Science.gov

Sample records for aleutians west census

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Sigma) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordane cyclodienes, Sigmaother cyclodienes, and Sigmachlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by SigmaDDTs and Sigmachlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'DDE) composed 52 to 66% of SigmaDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but SigmaPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with delta15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of SigmaPCBs and p,p'DDE among species and locations.

  2. East meets West: Differing views of the Aleutian Low's role in affecting Holocene productivity in the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, J. A.; Finney, B. P.; Harada, N.

    2012-12-01

    Modern instrumental and monitoring observations indicate strong multi-decadal changes and spatial heterogeneities affect climate and marine ecosystems in the North Pacific Ocean. Networks of high-resolution paleoclimate archives from this dynamic region are therefore required to describe changes prior to historical records. We present new decadally-resolved marine sediment core data from the Kuril Islands in the Sea of Okhotsk, together with sub-decadal data from the temperate fjords of the Gulf of Alaska (GoAK). These distant sites are located along the western (Kuril) and eastern (GoAK) boundaries of the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean, where micronutrient-rich coastal waters interact with North Pacific high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to drive highly productive marine ecosystems. In the Sea of Okhotsk, a notable increase in opal concentrations (a proxy for past siliceous primary productivity) occurs during the middle Holocene between ~5000 and 6000 yrs ago, while alkenone-based warm season SST proxies either decline or remain relatively constant. A similar middle Holocene increase in opal concentrations is also observed in the GoAK during an interval of declining warm season coastal SAT as inferred from pollen transfer functions [Heusser et al., 1985]. Declining summer solar insolation during the middle Holocene can explain the overall decline in warm-season SST in both the Sea of Okhotsk and the Gulf of Alaska. However, as the increase in opal likely reflects an improvement in North Pacific phytoplankton growing conditions during the spring/summer bloom season, then the opal increase seems unlikely to be related directly to summer solar insolation. We propose a middle Holocene intensification of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure cell and concomitant changes in North Pacific circulation may be responsible. In both regions, several potential mechanisms related to an intensified AL could result in greater productivity including: (i) increased advection

  3. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  4. Aleutian terranes from Nd isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, R. W.; Kay, S. M.; Rubenstone, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Nd isotope ratios substantiate the identification of oceanic crustal terranes within the continental crustal basement of the Aleutian island arc. The oceanic terranes are exposed in the westernmost Aleutians, but to the east, they are completely buried by isotopically distinct arc-volcanic rocks. Analogous oceanic terranes may be important components of the terrane collages that comprise the continents.

  5. Significance of an Active Volcanic Front in the Far Western Aleutian Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Hoernle, K.

    2015-12-01

    Discovery of a volcanic front west of Buldir Volcano, the western-most emergent Aleutian volcano, demonstrates that the surface expression of Aleutian volcanism falls below sea level just west of 175.9° E longitude, but is otherwise continuous from mainland Alaska to Kamchatka. The newly discovered sites of western Aleutian seafloor volcanism are the Ingenstrem Depression, a 60 km-long structural depression just west of Buldir, and an unnamed area 300 km further west, referred to as the Western Cones. These locations fall along a volcanic front that stretches from Buldir to Piip Seamount near the Komandorsky Islands. Western Aleutian seafloor volcanic rocks include large quantities of high-silica andesite and dacite, which define a highly calc-alkaline igneous series and carry trace element signatures that are unmistakably subduction-related. This indicates that subducting oceanic lithosphere is present beneath the westernmost Aleutian arc. The rarity of earthquakes below depths of 200 km indicates that the subducting plate is unusually hot. Some seafloor volcanoes are 6-8 km wide at the base, and so are as large as many emergent Aleutian volcanoes. The seafloor volcanoes are submerged in water depths >3000 m because they sit on oceanic lithosphere of the Bering Sea. The volcanic front is thus displaced to the north of the ridge of arc crust that underlies the western Aleutian Islands. This displacement, which developed since approximately 6 Ma when volcanism was last active on the islands, must be a consequence of oblique convergence in a system where the subducting plate and large blocks of arc crust are both moving primarily in an arc-parallel sense. The result is a hot-slab system where low subduction rates probably limit advection of hot mantle to the subarc, and produce a relatively cool and perhaps stagnant mantle wedge. The oceanic setting and highly oblique subduction geometry also severely limit rates of sediment subduction, so the volcanic rocks, which

  6. Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan

    2010-08-29

    The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the

  7. Bureau of the Census

    MedlinePlus

    ... Latest Information American FactFinder Census Business Builder Census Explorer My Congressional District QuickFacts U.S. and World Population ... Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder Census Explorer My Congressional District QuickFacts U.S. and World Population ...

  8. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus and Humans

    PubMed Central

    d’Amore, Francesco; Baandrup, Ulrik; Clausen, Michael Roost; Gottschalck, Elisabeth; Aasted, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Reports of a possible relationship between Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) and human infection are rare. However, 2 mink farmers with vascular disease and microangiopathy similar to that in mink with Aleutian disease were found to have AMDV-specific antibodies and AMDV DNA. These findings raise the suspicion that AMDV may play a role in human disease. PMID:19961696

  9. Aleutian mink disease virus and humans.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Jørgen R; d'Amore, Francesco; Baandrup, Ulrik; Clausen, Michael Roost; Gottschalck, Elisabeth; Aasted, Bent

    2009-12-01

    Reports of a possible relationship between Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) and human infection are rare. However, 2 mink farmers with vascular disease and microangiopathy similar to that in mink with Aleutian disease were found to have AMDV-specific antibodies and AMDV DNA. These findings raise the suspicion that AMDV may play a role in human disease. PMID:19961696

  10. The world's biggest census.

    PubMed

    Xu, J H

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of the 3rd national population census, taken 18 years after "New China's" 2nd census, was to ascertain accurate population figures for China and the spatial population distribution in order to carry out socialist modernization, improve the people's material and cultural lives, and draw up a population policy and program in light of China's actual conditions. The census questionnaire contained 19 items, including 13 for individuals; and 6 items about the household. Preparations for the census began at the end of 1979 even though the census would not begin until July 1, 1982. The preparatory stage included: drafting the Census Statute; conducting pilot censuses in certain areas; rectifying household registration; installing computers; training computer technicians; convening national census work conference and similar conferences at various levels; selecting and training field census workers; printing census forms; and conducting widespread publicity. Pilot censuses were conducted at central, provincial, and county levels in order to draw useful experience for the nationwide census. A large number of census workers were selected and trained. Among them were about a million staff members working in census offices at various levels, 1000 computer technical personnel, 4000 data entry personnel, 100,000 coders, and 1 million census supervisors. 8 million cadres and volunteers at the grassroots actively helped conduct the census. Enumeration and verification was completed between July 1 and July 15, 1982. The postenumeration check on a sample basis showed only a net overcount of 0.15/1000 with an overcount of 0.71/1000 and an undercount of 0.56/1000. All levels of the government, the Communist Party, Trade Unions, and Women's Federations were mobilized to take part in the census, and all mass media were utilized. All census information will be finally tabulated by computers before the end of 1984, and census reports will be compiled and submitted to the State

  11. The world's biggest census.

    PubMed

    Xu, J H

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of the 3rd national population census, taken 18 years after "New China's" 2nd census, was to ascertain accurate population figures for China and the spatial population distribution in order to carry out socialist modernization, improve the people's material and cultural lives, and draw up a population policy and program in light of China's actual conditions. The census questionnaire contained 19 items, including 13 for individuals; and 6 items about the household. Preparations for the census began at the end of 1979 even though the census would not begin until July 1, 1982. The preparatory stage included: drafting the Census Statute; conducting pilot censuses in certain areas; rectifying household registration; installing computers; training computer technicians; convening national census work conference and similar conferences at various levels; selecting and training field census workers; printing census forms; and conducting widespread publicity. Pilot censuses were conducted at central, provincial, and county levels in order to draw useful experience for the nationwide census. A large number of census workers were selected and trained. Among them were about a million staff members working in census offices at various levels, 1000 computer technical personnel, 4000 data entry personnel, 100,000 coders, and 1 million census supervisors. 8 million cadres and volunteers at the grassroots actively helped conduct the census. Enumeration and verification was completed between July 1 and July 15, 1982. The postenumeration check on a sample basis showed only a net overcount of 0.15/1000 with an overcount of 0.71/1000 and an undercount of 0.56/1000. All levels of the government, the Communist Party, Trade Unions, and Women's Federations were mobilized to take part in the census, and all mass media were utilized. All census information will be finally tabulated by computers before the end of 1984, and census reports will be compiled and submitted to the State

  12. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  13. Influence of the Amlia fracture zone on the evolution of the Aleutian Terrace forearc basin, central Aleutian subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Holly F.; Draut, Amy E.; Keranen, Katie M.; Scholl, David W.

    2012-01-01

    During Pliocene to Quaternary time, the central Aleutian forearc basin evolved in response to a combination of tectonic and climatic factors. Initially, along-trench transport of sediment and accretion of a frontal prism created the accommodation space to allow forearc basin deposition. Transport of sufficient sediment to overtop the bathymetrically high Amlia fracture zone and reach the central Aleutian arc began with glaciation of continental Alaska in the Pliocene. As the obliquely subducting Amlia fracture zone swept along the central Aleutian arc, it further affected the structural evolution of the forearc basins. The subduction of the Amlia fracture zone resulted in basin inversion and loss of accommodation space east of the migrating fracture zone. Conversely, west of Amlia fracture zone, accommodation space increased arcward of a large outer-arc high that formed, in part, by a thickening of arc basement. This difference in deformation is interpreted to be the result of a variation in interplate coupling across the Amlia fracture zone that was facilitated by increasing subduction obliquity, a change in orientation of the subducting Amlia fracture zone, and late Quaternary intensification of glaciation. The change in coupling is manifested by a possible tear in the subducting slab along the Amlia fracture zone. Differences in coupling across the Amlia fracture zone have important implications for the location of maximum slip during future great earthquakes. In addition, shaking during a great earthquake could trigger large mass failures of the summit platform, as evidenced by the presence of thick mass transport deposits of primarily Quaternary age that are found in the forearc basin west of the Amlia fracture zone.

  14. Large-scale deformation related to the collision of the Aleutian Arc with Kamchatka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesit, Eric L.; Scholl, David W.

    1994-01-01

    The far western Aleutian Island Arc is actively colliding with Kamchatka. Westward motion of the Aleutian Arc is brought about by the tangential relative motion of the Pacific plate transferred to major, right-lateral shear zones north and south of the arc. Early geologic mapping of Cape Kamchatka (a promontory of Kamchatka along strike with the Aleutian Arc) revealed many similarities to the geology of the Aleutian Islands. Later studies support the notion that Cape Kamchatka is the farthest west Aleutian “island” and that it has been accreted to Kamchatka by the process of arc-continent collision. Deformation associated with the collision onshore Kamchatka includes gravimetrically determined crustal thickening and formation of a narrow thrust belt of intensely deformed rocks directly west of Cape Kamchatka. The trend of the thrust faults is concave toward the collision zone, indicating a radial distribution of maximum horizontal compressive stress. Offshore, major crustal faults trend either oblique to the Kamchatka margin or parallel to major Aleutian shear zones. These offshore faults are complex, accommodating both strike-slip and thrust displacements as documented by focal mechanisms and seismic reflection data. Earthquake activity is much higher in the offshore region within a zone bounded to the north by the northernmost Aleutian shear zone and to the west by an apparent aseismic front. Analysis of focal mechanisms in the region indicate that the present-day arc-continent “contact zone” is located directly east of Cape Kamchatka. In modeling the dynamics of the collision zone using thin viscous sheet theory, the rheological parameters are only partially constrained to values of n (the effective power law exponent) ≥ 3 and Ar(the Argand number) ≤ 30. These values are consistent with a forearc thermal profile of Kamchatka, previously determined from heat flow modeling. The thin viscous sheet modeling also indicates that onshore thrust faulting

  15. [Seminar on the significance and possibilities for using the results of population and housing censuses].

    PubMed

    Stortzbach, B

    1989-07-01

    Summaries are presented from a seminar held in Wiesbaden, West Germany, in April 1989. The seminar was sponsored by the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe and the Conference of European Statisticians. Topics covered include the significance and use of population census results, possibilities of replacing censuses with surveys or registers, possibilities of improving and reducing the costs of censuses, public acceptance of the census, and the distribution of census results.

  16. Comparison of characteristics of hydrographic structures in Aleutian eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R.; Yasuda, I.; Komatsu, K.; Ishiyama, H.; Ueno, H.; Onishi, H.; Setou, T.; Shimizu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Mesoscale anticylonic eddies formed in the Alaskan Stream region south of the Aleutian Islands between the 180° meridian and about 170°E are called Aleutian eddies. Many of these eddies propagate in the southwestward direction, and often reach western subarctic gyre. The objective of present study is to compare hydrographic structures of three Aleutian eddies with distinctive propagation paths and evaluate potential impacts of physical environment along the paths on those eddies. We observed three eddies during the summers of 2010 and 2012, in which two of the eddies (A and C) were observed west of 172°E and one (B) east of 172°E. In each eddy, a subsurface cold dichothermal water (3.0-4.0°C) was observed to be located above a subsurface warm mesothermal water (4.0-4.5°C), and the two waters were separated by 26.5-26.6σθ isopycnals. The minimum temperature in the dichothermal water at ~26.4σθ was lower in the eddies A and C (2.8-2.9°C) than in the eddy B (3.2°C). This difference could be ascribed to eddy history of wintertime cooling and influence of warm Alaskan Stream. The Aleutian eddies were originated from the Alaskan Stream, and propagated westward after isolation from the Alaskan Stream. Winter cooling could make the dichothermal water cooler for eddies which were isolated for longer time. This is the case for the eddy A. The particle tracking experiments using the 1/10° eddy resolving ocean model called FRA-ROMS (Fisheries Research Agency of Japan) demonstrated that the water within the eddy was mostly originated from cold water around the propagation path in the early spring, suggesting continuous cooling of dichothermal water after the winter-time cooling. The eddy B stayed near the Alaskan Stream which could provide warm water to the eddy, to make less cold dichothermal water. The particle tacking experiments using FRA-ROMS confirmed that the water in the eddy was mainly originated from warm Alaskan Stream in the early spring, suggesting

  17. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

    2007-09-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands.

  18. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  19. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

    2007-09-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

  20. PANORAMA, FROM ULAKTA HEAD COMMAND POST TO THE WEST TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PANORAMA, FROM ULAKTA HEAD COMMAND POST TO THE WEST TOWARDS MOUNT BALLYHOO - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Ulakta Head Fixed Defense Battery Command Post No. 1, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  1. 1. PANORAMA, FROM ULAKTA HEAD COMMAND POST TO THE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PANORAMA, FROM ULAKTA HEAD COMMAND POST TO THE WEST TOWARD MOUNT BALLYHOO - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Ulakta Head Fixed Defense Battery Command Post No. 1, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  2. New Magnetic Anomaly Compilation Illuminates the Formation of the Aleutian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D. S.; Barth, G. A.; Scholl, D. W.; Stern, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Aleutian Basin crust is deeply buried beneath 2 to 5 km of sediment, so magnetic data provide valuable insights into its structure and origin. A new compilation of marine magnetic anomalies, derived from one recent cruise (2011) and re-analysis of dozens of legacy cruises (primarily 1970's to 1980's), provides both a refined view of the magnetic field in the Bering Sea area and insights into the formation of the deep-water Aleutian and Bowers Basins. In the Aleutian Basin, the magnetic fabric can be divided into two similar-sized areas of distinct types. Type 1 magnetic fabric is characterized by north-south-oriented lineations in the southern Aleutian Basin. The lineations have irregular spacing, reminiscent of seafloor spreading stripes, and the amplitudes of the anomalies are also consistent with a magnetic source formed at spreading centers. Seismic reflection data show that the strongest magnetic lineations in the Type 1 area are not associated with basement relief, supporting an origin from remanent magnetization variations and consistent with their formation by seafloor spreading. This interpretation is consistent with OBS refraction results indicating that this is mafic crust ~8 km thick. The pattern of anomalies does not show an obvious symmetry about a possible fossil spreading axis, and attempts to assign the sequence of lineaments to the geomagnetic polarity timescale are not definitive. Thus, we cannot rule out either of the two hypotheses for the formation of the Aleutian Basin, as a Paleogene back-arc basin or as captured (old) plate trapped by formation of the Aleutian subduction zone at ~50 Ma. Type 2 magnetic fabric is characterized by higher-amplitude and more heterogeneous magnetic anomalies than Type 1 fabric, and it is located around the margins of the Aleutian Basin, to the north and west of the lineated fabric. Some features of the basement (e.g. Sounder Ridge) have corresponding magnetic anomalies in Type 2 areas, but other anomalies with

  3. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians.

  4. Bald Eagles consume Emperor Geese during late-winter in the Aleutian Archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2004-01-01

    Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) are a species of concern because their population has declined rapidly since the mid-1960s and continues to remain below management objectives (Petersen et al. 1994). Emperor Geese are restricted primarily to Alaska and exhibit an east-west migration pattern, whereby most birds begin breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta by mid-May, stage on the Alaska Peninsula by late September, and migrate westward to winter in the Aleutian Archipelago from late November to mid-April (Eisenhauer and Kirkpatrick 1977, Petersen et al. 1994). Demographic and movement studies have been conducted on breeding grounds and stagmg areas (e.g., Schmutz et al. 1994, 1997); however, the winter ecology of Emperor Geese is poorly understood due in part to the extremely remote nature of the Aleutian Archipelago (Petersen et al. 1994). 

  5. Tracking along-arc sediment inputs to the Aleutian arc using thallium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Yogodzinski, Gene; Prytulak, Julie; Plank, Terry; Kay, Suzanne M.; Kay, Robert W.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Owens, Jeremy D.; Auro, Maureen; Kading, Tristan

    2016-05-01

    Sediment transport from the subducted slab to the mantle wedge is an important process in understanding the chemical and physical conditions of arc magma generation. The Aleutian arc offers an excellent opportunity to study sediment transport processes because the subducted sediment flux varies systematically along strike (Kelemen et al., 2003) and many lavas exhibit unambiguous signatures of sediment addition to the sub-arc mantle (Morris et al., 1990). However, the exact sediment contribution to Aleutian lavas and how these sediments are transported from the slab to the surface are still debated. Thallium (Tl) isotope ratios have great potential to distinguish sediment fluxes in subduction zones because pelagic sediments and low-temperature altered oceanic crust are highly enriched in Tl and display heavy and light Tl isotope compositions, respectively, compared with the upper mantle and continental crust. Here, we investigate the Tl isotope composition of lavas covering almost the entire Aleutian arc a well as sediments outboard of both the eastern (DSDP Sites 178 and 183) and central (ODP Hole 886C) portions of the arc. Sediment Tl isotope compositions change systematically from lighter in the Eastern to heavier in the Central Aleutians reflecting a larger proportion of pelagic sediments when distal from the North American continent. Lavas in the Eastern and Central Aleutians mirror this systematic change to heavier Tl isotope compositions to the west, which shows that the subducted sediment composition is directly translated to the arc east of Kanaga Island. Moreover, quantitative mixing models of Tl and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes reveal that bulk sediment transfer of ∼0.6-1.0% by weight in the Eastern Aleutians and ∼0.2-0.6% by weight in the Central Aleutians can account for all four isotope systems. Bulk mixing models, however, require that fractionation of trace element ratios like Ce/Pb, Cs/Tl, and Sr/Nd in the Central and Eastern Aleutians occurs after

  6. The role of helicopters in seabird censusing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; Buckley, F.G.; Schreiber, E.A.; Lee, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of fixed-wing, helicopter, photographic, vidoegraphic, and ground-count methods of surveying and censusing seabirds are described and compared. Critical terminology is distinguished, and use of small helicopters with multiple, trained observers is firmly recommended for work with diurnal, non-burrow-nesting seabirds in the West Indies and elsewhere. Details of how to use helicopters effectively are provided, along with recommendations for aerial photography, and for data recording, analysis, and presentation.

  7. Review of crustal seismicity in the Aleutian Arc and implications for arc deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, Natalia A.; Kozyreva, Natalia P.; Hansen, Roger A.

    2012-02-01

    Central and eastern Aleutian Arc is characterized by oblique convergence between the subducting Pacific and overriding Bering Plates. This results in westward arc translation and formation of rotating crustal blocks in the forearc. In 2006-2010 several moderate, shallow crustal earthquakes (up to magnitude 6.7) occurred in the region. These events are located about 150 km away from the trench, on the volcanic axis, and have either strike-slip (west of 174°W) or normal (east of 174°W) faulting mechanisms. We improve aftershock locations by applying precise relocation methods to aid in identifying preferred fault planes. We also review similar earthquakes that occurred prior to 2006. For the central Aleutian Arc we conclude that, while some of these events occurred along the boundaries of the rotating blocks, the majority are left-lateral strike-slip events on NW- to N-oriented fault planes in the unrotated Bering massif. These manifest Riedel shearing in response slip partitioning due to the oblique convergence. Normal faulting events in eastern Aleutian Arc reflect along-arc extension.

  8. 1980 breeding bird censuses

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.

  9. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  10. Census variation staffing.

    PubMed

    Douglas, D A; Mayewski, J

    1996-02-01

    A Census Variation Staffing (CVS) model has been used successfully on all nursing units for 4 years. Historical data and nursing hours per patient day (NHPPD) are used to determine the staffing needs of each unit on a daily, shift-by-shift basis. CVS has been heralded as the single largest factor in the hospital's consistent profitability--averaging annual savings of $485,100. PMID:8632867

  11. Aleutian mink disease: puzzles and paradigms.

    PubMed

    Bloom, M E; Kanno, H; Mori, S; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1994-12-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AD) is a naturally occurring persistent virus infection of mink caused by the Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). The classical form of AD, which occurs in adult mink, is notable for high titers of antiviral antibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, plasmacytosis, and immune complex disease. In addition, there is a progressive renal disease characterized by mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and severe interstitial nephritis. Development of AD depends on both host and viral factors, and mink of certain genotypes fail to develop progressive disease when inoculated with low-virulence strains of virus. In newborn mink kits, ADV causes a fatal, acute interstitial pneumonitis associated with permissive viral replication in alveolar type 2 cells, but treatment of newborn kits with anti-viral antibody aborts the acute disease and converts into one resembling the persistent infection observed in adults. In infected adult mink, ADV is sequestered as immune complexes in lymphoid organs, but actual viral replication is restricted at the level of the individual cell and can be detected in only a small population of macrophages and follicular dendritic cells. ADV infection of mink primary macrophages and the human macrophage cell line U937 is antibody dependent and leads to the production of the cytokine interleukin-6. Furthermore, levels of interleukin-6 are increased in lymph node culture supernatants from infected mink. Chronic production of interleukin-6 may promote development of the immune disorder characteristic of AD. PMID:7889316

  12. Massive edifice failure at Aleutian arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, M.L.; White, S.M.; Scholl, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    Along the 450-km-long stretch of the Aleutian volcanic arc from Great Sitkin to Kiska Islands, edifice failure and submarine debris-avalanche deposition have occurred at seven of ten Quaternary volcanic centers. Reconnaissance geologic studies have identified subaerial evidence for large-scale prehistoric collapse events at five of the centers (Great Sitkin, Kanaga, Tanaga, Gareloi, and Segula). Side-scan sonar data collected in the 1980s by GLORIA surveys reveal a hummocky seafloor fabric north of several islands, notably Great Sitkin, Kanaga, Bobrof, Gareloi, Segula, and Kiska, suggestive of landslide debris. Simrad EM300 multibeam sonar data, acquired in 2005, show that these areas consist of discrete large blocks strewn across the seafloor, supporting the landslide interpretation from the GLORIA data. A debris-avalanche deposit north of Kiska Island (177.6?? E, 52.1?? N) was fully mapped by EM300 multibeam revealing a hummocky surface that extends 40??km from the north flank of the volcano and covers an area of ??? 380??km2. A 24-channel seismic reflection profile across the longitudinal axis of the deposit reveals a several hundred-meter-thick chaotic unit that appears to have incised into well-bedded sediment, with only a few tens of meters of surface relief. Edifice failures include thin-skinned, narrow, Stromboli-style collapse as well as Bezymianny-style collapse accompanied by an explosive eruption, but many of the events appear to have been deep-seated, removing much of an edifice and depositing huge amounts of debris on the sea floor. Based on the absence of large pyroclastic sheets on the islands, this latter type of collapse was not accompanied by large eruptions, and may have been driven by gravity failure instead of magmatic injection. Young volcanoes in the central and western portions of the arc (177?? E to 175?? W) are located atop the northern edge of the ??? 4000-m-high Aleutian ridge. The position of the Quaternary stratocones relative to the

  13. 76 FR 14375 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department...) is giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The Committee will... appointed by the Director, U.S. Census Bureau. The Committee provides scientific and technical expertise,...

  14. 77 FR 52680 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of... giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The Committee will...-SAC are appointed by the Director, U.S. Census Bureau. The Committee provides scientific and...

  15. Dispersal and behavior of pacific halibut hippoglossus stenolepis in the bering sea and Aleutian islands region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, A.C.; Loher, T.; Norcross, B.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, it is assumed that eastern Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis belong to a single, fully mixed population extending from California through the Bering Sea, in which adult halibut disperse randomly throughout their range during their lifetime. However, we hypothesize that hali but dispersal is more complex than currently assumed and is not spatially random. To test this hypo thesis, we studied the seasonal dispersal and behavior of Pacific halibut in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). Pop-up Archival Transmitting tags attached to halibut (82 to 154 cm fork length) during the summer provided no evidence that individuals moved out of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region into the Gulf of Alaska during the mid-winter spawning season, supporting the concept that this region contains a separate spawning group of adult halibut. There was evidence for geographically localized groups of halibut along the Aleutian Island chain, as all of the individuals tagged there displayed residency, with their movements possibly impeded by tidal currents in the passes between islands. Mid-winter aggregation areas of halibut are assumed to be spawning grounds, of which 2 were previously unidentified and extend the species' presumed spawning range ~1000 km west and ~600 km north of the nearest documented spawning area. If there are indeed independent spawning groups of Pacific halibut in the BSAI, their dynamics may vary sufficiently from those of the Gulf of Alaska, so that specifically accounting for their relative segregation and unique dynamics within the larger population model will be necessary for correctly predicting how these components may respond to fishing pressure and changing environmental conditions.?? Inter-Research 2011.

