provide timely attention-getting cues...) Permit each occurrence of the attention-getting cues required by paragraph (c)(2) of this section to be... an attention-getting component of an alert caused by a failure of the alerting function...

  15. Preventing messaging queue deadlocks in a DMA environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael A; Chen, Dong; Gooding, Thomas; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeff

    2014-01-14

    Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate and interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.

  16. Improving the Quality of Alerts and Predicting Intruder's Next Goal with Hidden Colored Petri-Net

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Dong; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-06-22

    Intrusion detection systems (IDS) often provide poor quality alerts, which are insufficient to support rapid identification of ongoing attacks or predict an intruder’s next likely goal. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to alert post-processing and correlation, the Hidden Colored Petri-Net (HCPN). Different from most other alert correlation methods, our approach treats the alert correlation problem as an inference problem rather than a filter problem. Our approach assumes that the intruder’s actions are unknown to the IDS and can be inferred only from the alerts generated by the IDS sensors. HCPN can describe the relationship between different steps carried out by intruders, model observations (alerts) and transitions (actions) separately, and associate each token element (system state) with a probability (or confidence). The model is an extension to Colored Petri-Net (CPN) .It is so called “hidden” because the transitions (actions) are not directly observable but can be inferred by looking through the observations (alerts). These features make HCPN especially suitable for discovering intruders’ actions from their partial observations (alerts,) and predicting intruders’ next goal. Our experiments on DARPA evaluation datasets and the attack scenarios from the Grand Challenge Problem (GCP) show that HCPN has promise as a way to reducing false positives and negatives, predicting intruder’s next possible action, uncovering intruders’ intrusion strategies after the attack scenario has happened, and providing confidence scores.

  17. Characterization of computer network events through simultaneous feature selection and clustering of intrusion alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siyue; Leung, Henry; Dondo, Maxwell

    2014-05-01

    As computer network security threats increase, many organizations implement multiple Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) to maximize the likelihood of intrusion detection and provide a comprehensive understanding of intrusion activities. However, NIDS trigger a massive number of alerts on a daily basis. This can be overwhelming for computer network security analysts since it is a slow and tedious process to manually analyse each alert produced. Thus, automated and intelligent clustering of alerts is important to reveal the structural correlation of events by grouping alerts with common features. As the nature of computer network attacks, and therefore alerts, is not known in advance, unsupervised alert clustering is a promising approach to achieve this goal. We propose a joint optimization technique for feature selection and clustering to aggregate similar alerts and to reduce the number of alerts that analysts have to handle individually. More precisely, each identified feature is assigned a binary value, which reflects the feature's saliency. This value is treated as a hidden variable and incorporated into a likelihood function for clustering. Since computing the optimal solution of the likelihood function directly is analytically intractable, we use the Expectation-Maximisation (EM) algorithm to iteratively update the hidden variable and use it to maximize the expected likelihood. Our empirical results, using a labelled Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 2000 reference dataset, show that the proposed method gives better results than the EM clustering without feature selection in terms of the clustering accuracy.

  18. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  19. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  20. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  1. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  2. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  3. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  4. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  5. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  6. 47 CFR 10.310 - Federal alert gateway. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal alert gateway. 10.310 Section 10.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.310 Federal alert gateway....

  7. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  8. School Health Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Califano, Joseph A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This article presents the message delivered to the National School Health Association Conference by the Secretary of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in May 1977 and the response of the participants in the conference. (JD)

  9. Expedition 34 Thanksgiving Message

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford shares a Thanksgiving message from the International Space Station. Ford demonstrates how the crew will spend the holiday on orbit and describes the menu he and h...

  10. Instant Messaging by SIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd

    2008-11-01

    SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.

  11. A message to school girls.

    PubMed

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  12. Alertness function of thalamus in conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Xue, Gui; Chen, Antao

    2016-05-15

    Conflict adaptation reflects the ability to improve current conflict resolution based on previously experienced conflict, which is crucial for our goal-directed behaviors. In recent years, the roles of alertness are attracting increasing attention when discussing the generation of conflict adaptation. However, due to the difficulty of manipulating alertness, very limited progress has been made in this line. Inspired by that color may affect alertness, we manipulated background color of experimental task and found that conflict adaptation significantly presented in gray and red backgrounds but did not in blue background. Furthermore, behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that the modulation of color on conflict adaptation was implemented through changing alertness level. In particular, blue background eliminated conflict adaptation by damping the alertness regulating function of thalamus and the functional connectivity between thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In contrast, in gray and red backgrounds where alertness levels are typically high, the thalamus and the right IFG functioned normally and conflict adaptations were significant. Therefore, the alertness function of thalamus is determinant to conflict adaptation, and thalamus and right IFG are crucial nodes of the neural circuit subserving this ability. Present findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of conflict adaptation. PMID:26908318

  13. Influencing Anesthesia Provider Behavior Using Anesthesia Information Management System Data for Near Real-Time Alerts and Post Hoc Reports.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Patel, Neil

    2015-09-01

    In this review article, we address issues related to using data from anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) to deliver near real-time alerts via AIMS workstation popups and/or alphanumeric pagers and post hoc reports via e-mail. We focus on reports and alerts for influencing the behavior of anesthesia providers (i.e., anesthesiologists, anesthesia residents, and nurse anesthetists). Multiple studies have shown that anesthesia clinical decision support (CDS) improves adherence to protocols and increases financial performance through facilitation of billing, regulatory, and compliance documentation; however, improved clinical outcomes have not been demonstrated. We inform developers and users of feedback systems about the multitude of concerns to consider during development and implementation of CDS to increase its effectiveness and to mitigate its potentially disruptive aspects. We discuss the timing and modalities used to deliver messages, implications of outlier-only versus individualized feedback, the need to consider possible unintended consequences of such feedback, regulations, sustainability, and portability among systems. We discuss statistical issues related to the appropriate evaluation of CDS efficacy. We provide a systematic review of the published literature (indexed in PubMed) of anesthesia CDS and offer 2 case studies of CDS interventions using AIMS data from our own institution illustrating the salient points. Because of the considerable expense and complexity of maintaining near real-time CDS systems, as compared with providing individual reports via e-mail after the fact, we suggest that if the same goal can be accomplished via delayed reporting versus immediate feedback, the former approach is preferable. Nevertheless, some processes require near real-time alerts to produce the desired improvement. Post hoc e-mail reporting from enterprise-wide electronic health record systems is straightforward and can be accomplished using system

  14. Influencing Anesthesia Provider Behavior Using Anesthesia Information Management System Data for Near Real-Time Alerts and Post Hoc Reports.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Patel, Neil

    2015-09-01

    In this review article, we address issues related to using data from anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) to deliver near real-time alerts via AIMS workstation popups and/or alphanumeric pagers and post hoc reports via e-mail. We focus on reports and alerts for influencing the behavior of anesthesia providers (i.e., anesthesiologists, anesthesia residents, and nurse anesthetists). Multiple studies have shown that anesthesia clinical decision support (CDS) improves adherence to protocols and increases financial performance through facilitation of billing, regulatory, and compliance documentation; however, improved clinical outcomes have not been demonstrated. We inform developers and users of feedback systems about the multitude of concerns to consider during development and implementation of CDS to increase its effectiveness and to mitigate its potentially disruptive aspects. We discuss the timing and modalities used to deliver messages, implications of outlier-only versus individualized feedback, the need to consider possible unintended consequences of such feedback, regulations, sustainability, and portability among systems. We discuss statistical issues related to the appropriate evaluation of CDS efficacy. We provide a systematic review of the published literature (indexed in PubMed) of anesthesia CDS and offer 2 case studies of CDS interventions using AIMS data from our own institution illustrating the salient points. Because of the considerable expense and complexity of maintaining near real-time CDS systems, as compared with providing individual reports via e-mail after the fact, we suggest that if the same goal can be accomplished via delayed reporting versus immediate feedback, the former approach is preferable. Nevertheless, some processes require near real-time alerts to produce the desired improvement. Post hoc e-mail reporting from enterprise-wide electronic health record systems is straightforward and can be accomplished using system

  15. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version

    2004-02-01

    Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version supports interactive selection and graphical display of data generated by the Sandia Cognitive Framework, which simulates the examination of security data by experts of various specialties. Insider Alert also encompasses the configuration and data files input to the Cognitive Framework for this application. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version is a computer program for analyzing data indicative of possible espionage or improper handling of data by employees at Sandia National Laboratoriesmore » (or other facilities with comparable policies and procedures for managing sensitive information) It prioritizes and displays information for review by security analysts.« less

  16. Timely redistribution of information for epidemiological surveillance and alert: the experience from the French communicable diseases network.

    PubMed Central

    Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Vidal, Jaques J.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1984 the French Communicable Disease Network (FCDN) collects and analyses epidemiological information obtained online from a team of "Sentinel General Practitioners" (SGPs). It redistributes this information in the form of standardised weekly incidence estimates. These weekly estimates now appear on the Internet and are the basis for issuing alerts of influenza epidemics. We postulate that day to day estimations would be highly desirable to achieve timely detection of the actual onset of the epidemic, a need dramatically underscored by the emergence of bioterrorism. The present paper suggests the feasibility of reconstructing daily epidemiological information using local smoothing with a suitable spline function to obtain short latency alert messages. PMID:12463941

  17. High speed polling protocol for multiple node network with sequential flooding of a polling message and a poll-answering message

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvit, Maclen (Inventor); Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs a remote node polling process performed by a master node by transmitting a polling message generically addressed to all remote nodes associated with the master node. Each remote node responds upon receipt of the generically addressed polling message by sequentially flooding the network with a poll-answering informational message and with the polling message.

  18. CISN ShakeAlert: Beta Test Users Receive Earthquake Early Warning Alerts and Provide Feedback for Improving Alert Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, M.; Vinci, M.; Allen, R. M.; Boese, M.; Henson, I. H.; Felizardo, C.

    2012-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is the ability to detect an earthquake quickly and provide a few seconds of warning before destructive seismic waves arrive. The California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is implementing and testing a prototype system, the ShakeAlert system, which includes delivery of earthquake alerts to potential users. The alerts will be used to provide situational awareness, but also to automatically perform an operation that can impact personal safety or reduce losses to critical infrastructures and inventories. We are working with a group of 15 selected Beta Test Users from institutions and industries throughout California that have potential uses for EEW information. ShakeAlert Beta Test Users are currently running the ShakeAlert UserDisplay. In return, they provide feedback which includes suggestions to improve the UserDisplay and other alert delivery mechanisms, as well as information on their potential uses of EEW. Our currently most "advanced" user is the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) System. Their train control system now automatically slows and stops trains based on basic EEW information; EEW alerts are being added as an additional trigger. Beta Test User suggestions are incorporated into revisions of the UserDisplay and other elements of the ShakeAlert system, as appropriate. To form a knowledge base for EEW implementation into a public system, we also collect feedback detailing implementation costs and challenges within the Test User organizations, as well as anticipated benefits and savings. Thus, Beta Test Users are contributing to an operational Earthquake Early Warning system that will meet the needs of the public.

  19. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Denvil, Sebastien; Raciazek, Jerome; Carenton, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Guillame

    2014-05-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output (data and meta-data) are just some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve. The Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) is responsible for running climate simulations upon a set of heterogenous HPC environments within France. With heterogeneity comes added complexity in terms of simulation instrumentation and control. Obtaining a global perspective upon the state of all simulations running upon all HPC environments has hitherto been problematic. In this presentation we detail how, within the context of CONVERGENCE, the implementation of the Prodiguer messaging platform resolves complexity and permits the development of real-time applications such as: 1. a simulation monitoring dashboard; 2. a simulation metrics visualizer; 3. an automated simulation runtime notifier; 4. an automated output data & meta-data publishing pipeline; The Prodiguer messaging platform leverages a widely used open source message broker software called RabbitMQ. RabbitMQ itself implements the Advanced Message Queue Protocol (AMPQ). Hence it will be demonstrated that the Prodiguer messaging platform is built upon both open source and open standards.

  20. LBNL SecureMessaging

    2003-03-17

    The LBNLSecureMessaging application enables collaboration among colocated or geograhically dispersed users by supporting secure synchronous and asynchronous communication. This application is the graphical user interface client that is meant to be used in conjunction with servers (LBNL's PCCEServer and a customized IRC server) to allow group and one-to-one conversations via text-based instant messaging. Conversations may be private (by invitation only) or public (open to any member of a collaboratory group_ and they may be permanentmore » and on-going or temporary and ad hoc. Users may leave notes for other people who are online or offline. By providing presence and awareness information, collaborators can easily locate each other and rendezvous. Written in Java/Swing, this application is cross-platform. To gain access to functionality, users have to be registered with an authorization server (PCCEServer) that maintains an access control list. Thus a collaboration group is comprised of a set of PCCE-registered users. Registered users can log in via either X.509 certificate or a username and password combination. PKI and SSL are used to authenticate servers and clients and to encrypt messages sent over the network. The LBNLSecureMessaging application offers instant messaging capabilities in a secure environment that provides data integrity, privacyk authorization, and authentication.« less

  1. An Obstacle Alerting System for Agricultural Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Wire strikes are a significant cause of helicopter accidents. The aircraft most at risk are aerial applicators. The present study examines the effectiveness of a wire alert delivered by way of the lightbar, a GPS-based guidance system for aerial application. The alert lead-time needed to avoid an invisible wire is compared with that to avoid a visible wire. A flight simulator was configured to simulate an agricultural application helicopter. Two pilots flew simulated spray runs in fields with visible wires, invisible wires, and no wires. The wire alert was effective in reducing wire strikes. A lead-time of 3.5 sec was required for the alert to be effective. The lead- time required was the same whether the pilot could see the wire or not.

  2. Prototype Conflict Alerting Logic for Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Lee C.; Kuchar, James K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a prototype alerting system for a conceptual Free Flight environment. The concept assumes that datalink between aircraft is available and that conflicts are primarily resolved on the flight deck. Four alert stages are generated depending on the likelihood of a conflict. If the conflict is not resolved by the flight crews, Air Traffic Control is notified to take over separation authority. The alerting logic is based on probabilistic analysis through modeling of aircraft sensor and trajectory uncertainties. Monte Carlo simulations were used over a range of encounter situations to determine conflict probability. The four alert stages were then defined based on probability of conflict and on the number of avoidance maneuvers available to the flight crew. Preliminary results from numerical evaluations and from a piloted simulator study at NASA Ames Research Center are summarized.

  3. Tone-activated, remote, alert communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. D.; Couvillon, L. A.; Hubbard, W. P.; Kollar, F. J.; Postal, R. B.; Tegnelia, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    Pocket sized transmitter, frequency modulated by crystal derived tones, with integral loop antenna provides police with easy operating alert signal communicator which uses patrol car radio to relay signal. Communication channels are time shared by several patrol units.

  4. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  5. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  6. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  7. Inoculating against reactance to persuasive health messages.

    PubMed

    Richards, Adam S; Banas, John A

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examined the possibility of decreasing psychological reactance to health campaigns through the use of inoculation messages. It was hypothesized that an inoculation message, which forewarned of the potential of subsequent reactance, would decrease participants' likelihood of reacting negatively to a freedom-threatening message aimed to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Participants (N = 275) who were inoculated against potential reactance felt less threatened and experienced less reactance compared to those who did not read an inoculation message. Structural equation modeling showed that inoculation indirectly predicted lower intention to drink alcohol via the theorized mediated reactance process. This research suggests that it is possible to inoculate against self-generated cognitions that might otherwise lead toward negative health behaviors.

  8. Authentication of quantum messages.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, Howard; Crépeau, Jean-Claude; Gottesman, D.; Smith, A.; Tapp, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Authentication is a well-studied area of classical cryptography: a sender A and a receiver B sharing a classical private key want to exchange a classical message with the guarantee that the message has not been modified or replaced by a dishonest party with control of the communication line. In this paper we study the authentication of messages composed of quantum states. We give a formal definition of authentication in the quantum setting. Assuming A and B have access to an insecure quantum channel and share a private, classical random key, we provide a non-interactive scheme that both enables A to encrypt and authenticate (with unconditional security) an m qubit message by encoding it into m + s qubits, where the probability decreases exponentially in the security parameter s. The scheme requires a private key of size 2m + O(s). To achieve this, we give a highly efficient protocol for testing the purity of shared EPR pairs. It has long been known that learning information about a general quantum state will necessarily disturb it. We refine this result to show that such a disturbance can be done with few side effects, allowing it to circumvent cryptographic protections. Consequently, any scheme to authenticate quantum messages must also encrypt them. In contrast, no such constraint exists classically: authentication and encryption are independent tasks, and one can authenticate a message while leaving it publicly readable. This reasoning has two important consequences: On one hand, it allows us to give a lower bound of 2m key bits for authenticating m qubits, which makes our protocol asymptotically optimal. On the other hand, we use it to show that digitally signing quantum states is impossible, even with only computational security.

  9. Individual alerting efficiency modulates time perception

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiduo; Yang, Wenjing; Yuan, Xiangyong; Bi, Cuihua; Chen, Antao; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Time perception plays a fundamental role in human perceptual and motor activities, and can be influenced by various factors, such as selective attention and arousal. However, little is known about the influence of individual alerting efficiency on perceived duration. In this study, we explored this question by running two experiments. The Attentional Networks Test was used to evaluate individual differences in alerting efficiency in each experiment. Temporal bisection (Experiment 1) and time generalization task (Experiment 2) were used to explore the participants’ perception of duration. The results indicated that subjects in the high alerting efficiency group overestimated interval durations and estimated durations more accurately compared with subjects in the low alerting efficiency group. The two experiments showed that the sensitivity of time was not influenced by individual alerting efficiency. Based on previous studies and current findings, we infer that individual differences in alerting efficiency may influence time perception through modulating the latency of the attention-controlled switch and the speed of the peacemaker within the framework of the internal clock model. PMID:25904881

  10. Seismicity alert probabilities at Parkfield, California, revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.; Jones, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    For a decade, the US Geological Survey has used the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment scenario document to estimate the probability that earthquakes observed on the San Andreas fault near Parkfield will turn out to be foreshocks followed by the expected magnitude six mainshock. During this time, we have learned much about the seismogenic process at Parkfield, about the long-term probability of the Parkfield mainshock, and about the estimation of these types of probabilities. The probabilities for potential foreshocks at Parkfield are reexamined and revised in light of these advances. As part of this process, we have confirmed both the rate of foreshocks before strike-slip earthquakes in the San Andreas physiographic province and the uniform distribution of foreshocks with magnitude proposed by earlier studies. Compared to the earlier assessment, these new estimates of the long-term probability of the Parkfield mainshock are lower, our estimate of the rate of background seismicity is higher, and we find that the assumption that foreshocks at Parkfield occur in a unique way is not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. While the exact numbers vary depending on the assumptions that are made, the new alert probabilities are lower than previously estimated. Considering the various assumptions and the statistical uncertainties in the input parameters, we also compute a plausible range for the probabilities. The range is large, partly due to the extra knowledge that exists for the Parkfield segment, making us question the usefulness of these numbers.

  11. Novel online monitoring and alert system for anaerobic digestion reactors.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Li, Wen-Wei; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zhao, Jin-Bao; Tang, Yong; Yu, Han-Qing; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You; Harada, Hideki

    2011-10-15

    Effective monitoring and diagnosis of anaerobic digestion processes is a great challenge for anaerobic digestion reactors, which limits their stable operation. In this work, an online monitoring and alert system for upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors is developed on the basis of a set of novel evaluating indexes. The two indexes, i.e., stability index S and auxiliary index a, which incorporate both gas- and liquid-phase parameters for UASB, enable a quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of reactor status. A series of shock tests is conducted to evaluate the response of the monitoring and alert system to organic overloading, hydraulic, temperature, and toxicant shocks. The results show that this system enables an accurate and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of the reactor status, and offers reliable early warnings on the potential risks. As the core of this system, the evaluating indexes are demonstrated to be of high accuracy and sensitivity in process evaluation and good adaptability to the artificial intelligence and automated control apparatus. This online monitoring and alert system presents a valuable effort to promote the automated monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion process, and holds a high promise for application.

  12. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  13. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  14. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  15. When Communications Collide With Recipients’ Actions: Effects of Post-Message Behavior on Intentions to Follow the Message Recommendation

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Cohen, Joel B.; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes through which post-message behavior (e.g., noncompliance) influences resistance to the message. Participants in Experiment 1 read preventive, consumer-education messages that either opposed the consumption of an alcohol-like product or recommended moderation. Half of the participants then tried the product, whereas the remaining participants performed a filler task. In the absence of trial, the two messages had the same effect. However, recipients of the abstinence-promoting preventive message who tried the product had stronger intentions to use the product in the future than recipients of the moderation message. This finding suggests that assessments of message impact may be inadequate unless an opportunity for trial is also provided. Results are interpreted in terms of self-perception and cognitive dissonance and contrasted from psychological reactance. PMID:15018672

  16. Message in a Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a lesson that uses the Message in a Bottle concept. This lesson combines social studies, language arts, technology, and art, particularly studying and drawing portraits and utilizing values within a drawing. As part of their grade-four art curriculum, students are required to correctly proportion the face and the…

  17. Making health messages interesting.

    PubMed

    Gebreel, A O; Butt, J

    1997-01-01

    In Afghanistan a radio drama serial carrying messages vital to the well-being of the population, backed up by more detailed information in reinforcing radio programmes and a cartoon magazine, is proving effective in increasing people's knowledge of immunization and other subjects.

  18. Research Messages 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Research messages 2011" is a collection of summaries of research projects published by National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2011. The publication also has an overview essay that captures the themes and highlights from the research for the year, including: (1) the initial education and training of young people and their…

  19. A Message that Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses marketing as an important tool in getting out the message that really matters about the value of career and technical education. Across the United States, a number of career tech schools are employing marketing strategies to make their communities aware of the benefits of career and technical education. One of these schools,…

  20. Research Messages 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Research messages 2010 is a collection of summaries of research projects published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). The summaries are clustered under five broad themes used by NCVER to organise its research and analysis: Industry and employers; Students and individuals; Teaching and learning: VET system; and VET in…

  1. President's Message: "Forward"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Ken

    2006-01-01

    In this message from the ITEA president, he states that it is imperative that ITEA convey a shared mission and philosophy, foster leadership, and grow a large audience of supportive professional members while remaining agile enough to withstand generational and political changes that naturally occur over time. The strategic plan of ITEA focuses on…

  2. Research Messages 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Research Messages 2014" is a collection of summaries of research published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2014 in the context of changing economic, industrial, social and education conditions, organised under the following broad categories: (1) Productivity: to sustain and build Australia's human…

  3. Evaluating Personalized Risk Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Neil D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An experiment with 766 homeowners compared 3 strategies for delivering radon test results to homeowners. Small improvements in consumer satisfaction were found for personalized messages (a telephone call or personal letter) over a form letter. No detectable improvement was found in recall of advice or compliance for any strategy. (SLD)

  4. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  5. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  6. A week-long meditation retreat decouples behavioral measures of the alerting and executive attention networks.