  16. 76 FR 3089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands Crab Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  17. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... extension of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  18. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris along the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak and Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Erica N.; Piatt, John F.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Nelson, S. Kim; Williams, Jeffrey C.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is adapted for life in glacial-marine ecosystems, being concentrated in the belt of glaciated fjords in the northern Gulf of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Cook Inlet. Most of the remaining birds are scattered along coasts of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, where they reside in protected bays and inlets, often in proximity to remnant glaciers or recently deglaciated landscapes. We summarize existing information on Kittlitz's Murrelet in this mainly unglaciated region, extending from Kodiak Island in the east to the Near Islands in the west. From recent surveys, we estimated that ~2400 Kittlitz's Murrelets were found in several large embayments along the Alaska Peninsula, where adjacent ice fields feed silt-laden water into the bays. On Kodiak Island, where only remnants of ice remain today, observations of Kittlitz's Murrelets at sea were uncommon. The species has been observed historically around the entire Kodiak Archipelago, however, and dozens of nest sites were found in recent years. We found Kittlitz's Murrelets at only a few islands in the Aleutian chain, notably those with long complex shorelines, high mountains and remnant glaciers. The largest population (~1600 birds) of Kittlitz's Murrelet outside the Gulf of Alaska was found at Unalaska Island, which also supports the greatest concentration of glacial ice in the Aleutian Islands. Significant populations were found at Atka (~1100 birds), Attu (~800) and Adak (~200) islands. Smaller numbers have been reported from Unimak, Umnak, Amlia, Kanaga, Tanaga, Kiska islands, and Agattu Island, where dozens of nest sites have been located in recent years. Most of those islands have not been thoroughly surveyed, and significant pockets of Kittlitz's Murrelets may yet be discovered. Our estimate of ~6000 Kittlitz's Murrelets along the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands is also likely to be conservative because of the survey protocols we employed (i.e. early

  19. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose. This section's purpose is to implement the... Fishery Management Plan for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs pursuant to § 679.2...

  20. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose. This section's purpose is to implement the... Fishery Management Plan for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs pursuant to § 679.2...

  1. Understanding Who Reported Multiple Races in the U.S. Decennial Census: Results From Census 2000 and the 2010 Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nicholas A.; Bullock, Jungmiwha J.

    2013-01-01

    The United States's collection of race data in Census 2000 and the 2010 Census provides a historical and landmark opportunity to compare results from two decennial censuses on the distributions of people reporting multiple races in response to the census. This research provides insights on the number of people who reported more than one race and…

  2. Characterization of Aleutian disease virus as a parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1980-01-01

    We characterized a strain of Aleutian disease virus adapted to growth in Crandall feline kidney cells at 31.8 degrees C. When purified from infected cells, Aleutian disease virus had a density in CsCl of 1.42 to 1.44 g/ml and was 24 to 26 nm in diameter. [3H]thymidine could be incorporated into the viral genome, and the viral DNA was then studied. In alkaline sucrose gradients, Aleutian disease virus DNA was a single species that cosedimented at 15.5S with single-stranded DNA from adeno-associated virus. When the DNA was analyzed on neutral sucrose gradients, a single species was again observed, which sedimented at 21S and was clearly distinct from 16S duplex adeno-associated virus DNA. A similar result was obtained even after incubation under annealing conditions, implying that the bulk of Aleutian disease virus virions contained a single non-complementary strand with a molecular weight of about 1.4 X 10(6). In addition, two major virus-associated polypeptides with molecular weights of 89,100 and 77,600 were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of virus purified from infected cultures labeled with [35S]methionine. These data suggest that Aleutian disease virus is a nondefective parvovirus. Images PMID:6252342

  3. Evidence for a Great Aleutian Paleotsunami on Kaua`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R.; Bai, Y.; Burney, D. A.; Cheung, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands location amid the Pacific Ocean is threatened by tsunamis from great earthquakes in nearly all directions. Historical great earthquakes Mw>8.5 in the last 100 years have produced large inundations and loss of life in the Islands, but have not accounted for a substantial (>100 m^3) paleotsunami deposit in the Makauwahi sinkhole at Maha`ulepu on the Island of Kaua`i. High-resolution, digital elevation models of bathymetry and topography have been used in conjunction with a non-linear, hydrostatic tsunami model to simulate inundations from giant earthquakes in the Aleutian Islands and elsewhere to estimate the extent of tsunami threats to the State of Hawaii. We model the inundation of the sinkhole by an earthquake with a minimum moment-magnitude of Mw 9.2 located within the eastern Aleutians, where the tsunami energy is focused toward Hawaii. An alternative hypothesis wherein the deposit entered through a small cave entrance is not consistent with fine speleothems, intact in the cave, that pre-date the deposit. The results indicate that a giant earthquake in the eastern Aleutian Islands circa 1425-1665 AD, located between the source regions of the 1946 and 1957 great tsunamigenic earthquakes, generated a tsunami in Hawaii much larger than the historical record. A tsunami deposit in the Aleutians dated circa ~1550 AD is consistent with this eastern Aleutian source region.

  4. Episodes of aleutian ridge explosive volcanism.

    PubMed

    Hein, J R; Scholl, D W; Miller, J

    1978-01-13

    Earlier workers have overlooked deep-sea bentonite beds when unraveling the Cenozoic volcanic history of an area. In the North Pacific, identification of Miocene and older volcanic episodes is possible only if both altered (bentonite) and unaltered ash beds are recognized. Our study, which includes bentonite beds, shows that volcanism on the Aleutian Ridge and Kamchatka Peninsula has been cyclic. Volcanic activity seems to have increased every 2.5 x 10(6) years for the past 10 x 10(6) years and every 5.0 x 10(6) years for the time span from 10 to 20 x 10(6) years ago. The middle and late Miocene and the Quaternary were times of greatly increased volcanic activity in the North Pacific and elsewhere around the Pacific Basin. The apparent absence of a volcanic record before the late Miocene at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 192 is the result not of plate motion, as suggested by Stewart and by Ninkovich and Donn, but rather of the diagenesis of ash layers. Major, apparently global volcanic episodes occurred at least twice in the last 20 x 10(6) years. Yet, only one major glacial epoch (the Pleistocene) has occurred. Therefore, even though glaciation coincided with an increase in Quaternary volcanism, the increased volcanism itself may not have been the primary cause of global cooling.

  5. Criconematina (nematoda: tylenchida) from the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    A new genus (Cerchnotocriconema) and three new species (C. psephinum, Hemicycliophora anchitkaensis, and Paratylenchus amundseni) are described from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the Aleutian chain. The new genus differs from all other criconematid genera in having irregular, convex sculpturing consisting of small, oval plates on the anterior and posterior regions of each annule, with the mid-annular region minutely punctate or dentate. H. amchitkaensis n. sp. resembles H. sinilis Thorne and H. zuckermani Brzeski, but has only one head annule, instead of two. P. amundseni n. sp., which has a stylet 17 to 19 ..mu..m long, is similar to P. tatea Wu and Townsend and P. labiosus Anderson and Kimpinski, but differs by the presence of males and the possession of conoid-truncate lip region, functional spermatheca, and long male tail (c = 8.5 to 9.5). Seriespinula seymouri Wu (Mehta and Raski), Nothocriconema longulum (Gunhold) De Grisse and Loof, and Macroposthonia xenoplax (Raski) De Grisse and Loof are also reported from the islands.

  6. Episodes of Aleutian Ridge explosive volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Scholl, D. W.; Miller, J.

    1978-01-01

    Earlier workers have overlooked deep-sea bentonite beds when unraveling the Cenozoic volcanic history of an area. In the North Pacific, identification of Miocene and older volcanic episodes is possible only if both altered (bentonite) and unaltered ash beds are recognized. Our study, which includes bentonite beds, shows that volcanism on the Aleutian Ridge and Kamchatka Peninsula has been cyclic. Volcanic activity seems to have increased every 2.5 ?? 10 6 years for the past 10 ?? 106 years and every 5.0 ?? 106 years for the time span from 10 to 20 ?? 10 6 years ago. The middle and late Miocene and the Quaternary were times of greatly increased volcanic activity in the North Pacific and elsewhere around the Pacific Basin. The apparent absence of a volcanic record before the late Miocene at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 192 is the result not of plate motion, as suggested by Stewart and by Ninkovich and Donn, but rather of the diagenesis of ash layers. Major, apparently global volcanic episodes occurred at least twice in the last 20 ?? 106 years. Yet, only one major glacial epoch (the Pleistocene) has occurred. Therefore, even though glaciation coincided with an increase in Quaternary volcanism, the increased volcanism itself may not have been the primary cause of global cooling. Copyright ?? 1978 AAAS.

  7. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  8. 75 FR 38940 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  9. Census in Schools Educator Update, May 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census: The…

  10. It's About Us: 2010 Census in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau has created a Census in Schools program called 2010 Census: It's about Us. The program will provide educators with resources to teach the nation's students about the importance of the census so children can help deliver this message to their families. The program will engage America's youth to help ensure every child and…

  11. Census in Schools Educator Update, June 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census; (2)…

  12. 75 FR 10760 - 2010 Census Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    .... ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) is giving notice of a meeting of the 2010 Census Advisory Committee. The Committee will address policy, research, and technical issues related to 2010 Decennial Census Programs and the American Community Survey. Last- minute...

  13. Diverse deformation patterns of Aleutian volcanoes from InSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C.; Power, J.

    2008-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is capable of measuring ground-surface deformation with centimeter-to-subcentimeter precision at a spatial resolution of tens of meters over an area of hundreds to thousands of square kilometers. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, InSAR has become an increasingly important measurement technique for constraining magma dynamics of volcanoes over remote regions such as the Aleutian Islands. The spatial pattern of surface deformation data derived from InSAR images enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to enhance the study of magmatic processes. This paper summarizes the diverse deformation patterns of the Aleutian volcanoes observed with InSAR and demonstrates that deformation patterns and associated magma supply mechanisms in the Aleutians are diverse and vary between volcanoes. These findings provide a basis for improved models and better understanding of magmatic plumbing systems.

  14. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations.

  15. The Undercount in the 2000 Census. A Kids Count/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonston, Barry

    Every 10 years, the national census describes the number of U.S. residents and their characteristics. This decennial census, however, is subject to error. This report summarizes what is known about census undercount and methods used to adjust census data, emphasizing the undercount of children and minorities. The Census Bureau reported that more…

  16. Cascades/Aleutian Play Fairway Analysis: Data and Map Files

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Shevenell

    2015-11-15

    Contains Excel data files used to quantifiably rank the geothermal potential of each of the young volcanic centers of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs using world power production volcanic centers as benchmarks. Also contains shapefiles used in play fairway analysis with power plant, volcano, geochemistry and structural data.

  17. Seasonal and distributional patterns of seabirds along the Aleutian Archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renner, M.; Hunt, G.L.; Piatt, J.F.; Byrd, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is of global importance to seabirds during the northern summer, but little is known about seabird use of these waters during winter. We compare summer and winter abundances of seabirds around 3 islands: Buldir in the western, Kasatochi in the central, and Aiktak in the eastern Aleutians. The density of combined seabird biomass in nearshore marine waters was higher in summer than in winter at Buldir and Kasatochi, but was higher in winter at Aiktak, despite the departure of abundant migratory species. Comparing foraging guilds, we found that only piscivores increased at the western and central sites in winter, whereas at the eastern site several planktivorous species increased as well. The only planktivore remaining in winter at the central and western sites in densities comparable to summer densities was whiskered auklet Aethia pygmaea. Crested auklet Aethia cristatella and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia showed the greatest proportional winter increase at the eastern site. The seasonal patterns of the seabird communities suggest a winter breakdown of the copepod-based food web in the central and western parts of the archipelago, and a system that remains rich in euphausiids in the eastern Aleutians. We suggest that in winter crested auklets take the trophic role that short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris occupy during summer. We hypothesize that advection of euphausiids in the Aleutian North Slope Current is important for supporting the high biomass of planktivores that occupy the Unimak Pass region on a year-round basis. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  18. Unusual, High Genetic Diversity of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Anders; Mittelholzer, Christian; Treiberg Berndtsson, Louise; Lind, Lars; Mejerland, Torbjörn; Belák, Sándor

    1999-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) was examined. Sequences obtained from 35 clinical samples were compared with five published sequences. An unusual, high genetic variability was revealed. Three phylogenetic subgroups of AMDV were identified, and the presence of more than one genotype at some farms was detected. PMID:10565948

  19. Unusual, high genetic diversity of Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, A; Mittelholzer, C; Treiberg Berndtsson, L; Lind, L; Mejerland, T; Belák, S

    1999-12-01

    The genetic diversity of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) was examined. Sequences obtained from 35 clinical samples were compared with five published sequences. An unusual, high genetic variability was revealed. Three phylogenetic subgroups of AMDV were identified, and the presence of more than one genotype at some farms was detected. PMID:10565948

  20. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and

  1. Non-volcanic tremor in the Aleutian Islands captured by a mini-seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Prejean, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Aleutian Islands are an interesting place to study because of the presence of abundant seismicity, both subduction and volcano related. In addition to regular earthquakes, the Islands host both volcanic and non-volcanic tremor. To capture this rich variety of seismicity, we designed and installed a mini-seismic array on Akutan Island in 2012. Akutan is located in the eastern Aleutians just off the tip of the Alaska Peninsula, near the eastern edge of the 1957 Mw8.6 earthquake rupture zone. A mini-seismic array is particularly useful in this logistically challenging environment where land cover is limited. We recorded and analyzed about 2 months of data, and found both volcanic and non-volcanic events. Here we focus on non-volcanic tremor and its characteristics as captured by the Akutan array. Akutan Island and the surrounding area turn out to be prolific producers of tremor. An automatic beam-backprojection algorithm [Ghosh et al., 2009] detects almost daily tremor activity with durations ranging from several minutes to more than 3.5 hours. On average, beam-backprojection detects 1.3 hours of tremor activity per day and in total, it detects about 5 times more duration of tremor activity compared to a visual check for tremor signal using the existing seismic network. We observe tremor sources both west and east of the Akutan array. Western sources are the most active ones and their slowness parameters are consistent with the locations of low-frequency earthquakes detected by Brown et al., 2013. The eastern source area has not been identified previously and appears to be active for only a few times during this study, but shows continuous activity for several hours. In addition, we observe temporal evolution of slowness parameters consistent with steady tremor migration. Moreover, low frequency earthquakes with impulsive body wave phases are identified within the tremor signal. They show S-minus-P times consistent with their being located at the model plate

  2. Population census and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Kalibova, K

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses the difficulties involved in collecting data on nationality in population censuses, as well as problems of international comparability of such data. Examples are provided from the Czech and Slovak Republics, Europe, and selected immigration states, including the United States, Canada, and Australia. (ANNOTATION)

  3. Introduction to Extracting and Mapping Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Katherine S.; Rieger, Oya Y.

    1995-01-01

    Because the publication of census data on CD-ROM has expanded the capabilities of users, librarians need to consider issues involved in providing census and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) services, selecting GIS software, and providing user support. (JMV)

  4. 78 FR 12033 - Census Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... other activities to ascertain needs and best practices to improve censuses, surveys, operations, and... census data can best be disseminated to diverse race and ethnic populations and other users....

  5. Identification of a nonvirion protein of Aleutian disease virus: mink with Aleutian disease have antibody to both virion and nonvirion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1982-01-01

    We studied Aleutian disease virus polypeptides in Crandall feline kidney (CRFK) cells. When CRFK cells labeled with [35S]methionine at 60 h postinfection were studied by immunoprecipitation with sera from infected mink, the major Aleutian disease virus virion polypeptides (p85 and p75) were consistently identified, as was a 71,000-dalton nonvirion protein (p71). The peptide maps of p85 and p75 were similar, but the map of p71 was different. p85, p75, and p71 were all precipitated by sera from Aleutian disease virus-infected mink, including those with signs of progressive disease, but heterologous sera raised against purified Aleutian disease virus did not precipitate the nonvirion p71. These results indicated that the nonvirion p71 was unrelated to p85 and p75 and further suggested that mink infected with Aleutian disease virus develop antibody to nonvirion, as well as structural, viral proteins. Images PMID:6287034

  6. 78 FR 19446 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a Virtual Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The Bureau of the Census (U.S. Census Bureau) is giving notice of a virtual meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (CSAC). The CSAC..., demography, economics, geography, psychology, survey methodology, social and behavioral sciences,...

  7. Census in Schools Educator Update, February 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter includes the following items: (1) Have You Seen the Census…

  8. Census Concepts in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Leah

    1989-01-01

    Presents guidelines teachers may use to develop a series of interdisciplinary lessons on the census for elementary students. Offers rationale for teaching about the census,and outlines social studies objectives that can be met by census activities. Provides ideas for primary and intermediate level activities. (LS)

  9. 75 FR 58353 - 2010 Census Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... meeting of the 2010 Census Advisory Committee. The Committee will address policy, research, and technical issues related to 2010 Decennial Census Programs and the American Community Survey. Last- minute changes... goals of the Decennial Census, including the American Community Survey and related programs, and...

  10. Religious intermix: 1996 census update.

    PubMed

    Gariano, A C; Rutland, S D

    1997-01-01

    "Intermarriage between partners of different religious identification is an important indicator of the extent of cultural maintenance. An analysis of the 1996 Census shows that religious intermix is significant and growing amongst Australia's major Catholic and Protestant faiths. The once strong divisions between Catholics and Protestants are fading. However, amongst minor religions, intermix is low. It is particularly low amongst Jews, Moslems, Hindus and Greek Orthodox adherents." PMID:12293215

  11. Geology and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the medium- to high-K Tanaga volcanic cluster, western Aleutians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jicha, Brian R.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Singer, Brad S.

    2012-01-01

    We used geologic mapping and geochemical data augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating to establish an eruptive chronology for the Tanaga volcanic cluster in the western Aleutian arc. The Tanaga volcanic cluster is unique in comparison to other central and western Aleutian volcanoes in that it consists of three closely spaced, active, volumetrically significant edifices (Sajaka, Tanaga, and Takawangha), the eruptive products of which have unusually high K2O contents. Thirty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained in two different laboratories constrain the duration of Pleistocene–Holocene subaerial volcanism to younger than 295 ka. The eruptive activity has been mostly continuous for the last 150 k.y., unlike most other well-characterized arc volcanoes, which tend to grow in discrete pulses. More than half of the analyzed Tanaga volcanic cluster lavas are basalts that have erupted throughout the lifetime of the cluster, although a considerable amount of basaltic andesite and basaltic trachyandesite has also been produced since 200 ka. Major- and trace-element variations suggest that magmas from Sajaka and Tanaga volcanoes are likely to have crystallized pyroxene and/or amphibole at greater depths than the older Takawangha magmas, which experienced a larger percentage of plagioclase-dominated fractionation at shallower depths. Magma output from Takawangha has declined over the last 86 k.y. At ca. 19 ka, the focus of magma flux shifted to the west beneath Tanaga and Sajaka volcanoes, where hotter, more mafic magma erupted.

  12. Geography and Public Participation in the Arts: U.S. Census Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, Lee

    2005-01-01

    This report describes public participation in the arts across the four U.S. census regions: the Northeast, the Midwest, the West, and the South. It incorporates data from the 1982, 1992, and 2002 Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts, as well as secondary data on regional demographics, the arts landscape, and consumer spending. In…

  13. 76 FR 43933 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  14. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  15. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  16. 75 FR 69600 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  17. Female fertility, by population censuses.

    PubMed

    Rasevic, M

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the trends in fertility in Serbia and Montenegro in Yugoslavia in decades between 1948 and 1981 by age, marital status, educational attainment, ethnic affiliation, and economic status. People born at the turn of the century, who reported data in 1981, gave birth to an average of 3.6 children. People born 25-30 years later had an average of 2.45 children. In Kosovo and Metohja provinces, fertility of older women was lower than younger women. 1991 Census data is incomplete, but tentative findings indicate that low natality regions continued to show fertility decline. The average number of live born children (LBC) among women older than 50 was smaller in 1991 compared to 1981. Montenegro cumulative fertility (CF) did not decline as fast as in low natality regions of Serbia and was higher than in Serbia and Vojvodina. CF was lowest among unmarried women in Montenegro compared to low natality regions of Serbia, and Kosovo and Metohja. Most women stopped bearing children by the age of 29 in Serbia and Vojvodina and by age 39 in Montenegro. The average number of LBC per women of reproductive age was about 2.3 live births per woman 35-49 years old in 1981, which was smaller than in earlier censuses. In Kosovo and Metohija, the LBC per woman 35-39 years old was 5.11 in 1981, which was larger than in earlier censuses. In 1991, evidence suggests that fertility decline slowed considerably in Serbia proper and Vojvodina at below 2.0. Childlessness and CF among women older than 50 varied by region. Less developed regions and Albanian, Muslim, and gypsy women had the highest fertility. The highest decrease in fertility was among women without any education. The negative relationship between fertility and education was weaker in low fertility regions and stronger in high fertility ones. The highest CF was among agricultural households.

  18. A new sea star of the genus Leptasterias (Asteroidea: Asteriidae) from the Aleutian Islands.

    PubMed

    Clark, Roger N; Jewett, Stephen C

    2015-04-02

    A new species of asteriid sea star of the genus Leptasterias (Order Forcipulatida) is described from the nearshore waters of the Aleutian Islands. Leptaterias tatei sp. nov. is distinguished from Leptasterias stolacantha Fisher, 1930, by the characteristics of the spines and pedicellariae. Geographic distribution is discussed and a key to the five-rayed Leptasterias of the Aleutian Islands is provided.

  19. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  20. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  1. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  2. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  4. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  7. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  9. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  10. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  11. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  13. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  14. Algorithms for reengineering 1991 census geography.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, S; Rao, L

    1995-03-01

    "The availability of GIS [geographic information systems] technology and digital boundaries of census output areas now makes it possible for users to design their own census geography. Three algorithms are described that can be used for this purpose. An Arc/Info implementation is briefly outlined and case studies presented to demonstrate some of the results of explicitly designing zoning systems for use with 1991 [U.K.] census data." PMID:12346252

  15. Demonstration of Aleutian disease virus-specific lymphocyte response in mink with progressive Aleutian disease: comparison of sapphire and pastel mink infected with different virus strains.

    PubMed

    Race, R E; Bloom, M E; Coe, J E

    1983-09-01

    Lymphocyte blastogenesis was used to study the antiviral lymphocyte response of sapphire (Aleutian) and pastel (nonAleutian) mink inoculated with Pullman or Utah 1 Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Both mink genotypes developed a virus-specific response when inoculated with Utah 1 ADV. In contrast, after inoculation of Pullman ADV, sapphire mink had a positive virus-specific response, whereas pastel mink did not. Response occurred late after infection (8 wk) and correlated with the development of progressive Aleutian disease (AD). The response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and concanavalin A (Con A) was also determined. Most mink of either genotype, inoculated with either virus strain, maintained an anti-KLH response during disease. Most mink also responded to Con A, although some exhibited suppressed Con A response late in the disease course. These results indicated that mink develop an anti-ADV lymphocyte response during progressive AD and are not immunosuppressed with regard to other antigens or mitogens.

  16. Tremor and plate coupling in the eastern Aleutians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wech, A.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Tectonic tremor has been observed in numerous places along the 2500 km of the Alaska subduction zone. Though not as evidently ubiquitous as in other subduction zones, some tremor activity coincided with a large slow slip event on the mainland that occurred between 1998 and 2001 [Peterson and Christensen, 2009], and there are reports of several instances of tremor along the Aleutian arc [Peterson et al., 2011; Brown et al., 2013]. However, because these studies have focused on the characterization of manually detected tremors, the full extent of where, when and how much tremor activity occurs along the margin remains unknown, along with its role in subduction. Here we perform a systematic search for tectonic tremor activity along the margin. Starting in the eastern Aleutian Islands, a 'sweet spot' known for persistent tectonic tremor (ambient and triggered), we apply an automated method to detect and locate tremor and find a nearly daily occurrence of short-duration (<20 min) ambient tremor. In 18 months of data, we find the tremor to concentrate in 3 distinct zones of activity, occurring where the plate is 50-70 km deep. Constraints on tremor depths and along-dip locations are inhibited by the linear Aleutian station geometry, but epicenters lie trenchward of the islands and are resolved well enough to be distinguished from volcanic activity. We compare these results with geodetic observations. Time histories of each of the tremor patches show nearly daily activity in the region with an along strike change in tremor rate coincident with a change in updip coupling inferred from GPS. To the southwest, downdip of where the plate is locked, the total tremor activity is half that of the northeast-most patch where the plate is unlocked updip. We suggest that this updip transition in plate coupling is controlling the tremor behavior downdip, and that the most active tremor patch is experiencing more activity because of the additional loading from above.

  17. Eastern Aleutian volcanic arc digital model - version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Barnett, Adrienne

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional model (Figure 1) of the interaction of oceanic and continental tectonic plates along the eastern portion of the Aleutian volcanic arc helps in the visualization of basic tectonic, geodetic, and geophysical data in this active plate boundary region. The model is constrained by topographic, bathymetric, and seismic data and by the principle of isostasy. Examination of free-air gravity anomalies over the region indicates where the flexural strength of the down-going oceanic slab disturbs local isostatic balance and where low-density sediments have accumulated in the trench and forearc regions.

  18. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Observations of Seafloor Outcrops in the Oblique Subduction Setting of Adak Canyon: Implications for Understanding the Early History of the Aleutian Island Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogodzinski, G.; Scholl, D.; Jicha, B.; Wyatt, C.; Singer, B.; Kelemen, P.

    2004-12-01

    Submarine canyons in the western Aleutians (west of 177°W) are formed by oblique subduction, which has broken crustal blocks away from the arc massif and rotated them in clockwise sense, resulting in the formation of triangular-shaped summit basins and deep, structurally controlled submarine canyons (Geist et al., Tectonics v7, p327, 1988). A series of dives with the ROV Jason II on July 28-30, 2004 on Adak Canyon has provided the first-ever view of seafloor outcrops in an Aleutian canyon formed by this process. Two dives on the canyon's steep eastern wall revealed extensive exposures of blocky outcrops of volcanic rock at depths of 2900-1500 m. Samples of these units collected by the Jason II are a mixture of dark, pyroxene and plagioclase-phyric lavas and volcaniclastics. Degree of weathering/alteration is highly variable but some samples appear fresh. We anticipate that these rocks are offshore-equivalents of the Finger Bay Volcanics, which represent the earliest phase of Aleutian volcanism exposed on nearby Adak Island (e.g., Coats, 1956, USGS Bull. 1028-C). Exposures of granitic rock in Adak Canyon form low ledges of exfoliating outcrop interspersed with spheroidally weathered, bouldery sub-crop, in the depth range of 1800-1600 meters. Obtaining in-situ samples from these massive and subrounded exposures was not possible with the Jason II, but recovery of large, sub-angular slabs that litter the surface included samples of fresh diorite, fine-grained felsic intrusives and hydrothermally altered volcanic country rock. The stratigraphically highest exposures observed in Adak Canyon are gently dipping, poorly lithified `Middle Series' sedimentary rocks of probable Miocene-Oligocene age. All outcrop surfaces in Adak Canyon are covered with a uniformly dark brown, opaque coating of Mn oxide less than 1mm thick. Well-rounded cobbles and boulders interpreted to be glacial drift are largely free of Mn oxide coatings. Thick pavements of Mn-oxide were not observed

  1. Public Service Announcement about the 1940 Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Zarr, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In late 1939, the United States Bureau of the Census was gearing up for the 16th official enumeration, or count, of the nation's population. Authorities wanted to insure widespread participation. So, they made good use of some information revealed in the 1930 Census--namely that roughly 40 percent of American households had a radio set. In…

  2. Census in Schools Educator Update, January 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Census in Schools" newsletter contains the following articles: (1) 2010 Census; (2) Your State is a Winner; (3) "What High School Teachers Need to Know"--Handbook for Teachers About the American Community Survey; (4) February is Black (African-American) History Month; and (5) Educational Attainment and School Enrollment in 2007.

  3. 75 FR 17835 - Census Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8018 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am... Proclamation 8488--Census Day, 2010 Proclamation 8489--National Cancer Control Month, 2010 Proclamation 8490...; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8488 of March 31, 2010 Census Day, 2010 By the...

  4. Tools for Looking at Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Leah; Giese, James

    1989-01-01

    Shows how census data illustrated in pie charts, bar graphs, line graphs, and a map can be used in teaching students to read and interpret large amounts of information about the community, state, and country. Provides examples from "An Advance Look at the 1990 Census" (World Eagle) and suggests activities and discussion questions. (LS)

  5. Control of Christmas holiday census and staffing.

    PubMed

    Latham, J; Fagan, J

    1979-10-01

    Most hospitals experience decreased census during certain holiday periods. The costs related to keeping units open during these periods are major problems for nursing administrators. This article describes a holiday staffing plan that addresses the personal needs of staff and the need to control operations. The same principles may apply at other low census periods such as during summer months, vacation periods, or strikes.

  6. GLORIA side-scan imagery of Aleutian basin, Bering Sea slope and Abyssal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.R.; Cooper, A.K.; Gardner, J.V.; Karl, H.A.; Marlow, M.S.; Stevenson, A.J.; Huggett, Q.; Kenyon, N.; Parson, L.

    1987-05-01

    During July-September 1986, about 700,000 km/sup 2/ of continental slope and abyssal plain of the Aleutian basin, Bering Sea, were insonified with GLORIA (Geological Long Range Inclined Asdic) side-scane sonar. A sonar mosaic displays prominent geomorphic features including the massive submarine canyons of the Beringian and the northern Aleutian Ridge slopes and shows well-defined sediment patterns including large deep-sea channels and fan systems on the Aleutian basin abyssal plain. Dominant erosional and sediment transport processes on both the Beringian and the Aleutian Ridge slopes include varieties of mass movement that range from small debris flows and slides to massive slides and slumps of blocks measuring kilometers in dimension. Sediment-flow patterns that appear to be formed by sheet flow rather than channelized flow extend basinward from the numerous canyons and gullies that incise the slopes of the Beringian margin and of Bowers Ridge and some places along the Aleutian Ridge. These Beringian and Bowers canyon sediment sources, however, appear to have contributed less modern sediment to the Aleutian basin than the large, well-defined channel systems that emanate from Bering, Umnak, and Amchitka submarine canyons and extend for several hundred kilometers across the abyssal plain. This GLORIA imagery emphasizes the important contribution of the Aleutian Ridge to modern sedimentation in the deep Bering Sea.

  7. 15 CFR 90.2 - Policy of the Census Bureau.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING POPULATION ESTIMATES § 90.2 Policy of the Census Bureau. It is the policy of the Census Bureau to provide the most accurate population estimates...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Wu, Wei; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Hailing; Bai, Xue; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Xijun

    2014-05-12

    Aleutian mink disease (mink plasmacytosis) is a very severe immune-complex-mediated disease affecting minks. It is caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). To obtain a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in China, a total of 420 samples were collected from mink farms in five major mink-farming provinces in China. After testing serum antibodies using counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), 23 of the 340 positive samples were randomly selected and analyzed. The full length of the major structural protein gene (VP2) from all the samples was amplified and sequenced. The sequences in the twenty-three samples from 5 farms in 5 provinces were phylogenetically analyzed, and eleven were found to have homologous sequences in GenBank. A rooted phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic (UPGMA) method. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AMDV strains formed five groups (I-VI), and four of them contained Chinese strains. The tree showed that the two AMVD lineages had been introduced to China independently. Over 70% of the Chinese isolates were classified into two groups, all of which contained Chinese strains. The results of the analysis suggested that the distribution of the AMDV strains was not based on geographical origin, and both indigenous AMDV and imported AMDV were prevalent in the primary mink production areas in China. PMID:24561116

  9. Sea otter population declines in the Aleutian Archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doroff, Angela; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Burn, Douglas M.; Evans, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations were exploited to near extinction and began to recover after the cessation of commercial hunting in 1911. Remnant colonies of sea otters in the Aleutian archipelago were among the first to recover; they continued to increase through the 1980s but declined abruptly during the 1990s. We conducted an aerial survey of the Aleutian archipelago in 2000 and compared results with similar surveys conducted in 1965 and 1992. The number of sea otters counted decreased by 75% between 1965 and 2000; 88% for islands at equilibrial density in 1965. The population decline likely began in the mid-1980s and declined at a rate of 17.5%/year in the 1990s. The minimal population estimate was 8,742 sea otters in 2000. The population declined to a uniformly low density in the archipelago, suggesting a common and geographically widespread cause. These data are in general agreement with the hypothesis of increased predation on sea otters. These data chronicle one of the most widespread and precipitous population declines for a mammalian carnivore in recorded history.

  10. 6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated the skins while they soaked in brine. The skins were then hung to dry. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  11. 5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was used for moving skins around plant by way of an overhead track. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  12. 7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, skins were rolled in borax and packed into barrels, such as those seen in background. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  13. Roles of magmatic oxygen fugacity and water content in generating signatures of continental crust in the Alaska-Aleutian arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.; Brounce, M. N.; Gentes, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Early depletion of Fe during magmatic differentiation is a characteristic of many arc magmas, and this may drive them towards the bulk composition of continental crust. In the Alaska-Aleutian arc, magmas are strongly Fe-depleted both in the east, where the arc sits atop pre-existing continental crust, and in the west, where the system is oceanic but convergence is highly oblique. Primary basaltic arc magmas may achieve early Fe depletion through a combination of high magmatic H2O, which delays silicate saturation, and high oxygen fugacity (fO2), which promotes early onset of Fe-oxide crystallization. Alternatively, low-Fe, high Mg# magmas may emerge directly from the arc mantle, possibly due to slab melting, driving mixing with Fe-rich basaltic magmas. Yet, the relative importance of H2O, fO2, and magmatic bulk composition in generating Fe-depletion is not clearly resolved. Here, we present new measurements of the oxidation state of Fe (Fe3+/∑Fe ratio; a proxy for magmatic fO2), in combination with major element and volatile data, of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from four Alaska-Aleutian arc volcanoes (Okmok, Seguam, Korovin, Augustine), acquired using XANES spectroscopy. We use the Tholeiitic Index (THI) of Zimmer et al., 2010 to quantify the behavior of Fe in each volcano magma series (<1 is Fe-depleted, >1 is Fe-enriched). These volcanoes span a range of THI, from 0.9-0.65. The Fe3+/∑Fe ratios of Aleutian basalts, corrected for fractional crystallization to 6 wt.% MgO (i.e., Fe3+/∑Fe6.0) range from 0.22-0.31 and correlate strongly with THI (r2>0.99), such that more Fe-depleted magmas contain a greater proportion of oxidized Fe. The maximum dissolved H2O contents of basaltic melt inclusions from these volcanoes also strongly correlate with THI (r2>0.96), and with measured Fe3+/∑Fe ratios (although H2O is not the direct cause of oxidation). These links point to a slab-derived origin of both H2O and oxidation and thus relate slab fluxes to the Fe

  14. Tsunami recurrence in the eastern Alaska-Aleutian arc: A Holocene stratigraphic record from Chirikof Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard; Dura, Tina; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Forman, S.L.; Vane, Christopher H.; Kelley, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the role of the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust as the source of some of the largest earthquakes and tsunamis, the history of its pre–twentieth century tsunamis is largely unknown west of the rupture zone of the great (magnitude, M 9.2) 1964 earthquake. Stratigraphy in core transects at two boggy lowland sites on Chirikof Island’s southwest coast preserves tsunami deposits dating from the postglacial to the twentieth century. In a 500-m-long basin 13–15 m above sea level and 400 m from the sea, 4 of 10 sandy to silty beds in a 3–5-m-thick sequence of freshwater peat were probably deposited by tsunamis. The freshwater peat sequence beneath a gently sloping alluvial fan 2 km to the east, 5–15 m above sea level and 550 m from the sea, contains 20 sandy to silty beds deposited since 3.5 ka; at least 13 were probably deposited by tsunamis. Although most of the sandy beds have consistent thicknesses (over distances of 10–265 m), sharp lower contacts, good sorting, and/or upward fining typical of tsunami deposits, the beds contain abundant freshwater diatoms, very few brackish-water diatoms, and no marine diatoms. Apparently, tsunamis traveling inland over low dunes and boggy lowland entrained largely freshwater diatoms. Abundant fragmented diatoms, and lake species in some sandy beds not found in host peat, were probably transported by tsunamis to elevations of >10 m at the eastern site. Single-aliquot regeneration optically stimulated luminescence dating of the third youngest bed is consistent with its having been deposited by the tsunami recorded at Russian hunting outposts in 1788, and with the second youngest bed being deposited by a tsunami during an upper plate earthquake in 1880. We infer from stratigraphy, 14C-dated peat deposition rates, and unpublished analyses of the island’s history that the 1938 tsunami may locally have reached an elevation of >10 m. As this is the first record of Aleutian tsunamis extending throughout the Holocene, we

  15. Fault trends on the seaward slope of the Aleutian Trench: Implications for a laterally changing stress field tied to a westward increase in oblique convergence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Scholl, D. W.; Carlson, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Normal faults along the seaward trench slope (STS) commonly strike parallel to the trench in response to bending of the oceanic plate into the subduction zone. This is not the circumstance for the Aleutian Trench, where the direction of convergence gradually changes westward, from normal to transform motion. GLORIA side-scan sonar images document that the Aleutian STS is dominated by faults striking oblique to the trench, west of 179??E and east of 172??W. These images also show a pattern of east-west trending seafloor faults that are aligned parallel to the spreading fabric defined by magnetic anomalies. The stress-strain field along the STS is divided into two domains west and east, respectively, of 179??E. Over the western domain, STS faults and nodal planes of earthquakes are oriented oblique (9??-46??) to the trench axis and (69??-90??) to the magnetic fabric. West of 179??E, STS fault strikes change by 36?? from the E-W trend of STS where the trench-parallel slip gets larger than its orthogonal component of convergence. This rotation indicates that horizontal stresses along the western domain of the STS are deflected by the increasing obliquity in convergence. An analytical model supports the idea that strikes of STS faults result from a superposition of stresses associated with the dextral shear couple of the oblique convergence and stresses caused by plate bending. For the eastern domain, most nodal planes of earthquakes strike parallel to the outer rise, indicating bending as the prevailing mechanism causing normal faulting. East of 172??W, STS faults strike parallel to the magnetic fabric but oblique (10??-26??) to the axis of the trench. On the basis of a Coulomb failure criterion the trench-oblique strikes probably result from reactivation of crustal faults generated by spreading. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Identifying potential habitat for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duarte, Adam; Wolcott, Daniel M.; Chow, T. Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The Aleutian shield fern Polystichum aleuticum is endemic to the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska and is listed as endangered pursuant to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite numerous efforts to discover new populations of this species, only four known populations are documented to date, and information is needed to prioritize locations for future surveys. Therefore, we incorporated topographical habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, aspect, distance from coastline, and anthropogenic footprint) found at known Aleutian shield fern locations into a Geographical Information System (GIS) model to create a habitat suitability map for the entirety of the Andreaonof Islands. A total of 18 islands contained 489.26 km2 of highly suitable and moderately suitable habitat when weighting each factor equally. This study reports a habitat suitability map for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics, which can be used to assist current and future recovery efforts for the species.

  17. Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2014 workforce census

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Philip L.; James, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This paper reports the key findings of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology 2014 workforce census and compares the results with earlier surveys. Methods The census was conducted in mid‐2014 with distribution to all radiation oncologists, educational affiliates and trainees listed on the college database. There were six email reminders and responses were anonymous. The overall response rate was 76.1%. Results The age range of fellows was 32–96 (mean = 49 years, median = 47 years). The majority of the radiation oncologists were male (n = 263, 63%). The minority of radiation oncologists were of Asian descent (n = 43, 13.4%). Radiation oncologists graduated from medical school on average 23 years ago (median = 22 years). A minority of fellows (n = 66, 20%) held another postgraduate qualification. Most radiation oncologists worked, on average, at two practices (median = 2, range 1–7). Practising radiation oncologists worked predominantly in the public sector (n = 131, 49%), but many worked in both the public and private sectors (n = 94, 37%), and a minority worked in the private sector only (n = 38, 14%). The largest proportion of the workforce was from New South Wales accounting for 29% of radiation oncologists. Radiation oncologists worked an average of 43 h/week (median = 43 h, range 6–80). Radiation oncologists who worked in the private sector worked less hours than their public sector or public/private sector colleagues. (38.3 vs. 42.9 vs. 44.3 h, P = 0.042). Victorians worked the fewest average hours per week at 38 h and West Australians the most at 46 h/week. Radiation oncologists averaged 48 min for each new case, 17 min per follow up and 11 min for a treatment review. Radiation oncologists averaged 246 new patients per year (median = 250, range = 20–600) with men (average = 268), Western Australians (average = 354) and those in private practice seeing

  18. 78 FR 49725 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Committee has been established in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Title 5, United States... upon arrival at the Census Bureau on the day of the meeting. A photo ID must be presented in order...

  19. 76 FR 2646 - 2010 Census Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... been established in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Title 5, United States Code..., please call 301-763-9906 upon arrival at the Census Bureau on the day of the meeting. A photo ID must...

  20. A Census of Past and Present Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, N. Gary

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an accounting of known numbers of major categories of life, from viruses to mammals. The construction of the census is described. Included are living and nonliving species and genera. (CW)

  1. 78 FR 66681 - Census Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Populations (NAC). The committee will address census policies, research and methodology, tests, operations... not allowed beyond the first floor. Dated: October 31, 2013. John H. Thompson, Director, Bureau of...

  2. Surface wind characteristics of some Aleutian Islands. [for selection of windpowered machine sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentink, T., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The wind power potential of Alaska is assessed in order to determine promising windpower sites for construction of wind machines and for shipment of wind derived energy. Analyses of near surface wind data from promising Aleutian sites accessible by ocean transport indicate probable velocity regimes and also present deficiencies in available data. It is shown that winds for some degree of power generation are available 77 percent of the time in the Aleutians with peak velocities depending on location.

  3. Interpretation of broad-band seismograms from central Aleutian earthquakes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, E.R.; Kind, R.

    1986-01-01

    Broad-band Graefenberg (GRF) array data from 11 moderate-size shallow-depth earthquakes in the central Aleutians have been used to study the effects of focal depth and structure across the arc on observed waveforms. The theoretical results, primarily phase arrival times, suggest that arc structure is responsible for many of the complicated features seen on vertical-component summation seismograms simulated with different instrument responses from the broad-band array data. Except for one trench event, all the earthquakes studied occurred along the plate interface zone, had similar thrust focal mechanisms, and differed only in depth. As a result, the effects of depth phases on observed GRF waveforms across the arc were found to be systematically related to the increase in focal depth along the shallow-dipping seismic zone. -from Authors

  4. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-09-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink.

  8. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    PubMed Central

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-01-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink. PMID:6193063

  9. Origins of linguistic diversity in the Aleutian Islands.

    PubMed

    Berge, Anna

    2010-12-01

    The Aleut language, currently spoken along the Aleutian chain and the Pribilof and Commander islands, is the only language in its branch of the Eskimo-Aleut language family, and traditional methods of linguistic reconstruction have neither satisfactorily explained its relationship with languages on the Asian continent nor its development from Proto-Eskimo-Aleut. Linguistic reconstruction has always been important in understanding the prehistory and history of the Aleuts, and new approaches in comparative linguistics, more comprehensive information on typological features of neighboring languages, and continuing language documentation allow us to propose a rich and continuous history of contact with various groups of people. I evaluate evidence that the Aleut language may have been shaped by contact with neighbors in Asia and Alaska, eventually giving rise to its differentiation from the Eskimo languages. I look at dialect differentiation along the Aleutian chain and what this differentiation reveals about the migration trends of the Aleut along the chain. I look at the colonial expansion of the Aleut-speaking area and resulting additional varieties of Aleut in the historical period. Finally, I review the effects of the Russian and American colonial periods on the Aleut language and the severe endangerment that the language faces today as a result. I conclude that there is evidence of possible Aleut contact with both neighboring peoples; however, much of this evidence has not yet been subjected to systematic comparative reconstructions. Linguistic evidence supports theories of at least two westward expansions of Aleuts along the island chain, but it is not yet clear what motivated the dialect differentiations. Finally, I offer some thoughts on directions for future dialect studies and the continuing documentation of Aleut. PMID:21417884

  10. 75 FR 29508 - The 2010 Census Count Question Resolution Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Bureau, Washington, DC 20233. Telephone: 301-763-7310; FAX: 301-763-8327 or e-mail: dmd_cqr@census.gov... electronically to dmd.cqr@census.gov . 2. Will the Census Bureau Make Corrections to the Census Counts Based...

  11. Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Jason G.

    This publication provides census questionnaires and instructions for decennial censuses beginning in 1790 and ending in 2000. It also presents a history of the decennial censuses from 1790 to 2000 and offers individual histories of the U.S. census from the first (1790) to the sixteenth (1940). The publication discusses the seventeenth (1950),…

  12. The evolution of forearc structures along an oblique convergent margin, central Aleutian Arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Scholl, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection data were used to determine the evolutionary history of the forearc region of the central Aleutian Ridge. Since at least late Miocene time this sector of the ridge has been obliquely underthrust 30?? west of orthogonal convergence by the northwestward converging Pacific plate at a rate of 80-90 km/m.y. Our data indicate that prior to late Eocene time the forearc region was composed of rocks of the arc massif thinly mantled by slope deposits. Beginning in latest Miocene or earliest Pliocene time, a zone of outer-arc structural highs and a forearc basin began to form. Initial structures of the zone of outer-arc highs formed as the thickening wedge underran, compressively deformed, and uplifted the seaward edge of the arc massive above a landward dipping backstop thrust. Forearc basin strata ponded arcward of the elevating zone of outer-arc highs. However, most younger structures of the zone of outer-arc highs cannot be ascribed simply to the orthogonal effects of an underrunning wedge. Oblique convergence created a major right-lateral shear zone (the Hawley Ridge shear zone) that longitudinally disrupted the zone of outer-arc highs, truncating the seaward flank of the forearc basin and shearing the southern limb of Hawley Ridge, an exceptionally large antiformal outer-arc high structure. Uplift of Hawley Ridge may be related to the thickening of the arc massif by westward directed basement duplexes. Great structural complexity, including the close juxtaposition of coeval structures recording compression, extension, differential vertical movements, and strike-slip displacement, should be expected, even within areas of generally kindred tectonostratigraphic terranes. -from Authors

  13. Using the New Racial Categories in the 2000 Census: A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon M.

    This report addresses issues that data users will face in using, interpreting, and presenting new data on race from the 2000 census, which allowed multiple racial responses. Changing how the census collects data on race is not new. Almost every census for the past 200 years has collected racial data differently than the previous census. New…

  14. 2010 Census: It's in Our Hands. What Educators Need to Know about the 2010 Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Constitution requires a national census once every 10 years. The census is a count of everyone (all ages, races, ethnic groups, both citizens and non-citizens) residing in the United States: in all 50 states, Washington D.C., Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa.…

  15. Two hundred years and counting: the 1990 census.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1989-04-01

    On April 1, 1990, the US will take a national census, marking 200 years of census taking in America. A national census has been taken every 10 years in the US since 1790. Mandated by the US Constitution, the decennial census is the basis for reapportionment of the House of Representatives. California, Texas, and Florida are expected to gain the most Congressional seats following the 1990 Census, reflecting above-average population growth in these states. The census also provides important information about the characteristics of the American people, and a growing number of federal, state and local government programs, private corporations, and community agencies use census data. Each census provides a portrait of America, and over the decades these portraits have revealed much about how our country has changed as we have grown from a young agrarian nation of about 4 million people clustered along the Eastern seaboard to a complex post-industrial society of nearly 250 million spread across the continent and beyond. Techniques for taking the census have steadily improved over the past 2 centuries. The 1990 Census will rely heavily on computerization in all its aspects, including field operations, processing, geography, data tabulations, and products. It is likely to be the most accurate census in our history. The 1990 Census is already the subject of a lawsuit, however, charging that minority groups will be counted less completely than the white population. A series of similar lawsuits followed the 1980 Census, but all were unsuccessful. This Bulletin discusses the Census Bureau's plans for taking the 1990 Census, looks back on 200 years of census taking in America, and details such key aspects of the 1990 Census as the questionnaire, census geography and data dissemination plans, census undercount and the homeless. PMID:12282080

  16. Near-field survey of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami on Unimak and Sanak Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okal, E.A.; Plafker, G.; Synolakis, C.E.; Borrero, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The 1946 Aleutian earthquake stands out among tsunamigenic events because it generated both very high run-up near the earthquake source region and a destructive trans-Pacific tsunami. We obtained new data on the distribution of its tsunami in the near field along south-facing coasts between Unimak Pass on the west and Sanak Island on the east by measuring the height of driftwood and beach materials that were deposited by the tsunami above the extreme storm tide level. Our data indicate that (1) the highest measured run-up, which is at the Scotch Cap lighthouse, was 42 m above tide level or about 37 m above present storm tide elevation; (2) run-up along the rugged coast from Scotch Cap for 12 km northwest to Sennett Point is 12-18 m, and for 30 km east of Scotch Cap to Cape Lutke it is 24-42 m; (3) run-up along the broad lowlands bordering Unimak Bight is 10-20 m, and in-undation is locally more than 2 km; (5) run-up diminishes to 8 m or less at the southeast corner of Unimak Island; (6) no evidence was found for run-up above present storm tides (about 4-5 m above MLLW) on the Ikatan Peninsula or areas along the coast to the west; and (7) run-up above storm tide level in the Sanak Island group is restricted to southwest-facing coasts of Sanak, Long, and Clifford Islands, where it is continuous and locally up to 24 m high. Generation of the tsunami by one or more major earthquake-triggered submarine landslides near the shelf edge south of Unimak Island seems to be the only viable mechanism to account for the data on wave arrival time, run-up heights, and distribution, as well as for unconfirmed anecdotal reports of local postquake increases in water depth and diminished bottom-fisheries productivity. A preliminary hydrodynamic simulation of the local tsunami propagation and run-up using a dipolar model of a possible landslide off Davidson Bank provides an acceptable fit to the characteristics of the distribution of local run-up, with a value at 34 m at the Scotch Cap

  17. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2010 Aleutian arc and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This map shows details of the Aleutian arc not visible in an earlier publication. The Aleutian arc extends about 3,000 km from the Gulf of Alaska to the Kamchatka Peninsula. It marks the region where the Pacific plate subducts into the mantle beneath the North America plate. This subduction is responsible for the generation of the Aleutian Islands and the deep offshore Aleutian Trench. Relative to a fixed North America plate, the Pacific plate is moving northwest at a rate that increases from about 55 mm per year at the arc's eastern edge to 75 mm per year near its western terminus. In the east, the convergence of the plates is nearly perpendicular to the plate boundary. However, because of the boundary's curvature, as one travels westward along the arc, the subduction becomes more and more oblique to the boundary until the relative plate motion becomes parallel to the arc at the Near Islands near its western edge. Subduction zones such as the Aleutian arc are geologically complex and produce numerous earthquakes from multiple sources. Deformation of the overriding North America plate generates shallow crustal earthquakes, whereas slip at the interface of the plates generates interplate earthquakes that extend from near the base of the trench to depths of 40 to 60 km. At greater depths, Aleutian arc earthquakes occur within the subducting Pacific plate and can reach depths of 300 km. Since 1900, six great earthquakes have occurred along the Aleutian Trench, Alaska Peninsula, and Gulf of Alaska: M8.4 1906 Rat Islands; M8.6 1938 Shumagin Islands; M8.6 1946 Unimak Island; M8.6 1957 Andreanof Islands; M9.2 1964 Prince William Sound; and M8.7 1965 Rat Islands. Several relevant tectonic elements (plate boundaries and active volcanoes) provide a context for the seismicity presented on the main map panel. The plate boundaries are most accurate along the axis of the Aleutian Trench and more diffuse or speculative in extreme northeastern Russia. The active volcanoes parallel

  18. Hanford Site Regional Population - 2010 Census

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Erin L.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Population dose estimates must be performed to provide a measure of the impact from site radiological releases. Results of the U.S. 2010 Census were used to determine counts and distributions for the residential population located within 50-miles of several operating areas of the Hanford Site. Year 2010 was the first census year that a 50-mile population of a Hanford Site operational area exceeded the half-million mark.

  19. Buldir Depression - A Late Tertiary graben on the Aleutian Ridge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Scholl, D. W.; Buffington, E.C.; Boyce, R.E.; Alpha, T.R.; Smith, P.J.; Shipek, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    Buldir Depression is a large, rectilinear basin that lies on the northern edge of the Aleutian Ridge and is aligned with the arcuate chain of active volcanoes on the ridge crest. The depression appears to be a volcanic-tectonic feature, which began to form in Late Tertiary time and which is still forming. It is a graben formed by extensional rifting and accompanied by contemporaneous volcanism on the Aleutian Ridge. Subsidence rates for the depression are estimated at 20-70 cm/1,000 years. Sediments in the depression are 300 m thick and are probably pelagic and turbidite deposits of Pleistocene age. The turbidites were apparently derived from the plateau area of the Aleutian Ridge surrounding the depression. Older sediments on the northern slope of the Aleutian Ridge have a maximum thickness of 550 m and are deformed and slumped toward the Bering Sea. These sediments are postulated to overlie a mid-flank terrace on the northern Aleutian Ridge that titled to the north during the formation of Buldir Depression. ?? 1970.

  20. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2010/2011 crab fishing year so...

  1. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  2. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year....

  3. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2013/2014 crab fishing year so...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  5. 76 FR 44297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources... Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP) and the CR Program to... the amendment is available for public review and comment. The king and Tanner crab fisheries in...

  6. 77 FR 74161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Program. Regulations implementing these amendments were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources... Management Plan for Bering Sea/ Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP) to NMFS for review. If...