    PubMed

    Elliott, James C; Wallace, B Alan; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    PREVIOUS STUDIES HAVE EXAMINED THE INFLUENCE OF MEDITATION ON THREE FUNCTIONALLY DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF ATTENTION: executive control, alerting, and orienting. These studies have consistently found that meditation training improves both executive attention and alerting, but there has not been a consistent and clear effect of meditation training on orienting. In addition, while previous studies have shown that the functional coupling of the alerting and executive networks increases the processing of task irrelevant stimuli, it is unknown if participating in a meditation retreat can decouple these components of attention and lead to improved performance. The current study investigated the influence of a week-long intensive meditation retreat on three components of attention by randomly assigning participants to either pre- or postretreat testing groups. A modified attention network test (ANT) was used. Executive attention was measured as the difference in response time (RT) between congruent and incongruent task irrelevant flankers (conflict effect). Reflexive and volitional orienting were measured by manipulating cue validity and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The coupling of executive attention and alerting was measured by examining flanker interference as a function of the SOA of an alerting cue. The meditation retreat improved task based indices of executive attention, but not reflexive or volitional orienting. There was clear behavioral evidence of coupling between executive attention and alerting in the preretreat group, as the conflict effect peaked when an alerting cue was presented 300 ms before the target. Importantly, there was no increase in the conflict effect for the postretreat group. This is consistent with the notion that the retreat decoupled the executive and alerting networks. These results suggest that previously reported improvements in the executive and alerting networks after meditation training might be mediated by the same underlying

  7. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  8. Real-Time Mapping alert system; user's manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has an extensive hydrologic network that records and transmits precipitation, stage, discharge, and other water- related data on a real-time basis to an automated data processing system. Data values are recorded on electronic data collection platforms at field monitoring sites. These values are transmitted by means of orbiting satellites to receiving ground stations, and by way of telecommunication lines to a U.S. Geological Survey office where they are processed on a computer system. Data that exceed predefined thresholds are identified as alert values. These alert values can help keep water- resource specialists informed of current hydrologic conditions. The current alert status at monitoring sites is of critical importance during floods, hurricanes, and other extreme hydrologic events where quick analysis of the situation is needed. This manual provides instructions for using the Real-Time Mapping software, a series of computer programs developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for quick analysis of hydrologic conditions, and guides users through a basic interactive session. The software provides interactive graphics display and query of real-time information in a map-based, menu-driven environment.

  9. Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.

  10. Subjective alertness rhythms in elderly people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes in the circadian rhythm of subjective alertness and to explore the circadian mechanisms underlying such changes. Using a visual analogue scale (VAS) instrument, 25 older men and women (71 y and older; 15 female, 10 male) rated their subjective alertness about 7 times per day during 5 baseline days of temporal isolation during which habitual bedtimes and waketimes were enforced. Comparisons were made with 13 middle-aged men (37-52 y) experiencing the same protocol. Advancing age (particularly in the men) resulted in less rhythmic alertness patterns, as indicated by lower amplitudes and less reliability of fitted 24-h sinusoids. This appeared in spite of the absence of any reliable age-related diminution in circadian temperature rhythm amplitude, thus suggesting the effect was not due to SCN weakness per se, but to weakened transduction of SCN output. In a further experiment, involving 36 h of constant wakeful bedrest, differences in the amplitude of the alertness rhythm were observed between 9 older men (79 y+), 7 older women (79 y+), and 17 young controls (9 males, 8 females, 19-28 y) suggesting that with advancing age (particularly in men) there is less rhythmic input into subjective alertness from the endogenous circadian pacemaker. These results may explain some of the nocturnal insomnia and daytime hypersomnia that afflict many elderly people.

  11. Failure to utilize functions of an electronic prescribing system and the subsequent generation of ‘technically preventable’ computerized alerts

    PubMed Central

    Reckmann, Margaret H; Li, Ling; Day, Richard O; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency with which computerized alerts occur and the proportion triggered as a result of prescribers not utilizing e-prescribing system functions. Methods An audit of electronic inpatient medication charts at a teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia, was conducted to identify alerts fired, to categorize the system functions used by prescribers, and to assess if use of short-cut system functions could have prevented the alerts. Results Of the 2209 active orders reviewed, 600 (27.2%) triggered at least one alert. Therapeutic duplication alerts were the most frequent (n=572). One third of these (20.2% of all alerts) was ‘technically preventable’ and would not have fired if prescribers had used a short-cut system function to prescribe. Under-utilized system functions included the option to ‘MODIFY’ existing orders and use of the ‘AND’ function for concurrent orders. Pregnancy alerts, set for women aged between 12 and 55 years, were triggered for 43% of drugs ordered for this group. Conclusion Developers of decision support systems should test the extent to which technically preventable alerts may arise when prescribers fail to use system functions as designed. Designs which aim to improve the efficiency of the prescribing process but which do not align with the cognitive processes of users may fail to achieve this desired outcome and produce unexpected consequences such as triggering unnecessary alerts and user frustration. Ongoing user training to support effective use of e-prescribing system functions and modifications to the mechanisms underlying alert generation are needed to ensure that prescribers are presented with fewer but more meaningful alerts. PMID:22735616

  12. Wireless Sensor Node for Autonomous Monitoring and Alerts in Remote Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor); Panangadan, Anand V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, and computer program products provides personal alert and tracking capabilities using one or more nodes. Each node includes radio transceiver chips operating at different frequency ranges, a power amplifier, sensors, a display, and embedded software. The chips enable the node to operate as either a mobile sensor node or a relay base station node while providing a long distance relay link between nodes. The power amplifier enables a line-of-sight communication between the one or more nodes. The sensors provide a GPS signal, temperature, and accelerometer information (used to trigger an alert condition). The embedded software captures and processes the sensor information, provides a multi-hop packet routing protocol to relay the sensor information to and receive alert information from a command center, and to display the alert information on the display.

  13. Healthcare-associated infection surveillance and bedside alerts.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Berger, Angelika; Koller, Walter; Blacky, Alexander; Mandl, Harald; Unterasinger, Lukas; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Expectations and requirements concerning the identification and surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are increasing, calling for differentiated automated approaches. In an attempt to bridge the "definition swamp" of these infections and serve the needs of different users, we improved the monitoring of nosocomial infections (MONI) software to create better surveillance reports according to consented national and international definitions, as well as produce infection overviews on complex clinical matters including alerts for the clinician's ward and bedside work. MONI contains and processes surveillance definitions for intensive-care-unit-acquired infections from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Sweden, as well as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA. The latest release of MONI also includes KISS criteria of the German National Reference Center for Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections. In addition to these "classic" surveillance criteria, clinical alert criteria--which are similar but not identical to the surveillance criteria--were established together with intensivists. This is an important step to support both infection control and clinical personnel; and--last but not least--to foster co-evolution of the two groups of definitions: surveillance and alerts. PMID:24825687

  14. Healthcare-associated infection surveillance and bedside alerts.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Berger, Angelika; Koller, Walter; Blacky, Alexander; Mandl, Harald; Unterasinger, Lukas; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Expectations and requirements concerning the identification and surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are increasing, calling for differentiated automated approaches. In an attempt to bridge the "definition swamp" of these infections and serve the needs of different users, we improved the monitoring of nosocomial infections (MONI) software to create better surveillance reports according to consented national and international definitions, as well as produce infection overviews on complex clinical matters including alerts for the clinician's ward and bedside work. MONI contains and processes surveillance definitions for intensive-care-unit-acquired infections from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Sweden, as well as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA. The latest release of MONI also includes KISS criteria of the German National Reference Center for Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections. In addition to these "classic" surveillance criteria, clinical alert criteria--which are similar but not identical to the surveillance criteria--were established together with intensivists. This is an important step to support both infection control and clinical personnel; and--last but not least--to foster co-evolution of the two groups of definitions: surveillance and alerts.

  15. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less

  16. Alerting device and method for reminding a person of a risk

    DOEpatents

    Runyon, Larry [Richland, WA; Gunter, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2001-11-27

    An alerting device and method to remind personnel of a risk is disclosed. The device has at least two sensors, a logic controller, a power source, and an annunciator that delivers a visual message, with or without an audible alarm, about a risk to a person when the sensors detect the person exiting a predetermined space. In particular, the present invention reminds a person of a security, safety, or health risk upon exiting a predetermined space. More particularly, the present invention reminds a person of an information security risk relating to sensitive, proprietary, confidential, trade secret, classified, or intellectual property information.

  17. Passive pavement-mounted acoustical linguistic drive alert system and method

    DOEpatents

    Kisner, Roger A.; Anderson, Richard L.; Carnal, Charles L.; Hylton, James O.; Stevens, Samuel S.

    2001-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for passive pavement-mounted acoustical alert of the occupants of a vehicle. A method of notifying a vehicle occupant includes providing a driving medium upon which a vehicle is to be driven; and texturing a portion of the driving medium such that the textured portion interacts with the vehicle to produce audible signals, the textured portion pattern such that a linguistic message is encoded into the audible signals. The systems and methods provide advantages because information can be conveyed to the occupants of the vehicle based on the location of the vehicle relative to the textured surface.

  18. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  19. 47 CFR 11.44 - EAS message priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Messages; second, State Messages; and third, National Information Center (NIC) Messages. (c) Key EAS... distribution of Presidential Messages. NIC messages received from national networks which are not broadcast...

  20. Supervising simulations with the Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Carenton, Nicolas; Denvil, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of High Performance Computing (HPC) environments spread throughout France. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime is called libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group). libIGCM has recently been enhanced so as to support realtime operational use cases. Such use cases include simulation monitoring, data publication, environment metrics collection, automated simulation control … etc. At the core of this enhancement is the Prodiguer messaging platform. libIGCM now emits information, in the form of messages, for remote processing at IPSL servers in Paris. The remote message processing takes several forms, for example: 1. Persisting message content to database(s); 2. Notifying an operator of changes in a simulation's execution status; 3. Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; 4. Dynamically updating controlled vocabularies; 5. Notifying downstream applications such as the Prodiguer web portal; We will describe how the messaging platform has been implemented from a technical perspective and demonstrate the Prodiguer web portal receiving realtime notifications.

  1. Little Houses and Casas Pequenas: Message Formulation and Syntactic Form in Unscripted Speech with Speakers of English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Konopka, Agnieszka E.

    2008-01-01

    During unscripted speech, speakers coordinate the formulation of pre-linguistic messages with the linguistic processes that implement those messages into speech. We examine the process of constructing a contextually appropriate message and interfacing that message with utterance planning in English ("the small butterfly") and Spanish ("la mariposa…

  2. Neuronal correlates of visual and auditory alertness in the DMT and ketamine model of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Daumann, J; Wagner, D; Heekeren, K; Neukirch, A; Thiel, C M; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E

    2010-10-01

    Deficits in attentional functions belong to the core cognitive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Alertness is a nonselective attention component that refers to a state of general readiness that improves stimulus processing and response initiation. The main goal of the present study was to investigate cerebral correlates of alertness in the human 5HT(2A) agonist and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist model of psychosis. Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in a randomized double-blind, cross-over event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and S-ketamine. A target detection task with cued and uncued trials in both the visual and the auditory modality was used. Administration of DMT led to decreased blood oxygenation level-dependent response during performance of an alertness task, particularly in extrastriate regions during visual alerting and in temporal regions during auditory alerting. In general, the effects for the visual modality were more pronounced. In contrast, administration of S-ketamine led to increased cortical activation in the left insula and precentral gyrus in the auditory modality. The results of the present study might deliver more insight into potential differences and overlapping pathomechanisms in schizophrenia. These conclusions must remain preliminary and should be explored by further fMRI studies with schizophrenic patients performing modality-specific alertness tasks.

  3. Prediction-based threshold for medication alert.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Yoshimasa; Miyo, Kengo; Kurahashi, Issei; Sakurai, Ryota; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a prediction-based approach to determine thresholds for a medication alert in a computerized physician order entry. Traditional static thresholds can sometimes lead to physician's alert fatigue or overlook potentially excessive medication even if the doses are belowthe configured threshold. To address this problem, we applied a random forest algorithm to develop a prediction model for medication doses, and applied a boxplot to determine the thresholds based on the prediction results. An evaluation of the eight drugs most frequently causing alerts in our hospital showed that the performances of the prediction were high, except for two drugs. It was also found that using the thresholds based on the predictions would reduce the alerts to a half of those when using the static thresholds. Notably, some cases were detected only by the prediction thresholds. The significance of the thresholds should be discussed in terms of the trade-offs between gains and losses; however, our approach, which relies on physicians' collective experiences, has practical advantages. PMID:23920550

  4. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  5. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  6. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... at 73 FR 47550, August 14, 2008, are effective July 13, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  7. Alerting or Somnogenic Light: Pick Your Color

    PubMed Central

    Bourgin, Patrice; Hubbard, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, light exerts pervasive effects on physiology and behavior in two ways: indirectly through clock synchronization and the phase adjustment of circadian rhythms, and directly through the promotion of alertness and sleep, respectively, in diurnal and nocturnal species. A recent report by Pilorz and colleagues describes an even more complex role for the acute effects of light. In mice, blue light acutely causes behavioral arousal, whereas green wavelengths promote sleep. These opposing effects are mediated by melanopsin-based phototransduction through different neural pathways. These findings reconcile nocturnal and diurnal species through a common alerting response to blue light. One can hypothesize that the opposite responses to natural polychromatic light in night- or day-active animals may reflect higher sensitivity of nocturnal species to green, and diurnals to blue wavelengths, resulting in hypnogenic and alerting effects, respectively. Additional questions remain to be clarified. How do different light wavelengths affect other behaviors such as mood and cognition? How do those results apply to humans? How does light pose either a risk or benefit, depending on whether one needs to be asleep or alert? Indeed, in addition to timing, luminance levels, and light exposure duration, these findings stress the need to understand how best to adapt the color spectrum of light to our needs and to take this into account for the design of daily lighting concepts—a key challenge for today’s society, especially with the emergence of LED light technology. PMID:27525420

  8. Self-Regulation: Calm, Alert, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing awareness among developmental scientists that the better a child can self-regulate, the better she can rise to the challenge of mastering ever more complex skills and concepts. In the simplest terms, self-regulation can be defined as the ability to stay calmly focused and alert, which often involves--but cannot be reduced…

  9. Assessment in Education. IBE Special Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO International Bureau of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    As another year is approaching, the time seems appropriate to look back and reflect on all the things that have been done, and more importantly learned during 2014. Along the same lines, and in order to offer further food for thought, the IBE is happy to share with you its latest Thematic alert on the topic of assessment in education. More…

  10. CEI-PEA Alert, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Chancellor Joel I. Klein Announces New Accountability System for NYC Schools; (2) Students Achieve Record-High Scores!; (3) Use Data to Help Your Child Improve Performance; (4) Are…

  11. [Health alert management and emerging risk].

    PubMed

    Pillonel, J

    2010-12-01

    Following health crisis that have occurred in the nineties (contaminated blood, mad cow, asbestos, etc.) and more recently those generated by the heat wave in 2003 or by emerging infectious pathogens (SARS, West Nile, Chikungunya, H5N1, H1N1…), a real health vigilance system has been progressively developed in France. After a brief historical overview of the health alert system, this article will give the guiding principles of its current organization in France and will present two examples of recent health alerts (Chikungunya in the Reunion Island in 2005-2006 and hepatitis A outbreak in the Côtes-d'Armor in August 2007), that have needed the implementation of preventive measures regarding the blood donor selection. These two examples have shown that the position of the alert in the French health vigilance system needs to be very close to the event. In that case, health alert is a very useful tool for decision making especially when measures have to be taken to prevent transfusion-transmitted pathogens. PMID:21051258

  12. [Health alert management and emerging risk].

    PubMed

    Pillonel, J

    2010-12-01

    Following health crisis that have occurred in the nineties (contaminated blood, mad cow, asbestos, etc.) and more recently those generated by the heat wave in 2003 or by emerging infectious pathogens (SARS, West Nile, Chikungunya, H5N1, H1N1…), a real health vigilance system has been progressively developed in France. After a brief historical overview of the health alert system, this article will give the guiding principles of its current organization in France and will present two examples of recent health alerts (Chikungunya in the Reunion Island in 2005-2006 and hepatitis A outbreak in the Côtes-d'Armor in August 2007), that have needed the implementation of preventive measures regarding the blood donor selection. These two examples have shown that the position of the alert in the French health vigilance system needs to be very close to the event. In that case, health alert is a very useful tool for decision making especially when measures have to be taken to prevent transfusion-transmitted pathogens.

  13. Alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) while driving.

    PubMed

    Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Shinar, David

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of alertness maintaining tasks (AMTs) on driver performance, subjective feelings, and psychophysiological state in monotonous simulated driving in two experiments. In the first experiment, 12 professional truck drivers participated in five sessions of simulated driving: driving only, driving with one of three AMTs (counterbalanced), and driving while listening to music. AMTs were not equally effective in maintaining alertness. The trivia AMT prevented driving performance deterioration, and increased alertness (measured by standardized HRV). The choice reaction time AMT was least demanding but also increased subjective sleepiness and reduced arousal (measured by alpha/beta ratio). The working memory AMT caused a significant decrement in driving speed, increased subjective fatigue, and was regarded by the participants as detrimental to driving. Trivia was preferred by the majority of the drivers over the other two AMTs. Experiment 2 further examined the utility of the trivia AMT. When the drivers engaged in the trivia AMT they maintained better driving performance and perceived the driving duration as shorter than the control condition. The two experiments demonstrated that AMTs can have a positive effect on alertness. The effect is localized in the sense that it does not persist beyond the period of the AMT activation.

  14. Innovative Software Tools Measure Behavioral Alertness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    To monitor astronaut behavioral alertness in space, Johnson Space Center awarded Philadelphia-based Pulsar Informatics Inc. SBIR funding to develop software to be used onboard the International Space Station. Now used by the government and private companies, the technology has increased revenues for the firm by an average of 75 percent every year.

  15. Alerting or Somnogenic Light: Pick Your Color.

    PubMed

    Bourgin, Patrice; Hubbard, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, light exerts pervasive effects on physiology and behavior in two ways: indirectly through clock synchronization and the phase adjustment of circadian rhythms, and directly through the promotion of alertness and sleep, respectively, in diurnal and nocturnal species. A recent report by Pilorz and colleagues describes an even more complex role for the acute effects of light. In mice, blue light acutely causes behavioral arousal, whereas green wavelengths promote sleep. These opposing effects are mediated by melanopsin-based phototransduction through different neural pathways. These findings reconcile nocturnal and diurnal species through a common alerting response to blue light. One can hypothesize that the opposite responses to natural polychromatic light in night- or day-active animals may reflect higher sensitivity of nocturnal species to green, and diurnals to blue wavelengths, resulting in hypnogenic and alerting effects, respectively. Additional questions remain to be clarified. How do different light wavelengths affect other behaviors such as mood and cognition? How do those results apply to humans? How does light pose either a risk or benefit, depending on whether one needs to be asleep or alert? Indeed, in addition to timing, luminance levels, and light exposure duration, these findings stress the need to understand how best to adapt the color spectrum of light to our needs and to take this into account for the design of daily lighting concepts-a key challenge for today's society, especially with the emergence of LED light technology. PMID:27525420

  16. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts Motivate High School…

  17. Syntax and semantics of NLTSS Message tokens

    SciTech Connect

    Minton, J.; Donnelley, J.

    1980-04-24

    The basic unit of an NLTSS message is the Message token (or token). Groups of these tokens make up statements, and groups of statements make up a session. This report describes the current format and meaning of tokens, statements, and Sessions (as used by NLTSS servers). It is intended as a guideline for the prototype NLTSS File Server, Directory Server, Process Server, Account Server, and others. The final formats and meanings that will be published in a Network Standards document may differ. Most of the material in this report is gathered from strawman proposals and meetings between the Octopus Network and NLTSS groups.

  18. Challenges for Tailored Messaging in Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellefson, Michael L.; Hanik, Bruce W.; Chaney, Beth H.; Chaney, J. Don

    2008-01-01

    It is a health education truism that instructional material will be more effective when audience characteristics are taken into account at the outset of program development. One strategy for disseminating relevant health information to individuals is known as "tailored messaging," which accounts for intra-individual information processing needs.…

  19. 2. Missile Alert Facility, south side, view from baseball bleachers. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Missile Alert Facility, south side, view from baseball bleachers. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  20. Message Passing on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the challenges in implementing a message passing interface usable on systems with data-parallel processors, and more specifically GPUs. As a case study, we design and implement the ``DCGN'' API on NVIDIA GPUs that is similar to MPI and allows full access to the underlying architecture. We introduce the notion of data-parallel thread-groups as a way to map resources to MPI ranks. We use a method that also allows the data-parallel processors to run autonomously from user-written CPU code. In order to facilitate communication, we use a sleep-based polling system to store and retrieve messages. Unlike previous systems, our method provides both performance and flexibility. By running a test suite of applications with different communication requirements, we find that a tolerable amount of overhead is incurred, somewhere between one and five percent depending on the application, and indicate the locations where this overhead accumulates. We conclude that with innovations in chipsets and drivers, this overhead will be mitigated and provide similar performance to typical CPU-based MPI implementations while providing fully-dynamic communication.