  7. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Program, the western Aleutian Islands red king crab and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab fisheries have failed to open, and the Saint Matthew Island blue king crab fishery has only been open during the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  8. Oxygen isotope constraints on the petrogenesis of Aleutian arc magmas

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, B.S.; O'Neil, J.R. ); Brophy, J.G. )

    1992-04-01

    The first measurement of {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and titanomagnetite phenocrysts from modern Aleutian island-arc lavas provides new insight and independent constraints on magma sources and intracrustal processes. Basalts are heterogeneous on the scale of the entire arc and individual volcanic centers. Combined with Sr isotope and trace element data {delta}{sup 18}O{sub plag} values suggest a variable magma source characterized by differences in the mantle wedge or the subducted sediment component along the volcanic front. Seven tholeiitic basalt to rhyodacite lavas from the Seguam volcanic center have nearly identical {delta}{sup 18}O{sub plag} values of 6.0{per thousand} {plus minus} 0.2{per thousand}, reflecting extensive closed-system plagioclase-dominated crystal fractionation. Oxygen isotope thermometry and pyroxene and oxide equilibria indicate that differentiation occurred between 1,150 {plus minus} 100C (basalt) and 950 {plus minus} 100C (rhyodacite). In contrast, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub plag} values of 12 calc-alkalic basaltic andesites and andesites from the smaller Kanaga volcanic center span a broader range of 5.9{per thousand}-6.6{per thousand}, and consist of mostly higher values. Isotopic disequilibrium in the Kanaga system is manifest in two ways: two types of basaltic inclusions with contrasting {delta}{sup 18}O values occur in one andesite, and in two other andesites plagioclase-titanomagnetite and clinopyroxene-titanomagnetite oxygen isotope temperatures are inconsistent.

  9. Far-field simulation of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Hébert, Hélène

    2007-06-01

    We present hydrodynamic far-field simulations of the Aleutian tsunami of 1946 April 1, using both a dislocation source representing a slow earthquake and a dipolar one modelling a large landslide. The earthquake source is derived from the recent seismological study by López and Okal, while the landslide source was previously used to explain the exceptional run-up at Scotch Cap in the near field. The simulations are compared to a field data set previously compiled from testimonies of elderly witnesses at 27 far-field locations principally in the Austral and Marquesas Islands, with additional sites at Pitcairn, Easter and Juan Fernández. We find that the data set is modelled satisfactorily by the dislocation source, while the landslide fails to match the measured amplitudes, and to give a proper rendition of the physical interaction of the wavefield with the shore, in particular at Nuku Hiva, Marquesas. The emerging picture is that the event involved both a very slow earthquake, responsible for the far-field tsunami, and a major landslide explaining the near-field run-up, but with a negligible contribution in the far field.

  10. Hair methylmercury levels of mummies of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Egeland, G.M. Ponce, Rafael Bloom, Nicolas S. Knecht, Rick Loring, Stephen Middaugh, John P.

    2009-04-15

    Ancient human hair specimens can shed light on the extent of pre-historic exposures to methylmercury and provide valuable comparison data with current-day exposures, particularly for Indigenous Peoples who continue to rely upon local traditional food resources. Human hair from ancient Aleutian Island Native remains were tested for total and methylmercury (Hg, MeHg) and were radiocarbon dated. The remains were approximately 500 years old (1450 A.D.). For four adults, the mean and median total hair mercury concentration was 5.8 ppm (SD=0.9). In contrast, MeHg concentrations were lower with a mean of 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and a median of 0.54 ppm (0.12-3.86). For the five infants, the mean and median MeHg level was 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and 0.20 ppm (0.007-4.61), respectively. Segmental analyses showed variations in MeHg concentrations in 1-cm segments, consistent with fluctuations in naturally occurring exposure to mercury through dietary sources. The levels are comparable to or lower than those found in fish and marine mammal-eating populations today who rely far less on subsistence food than pre-historic humans. The findings are, therefore, compatible with increased anthropogenic release of trace metals during the past several centuries.

  11. Multi-centennial reconstruction of Aleutian climate from coralline algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B.; Halfar, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Smith, E.; Steneck, R.; Lebednik, P.; Jacob, D. E.; Fietzke, J.; Moore, K.

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived encrusting coralline algae yield robust reconstructions of mid-to-high latitude environmental change from their annually-banded high-magnesium calcite skeleton. The magnesium to calcium ratio measured in their skeleton reflects ambient seawater temperature at the time of formation. Thus, reconstructions from these algae are important to understanding the role of natural modes of climate variability versus that of external carbon dioxide in controlling climate in data sparse regions such as the northern North Pacific Ocean/southern Bering Sea. Here, we reconstruct regional seawater temperature from the skeletons of nine algae specimens from two islands in the Aleutian Archipelago. We find that seawater temperature increased ~1.4°C degrees over the past 350 years. The detrended seawater reconstruction correlates with storminess because storms moving across the North Pacific Ocean bring warmer water to the archipelago. Comparison of the algal seawater temperature reconstruction with instrumental and terrestrial proxy reconstructions reveals that atmospheric teleconnections to North America via the North Pacific storm tracks are not robust before the 20th century. This indicates that North Pacific climate processes inferred from the instrumental records should be cautiously extrapolated when describing earlier non-analogous climates or future climate change.

  12. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  13. Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Stone, R.P.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Kellogg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising <6% of the isolates. The clone libraries showed dramatically different bacterial communities between corals of the same species collected at different sites, with no clear pattern of conserved bacterial consortia. Two of the clone libraries (one from each coral species) were dominated by Tenericutes, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating the remaining sequences. The other libraries were more diverse and had a more even distribution of bacterial phyla, showing more similarity between genera than within coral species. Here we report the first microbiological characterization of P. arborea, P. superba, and C. koolsae. FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus in Finland.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, Anna; Uzcátegui, Nathalie; Kankkonen, Johanna; Vapalahti, Olli; Kinnunen, Paula

    2009-01-13

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex-mediated disease in minks. To gain a more detailed view of the molecular epidemiology of mink AMDV in Finland, we phylogenetically analysed 14 new Finnish strains from 5 farms and all 40 strains with corresponding sequences available in GenBank. A part of the major non-structural (NS1) protein gene was amplified and analysed phylogenetically. A rooted nucleotide tree was constructed using the maximum parsimony method. The strains described in this study showed 86-100% nucleotide identity and were nearly identical on each farm. The ratio of synonymous to non-synonymous substitutions was approximately 2.7, indicating a mild purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that AMDV strains form three groups (I-III), all of which contained Finnish strains. The tree inferred that the three lineages of AMDV have been introduced to Finland independently. The analysis suggested that AMDV strains do not cluster into genotypes based on geographical origin, year of isolation or pathogenicity. Based on these data, the molecular clock is not applicable to AMDV, and within this gene area no recombination was detected. PMID:18799272

  15. Three new species of heteroderoidea (nematoda) from the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, E.C.

    1981-10-01

    Three new species of Heteroderoidea are described from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the Aleutian chain. Second-stage juveniles of Thecavermiculatus crassicrustata, n. sp., differ from those of T. gracililancea Robbins by having longer stylets (40 to 50 ..mu..m vs 19 to 22 ..mu..m). The female of T. crassicrustata has a longer neck, a more posterior excretory pore, and lacks a posterior protuberance. Meloidodera eurytyla, n. sp., differs from other Meloidodera spp. in that second-stage juveniles have longer stylets (32 to 35 ..mu..m) and much more massive styletknobs, while males have a longitudinally striated basal head annule. Meloidogyne subarctica, n. sp., can be separated from other Meloidogyne spp. by combinations of the following characteristics: perineal pattern with large oval areas in the tail region devoid of striae, arch with few unbroken striae; female excretory pore 1.5 to 2.5 x the stylet length from the anterior end; haploid chromosome number = 18; the spermatheca filled with sperm; stylet length of second-stage juveniles 13.5 to 15.4 ..mu..m.

  16. RSCCD Population and Participation, 1990 Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Suzi; And Others

    The enrollment patterns of residents of the Rancho Santiago Community College District (RSCCD) were evaluated by comparing data on students at Rancho Santiago College (RSC) to 1990 census information. For each city and zip code, the study analyzed ethnic distributions and participation rates. Populations over 18 years of age from zip codes and…

  17. Lesson Plans: The Census of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This publication contains four lesson plans to assist teachers in instructing their students about the census of agriculture and its uses. Designed primarily for vocational agricultural classes, the lesson plans may also have applications in math, social studies, and journalism or writing classes. Teachers do not need specialized knowledge about…

  18. InSAR imaging of volcanic deformation over cloud-prone areas - Aleutian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) is capable of measuring ground-surface deformation with centimeter-tosubcentimeter precision and spatial resolution of tens-of meters over a relatively large region. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, INSAR is an important technique for measuring ground-surface deformation of volcanoes over cloud-prone and rainy regions such as the Aleutian Islands, where only less than 5 percent of optical imagery is usable due to inclement weather conditions. The spatial distribution of surface deformation data, derived from INSAR images, enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to enhance the study of magmatic processes. This paper reviews the basics of INSAR for volcanic deformation mapping and the INSAR studies of ten Aleutian volcanoes associated with both eruptive and noneruptive activity. These studies demonstrate that all-weather INSAR imaging can improve our understanding of how the Aleutian volcanoes work and enhance our capability to predict future eruptions and associated hazards.

  19. HLA genes of Aleutian Islanders living between Alaska (USA) and Kamchatka (Russia) suggest a possible southern Siberia origin.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Juan; Crawford, Michael H; Vicario, Jose L; Zlojutro, Mark; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Reguera, Raquel; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    Aleuts HLA profile has been compared with that of neighboring and worldwide populations. Thirteen thousand one hundred and sixty-four chromosomes have been used for this study. Computer programs have obtained HLA allele frequencies, genetic distances between populations, NJ relatedness dendrograms, correspondence analysis and most frequent HLA extended haplotypes. Aleuts have inhabited Aleutian Islands since about 9000 years BP according to fossil and genetic (mtDNA) records. They are genetically different to Eskimo, Amerindian and Na-Dene speakers according to their HLA profile; this correlates with cultural and anthropological Aleut distinctiveness. No typical Amerindian HLA alleles have been found in a significant frequency. Their HLA relatedness to Saami (or Lapps, northern Scandinavians), Finns and Pomors (North-West Russia) indicates an ancient possible origin from the Baikal Lake Area (southern Siberia) around the present day Buryat peopling area; other origins are not discarded. Aleuts characteristic HLA profile may influence future transplantation programs in the region and be useful to study diseases linked to HLA epidemiology.

  20. The 2007 Census Test: a major step towards the 2011 Census.

    PubMed

    Benton, Pete; McLaren, Elizabeth; Walker, Sarah; White, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is planning a major Census field test in 2007. It will form part of the planning and testing programme leading to up the next Census of Population for England and Wales in 2011, which will also include a Rehearsal in 2009. The 2007 Test will be a large-scale test in five local authority (LA) areas selected to reflect a range of field conditions, covering some 100,000 households in total. Within England the Test will cover parts of Bath and North East Somerset, Camden, Liverpool and Stoke-on-Trent. In Wales the Test will take place in Carmarthenshire. The selected LAs have been chosen to provide a varied cross-section of the population and types of housing that would be covered in a full census. This article sets out the main aims for the Test and describes the design and location of the sampled areas and the basis for their selection. It goes on to detail the ways (previously reported in Population Trend 1251) in which the ONS Census team and the LAs involved are working in partnership in planning the census enumeration with the long-term view of improving overall census coverage and user confidence in the results. The article notes that decisions on the topics to be covered in the 2007 Test have only recently been decided, and concludes with an overview of the qustions to be included in the 2007 Test questionnaire.

  1. A Guide to Census Takers: Methods and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Regional Planning Center, Albany. Migrant Census Office.

    Basic function of a migrant Census Taker is to identify eligible migrant children, 0-20 years old, residing within a designated area. Census Takers work part-time with school districts, migrant programs, and community agencies within the geographic area to set up procedures for relaying information on identified migrant children. Censuses are…

  2. A Program Evaluation Using Client Records and Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachrach, Kenneth M.; Zautra, Alex

    Use of client records and census data as a research methodology can provide mental health planners with information on community needs as well as the adequacy of existing programs. Three ways of analyzing client records in conjunction with census data are: (1) tract by tract, comparing client geographic distribution with census characteristics;…

  3. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: Census 2000 Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Cassidy, Rachel C.

    This report describes race and Hispanic origin in the United States and discusses their distributions at the national level. It is based on the Census 2000 Redistricting Summary File. Census 1990 questions on race and Hispanic origin were changed for Census 2000, because the federal government considers race and Hispanic origin to be two separate,…

  4. Application of satellite pictures to census operations. Bolivian experience in census-taking of population and residences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The use of photographs from satellites to assist in census operations is discussed. Principles of selecting the sources of cartographic information are outlined, and the use of LANDSAT pictures in census cartography is examined.

  5. New Field Surveys of The Great 1946 Aleutian Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, E. A.; Synolakis, C. E.; Plafker, G.

    We seek to reopen the case of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami, which was the most destruc- tive transpacific event in the past century, despite the relatively moderate size of its parent earthquake. As a result, the exact nature of its source, and in particular whether it requires a submarine landslide, remains controversial. In 1999, we started a system- atic effort to build a modern database of runup and inundation values for the 1946 event throughout the Pacific Basin. At teleseismic distances, we rely on interviews from elderly witnesses whose testimony is then quantified using standard surveying techniques. As of early 2002, we were able to gather about 60 such measurements in the Marquesas, Society and Austral Islands, French Polynesia; and at Easter and Juan Fernandez Islands. They point out to the concentration of high runup values (8 m or more) in a narrow band of epicentral azimuths including Hawaii, the Marque- sas and Easter, but excluding Juan Fernandez. In the near field, we surveyed in 2001 the islands of Unimak and Sanak, based on available Coast Guard reports at Scotch Cap, and on subsisting watermarks such as large logs of driftwood deposited on these unforrested islands. We obtain a maximum runup height of 42 m on the Southern coast of Unimak and of 22 m at Sanak. These preliminary results suggest the combi- nation of a slow earthquake dislocation responsible for the strong far-field directivity of the tsunami, and of a co-seismic underwater landslide necessary to account for the exceptional near-field amplitudes, which are many times larger than the seismic dis- placement at the source for any acceptable seismological model of the dislocation. The existence of a large landslide is also suggested by anectodal reports of post-quake changes in local bathymetry and diminished fisheries productivity, and a preliminary confirmation is found on post-1946 bathymetric charts of the continental slope around 53.75 deg.N and 163.75 deg.W.

  6. Mink Farms Predict Aleutian Disease Exposure in Wild American Mink

    PubMed Central

    Nituch, Larissa A.; Bowman, Jeff; Beauclerc, Kaela B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison) populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD), a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. Methods To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. Conclusions/Significance Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations. PMID:21789177

  7. Genetic characterization of Aleutian mink disease viruses isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwu; Huang, Juan; Jia, Yun; Du, Yijun; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex mediated disease in minks. To understand the genetic characterization of AMDV in China, the genomic sequences of three isolates, ADV-LN1, ADV-LN2, and ADV-LN3, from different farms in the Northern China were analyzed. The results showed that the lengths of genomic sequences of three isolates were 4,543, 4,566, and 4,566 bp, respectively. They shared only 95.5-96.3 % nucleotide identity with each other. The nucleotide and amino acid homology of genome sequence between the Chinese isolates and European or American strains (ADV-G, ADV-Utah1, and ADV-SL3) were 92.4-95.0 % and 92.1-93.8 %, respectively. The amino acid substitutions randomly distributed in the genome, especially NS gene. ADV-LN1 strain had a 9-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 and 72-79 in the VP1 gene, comparing with ADV-G strain; ADV-LN2 and ADV-LN3 strains had 1-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 in the VP1. Some potential glycosylation site mutations in VP and NS genes were also observed. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that the three strains belonged to two different branches based on the complete coding sequence of VP2 gene. However, they all were in the same group together with the strains from United States based on the NS1 sequence. It indicated that Chinese AMDV isolates had genetic diversity. The origin of the ancestors of the Chinese AMDV strains might be associated with the American strains. PMID:22415541

  8. Census cities experiment in urban change detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work continues on mapping of 1970 urban land use from 1970 census contemporaneous aircraft photography. In addition, change detection analysis from 1972 aircraft photography is underway for several urban test sites. Land use maps, mosaics, and census overlays for the two largest urban test sites are nearing publication readiness. Preliminary examinations of ERTS-1 imagery of San Francisco Bay have been conducted which show that tracts of land of more than 10 acres in size which are undergoing development in an urban setting can be identified. In addition, each spectral band is being evaluated as to its utility for urban analyses. It has been found that MSS infrared band 7 helps to differentiate intra-urban land use details not found in other MSS bands or in the RBV coverage of the same scene. Good quality false CIR composites have been generated from 9 x 9 inch positive MSS bands using the Diazo process.

  9. Data from the 2006 International Piping Plover Census

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott-Smith, Elise; Haig, Susan M.; Powers, Brandi M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 2006 International Census of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus). Two sets of tabular data are reported: one for distribution and abundance of wintering Piping Plovers, the other for distribution and abundance of breeding Piping Plovers. The winter census resulted in the observation of 3,884 Piping Plovers at 546 sites. The breeding census resulted in the observation of 8,092 adult piping plovers at 1,925 sites. An appendix provides census reports for each location surveyed. This report was prepared to meet an immediate need of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for census data for Piping Plovers.

  10. [SIN census 2008: the management model].

    PubMed

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Postorino, Maurizio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Limido, Aurelio; Dal Canton, Antonio; Balducci, Alessandro; Contu, Bruno; Salomone, Mario; Nordio, Maurizio; Levialdi Ghiron, Jung Hee; Viglino, Giusto; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Coppo, Rosanna

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the second part of the data obtained from the second SIN census and illustrates the management model of the Italian dialysis centers, highlighting its strengths but also its limits. The census was carried out between March and December 2008 with a webbased survey using fillable PDF forms. The survey was validated by comparing the data with those sent to the Italian Dialysis and Transplant Register (Registro Italiano di Dialisi e Trapianti, RIDT) and hence it refers to December 31, 2008, the date of the last RIDT report. Forty-two percent of dialysis centers, which altogether take care of 50% of Italian dialysis patients, participated in the census. The participation percentage was very variable among Italian regions (from 5% to 100% of dialysis centers). By excluding the three regions with a participation rate below 10%, the survey reached a participation rate of 68% of all Italian dialysis centers and is therefore sufficient to give an estimate of the Italian dialysis situation. However, because of this variability it was not possible to compare regional situations, and the data were evaluated only by analyzing the ''complex'' and ''simple'' dialysis centers separately. The state of affairs of dialysis in Italy on the whole proved to be complicated. It is striking, for example, that 15% of the ''complex'' dialysis centers do not have their own hospital beds and some of them lack traceability programs. Noteworthy are also the increasing use of central venous catheters and the number of patients that need an ambulance to get to the dialysis center. Despite its limits due to the reduced participation in the census, this work offers a fair description of the state of affairs of dialysis in Italy, where there is certainly space for qualitative improvement. First of all, however, every effort should be made to implement and improve the use of the existing structures and to standardize protocols and behaviors in all Italian dialysis

  11. Sediment geochemistry as potential sea-level indicators to assess coseismic vertical displacements above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, A. M.; Witter, R. C.; Munk, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    mud flat transect to distinguish terrestrial from marine sediment. On Simeonof Is., stratigraphy beneath a peat bog adjacent to a tidal lagoon consists of basal marine sand overlain by ~0.6-1.5 m of peat. The presence of Arachnoidiscus japonicas, benthic marine diatom, implies a marine sand source. Sphagnum spp. and absence of marine foraminifera indicate freshwater peat. We analyzed δ13C, δ15N, and C:N from bulk sediment, and Cl- from water soluble fraction of sediment in a 1.3-m bog core. Freshwater peat at depths of 0.0-26.0, and 33.0-78.5 cm have δ13C ranging from -25.02 to -27.35 ‰, δ15N from 3.30-9.93‰, C:N of 10.16-17.89, and Cl- concentrations of 0.9-25.9 mg/L. Sand dominated intervals at 26.0-33.0, and 78.5-130 cm have δ13C ranging from -17.24 to -26.50‰, δ15N from 8.30-11.11‰ , C:N of 0.30-29.6 and Cl- concentrations of 0.7-19.3 mg/L. The data also indicate that average δ13C and δ15N values are enriched in marine sand relative to freshwater peat, respectively by 3.27‰ and 3.10‰. Also C:N ratios and Cl- concentrations are lower in marine sand, respectively by 23.1 and 0.1 mg/L. Hence, δ13C and δ15N show promise as geochemical proxies to distinguish terrestrial from marine sediment for future Alaska-Aleutian paleoseismic studies west of Kodiak Is.

  12. 40th annual Reed rig census

    SciTech Connect

    Fitts, R.L.; Stokes, T.A. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that declines characterize the 1992 rig census-in the number of available drilling rigs, in the number of active rigs, in rig utilization rate, in the number of rig owners and in industry optimism. The number of rotary rigs available for U.S. drilling fell by 255 units (11.3%) during the past 12 months, an attrition rate almost four times greater than in 1991. But despite the high attrition, only 59.7% of remaining rigs were working during the time the census was taken. Results of the 1992 census bring emphasis to an industry trend that became apparent in early 1991. The major oil companies, and many independents, continued their exodus form the U.S., and the remaining independents, which were hurt by low natural gas prices and unfavorable tax treatment of intangible drilling costs, were not able to pick u the drilling slack. Consequently, the past year has been disastrous for many U.S. drilling contractors, and the outlook for this industry segment remains bleak.

  13. 76 FR 68161 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Aleutian Islands Pollock Fishery Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... signed into law on January 23, 2004. Section 803 of this law allocates the Aleutian Islands (AI) directed... Aleut Corporation to authorize one or more agents for activities necessary for conducting the AI directed pollock fishery. Management provisions for the AI directed pollock fishery include:...

  14. Royal pastel mink respond variously to inoculation with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1984-04-01

    Information was sought on the varied responses of royal pastel mink (a non-Aleutian genotype) to Aleutian disease virus of low virulence. Thus, of 20 yearling female pastel mink inoculated subcutaneously with a large amount of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus, only 3 succumbed to the disease. Of the other 17 mink, 3 had neither viremia nor a rise in level of serum gamma globulin during the 24 weeks after inoculation. The other 14 mink were viremic for variable periods during the first 12 weeks. In only five mink was the viremia accompanied by elevated levels of serum gamma globulin, usually from week 8 on. Of the 16 subclinically infected mink that did not succumb to intercurrent disease and otherwise remained healthy, 9 were examined at 19 to 31 months for persisting virus. In only one mink, small amounts were detected in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen nearly 28 months after inoculation. The other seven mink that survived the infection were not protected when challenged 31 months later with a small amount of the highly virulent Utah-1 strain. Even though still poorly understood, these varied responses of the royal pastel mink to infection with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence have important pathogenetic and epidemiological implications.

  15. Spawning phenology and geography of Aleutian Islands and eastern Bering Sea Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidetcher, Sandra K.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Logerwell, Elizabeth A.

    2014-11-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) is an economically and ecologically important species in the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, yet little is known about the spawning dynamics of Pacific cod in these regions. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a gross anatomical maturity key for Pacific cod to describe temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive status over three winter spawning seasons: 2005, 2006, and 2007. Maturity status of female Pacific cod was assessed by fishery observers during sampling of commercial catches and used to construct maps showing spawning activity in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. Most spawning activity was observed on the Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Island plateaus between 100 and 200 m depth. Data for those days when a high percentage of spawning stage fish were observed were used to identify areas with concentrations of spawning fish. Spawning concentrations were identified north of Unimak Island, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, at the shelf break near Zhemchug Canyon, and adjacent to islands in the central and western Aleutian Islands along the continental shelf. The spawning season was found to begin in the last days of February or early March and extend through early to mid-April. Variation in spawning time (averaging ~10 days between years) may have been associated with a change from warm (2005) to cold (2007) climate conditions during the study period. Our information on Pacific cod spawning patterns will help inform fishery management decisions, models of spawning and larval dispersal and the spatial structure of the stock.

  16. Aleutian Ancorinidae (Porifera, Astrophorida): Description of three new species from the genera Stelletta and Ancorina.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2014-06-30

    Two new species of the genus Stelletta and one new species of Ancorina are described from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and compared to congeners of the region. This is the first record of the genus Ancorina in the North Pacific Ocean. Stelletta ovalae Tanita 1965 is also reported for the first time from the Bering Sea and Alaska. 

  17. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sound blue king crab. NVDC means the U.S. Coast Guard's National Vessel Documentation Center located in...) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section 600.1103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose. This section's purpose is to implement...

  18. Paleotsunami evidence on Kaua`i and numerical modeling of a great Aleutian tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Rhett; Burney, David; Walsh, David

    2014-10-01

    The Hawaiian Islands' location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean is threatened by tsunamis from great earthquakes in nearly all directions. Historical great earthquakes Mw > 8.5 in the last 100 years have produced large inundations and loss of life in the islands but cannot account for a substantial (≤ 600 m3) paleotsunami deposit in the Makauwahi sinkhole on the Island of Kaua`i. Using high-resolution bathymetry and topography we model tsunami inundation of the sinkhole caused by an earthquake with a moment magnitude of Mw ~9.25 located in the eastern Aleutians. A preponderance of evidence indicates that a giant earthquake in the eastern Aleutian Islands circa 1425-1665 A.D.—located between the source regions of the 1946 and 1957 great tsunamigenic earthquakes—created the paleotsunami deposit in Kaua`i. A tsunami deposit in the Aleutians dated circa 1530-1660 A.D. is consistent with this eastern Aleutian source region.

  19. 78 FR 77646 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test AGENCY: U.S. Census..., reducing the need for more costly enumerator-administered options. The 2014 Census Site Test will allow the... under consideration for the 2020 Census. To improve self- response, the Census Bureau plans to test...

  20. Influence of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies on zooplankton distribution south of the western Aleutian Islands during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yasuda, I.; Ueno, H.; Ishiyama, H.; Imai, I.

    2013-12-01

    Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies have been observed south of the Aleutian Islands located between the Bering Sea and the subarctic Pacific. Eddies farther east, in the Gulf of Alaska, are known to transport coastal water and coastal zooplankton to offshore open ocean. The impacts of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies formed south of the western Aleutian Islands (Aleutian eddies) on the zooplankton community are not fully understood. In the present study, we describe zooplankton population structures within an Aleutian eddy and outside the eddy during July 2010. Our field study was conducted at seven stations along 51°15‧N from 171°21‧E to 174°38‧E (western line) and at four stations along 50°40‧N from 176°24‧E to 178°44‧E (eastern line) on 7-8 July 2010. At each station, environmental data (temperature, salinity and fluorescence were measured by CTD/XCTD. Zooplankton samples were collected by vertical tow of 150 m depth to the surface using 100 μm mesh size plankton net. Based on the sea level anomaly (SLA), the western line crossed an anticyclonic eddy but the eastern line did not cross the eddy (Fig. 1). This Aleutian eddy was formed south of Attu Island (52°54‧N, 172°54‧E) in mid-February 2010, and it moved southeastward in the next five months. The SLA near the eddy center, representing the strength of the eddy, continuously increased, and the area oscillated at one to two month periods overlain on a general increase from ~7,000 to ~18,000 km2. Large oceanic copepods, Neocalanus cristatus, Eucalanus bungii and Metridia pacifica were more abundant inside the eddy than the outside. Inside the eddy, the life stage distribution of N. cristatus was advanced than that outside, and Neocalanus spp. had accumulated more lipids. These conditions probably reflect the greater primary production in the eddy, production enhanced by nutrients advected into the eddy. Since the Aleutian eddy was formed in offshore waters and/or eddy-eddy interaction occurred

  1. Studies of Aleutian volcanoes based on two decades of SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has become an increasingly important technique for studying magma dynamics at volcanoes in remote regions, such as the Aleutian Islands. The spatial distribution of surface deformation derived from InSAR data enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to aid the investigation of magmatic processes. We processed nearly 12,000 SAR images of Aleutian volcanoes acquired by ERS-1, JERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat-1, Envisat, ALOS, and TerraSAR-X from the early 1990s to 2010. We combined these SAR images to produce about 25,000 interferograms, which we analyzed for evidence of surface deformation at most of the arc's Holocene volcanoes. This talk summarizes deformation processes at Aleutian volcanoes observed with InSAR, including: (1) time-varying volcanic inflation and magmatic intrusion, (2) deformation preceding and accompanying seismic swarms , (3) persistent volcano-wide subsidence at calderas that last erupted tens of years ago, (4) episodic magma intrusion and associated tectonic stress release, (5) subsidence caused by a decrease in pore fluid pressure in active hydrothermal systems, (6) subsidence of surface lava and pyroclastic flows, and (7) a lack of deformation at some volcanoes with recent eruptions, where deformation might be expected. Our work demonstrates that deformation patterns and associated magma supply mechanisms at Aleutian volcanoes are diverse and vary in both space and time. By combining InSAR results with information from the geologic record, accounts of historical eruptions, and data from seismology, petrology, gas geochemistry, and other sources, we have developed conceptual models for the magma plumbing systems and behaviors of many volcanoes in the Aleutian arc. We realize that these models are simplistic, but it is our hope that they will serve as foundations that will be refined as additional information becomes available.