  1. Helsinki alert of biodiversity and health.

    PubMed

    von Hertzen, Leena; Beutler, Bruce; Bienenstock, John; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Eriksson, Johan; Färkkilä, Martti; Haahtela, Tari; Hanski, Ilkka; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kere, Juha; Knip, Mikael; Kontula, Kimmo; Koskenvuo, Markku; Ling, Charlotte; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; von Mutius, Erika; Mäkelä, Mika J; Paunio, Tiina; Pershagen, Göran; Renz, Harald; Rook, Graham; Saarela, Maria; Vaarala, Outi; Veldhoen, Marc; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-05-01

    Urban living in built environments, combined with the use of processed water and food, may not provide the microbial stimulation necessary for a balanced development of immune function. Many chronic inflammatory disorders, including allergic, autoimmune, metabolic, and even some behavioural disorders, are linked to alteration in the human commensal microbiota. Sedentary lifestyle is associated with reduced exposure to a broad spectrum of environmental micro-organisms and surplus energy balance, both risk factors of chronic inflammatory disorders. According to the Biodiversity Hypothesis, an environment with diverse macrobiota and microbiota modifies and enriches the human microbiota, which in turn is crucial in the development and maintenance of appropriate immune function. These issues were discussed in the symposium 'Chronic Inflammation, Lifestyle and Environment', held in Helsinki, 20-22 August 2014, under the sponsorship of the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation. This paper briefly outlines the recent findings in the context of the environment, lifestyle, and health; discusses the forces that undermine immune tolerance in urban environments; and highlights the possibilities to restore broken immune tolerance among urban dwellers, summarizing the main messages in four statements and calling for actions to combat major public health threats.

  2. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Provider alert gateway requirements. 10.320 Section 10.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.320 Provider alert gateway requirements. This section specifies the...

  3. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Provider alert gateway requirements. 10.320 Section 10.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS System Architecture § 10.320 Provider alert gateway requirements. This section specifies the...

  4. Evaluation of the Early Alert Program, Spring 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartnal, Ryan; Hagen, Peter F.

    This report evaluates the Early Alert program at Cuesta College (California). The report is divided into four main sections: services accessed, accessibility, actions taken as a result of receiving an Early Alert letter, and timing and utility of the Early Alert program. These are followed by the demography of the respondents, a brief background…

  5. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The... stations that a ship is in distress. These alerts are based on the use of transmissions via...

  6. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Provider alert gateway requirements. 10.320 Section 10.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.320 Provider alert gateway requirements. This section specifies the...

  7. 78 FR 22270 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... correction to the OIG Federal Register ] notice published on March 29, 2012 (78 FR 19271), on our recently issued Special Fraud Alert on Physician-Owned Entities. Specifically, the Special Fraud Alert addressed... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY:...

  8. 76 FR 12600 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS) to provide for national EAS testing and... a national Presidential alert. DATES: Effective March 8, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  9. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provider alert gateway requirements. 10.320 Section 10.320 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.320 Provider alert gateway requirements. This section specifies the...

  10. Airborne derivation of microburst alerts from ground-based Terminal Doppler Weather Radar information: A flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA windshear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne windshear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a windshear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. Microburst information was extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the windshear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which atmospheric 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne reactive windshear detection system. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurements would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the practicality of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  11. Education and Training Module in Alertness Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallis, M. M.; Brandt, S. L.; Oyung, R. L.; Reduta, D. D.; Rosekind, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training module (ETM) in alertness management has now been integrated as part of the training regimen of the Pilot Proficiency Awards Program ("WINGS") of the Federal Aviation Administration. Originated and now maintained current by the Fatigue Countermeasures Group at NASA Ames Research Center, the ETM in Alertness Management is designed to give pilots the benefit of the best and most recent research on the basics of sleep physiology, the causes of fatigue, and strategies for managing alertness during flight operations. The WINGS program is an incentive program that encourages pilots at all licensing levels to participate in recurrent training, upon completion of which distinctive lapel or tie pins (wings) and certificates of completion are awarded. In addition to flight training, all WINGS applicants must attend at least one FAA-sponsored safety seminar, FAA-sanctioned safety seminar, or industry recurrent training program. The Fatigue Countermeasures Group provides an FAA-approved industry recurrent training program through an on-line General Aviation (GA) WINGS ETM in alertness management to satisfy this requirement. Since 1993, the Fatigue Countermeasures Group has translated fatigue and alertness information to operational environments by conducting two-day ETM workshops oriented primarily toward air-carrier operations subject to Part 121 of the Federal Aviation Regulations pertaining to such operations. On the basis of the information presented in the two-day ETM workshops, an ETM was created for GA pilots and was transferred to a Web-based version. To comply with the requirements of the WINGS Program, the original Web-based version has been modified to include hypertext markup language (HTML) content that makes information easily accessible, in-depth testing of alertness-management knowledge, new interactive features, and increased informational resources for GA pilots. Upon successful completion of this training module, a participant

  12. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin

    2011-12-01

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  13. Optimizing the real-time ground level enhancement alert system based on neutron monitor measurements: Introducing GLE Alert Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souvatzoglou, G.; Papaioannou, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Dimitroulakos, J.; Sarlanis, C.

    2014-11-01

    Whenever a significant intensity increase is being recorded by at least three neutron monitor stations in real-time mode, a ground level enhancement (GLE) event is marked and an automated alert is issued. Although, the physical concept of the algorithm is solid and has efficiently worked in a number of cases, the availability of real-time data is still an open issue and makes timely GLE alerts quite challenging. In this work we present the optimization of the GLE alert that has been set into operation since 2006 at the Athens Neutron Monitor Station. This upgrade has led to GLE Alert Plus, which is currently based upon the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB). We have determined the critical values per station allowing us to issue reliable GLE alerts close to the initiation of the event while at the same time we keep the false alert rate at low levels. Furthermore, we have managed to treat the problem of data availability, introducing the Go-Back-N algorithm. A total of 13 GLE events have been marked from January 2000 to December 2012. GLE Alert Plus issued an alert for 12 events. These alert times are compared to the alert times of GOES Space Weather Prediction Center and Solar Energetic Particle forecaster of the University of Málaga (UMASEP). In all cases GLE Alert Plus precedes the GOES alert by ≈8-52 min. The comparison with UMASEP demonstrated a remarkably good agreement. Real-time GLE alerts by GLE Alert Plus may be retrieved by http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr/gle_alert_plus.html, http://www.nmdb.eu, and http://swe.ssa.esa.int/web/guest/space-radiation. An automated GLE alert email notification system is also available to interested users.

  14. Federal technology alert: Ultrasonic humidifiers

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Humidifiers are used in buildings to maintain humidity levels to ensure quality and handling capabilities in manufacturing processes, to lower the transmission rate of disease-causing bacteria in hospitals, to reduce static electricity in manufacturing clean rooms and in computer rooms, and to provide higher levels of employee comfort in offices. Ultrasonic humidifiers generate a water mist without raising its temperature. An electronic oscillation is converted to a mechanical oscillation using a piezo disk immersed in a reservoir of mineral-free water. The mechanical oscillation is directed at the surface of the water, where at very high frequencies it creates a very fine mist of water droplets. This adiabatic process, which does not heat the supply water, reduces humidifier energy use by 90 to 93% compared with systems that do boil the water. Ultrasonic humidifiers have been demonstrated to be more efficient and to require less maintenance than competing humidifier technologies such as electrode canisters, quartz lamps, and indirect steam-to-steam. They do not require anticorrosive additives that affect the indoor air quality of buildings using direct steam humidifiers. There are two potential disadvantages of ultrasonic humidifiers. They must use mineral-free, deionized water or water treated with reverse osmosis. Treated water reduces maintenance costs because it eliminates calcium deposits, but increases other operating costs. Also, the cool mist from ultrasonic humidifiers absorbs energy from the supply air as it evaporates and provides a secondary cooling effect.

  15. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  16. From Demonstration System to Prototype: ShakeAlert Beta Users Provide Feedback to Improve Alert Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds to minutes of warning prior to ground shaking at a given location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A prototype earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is in development by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, and the USGS. Events are published to the UserDisplay--ShakeAlert's Java based graphical interface, which is being tested by a small group of beta users throughout California. The beta users receive earthquake alerts in real-time and are providing feedback on their experiences. For early warning alerts to be useful, people, companies, and institutions must know beforehand what actions they will perform when they receive the information. Beta user interactions allow the ShakeAlert team to discern: which alert delivery options are most effective, what changes would make the UserDisplay more useful in a pre-disaster situation, and most importantly, what actions users plan to take for various scenarios. We also collect feedback detailing costs of implementing actions and challenges within the beta user organizations, as well as anticipated benefits and savings. Thus, creating a blueprint for a fully operational system that will meet the needs of the public. New California users as well as the first group of Pacific Northwest users are slated to join the ShakeAlert beta test group in the fall of 2013.

  17. Alerts Analysis and Visualization in Network-based Intrusion Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dr. Li

    2010-08-01

    The alerts produced by network-based intrusion detection systems, e.g. Snort, can be difficult for network administrators to efficiently review and respond to due to the enormous number of alerts generated in a short time frame. This work describes how the visualization of raw IDS alert data assists network administrators in understanding the current state of a network and quickens the process of reviewing and responding to intrusion attempts. The project presented in this work consists of three primary components. The first component provides a visual mapping of the network topology that allows the end-user to easily browse clustered alerts. The second component is based on the flocking behavior of birds such that birds tend to follow other birds with similar behaviors. This component allows the end-user to see the clustering process and provides an efficient means for reviewing alert data. The third component discovers and visualizes patterns of multistage attacks by profiling the attacker s behaviors.

  18. Effects of the tranquillizer diazepam and the stimulant methylphenidate on alertness and memory.

    PubMed

    Unrug, A; Coenen, A; van Luijtelaar, G

    1997-01-01

    Effects of alertness and memory of a single dose of diazepam (10 mg) and the central stimulant methylphenidate (20 mg) were studied in healthy volunteers. It was questioned whether opposite effects of diazepam and methylphenidate are not only observed with respect to alertness but also with respect to memory. It was also questioned whether the two drugs equally affect the first (primacy) and last (recency) items in both the immediate and delayed recall of newly learned words. The experiment was performed in a double-blind, placebo-controlled way. 12 subjects were exposed to a subjective alertness scale and a verbal memory test: a 15-word test. Subjective alertness was found to be decreased after diazepam and increased after methylphenidate. Anterograde amnesia was found after diazepam in the memory test. More specifically, the primacy but not the recency effect was reduced during the immediate recall and both were reduced in the delayed recall. methylphenidate had no effect on memory, however a ceiling effect might have obscured a putative drug effect. The results of a second experiment excluded this possibility. In all, the data demonstrate opposite effects of the two drugs on subjective alertness, suggesting opposite effects on vigilance. Opposite effects on memory were not established. This demonstrates that changes in alertness do not run in parallel with changes in memory. A scatter diagram, however, suggests a small effect of alertness on immediate recall. The effects of diazepam were also discussed in terms of the Atkinson and Shiffrin memory theory and it seems that diminished rehearsal processes are one of the key factors in explaining diazepam-induced amnesia.

  19. Alerts Visualization and Clustering in Network-based Intrusion Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dr. Li; Gasior, Wade C; Dasireddy, Swetha

    2010-04-01

    Today's Intrusion detection systems when deployed on a busy network overload the network with huge number of alerts. This behavior of producing too much raw information makes it less effective. We propose a system which takes both raw data and Snort alerts to visualize and analyze possible intrusions in a network. Then we present with two models for the visualization of clustered alerts. Our first model gives the network administrator with the logical topology of the network and detailed information of each node that involves its associated alerts and connections. In the second model, flocking model, presents the network administrator with the visual representation of IDS data in which each alert is represented in different color and the alerts with maximum similarity move together. This gives network administrator with the idea of detecting various of intrusions through visualizing the alert patterns.

  20. The ACL Message Passing Library

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, J.; McCormick, P.; Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Colin de Verdiere, G.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the ACL (Advanced Computing Lab) Message Passing Library. It is a high throughput, low latency communications library, based on Thinking Machines Corp.`s CMMD, upon which message passing applications can be built. The library has been implemented on the Cray T3D, Thinking Machines CM-5, SGI workstations, and on top of PVM.

  1. The influence of essential oils on human attention. I: alertness.

    PubMed

    Ilmberger, J; Heuberger, E; Mahrhofer, C; Dessovic, H; Kowarik, D; Buchbauer, G

    2001-03-01

    Scientific research on the effects of essential oils on human behavior lags behind the promises made by popular aromatherapy. Nearly all aspects of human behavior are closely linked to processes of attention, the basic level being that of alertness, which ranges from sleep to wakefulness. In our study we measured the influence of essential oils and components of essential oils [peppermint, jasmine, ylang-ylang, 1,8-cineole (in two different dosages) and menthol] on this core attentional function, which can be experimentally defined as speed of information processing. Substances were administered by inhalation; levels of alertness were assessed by measuring motor and reaction times in a reaction time paradigm. The performances of the six experimental groups receiving substances (n = 20 in four groups, n = 30 in two groups) were compared with those of corresponding control groups receiving water. Between-group analysis, i.e. comparisons between experimental groups and their respective control groups, mainly did not reach statistical significance. However, within-group analysis showed complex correlations between subjective evaluations of substances and objective performance, indicating that effects of essentials oils or their components on basic forms of attentional behavior are mainly psychological. PMID:11287383

  2. Real-Time Mapping alert system; characteristics and capabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, L.A.; Lambert, S.C.; Liebermann, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has an extensive hydrologic network that records and transmits precipitation, stage, discharge, and other water-related data on a real-time basis to an automated data processing system. Data values are recorded on electronic data collection platforms at field sampling sites. These values are transmitted by means of orbiting satellites to receiving ground stations, and by way of telecommunication lines to a U.S. Geological Survey office where they are processed on a computer system. Data that exceed predefined thresholds are identified as alert values. The current alert status at monitoring sites within a state or region is of critical importance during floods, hurricanes, and other extreme hydrologic events. This report describes the characteristics and capabilities of a series of computer programs for real-time mapping of hydrologic data. The software provides interactive graphics display and query of hydrologic information from the network in a real-time, map-based, menu-driven environment.

  3. A low-cost wireless system for autonomous generation of road safety alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, B.; Harms, T.; Sedigh Sarvestani, S.; Bastianini, F.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an autonomous wireless system that generates road safety alerts, in the form of SMS and email messages, and sends them to motorists subscribed to the service. Drivers who regularly traverse a particular route are the main beneficiaries of the proposed system, which is intended for sparsely populated rural areas, where information available to drivers about road safety, especially bridge conditions, is very limited. At the heart of this system is the SmartBrick, a wireless system for remote structural health monitoring that has been presented in our previous work. Sensors on the SmartBrick network regularly collect data on water level, temperature, strain, and other parameters important to safety of a bridge. This information is stored on the device, and reported to a remote server over the GSM cellular infrastructure. The system generates alerts indicating hazardous road conditions when the data exceeds thresholds that can be remotely changed. The remote server and any number of designated authorities can be notified by email, FTP, and SMS. Drivers can view road conditions and subscribe to SMS and/or email alerts through a web page. The subscription-only form of alert generation has been deliberately selected to mitigate privacy concerns. The proposed system can significantly increase the safety of travel through rural areas. Real-time availability of information to transportation authorities and law enforcement officials facilitates early or proactive reaction to road hazards. Direct notification of drivers further increases the utility of the system in increasing the safety of the traveling public.

  4. Developing Concurrency Messages for the Black Community in Seattle, Washington

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Caitlin Hughes; Clad, Rachel; Murray, Kate; Foster, Jennifer; Morris, Martina; Parks, Malcolm R.; Kurth, Ann Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, Blacks are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS. Sexual networks and concurrent relationships have emerged as important contributors to the heterosexual transmission of HIV. To date, Africa is the only continent where an understanding of the impact of sexual concurrency has been conveyed in HIV prevention messaging. This project was developed by researchers and members of the Seattle, WA African American and African-Born communities, using the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Interest in developing concurrency messaging came from the community and resulted in the successful submission of a community-academic partnership proposal to develop and disseminate HIV prevention messaging around concurrency. We describe: (a) the development of concurrency messaging through the integration of collected formative data and findings from the scientific literature; (b) the process of disseminating the message in the local Black community; and (c) important factors to consider in the development of similar campaigns. PMID:23206202

  5. Developing concurrency messages for the black community in Seattle, Washington.

    PubMed

    Andrasik, Michele Peake; Chapman, Caitlin Hughes; Clad, Rachel; Murray, Kate; Foster, Jennifer; Morris, Martina; Parks, Malcolm R; Kurth, Ann Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, Blacks are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS. Sexual networks and concurrent relationships have emerged as important contributors to the heterosexual transmission of HIV. To date, Africa is the only continent where an understanding of the impact of sexual concurrency has been conveyed in HIV prevention messaging. This project was developed by researchers and members of the Seattle, Washington, African American and African-Born communities, using the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Interest in developing concurrency messaging came from the community and resulted in the successful submission of a community-academic partnership proposal to develop and disseminate HIV prevention messaging around concurrency. The authors describe (a) the development of concurrency messaging through the integration of collected formative data and findings from the scientific literature; (b) the process of disseminating the message in the local Black community; and (c) important factors to consider in the development of similar campaigns.

  6. Patient-Physician Web Messaging

    PubMed Central

    Liederman, Eric M; Lee, Jerry C; Baquero, Victor H; Seites, Paul G

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients want electronic access to providers. Providers fear being overwhelmed by unreimbursed messages. OBJECTIVE Measure the effects of patient-physician web messaging on primary care practices. DESIGN/SETTING Retrospective analysis of 6 case and 9 control internal medicine (IM) and family practice (FP) physicians' message volume, and a survey of 5,971 patients' web messaging with 267 providers and staff in 16 community primary care clinics in the Sacramento, CA region. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Case telephone volume was 18.2% lower (P =.002) and fell 6.50 times faster than control. Case total telephone plus web message volume was 13.7% lower (P =.025) and fell 5.84 times faster than control. Surveys were responded to by 40.3% (1,743/4,320) of patients and 61.4% (164/267) of providers and staff. Patients were overwhelmingly satisfied and providers and staff were generally satisfied; both found the system easy to use. Patient satisfaction correlated strongly with provider response time (Γ=0.557), and provider/staff satisfaction with computer skills (Γ=0.626) (Goodman-Kruskal Gamma [Γ] measure of ordinal association). CONCLUSIONS Secure web messaging improves on e-mail with encryption, access controls, message templates, customized message and prescription routing, knowledge content, and reimbursement. Further study is needed to determine whether reducing telephone traffic through the use of web messaging decreases provider interruptions and increases clinical efficiency during the workday. Satisfaction with web messaging may increase patient retention. PMID:15693928

  7. Mitigating Psychological Reactance: The Role of Message-Induced Empathy in Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of message-induced state empathy in persuasion. Message-induced empathy is conceptualized as a perception-action process that consists of affective, cognitive, and associative components. Twenty professionally produced public service announcements (PSAs) were used as stimuli messages in a 2 (high vs. low empathy) x 2…

  8. Extracting hidden messages in steganographic images

    SciTech Connect

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2014-07-17

    The eventual goal of steganalytic forensic is to extract the hidden messages embedded in steganographic images. A promising technique that addresses this problem partially is steganographic payload location, an approach to reveal the message bits, but not their logical order. It works by finding modified pixels, or residuals, as an artifact of the embedding process. This technique is successful against simple least-significant bit steganography and group-parity steganography. The actual messages, however, remain hidden as no logical order can be inferred from the located payload. This paper establishes an important result addressing this shortcoming: we show that the expected mean residuals contain enough information to logically order the located payload provided that the size of the payload in each stego image is not fixed. The located payload can be ordered as prescribed by the mean residuals to obtain the hidden messages without knowledge of the embedding key, exposing the vulnerability of these embedding algorithms. We provide experimental results to support our analysis.

  9. Extracting hidden messages in steganographic images

    DOE PAGES

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2014-07-17

    The eventual goal of steganalytic forensic is to extract the hidden messages embedded in steganographic images. A promising technique that addresses this problem partially is steganographic payload location, an approach to reveal the message bits, but not their logical order. It works by finding modified pixels, or residuals, as an artifact of the embedding process. This technique is successful against simple least-significant bit steganography and group-parity steganography. The actual messages, however, remain hidden as no logical order can be inferred from the located payload. This paper establishes an important result addressing this shortcoming: we show that the expected mean residualsmore » contain enough information to logically order the located payload provided that the size of the payload in each stego image is not fixed. The located payload can be ordered as prescribed by the mean residuals to obtain the hidden messages without knowledge of the embedding key, exposing the vulnerability of these embedding algorithms. We provide experimental results to support our analysis.« less

  10. Home telemental health implementation and outcomes using electronic messaging.

    PubMed

    Godleski, Linda; Cervone, Dana; Vogel, Donna; Rooney, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the VA Connecticut Healthcare System began a home electronic messaging programme for mental health patients. During the first two years, 76 patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, post traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance-use disorders received a home messaging device, which was connected via an ordinary telephone line. There were daily questions, which were based on disease management protocols, and included alerts, data and educational components. Patient data were sent to a nurse practitioner each day for triage and follow-up. Patients used the device for at least six months. In the six months prior to enrolment, 42 patients were hospitalized for 46 admissions. In the following six months, six patients were hospitalized for nine admissions (P < 0.0001). In the six months prior to enrolment, 47 patients had a total of 80 ER visits. In the following six months, 16 patients had a total of 32 ER visits (P < 0.0001). Questionnaire responses indicated a high level of satisfaction with the home messaging programme.

  11. De-alerting of U.S. nuclear forces: a critical appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K C; Barish, F

    1998-08-21

    Since the end of the Cold War, there have been pressures by disarmament advocates to move more quickly to draw down, toward zero, the number of nuclear weapons in U.S. and Russian arsenals. They criticize the process of negotiating arms control agreements as being too slow, and point out that treaty implementation is hampered by the necessity of ratification by the U.S. Senate and Russian Duma. One method of moving more rapidly toward nuclear abolition suggested by some analysts is de-alerting of nuclear-weapon delivery systems. De-alerting is defined as taking steps that increase significantly the time required to launch a given delivery vehicle armed with a nuclear warhead. Although there is little inclination by the U.S. Government to de-alert its nuclear forces at present, some academic literature and press stories continue to advocate such steps. This paper offers a critique of de-alerting proposals together with an assessment of the dangers of accidental, unauthorized, or unintended use of nuclear weapons. It concludes that de-alerting nuclear forces would be extremely de-stabilizing, principally because it would increase the value to an opponent of launching a first strike.

  12. Presenting Multiple Drug Alerts in an Ambulatory Electronic Prescribing System

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, M.B.; Gregg, W.M.; Johnson, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective This study explores alternative approaches to the display of drug alerts, and examines whether and how human-factors based interface design can be used to improve the prescriber’s perception about drug alert presentation, signal detection from noisy alert data, and their comprehension of clinical decision support during electronic prescribing. Methods We reviewed issues with presenting multiple drug alerts in electronic prescribing systems. User-centered design, consisting of iterative usability and prototype testing was applied. After an iterative design phase, we proposed several novel drug alert presentation interfaces; expert evaluation and formal usability testing were applied to access physician prescribers’ perceptions of the tools. We mapped drug alert attributes to different interface constructs. We examined four different interfaces for presenting multiple drug alerts. Results A TreeDashboard View was better perceived than a text-based ScrollText View with respect to the ability to detect critical information, the ability to accomplish tasks, and the perceptional efficacy of finding information. Conclusion A robust model for studying multiple drug-alert presentations was developed. Several drug alert presentation interfaces were proposed. The TreeDashboard View was better perceived than the text-based ScrollText View in delivering multiple drug alerts during a simulation of electronic prescribing. PMID:25024753

  13. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  14. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals. PMID:26348816

  15. The message development tool: a case for effective operationalization of messaging in social marketing practice.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Marifran; Basu, Ambar

    2010-07-01

    That messages are essential, if not the most critical component of any communicative process, seems like an obvious claim. More so when the communication is about health--one of the most vital and elemental of human experiences (Babrow & Mattson, 2003). Any communication campaign that aims to change a target audience's health behaviors needs to centralize messages. Even though messaging strategies are an essential component of social marketing and are a widely used campaign model, health campaigns based on this framework have not always been able to effectively operationalize this key component, leading to cases where initiating and sustaining prescribed health behavior has been difficult (MacStravic, 2000). Based on an examination of the VERB campaign and an Australian breastfeeding promotion campaign, we propose a message development tool within the ambit of the social marketing framework that aims to extend the framework and ensure that the messaging component of the model is contextualized at the core of planning, implementation, and evaluation efforts. PMID:20706895

  16. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  17. An Approach for Representing Sensor Data to Validate Alerts in Ambient Assisted Living

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Andrés; Serrano, Emilio; Villa, Ana; Valdés, Mercedes; Botía, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    The mainstream of research in Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is devoted to developing intelligent systems for processing the data collected through artificial sensing. Besides, there are other elements that must be considered to foster the adoption of AAL solutions in real environments. In this paper we focus on the problem of designing interfaces among caregivers and AAL systems. We present an alert management tool that supports carers in their task of validating alarms raised by the system. It generates text-based explanations—obtained through an argumentation process—of the causes leading to alarm activation along with graphical sensor information and 3D models, thus offering complementary types of information. Moreover, a guideline to use the tool when validating alerts is also provided. Finally, the functionality of the proposed tool is demonstrated through two real cases of alert. PMID:22778642

  18. Physicians’ use of computerized clinical decision supports to improve medication management in the elderly – the Seniors Medication Alert and Review Technology intervention

    PubMed Central

    Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Wilson, Patricia; Sadowski, Cheryl A; Rolfson, Darryl; Ballermann, Mark; Ausford, Allen; Vermeer, Karla; Mohindra, Kunal; Romney, Jacques; Hayward, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Background Elderly people (aged 65 years or more) are at increased risk of polypharmacy (five or more medications), inappropriate medication use, and associated increased health care costs. The use of clinical decision support (CDS) within an electronic medical record (EMR) could improve medication safety. Methods Participatory action research methods were applied to preproduction design and development and postproduction optimization of an EMR-embedded CDS implementation of the Beers’ Criteria for medication management and the Cockcroft–Gault formula for estimating glomerular filtration rates (GFR). The “Seniors Medication Alert and Review Technologies” (SMART) intervention was used in primary care and geriatrics specialty clinics. Passive (chart messages) and active (order-entry alerts) prompts exposed potentially inappropriate medications, decreased GFR, and the possible need for medication adjustments. Physician reactions were assessed using surveys, EMR simulations, focus groups, and semi-structured interviews. EMR audit data were used to identify eligible patient encounters, the frequency of CDS events, how alerts were managed, and when evidence links were followed. Results Analysis of subjective data revealed that most clinicians agreed that CDS appeared at appropriate times during patient care. Although managing alerts incurred a modest time burden, most also agreed that workflow was not disrupted. Prevalent concerns related to clinician accountability and potential liability. Approximately 36% of eligible encounters triggered at least one SMART alert, with GFR alert, and most frequent medication warnings were with hypnotics and anticholinergics. Approximately 25% of alerts were overridden and ~15% elicited an evidence check. Conclusion While most SMART alerts validated clinician choices, they were received as valuable reminders for evidence-informed care and education. Data from this study may aid other attempts to implement Beers’ Criteria in

  19. Impact of Participatory Design for Drug-Drug Interaction Alerts. A Comparison Study Between Two Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Luna, Daniel; Otero, Carlos; Risk, Marcelo; Stanziola, Enrique; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán

    2016-01-01

    Decision support systems for alert drug-drug interactions have been shown as valid strategy to reduce medical error. Even so the use of these systems has not been as expected, probably due to the lack of a suitable design. This study compares two interfaces, one of them developed using participatory design techniques (based on user centered design processes). This work showed that the use of these techniques improves satisfaction, effectiveness and efficiency in an alert system for drug-drug interactions, a fact that was evident in specific situations such as the decrease of errors to meet the specified task, the time, the workload optimization and users overall satisfaction with the system.

  20. Post-crisis analysis of an ineffective tsunami alert: the 2010 earthquake in Maule, Chile.

    PubMed

    Soulé, Bastien

    2014-04-01

    Considering its huge magnitude and its location in a densely populated area of Chile, the Maule seism of 27 February 2010 generated a low amount of victims. However, post-seismic tsunamis were particularly devastating on that day; surprisingly, no full alert was launched, not at the national, regional or local level. This earthquake and associated tsunamis are of interest in the context of natural hazards management as well as crisis management planning. Instead of focusing exclusively on the event itself, this article places emphasis on the process, systems and long-term approach that led the tsunami alert mechanism to be ineffectual. Notably, this perspective reveals interrelated forerunner signs of vulnerability.

  1. Increasing available FIFO space to prevent messaging queue deadlocks in a DMA environment

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Chen, Dong; Gooding, Thomas; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeff

    2012-02-07

    Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate an interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.

  2. CAT: the INGV Tsunami Alert Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.

    2014-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the tsunami threat posed by large earthquakes occurring in the Mediterranean sea was formally taken into account by many countries around the Mediterranean basin. In the past, large earthquakes that originated significant tsunamis occurred nearly once per century (Maramai et al., 2014, Annals of Geophysics). The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO) received a mandate from the international community to coordinate the establishment of the ICG/NEAMTWS (http://neamtic.ioc-unesco.org) through Resolution IOC-XXIII-14. Since then, several countries (France, Turkey, Greece) have started operating as candidate Tsunami Watch Provider (cTWP) in the Mediterranean. Italy started operating as cTWP on October 1st, 2014. The Italian cTWP is formed by INGV ("Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)", DPC ("Dipartimento di Protezione Civile") and ISPRA ("Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale"). INGV is in charge of issuing the alert for potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes, ISPRA provides the sea level recordings and DPC is in charge of disseminating the alert. INGV established the tsunami alert center (CAT, "Centro di Allerta Tsunami") at the end of 2013. CAT is co-located with the INGV national seismic surveillance center operated since many years. In this work, we show the technical and personnel organization of CAT, its response to recent earthquakes, and the new procedures under development for implementation. (*) INGV-CAT WG: Amato A., Basili R., Bernardi F., Bono A., Danecek P., De Martini P.M., Govoni A., Graziani L., Lauciani V., Lomax, A., Lorito S., Maramai A., Mele F., Melini D., Molinari I., Nostro C., Piatanesi A., Pintore S., Quintiliani M., Romano F., Selva J., Selvaggi G., Sorrentino D., Tonini R.

  3. The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  4. Active messages versus explicit message passing under SUNMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Riesen, R.; Wheat, S.R.; Maccabe, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    In the past few years much effort has been devoted to finding faster and more convenient ways to exchange data between nodes of massively parallel distributed memory machines. One such approach, taken by Thorsten von Eicken et al. is called Active Messages. The idea is to hide message passing latency and continue to compute while data is being sent and delivered. The authors have implemented Active Messages under SUNMOS for the Intel Paragon and performed various experiments to determine their efficiency and utility. In this paper they concentrate on the subset of the Active Message layer that is used by the implementation of the Split-C library. They compare performance to explicit message passing under SUNMOS and explore new ways to support Split-C without Active Messages. They also compare the implementation to the original one on the Thinking Machines CM-5 and try to determine what the effects of low latency and low band-width versus high latency and high bandwidth are on user codes.

  5. ToxAlerts: a Web server of structural alerts for toxic chemicals and compounds with potential adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Sushko, Iurii; Salmina, Elena; Potemkin, Vladimir A; Poda, Gennadiy; Tetko, Igor V

    2012-08-27

    The article presents a Web-based platform for collecting and storing toxicological structural alerts from literature and for virtual screening of chemical libraries to flag potentially toxic chemicals and compounds that can cause adverse side effects. An alert is uniquely identified by a SMARTS template, a toxicological endpoint, and a publication where the alert was described. Additionally, the system allows storing complementary information such as name, comments, and mechanism of action, as well as other data. Most importantly, the platform can be easily used for fast virtual screening of large chemical datasets, focused libraries, or newly designed compounds against the toxicological alerts, providing a detailed profile of the chemicals grouped by structural alerts and endpoints. Such a facility can be used for decision making regarding whether a compound should be tested experimentally, validated with available QSAR models, or eliminated from consideration altogether. The alert-based screening can also be helpful for an easier interpretation of more complex QSAR models. The system is publicly accessible and tightly integrated with the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu). The system is open and expandable: any registered OCHEM user can introduce new alerts, browse, edit alerts introduced by other users, and virtually screen his/her data sets against all or selected alerts. The user sets being passed through the structural alerts can be used at OCHEM for other typical tasks: exporting in a wide variety of formats, development of QSAR models, additional filtering by other criteria, etc. The database already contains almost 600 structural alerts for such endpoints as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitization, compounds that undergo metabolic activation, and compounds that form reactive metabolites and, thus, can cause adverse reactions. The ToxAlerts platform is accessible on the Web at http://ochem.eu/alerts, and it is constantly

  6. ToxAlerts: A Web Server of Structural Alerts for Toxic Chemicals and Compounds with Potential Adverse Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a Web-based platform for collecting and storing toxicological structural alerts from literature and for virtual screening of chemical libraries to flag potentially toxic chemicals and compounds that can cause adverse side effects. An alert is uniquely identified by a SMARTS template, a toxicological endpoint, and a publication where the alert was described. Additionally, the system allows storing complementary information such as name, comments, and mechanism of action, as well as other data. Most importantly, the platform can be easily used for fast virtual screening of large chemical datasets, focused libraries, or newly designed compounds against the toxicological alerts, providing a detailed profile of the chemicals grouped by structural alerts and endpoints. Such a facility can be used for decision making regarding whether a compound should be tested experimentally, validated with available QSAR models, or eliminated from consideration altogether. The alert-based screening can also be helpful for an easier interpretation of more complex QSAR models. The system is publicly accessible and tightly integrated with the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu). The system is open and expandable: any registered OCHEM user can introduce new alerts, browse, edit alerts introduced by other users, and virtually screen his/her data sets against all or selected alerts. The user sets being passed through the structural alerts can be used at OCHEM for other typical tasks: exporting in a wide variety of formats, development of QSAR models, additional filtering by other criteria, etc. The database already contains almost 600 structural alerts for such endpoints as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitization, compounds that undergo metabolic activation, and compounds that form reactive metabolites and, thus, can cause adverse reactions. The ToxAlerts platform is accessible on the Web at http://ochem.eu/alerts, and it is constantly

  7. Priority nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness.

  8. Priority nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness. PMID:12284666

  9. A proposal for a user-level, message passing interface in a distributed memory environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Hempel, R. ); Hey, A.J.G. . Dept. of Electronics and Computer Science); Walker, D.W. )

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes Message Passing Interface 1 (MPI1), a proposed library interface standard for supporting point-to-point message passing. The intended standard will be provided with Fortran 77 and C interfaces, and will form the basis of a standard high level communication environment featuring collective communication and data distribution transformations. The standard proposed here provides blocking, nonblocking, and synchronized message passing between pairs of processes, with message selectivity by source process and message type. Provision is made for noncontiguous messages. Context control provides a convenient means of avoiding message selectivity conflicts between different phases of an application. The ability to form and manipulate process groups permits task parallelism to be exploited, and is a useful abstraction in controlling certain types of collective communication.

  10. Flood alert system based on bayesian techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliver, Z.; Herrero, J.; Viesca, C.; Polo, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of floods in the Mediterranean regions is closely linked to the occurrence of torrential storms in dry regions, where even the water supply relies on adequate water management. Like other Mediterranean basins in Southern Spain, the Guadalhorce River Basin is a medium sized watershed (3856 km2) where recurrent yearly floods occur , mainly in autumn and spring periods, driven by cold front phenomena. The torrential character of the precipitation in such small basins, with a concentration time of less than 12 hours, produces flash flood events with catastrophic effects over the city of Malaga (600000 inhabitants). From this fact arises the need for specific alert tools which can forecast these kinds of phenomena. Bayesian networks (BN) have been emerging in the last decade as a very useful and reliable computational tool for water resources and for the decision making process. The joint use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and BN have served us to recognize and simulate the two different types of hydrological behaviour in the basin: natural and regulated. This led to the establishment of causal relationships between precipitation, discharge from upstream reservoirs, and water levels at a gauging station. It was seen that a recurrent ANN model working at an hourly scale, considering daily precipitation and the two previous hourly values of reservoir discharge and water level, could provide R2 values of 0.86. BN's results slightly improve this fit, but contribute with uncertainty to the prediction. In our current work to Design a Weather Warning Service based on Bayesian techniques the first steps were carried out through an analysis of the correlations between the water level and rainfall at certain representative points in the basin, along with the upstream reservoir discharge. The lower correlation found between precipitation and water level emphasizes the highly regulated condition of the stream. The autocorrelations of the variables were also

  11. Temporal expectancy modulates phasic alerting in both detection and discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shena; Wang, Wei; Cai, Yongchun

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether phasic alerting might be modulated by temporal expectancy and to determine the processing stages at which this modulation might occur. We manipulated participants' expectancy for the target appearance by systematically varying the cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) distribution in both detection and discrimination tasks. There were three temporal expectancy conditions: the non-aging condition in which temporal expectancy was eliminated, the aging condition in which temporal expectancy increased as SOA increased, and the accelerated-aging condition in which temporal expectancy increased more dramatically as SOA increased than in the aging condition. We obtained the same pattern of results in both detection and discrimination tasks: the onset time of the alerting effect was postponed successively across the three temporal expectancy conditions. The present findings suggest that the time course of the alerting effect may be modulated by temporal expectancy, highlighting the importance of taking account into the influence of temporal expectancy in studies involving the time course of cognitive processes. Furthermore, since mechanisms underlying the detection and discrimination tasks may differ in early processing stages involving perceptual analysis and response selection, the same result pattern observed in both tasks is consistent with the hypothesis that the modulation of temporal expectancy on phasic alerting occurs at late processing stages involving motor preparation.

  12. Introduction to Message-Bus Architectures for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan; Gregory, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This course presents technical and programmatic information on the development of message-based architectures for space mission ground and flight software systems. Message-based architecture approaches provide many significant advantages over the more traditional socket-based one-of-a-kind integrated system development approaches. The course provides an overview of publish/subscribe concepts, the use of common isolation layer API's, approaches to message standardization, and other technical topics. Several examples of currently operational systems are discussed and possible changes to the system development process are presented. Benefits and lessons learned will be discussed and time for questions and answers will be provided.

  13. An Efficient, Scalable Content-Based Messaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Almquist, Justin P.; Cramer, Nick O.; Haack, Jereme N.; Hoza, Mark

    2003-09-16

    Large-scale information processing environments must rapidly search through massive streams of raw data to locate useful information. These data streams contain textual and numeric data items, and may be highly structured or mostly freeform text. This project aims to create a high performance and scalable engine for locating relevant content in data streams. Based on the J2EE Java Messaging Service (JMS), the content-based messaging (CBM) engine provides highly efficient message formatting and filtering. This paper describes the design of the CBM engine, and presents empirical results that compare the performance with a standard JMS to demonstrate the performance improvements that are achieved.

  14. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A

    2013-04-16

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer that includes: transmitting, by the logical root to all of the nodes directly connected to the logical root, a message; and for each node except the logical root: receiving the message; if that node is the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received; if that node received the message from a parent node and if that node is not a leaf node, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes; and if that node received the message from a child node and if that node is not the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received and transmitting the message to the parent node.

  15. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Daniel A

    2014-11-18

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer that includes: transmitting, by the logical root to all of the nodes directly connected to the logical root, a message; and for each node except the logical root: receiving the message; if that node is the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received; if that node received the message from a parent node and if that node is not a leaf node, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes; and if that node received the message from a child node and if that node is not the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received and transmitting the message to the parent node.

  16. Message-passing multiprocessor simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.

    1986-05-01

    The structure and use of a message-passing multiprocessor simulator are described. The simulator provides a multitasking environment for the development of algorithms for parallel processors using either shared or local memories. The simulator may be used from C or FORTRAN and provides a library of subroutines for task control and message passing. The simulator produces a trace file that can be used for debugging, performance analysis, or graphical display. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Source entitativity and the elaboration of persuasive messages: the roles of perceived efficacy and message discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Wegener, Duane T

    2009-07-01

    Compared with nonentitative groups, entitative targets are considered to elicit more elaborative processing because of the singularity or unity they represent. However, when groups serve as sources of persuasive messages, other dynamics may operate. The current research suggests that entitativity is intrinsically linked to perceptions of a group's efficacy related to the advocacy, and this efficacy combines with the position of the appeal to determine message elaboration. When messages are counterattitudinal, entitative (efficacious) sources should elicit greater processing than nonentitative groups because of concern that the entitative sources may be more likely to bring about the negative outcomes proposed. However, when appeals are proattitudinal, sources low in entitativity (nonefficacious) should initiate more elaboration due to concern that they may be unlikely to facilitate the positive outcomes proposed. These hypotheses were supported in a series of studies. Preliminary studies established the entitativity-efficacy relation (Studies 1A and 1B). Primary persuasion studies showed that manipulations of source entitativity (Studies 2 and 3) and source efficacy (Studies 4A and 4B) have opposite effects on processing as a function of message discrepancy.

  18. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John

    1997-01-01

    Instances of pilot non-conformance to alerting system commands have been identified in previous studies. Pilot non-conformance changes the final behavior of the system, and therefore may reduce actual performance from that anticipated. A simulator study has examined pilot non-conformance, using the task of collision avoidance during closely spaced parallel approaches as a case study. Consonance between the display and the alerting system was found to significantly improve subject agreement with automatic alerts. Based on these results, a more general discussion of the factors involved in pilot conformance is given, and design guidelines for alerting systems are given.

  19. Integration of electronic patient record context with message context.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Etienne; Bangels, Marc; France, Francis Roger

    2004-01-01

    A methodology to construct specific messages with clear objectives inside clinical processes, while simultaneously including contextual information, remains a problem today. This paper addresses the issue of combining specific message context (process driven) with the context of a patient record (patient centered). In Belgium, simplified conceptual models for Electronic Patient Record (EPR) architecture and for message architecture, based on previous comprehensive and international work, have been produced, validated and mapped into an integrated message format. The resulting model described in this paper highlights the main conceptual links between both basic models: at the action level and at the Transaction level. Using XML, some parts of the model have already been implemented in various national projects. Key lessons learned may be imported at the international level. PMID:15360968

  20. Effects of 10 h time zone changes on female flight attendants' circadian rhythms of body temperature, alertness, and visual search.

    PubMed

    Suvanto, S; Härmä, M; Ilmarinen, J; Partinen, M

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of rapid time zone changes on the circadian rhythms of flight attendants. The mean age of the 40 female subjects was 30.0 (SD = 6.9) years. Measurements of oral temperature, alertness, and visual search were performed at two hour intervals two days before the flight from Helsinki to Los Angeles, during the second and the fourth day in the USA and during the second and fourth day after the return flight to Finland. The body temperature desynchronized and the phases of the alertness and visual search rhythms shifted rapidly in the USA. After the return flight, the acrophases of the circadian rhythms delayed during the second and fourth day in Finland. During the fourth day the acrophase of alertness was 35 min and the acrophases of body temperature and visual search were 2 h 2 min and 3 h 8 min delayed, respectively. The mathematical model based on the C-, S- and W-process theory of alertness explained 25-96% of the variation of observed mean alertness of the subjects in different conditions. It is concluded that the duration of the de- and resynchronization process of the flight attendants' circadian rhythms is on the average longer than 9 days during and after round flights over ten time zones. The mean alertness of the subject can be predicted with considerable accuracy using the mathematical model.

  1. Mobile text messaging solutions for obesity prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak

    2011-02-01

    Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.

  2. Real Time View of the Functions and Services of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Cuellar Martinez, A.; Inostroza Puk, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) is integrated since March 2012 by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO) that started its services in 2003. SASMEX consists of 97 field seismic sensor station (FS) type triaxial accelerometer, mostly sponsored by the government of Mexico City and secondly by Oaxaca. The SASMEX covers the Pacific seismic hazard among the coast of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca; and the seismic region of Puebla and northern Oaxaca and Guerrero states. This integration lets to warn with better opportunity to the population of Mexico City, Oaxaca Oax., Acapulco Gro., Chilpancingo Gro. and recently Morelia Mich.; cities with a system called EASAS where receives seismic data from FS and emits earthquake early warning signals to the population. The recent sponsorship of Federal Government through the General Coordination of Civil Protection and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, reinforced integration SAS and SASO, and auspiced the development of a Real-Time Monitoring System of functions and services of SASMEX. This work show how is displayed the functions of services of SASMEX through this monitoring system and its possible application by Civil Protection authorities. This monitoring system can indicate the status of FS, the communications system and cities with EASAS. Additionally, when an earthquake occurs and is detected by the SASMEX, the monitoring system shows the messages of FS, whose consist in the characteristics of detection and seismic danger forecasted; in the case of a strong earthquake estimated by more than one FS, the EASAS of each city could automatically issue an Alert Public to its population. The monitoring system allows observing cities with EASAS that activate their alerts, displays a basic earthquake propagation model and how it reaches to other FS. Additionally, the monitoring system shows the

  3. Mission Services Evolution Center Message Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayorga, Arturo; Bristow, John O.; Butschky, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) Message Bus is a robust, lightweight, fault-tolerant middleware implementation that supports all messaging capabilities of the GMSEC API. This architecture is a distributed software system that routes messages based on message subject names and knowledge of the locations in the network of the interested software components.