  2. Forearc structure from legacy multichannel seismic data linked to mechanical variability and rupture segmentation on the central Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; von Huene, R.; Miller, J.; Haeussler, P. J.; Scholl, D. W.; Ryan, H. F.; Kirby, S. H.

    2012-12-01

    The historical earthquake record, geodetic observations, and modern interseismic seismicity patterns indicate along-strike variability in the mechanical behavior of the subduction zone extending from the central Alaska peninsula west to the eastern Aleutian Islands. This region spans the rupture areas of several historical megathrust earthquakes, including the 1938 M8.3 Semidi Islands event, the 1946 M8.5 earthquake near Unimak Pass, and the 1957 M8.6 Andreanof Islands earthquake. Each of these events produced tsunamis that affected Alaska and/or far-field coastal regions in Hawaii and the mainland U.S. The '38 and '46 rupture areas are separated by a segment of the subduction zone in the vicinity of the Shumagin Islands where, based on plate velocities from GPS, plate coupling decreases from nearly fully locked in the east, to very low coupling in the western Shumagins, indicating an important change in seismic style along-strike. Changes in the degree of interseismic coupling are often attributed to variability in the mechanical strength of the thrust interface, influenced by heterogeneity in the material properties and subducted topographic relief. Furthermore, the expression of forearc structural features along the margin may indicate the width and up-dip limit of the locked zone. We explore structural characteristics of the shallow portion of the subduction system related to variations in the mechanical properties of the megathrust and interseismic coupling using legacy multichannel seismic (MCS) data from several segments along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Critical images were reprocessed with modern seismic processing systems. We characterize structural features of the downgoing plate and forearc, including the variation in thickness and character of subducted sediment, the geometry of the upper plate wedge, the distribution of imbricate thrust faults, the transition from outer prism to margin rock framework and extensional faulting. These

  3. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... fishery in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea on September 1, 2010 (75 FR 53606... remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel,...

  4. The 2008 Eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Reconnaissance Observations and Preliminary Physical Volcanology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Schneider, D. J.; Prejean, S. G.

    2008-12-01

    The August 7, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano was the first documented historical eruption of this small (3 x 3 km) island volcano with a 1 km2 lake filled crater in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Reports of previous Kasatochi eruptions are unconfirmed and lacking in detail and little is known about the eruptive history. Three explosively-generated ash plumes reaching altitudes of 15 to 20 km were observed in satellite data and were preceded by some of the most intense seismicity yet recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) seismic network. Eruptive products on Kasatochi Island observed on August 22 and 23 consist of pumice-bearing, lithic-rich pyroclastic-flow deposits overlain by a 1-2 m thick sequence of fine- grained pyroclastic-surge, and -fall deposits all exposed at the coastline. These deposits completely blanket Kasatochi Island to a depth of many meters. Pyroclastic flows entered the sea and extended the coastline 300-400 m beyond prominent wave cut cliffs and sea stacks. Tide gauge data from Adak Island, 80 km to the west, indicate a small tsunami with maximum water amplitude of 20 cm, was initiated during the eruption. Kasatochi volcano lacks a real-time seismic monitoring network. Seismic activity was detected by AVO instruments on Great Sitkin Island 40 km to the west, and thus the timing of eruptive events is approximate. The eruption began explosively at 2201 UTC on August 7, and was followed by at least two additional strong eruptive bursts at 0150 UTC and 0435 UTC, August 8. Satellite data show a significant ash cloud associated with the 0435 UTC event followed by at least 14 hours of continuous ash emission. The lack of a strong ash signature in satellite data suggest that the first two plumes were ash poor. Satellite data also show a large emission of SO2 that entered the stratosphere. Correlation of eruptive periods with deposits on the island is not yet possible, but it appears that pyroclastic flows were emplaced during

  5. A Water Census of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on the development of a water census of the United States, and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  6. Agriculture Census Lesson Plan. 1982 Census of Agriculture. 82-A17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This lesson plan is designed for use by vocational agricultural instructors and students. Its primary purpose is to acquaint students with statistical data that will have an impact on their future work in agriculture. This lesson plan is divided into two parts. The first part covers background information on the agricultural census, its use, and…

  7. Pacific Basin Tsunami Hazards Associated with Mass Flows in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Watts, P.; Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T.

    2007-12-01

    The Aleutian Islands are a chain of volcanic islands formed by an intra-oceanic subduction zone. This area consists of a submerged chain of mountains, volcanic islands, and submarine canyons, surrounded by a low- relief continental shelf above about 1000-2000 m water depth. Part of the island chain is fragmented into a series of fault-bounded blocks, tens to hundreds of km in length, and separated from one another by distinctive fault- controlled canyons that are roughly normal to the arc axis. The canyons are geomorphically low areas between the higher relief blocks and are natural regions for the accumulation and conveyance of sediment derived from glacial and volcanic processes. The volcanic islands in the region include a number of historically active volcanoes and some possess geological evidence for large-scale sector collapse into the sea. The physical setting of the Aleutian Islands indicates that mass flows of unconsolidated debris that originate either as submarine mass flows or as subaerial debris avalanches entering the sea may be potential tsunami sources. Large scale mass-flow deposits have not been identified on the seafloor south of the Aleutian Islands, primarily because the area has never been mapped or examined at the resolution required to identify such features. Extensive submarine landslide deposits and debris flows are known on the north side of the arc and are common in similar settings elsewhere and thus they likely exist on the trench slope south of the Aleutian Islands. We suggest that tsunamigenic mass flows are a plausible geologic process in the Aleutian Islands and that the tsunamis produced by such flows may be large enough to cross the Pacific Ocean basin. To test this hypothesis we present a series of numerical simulations of submarine mass-flow initiated tsunamis from eight different source areas. We consider four submarine mass flows originating in submarine canyons and four flows that evolve from submarine landslides. The flows

  8. Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin information status and research planning meeting.

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K. E.; Krummel, J. R.; Hayse, J. W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Stull, E. A.; Gorenflo, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-26

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant ecological and natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea continental shelf including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals including federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012 and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) were contracted to assist the MMS Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region in identifying and prioritizing information needs related to the North Aleutian Basin and potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities. The overall approach focused on three related but separate tasks: (1) identification and

  9. The Mass Census for RESOLVE and ECO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila; Stark, David; Moffett, Amanda J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Baker, Ashley; Lagos, Claudia; Norris, Mark A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We quantify the stellar, baryonic, and dynamical mass census for galaxies and groups in the volume-limited RESOLVE and ECO surveys, which are complete for galaxies with baryonic mass >10^9 Msun. First, we present optimized methods of stellar and gas mass estimation based on newly reprocessed multi-wavelength imaging, deep fractional mass-limited 21cm data, and a probability density field approach to the photometric gas fractions technique. Second, we examine the stellar and baryonic mass functions for RESOLVE and ECO, including an analysis of how galaxy mass functions vary between distinct, physically motivated group halo mass regimes. These "conditional" mass functions display complex substructure suggesting that the galaxy population is shaped through satellite destruction and merging during the process of multiple-occupancy group formation. Third, we present the group-integrated stellar and baryonic mass functions and examine the cold baryon fraction of groups as a function of group halo mass. We find that group halo mass measurements based on abundance matching and dynamical mass estimates sometimes disagree, pointing to the existence of a wide range of cold baryon fractions in groups at intermediate halo mass. Finally, we provide a brief overview of RESOLVE's dynamical mass census, which relies on new 3D optical spectroscopy probing both stellar and gas kinematics. This work has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614, the NC Space Grant Graduate Research Fellowship Program, and a UNC Royster Society of Fellows Dissertation Completion Fellowship.

  10. Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified

  11. Unusually large tsunamis frequent a currently creeping part of the Aleutian megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, Robert C.; Carver, Gary A.; Briggs, Richard W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Koehler, Richard D.; La Selle, SeanPaul; Bender, Adrian M.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Hill, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Current models used to assess earthquake and tsunami hazards are inadequate where creep dominates a subduction megathrust. Here we report geological evidence for large tsunamis, occurring on average every 300-340 years, near the source areas of the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These areas bookend a postulated seismic gap over 200 km long where modern geodetic measurements indicate that the megathrust is currently creeping. At Sedanka Island, evidence for large tsunamis includes six sand sheets that blanket a lowland facing the Pacific Ocean, rise to 15 m above mean sea level, contain marine diatoms, cap terraces, adjoin evidence for scour, and date from the past 1700 years. The youngest sheet and modern drift logs found as far as 800 m inland and >18 m elevation likely record the 1957 tsunami. Previously unrecognized tsunami sources coexist with a presently creeping megathrust along this part of the Aleutian Subduction Zone.

  12. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the

  13. Unusually large tsunamis frequent a currently creeping part of the Aleutian megathrust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Carver, G.A.; Briggs, Richard; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Koehler, R.D.; La Selle, SeanPaul M.; Bender, Adrian M.; Engelhart, S.E.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Hill, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Current models used to assess earthquake and tsunami hazards are inadequate where creep dominates a subduction megathrust. Here we report geological evidence for large tsunamis, occurring on average every 300–340 years, near the source areas of the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These areas bookend a postulated seismic gap over 200 km long where modern geodetic measurements indicate that the megathrust is currently creeping. At Sedanka Island, evidence for large tsunamis includes six sand sheets that blanket a lowland facing the Pacific Ocean, rise to 15 m above mean sea level, contain marine diatoms, cap terraces, adjoin evidence for scour, and date from the past 1700 years. The youngest sheet, and modern drift logs found as far as 800 m inland and >18 m elevation, likely record the 1957 tsunami. Modern creep on the megathrust coexists with previously unrecognized tsunami sources along this part of the Aleutian Subduction Zone.

  14. Seismic Census Technique for African Elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. D.; O'Connell-Rodwell, C. E.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    Large mammal populations are difficult to census and monitor in remote areas. In particular, elephant populations in Central Africa are difficult to census due to dense forest making aerial surveys impractical. Conservation management would be improved by a census technique that was accurate and precise, did not require large efforts in the field, and could record numbers of animals over a period of time. We report a new detection technique that relies on sensing the footfalls of large mammals. Geophones were used to record the footfalls of elephants and other large mammal species at a water hole in Etosha National Park, Namibia. We were able to discriminate between species using the spectral content of their footfalls with an 85% accuracy rate while only using a single geophone. This was done using correlation coefficients comparing the shape of the spectra for various species. An ANOVA found significant differences between these correlation coefficients (F4,1785 = 147.78, P = 0.000). An estimate of the energy created by passing elephants (the area under the amplitude envelope) can be used to estimate the number of elephants passing the geophone. Our best regression line plotting number of elephants versus energy recorded in the geophone explained 55% of the variance in the data. Much of the unexplained variance is due to the variation in distance from the geophone to the passing elephants. By subjecting the recordings to a narrow band-pass filter and using beamforming techniques on array data, we believe that we can control for the variation in distance between animal and geophones, and thus achieve better estimates of the number of animals passing the array. Using 7 pairs of geophones in a linear array, we offset the pairs of time series to correspond with the time delay associated with the signal intersecting the pair of geophones at increments of 2 degrees. The offset time series were then summed and the RMS value calculated. The largest RMS value was then

  15. Craniometric variation in the Aleutians: integrating morphological, molecular, spatial, and temporal data.

    PubMed

    Ousley, Stephen D; Jones, Erica B

    2010-12-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward about the origins and evolution of the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. Both Hrdlička [The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants (Philadelphia: Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945)] and Laughlin ["The Alaska gateway viewed from the Aleutian Islands," in Papers on the Physical Anthropology of the American Indian, W. S. Laughlin, ed. (New York: Viking Fund, 1951), 98-126] analyzed cranial morphology and came to somewhat different conclusions using a typological approach and limited analytical methods. Subsequent investigations using morphological data have not significantly improved our understanding of Aleut prehistory. More recently, radiocarbon dating and mitochondrial DNA analyses have shed light on Aleut genetic variation and changes over time, but better morphological methods using multivariate statistical analysis have not yet been used. We analyzed craniometric data using multivariate procedures and found that Aleuts demonstrate significant changes in cranial morphology over time, and these changes correspond to Hrdlička's observations but may not necessarily reflect in-migration. The morphological changes were concentrated in the very aspects of morphology that are easily observable and that Hrdlička most often measured, namely, cranial length, breadth, and height, but they were obscured when craniometric variation as a whole was analyzed. Also, we found that the morphological changes over time were not related to the changes in haplogroup frequencies over time, suggesting that migration into the Aleutians did not play a significant role in producing the morphological changes. However, craniometric variability apparently increases over time, suggesting in-migration, localized selection, and/or greater environmental heterogeneity. Our results contradict Laughlin's observations but may be more in line with his hypothesis of in situ evolutionary changes absent gene flow. In addition to

  16. A new population of Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) on Adak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Talbot, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    We report and describe a new population of the endangered Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) discovered on Mount Reed, Adak Island, Alaska. The new population is located at a lower elevation than the other known populations, placing the species' known elevational range between 338 m and 525 m. The discovery of this population is significant because it increases the total number of known populations and individuals for the species.

  17. Detection of Aleutian disease antibodies in feral American mink in southern England.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Macdonald, D W

    2001-10-20

    Fourteen of 27 American mink (Mustela vison) trapped in the upper Thames region were positive for anti-Aleutian disease antibodies. This demonstration of the occurrence of this viral disease in a feral American mink population suggests that it could threaten populations of at least two protected mustelids, the otter (Lutra lutra) and the polecat (Mustela putorius), and may also play a role in the apparent decline of local mink populations in Britain. PMID:11700927

  18. Geological and operational summary, North Aleutian Shelf Coast No. 1 well, Bering Sea, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    Discusses the first continental offshore stratigraphic test well drilled in the North Aleutian Basin Planning Area, Bering Sea, Alaska. The well was drilled to determine the hydrocarbon potential of the area. The report covers drilling operations; lithology and core data; velocity analysis; geologic setting and tectonic framework; seismic stratigraphy; well-log interpretation and lithostratigraphy; paleontology and biostratigraphy; geothermal gradient; organic geochemistry; abnormal formation pressure; geologic hazards and shallow geology; and environmental considerations.

  19. Four new species of Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Haplosclerida are described from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Callyspongia mucosa n.sp., Cladocroce infundibulum n. sp., Cladocroce attu n. sp. and Cladocroce kiska n. sp. The new species are described and compared to congeners of the region. This is the northernmost record of the genus Callyspongia and the first record of the subgenus Callyspongia from the North Pacific Ocean. To accommodate Cladocroce kiska in its genus the definition has to be broadened to allow sigmas.

  20. Observations of deep long-period (DLP) seismic events beneath Aleutian arc volcanoes; 1989-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, J.A.; Stihler, S.D.; White, R.A.; Moran, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Between October 12, 1989 and December 31, 2002, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 162 deep long-period (DLP) events beneath 11 volcanic centers in the Aleutian arc. These events generally occur at mid- to lower-crustal depths (10-45 km) and are characterized by emergent phases, extended codas, and a strong spectral peak between 1.0 and 3.0 Hz. Observed wave velocities and particle motions indicate that the dominant phases are P- and S-waves. DLP epicenters often extend over broad areas (5-20 km) surrounding the active volcanoes. The average reduced displacement of Aleutian DLPs is 26.5 cm2 and the largest event has a reduced displacement of 589 cm2 (or ML 2.5). Aleutian DLP events occur both as solitary events and as sequences of events with several occurring over a period of 1-30 min. Within the sequences, individual DLPs are often separated by lower-amplitude volcanic tremor with a similar spectral character. Occasionally, volcano-tectonic earthquakes that locate at similar depths are contained within the DLP sequences. At most, Aleutian volcanoes DLPs appear to loosely surround the main volcanic vent and occur as part of background seismicity. A likely explanation is that they reflect a relatively steady-state process of magma ascent over broad areas in the lower and middle portions of the crust. At Mount Spurr, DLP seismicity was initiated by the 1992 eruptions and then slowly declined until 1997. At Shishaldin Volcano, a short-lived increase in DLP seismicity occurred about 10 months prior to the April 19, 1999 eruption. These observations suggest a link between eruptive activity and magma flux in the mid- to lower-crust and uppermost mantle.

  1. 75 FR 51239 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of the.... Census Bureau) is giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The...: Members of the C-SAC are appointed by the Director, U.S. Census Bureau. The Committee provides...

  2. 75 FR 52173 - Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... urban territory. Hops are used primarily to account for territory in which planning and zoning processes... Commerce Bureau of the Census Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census; Notice #0;#0;Federal... the Census Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census AGENCY: Bureau of the Census,...

  3. Interferon response in normal and Aleutian disease virus-infected mink.

    PubMed

    Wiedbrauk, D L; Hadlow, W J; Ewalt, L C; Lodmell, D L

    1986-08-01

    Studies were done to determine whether differences in interferon production are responsible for the resistance of pastel mink to Aleutian disease. The abilities of normal pastel and sapphire mink to produce interferon when inoculated with either Newcastle disease virus or a synthetic polyribonucleotide, poly (I):poly (C), were identical, even to the production of a novel, acid-labile interferon. The resistance of pastel mink to Aleutian disease did not correlate with interferon production, because neither sapphire nor pastel mink produced detectable amounts of interferon when infected with either the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) or the highly virulent Utah I strain. Sapphire mink infected with the Pullman strain responded normally to poly (I):poly (C) early in the course of the disease, but interferon production was impaired late, when the mink were hypergammaglobulinemic and had renal, vascular, and hepatic lesions. These data suggest that ADV Pullman neither stimulates nor interferes with interferon production in infected mink and may represent a mechanism whereby ADV can more readily establish infection.

  4. GLORIA imagery links sedimentation in Aleutian Trench to Yakutat margin via surveyor channel

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.R.; Bruns, T.R.; Mann, D.M.; Stevenson, A.J. ); Huggett, Q.J. )

    1990-06-01

    GLORIA side-scan sonar imagery shows that the continental slope developing along the active margin of the Gulf of Alaska is devoid of large submarine canyons, in spite of the presence of large glacially formed sea valleys that cross the continental shelf. In the western and northern Gulf, discontinuous, actively growing deformation structures disrupt or divert the downslope transport of sediment into the Aleutian Trench. To the east of Middleton Island, the slope is intensively gullied and incised only by relatively small canyons. At the base of the gullied slope between Pamplona Spur and Alsek Valley, numerous small slope gullies coalesce into three turbidity current channels that merge to form the Surveyor deep-sea channel. About 350 km from the margin, the channel crosses the structural barrier formed by the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount chain and heads south for another 150 km where it bends northerly, perhaps influenced by the oceanic basement relief of the Patton Seamounts. The channel, now up to 5 km wide and deeply entrenched to 450 m, continues northerly for 200 km where it intercepts the Aleutian Trench, some 700 km from the Yakutat margin. South of Surveyor Channel, GLORIA imagery revealed evidence of another older channel. The older channel meanders through a gap in the seamount chain and eventually bends northwesterly. This now inactive, largely buried channel may have carried turbidity currents to the Aleutian Trench concurrent with the active Surveyor Channel.

  5. Thermal imagery for census of ungulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wride, M. C.; Baker, K.

    1977-01-01

    A Daedalus thermal linescanner mounted in a light single engine aircraft was used to image the entire 270 square kilometers within the fenced perimeter of ElK Island Park, Alberta, Canada. The data were collected during winter, 1976 in morning and midday (overcast conditions) processed and analyzed to obtain a number for total ungulates. Five different ungulate species were present during the survey. Ungulates were easily observed during the analysis of linescanner imagery and the total number of ungulates was established at 2175 compared to figures of 1010 and 1231 for visual method aerial survey results of the same area that year. It was concluded that the scanner was much more accurate and precise for census of ungulates than visual techniques.

  6. Counting for Representation: The Census and the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The census is even more important today than it was 200 years ago. The census is taken to provide equal representation for everyone, and results provide figures for appointment and the distribution of federal funds. The enumeration of the population was included in the U.S. Constitution in Article I, Section 2. The constitutional order to…

  7. Beyond the Census: Hispanics and an American Agenda. Final Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Sonia M.

    This report describes the Hispanic population in the United States. Data come mainly from the U.S. Census Bureau's 2000 Census and the March 2000 Current Population Survey and Report on Hispanics. Six sections include: (1) "Introduction" (overview of the U.S. Latino population, translating the data, and the U.S. agenda for Hispanics); (2) "Strong…

  8. New Mexico: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates,…

  9. Alaska: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates, input…

  10. Making Sense of the Census with Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Obenchain, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1790, the United States government has conducted a count of its people by conducting a census every decade. The U.S. Census provides valuable data describing the population according to a variety of criteria including ethnicity, gender, age, and income, among other categories. Teaching about demographics and some of the interesting issues…

  11. Arts Organizations and the 1987 Census of Service Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mary G. Monnie

    The Census of Service Industries, which is conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in years ending with 2 or 7, collects information on the number of organizations and selected financial measures in both performing and non-performing arts disciplines. This report presents and analyzes the 1987 data in chart format. The aim is to provide a view…

  12. Neuropathologic features of Aleutian disease in farmed mink in Ireland and molecular characterization of Aleutian mink disease virus detected in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Hanne; Daly, Paul; McElroy, Maire C; Sammin, Donal J; Bassett, Hugh F; Callanan, John J

    2010-01-01

    A neuropathologic survey was conducted on mink brains from the 5 licensed mink farms in Ireland. The survey was part of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy surveillance study. Aleutian disease (AD) was present on 4 of the 5 farms (80%). Neuropathologic features of nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis were common in mink from the 4 affected farms but were absent in the mink from the fifth farm, which was free of AD. The meningoencephalitis was characterized by infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells, which were present in meninges, perivascular spaces, and the brain parenchyma. Fibrinoid necrotizing arteritis was seen in 11 mink brains, all of which were obtained from a single farm. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) sequences for the capsid protein VP2 were obtained from brain samples from all affected farms. Although containing previously unreported amino acid residues, similarities with European and North American isolates were observed in the hypervariable regions within VP2, suggesting Irish AMDV is related to those isolates. The predicted amino acid residues, suspected of conferring pathogenicity at certain positions of the VP2 sequence, were present in the viral nucleic acid sequences. PMID:20093694

  13. CensusPlus: A sampling and prediction approach for the 2000 census of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.

    1995-07-01

    For a general audience, this paper offers details of a simple proposal for estimation of the population and housing in the year 2000 for the United States. Under CensusPlus, two surveys (mass enumeration and plus sample enumeration) are made of a universe with M blocks. The mass enumeration results in an initial preliminary count for each and every block in the country. The plus sample blocks undergo a second extra high quality count which when compared with the initial count leads to observed resolved counts for the sample blocks. Under a simple model, resolved counts are predicted for the nonsample blocks. Hence an optimal estimator of N, the universe size. is obtained by adding these observed (in sample) and predicted (not in sample) resolved block counts. In fact, this sum turns out to be the classical ratio estimator. This one number census collection is additive and consistent for all levels of geography. In addition, this paper presents sample sizes for the number of blocks required by the plus sample enumeration to support reliable state level estimates of population produced by CensusPlus. In particular and using data from the 1990 Census Files and the 1990 PES Block Data File, it is shown that a nationwide deeply stratified probability sample of 22,120 blocks is needed to ensure that the housing unit population of a given state is estimated with a standard error of 40,000 persons. The 1990 PES Block Data File also provides some early empirical evidence that the model is very likely to hold.

  14. Data from the 2011 International Piping Plover Census

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott-Smith, Elise; Bidwell, Mark; Holland, Amanda E.; Haig, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides results from the 2011 International Census of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus). Distribution and abundance data for wintering and breeding Piping Plovers are summarized in tabular format. An appendix provides census data for every site surveyed in every state, province, and island. The 2011 winter census resulted in the observation of 3,973 Piping Plovers. Expanded coverage outside of the United States led to the discovery of more than 1,000 Piping Plovers wintering in the Bahamas. The breeding census detected 2,771 birds in Atlantic Canada and the Plains, Prairies, and Great Lakes regions of the United States and Canada. Combining the census count with the U.S. Atlantic “window census” provides a total minimum estimate of 5,723 breeding birds for the species.

  15. Census Cities Project and Atlas of Urban and Regional Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Census Cities Project has several related purposes: (1) to assess the role of remote sensors on high altitude platforms for the comparative study of urban areas; (2) to detect changes in selected U.S. urban areas between the 1970 census and the time of launching of an earth-orbiting sensor platform prior to the next census; (3) to test the utility of the satellite sensor platform to monitor urban change (When the 1970 census returns become available for small areas, they will serve as a control for sensor image interpretation.); (4) to design an information system for incorporating graphic sensor data with census-type data gathered by traditional techniques; (5) to identify and design user-oriented end-products or information services; and (6) to plan an effective organizational capability to provide such services on a continuing basis.