  4. Using Text Messages to Communicate with Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konshak, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Text messaging is an ideal communications method for libraries, which often want to send short, concise messages to their patrons near and far. Uses for text messaging in libraries include reminders about items' due dates, hold pickup notices, program reminders, and even short messages of content. Some libraries are already using text messaging…

  5. Real Time Flood Alert System (RTFAS) for Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez-Trujillo, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The Real Time Flood Alert System is a web-based computer program, developed as a data integration tool, and designed to increase the ability of emergency managers to rapidly and accurately predict flooding conditions of streams in Puerto Rico. The system includes software and a relational database to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, water levels in streams and reservoirs, and associated storms to determine hazardous and potential flood conditions. The computer program was developed as part of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey Caribbean Water Science Center and the Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency, and integrates information collected and processed by these two agencies and the National Weather Service.

  6. Optogenetic Activation of Normalization in Alert Macaque Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Avery, Michael C; Cetin, Ali H; Roe, Anna W; Reynolds, John H

    2015-06-17

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation that accounts for a variety of nonlinear neuronal response properties associated with sensory processing and higher cognitive functions. A key premise of normalization is that the excitability of a neuron is inversely proportional to the overall activity level of the network. We tested this by optogenetically activating excitatory neurons in alert macaque primary visual cortex and measuring changes in neuronal activity as a function of stimulation intensity, with or without variable-contrast visual stimulation. Optogenetic depolarization of excitatory neurons either facilitated or suppressed baseline activity, consistent with indirect recruitment of inhibitory networks. As predicted by the normalization model, neurons exhibited sub-additive responses to optogenetic and visual stimulation, which depended lawfully on stimulation intensity and luminance contrast. We conclude that the normalization computation persists even under the artificial conditions of optogenetic stimulation, underscoring the canonical nature of this form of neural computation.

  7. Generalized random sign and alert delay models for imperfect maintenance.

    PubMed

    Dijoux, Yann; Gaudoin, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    This paper considers the modelling of the process of Corrective and condition-based Preventive Maintenance, for complex repairable systems. In order to take into account the dependency between both types of maintenance and the possibility of imperfect maintenance, Generalized Competing Risks models have been introduced in "Doyen and Gaudoin (J Appl Probab 43:825-839, 2006)". In this paper, we study two classes of these models, the Generalized Random Sign and Generalized Alert Delay models. A Generalized Competing Risks model can be built as a generalization of a particular Usual Competing Risks model, either by using a virtual age framework or not. The models properties are studied and their parameterizations are discussed. Finally, simulation results and an application to real data are presented.

  8. Optogenetic Activation of Normalization in Alert Macaque Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Avery, Michael C; Cetin, Ali H; Roe, Anna W; Reynolds, John H

    2015-06-17

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation that accounts for a variety of nonlinear neuronal response properties associated with sensory processing and higher cognitive functions. A key premise of normalization is that the excitability of a neuron is inversely proportional to the overall activity level of the network. We tested this by optogenetically activating excitatory neurons in alert macaque primary visual cortex and measuring changes in neuronal activity as a function of stimulation intensity, with or without variable-contrast visual stimulation. Optogenetic depolarization of excitatory neurons either facilitated or suppressed baseline activity, consistent with indirect recruitment of inhibitory networks. As predicted by the normalization model, neurons exhibited sub-additive responses to optogenetic and visual stimulation, which depended lawfully on stimulation intensity and luminance contrast. We conclude that the normalization computation persists even under the artificial conditions of optogenetic stimulation, underscoring the canonical nature of this form of neural computation. PMID:26087167

  9. Generalized random sign and alert delay models for imperfect maintenance.

    PubMed

    Dijoux, Yann; Gaudoin, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    This paper considers the modelling of the process of Corrective and condition-based Preventive Maintenance, for complex repairable systems. In order to take into account the dependency between both types of maintenance and the possibility of imperfect maintenance, Generalized Competing Risks models have been introduced in "Doyen and Gaudoin (J Appl Probab 43:825-839, 2006)". In this paper, we study two classes of these models, the Generalized Random Sign and Generalized Alert Delay models. A Generalized Competing Risks model can be built as a generalization of a particular Usual Competing Risks model, either by using a virtual age framework or not. The models properties are studied and their parameterizations are discussed. Finally, simulation results and an application to real data are presented. PMID:23460491

  10. NAPS as an Alertness Management Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Smith, Roy M.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Gander, Philippa H.; Lebacqz, J. Victor

    2001-01-01

    Today, 24-hour operations are necessary to meet the demands of our society and the requirements of our industrialized global economy. These around-the-clock demands pose unique physiological challenges for the humans who remain central to safe and productive operations. Optimal alertness and performance are critical factors that are increasingly challenged by unusual, extended, or changing work/rest schedules. Technological advancements and automated systems can exacerbate the challenges faced by the human factor in these environments. Shift work, transportation demands, and continuous operations engender sleep loss and circadian disruption. Both of these physiological factors can lead to increased sleepiness, decreased performance, and a reduced margin of safety. These factors can increase vulnerability to incidents and accidents in operational settings. The consequences can have both societal effects (e.g., major destructive accidents such as Three Mile Island, Exxon Valdez, Bhopal) and personal effects (e.g., an accident driving home after a night shift).

  11. Good "Geofences" Make Good Neighbors in Age of Mobile Alerts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Jim

    2013-01-01

    For every institution of higher education, the safety and protection of its campus community is of primary importance. Recent events have shown an increase in campus crime, assaults and even a tragic loss of life. Apps such as Ping4alerts! allow campuses to send hyperlocal smartphone alerts related to public safety, school closings, local events,…

  12. 76 FR 80780 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Third FNPRM), 76 FR 35810-01, June 20, 2011, in this docket sufficiently... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Alert System (EAS) rules to extend the deadline for EAS Participants to be able to receive...

  13. Silver Alerts and the Problem of Missing Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Dawn; Muschert, Glenn W.; Kinney, Jennifer; Robbins, Emily; Petonito, Gina; Manning, Lydia; Brown, J. Scott

    2010-01-01

    In the months following the introduction of the National AMBER (America's Missing: Broadcast Emergency Response) Alert plan used to locate missing and abducted children, Silver Alert programs began to emerge. These programs use the same infrastructure and approach to find a different missing population, cognitively impaired older adults. By late…

  14. State Shortfalls Projected to Continue Despite Economic Gains. Policy Alert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    This Policy Alert updates a 1999 report by Harold Hovey, State Spending for Higher Education in the Next Decade: The Battle to Sustain Current Support, and two earlier Policy Alerts: State Shortfalls Projected Despite Current Fiscal Prosperity (February 2000) and State Shortfalls Projected Throughout the Decade (February 2003), all available at…

  15. Peak Alert Time and Rapport between Residence Hall Roommates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether peak alert time is related to compatibility for college roommates. Data from 66 male pairs and from 55 female pairs of roommates revealed that pairs who were similar on self-reported peak circadian alertness had higher levels of rapport. (Author/NB)

  16. R&D Alert. Volume 7, Number 1, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Noel, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "R&D Alert" covers issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's four-state region--Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah--and throughout the United States. WestEd researchers and assistance providers have been focused on secondary education for many years. This issue of "R&D Alert" goes beyond describing the problem…

  17. An Evaluation of Alert Services: Quantity versus Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandian, Fatemeh; Riahinia, Nosrat; Azimi, Ali; Poursalehi, Nastaran

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Online information vendors currently offer a variety of additional services; among these are alert services which present requested information on recent publications to registered users. This paper aims to investigate a variety of alert services provided by four online information vendors. Design/methodology/approach: A comparison of the…

  18. 12 CFR 1022.121 - Active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Active duty alerts. 1022.121 Section 1022.121 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.121 Active duty alerts. (a) Duration....

  19. 12 CFR 1022.121 - Active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Active duty alerts. 1022.121 Section 1022.121 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.121 Active duty alerts. (a) Duration....

  20. 12 CFR 1022.121 - Active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Active duty alerts. 1022.121 Section 1022.121 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Consumer Reporting Agencies Regarding Identity Theft § 1022.121 Active duty alerts. (a) Duration....

  1. Formative Research regarding Kidney Disease Health Information in a Latino American Sample: Associations among Message Frame, Threat, Efficacy, Message Effectiveness, and Behavioral Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Katheryn C.; Gardner, Jay; Sopory, Pradeep; Jian, Guowei; Roach, Marcia; Amschlinger, Joe; Moreno, Marcia; Pettey, Gary; Piccone, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Using prospect theory and the extended parallel process model, this study examined the effect of gain/loss message framing on perceptions of severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self efficacy (derived from the extended parallel process model), as well as perception of message effectiveness and behavioral intention in a community based…

  2. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do experience and information influence responses to alert services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and behavioural patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence on Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in-depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via short message service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated as well as flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for implementation. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  3. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  4. Formal Analysis of Message Passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Stephen F.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    The message passing paradigm underlies many important families of programs - for instance programs in the area of high performance computing that support science and engineering research. Unfortunately, very few formal methods researchers are involved in developing formal analysis tools and techniques for message passing programs. This paper summarizes research being done in our groups in support of this area, specifically with respect to the Message Passing Interface. We emphasize the need for specialized varieties of many familiar notions such as deadlock detection, race analysis, symmetry analysis, partial order reduction, static analysis and symbolic reasoning support. Since these issues are harbingers of those being faced in multicore programming, the time is ripe to build a critical mass of researchers working in this area.

  5. Parallel algorithms for message decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, S.H.; Wang, B.

    1987-06-01

    The authors consider the deterministic and random parallel complexity (time and processor) of message decoding: an essential problem in communications systems and translation systems. They present an optimal parallel algorithm to decompose prefix-coded messages and uniquely decipherable-coded messages in O(n/P) time, using O(P) processors (for all P:1 less than or equal toPless than or equal ton/log n) deterministically as well as randomly on the weakest version of parallel random access machines in which concurrent read and concurrent write to a cell in the common memory are not allowed. This is done by reducing decoding to parallel finite-state automata simulation and the prefix sums.

  6. Persuasive communication about AIDS prevention: need for cognition determines the impact of message format.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B

    1999-04-01

    Adolescents were classified as being high or low in need for cognition (NFC) (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) and expressed their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes toward condom use, and perceived supportive norms after being exposed to a cartoon or a written message about safe sex. Both messages have a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. Theoretically interesting is the finding that the cartoon message is more effective in bringing about change in attitudes and subjective norms than the written message for low-NFC adolescents, and that the written message is more effective than the cartoon message for high-NFC adolescents. These results are consistent with the theory-based prediction that a persuasive communication will be most effective when the format of the message is tailored to people's information-processing proclivities. The practical implications of the findings for AIDS education are discussed.

  7. Persuasive communication about AIDS prevention: need for cognition determines the impact of message format.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B

    1999-04-01

    Adolescents were classified as being high or low in need for cognition (NFC) (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) and expressed their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes toward condom use, and perceived supportive norms after being exposed to a cartoon or a written message about safe sex. Both messages have a positive impact on knowledge and attitudes. Theoretically interesting is the finding that the cartoon message is more effective in bringing about change in attitudes and subjective norms than the written message for low-NFC adolescents, and that the written message is more effective than the cartoon message for high-NFC adolescents. These results are consistent with the theory-based prediction that a persuasive communication will be most effective when the format of the message is tailored to people's information-processing proclivities. The practical implications of the findings for AIDS education are discussed. PMID:10214498

  8. Public Release of Estimated Impact-Based Earthquake Alerts - An Update to the U.S. Geological Survey PAGER System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, D. J.; Jaiswal, K. S.; Marano, K.; Hearne, M.; Earle, P. S.; So, E.; Garcia, D.; Hayes, G. P.; Mathias, S.; Applegate, D.; Bausch, D.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has begun publicly releasing earthquake alerts for significant earthquakes around the globe based on estimates of potential casualties and economic losses. These estimates should significantly enhance the utility of the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system that has been providing estimated ShakeMaps and computing population exposures to specific shaking intensities since 2007. Quantifying earthquake impacts and communicating loss estimates (and their uncertainties) to the public has been the culmination of several important new and evolving components of the system. First, the operational PAGER system now relies on empirically-based loss models that account for estimated shaking hazard, population exposure, and employ country-specific fatality and economic loss functions derived using analyses of losses due to recent and past earthquakes. In some countries, our empirical loss models are informed in part by PAGER’s semi-empirical and analytical loss models, and building exposure and vulnerability data sets, all of which are being developed in parallel to the empirical approach. Second, human and economic loss information is now portrayed as a supplement to existing intensity/exposure content on both PAGER summary alert (available via cell phone/email) messages and web pages. Loss calculations also include estimates of the economic impact with respect to the country’s gross domestic product. Third, in order to facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake responses based on our probable loss estimates, in early 2010 we proposed a four-level Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS). Instead of simply issuing median estimates for losses—which can be easily misunderstood and misused—this scale provides ranges of losses from which potential responders can gauge expected overall impact from strong shaking. EIS is based on two complementary criteria: the estimated cost of damage, which is most suitable for U

  9. CISN ShakeAlert: Progress Toward Using Early Warnings for Earthquakes in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, M.; Allen, R. M.; Brown, H.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Khainovsky, O.; Cisn Earthquake Early Warning Team

    2010-12-01

    In California, the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is now developing and implementing components of a prototype system for earthquake early warning, the ShakeAlert system. As this processing system is implemented, we invite a suite of perspective users from critical industries and institutions throughout California to partner with us in developing useful ShakeAlert procedures and products. At the same time, we will support their efforts to determine and implement appropriate responses to alerts of expected earthquake shaking. In Northern California, our partnership with the Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) has progressed farthest, although we have initiated discussions with the Red Cross of Alameda County and various agencies in the City of San Francisco. Our collaboration with BART has begun with a basic system transmitting realtime ground shaking information from more than 150 seismic stations operating in the San Francisco Bay Area to BART's operation center, where they are displayed. BART engineers are developing a way to interface this information with the train operating system, so that the trains can automatically slow and stop if the shaking is strong. We will continue this collaboration to include more sophisticated information from the prototype CISN ShakeAlert system.

  10. Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Cernohous, Bob R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-11-11

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a PAMI of a parallel computer is disclosed. The PAMI is composed of data communications endpoints, each including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications through the PAMI. The parallel application establishes a data communications geometry specifying a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI by associating with the geometry a list of collective algorithms valid for use with the endpoints of the geometry; registering in each endpoint in the geometry a dispatch callback function for a collective operation; and executing without blocking, through a single one of the endpoints in the geometry, an instruction for the collective operation.

  11. The Media and the Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)

  12. Re: Design Changing the Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  13. Campus Signs: Delivering the Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses campus signage and the image it gives to visitors about the institution itself, as well as ways to evaluate existing sign systems to determine whether they are properly conveying the messages intended. How design, graphics, colors, logos, fabrication, and locations support the principal function of signs, not detract from them, are…

  14. Gaia Science Alerts: Early Validation Phase Data from Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Nicholas; Hodgkin, Simon; van Leeuwen, Floor

    2015-08-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite launched Dec 2013, and after successful completion of its in orbit commissioning in July 2014, begun routine operations, with the aim to accurately measure the astrometric and astrophysical properties of more than a billion stars in our Milky Way.As a significant by product of its observational scanning law, where each point on the sky is observed multiple times (~80 revisits on average) over the nominal 5 year mission, Gaia has significant utility in detecting new transients, both flux (e.g. Supernovae, Flare stars) and positional (e.g. Asteroids).We will present the current status of the Gaia Photometric Science Alerts (PSA) system that has been developed within the Gaia DPAC. The PSA pipeline provides a quick look analysis of the daily data stream from Gaia, and identifies new photometric alerts, from analysis of the object photometric and the low resolution spectro-photometric data. Via a set of filters, those identified as astrophysical in nature, are published to the community. The information provided currently includes positional and flux information.The Gaia Alerts working group has organised a significant early stage followup campaign, providing access to a wide variety of followup facilities. These have been used to provide classification spectra of the Gaia alert candidates, with the early phase data confirming that the alerts issued are indeed largely astrophysical transients, with only a small contamination rate.The presentation will address the early phase issues that have been addressed in localising and classifying alerts in the early phase of Gaia observations (for instance, how lack of early knowledge of the sky as seen by Gaia was mitigated by reference to external image data), and how the alert rate published by the PSA will ramp up towards the end of 2015, with the availability of more Gaia sky data.Information concerning the Gaia alerts system can be found at http://gaia.ac.uk/selected-gaia-science-alerts

  15. OTF Proof of Concept: CCSDS Mission Operations Alert Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walt; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Use of multiple vendor frameworks within a component creates thread lockups and fragility conflicts over the control of the main thread. Avoid closed vendor messaging frameworks. The MAL layer does isolate the data elements from the messaging framework but application work dispatch is heavily dominated by the framework chosen. API Language is a major factor in implementation. Message APIs with timeouts seem unavoidable in some environments (GUI). Language environment needs to support callbacks (or threads) from the messaging framework to deal with pub/sub management messages and status. Statusing of application communications demand a local broker agent per physical system or else the use of the AMSstyle registrar heartbeat.

  16. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological

  17. Remote monitoring and security alert based on motion detection using mobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganya Devi, K.; Srinivasan, P.

    2016-03-01

    Background model does not have any robust solution and constitutes one of the main problems in surveillance systems. The aim of the paper is to provide a mobile based security to a remote monitoring system through a WAP using GSM modem. It is most designed to provide durability and versatility for a wide variety of indoor and outdoor applications. It is compatible with both narrow and band networks and provides simultaneous image detection. The communicator provides remote control, event driven recording, including pre-alarm and post-alarm and image motion detection. The web cam allowing them to be mounted either to a ceiling or wall without requiring bracket, with the use of web cam. We could continuously monitoring status in the client system through the web. If any intruder arrives in the client system, server will provide an alert to the mobile (what we are set in the message that message send to the authorized person) and the client can view the image using WAP.

  18. Gene-network inference by message passing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, A.; Pagnani, A.; Weigt, M.; Zecchina, R.

    2008-01-01

    The inference of gene-regulatory processes from gene-expression data belongs to the major challenges of computational systems biology. Here we address the problem from a statistical-physics perspective and develop a message-passing algorithm which is able to infer sparse, directed and combinatorial regulatory mechanisms. Using the replica technique, the algorithmic performance can be characterized analytically for artificially generated data. The algorithm is applied to genome-wide expression data of baker's yeast under various environmental conditions. We find clear cases of combinatorial control, and enrichment in common functional annotations of regulated genes and their regulators.

  19. Predicting the operations alert levels for dengue surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Kameshwaran; Dayama, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Operations alert level is a discrete measure that quantifies the severity of epidemic outbreak with respect to operational measures. The alert levels are ordered based on the amount of response operations required. In this paper, we develop multi-class classification models based on ordinal multinomial logistic regression for predicting the alert levels for dengue at twenty weeks in advance. The regression uses the dynamic lag non-linear models to account for the non-linearity of the dengue incidence, along with its lagged values. The performance of the models is tested for the dengue case count data of Singapore.

  20. The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, John S.; Drury, Patrick; Arthur, Ray R.; Ryan, Michael J.; Grein, Thomas; Slattery, Raphael; Suri, Sameera; Domingo, Christine Tiffany; Bejtullahu, Armand

    2014-01-01

    The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was established in 2000 as a network of technical institutions, research institutes, universities, international health organisations and technical networks willing to contribute and participate in internationally coordinated responses to infectious disease outbreaks. It reflected a recognition of the need to strengthen and coordinate rapid mobilisation of experts in responding to international outbreaks and to overcome the sometimes chaotic and fragmented operations characterising previous responses. The network partners agreed that the World Health Organization would coordinate the network and provide a secretariat, which would also function as the operational support team. The network has evolved to comprise 153 institutions/technical partners and 37 additional networks, the latter encompassing a further 355 members and has been directly involved in 137 missions to 79 countries, territories or areas. Future challenges will include supporting countries to achieve the capacity to detect and respond to outbreaks of international concern, as required by the International Health Regulations (2005). GOARN's increasing regional focus and expanding geographic composition will be central to meeting these challenges. The paper summarises some of network's achievements over the past 13 years and presents some of the future challenges. PMID:25186571

  1. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  2. A digital simulation of message traffic for natural disaster warning communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Various types of weather communications are required to alert industries and the general public about the impending occurrence of tornados, hurricanes, snowstorms, floods, etc. A natural disaster warning satellite system has been proposed for meeting the communications requirements of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Message traffic for a communications satellite was simulated with a digital computer in order to determine the number of communications channels to meet system requirements. Poisson inputs are used for arrivals and an exponential distribution is used for service.

  3. Framing health messages based on anomalies in time preference.

    PubMed

    Ortendahl, Monica; Fries, James F

    2005-08-01

    Time discounting processes and their effects are increasingly taken into account in health-related decisions. Because these effects have a potentially large impact the characteristics of discounting should also be taken into consideration when framing health messages. Research on the relationship between time and health is discussed with a special focus on discounting biases. The criteria for selection of articles were potential practical application when formulating health messages. Time discounting processes vary with individuals and contexts. Therefore, no single model is expected to describe discounting processes completely. Discounting biases appear more prevalent in health decisions than in economic decisions, even when health and monetary outcomes are matched for utility. Research on decision-making under conditions of uncertainty has documented numerous anomalies of expected utility. Analysis on the anomalies related to intertemporal choice and discounted utility (DU) include the magnitude effect, dynamic inconsistency effect, instant endowment, status quo bias, and sequence effect. Discounting biases in the formulation of preventive health messages are important. The desire for behavioral change in these programs would benefit from considering the psychological factor of discounting. Framing health messages in terms of large, important outcomes or long delays should induce lower implicit discount rates. Framing health messages as losses rather than gains, or as involving a series of outcomes rather than individual outcomes, might similarly lower the implicit discount rate used.

  4. Analysis-Based Message Design: Rethinking Screen Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beriswill, Joanne E.

    This article describes the evolution of computer interface research issues from text-based interface design guidelines to more complex issues, including media selection, interface design, and visual design. This research is then integrated into the Analysis-based Message Design (AMD) process. The AMD process divides the interface design process…

  5. ISS Update: e-Textiles, Alerting Future Astronauts

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Lynnette Madison talks with students from the University of Minnesota about wearable technology, or e-textiles, containing visual, tactile and audio sensors to alert fut...

  6. Using Language Experience to ALERT Pupils' Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Elizabeth Godwin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the "ALERT" procedure, whereby teachers may combine the language experience approach with the use of radio, television, newspaper, and magazine advertisements in a strategy that is useful for developing critical thinking skills, even in very young students. (ARH)

  7. Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159631.html Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer More than half of ... not keeping a close eye on any specific child. They are trained to enforce pool rules, scan, ...

  8. Pilot Non-Conformance to Alerting System Commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy

    1997-01-01

    This research project examined the effects of consonance between cockpit displays and alerting system as a technique to encourage pilots to conform to alerting system commands. An experiment used the task of collision avoidance during closely spaced parallel approaches as a case study, building upon previous experiments which identified instances of non-conformance and conflicts between the alerting criteria preferred by pilots, compared to that used by alerting systems. Using a workstation based, part-task simulator, each of 45 subjects completed 45 experiment runs. In each run, the subjects were told they were flying an approach. Their primary task was to keep their wings level despite turbulence through the use of a sidestick. The sidestick commands did not affect the path of the aircraft, however, so that consistent approach paths were be followed. Their secondary task was to indicate when an aircraft on a parallel approach is blundering towards them, as evidenced by the traffic display. Subjects were asked to press different buttons indicating whether they feel an avoidance maneuver is required by the traffic situation or not. At the completion of each run, subjects were asked to rate their confidence in their decision and, if appropriate, to rate the timeliness of automatic alerts when had been given. Three different automatic alert conditions were tested. The "No Automatic Alerts Given" condition is self-explanatory. In the "Automatic Alerts Based on NTZ Criteria" condition, an automatic alert was given when the NTZ criteria was triggered; this criteria is consistent with subject reactions in other studies, in which subjects were found to react, on average, when the other aircraft was 1350 min to the side of the own aircraft. In the "Automatic Alerts Based on MIT Criteria" condition, an automatic alert was given when the MIT criteria was triggered; this criteria was developed by Carpenter and Kuchar for parallel approaches to have better performance, at the

  9. Experimental evaluation of candidate graphical microburst alert displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanke, Craig R.; Hansman, R. John

    1992-01-01

    A piloted flight simulator experiment was conducted to evaluate issues related to the display of microburst alerts on electronic cockpit instrumentation. Issues addressed include display clarity, usefulness of multilevel microburst intensity information, and whether information from multiple sensors should be presented separately or 'fused' into combined alerts. Nine active airline pilots of 'glass cockpit' aircraft participated in the study. Microburst alerts presented on a moving map display were found to be visually clear and useful to pilots. Also, multilevel intensity information coded by colors or patterns was found to be important for decision making purposes. Pilot opinion was mixed on whether to 'fuse' data from multiple sensors, and some resulting design tradeoffs were identified. The positional information included in the graphical alert presentation was found useful by the pilots for planning lateral missed approach maneuvers, but may result in deviations which could interfere with normal airport operations. A number of flight crew training issues were also identified.

  10. 78 FR 64202 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice... comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative Messaging Research.'' All... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval) and is necessary to...

  11. Race Socialization Messages across Historical Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony N.; Lesane-Brown, Chase L.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether the content of race socialization messages varied by birth cohort, using data from a national probability sample. Most respondents recalled receiving messages about what it means to be black from their parents or guardians; these messages were coded into five mutually exclusive content categories: individual…

  12. Alert management for home healthcare based on home automation analysis.

    PubMed

    Truong, T T; de Lamotte, F; Diguet, J-Ph; Said-Hocine, F

    2010-01-01

    Rising healthcare for elder and disabled people can be controlled by offering people autonomy at home by means of information technology. In this paper, we present an original and sensorless alert management solution which performs multimedia and home automation service discrimination and extracts highly regular home activities as sensors for alert management. The results of simulation data, based on real context, allow us to evaluate our approach before application to real data.

  13. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. In this talk, we describe the BAT instrument response as determined to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies. We will also discuss the public data analysis tools developed to calculate the BAT response to sources at different energies and locations in the FOV. The level of accuracy required for the BAT instrument response used for the hard x-ray survey is significantly higher because this response must be used in the iterative clean algorithm for finding fainter sources. Because the bright sources add a lot of coding noise to the BAT sky image, fainter sources can be seen only after the counts due to the bright sources are removed. The better we know the BAT response, the lower the noise in the cleaned spectrum and thus the more sensitive the survey. Since the BAT detector plane consists of 32768 individual, 4 mm square CZT gamma-ray detectors, the most accurate BAT response would include 32768 individual detector response functions to separate mask modulation effects from differences in detector efficiencies! We describe OUT continuing work to improve the accuracy of the BAT instrument response and will present the current results of Monte Carlo simulations as well as BAT ground calibration data.

  14. Developing a theory driven text messaging intervention for addiction care with user driven content.

    PubMed

    Muench, Frederick; Weiss, Rebecca A; Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon

    2013-03-01

    The number of text messaging interventions designed to initiate and support behavioral health changes have been steadily increasing over the past 5 years. Messaging interventions can be tailored and adapted to an individual's needs in their natural environment-fostering just-in-time therapies and making them a logical intervention for addiction continuing care. This study assessed the acceptability of using text messaging for substance abuse continuing care and the intervention preferences of individuals in substance abuse treatment in order to develop an interactive mobile text messaging intervention. Fifty individuals enrolled in intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment completed an assessment battery relating to preferred logistics of mobile interventions, behavior change strategies, and types of messages they thought would be most helpful to them at different time points. Results indicated that 98% participants were potentially interested in using text messaging as a continuing care strategy. Participants wrote different types of messages that they perceived might be most helpful, based on various hypothetical situations often encountered during the recovery process. Although individuals tended to prefer benefit driven over consequence driven messages, differences in the perceived benefits of change among individuals predicted message preference. Implications for the development of mobile messaging interventions for the addictions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Developing and Pretesting a Text Messaging Program for Health Behavior Change: Recommended Steps

    PubMed Central

    Mendel Van Alstyne, Judith; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence demonstrates that text messaging-based programs (short message service [SMS]) on mobile phones can help people modify health behaviors. Most of these programs have consisted of automated and sometimes interactive text messages that guide a person through the process of behavior change. Objective This paper provides guidance on how to develop text messaging programs aimed at changing health behaviors. Methods Based on their collective experience in designing, developing, and evaluating text messaging programs and a review of the literature, the authors drafted the guide. One author initially drafted the guide and the others provided input and review. Results Steps for developing a text messaging program include conducting formative research for insights into the target audience and health behavior, designing the text messaging program, pretesting the text messaging program concept and messages, and revising the text messaging program. Conclusions The steps outlined in this guide may help in the development of SMS-based behavior change programs. PMID:26690917

  16. Instant Messaging in Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien

    2015-12-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning. PMID:26632303

  17. Instant Messaging in Dental Education.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien

    2015-12-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.

  18. Real-time monitoring of the human alertness level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Robin; del Pozo, Francisco; Hernando, Elena; Gomez, Eduardo; Jimenez, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    Many accidents are associated with a driver or machine operator's alertness level. Drowsiness often develops as a result of repetitive or monotonous tasks, uninterrupted by external stimuli. In order to enhance safety levels, it would be most desirable to monitor the individual's level of attention. In this work, changes in the power spectrum of the electroencephalographic signal (EEG) are associated with the subject's level of attention. This study reports on the initial research carried out in order to answer the following important questions: (i) Does a trend exist in the shape of the power spectrum, which will indicate the state of a subject's alertness state (drowsy, relaxed or alert)? (ii) What points on the cortex are most suitable to detect drowsiness and/or high alertness? (iii) What parameters in the power spectrum are most suitable to establish a workable alertness classification in human subjects? In this work, we answer these questions and combine power spectrum estimation and artificial neural network techniques to create a non-invasive and real - time system able to classify EEG into three levels of attention: High, Relaxed and Drowsiness. The classification is made every 10 seconds o more, a suitable time span for giving an alarm signal if the individual is with insufficient level of alertness. This time span is set by the user. The system was tested on twenty subjects. High and relaxed attention levels were measured in randomise hours of the day and drowsiness attention level was measured in the morning after one night of sleep deprivation.

  19. Modeling Pilot State in Next Generation Aircraft Alert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, Alan S.; Alexander, Amy L.; Schurr, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit that must convey a large number of potentially complex alerts. Our work focuses on the challenges associated with prioritizing aircraft sensor alerts in a quick and efficient manner, essentially determining when and how to alert the pilot This "alert decision" becomes very difficult in NextGen due to the following challenges: 1) the increasing number of potential hazards, 2) the uncertainty associated with the state of potential hazards as well as pilot slate , and 3) the limited time to make safely-critical decisions. In this paper, we focus on pilot state and present a model for anticipating duration and quality of pilot behavior, for use in a larger system which issues aircraft alerts. We estimate pilot workload, which we model as being dependent on factors including mental effort, task demands. and task performance. We perform a mathematically rigorous analysis of the model and resulting alerting plans. We simulate the model in software and present simulated results with respect to manipulation of the pilot measures.

  20. Getting your message out with social marketing.

    PubMed

    Manoff, R K

    1997-09-01

    This article was based on a speech presented at a Plenary Session of the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The address describes the nature of social marketing with examples and some lessons learned in developing countries. The earliest social marketers were Moses with the Ten Commandments of God and Indian religious authorities with fertility motifs inscribed on temple walls. Modern marketers of beer and snack food preempted the ancients and made social marketing more ingenious. The strategy shifted to supplying a product to satisfy a consumer want. Messages became a two-way process that minimized feedback shock. Focus groups were used to probe consumers' thoughts. Research must probe the total environment of the "problem." In Brazil, breast feeding promotions revealed that the perceived problem may not be the real problem, and there was no single magic solution. Most tropical disease prevention approaches do not rely on multistage strategies. The oral rehydration therapy (ORT) strategy became a world-wide model when strategists realized that the formula had to be easy to remember, diarrhea had to be recognized as a disease, and the function of ORT had to be clearly defined. The Bangladesh Social Marketing Campaign was successful in getting men to discuss family planning with their wives and establishing the family planning worker as a heroine. Effective messages must uncover points of resistance to the message. Public health advances in the 19th century were due to social policy to improve water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. The iodization of salt in Ecuador was possible with political will, public awareness, redirection of perception, and motivation of demand. Social marketing resources exist in all countries nowadays. Only medical and scientific professionals can promote concern about tropical diseases and raise the prevention priority on the public agenda. PMID:9311633

  1. Getting your message out with social marketing.

    PubMed

    Manoff, R K

    1997-09-01

    This article was based on a speech presented at a Plenary Session of the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The address describes the nature of social marketing with examples and some lessons learned in developing countries. The earliest social marketers were Moses with the Ten Commandments of God and Indian religious authorities with fertility motifs inscribed on temple walls. Modern marketers of beer and snack food preempted the ancients and made social marketing more ingenious. The strategy shifted to supplying a product to satisfy a consumer want. Messages became a two-way process that minimized feedback shock. Focus groups were used to probe consumers' thoughts. Research must probe the total environment of the "problem." In Brazil, breast feeding promotions revealed that the perceived problem may not be the real problem, and there was no single magic solution. Most tropical disease prevention approaches do not rely on multistage strategies. The oral rehydration therapy (ORT) strategy became a world-wide model when strategists realized that the formula had to be easy to remember, diarrhea had to be recognized as a disease, and the function of ORT had to be clearly defined. The Bangladesh Social Marketing Campaign was successful in getting men to discuss family planning with their wives and establishing the family planning worker as a heroine. Effective messages must uncover points of resistance to the message. Public health advances in the 19th century were due to social policy to improve water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. The iodization of salt in Ecuador was possible with political will, public awareness, redirection of perception, and motivation of demand. Social marketing resources exist in all countries nowadays. Only medical and scientific professionals can promote concern about tropical diseases and raise the prevention priority on the public agenda.

  2. Estimation of Alert and Change Limits of Haematological Quantities and its Application in the Plausibility Control

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Castro, María José; Dot-Bach, Dolors; Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In the process of quality assurance of the measured values of the clinical laboratory, one of the purposes is to perform the validation of patients’ measured values in the most objective way. This validation process is called plausibility control which may be defined as the set of procedures used to decide if a patient’s measured value is valid according to established clinical and biological criteria. The aim of this study is to propose a model to estimate alert and change limits of measured values of the blood cell count, to be applied to detect doubtful patients’ measured values. Methods Some alert and change limits were estimated from the emergency laboratory database of the year 2010 using different percentiles. A verification of the suitability of the proposed model was also performed. Results Most of the fractions of the measured values excluded by the alert and change limits were according to the theoretical expected. The overall fraction of the number of doubtful clinical laboratory reports ranged between 0.6 and 47.6 %. Conclusions The proposed model helps, improves and standardizes the process of detection of doubtful measured values since they are produced objectively. These limits can also be configured in a laboratory information system letting the clinical laboratory professional staff to save time and efforts.

  3. Preparing EBS messages. [Emergency Broadcast System (EBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M., Sorensen, J.H.

    1992-09-01

    Warning messages transmitted to populations at risk from an accidental release of chemical agent must be carefully designed to maximize appropriate responses from affected publics. This guide develops an approach for preparing Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) messages for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Sample messages illustrate the application of this approach. While the sample messages do not cover every emergency situation, the texts are generic in that accident and location specific factors can be incorporated into the final message developed by local emergency planners. Thus they provide a starting point, not an end product, for emergency planners.

  4. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  5. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Mark; Pavy, Alan; van den Heuvel, Cameron

    2006-12-01

    Chewing has been shown to alleviate feelings of sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during the day. This study investigated the effect of chewing on alertness and cognitive performance across one night without sleep as well as the possible mediating role of cardiac autonomic activity. Fourteen adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced protocol employing a chewing, placebo and caffeine condition. Participants completed tasks assessing psychomotor vigilance, tracking, grammatical reasoning, alertness and sleepiness each hour across the night. All participants received either placebo or caffeine (200 mg), while the chewing condition also chewed on a tasteless and odorless substance for 15 min each hour. Heart rate (HR), root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals on the ECG (RMSSD), and preejection period (PEP) were simultaneously recorded. Alertness and cognitive performance amongst the chewing condition did not differ or were in fact worse when compared with placebo. Similarly, measures of HR and RMSSD remained the same between these two conditions; however, PEP was reduced in the later part of the night in the chewing condition compared with a relative increase for placebo. Caffeine led to improved speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks and increased alertness when compared with chewing. Relative increases in RMSSD and reductions in HR were demonstrated following caffeine; however, no change in PEP was seen. Strong associations between cardiac parasympathetic activity and complex cognitive tasks, as well as between subjective alertness and simpler cognitive tasks, suggest a differential process mediating complex versus simple cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

  6. Announcement/Subscription/Publication: Message Based Communication for Heterogeneous Mobile Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristau, Henry

    Many tasks in smart environments can be implemented using message based communication paradigms that decouple applications in time, space, synchronization and semantics. Current solutions for decoupled message based communication either do not support message processing and thus semantic decoupling or rely on clearly defined network structures. In this paper we present ASP, a novel concept for such communication that can directly operate on neighbor relations between brokers and does not rely on a homogeneous addressing scheme or anymore than simple link layer communication. We show by simulation that ASP performs well in a heterogeneous scenario with mobile nodes and decreases network or processor load significantly compared to message flooding.

  7. Technical features of a low-cost Earthquake Alert System

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.

    1991-08-01

    The concept and features of an Earthquake Alert System (EAS) involving a distributed network of strong motion sensors is discussed. The EAS analyzes real-time data telemetered to a central facility and issues an areawide warning of a large earthquake in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy. A low-cost solution to high-cost estimates for installation and maintenance of a dedicated EAS is presented that makes use of existing microseismic stations. Using the San Francisco Bay area as an example, we show that existing US Geological Survey microseismic monitoring stations are of sufficient density to form the elements of a prototype EAS. By installing strong motion instrumentation and a specially developed switching device, strong ground motion can be telemetered in real-time to the central microseismic station on the existing communication channels. When a large earthquake occurs, a dedicated real-time central processing unit at the central microseismic station digitizes and analyses the incoming data and issues a warning containing location and magnitude estimations. A 50-station EAS of this type in the San Francisco Bay area should cost under $70,000 to install and less than $5000 annually to maintain.

  8. Designing prenatal care messages for low-income Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, R; Ghee, A; Scrimshaw, S

    1993-01-01

    Communication theories and research data were used to design cross-cultural health education messages. A University of California Los Angeles-Universidad Autonoma in Tijuana, Mexico, research team used the methods of ethnographic and survey research to study behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge concerning prenatal care of a sample of pregnant low-income women living in Tijuana. This audience provided information that served as a framework for a series of messages to increase awareness and change prenatal care behaviors. The message design process was guided by persuasion theories that included Petty and Caccioppo's elaboration likelihood model, McGuire's persuasion matrix, and Bandura's social learning theory. The results from the research showed that poor women in Tijuana tend to delay or not seek prenatal care. They were not aware of symptoms that could warn of pregnancy complications. Their responses also revealed pregnant women's culturally specific beliefs and behaviors regarding pregnancy. After examination of these and other results from the study, prenatal care messages about four topics were identified as the most relevant to communicate to this audience: health services use, the mother's weight gain, nutrition and anemia, and symptoms of high-risk complications during pregnancy. A poster, a calendar, a brochure, and two radio songs were produced and pretested in focus groups with low-income women in Tijuana. Each medium included one or more messages addressing informational, attitudinal, or behavioral needs, or all three, of the target population. PMID:8497574

  9. Morning Sleep Inertia in Alertness and Performance: Effect of Cognitive Domain and White Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Santhi, Nayantara; Groeger, John A.; Archer, Simon N.; Gimenez, Marina; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (p<0.01). However, alertness and sustained attention were more affected than cognitive throughput and working memory. Moreover, speed was more affected than accuracy of responses. The light conditions had no differential effect on performance except in the 3-back task (p<0.01), where response times (RT) at the end of four hours in the two Blue-Enhanced white light conditions were faster (200 ms) than at wake time. We conclude that the effect of sleep inertia varies with cognitive domain and that it’s spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations. PMID:24260280

  10. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    WDPA database at regular intervals, processing it, and ingesting it into the FIRMS spatial database. However, due to the large size of database, the process to download, process and ingest the database is quite time consuming. The FIRMS team is currently working on developing a method to update the protected areas database via web at regular intervals or on-demand. Using such a solution, FIRMS will be able access the most up-to-date extents of any protected area and the corresponding spatial geometries in real time. As such, FIRMS can utilize such a service to access the protected areas and their associated geometries to keep users' protected area boundaries in sync with those of the most recent WDPA database, and thus serve a more accurate email alert to the users. Furthermore, any client accessing the WDPA protected areas database could potentially use the solution of real-time access to the protected areas database. This talk primarily focuses on the challenges for FIRMS in sending accurate email alerts for protected areas, along with the solution the FIRMS team is developing. This talk also introduces the FIRMS fire information system and its components, with a special emphasis on the FIRMS email alerts system.

  11. AIV Platform for the Galileo Message Generation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oving, B. A.; Zwartbol, T.; Denham, S.; Rennie, M.

    2007-08-01

    The Message Generation Facility (MGF) is an element of the Galileo Mission Segment (GMS) and is responsible for real-time distribution of the navigation, integrity and SAR messages from the processing facilities (OSPF, IPF, ERIS, RLSP) to the Up-Link Stations (ULS). The main objective is to route a message to the correct ULS in time for on-board update of navigation data and integrity data for dissemination to users. The MGF element is being developed by Deimos Space S.L. (Spain). To perform the Assembly, Integration and Verification (AIV) activities of the MGF, a dedicated test platform, MGF-AIVP, is developed by the National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR (the Netherlands). The MGF-AIVP simulates other Elements in the GMS that are connected to the MGF, in real-time. Its focus is to verify the main objective of the MGF.

  12. Model of epidemic control based on quarantine and message delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Zhao, Tianfang; Qin, Xiaomeng

    2016-09-01

    The model provides two novel strategies for the preventive control of epidemic diseases. One approach is related to the different isolating rates in latent period and invasion period. Experiments show that the increasing of isolating rates in invasion period, as long as over 0.5, contributes little to the preventing of epidemic; the improvement of isolation rate in latent period is key to control the disease spreading. Another is a specific mechanism of message delivering and forwarding. Information quality and information accumulating process are also considered there. Macroscopically, diseases are easy to control as long as the immune messages reach a certain quality. Individually, the accumulating messages bring people with certain immunity to the disease. Also, the model is performed on the classic complex networks like scale-free network and small-world network, and location-based social networks. Results show that the proposed measures demonstrate superior performance and significantly reduce the negative impact of epidemic disease.

  13. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM.

    PubMed

    Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Martinez, Marcos; Aguirre, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c) describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c) determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.

  14. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM

    PubMed Central

    Solorio, Rosa; Forehand, Mark; Aguirre, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c) describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c) determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay. PMID:24864201

  15. HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM.

    PubMed

    Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Martinez, Marcos; Aguirre, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c) describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c) determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay. PMID:24864201

  16. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jeannette; Gibson, C. Ben; Spiro, Emma S.; League, Cedar; Fitzhugh, Sean M.; Butts, Carter T.