  16. Exploring Paleoclimatic and -Oceanographic Consequences for Arctic Beringia by the Eocene Formation and Progressive E-W Lengthening of the Aleutian Ridge (arc) Across the North Pacific Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: During the past ~50 Myr, magmatic growth of the offshore Aleutian Ridge (AR) or arc and its progressive tectonic lengthening to the west cordoned off the NW corner of the Pacific Basin to formed the deep water (3000-4000 m), marginal sea of the Bering Sea Basin (BSB). Cordoning continuously altered the paths, depths, and locations of water-exchange passes controlling the circulation of waters between the north Pacific and the Bering Sea (BS), and, via the fixed Bering Strait, that entering the Pacific sector of the Arctic Basin. PRESENT PATTERN OF PACIFIC-BERING-ARCTIC WATER EXCHANGE: Cool, low salinity water of the Alaska Stream flowing west along the Pacific side of the AR crosses northward into the BS via tectonically controlled, inter-island passes. The largest volume (~9 SV) enters near the western end of the AR via Near Pass. Flow turns back to the east and CCW northward over the BSB. Surface water exits southward around the western end of the AR through the far western, deep-water (~4000 m) pass of Kamchatka Strait. Because water salinity is low, vertical thermohaline circulation (THC) does not occur over the BSB. However, the deposition of the larger Meiji Drift body, which is charged with Bering-sourced, detritus, on the Pacific side of Kamchatka Strait implies THC may have occurred in the past. Deep-water circulation is presently linked to the inflow of Pacific abyssal water via Kamchatka Strait. A small volume (~0.8 SV) of cool, low salinity water entering the BS mainly through eastern, shallow-silled passes continues northward across the broad Beringian shelf to enter the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait. EVOLUTION OF ALEUTIAN RIDGE: At it's inception, the arc massif of the AR likely extended only about 1200 km west of Alaska. Because convergence is increasingly oblique to the west, plate-boundary-driven, right-lateral strike-slip faulting extensionally fragmented the AR and progressively rotated and transported blocks and slivers

  17. Census Analysis: A Look at HCC Credit Students Based on the 1980 Census. Research Report Number 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespoli, Lawrence A.; Radcliffe, Susan K.

    A study was conducted by Howard Community College (HCC) to identify the geographic make-up of HCC credit students and to examine importance factors influencing college attendance. Using census software, data on 93.4% of HCC's 1980 credit students (N=4,013) were compared with 1980 census data on Howard County to determine participation rates for…

  18. 75 FR 16424 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census Coverage Measurement Final Housing Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census Coverage Measurement Final Housing.... Abstract The 2010 Census Coverage Measurement (CCM) Final Housing Unit Followup and Final Housing Unit... for previous coverage measurement programs were designed to measure only net coverage error,...

  19. 77 FR 18790 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the 2020 Census Field Tests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... directed to Erin Love, Census Bureau, HQ-3H468E, Washington, DC 20233; (301) 763-2034 (or via the Internet at erin.s.love@census.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The U.S. Census Bureau...

  20. 75 FR 16078 - Reestablishment of the Census Advisory Committee of Professional Associations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of the Census Reestablishment of the Census Advisory Committee of Professional Associations AGENCY... succeeds the Census Advisory Committee of Professional Associations (CACPA). The charter for the...

  1. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  2. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  3. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  4. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679 Wildlife and... 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open...

  5. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  6. [The need to develop demographic census systems for Latin America].

    PubMed

    Silva, A

    1987-01-01

    The author presents the case for developing new software packages specifically designed to process population census information for Latin America. The focus is on the problems faced by developing countries in handling vast amounts of data in an efficient way. First, the basic methods of census data processing are discussed, then brief descriptions of some of the available software are included. Finally, ways in which data processing programs could be geared toward and utilized for improving the accuracy of Latin American censuses in the 1990s are proposed.

  7. The origin of summit basins on the Aleutian Ridge: implications for block rotation of an arc massif ( Pacific).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Childs, J. R.; Scholl, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    It is proposed that many summit basins along the Aleutian Arc form from the clockwise rotation of blocks of the arc massic. Summit basins are arc-parallel grabens or half-grabens formed within the arc massif and are commonly located near or along the axis of late Cenozoic volcanism. Geomorphically, the Aleutian Arc appears to consist of contiguous rhombic blocks of varying size, 10's to 100's of km in length. Presents a model for block rotation that involves translation of blocks parallel to an arc. It is suggested that block rotation, which appears to have accelerated in late Cenozoic time, is linked to: 1) a shift in the Euler pole for the Pacific plate; 2) the consequential start-up of late Cenozoic volcanism; 3) improved interplate coupling instigated by sediment flooding of the Aleutian Trench; and 4) westward subduction of NE striking segments of the inactive Kula-Pacific Ridge.-from Authors

  8. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  9. Pacific Basin tsunami hazards associated with mass flows in the Aleutian arc of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Watts, Philip; Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.

    2009-06-01

    We analyze mass-flow tsunami generation for selected areas within the Aleutian arc of Alaska using results from numerical simulation of hypothetical but plausible mass-flow sources such as submarine landslides and volcanic debris avalanches. The Aleutian arc consists of a chain of volcanic mountains, volcanic islands, and submarine canyons, surrounded by a low-relief continental shelf above about 1000-2000 m water depth. Parts of the arc are fragmented into a series of fault-bounded blocks, tens to hundreds of kilometers in length, and separated from one another by distinctive fault-controlled canyons that are roughly normal to the arc axis. The canyons are natural regions for the accumulation and conveyance of sediment derived from glacial and volcanic processes. The volcanic islands in the region include a number of historically active volcanoes and some possess geological evidence for large-scale sector collapse into the sea. Large scale mass-flow deposits have not been mapped on the seafloor south of the Aleutian Islands, in part because most of the area has never been examined at the resolution required to identify such features, and in part because of the complex nature of erosional and depositional processes. Extensive submarine landslide deposits and debris flows are known on the north side of the arc and are common in similar settings elsewhere and thus they likely exist on the trench slope south of the Aleutian Islands. Because the Aleutian arc is surrounded by deep, open ocean, mass flows of unconsolidated debris that originate either as submarine landslides or as volcanic debris avalanches entering the sea may be potential tsunami sources. To test this hypothesis we present a series of numerical simulations of submarine mass-flow initiated tsunamis from eight different source areas. We consider four submarine mass flows originating in submarine canyons and four flows that evolve from submarine landslides on the trench slope. The flows have lengths that

  10. Pacific Basin tsunami hazards associated with mass flows in the Aleutian arc of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Watts, Philip; Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze mass-flow tsunami generation for selected areas within the Aleutian arc of Alaska using results from numerical simulation of hypothetical but plausible mass-flow sources such as submarine landslides and volcanic debris avalanches. The Aleutian arc consists of a chain of volcanic mountains, volcanic islands, and submarine canyons, surrounded by a low-relief continental shelf above about 1000–2000 m water depth. Parts of the arc are fragmented into a series of fault-bounded blocks, tens to hundreds of kilometers in length, and separated from one another by distinctive fault-controlled canyons that are roughly normal to the arc axis. The canyons are natural regions for the accumulation and conveyance of sediment derived from glacial and volcanic processes. The volcanic islands in the region include a number of historically active volcanoes and some possess geological evidence for large-scale sector collapse into the sea. Large scale mass-flow deposits have not been mapped on the seafloor south of the Aleutian Islands, in part because most of the area has never been examined at the resolution required to identify such features, and in part because of the complex nature of erosional and depositional processes. Extensive submarine landslide deposits and debris flows are known on the north side of the arc and are common in similar settings elsewhere and thus they likely exist on the trench slope south of the Aleutian Islands. Because the Aleutian arc is surrounded by deep, open ocean, mass flows of unconsolidated debris that originate either as submarine landslides or as volcanic debris avalanches entering the sea may be potential tsunami sources. To test this hypothesis we present a series of numerical simulations of submarine mass-flow initiated tsunamis from eight different source areas. We consider four submarine mass flows originating in submarine canyons and four flows that evolve from submarine landslides on the trench slope. The flows have lengths

  11. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

    2006-11-01

    Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

  12. Subsidence at Kiska volcano, Western Aleutians, detected by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Masterlark, Timothy; Power, J.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C.

    2002-01-01

    Sequential interferometric synthetic aperture radar images of Kiska, the westernmost historically active volcano in the Aleutian arc, show that a circular area about 3 km in diameter centered near the summit subsided by as much as 10 cm from 1995 to 2001, mostly during 1999 and 2000. An elastic Mogi-type deformation model suggests that the source is within 1 km of the surface. Based on the shallow source depth, the copious amounts of steam during recent eruptions, and recent field reports of vigorous steaming and persistent ground shaking near the summit area, we attribute the subsidence to decreased pore-fluid pressure within a shallow hydrothermal system beneath the summit area.

  13. Distinctly different parental magmas for plutons and lavas in the central Aleutian arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Rioux, M. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.; Bolge, L.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    While it is generally agreed that continental crust is generated by arc magmatism, average arc lavas are basaltic while the bulk continental crust is andesitic, and this has led to many models for secondary reprocessing of the arc crust in order to form continental crust. We report new data on calc-alkaline plutons in the central Aleutians showing that they have distinctly different sources compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas. Therefore the lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks from the central Aleutian arc show higher SiO2 at a given Mg#, higher ɛNd- and ɛHf-values, and lower Pb isotope ratios than Holocene volcanic rocks from the same region. Instead, the plutonic rocks resemble volcanics from the western Aleutians isotopically, and have chemical compositions similar to bulk continental crust. These data could reflect temporal variation of Aleutian magma source compositions, from Eocene-Miocene "isotopically depleted" and predominantly calc-alkaline to Holocene "isotopically enriched" and predominantly tholeiitic. Alternatively, they may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons and lavas: calc-alkaline magmas with higher Si content and high viscosity may preferentially form plutons, perhaps after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. The latter case implies that the upper and middle arc crust is more like the calc-alkaline bulk composition of the continental crust than the lavas alone. Crustal reprocessing mechanisms that preserve upper and middle arc crust, while removing lower arc crust, can account for the genesis and evolution of continental crust. Since gabbroic lower arc crust extends from ca 20-40 km depth, and is density stable over most of this depth range, "delamination" of dense lithologies [1] may not be sufficient to accomplish this. Alternatively

  14. The Aleutian Tsunami of 1946: the Compound Earthquake-Landslide Source and Near-Field Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, G. J.; Yamazaki, Y.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The tsunami of April 1, 1946, spread death and destruction throughout the Pacific from the Aleutians to Antarctica, and produced exceptional runup, 42 m, at Scotch Cap on Unimak Island in the near field. López & Okal (2006) showed that the triggering earthquake was at least MW = 8.6, large enough to explain the far-field tsunami but still requiring a landslide or other secondary source to achieve the local runup. No convincing landslide was found until von Huene, et al (2014) merged all available multibeam data and reprocessed a old multichannel line to show that a feature on the Aleutian Terrace they call Lone Knoll (LK) is the displaced block of a translational slide. From 210Pb dating of push cores taken near the summit of LK, we find that a disruption in sedimentation occurred in 1946 at one site, but sedimentation was not disrupted at another site nearby. We infer that the slide block moved coherently at a speed close to the threshold for erosion of the hemipelagic clays. From GLORIA sidescan, Fryer, et al (2004) had earlier tentatively identified LK as a landslide deposit, but if the tsunami crossed the shallow Aleutian Shelf at the long-wave speed, that landslide had to extend up to the shelf edge to satisfy the known 48-min travel time to Scotch Cap. The resulting landslide was enormous, and a multibeam survey later in 2004 showed that it could not exist. The slide imaged by von Huene, et al is far smaller, with a headwall 30 km downslope at a depth of 3 km. The greater distance demands that the tsunami travel much faster across the shelf. The huge runup, however, suggests that wave height was a significant fraction of the water depth (only 80 m), so the tsunami probably crossed the Aleutian Shelf as a bore. From modeling the landslide-generated tsunami with a shock-capturing dispersive code we infer that it did indeed cross the shelf as a bore traveling at roughly twice the long-wave speed. We are still exploring the dependence of the tsunami on slide

  15. Paleogene geology and chronology of southwestern Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, H.; Hein, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A slightly deformed marine sedimentary sequence reflecting volcanic arc sedimentation from late Eocene to early Oligocene is intruded by hypabyssal quartz diorite sills and small plutons with apparent ages of about 30 Ma, ie, middle Oligocene. Chemical data from igneous rocks exhibit calc-alkaline and tholeiitic volcanic arc differentiation trends. The fossil ages and radiometric dates from SW Umnak Island are similar to those reported from other central and E Aleutian islands, and indicate uniformity in the chronology and tectonic development of the archipelago during the Paleogene. Paleomagnetic data suggest possible northward movement but remain equivocal and more work is indicated. -after Authors

  16. [SIN census 2008: the nephrologist's workload].

    PubMed

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Postorino, Maurizio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Limido, Aurelio; Dal Canton, Antonio; Balducci, Alessandro; Contu, Bruno; Salomone, Mario; Nordio, Maurizio; Levialdi Ghiron, Jung Hee; Viglino, Giusto; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Coppo, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a first analysis of data of the second survey promoted by the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN), with particular regard to data referring to the nephrologist's workload. The survey was carried out through a Web-based questionnaire that participants could fill in online between March and December 2010. The data were validated against those of the Italian Dialysis and Transplant Registry (RIDT) and therefore refer to 31 December 2008, the date of the last RIDT report. Accurate completion of the questionnaires and reminders were monitored by the presidents of the regional sections of the SIN and the regional registries' chairpersons under the coordination of four area managers and a census committee. The response to the survey represented 42% of all nephrology centers, treating about 50% of all dialysis patients in Italy. The response percentage varied widely among regions (from 5% to 100% of the centers). After exclusion of the three regions with responses below 10%, it reached 68%, which was sufficient to give an idea of the state of nephrology in Italy. However, due to this wide variability, it was not possible to make an overall comparison of the regional situations, hence data for complex and simple structures were assessed separately. Despite the limits due to the incomplete participation in the survey, this article provides a clear description of the state of nephrology in Italy. The results confirm the hypothesis presented in the work of Bocconi Cergas, namely that the nephrology market is broader than nephrologists are able to control. The work of the nephrologist, which still seems to be focused mainly on dialysis in its various forms, should be directed more towards the development of methods for early detection of kidney disease and close follow-up. The ultimate aim is the early diagnosis of kidney disease and hence prevention of its complications, so that the focus no longer needs to be on ESKD treatment systems. PMID:22167614

  17. Drawing Statistical Inferences from Historical Census Data, 1850–1950

    PubMed Central

    DAVERN, MICHAEL; RUGGLES, STEVEN; SWENSON, TAMI; ALEXANDER, J. TRENT; OAKES, J. MICHAEL

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all quantitative microdata used by social scientists derive from samples that incorporate clustering, stratification, and weighting adjustments (Kish 1965, 1992). Such data can yield standard error estimates that differ dramatically from those derived from a simple random sample of the same size. Researchers using historical U.S. census microdata, however, usually apply methods designed for simple random samples. The resulting p values and confidence intervals could be inaccurate and could lead to erroneous research conclusions. Because U.S. census microdata samples are among the most widely used sources for social science and policy research, the need for reliable standard error estimation is critical. We evaluate the historical microdata samples of the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) project from 1850 to 1950 in order to determine (1) the impact of sample design on standard error estimates, and (2) how to apply modern standard error estimation software to historical census samples. We exploit a unique new data source from the 1880 census to validate our methods for standard error estimation, and then we apply this approach to the 1850–1870 and 1900–1950 decennial censuses. We conclude that Taylor series estimation can be used effectively with the historical decennial census microdata samples and should be applied in research analyses that have the potential for substantial clustering effects. PMID:19771946

  18. 77 FR 13532 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 National Census Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 National Census Test AGENCY: U.S... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Census Bureau must conduct a series of research projects and tests throughout... Decennial Census questionnaire on the Internet. One of the first tests to support this planning effort...

  19. The Child Population: First Data from the 2000 Census. A Kids Count/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.

    This report provides an overview of American children based on the first data released from the 2000 Census. Overall, at 72.3 million in 2000, the number of children recorded in the 2000 Census was the largest in U.S. history. There was a substantial increase in the number of children during the 1990s as the under-18 population grew 8.7 million…

  20. A census of fishes and everything they eat: How the census of marine life advanced fisheries science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dor, Ron; Boustany, Andre M.; Chittenden, Cedar M.; Costello, Mark J.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Payne, John; Steinke, Dirk; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Vanden Berghe, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The Census of Marine Life was a 10-year, international research effort to explore poorly known ocean habitats and conduct large-scale experimentation with new technology. The goal of Census 2010 in its mission statement was to describe what did live in the oceans, what does live in the oceans, and what will live in the ocean. Many of the findings and techniques from census research may prove valuable in making a transition, which many governments have publicly endorsed, from single-species fisheries management to more holistic ecosystem management. Census researchers sampled continental margins, mid-Atlantic ridges, ocean floor vents and seeps, and abyssal plains and polar seas and organized massive amounts of past and new information in a public online database called the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (www.iobis.org). The census described and categorized seamount biology worldwide for its vulnerability to fishing, advanced large-scale animal tracking with acoustic arrays and satellite archival tags, and accelerated species identification, including nearshore, coral reef, and zooplankton sampling using genetic barcoding and pyrotag sequencing for microbes and helped to launch the exciting new field of marine environmental history. Above all, the census showed the value of investing in large-scale, collaborative projects and sharing results publicly.

  1. The Census of Objects within 10 Parsecs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Winters, Jennifer G.; Dieterich, Sergio; Finch, Charlie T.; Hambly, Nigel C.; Ianna, Philip A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.; RECONS Team

    2016-01-01

    The sample of stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets known within 10 parsecs of our Solar System as of January 1, 2015 is presented. All systems have trigonometric parallaxes of 100 mas or more with errors of 10 mas or less. Included in the sample are 12 systems in the southern sky added to the sample via new parallaxes from the RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) effort at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m.The census consists of 366 stars (including the Sun and white dwarfs), 37 brown dwarfs, and 34 planets (eight in our Solar System and 26 exoplanets). Red dwarfs clearly dominate the sample, accounting for 75% of all stars known within 10 pc, while brown dwarfs are currently outnumbered 10 to 1 by stars. The completeness of the sample is assessed, indicating that additional discoveries of red, brown, and white dwarfs within 10 pc, both as primaries and secondaries, are likely, although we estimate that roughly 90% of the stellar systemshave been identified. The evolution of the 10 pc sample over the past 70 years is outlined to illustrate the growth of the sample. The luminosity and mass functions are described. In contrast to many studies, once all known close multiples are resolved into individual components, the true stellar mass function rises to the end of the main sequence. With far fewer brown dwarfs than stars, different formation scenarios for objects that fuse hydrogen and those that do not are likely. Of 270 stellar primaries, 28% have companion stars, only 2% have brown dwarf companions, and 6% have detected planets. The planetary rate so far is low but climbing, while searches forbrown dwarf companions to stars within 10 pc have been quite rigorous, so the brown dwarf companion rate is unlikely to rise noticeably. Overall, the solar neighborhood is dominated by small stars that are potentially orbited by many small, as yet unseen, planets.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402, AST-1109445, and AST-1412026, and

  2. A Census of Distant, Giant Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.

    Hundreds of planets have recently been discovered around other stars, revealing a startling diversity of planetary systems. However, these exoplanets lie almost exclusively within a few astronomical units (AU) of their host stars. A full picture of planet formation also requires a census and statistical analysis of planets at wide separations. This thesis uses the SEEDS direct imaging survey, together with archival data, to search for massive, >~5 M J companions tens of AU from their host stars. These objects are not sufficiently massive to fuse hydrogen, and simply cool and fade as they radiate away their heat of formation. As a result, SEEDS targets young, nearby stars using HiCIAO, a high-contrast infrared camera on the Subaru telescope. I first present an analysis of HiCIAO, deriving the distortion correction needed to reduce high-contrast data, and optimizing HiCIAO's entrance pupil to vastly improve its performance. I then describe ACORNS-ADI, software I have written to reduce HiCIAO data. This software includes several new algorithms that both improve its performance and efficiently compute each observation's sensitivity. I use ACORNS-ADI to uniformly reduce data from the SEEDS survey, including images of members of young moving groups and of debris disk hosts. The ages of these stars, together with substellar cooling models, are needed to convert our sensitivities from luminosities to masses. I therefore present a uniform Bayesian analysis of all targets, deriving a posterior age distribution for each using both proposed moving group membership and observed stellar activity. Finally, I combine the published SEEDS results with additional archival imaging to assemble a diverse sample of nearly 200 stars. A statistical analysis of five brown dwarfs and massive exoplanets discovered by HiCIAO provides a limit of ~50--200 AU, depending on the models used, beyond which the distribution of exoplanets at small separations cannot extend. By treating massive planets

  3. Multi-segment earthquakes and tsunami potential of the Aleutian megathrust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shennan, I.; Bruhn, R.; Plafker, G.

    2009-01-01

    Large to great earthquakes and related tsunamis generated on the Aleutian megathrust produce major hazards for both the area of rupture and heavily populated coastlines around much of the Pacific Ocean. Here we use paleoseismic records preserved in coastal sediments to investigate whether segment boundaries control the largest ruptures or whether in some seismic cycles segments combine to produce earthquakes greater than any observed since instrumented records began. Virtually the entire megathrust has ruptured since AD1900, with four different segments generating earthquakes >M8.0. The largest was the M9.2 great Alaska earthquake of March 1964 that ruptured ???800 km of the eastern segment of the megathrust. The tsunami generated caused fatalities in Alaska and along the coast as far south as California. East of the 1964 zone of deformation, the Yakutat microplate experienced two >M8.0 earthquakes, separated by a week, in September 1899. For the first time, we present evidence that earthquakes ???900 and ???1500 years ago simultaneously ruptured adjacent segments of the Aleutian megathrust and the Yakutat microplate, with a combined area ???15% greater than 1964, giving an earthquake of greater magnitude and increased tsunamigenic potential. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2015-11-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California. PMID:25445322

  5. Seismicity trends and potential for large earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bufe, C.G.; Nishenko, S.P.; Varnes, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The high likelihood of a gap-filling thrust earthquake in the Alaska subduction zone within this decade is indicated by two independent methods: analysis of historic earthquake recurrence data and time-to-failure analysis applied to recent decades of instrumental data. Recent (May 1993) earthquake activity in the Shumagin Islands gap is consistent with previous projections of increases in seismic release, indicating that this segment, along with the Alaska Peninsula segment, is approaching failure. Based on this pattern of accelerating seismic release, we project the occurrence of one or more M???7.3 earthquakes in the Shumagin-Alaska Peninsula region during 1994-1996. Different segments of the Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone behave differently in the decade or two preceding great earthquakes, some showing acceleration of seismic release (type "A" zones), while others show deceleration (type "D" zones). The largest Alaska-Aleutian earthquakes-in 1957, 1964, and 1965-originated in zones that exhibit type D behavior. Type A zones currently showing accelerating release are the Shumagin, Alaska Peninsula, Delarof, and Kommandorski segments. Time-to-failure analysis suggests that the large earthquakes could occur in these latter zones within the next few years. ?? 1994 Birkha??user Verlag.

  6. A seismological reassessment of the source of the 1946 Aleutian `tsunami' earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alberto M.; Okal, Emile A.

    2006-06-01

    We present a re-evaluation of the seismological properties of the Aleutian `tsunami earthquake' of 1946 April 1, characterized by a deceptively low conventional magnitude (7.4) in view of its catastrophic tsunami, both in the near and far fields. Relocation of 40 aftershocks show that the fault zone extends a minimum of 181 km along the Aleutian trench, in a geometry requiring a bilateral rupture from the original nucleation at the epicentre. Their spatial and temporal distribution are typical of the aftershock patterns of a large earthquake, and rule out the model of a landslide source exclusive of a dislocation. The analysis of the spectra of mantle waves favours the model of a large seismic source, with a static moment of 8.5 × 1028 dyn-cm, making the event one of the ten largest earthquakes ever recorded (hence the destructive tsunami in the far field), and of a slow bilateral rupture, at an average velocity of only 1.12 km s-1, hence the destructive interference in all azimuths for all but the longest mantle waves. The exceptionally slow character of the earthquake is confirmed by a deficiency in radiated seismic energy expressed by the lowest value measured to date of the energy-to-moment ratio. The earthquake appears as an end member in the family of `tsunami earthquakes', resulting from the combination of anomalous, but not unprecedented, parameters, such as low stress drop and rupture velocity.

  7. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS OF A RESIDENT FRESHWATER FORAGE FISH AT ADAK ISLAND, ALEUTIAN ARCHIPELAGO, ALASKA

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Leah A.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Willacker, James J.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is an isolated arc of over 300 volcanic islands stretching 1,600 km across the interface of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Although remote, some Aleutian Islands were heavily impacted by military activities from World War II until recently and were exposed to anthropogenic contaminants, including mercury (Hg). Mercury is also delivered to these islands via global atmospheric transport, prevailing ocean currents, and biotransport by migratory species. Mercury contamination of freshwater ecosystems is poorly understood in this region. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) collected from eight lakes at Adak Island, an island in the center of the archipelago with a long military history. Mean THg concentrations for fish whole-body homogenates for all lakes ranged from 0.314 to 0.560 mg/kg dry weight. Stickleback collected from seabird-associated lakes had significantly higher concentrations of THg compared to non-seabird lakes, including all military lakes. The δ13C stable isotope ratios of stickleback collected from seabird lakes suggest an input of marine-derived nutrients and/or marine-derived Hg. PMID:22912068

  8. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  9. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of Aleutian convergent-margin basins - ridge crest to trench floor

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, D.W.; Ryan, H.F.; Geist, E.L.; Vallier, T.L.; Stevenson, A.J.; Childs, J.R. )

    1988-02-01

    The Aleutian Ridge lies along nearly 2000 km of the north Pacific's obliquely converging plate boundary with North America. Since middle Eocene time, convergent-margin basins have repeatedly formed here, typically as summit basins along the ridge crest, and as forearc basins on the landward trench slope. Summit and forearc basins formed as a consequence of plate-boundary coupling and the application of compressional and right-lateral shear stresses to the arc massif. Basins typically evolved along shear zones in response to transtensional processes, and as trailing-edge grabens behind rotating blocks of arc massif. In the late Cenozoic, high rates of trench sedimentation led to the growth of an accretionary complex that underthrust forearc basement. Wedging and improved plate coupling elevated and laterally shifted blocks of outer forearc rocks, creating much of the structural framework of the regionally extensive Aleutian Terrace forearc basin. Changes in plate-boundary conditions that affected the ridge's volcanic activity and regional elevation importantly influenced basinal sedimentation. Changes of greatest significance were a major shift in convergence direction and rate about 42 Ma (reduced volcanism), ridge underthrusting by increasingly younger ocean crust in Oligocene and Miocene time (arc elevation), and the combination of more orthogonal underthrusting and the subduction of a dead spreading center 5-10 Ma (arc subsidence).

  10. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of Aleutian convergent-margin basins - Ridge crest to trench floor

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, D.W.; Ryan, H.F.; Geist, E.L.; Vallier, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Aleutian Ridge lies along nearly 2,000 km of the north Pacific's obliquely converging plate boundary with North America. Since middle Eocene time, convergent-margin basins have repeatedly formed here, typically as summit basins along the ridge crest, and as forecarc basins on the landward trench slope. Thick (1-4 km) sequences of terrigenous, hemipelagic, and biogenic debris have accumulated in these depressions, which are mostly intra-arc structures floored by arc-basement rocks. Summit and forearc basins formed as a consequence of plate-boundary coupling and the application of compressional and right-lateral shear stresses to the arc massif. Basins typically evolved along shear zones in response to transtensional processes, and as trailing-edge grabens behind rotating blocks of arc massif. In the late Cenozoic, high rates of trench sedimentation led to the growth of an accretionary complex that underthrust forearc basement. Wedging and improved plate coupling elevated and laterally shifted blocks of outer forearc rocks, creating much of the structural framework of the regionally extensive Aleutian Terrace forearc basin. Changes in plate-boundary conditions that affected the ridge's volcanic activity and regional elevation importantly influenced basinal sedimentation. Changes of greatest significant were a major shift in convergence direction and rate about 42 Ma (reduced volcanism), ridge underthrusting by increasingly younger ocean crust in Oligocena and Miocene time (arc elevation), and the combination of more orthogonal underthrusting and the subduction of a dead spreading center 5-120 Ma (arc subsidence).