    2015-01-01

    Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not) perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials’ Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events. PMID:26295584

  17. What it Takes to Get Passed On: Message Content, Style, and Structure as Predictors of Retransmission in the Boston Marathon Bombing Response.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jeannette; Gibson, C Ben; Spiro, Emma S; League, Cedar; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Butts, Carter T

    2015-01-01

    Message retransmission is a central aspect of information diffusion. In a disaster context, the passing on of official warning messages by members of the public also serves as a behavioral indicator of message salience, suggesting that particular messages are (or are not) perceived by the public to be both noteworthy and valuable enough to share with others. This study provides the first examination of terse message retransmission of official warning messages in response to a domestic terrorist attack, the Boston Marathon Bombing in 2013. Using messages posted from public officials' Twitter accounts that were active during the period of the Boston Marathon bombing and manhunt, we examine the features of messages that are associated with their retransmission. We focus on message content, style, and structure, as well as the networked relationships of message senders to answer the question: what characteristics of a terse message sent under conditions of imminent threat predict its retransmission among members of the public? We employ a negative binomial model to examine how message characteristics affect message retransmission. We find that, rather than any single effect dominating the process, retransmission of official Tweets during the Boston bombing response was jointly influenced by various message content, style, and sender characteristics. These findings suggest the need for more work that investigates impact of multiple factors on the allocation of attention and on message retransmission during hazard events.

  18. Key paediatric messages from Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Barben, Jürg; Bohlin, Kajsa; Everard, Mark L.; Hall, Graham; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle; Priftis, Kostas N.; Rusconi, Franca; Midulla, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) maintained its high profile at the 2015 ERS International Congress in Amsterdam. There were symposia on preschool wheeze, respiratory sounds and cystic fibrosis; an educational skills workshop on paediatric respiratory resuscitation; a hot topic session on risk factors and early origins of respiratory diseases; a meet the expert session on paediatric lung function test reference values; and the annual paediatric grand round. In this report the Chairs of the Paediatric Assembly's Groups highlight the key messages from the abstracts presented at the Congress. PMID:27730186

  19. Regulatory fit messages and physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual's regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

  20. Persuasive Strategies for Effective Anti-Drug Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Nancy Grant; Lane, Derek R.; Donohew, Lewis; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Norling, Gretchen R.; An, Jeong-Hyun; Cheah, Wai Hsien; McClure, Leola; Buckingham, Tim; Garofalo, Elizabeth; Bevins, Carla C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an experimental study designed to investigate the influence of message design strategies on cognitive processing and changes in attitudes, behavioral intentions, and behavior in relation to marijuana use. Explains that in the experiment, college students viewed four anti-marijuana public service announcements. Notes that results provide…

  1. Progressing to University: Hidden Messages at Two State Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers some of the ways that schools play a role in shaping higher education (HE) decision-making. Through their everyday practices and processes, schools can carry hidden messages about progression to HE, including choice of university. The sorts of routine aspects of school life dealt with here include events and activities,…

  2. Delivering the "Write" Message: The Memo and Transformational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Bill; And Others

    Since the vast majority of conflict situations arise from a breakdown in the communication process, where one individual misunderstands something generated by another, the crucial challenge for leaders lies in avoiding misunderstandings. Leaders must remember, when formulating all sorts of correspondence, that when a "sender" forms a message and…

  3. 40. Upper level, electronic racks, left to rightstatus command message ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Upper level, electronic racks, left to right--status command message processing group, UHF radio, impss rack security, power supply group rack - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. Socializing Messages in Blue-Collar Families: Communicative Pathways to Social Mobility and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    This study explicitly links processes of anticipatory socialization to social mobility and reproduction. An examination of the socializing messages exchanged between blue-collar parents (n = 41) and their children (n = 25) demonstrate that family-based messages about work and career seldom occur in straightforward, unambiguous ways. Instead,…

  5. Contemplating Regretted Messages: Learning-Oriented, Repair-Oriented, and Emotion-Focused Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    Regretted messages provide speakers an opportunity to learn. Whether learning occurs should depend upon how the incident is processed. This study had two objectives: (a) to determine how the goal a message conflicts with and seriousness influence the emotion(s) evoked; and (b) to determine which variables predict adoption of learning-oriented,…

  6. "¡Fantástico!": Valuing Student Knowledge through the Morning Message

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNicolo, Christina P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a qualitative case study that examined the language practices and learning in a first grade bilingual classroom, the author discusses one teacher's daily process for the literacy event of the morning message. Primary findings indicate that the ways the teacher listened and responded to students during the morning message provided…

  7. The Impact of Discrepant Verbal-Nonverbal Messages in the Teacher-Student Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Noting that teachers' nonverbal behaviors are frequently inconsistent with their verbal messages, a situation that detracts from student learning, this paper offers an activity for focusing prospective teachers' attentions on the frequency and impact of discrepant verbal-nonverbal messages occurring in the classroom. The step-by-step process is…

  8. Humid tropical forest disturbance alerts using Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Matthew C.; Krylov, Alexander; Tyukavina, Alexandra; Potapov, Peter V.; Turubanova, Svetlana; Zutta, Bryan; Ifo, Suspense; Margono, Belinda; Stolle, Fred; Moore, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    A Landsat-based humid tropical forest disturbance alert was implemented for Peru, the Republic of Congo and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Alerts were mapped on a weekly basis as new terrain-corrected Landsat 7 and 8 images were made available; results are presented for all of 2014 and through September 2015. The three study areas represent different stages of the forest land use transition, with all featuring a variety of disturbance dynamics including logging, smallholder agriculture, and agroindustrial development. Results for Peru were formally validated and alerts found to have very high user’s accuracies and moderately high producer’s accuracies, indicating an appropriately conservative product suitable for supporting land management and enforcement activities. Complete pan-tropical coverage will be implemented during 2016 in support of the Global Forest Watch initiative. To date, Global Forest Watch produces annual global forest loss area estimates using a comparatively richer set of Landsat inputs. The alert product is presented as an interim update of forest disturbance events between comprehensive annual updates. Results from this study are available for viewing and download at http://glad.geog.umd.edu/forest-alerts and www.globalforestwatch.org.

  9. Promoting the avoidance of high-calorie snacks: priming autonomy moderates message framing effects.

    PubMed

    Pavey, Louisa; Churchill, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of gain-framed vs. loss-framed messages promoting health protective behaviors have been found to be inconsistent, and consideration of potential moderating variables is essential if framed health promotion messages are to be effective. This research aimed to determine the influence of highlighting autonomy (choice and freedom) and heteronomy (coercion) on the avoidance of high-calorie snacks following reading gain-framed or loss-framed health messages. In Study 1 (N = 152) participants completed an autonomy, neutral, or heteronomy priming task, and read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message. In Study 2 (N = 242) participants read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message with embedded autonomy or heteronomy primes. In both studies, snacking intentions and behavior were recorded after seven days. In both studies, when autonomy was highlighted, the gain-framed message (compared to the loss-framed message) resulted in stronger intentions to avoid high-calorie snacks, and lower self-reported snack consumption after seven days. Study 2 demonstrated this effect occurred only for participants to whom the information was most relevant (BMI>25). The results suggest that messages promoting healthy dietary behavior may be more persuasive if the autonomy-supportive vs. coercive nature of the health information is matched to the message frame. Further research is needed to examine potential mediating processes. PMID:25078965

  10. Promoting the Avoidance of High-Calorie Snacks: Priming Autonomy Moderates Message Framing Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pavey, Louisa; Churchill, Sue

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effects of gain-framed vs. loss-framed messages promoting health protective behaviors have been found to be inconsistent, and consideration of potential moderating variables is essential if framed health promotion messages are to be effective. This research aimed to determine the influence of highlighting autonomy (choice and freedom) and heteronomy (coercion) on the avoidance of high-calorie snacks following reading gain-framed or loss-framed health messages. In Study 1 (N = 152) participants completed an autonomy, neutral, or heteronomy priming task, and read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message. In Study 2 (N = 242) participants read a gain-framed or loss-framed health message with embedded autonomy or heteronomy primes. In both studies, snacking intentions and behavior were recorded after seven days. In both studies, when autonomy was highlighted, the gain-framed message (compared to the loss-framed message) resulted in stronger intentions to avoid high-calorie snacks, and lower self-reported snack consumption after seven days. Study 2 demonstrated this effect occurred only for participants to whom the information was most relevant (BMI>25). The results suggest that messages promoting healthy dietary behavior may be more persuasive if the autonomy-supportive vs. coercive nature of the health information is matched to the message frame. Further research is needed to examine potential mediating processes. PMID:25078965

  11. Usability Flaws in Medication Alerting Systems: Impact on Usage and Work System

    PubMed Central

    Ammenwerth, E.; Roehrer, E.; Pelayo, S.; Vasseur, F.; Beuscart-Zéphir, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Previous research has shown that medication alerting systems face usability issues. There has been no previous attempt to systematically explore the consequences of usability flaws in such systems on users (i.e. usage problems) and work systems (i.e. negative outcomes). This paper aims at exploring and synthesizing the consequences of usability flaws in terms of usage problems and negative outcomes on the work system. Methods A secondary analysis of 26 papers included in a prior systematic review of the usability flaws in medication alerting was performed. Usage problems and negative outcomes were extracted and sorted. Links between usability flaws, usage problems, and negative outcomes were also analyzed. Results Poor usability generates a large variety of consequences. It impacts the user from a cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and attitudinal perspective. Ultimately, usability flaws have negative consequences on the workflow, the effectiveness of the technology, the medication management process, and, more importantly, patient safety. Only few complete pathways leading from usability flaws to negative outcomes were identified. Conclusion Usability flaws in medication alerting systems impede users, and ultimately their work system, and negatively impact patient safety. Therefore, the usability dimension may act as a hidden explanatory variable that could explain, at least partly, the (absence of) intended outcomes of new technology. PMID:26123906

  12. The MAXI/GSC Nova-Alert System and results of its first 68 months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoro, Hitoshi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Serino, Motoko; Saito, Hiroki; Takahashi, Tomonori; Miyoshi, Sho; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Asada, Masato; Fukushima, Kosuke; Eguchi, Satoshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kennea, Jamie; Mihara, Tatehiro; Morii, Mikio; Nakahira, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuji; Sugawara, Aya; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Ishikawa, Masaki; Isobe, Naoki; Kawamuro, Taiki; Kimura, Masashi; Masumitsu, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Nakajima, Motoki; Sakamoto, Takanori; Shidatsu, Megumi; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Takagi, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Kazuki; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Matsuoka, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    Various transient phenomena on a timescale ranging from seconds to days appear at unexpected sky positions in X-rays. MAXI, Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, on the International Space Station has been monitoring about 95% of the sky a day and has detected transient objects since 2009 August. Here, we describe quasi-real-time data processing systems of MAXI and a subsequent nova-alert system to find transient objects, and present the capabilities for the nova-alert system to detect transient events with excess fluxes from ≳80 mCrab in a single scan transit to ≳8 mCrab for 4 d, and to send prompt alert information to the world in less than 30 s after the onboard detection of a burst, making the best use of the International Space Station (ISS) real-time network. We also report on highlights of scientific results obtained with the system until the end of the first extended mission phase, 2015 March. Including 15 X-ray novae solely or independently discovered, we have reported on 177 transient phenomena, such as X-ray bursts, outbursts, and state transitions of X-ray binaries and X-ray flares from active stars and blazars, via the Astronomer's Telegram, and on 63 burst phenomena of other types via the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network. We summarize the results of these transient sources and phenomena focusing on the detections with the nova-alert system, and some new transients yet unpublished or requiring attention.

  13. Diabetes education via mobile text messaging.

    PubMed

    Wangberg, Silje C; Arsand, Eirik; Andersson, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    Living with diabetes makes great educational demands on a family. We have tested the feasibility of using the mobile phone short message service (SMS) for reaching people with diabetes information. We also assessed user satisfaction and perceived pros and cons of the medium through interviews. Eleven parents of children with type 1 diabetes received messages for 11 weeks. The parents were positive about the system and said that they would like to continue to use it. The pop-up reminding effect of SMS messages in busy everyday life was noted as positive. Some parents experienced the messages as somewhat intrusive, arriving too often and at inconvenient times. The parents also noted the potential of the messages to facilitate communication with their adolescent children. The inability to store all of the messages or to print them out were seen as major disadvantages. Overall, the SMS seems to hold promise as means of delivering diabetes information.

  14. Dopamine in motivational control: rewarding, aversive, and alerting

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg-Martin, Ethan S.; Matsumoto, Masayuki; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Midbrain dopamine neurons are well known for their strong responses to rewards and their critical role in positive motivation. It has become increasingly clear, however, that dopamine neurons also transmit signals related to salient but non-rewarding experiences such as aversive and alerting events. Here we review recent advances in understanding the reward and non-reward functions of dopamine. Based on this data, we propose that dopamine neurons come in multiple types that are connected with distinct brain networks and have distinct roles in motivational control. Some dopamine neurons encode motivational value, supporting brain networks for seeking, evaluation, and value learning. Others encode motivational salience, supporting brain networks for orienting, cognition, and general motivation. Both types of dopamine neurons are augmented by an alerting signal involved in rapid detection of potentially important sensory cues. We hypothesize that these dopaminergic pathways for value, salience, and alerting cooperate to support adaptive behavior. PMID:21144997

  15. Interarrival times of message propagation on directed networks.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Tamara; de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Herrmann, Hans J

    2011-08-01

    One of the challenges in fighting cybercrime is to understand the dynamics of message propagation on botnets, networks of infected computers used to send viruses, unsolicited commercial emails (SPAM) or denial of service attacks. We map this problem to the propagation of multiple random walkers on directed networks and we evaluate the interarrival time distribution between successive walkers arriving at a target. We show that the temporal organization of this process, which models information propagation on unstructured peer to peer networks, has the same features as SPAM reaching a single user. We study the behavior of the message interarrival time distribution on three different network topologies using two different rules for sending messages. In all networks the propagation is not a pure Poisson process. It shows universal features on Poissonian networks and a more complex behavior on scale free networks. Results open the possibility to indirectly learn about the process of sending messages on networks with unknown topologies, by studying interarrival times at any node of the network.

  16. Interarrival times of message propagation on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaljev, Tamara; de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2011-08-01

    One of the challenges in fighting cybercrime is to understand the dynamics of message propagation on botnets, networks of infected computers used to send viruses, unsolicited commercial emails (SPAM) or denial of service attacks. We map this problem to the propagation of multiple random walkers on directed networks and we evaluate the interarrival time distribution between successive walkers arriving at a target. We show that the temporal organization of this process, which models information propagation on unstructured peer to peer networks, has the same features as SPAM reaching a single user. We study the behavior of the message interarrival time distribution on three different network topologies using two different rules for sending messages. In all networks the propagation is not a pure Poisson process. It shows universal features on Poissonian networks and a more complex behavior on scale free networks. Results open the possibility to indirectly learn about the process of sending messages on networks with unknown topologies, by studying interarrival times at any node of the network.

  17. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  18. Key Messages in prescribing for stoma care.

    PubMed

    Fake, Jeanette; Skipper, Gill

    With £248 million spent on stoma appliances and accessories throughout England in 2013 (Health and Social Care Information Centre, 2014) value for money and control of this process is seen to be of high priority. This does not have to mean restricted access of appliances, rather that there is appropriate usage of the budget. This article looks at how the stoma care team collaborated with the local clinical commissioning group (CCG) in order for the local surgeries to gain a better understanding of the needs of their local stoma care population. It was hoped that this would facilitate further control in the ordering (by the patient or GP) of stoma care products. The Key Messages produced are to be used as a tool to aid cost-effective stoma care.

  19. Evaluation of sexual communication message strategies.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Umanzor, Cindy; Patel, Kajal; Khan, Munziba

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

  20. Evaluation of sexual communication message strategies.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Umanzor, Cindy; Patel, Kajal; Khan, Munziba

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity. PMID:21599875

  1. Message framing in social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. PMID:23786169

  2. Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System siren testing report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, L.B.

    1997-08-13

    The purpose of the test was to determine the effective coverage of the proposed upgrades to the existing Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System (HSEAS). The upgrades are to enhance the existing HSEAS along the Columbia River from the Vernita Bridge to the White Bluffs Boat Launch as well as install a new alerting system in the 400 Area on the Hanford Site. Five siren sites along the Columbia River and two sites in the 400 Area were tested to determine the site locations that will provide the desired coverage.

  3. MAXI Nova Alert System and the Latest Scientific Results

    SciTech Connect

    Negoro, H.; Miyoshi, S.; Ozawa, H.; Ishiwata, R.; Nakajima, N.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawasaki, K.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Suzuki, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Mihara, T.; Kohama, M.; Sugizaki, M.; Nakagawa, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Kawai, N.; Morii, M.; Yoshida, A.; Yamaoka, K.

    2010-07-15

    MAXI, Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, is the first astronomical telescope onboard the ISS. One of the main goals of our mission is to discover new transient objects by scanning more than 95% of the sky every {approx}92 min with two types of X-ray cameras, Gas Slit Camera (GSC) and Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). We have developed a completely new data analysis system, a nova alert system, to find transient objects and send alerts to the world as soon as possible. Here we describe the current status of the system, and transient objects discovered with the system.

  4. Geo-targeted Weather Alerts Coming to Millions of Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Personal Localized Alert Network (PLAN), aka Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS), is readying for roll out and will be broadcasting emergency public alerts to millions of cell phones by the middle of 2012. Learn how the National Weather Serivce (NWS) is supplying PLAN with geo-referenced weather alert information in the industry standard Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) format and how you can access this same information for integration with mobile devices, other consumer electronics, and decision support systems. Information will also be provided on the NWS' new collaborative venue that encourages wide participation in the evolution and use of NWS CAP alerts in a variety of applications.

  5. Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  6. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W; Dorwaldt, Anne L

    2011-12-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categorized as likely to have higher involvement in a decision to initiate cigarette smoking reported relatively high ratings on a cognitive processing indicator for messages focused on factual arguments about negative consequences of smoking than for messages with fewer or no direct arguments. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. The ELM may provide a useful strategy for reaching adolescents at risk for smoking initiation, but particular attention should be focused on lower academic achievers to ensure that messages are appropriate for them. This approach should be explored further before similar strategies could be recommended for large-scale implementation.

  7. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W; Dorwaldt, Anne L

    2011-12-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categorized as likely to have higher involvement in a decision to initiate cigarette smoking reported relatively high ratings on a cognitive processing indicator for messages focused on factual arguments about negative consequences of smoking than for messages with fewer or no direct arguments. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. The ELM may provide a useful strategy for reaching adolescents at risk for smoking initiation, but particular attention should be focused on lower academic achievers to ensure that messages are appropriate for them. This approach should be explored further before similar strategies could be recommended for large-scale implementation. PMID:21885672

  8. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categorized as likely to have higher involvement in a decision to initiate cigarette smoking reported relatively high ratings on a cognitive processing indicator for messages focused on factual arguments about negative consequences of smoking than for messages with fewer or no direct arguments. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. The ELM may provide a useful strategy for reaching adolescents at risk for smoking initiation, but particular attention should be focused on lower academic achievers to ensure that messages are appropriate for them. This approach should be explored further before similar strategies could be recommended for large-scale implementation. PMID:21885672

  9. The LOFT burst alert system and its burst onboard trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Stéphane; Götz, Diego; Le Provost, Hervé; Château, Frédéric; Bozzo, Enrico; Brandt, Søren

    2014-07-01

    The ESA M3 candidate mission LOFT (Large Observatory For x-ray Timing) has been designed to study strong gravitational fields by observing compact objects, such as black-hole binaries or neutron-star systems and supermassive black-holes, based on the temporal analysis of photons collected by the primary instrument LAD (Large Area Detector), sensitive to X-rays from 2 to 50 keV, offering a very large effective area (>10 m2), but a small field of view (ø<1°). Simultaneously the second instrument WFM (Wide Field Monitor), composed of 5 coded-mask camera pairs (2-50 keV), monitors a large part of the sky, in order to detect and localize eruptive sources, to be observed with the LAD after ground-commanded satellite repointing. With its large field of view (>π sr), the WFM actually detects all types of transient sources, including Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), which are of primary interest for a world-wide observers community. However, observing the quickly decaying GRB afterglows with ground-based telescopes needs the rapid knowledge of their precise localization. The task of the Loft Burst Alert System (LBAS) is therefore to detect in near-real- time GRBs (about 120 detections expected per year) and other transient sources, and to deliver their localization in less than 30 seconds to the observers, via a VHF antenna network. Real-time full resolution data download to ground being impossible, the real-time data processing is performed onboard by the LBOT (LOFT Burst On-board Trigger system). In this article we present the LBAS and its components, the LBOT and the associated ground-segment.

  10. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  11. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Fusion is based on high quality full length articles. However, in the words of the journal home page, `Nuclear Fusion welcomes Letters as a means to quickly communicate new, maybe preliminary, results which make a significant advancement of the knowledge in the field. Letters should be comprehensive and short, aiming for four printed pages including figures.' I would like to take the opportunity to reiterate this message and to say that, as Editor, I would welcome the submission of high quality Letters. Publishing procedures In-house, Nuclear Fusion's publishing procedures are subject to continuous scrutiny for potential improvements. Of particular note from 2008 are faster than ever peer review and publishing times that have been achieved despite the very rigorous processing to which submissions are subject. Readers may have noticed the implementation of the new article numbering system, announced by the Publisher, Yasmin McGlashan in 2008 Nucl. Fusion 48 010101. This new scheme gives us more flexibilty and has led to faster online publication. The Nuclear Fusion Office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also due to the tireless and largely unsung efforts of the Nuclear Fusion Office in Vienna and IOP Publishing in Bristol. I would like to express my personal thanks to Maria, Katja, Sophy, Sarah, Rachael and Yasmin for the support that they have given to me, the authors and the referees. Season's Greetings I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors a successful and happy 2009 and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2008.

  12. The NAS Alert System: a look at the first eight years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Neilson, Matt; Huge, Dane H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database program (http://nas.er.usgs.gov) tracks the distribution of introduced aquatic organisms across the United States. Awareness of, and timely response to, novel species introductions by those involved in nonindigenous aquatic species management and research requires a framework for rapid dissemination of occurrence data as it is incorporated into the NAS database. In May 2004, the NAS program developed an alert system to notify registered users of new introductions as part of a national early detection/rapid response system. This article summarizes information on system users and dispatched alerts from the system's inception through the end of 2011. The NAS alert system has registered over 1,700 users, with approximately 800 current subscribers. A total of 1,189 alerts had been transmitted through 2011. More alerts were sent for Florida (134 alerts) than for any other state. Fishes comprise the largest taxonomic group of alerts (440), with mollusks, plants, and crustaceans each containing over 100 alerts. Most alerts were for organisms that were intentionally released (414 alerts), with shipping, escape from captivity, and hitchhiking also representing major vectors. To explore the archive of sent alerts and to register, the search and signup page for the alert system can be found online at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/AlertSystem/default.aspx.