  11. Application of real-time PCR to detect Aleutian Mink Disease Virus on environmental farm sources.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Alberto; Díaz-Cao, José Manuel; Fernández-Antonio, Ricardo; Panadero, Rosario; Díaz, Pablo; López, Ceferino; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Fernández, Gonzalo

    2014-10-10

    The Aleutian Mink Virus (AMDV) causes the Aleutian Mink Disease (AMD) or Mink Plasmacytosis, a disease responsible of high economic losses for industry worldwide. Despite there is evidence of the environmental persistence of the virus, there is not literature on the detection of this virus in environmental samples in farms and this fact would have great importance in the control programs of the disease. In order to detect contamination caused by AMDV on farms, several environmental samples were taken and examined using qPCR. 93.9% of samples taken from farms confirmed to be infected tested positive. The virus was also detected on a farm which, despite having no previous positive results, was sharing personnel with an infected farm. All samples taken from AMD-free farms tested negative, including a farm where an eradication procedure by stamping out had been performed during the preceding months. Higher contamination levels were observed in samples from those surfaces in direct contact with animals. These results are the first demonstration of environmental contamination in farms, hitherto suggested by epidemiological evidences, caused by AMDV on surfaces, furniture and equipments inside mink farms. qPCR is an useful tool for evaluating the spread of AMDV into the environment, and it may have important applications within the disease control programs. PMID:25183237

  12. Status of the Archaeal and Bacterial Census: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Rene A.; Martin, Thomas; Edwards, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A census is typically carried out for people across a range of geographical levels; however, microbial ecologists have implemented a molecular census of bacteria and archaea by sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. We assessed how well the census of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences is proceeding in the context of recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies because full-length sequences are typically used as references for classification of the short sequences generated by newer technologies. Among the 1,411,234 and 53,546 full-length bacterial and archaeal sequences, 94.5% and 95.1% of the bacterial and archaeal sequences, respectively, belonged to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that have been observed more than once. Although these metrics suggest that the census is approaching completion, 29.2% of the bacterial and 38.5% of the archaeal OTUs have been observed more than once. Thus, there is still considerable diversity to be explored. Unfortunately, the rate of new full-length sequences has been declining, and new sequences are primarily being deposited by a small number of studies. Furthermore, sequences from soil and aquatic environments, which are known to be rich in bacterial diversity, represent only 7.8 and 16.5% of the census, while sequences associated with host-associated environments represent 55.0% of the census. Continued use of traditional approaches and new technologies such as single-cell genomics and short-read assembly are likely to improve our ability to sample rare OTUs if it is possible to overcome this sampling bias. The success of ongoing efforts to use short-read sequencing to characterize archaeal and bacterial communities requires that researchers strive to expand the depth and breadth of this census. PMID:27190214

  13. The impact of technological change on census taking.

    PubMed

    Brackstone, G J

    1984-01-01

    The increasing costs of traditional census collection methods have forced census administrators to look at the possibility of using administrative record systems in order to obtain population data. This article looks at the recent technological developments which have taken place in the last decade, and how they may affect data collection for the 1990 census. Because it is important to allow sufficient developmental and testing time of potential automated methods and technologies, it is not too soon to look at the trends resulting from technological advances and their implications for census data collection. These trends are: 1) the declining ratio of computing costs to manpower costs; 2) the increasing ratio of power and capacity of computers to their physical size; 3) declining data storage costs; 4) the increasing public acceptance of computers; 5) the increasing workforce familiarity with computers; and 6) the growing interactive computing capacity. Traditional use of computers for government data gathering operations were primarily for the processing stage. Now the possibility of applying these trends to census material may influence all aspects of the process; from questionnaire design and production, to data analysis. Examples include: the production of high quality maps for geographic frameworks, optical readers for data entry, the ability to provide users with a final data base, as well as printed output, and quicker dissemination of data results. Although these options exist, just like the use of administrative records for statistical purposes, they must be carefully analysed in context to the purposes for which they were created. The limitations of using administrative records for the and 2) definition, coverage, and quality limitations could bias statistical data derived from them. Perhaps they should be used as potential complementary sources of data, and not as replacements for census data. Influencing the evolution of these administrative records

  14. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and an apportionment from the non-specified reserve of groundfish (76 FR 17360, March 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...

  15. 75 FR 38430 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). In... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). The harvest specification for the 2010... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and...

  16. 77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... tons (mt) by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669... biological catch in the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY:...

  17. 75 FR 56485 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48298), with a public comment period that closed August 25, 2010. One... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Recordkeeping... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations to remove the...

  18. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... final rule implementing the Crab Rationalization Program (Program) was published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR... fishery would be caused in the time it would take to follow standard rulemaking procedures (62 FR 44421... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency...

  19. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Recordkeeping... removes the Crab Rationalization Program requirements for catcher/processors to weigh all offloaded crab... INFORMATION CONTACT: Patsy A. Bearden, 907-586-7228. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS manages the U.S....

  20. 50 CFR 600.1108 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish fishery program. 600.1108 Section 600.1108 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 50 CFR 600.1108 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish fishery program. 600.1108 Section 600.1108 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... the data and information produced represent the best available science, and provide recommendations... conduct a peer review of the agency's economic data collection program for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands... Ventures, Inc., provides independent peer reviews of NMFS's fisheries stock assessments and other...

  3. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XV52 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  4. 78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC752 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... under Sec. 679.2(d)(1)(iii) on June 11, 2013 (78 FR 35771, June 14, 2013). As of July 8, 2013, NMFS...

  5. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... GOA (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  6. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... GOA (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and apportionment of non-specified reserves (76 FR 53840, August 30... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  7. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  8. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  9. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  10. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  11. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  12. 75 FR 21600 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW07 Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and Tanner Crab Fisheries in the Bering...

  13. 75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    .../processors using hook-and-line in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on November 16, 2009 (74 FR 59918... Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod...

  14. 75 FR 69597 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod in the Bering...

  15. 76 FR 13593 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    .... Vessels that meet these criteria subsequently will be referred to as ``non-AFA crab vessels.'' The CR... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR Program). Regulations implementing Amendments 18 and 19 were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are located at 50 CFR part...

  16. Mid-Pliocene Planktic Foraminifer Census Data and Alkenone Unsaturation Indices from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 677A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Marci; Caballero, Rocio; Pohlman, Emily; Herbert, Timothy; Peck, Victoria; Dowsett, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of mid-Pliocene climatic and oceanographic conditions. One of the key elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages in conjunction with other proxies to constrain estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST) and to identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses. Raw census data are made available as soon as possible after analysis through a series of reports that provide the basic data for future work. In this report we present raw census data (table 1) for planktic foraminifer assemblages in 14 samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 677A. We also present alkenone unsaturation index (UK'37) analyses for 89 samples from ODP Hole 677A (table 2). ODP Hole 677A is located in the Panama basin, due west of Ecuador at 1?12.138'N., 83?44.220'W., in 3461.2 meters of water (fig. 1). A variety of statistical methods have been developed to transform foraminiferal census data in Pliocene sequences into quantitative estimates of Pliocene SST. Details of statistical techniques, taxonomic groupings, and oceanographic interpretations are presented in more formal publications (Dowsett and Poore, 1990, 1991; Dowsett, 1991, 2007a,b; Dowsett and Robinson, 1998, 2007; Dowsett and others, 1996, 1999).

  17. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  18. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  19. Replication of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus In Vivo Is Influenced by Residues in the VP2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M.; McCrackin Stevenson, Mary A.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    1999-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. Several ADV isolates have been identified which vary in the severity of the disease they elicit. The isolate ADV-Utah replicates to high levels in mink, causing severe Aleutian disease that results in death within 6 to 8 weeks, but does not replicate in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells. In contrast, ADV-G replicates in CrFK cells but does not replicate in mink. The ability of the virus to replicate in vivo is determined by virally encoded determinants contained within a defined region of the VP2 gene (M. E. Bloom, J. M. Fox, B. D. Berry, K. L. Oie, and J. B. Wolfinbarger. Virology 251:288–296, 1998). Within this region, ADV-G and ADV-Utah differ at only five amino acid residues. To determine which of these five amino acid residues comprise the in vivo replication determinant, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to individually convert the amino acid residues of ADV-G to those of ADV-Utah. A virus in which the ADV-G VP2 residue at 534, histidine (H), was converted to an aspartic acid (D) of ADV-Utah replicated in CrFK cells as efficiently as ADV-G. H534D also replicated in mink, causing transient viremia at 30 days postinfection and a strong antibody response. Animals infected with this virus developed diffuse hepatocellular microvesicular steatosis, an abnormal accumulation of intracellular fat, but did not develop classical Aleutian disease. Thus, the substitution of an aspartic acid at residue 534 for a histidine allowed replication of ADV-G in mink, but the ability to replicate was not sufficient to cause classical Aleutian disease. PMID:10482625

  20. Remodeling census population with spatial information from Landsat TM imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, Y.; Smith, R.M.; Limp, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    In geographic information systems (GIS) studies there has been some difficulty integrating socioeconomic and physiogeographic data. One important type of socioeconomic data, census data, offers a wide range of socioeconomic information, but is aggregated within arbitrary enumeration districts (EDs). Values reflect either raw counts or, when standardized, the mean densities in the EDs. On the other hand, remote sensing imagery, an important type of physiogeographic data, provides large quantities of information with more spatial details than census data. Based on the dasymetric mapping principle, this study applies multivariable regression to examine the correlation between population counts from census and land cover types. The land cover map is classified from LandSat TM imagery. The correlation is high. Census population counts are remodeled to a GIS raster layer based on the discovered correlations coupled with scaling techniques, which offset influences from other than land cover types. The GIS raster layer depicts the population distribution with much more spatial detail than census data offer. The resulting GIS raster layer is ready to be analyzed or integrated with other GIS data. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Report on phase 2 of 1990 OSSA data census

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) data census contributed significantly to a database intended to identify and briefly describe all archived data and potentially archive-desirable data from active and inactive NASA/OSSA spaceflight investigations. This database is being created at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) and will be more comprehensive than the databases describing data held at individual sites such as NSSDC. Active investigations are defined as those flying on currently operational spacecraft or those that flew on recently operational spacecraft for which project-coordinated data archiving is continuing. Inactive investigations are those that flew on spacecraft that are no longer operational, and for which systematic archiving has ended. The principal purpose of this report is to describe phase two of the 1990 census. The previously reported phase one of this census, as well as a relevant 1981 census, are briefly discussed. The phase two survey instrument is described, those surveyed and respondents/reponses are identified, and data sets from inactive OSSA investigations discovered during the 1990 census (phase two) are briefly discussed individually.

  2. The census of India and the mentally ill

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, Alok; Jain, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Context/Background: Epidemiological data have long been considered essential for documenting incidence of disability and planning services. India has been conducting census operations for a long time, and this information may be relevant in the current context. Aims: To document the prevalence of insanity, and discussions about treatment and disability arising out of mental illness in India (1850-1950). Settings and Design: The material used was located at the British Library and the Wellcome Library, London; the Teen Murti Library, Delhi, and web-based archives. Materials and Methods: We have retrieved and summarized the coverage of psychiatric illness in previous census reports from the 19th and 20th century. Statistical Analysis: None, this relies upon historical archives and documents. Results and Conclusions: Differences in incidence and prevalence of insanity, as well as biological and psycho-social factors in the causation, and outcomes, of mental illness are all discussed in these census reports. Comparisons are often drawn to other countries and cultures, and impressions drawn about these differences and similarities. Similar concerns persist to this day. Disabilities and mental illness were not enumerated since the census of 1941 and have been restored only recently, and this lacuna has hampered planning in the post-Independence era. As we debate policy and plan interventions using contemporary census data, it may be useful to remind ourselves of the issues, then and now. PMID:22556434

  3. Census Cities Project and atlas of urban and regional change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    The research design and imagery utilization for urban applications of remote sensing are reviewed, including the combined use of sensor and census data and aircraft and spacecraft sensor platforms. The related purposes of the Census Cities Project are elucidated: (1) to assess the role of remote sensors on high altitude platforms for comparative study of urban areas; (2) to detect changes in selected U.S. urban areas between the 1970 census and the time of launching of an earth-orbiting sensor platform prior to next census; (3) to test the satellite sensor platform utility to monitor urban change and serve as a control for sensor image interpretation; (4) to design an information system for incorporating graphic sensor data with census-type data gathered by traditional techniques; (5) to identify and to design user-oriented end-products or information services; and (6) to ascertain what organizational capability would be needed to provide such services on a continuing basis. A need to develop not only a spatial data information system, but also a methodology for detecting and interpreting change is implied.

  4. Students Speak: "What Motivates Us?" A Report Examining the Factors Motivating West Virginia's High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Arnie

    Following the 1990 census, which determined that 12.3% of West Virginia's citizens over 25 years old were college graduates while the national average was 23.6 percent, several initiatives were undertaken to raise standards for education. This paper reports on a study designed to elicit the opinions of students, educators, and parents about…

  5. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  6. Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Aleutian Arc: Mantle Melt Generation and Migration beneath Okmok Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenak, G.; Key, K.; Bennington, N. L.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors controlling the release of volatiles from the downgoing slab, the subsequent generation of melt in the overlying mantle wedge, the migration of melt to the crust, and its evolution and emplacement within the crust are important for advancing our understanding of arc magmatism and crustal genesis. Because melt and aqueous fluids are a few orders of magnitude more electrically conductive than unmelted peridotite, the conductivity-mapping magnetotelluric (MT) method is well-suited to imaging fluids and melt beneath arc volcanoes. Here we present conductivity results from an amphibious MT profile crossing Okmok volcano in the central Aleutian arc. The Aleutian arc is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America, making it an ideal location for studying arc magnetism. Okmok volcano, located on the northeastern portion of Umnak Island, is among the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian chain. In addition to two caldera-forming events in the Holocene, numerous eruptions in the past century indicate a robust magmatic supply. Previous coarse resolution seismic studies have inferred a crustal magma reservoir. In order to investigate the role fluids play in melting the mantle wedge, how melts ascend through the corner flow regime of the mantle wedge, how melt migrates and is stored within the upper mantle and crust, and how this impacts explosive caldera forming eruptions, we carried out an amphibious geophysical survey across the arc in June-July 2015. Twenty-nine onshore MT stations and 10 offshore stations were collected in a 3D array covering Okmok, and 43 additional offshore MT stations completed a 300 km amphibious profile starting at the trench, crossing the forearc, arc and backarc. Thirteen onshore passive seismic stations were also installed and will remain in place for one year to supplement the twelve permanent stations on the island. Data collected by this project will be used to map seismic velocity and electrical

  7. Geological and biological heterogeneity of the Aleutian margin (1965-4822 m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathburn, A. E.; Levin, L. A.; Tryon, M.; Gieskes, J. M.; Martin, J. B.; Pérez, M. E.; Fodrie, F. J.; Neira, C.; Fryer, G. J.; Mendoza, G.; McMillan, P. A.; Kluesner, J.; Adamic, J.; Ziebis, W.

    2009-01-01

    Geological, biological and biogeochemical characterization of the previously unexplored margin off Unimak Island, Alaska between 1965 and 4822 m water depth was conducted to examine: (1) the geological processes that shaped the margin, (2) the linkages between depth, geomorphology and environmental disturbance in structuring benthic communities of varying size classes and (3) the existence, composition and nutritional sources of methane seep biota on this margin. The study area was mapped and sampled using multibeam sonar, a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera system. Our results provide the first characterization of the Aleutian margin mid and lower slope benthic communities (microbiota, foraminifera, macrofauna and megafauna), recognizing diverse habitats in a variety of settings. Our investigations also revealed that the geologic feature known as the “Ugamak Slide” is not a slide at all, and could not have resulted from a large 1946 earthquake. However, sediment disturbance appears to be a pervasive feature of this margin. We speculate that the deep-sea occurrence of high densities of Elphidium, typically a shallow-water foraminiferan, results from the influence of sediment redeposition from shallower habitats. Strong representation of cumacean, amphipod and tanaid crustaceans among the Unimak macrofauna may also reflect sediment instability. Although some faunal abundances decline with depth, habitat heterogeneity and disturbance generated by canyons and methane seepage appear to influence abundances of biota in ways that supercede any clear depth gradient in organic matter input. Measures of sediment organic matter and pigment content as well as C and N isotopic signatures were highly heterogeneous, although the availability of organic matter and the abundance of microorganisms in the upper sediment (1-5 cm) were positively correlated. We report the first methane seep on the Aleutian slope in the Unimak region (3263-3285 m), comprised of

  8. Improved census transform for noise robust stereo matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongchul; Jun, Daeyoon; Eem, Changkyoung; Hong, Hyunki

    2016-06-01

    Census transform (CT), a stereo matching algorithm, has a strong advantage in radial distortion and brightness changes. However, CT is noise-sensitive because it compares the brightness of a single central pixel based on the brightness values of neighborhood pixels within a matching window. Star-census transform, which compares the brightness of pixels separated by a certain distance along a symmetrical pattern within the matching window, is presented. The proposed method can select the distance between the pixels for comparison and comparison patterns. The experiment results show that the proposed method yields a better performance than the previous CT methods.

  9. Incorporating GIS and remote sensing for census population disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuo-Sheng'derek'

    Census data are the primary source of demographic data for a variety of researches and applications. For confidentiality issues and administrative purposes, census data are usually released to the public by aggregated areal units. In the United States, the smallest census unit is census blocks. Due to data aggregation, users of census data may have problems in visualizing population distribution within census blocks and estimating population counts for areas not coinciding with census block boundaries. The main purpose of this study is to develop methodology for estimating sub-block areal populations and assessing the estimation errors. The City of Austin, Texas was used as a case study area. Based on tax parcel boundaries and parcel attributes derived from ancillary GIS and remote sensing data, detailed urban land use classes were first classified using a per-field approach. After that, statistical models by land use classes were built to infer population density from other predictor variables, including four census demographic statistics (the Hispanic percentage, the married percentage, the unemployment rate, and per capita income) and three physical variables derived from remote sensing images and building footprints vector data (a landscape heterogeneity statistics, a building pattern statistics, and a building volume statistics). In addition to statistical models, deterministic models were proposed to directly infer populations from building volumes and three housing statistics, including the average space per housing unit, the housing unit occupancy rate, and the average household size. After population models were derived or proposed, how well the models predict populations for another set of sample blocks was assessed. The results show that deterministic models were more accurate than statistical models. Further, by simulating the base unit for modeling from aggregating blocks, I assessed how well the deterministic models estimate sub-unit-level populations

  10. Energy statistics data finder. [Monograph; energy-related census data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Energy-related data collected by the Bureau of the Census covers economic and demographic areas and provides data on a regular basis to produce current estimates from survey programs. Series report numbers, a summary of subject content, geographic detail, and report frequency are identified under the following major publication title categories: Agriculture, Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade, Service Industries, Construction, Transportation, Enterprise Statistics, County Business Patterns, Foreign Trade, Governments, Manufacturers, Mineral Industries, 1980 Census of Population and Housing, Annual Housing Survey and Travel-to-Work Supplement, and Statistical Compendia. The data are also available on computer tapes, microfiche, and in special tabulations. (DCK)

  11. Challenges in making a seismic hazard map for Alaska and the Aleutians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.; Boyd, O.S.; Mueller, C.S.; Frankel, A.D.; Freymueller, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    We present a summary of the data and analyses leading to the revision of the time-independent probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Alaska and the Aleutians. These maps represent a revision of existing maps based on newly obtained data, and reflect best current judgments about methodology and approach. They have been prepared following the procedures and assumptions made in the preparation of the 2002 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the lower 48 States, and will be proposed for adoption in future revisions to the International Building Code. We present example maps for peak ground acceleration, 0.2 s spectral amplitude (SA), and 1.0 s SA at a probability level of 2% in 50 years (annual probability of 0.000404). In this summary, we emphasize issues encountered in preparation of the maps that motivate or require future investigation and research.

  12. Shishaldin volcano: Aleutian high-alumina basalts and the question of plagioclase accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fournelle, J.; Marsh, B.D. )

    1991-03-01

    High-alumina basalts (HABs) from volcanic arcs commonly contain 30%-50% (modal) plagioclase. It has been suggested that they reflect plagioclase addition and are not primary compositions. In rocks from the Aleutian volcano Shishaldin, the authors search for evidence of plagioclase accumulation: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and Na{sub 2}O vs. modal plagioclase; europium anomalies in HABs; plagioclase-liquid equilibrium; and the HAB groundmass. The HABs do not appear to be results of plagioclase addition to liquids of dacitic, Fe-Ti enriched, or high-Mg basaltic compositions. Plagioclase loss from HABs does appear to yield the Fe-Ti-enriched basalts. Shishaldin HABs may reflect near-primary compositions, and HAB phase equilibria may thus be useful in evaluating the origin of such arc basalts.

  13. A survey of Aleutian mink disease virus infection of feral American mink in Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Farid, A. Hossain; Rupasinghe, Priyanka; Mitchell, Jessicca L.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Spleen samples from 14 mink that were trapped in 4 counties of Nova Scotia were tested for the presence of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) by polymerase chain reaction. Viral DNA was not detected in samples from Kings County (n = 2), but was detected in all the mink sampled from Colchester (n = 2) and Halifax (n = 6) counties, and 3 of 4 mink from Yarmouth County. The high level of AMDV-infected mink in Colchester and Halifax counties may pose a serious threat to the captive mink and wild animal populations. Because treatment of infected free-ranging mink is not an option, AMDV control strategies for the captive mink should be primarily focused on bio-security to protect clean ranches. PMID:20357945

  14. Molecular characterization of the small nonstructural proteins of parvovirus Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) during infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qinfeng; Luo, Yong; Cheng, Fang; Best, Sonja M; Bloom, Marshall E; Qiu, Jianming

    2014-03-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the only member in genus Amdovirus of the family Parvoviridae. During AMDV infection, six species of viral transcripts are generated from one precursor mRNA through alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. In addition to the large non-structural protein NS1, two small non-structural proteins, NS2 and NS3, are putatively encoded (Qiu J, et al., 2006. J. Virol. 80 654-662). However, these two proteins have not been experimentally demonstrated during virus infection, and nothing is known about their function. Here, we studied the nonstructural protein expression profile of AMDV, and for the first time, confirmed expression of NS2 and NS3 during infection, and identified their intracellular localization. More importantly, we provided evidence that both NS2 and NS3 are necessary for AMDV replication. PMID:24606679

  15. Molecular Characterization of the Small Nonstructural Proteins of Parvovirus Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) During Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qinfeng; Luo, Yong; Cheng, Fang; Best, Sonja M.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Qiu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the only member in genus Amdovirus of the family Parvoviridae. During AMDV infection, six species of viral transcripts are generated from one precursor mRNA through alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. In addition to the large non-structural protein NS1, two small non-structural proteins, NS2 and NS3, are putatively encoded (Qiu J, et al: Journal of Virology, 80:654–62, 2006). However, these two proteins have not been experimentally demonstrated during virus infection, and nothing is known about their function. Here, we studied the nonstructural protein expression profile of AMDV, and for the first time, confirmed expression of NS2 and NS3 during infection, and identified their intracellular localization. More importantly, we provided evidence that both NS2 and NS3 are necessary for AMDV replication. PMID:24606679

  16. A survey of Aleutian mink disease virus infection of feral American mink in Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Farid, A Hossain; Rupasinghe, Priyanka; Mitchell, Jessicca L; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Spleen samples from 14 mink that were trapped in 4 counties of Nova Scotia were tested for the presence of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) by polymerase chain reaction. Viral DNA was not detected in samples from Kings County (n = 2), but was detected in all the mink sampled from Colchester (n = 2) and Halifax (n = 6) counties, and 3 of 4 mink from Yarmouth County. The high level of AMDV-infected mink in Colchester and Halifax counties may pose a serious threat to the captive mink and wild animal populations. Because treatment of infected free-ranging mink is not an option, AMDV control strategies for the captive mink should be primarily focused on bio-security to protect clean ranches. PMID:20357945

  17. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Bruce Albert

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  18. Analysis of the quantity of antiviral antibodies from mink infected with different Aleutian disease virus strains.

    PubMed

    Aasted, B; Tierney, G S; Bloom, M E

    1984-05-01

    Mink persistently infected with Aleutian disease virus (ADV) develop hypergammaglobulinaemia and immune complex disease. Radiolabelled antibodies from mink infected with ADV-G, DK, Pullman , and Utah I strains of ADV were reacted against all four ADV strains in radioimmunoassay (RIA). The amount of anti-ADV antibody in two equally hypergammaglobulinaemic serum pools varied from 13% (anti- Pullman ) to 57% (anti-Utah I). Serum pools from two other sources (anti-DK and anti-ADV-G), although less hypergammaglobulinaemic , had 5% and 13%, respectively, indicating that 43-95% of the Ig in the sera of mink with AD was not specific antibody to ADV structural antigens. The possibility of a general polyclonal activation of the humoral immune system is being discussed. Comparison of plateau RIA binding levels for the four serum pools against the four viral antigens suggested three patterns of reactivity: DK and Utah I reacted similarly, but Pullman and ADV-G reacted serologically different.

  19. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: interspecific and locational differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24727640

  20. Mt. St. Augustine, Alaska: Geochemical evolution of an eastern Aleutian volcanic center

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.E. . Dept. of Geology); Harmon, R.S. . Kingsley Dunham Centre); Moorbath, S. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Sigmarsson, O. )

    1993-04-01

    Mt. St. Augustine is a calc-alkaline Quaternary volcano, situated within Cook Inlet, Alaska. The island is composed of low- to medium-K andesite and dacite domes and pyroclastic flows. Major element variations indicate the magmatic evolution is dominantly influenced by fractionation and magma-mixing processes. Incompatible element and isotopic compositions suggest that despite its continental location, crustal assimilation is not significant factor in magmatic evolution. Alkali contents for Augustine are generally lower than elsewhere in the Aleutians (e.g. Augustine Cs/Rb = 0.016--0.024, K/Rb = 372--553; Aleutians Cs/Rb = 0.016--0.17, K/Rb = 231--745). Sr- and Nd-isotope ratios encompass narrow ranges ([sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr = 0.70317--0.70343; [sup 143]Nd/[sup 144]Nd = 0.513011--0.513085), characteristic of uncontaminated mantle-derived melts. U-Th disequilibrium isotopic values also indicate little or no assimilation of evolved continental crust. Pb-isotopic ranges are also relatively restricted ([sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 18.62--18.82; [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 15.54--15.57; [sup 208]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 38.18--38.34) and comparison with north Pacific enriched (OIB) and depleted (MORB) mantle sources suggest the incorporation of only a small percentage of subducted terrigenous sediments. A model for Augustine magma genesis is proposed where parental magmas are generated by 5--20% partial melting of a lherzolite mantle with up to a 5% subducted terrigenous sediment component. The major influence of the thickened continental crust is to prevent the ascent and eruption of basaltic magma. The data exhibit no temporal variations, indicating that the magmatic system which produced the historic eruptions is well established.