  13. But What about the Other 93 Percent? Policy Alert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcia, Emily; And Others

    This policy "alert" summarizes two studies addressing implementation of early intervention for families with infants and toddlers with special needs. The first study examined the distribution of sociodemographic factors associated with underutilization of health and social services. These include poverty, maternal employment, ethnic minority…

  14. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  15. Monitoring epidemic alert levels by analyzing Internet search volume.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xichuan; Li, Qin; Zhu, Zhenglin; Zhao, Han; Tang, Hao; Feng, Yujie

    2013-02-01

    The prevention of infectious diseases is a global health priority area. The early detection of possible epidemics is the first and important defense line against infectious diseases. However, conventional surveillance systems, e.g., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), rely on clinical data. The CDC publishes the surveillance results weeks after epidemic outbreaks. To improve the early detection of epidemic outbreaks, we designed a syndromic surveillance system to predict the epidemic trends based on disease-related Google search volume. Specifically, we first represented the epidemic trend with multiple alert levels to reduce the noise level. Then, we predicted the epidemic alert levels using a continuous density HMM, which incorporated the intrinsic characteristic of the disease transmission for alert level estimation. Respective models are built to monitor both national and regional epidemic alert levels of the U.S. The proposed system can provide real-time surveillance results, which are weeks before the CDC's reports. This paper focusses on monitoring the infectious disease in the U.S., however, we believe similar approach may be used to monitor epidemics for the developing countries as well.

  16. Developing, Implementing, and Assessing an Early Alert System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampke, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Early alert systems offer institutions systematic approaches to identifying and intervening with students exhibiting at-risk behaviors. Many of these systems rely on a common format for student referral to central receiving point. Systems at larger institutions often use web-based technology to allow for a scalable (available campus wide) approach…

  17. 77 FR 33661 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ....42, 11.54(b)(13), and 11.55 published at 77 FR 16688, March 22, 2012, are effective June 7, 2012. FOR... requirements contained in the Commission's Order, FCC 11-92, published at 77 FR 16688, March 22, 2012. The OMB... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  18. New research and tools lead to improved earthquake alerting protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David J.

    2009-01-01

    What’s the best way to get alerted about the occurrence and potential impact of an earthquake? The answer to that question has changed dramatically of late, in part due to improvements in earthquake science, and in part by the implementation of new research in the delivery of earthquake information

  19. 78 FR 16806 - The Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Protocol (CAP) refers to Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) Standard CAP-V1.1, October 2005 (available at http://www.oasis-open.org/specs/index.php#capv1.1 ), or any subsequent version of CAP adopted by OASIS and implemented by the WEA. (c) Wireless Emergency Alerts....

  20. Visual Alertness in Neonates as Evoked by Maternal Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korner, Anneliese F.; Thoman, Evelyn B.

    1970-01-01

    Forty crying and 24 sleeping 2- to 3-day-old healthy, full-term newborns were given six interventions whichentailed contact and/or vestibular stimulation. Scores obtained on a six-point scale assessing levels of alertness imply that the vestibular stimulation which attends maternal caretaking activities is crucial, at least during the neonatal…

  1. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE NATIONAL URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUE RESPONSE SYSTEM Response... § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when DHS does not provide meals during the Alert. DHS will limit food and beverage reimbursement to the...

  2. Eisenhower's Farewell Call: Arguing for an Alert and Knowledgeable Citizenry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapanen, Larry

    In his January 17, 1961 farewell address, President Dwight D. Eisenhower warned Americans to be wary of the "military-industrial complex." He called for "an alert and knowledgeable citizenry" which would assure the proper meshing of the military and industrial defense machinery with peaceful methods and goals. Eisenhower's comments reflected his…

  3. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must be identified by a unique IP address or domain name. (b) Authentication and validation. The CMS... alert gateway if a validation fails. (c) Security. The CMS provider gateway must support standardized IP... CMSP Name Unique identification of CMSP. CMSP gateway Address IP address or Domain Name Alternate...

  4. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  5. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when DHS does not provide meals during the Alert. DHS will limit food and beverage reimbursement to the amount... where such food and beverages were provided, multiplied by the number of personnel who received them....

  6. Monitoring epidemic alert levels by analyzing Internet search volume.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xichuan; Li, Qin; Zhu, Zhenglin; Zhao, Han; Tang, Hao; Feng, Yujie

    2013-02-01

    The prevention of infectious diseases is a global health priority area. The early detection of possible epidemics is the first and important defense line against infectious diseases. However, conventional surveillance systems, e.g., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), rely on clinical data. The CDC publishes the surveillance results weeks after epidemic outbreaks. To improve the early detection of epidemic outbreaks, we designed a syndromic surveillance system to predict the epidemic trends based on disease-related Google search volume. Specifically, we first represented the epidemic trend with multiple alert levels to reduce the noise level. Then, we predicted the epidemic alert levels using a continuous density HMM, which incorporated the intrinsic characteristic of the disease transmission for alert level estimation. Respective models are built to monitor both national and regional epidemic alert levels of the U.S. The proposed system can provide real-time surveillance results, which are weeks before the CDC's reports. This paper focusses on monitoring the infectious disease in the U.S., however, we believe similar approach may be used to monitor epidemics for the developing countries as well. PMID:23192470

  7. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113 Section 80.1113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113 Section 80.1113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress...

  11. A Real-Time Screening Alert Improves Patient Recruitment Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua; Batres, Candido; Borda, Tomas; Weiskopf, Nicole G.; Wilcox, Adam B.; Bigger, J Thomas; Davidson, Karina W.

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of cost-effective patient identification methods represents a significant barrier to clinical research. Research recruitment alerts have been designed to facilitate physician referrals but limited support is available to clinical researchers. We conducted a retrospective data analysis to evaluate the efficacy of a real-time patient identification alert delivered to clinical research coordinators recruiting for a clinical prospective cohort study. Data from log analysis and informal interviews with coordinators were triangulated. Over a 12-month period, 11,295 were screened electronically, 1,449 were interviewed, and 282 were enrolled. The enrollment rates for the alert and two other conventional methods were 4.65%, 2.01%, and 1.34% respectively. A taxonomy of eligibility status was proposed to precisely categorize research patients. Practical ineligibility factors were identified and their correlation with age and gender were analyzed. We conclude that the automatic prescreening alert improves screening efficiency and is an effective aid to clinical research coordinators. PMID:22195213

  12. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Convention or 33 CFR 101.310 may utilize: (1) Equipment that complies with RTCM Paper 110-2004/SC110-STD...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards can be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS)....

  13. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Convention or 33 CFR 101.310 may utilize: (1) Equipment that complies with RTCM 11020.1 (incorporated by... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277...

  14. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Convention or 33 CFR 101.310 may utilize: (1) Equipment that complies with RTCM 11020.1 (incorporated by... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277...

  15. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Convention or 33 CFR 101.310 may utilize: (1) Equipment that complies with RTCM 11020.1 (incorporated by... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80.277...

  16. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Convention or 33 CFR 101.310 may utilize: (1) Equipment that complies with RTCM Paper 110-2004/SC110-STD...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards can be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS)....

  17. Hidden Messages: Instructional Materials for Investigating Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Barbara, Ed.; Eder, Elizabeth K., Ed.

    This book, intended to be used in the middle and high school classroom, provides teachers with unique ideas and lesson plans for exploring culture and adding a multicultural perspective to diverse subjects. "Hidden messages" are the messages of culture that are entwined in everyday lives, but which are seldom recognized or appreciated for the…

  18. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  19. 78 FR 52166 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice... qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to... research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify, with...

  20. The Instructional Message: A Theoretical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Patrick O.

    1979-01-01

    This theoretical model for message design directs the designer to design a block of time that optimizes the information load and message complexity within the constraints of the receiver's abilities and experience, the requirements of the source, and the capabilities and limitations of the medium. (Author/JEG)

  1. Literacy Messages, the Messenger and the Receiver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, William T.

    The message about general literacy standards in Canada (as reported in the Southam Literacy Survey) is that approximately five million Canadians are illiterate. The validity of this message must be challenged because a group of middle-class Canadians with middle-class values established the criteria for being "literate" and felt that all other…

  2. 47 CFR 80.95 - Message charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Message charges. 80.95 Section 80.95 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-General § 80.95 Message charges. (a) Except as specified in §...

  3. Memorable Messages for Navigating College Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazione, Samantha; Laplante, Carolyn; Smith, Sandi W.; Cornacchione, Jennifer; Russell, Jessica; Stohl, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript details an investigation of memorable messages that help students navigate college life using a control theory framework. Researchers conducted face-to-face interviews with 61 undergraduate students who recalled a specific memorable message that helped them as they navigated college. Results of this formative study show the…

  4. Messages about Sexuality: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Tanya L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this two-part study was to identify the perceived influence of sexuality messages from parents, peers, school and the media--four microsystems within the Ecological Model--on emerging adult US college women's sexual attitudes. Findings suggest that parents were the most likely source of the message to "remain abstinent until…

  5. Expressing Camp, Part 2: Using Key Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Camps can play an integral part in raising a child. The American Camping Association (ACA) has developed key messages that correspond to developmental needs of children. To portray a professional image of camp, promotional materials should incorporate these key messages, the benefits of ACA accreditation, and the same language as child development…

  6. Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Leuven, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

  7. Developments in Children's Persuasive Message Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Susan L.; Clinton, Barbara L.

    1998-01-01

    Finds developmentally based systematic age changes in four of six persuasive-message practices in middle childhood: creating consensus about a problem, advocating a proposal, motivating the other to act, and building the other's self-concept. Notes that these age effects reflect children's evolving views about communication and messages as they…

  8. Physicians’ response to computerised alerts for psychotropic drugs in older persons: a multilevel analysis of the associated alert, patient and physician characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tamblyn, Robyn; Reidel, Kristen; Patel, Vaishali

    2012-01-01

    Objective Computerised drug alerts are expected to reduce patients’ risk of adverse drug events. However, physicians over-ride most drug alerts, because they believe that the benefit exceeds the risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the drug alert, patient and physician characteristics associated with the: (1) occurrence of psychotropic drug alerts for elderly patients and the (2) response to these alerts by their primary care physicians. Setting Primary care, Quebec, Canada. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Sixty-one physicians using an electronic prescribing and drug alert decision-support system in their practice, and 3413 elderly patients using psychotropic drugs. Primary and secondary measures Psychotropic drug class, alert severity, patient risk for fall injuries and physician experience, practice volume and computer use were evaluated in relationship to the likelihood of having: (1) a psychotropic drug alert, (2) the prescription revised in response to an alert. Cluster-adjusted alternating logistic regression was used to assess multilevel predictors of alert occurrence and response. Results In total 13 080 psychotropic drug alerts were generated in 8931 visits. Alerts were more likely to be generated for male patients at higher risk of fall-related injury and for physicians who established the highest alert threshold. In 9.9% of alerts seen, the prescription was revised. The highest revision rate was for antipsychotic alerts (22.6%). Physicians were more likely to revise prescriptions for severe alerts (OR 2.03; 95%CI 1.39 to 2.98), if patients had cognitive impairment (OR 1.95; 95%CI 1.13 to 3.36), and if they made more visits to their physician (OR 1.05 per 5 visits; 95%CI 1 to 1.09). Conclusions Physicians view and respond to a small proportion of alerts, mainly for higher-risk patients. To reduce the risk of psychotropic drug-related fall injuries, a new generation of evidence-based drug alerts should be developed. PMID

  9. Real-time Seismic Alert System of NIED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, S.; Fujinawa, Y.; Negishi, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Kunugi, T.; Hayashi, Y.

    2001-12-01

    An extensive seismic network has been constructed nationwide composed of hi-sensitivity seismographic network, broadband seismographic network and strong motion seismographic network. All these data from some 3,000 sites belonging to NIED, JMA and universities are to be accumulated and distributed through NIED to any scientists and engineering through INTERNET under the coordination of the National Seismic Research Committee of MEXT. As a practical application of those data we are now developing a real-time seismic alert information system for the purpose of providing short-term warning of imminent strong grounds motions from major earthquakes from several seconds to a few days. The contents of information are seismic focal parameters (several seconds), seismic fault plane solutions (some 10 seconds), after-shock activities (several minutes-a few days ). The fundamental fault parameters are used to build specific information at sites for particular users for use of triggering automated and /or half-automated responses. The most important application is an immediate estimate of expected shaking distribution and damages in a district using synthetic database and site effects for local governments to initial proper measures of hazard mitigation. Another application is estimation of arrival time and shaking strength at any individual site for human lives to be safeguarded. The system could also start an automatic electrical isolation and protection of computer systems, protection of hazardous chronic systems, transportation systems and so on. The information are corrected successively as seismic ground motion are received at a larger number of sites in time with the result that more accurate and more sophisticated earthquake information is transmitted to any user. Besides the rapid determination of seismic parameters, one of essential items in this alert system is the data transmission means. The data transmission is chosen to assure negligibly small delay of data

  10. Txt2MEDLINE: text-messaging access to MEDLINE/PubMed.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Muin, Michael; Tolentino, Herman; Ackerman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We developed a text messaging system for processing incoming Short Message Service (SMS) queries, retrieving medical journal citations from MEDLINE/PubMed and sending them back to the user in the text message format. A database of medical terminology abbreviations and acronyms was developed to reduce the size of text in journal citations and abstracts because of the 160-character per message limit of text messages. Queries may be sent as full-length terms or abbreviations. An algorithm transforms the citations into the SMS format. An abbreviated TBL (the bottom-line) summary instead of the full abstract is sent to the mobile device to shorten the resulting text. The system decreases citation size by 77.5+/-7.9%. Txt2MEDLINE provides physicians and healthcare personnel another rapid and convenient method for searching MEDLINE/PubMed through wireless mobile devices. It is accessible from any location worldwide where GSM wireless service is available. PMID:17238343

  11. Physician Alerts to Prevent Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Gregory; Rosenbaum, Erin J.; Pendergast, William; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Pendleton, Robert C.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Elliott, C. Gregory; Stevens, Scott M.; Patton, William F.; Dabbagh, Ousama; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Catapane, Elaine; Li, Zhongzhen; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis remains underutilized among hospitalized patients. We designed and carried out a large multicenter randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that an alert from a hospital staff member to the Attending Physician will reduce the rate of symptomatic VTE among high-risk patients not receiving prophylaxis. Methods and Results We enrolled patients using a validated point score system to detect hospitalized patients at high risk for symptomatic VTE who were not receiving prophylaxis. 2,493 patients (82% on Medical Services) from 25 study sites were randomized to the intervention group (n=1,238), in which the responsible physician was alerted by another hospital staff member, versus the control group (n=1,255), in which no alert was issued. The primary end point was symptomatic, objectively confirmed VTE within 90 days. Patients whose physicians were alerted were more than twice as likely to receive VTE prophylaxis as controls (46.0% versus 20.6%, p<0.0001). The symptomatic VTE rate was lower in the intervention group (2.7% versus 3.4%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.25), but the difference did not achieve statistical significance. The rate of major bleeding at 30 days in the alert group was similar to the control group (2.1% versus 2.3%, p=0.68). Conclusions A strategy of direct staff member to physician notification increases prophylaxis utilization and leads toward reducing the rate of symptomatic VTE in hospitalized patients. However, VTE prophylaxis continues to be underutilized even after physician notification, especially among Medical Service patients. PMID:19364975

  12. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who ... a medical ID card and wear a Medic-Alert bracelet to tell emergency workers that you lack ...

  13. Strategic Messaging to Promote Taxation of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Lessons From Recent Political Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Judy; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Barry, Colleen L.; Gollust, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored the use of strategic messaging by proponents of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation to influence public opinion and shape the policy process, emphasizing the experiences in El Monte and Richmond, California, with SSB tax proposals in 2012. Methods. We conducted 18 semistructured interviews with key stakeholders about the use and perceived effectiveness of messages supporting and opposing SSB taxation, knowledge sharing among advocates, message dissemination, and lessons learned from their messaging experiences. Results. The protax messages most frequently mentioned by respondents were reinvesting tax revenue into health-related programs and linking SSB consumption to health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes. The most frequently mentioned antitax messages addressed negative economic effects on businesses and government restriction of personal choice. Factors contributing to perceived messaging success included clearly defining “sugar-sweetened beverage” and earmarking funds for obesity prevention, incorporating cultural sensitivity into messaging, and providing education about the health effects of SSB consumption. Conclusions. Sugar-sweetened beverage taxation has faced significant challenges in gaining political and public support. Future campaigns can benefit from insights gained through the experiences of stakeholders involved in previous policy debates. PMID:24625177

  14. Message communications of particular message types between compute nodes using DMA shadow buffers

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-11-16

    Message communications of particular message types between compute nodes using DMA shadow buffers includes: receiving a buffer identifier specifying an application buffer having a message of a particular type for transmission to a target compute node through a network; selecting one of a plurality of shadow buffers for a DMA engine on the compute node for storing the message, each shadow buffer corresponding to a slot of an injection FIFO buffer maintained by the DMA engine; storing the message in the selected shadow buffer; creating a data descriptor for the message stored in the selected shadow buffer; injecting the data descriptor into the slot of the injection FIFO buffer corresponding to the selected shadow buffer; selecting the data descriptor from the injection FIFO buffer; and transmitting the message specified by the selected data descriptor through the data communications network to the target compute node.

  15. Improving the Effectiveness of Fundraising Messages: The Impact of Charity Goal Attainment, Message Framing, and Evidence on Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Enny; Kerkhof, Peter; Kuiper, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a positive message frame. In addition, building on…

  16. Effects of dietary tryptophan and phenylalanine–tyrosine depletion on phasic alertness in healthy adults – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Patricia; Königschulte, Werner; Gaber, Tilman Jakob; Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Helmbold, Katrin; Biskup, Caroline Sarah; Langen, Karl-Josef; Fink, Gereon Rudolf; Zepf, Florian Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background The synthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the brain can be directly altered by dietary manipulation of their relevant precursor amino acids (AA). There is evidence that altered serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission are both associated with impaired attentional control. Specifically, phasic alertness is one specific aspect of attention that has been linked to changes in 5-HT and DA availability in different neurocircuitries related to attentional processes. The present study investigated the impact of short-term reductions in central nervous system 5-HT and DA synthesis, which was achieved by dietary depletion of the relevant precursor AA, on phasic alertness in healthy adult volunteers; body weight–adapted dietary tryptophan and phenylalanine–tyrosine depletion (PTD) techniques were used. Methods The study employed a double-blind between-subject design. Fifty healthy male and female subjects were allocated to three groups in a randomized and counterbalanced manner and received three different dietary challenge conditions: acute tryptophan depletion (ATD, for the depletion of 5-HT; N=16), PTD (for the depletion of DA; N=17), and a balanced AA load (BAL; N=17), which served as a control condition. Three hours after challenge intake (ATD/PTD/BAL), phasic alertness was assessed using a standardized test battery for attentional performance (TAP). Blood samples for AA level analyses were obtained at baseline and 360 min after the challenge intake. Results Overall, there were no significant differences in phasic alertness for the different challenge conditions. Regarding PTD administration, a positive correlation between the reaction times and the DA-related depletion magnitude was detected via the lower plasma tyrosine levels and the slow reaction times of the first run of the task. In contrast, higher tryptophan concentrations were associated with slower reaction times in the fourth run of the task in the same

  17. Appreciative Inquiry. Trends and Issues Alert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Appreciative inquiry (AI) is based on the heliotropic principle, which has been variously described as art and science, holistic theory and practice, and practical philosophy and change process. AI engages people and organizations in discovering what gives life to human systems when they are most effective and constructive and using that knowledge…

  18. ALERTES-SC3: an EEWS prototype for south Iberia peninsula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Antonio; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Martín Davila, José; Gallego Carrasco, Javier; Rioja del Rio, Carlos; Morgado, Arturo; Hanka, Winfried; Strollo, Angelo; Cibeira, Angel; Cabieces, Roberto; Carranza, Marta

    2016-04-01

    ComP3, in order to provide earthquake parameters estimation in a time window of a few seconds.This prototype is currently available running in real time, on a test phase, on a network of broad band stations from the WM (Western Mediterranean), IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Spain) and IMP (Portugal) seismic nets. It's also under development to study the feasibility to include warning parameters derived from ROA GPS geodynamic net which stations are deployed in the area. From the above described characteristics, such as suitability of the available algorithms, software and hardware requirement, processing time required, lead times, etc., the prototype is presented as EEWS system available for earthquakes of south Iberia areas. In this work we present the current state of the development of the ALERTES-SC3 prototype.

  19. Neural correlates of message tailoring and self-relatedness in smoking cessation programming

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Hannah Faye; Liberzon, Israel; Welsh, Robert C.; Strecher, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking leads to illnesses including addiction, cancer, and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Different intervention programs have become available. In the past decade, providing tailored smoking cessation messages has been shown to be more effective in inducing smoking cessation than one-size-fits-all interventions. However, little is known about the brain responses of smokers when they receive tailored smoking cessation messages. METHODS A neuroimaging study using blocked and event-related designs examined neural activity in 24 smokers exposed to high-tailored and low-tailored smoking cessation messages. RESULTS: In both blocked and event-related conditions, rostral medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate were engaged more during the processing of high-tailored smoking cessation messages than low-tailored smoking cessation messages. CONCLUSION The activation patterns of smokers to tailored cessation messages show involvement of brain areas commonly implicated in self-related processing. Results seem to add support to the suggested role of self-relevance in tailored cessation programs, where previous studies have shown a potential mediating role of self-relevance on smoking abstinence. The findings are relevant to understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying tailored message processing and may point to new directions for testing response to health communications programming. PMID:18926523

  20. Message Variability and Heterogeneity: A Core Challenge for Communication Research

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Michael D.; Peter, Jochen; Valkenberg, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Messages are central to human social experience, and pose key conceptual and methodological challenges in the study of communication. In response to these challenges, we outline a systematic approach to conceptualizing, operationalizing, and analyzing messages. At the conceptual level, we distinguish between two core aspects of messages: message variability (the defined and operationalized features of messages) and message heterogeneity (the undefined and unmeasured features of messages), and suggest preferred approaches to defining message variables. At the operational level, we identify message sampling, selection, and research design strategies responsive to issues of message variability and heterogeneity in experimental and survey research. At the analytical level, we highlight effective techniques to deal with message variability and heterogeneity. We conclude with seven recommendations to increase rigor in the study of communication through appropriately addressing the challenges presented by messages. PMID:26681816