  1. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: interspecific and locational differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency.

  2. Genetic structure of the Common Eider in the western Aleutian Islands prior to fox eradication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Wilson, Robert E.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Byrd, G. Vernon; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 18th century bird populations residing in the Aleutian Archipelago have been greatly reduced by introduced arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We analyzed data from microsatellite, nuclear intron, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci to examine the spatial genetic structure, demography, and gene flow among four Aleutian Island populations of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) much reduced by introduced foxes. In mtDNA, we found high levels of genetic structure within and between island groups (ΦST = 0.643), but we found no population subdivision in microsatellites or nuclear introns. Differences in genetic structure between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are consistent with the Common Eider's breeding and winter biology, as females are highly philopatric and males disperse. Nevertheless, significant differences between islands in the mtDNA of males and marginal significance (P =0.07) in the Z-linked locus Smo 1 suggest that males may also have some level of fidelity to island groups. Severe reduction of populations by the fox, coupled with females' high philopatry, may have left the genetic signature of a bottleneck effect, resulting in the high levels of genetic differentiation observed in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.460–0.807) between islands only 440 km apart. Reestablishment of the Common Eider following the fox's eradication was likely through recruitment from within the islands and bolstered by dispersal from neighboring islands, as suggested by the lack of genetic structure and asymmetry in gene flow between Attu and the other Near Islands.

  3. The capsid proteins of Aleutian mink disease virus activate caspases and are specifically cleaved during infection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Chen, Aaron Yun; Best, Sonja M; Bloom, Marshall E; Pintel, David; Qiu, Jianming

    2010-03-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is currently the only known member of the genus Amdovirus in the family Parvoviridae. It is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. We have previously shown that a small protein with a molecular mass of approximately 26 kDa was present during AMDV infection and following transfection of capsid expression constructs (J. Qiu, F. Cheng, L. R. Burger, and D. Pintel, J. Virol. 80:654-662, 2006). In this study, we report that the capsid proteins were specifically cleaved at aspartic acid residue 420 (D420) during virus infection, resulting in the previously observed cleavage product. Mutation of a single amino acid residue at D420 abolished the specific cleavage. Expression of the capsid proteins alone in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells reproduced the cleavage of the capsid proteins in virus infection. More importantly, capsid protein expression alone induced active caspases, of which caspase-10 was the most active. Active caspases, in turn, cleaved capsid proteins in vivo. Our results also showed that active caspase-7 specifically cleaved capsid proteins at D420 in vitro. These results suggest that viral capsid proteins alone induce caspase activation, resulting in cleavage of capsid proteins. We also provide evidence that AMDV mutants resistant to caspase-mediated capsid cleavage increased virus production approximately 3- to 5-fold in CrFK cells compared to that produced from the parent virus AMDV-G at 37 degrees C but not at 31.8 degrees C. Collectively, our results indicate that caspase activity plays multiple roles in AMDV infection and that cleavage of the capsid proteins might have a role in regulating persistent infection of AMDV. PMID:20042496

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in Estonia, and a global phylogeny of AMDV.

    PubMed

    Leimann, Aivi; Knuuttila, Anna; Maran, Tiit; Vapalahti, Olli; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-03-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a severe disease called Aleutian disease (AD). AMDV infects primarily mustelids, but also other mammal species. Recent evidence suggests that AMDV may also affect humans. To examine AMDV in different wild animals and in farmed mink in Estonia, we collected 203 blood samples from eight mammal species in 2007-2010, of which 152 were from species living in the wild (American mink, European mink, pine marten, polecat, raccoon dog, badger, otter, and stone marten) and 51 were from farmed mink. AMDV was tested by PCR amplification of NS1 and VP2 gene fragments, and was only detected in 4 free-ranging (14.8%) and 11 farmed (21.6%) American mink. No other species was positive for AMDV. In addition, the VP2 gene fragment was sequenced for 14 farmed mink isolates from Finland for which NS1 sequences were already publicly available. None of the four Estonian AMDV isolates found in free-ranging mink had identical sequences with farmed mink. In fact, isolates from free-ranging and farmed mink belonged to different clades, suggesting that the analyzed virus isolates circulating in nature are not from escapees of current farms. Two global phylogenies were built: one based on NS1 (336 bp, 151 taxa from nine countries); the other based on a combined NS1-VP2 dataset (871 bp, 40 taxa from six countries). AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their geographic origin, suggesting that transport of farm mink from multiple source farms has been intense. Nevertheless, one subclade in both phylogenies was comprised solely of isolates from farmed mink, while several subclades comprised isolates only from free-ranging mink, indicating that some isolates may circulate more in the wild and others among farm animals. PMID:25616049

  5. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Broll, S; Alexandersen, S

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated with ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy. A group of uninfected females served as a control group. Animals from each group were killed prior to or shortly after parturition. The in situ hybridization technique with radiolabeled strand-specific RNA probes was used to determine target cells of virus infection and virus replication. In both infected groups, ADV crossed the endotheliochorial placental barrier, although animals infected before mating already had high antibody titers against ADV at the time of implantation. The percentage of dead and resorbed fetuses was much higher in dams infected before mating. In the placentae of these mink, virus DNA and viral mRNA were detected in cells in the mesenchymal stroma of the placental labyrinth and hematoma but only occasionally in the cytotrophoblast of the placental hematoma. Placentae of animals infected during pregnancy showed in addition very high levels of virus and also viral replication in a large number of cytotrophoblast cells in the placental hematoma, which exhibited distinct inclusion bodies. In both groups, neither virus nor virus replication could be detected in maternal endothelial cells or fetal syncytiotrophoblast of the placental labyrinth. Fetuses were positive for virus and viral replication at high levels in a wide range of tissues. Possible routes of transplacental transmission of ADV and the role of trophoblast cells as targets for viral replication are discussed. PMID:8627663

  6. Who's in the Picture: Comparing Census Data with Newspaper Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Myleea D.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of what images are portrayed in newspapers and their proportion in comparison to the actual census data provide an opportunity for consideration of how the agenda setting and framing theories of media could affect perceptions of a community and population. In the exercise described here, students are expected to learn a research skill…

  7. Income and Poverty. What the 1990 Census Says about Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichy, John; Craig, William J.

    This report is a look at what the 1990 Census has to say about income and poverty in Minnesota and its major metropolitan area, the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and Saint Paul). The report is organized into five parts, each addressing a different variation on the central theme of income and poverty: (1) Income Overview; (2) Income Types; (3) Poverty…

  8. 76 FR 12694 - The 2010 Census Count Question Resolution Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... (CQR) Program (75 FR 29508). This notice provides final information concerning the CQR Program. The CQR... FR 25908). The Census Bureau received one set of comments. The comments suggested additional... Estimates (FSCPE) working together to review address lists and identify clusters of missing housing...

  9. Census Undercount and the Undercount of the Black Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phung

    1996-01-01

    Argues that blacks have been disproportionately undercounted in the census and this undercount has resulted in such biased statistics as proportions of black female-headed households, victimization rates of black males, or crude death rates of blacks. Further, these statistics are biased upward and downward, and together they generate distorted…

  10. The 1820 Census of Manufactures. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Schamel, Wynell

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the emergence of employment opportunities for women outside the home. Focuses specifically on the Dover Cotton Factory in Dover, New Hampshire. Provides a reproduction of the page from the 1820 Census of Manufactures that contains information about the Dover Cotton Factory. (Contains document based teaching activities.) (CMK)

  11. Students Leaving before Census. Survey Series, Spring 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Pamela M.

    This survey analyzes the characteristics of students who dropped all of their classes at City College of San Francisco (CCSF) before the college's census date. The survey finds that students who drop all of their classes are similar to students who remain enrolled, yet tend to be older, to hold a college-level degree, and to hold at least one…

  12. Adjusting the Census of 1990: The Smoothing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for adjusting census figures are discussed, with a focus on sampling error, uncertainty of estimates resulting from the luck of sample choice. Computer simulations illustrate the ways in which the smoothing algorithm may make adjustments less, rather than more, accurate. (SLD)

  13. Agricultural Census 2012: Publishing Mashable GIS Big Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2012 Agricultural Census was released by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) on May 2nd 2014; published on a quinquennial basis covering all facets of American production agriculture. The Agricultural Census is a comprehensive source of uniform published agricultural data for every state and county in the US. This is the first Agricultural Census that is disseminated with web mapping services using REST APIs. USDA developed an open GIS mashable web portal that depicts over 250 maps on Crops and Plants, Economics, Farms, Livestock and Animals, and Operators. These mapping services written in JavaScript replace the traditional static maps published as the Ag Atlas. Web users can now visualize, interact, query, and download the Agricultural Census data in a means not previously discoverable. Stakeholders will now be able to leverage this data for activities such as community planning, agribusiness location suitability analytics, availability of loans/funds, service center locations and staffing, and farm programs and policies. Additional sites serving compatible mashable USDA Big Data web services are as follows: The Food Environment Atlas, The Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America, The Farm Program Atlas, SNAP Data System, CropScape, and VegScape. All portals use a similar data organization scheme of "Categories" and "Maps" providing interactive mashable web services for agricultural stakeholders to exploit.

  14. 76 FR 53029 - Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... of an urban area. The increase in the jump distance was a result of changing planning practices that... Register (75 FR 52174) and requested comments on proposed criteria for the 2010 Census urban areas. In... pairs of urban areas, with 87 commenters expressing concern about the impact on planning...

  15. 24 CFR 597.503 - Use of census data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of census data. 597.503 Section 597.503 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  16. 24 CFR 597.503 - Use of census data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of census data. 597.503 Section 597.503 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  17. Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, C.; Hobcraft, J.; Hill, K.; Kodjogbé, N.; Mapeta, W. T.; Munene, F.; Naghavi, M.; Rabeza, V.; Sisouphanthong, B.; Campbell, O.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies. PMID:11477969

  18. [Circular on census and family planning of 1990].

    PubMed

    1990-04-17

    In 1990 the Census Leading Group under the State Council, the State Family Planning Commission, and the Ministry of Public Security issued a circular on census and family planning calling for various localities to do a good job in registering children who were born beyond the state target. The circular provides the following: "1. To strictly enforce the policy for family planning and allow no children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for residence, it is necessary to clarify issues to the local cadres. While acknowledging their enthusiasm in implementing the state policy for family planning, we must ask them to allow some children who were born beyond the state target to register themselves for the census and residence on the basis of the relevant regulations of the State Council. 2. It is necessary to carry out ideological work well among those cadres who did not report the number of children who were born beyond the state plan because of political reasons or material benefits, so that they will report childbirths and have those children registered. In general, no further investigation will be made as long as the children born beyond the state target have truthfully registered themselves during this census. However, those who continuously refuse to tell the truth will be severely dealt with when they are caught. 3. It is necessary to strengthen propaganda and education work among the masses who dare not report the births of children beyond the state target for fear of possible punishment, and make them understand that the census is aimed at managing state affairs and providing scientific data for working out various policies for social and economic developments. Therefore, it is necessary to report things as they are." The circular also provides that "Family planning is China's basic state policy. It is wrong to give birth to any child beyond the state target. It is impermissable to do so. From now on, we still need to enforce the

  19. The relationship between censuses and civil registration in the Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Dibbs, M C

    1980-01-01

    The author examines the history and use of censuses of civil registration in the Syrian Arab Republic. The reliability and completeness of the civil register and of the census data on which it is based are discussed PMID:12338410

  20. High prevalence of Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink on a remote Danish island.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine H; Christensen, Laurids S; Chriél, Mariann; Harslund, Jakob; Salomonsen, Charlotte M; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2012-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains. PMID:22493130

  1. A spatial-seasonal analysis of the oiling risk from shipping traffic to seabirds in the Aleutian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Renner, Martin; Kuletz, Kathy J

    2015-12-15

    Some of the largest seabird concentrations in the northern hemisphere are intersected by major shipping routes in the Aleutian Archipelago. Risk is the product of the probability and the severity incidents in an area. We build a seasonally explicit model of seabird distribution and combine the densities of seabirds with an oil vulnerability index. We use shipping density, as a proxy for the probability of oil spills from shipping accident (or the intensity chronic oil pollution). We find high-risk (above-average seabird and vessel density) areas around Unimak Pass, south of the Alaska Peninsula, near Buldir Island, and north of Attu Island. Risk to seabirds is greater during summer than during winter, but the month of peak risk (May/July) varies depending on how data is analyzed. The area around Unimak Pass stands out for being at high-risk year-round, whereas passes in the western Aleutians are at high risk mostly during summer. PMID:26602441

  2. Children in American Samoa: Results of the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Using 2000 U.S. Census data, this report compares the situation of children in American Samoa to children's situations in neighboring territories and the nation overall. Between 1999-2000, the number of children in American Samoa increased 24 percent, while the increase was only 14 percent nationwide during the past decade. In 2000, 45 percent of…

  3. American Indian and Alaska Native Children in the 2000 Census. A Kids Count/PRB Report on Census, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    Because of their unique social, legal, and political status, American Indians and Alaska Natives are subject to legislative oversight unlike any other group in the United States. Census data are used to monitor the size and characteristics of the American Indian and Alaska Native population living on and off reservations. Passed in 1978 to ensure…

  4. Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto Rican children…

  5. A Census Chronicle--Reflections on the Campaign for a Religion Question in the 2001 Census for England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherif, Jamil

    2011-01-01

    The campaign from 1996-2000 to include the religion question in the 2001 Census for England and Wales was a defining event for Muslim communities in Britain because it provided formal recognition of their collective identity as a faith group, rather than being subsumed in the "black", "Asian" or "Pakistani/Bangladeshi" ethnic categorisations of…

  6. Analyses and discussions of data from China's 1982 census--a report on the International Seminar on China's 1982 Census.

    PubMed

    Yang, W

    1985-03-01

    This is a report from an international seminar held in Beijing, China, devoted to the results of the 1982 census of China. The report includes a synopsis of the discussions on topics such as the sex ratio, age distribution, fertility, mortality, labor force, and household size and family structure.

  7. On the dynamics of strait flows: an ocean model study of the Aleutian passages and the Bering Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezer, Tal; Oey, Lie-Yauw

    2013-03-01

    A high-resolution numerical ocean circulation model of the Bering Sea (BS) is used to study the natural variability of the BS straits. Three distinct categories of strait dynamics have been identified: (1) Shallow passages such as the Bering Strait and the Unimak Passage have northward, near barotropic flow with periodic pulses of larger transports; (2) wide passages such as Near Straits, Amukta Pass, and Buldir Pass have complex flow patterns driven by the passage of mesoscale eddies across the strait; and (3) deep passages such as Amchitka Pass and Kamchatka Strait have persistent deep return flows opposite in direction to major surface currents; the deep flows persist independent of the local wind. Empirical orthogonal function analyses reveal the spatial structure and the temporal variability of strait flows and demonstrate how mesoscale variations in the Aleutian passages influence the Bering Strait flow toward the Arctic Ocean. The study suggests a general relation between the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby radii of deformations in each strait, and the level of flow variability through the strait, independent of geographical location. The mesoscale variability in the BS seems to originate from two different sources: a remote origin from variability in the Alaskan Stream that enters the BS through the Aleutian passages and a local origin from the interaction of currents with the Bowers Ridge in the Aleutian Basin. Comparisons between the flow in the Aleutian passages and flow in other straits, such as the Yucatan Channel and the Faroe Bank Channel, suggest some universal topographically induced dynamics in strait flows.

  8. Bayesian probabilities for Mw 9.0+ earthquakes in the Aleutian Islands from a regionally scaled global rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Rhett; Frazer, L. Neil; Templeton, William J.

    2016-05-01

    We use the global rate of Mw ≥ 9.0 earthquakes, and standard Bayesian procedures, to estimate the probability of such mega events in the Aleutian Islands, where they pose a significant risk to Hawaii. We find that the probability of such an earthquake along the Aleutians island arc is 6.5% to 12% over the next 50 years (50% credibility interval) and that the annualized risk to Hawai'i is about $30 M. Our method (the regionally scaled global rate method or RSGR) is to scale the global rate of Mw 9.0+ events in proportion to the fraction of global subduction (units of area per year) that takes place in the Aleutians. The RSGR method assumes that Mw 9.0+ events are a Poisson process with a rate that is both globally and regionally stationary on the time scale of centuries, and it follows the principle of Burbidge et al. (2008) who used the product of fault length and convergence rate, i.e., the area being subducted per annum, to scale the Poisson rate for the GSS to sections of the Indonesian subduction zone. Before applying RSGR to the Aleutians, we first apply it to five other regions of the global subduction system where its rate predictions can be compared with those from paleotsunami, paleoseismic, and geoarcheology data. To obtain regional rates from paleodata, we give a closed-form solution for the probability density function of the Poisson rate when event count and observation time are both uncertain.

  9. 76 FR 14647 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census Covering the Mining Sector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census Covering the Mining... the general public. The 2012 Economic Census covering the Mining Sector (as defined by the North... the following conditions: (i) It must be classified in the mining sector; (ii) it must be an...

  10. Maine: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series. EC02-61A-ME.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years, covering…

  11. Who Was Thaddeus Lee? Using the 1940 Digitized Census for Personalized Historical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Friedman, Adam; Bolick, Cheryl Mason; Mink, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Once every 10 years, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) makes millions of U.S. census records available for use by eager historians and genealogists. The release of a new batch of census records is a highly anticipated event, but only for the select few who are able to access the published microfilm versions of the census.…

  12. 77 FR 54557 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content... (NASS) to suspend a currently approved information collection, the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content... Census of Agriculture Content Testing. OMB Control Number: 0535-0243. ] Expiration Date of...

  13. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  14. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  15. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  16. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  17. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  18. 78 FR 54863 - Bureau of the Census Geographically Updated Population Certification Program (GUPCP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Suspension, 63 FR 27706 (May 20, 1998)). At that time, it was stated that the program would resume in three... taking of the 2010 Census (see 72 FR 46602 (Aug. 21, 2007)). Although there is no legal requirement that... Bureau of the Census Bureau of the Census Geographically Updated Population Certification Program...

  19. Making Sense of Census 2000--Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. [Teaching Guide]. Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The United States Census Bureau's mission is to be the preeminent collector and provider of timely, relevant, and quality data about the nation's people and economy. The Census 2000 teaching guide aims to help teachers bring the census to life for students. The guide outlines skills that correlate with national standards; fulfills curriculum…

  20. Census Data: Geographic Significance and Classroom Utility. NCGE Pacesetters in Geography Series. No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Bordon D., Ed.

    The volume contains essays and classroom activities on a variety of U. S. and Canadian census materials. Designed to present census data in a less formidable manner than it is usually presented, it is intended for social studies teachers and college professors who want to introduce census materials in their classrooms. Essays treat various…

  1. Why Are Young Children Missed so Often in the Census? KIDS COUNT Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.

    2009-01-01

    The Decennial Census is the most important data collection activity undertaken by the U.S. federal statistical system. Because census data are used to apportion Congress and draw redistricting lines for thousands of state and local single-member districts to meet the one-person/one-vote guidelines, the census is at the heart of the political…

  2. Native Americans and the U.S. Census: A Brief Historical Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the history of the enumeration of American Indians by the U.S. Census Bureau and its predecessors. It considers the social and political background of the census and the reasons that Native Americans were not counted by the census until 1890. It also examines the changes in the enumeration and definition of Native Americans-key…

  3. 75 FR 75452 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census General Classification Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Classification Report AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce... P. Handmaker, Chief, Economic Classifications Operations Branch, U.S. Census Bureau, 8K149... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Economic Census General Classification Report (NC-99023) collects information...

  4. Tropical-North Pacific Teleconnections: a mechanistic link between the strength of the Indian monsoon strength and the Aleutian Low.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanochko, T. S.; Ganeshram, R.; Calvert, S. E.; Bush, A. B.; Pedersen, T. F.

    2008-12-01

    Present day fluctuations in the intensity of the Indian monsoon, the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño/La Niña events, and the strength of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure system, result in extreme weather events, large scale ecosystem shifts, and impact human life and livelihood. How these climate systems will interact as global climate changes occur is still unknown. Two new marine geochemical records of Holocene climate variability improve our understanding of past tropical - North Pacific teleconnections. The first, a Zr/Al record from the western Arabian Sea, demonstrates significant variability in soil moisture on the Horn of Africa. The second, a δ15N record from Effingham Inlet (Vancouver Island), indicates changes in the strength of the California Undercurrent and NE Pacific coastal upwelling and allows our understanding of climate change in the Pacific region to be expanded northward to include the Aleutian Low pressure system. Over the last 10 kyrs, decreased SW monsoon winds/southern ITCZ position are concurrent with an increase in El Niño events and a strengthening of the Aleutian Low. Climate models suggest that this relationship is modulated by changes in the sea surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific, which result in centennial-scale variability superimposed on the gradual Holocene decline in orbital forcing.

  5. Unexpectedly high diversity of Monoporella (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: taxonomy and distribution of six new species.

    PubMed

    Dick, Matthew H

    2008-01-01

    The cheilostome bryozoan genus Monoporella is poorly resolved taxonomically; only four Recent species have been formally described, though several undescribed species have been reported in the literature. The literature indicates no more than five species in the genus occurring in any local region of the world, with one to three species in most regions where the genus has been reported. I examined bryozoans from 52 trawl catches in the western and western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and found specimens of Monoporella in 12 of these samples. Study of these specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed six new species that are described herein: M. flexibila, M. elongata, M. gigantea, M. ellefsoni, M. seastormi, and M. aleutica. Two of the species have erect colony morphologies, a condition not previously reported in Monoporella. The species diversity of Monoporella appears to be greater in the Aleutians than in any other part of the world adequately surveyed. I discuss whether this apparent high diversity is an artifact due to insufficient sampling in the deep shelf zone, and present two hypotheses to explain this high diversity should it prove not to be an artifact: 1) the present high local diversity represents a relict of past high diversity occurring broadly around the North Pacific rim; and 2) a local radiation of Monoporella occurred in the Aleutian archipelago.

  6. Census tract analysis of lead exposure in Rhode Island children.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D; Bailey, A; Simon, P; Blake, M; Dalton, M A

    1997-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in a targeted approach to the screening and prevention of lead exposure in children. Targeted screening requires an understanding of variation in lead exposure in individual children or by region. In order to better understand variation by region, we studied Rhode Island lead poisoning screening data, examining average lead exposure to children living in 136 Providence County census tracts (CTs). The study population included 17,956 children aged 59 months and under, who were screened between May 1, 1992, and April 30, 1993. We evaluated the relationship between the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 10 micrograms/dL (pe10) and sociodemographic and housing characteristics, derived from United States 1990 Census data, of these CTs. CT descriptors included population density, percentage of households receiving public assistance income, median per capita income, percentage of households female headed, percentage of houses owner occupied, percentage of houses built before 1950, percentage of houses vacant, percentage of population Black, percentage of recent immigrants, and intraurban mobility. On average, 109 children were screened in each census tract; mean screening rate was 44%. There was wide variation in average lead exposure among census tracts, with pe10 ranging from 3 to 60% of screened children (mean 27%). Individual census variables explained between 24 and 67% of the variance in pe10 among CTs. A multiple regression model including percentage screened, percentage of households receiving public assistance, percentage of houses built before 1950, In (percentage of houses vacant), and percentage of recent immigrants explained 83% of variance in pe10. The percentage of houses built before 1950, a variable which models the presence of lead paint in old houses, displayed the largest adjusted effect on pe10 over the range observed for that variable in RI CTs. The percentage of houses vacant was also a highly

  7. 3. VIEW OF KENCH TANK Used to preserve skins before ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF KENCH TANK Used to preserve skins before processing, the skins were placed in tanks in layers, alternating with salt. Some skins and salt remain. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  8. 4. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Each skin was put on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Each skin was put on a metal mold and stripped of its blubber with a curved knife. The blubber ran off to the left to barrels outside, where it was saved for use in preserving the texture of the skins. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  9. 2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through hatches, seen on rear wall, and washed of blood and flesh in redwood tanks, with wooden grates to hold skins down in water. Superstructure and screening on tanks are a later alteration, unrelated to this process. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  10. Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses.

    PubMed

    Christopher, A J

    2006-11-01

    All Commonwealth census authorities have posed questions about identity in the millennium round of enumerations. The most controversial issue has been ethnicity. No universal definition or classification system has been devised and each of the 71 states and dependencies has tended to pursue the enquiry in virtual isolation from its neighbours. The attempt to describe the population in terms of race and ethnicity has been inherited from the colonial era. More recently the requirements of monitoring affirmative-action programmes in multicultural populations have resulted in the introduction or refinement of questions on these categories. A few states-a small minority of Commonwealth countries-remain hostile to such enquiries. Where the issues of race and identity are not pursued, questions of nationality, language, and religion often fill the gaps left, adding further refinements to the definition of identity. An examination of current questioning about identity in Commonwealth censuses reveals a highly complex picture.

  11. Mapping cancer risk in southwestern Ontario with changing census boundaries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P; Brown, P E; Stafford, J

    2012-12-01

    Mapping disease risk often involves working with data that have been spatially aggregated to census regions or postal regions, either for administrative reasons or confidentiality. When studying rare diseases, data must be collected over a long time period in order to accumulate a meaningful number of cases. These long time periods can result in spatial boundaries of the census regions changing over time, as is the case with the motivating example of exploring the spatial structure of mesothelioma lung cancer risk in Lambton County and Middlesex County of southwestern Ontario, Canada. This article presents a local-EM kernel smoothing algorithm that allows for the combining of data from different spatial maps, being capable of modeling risk for spatially aggregated data with time-varying boundaries. Inference and uncertainty estimates are carried out with parametric bootstrap procedures, and cross-validation is used for bandwidth selection. Results for the lung cancer study are shown and discussed.

  12. Bureau of the Census Center for International Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, Nina Pane

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the organization and activities of the Center for International Research at the Bureau of the Census. There is a formal publication exchange program with other government's statistical programs. This has resulted in the Center's collection being one of the world's largest in the area of international census and demographic information. Foreign statistical publications are in three libraries, one being dedicated to the former Soviet Union and one to the Peoples Republic of China. In addition to the libraries there are two computerized data bases. The International data base is a source of demographic and socio-economic statistics for all countries of the world. The second data base is the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data Base which contains information related to the publication and dissemination of the results of seroprevalence surveys.

  13. Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses.

    PubMed

    Christopher, A J

    2006-11-01

    All Commonwealth census authorities have posed questions about identity in the millennium round of enumerations. The most controversial issue has been ethnicity. No universal definition or classification system has been devised and each of the 71 states and dependencies has tended to pursue the enquiry in virtual isolation from its neighbours. The attempt to describe the population in terms of race and ethnicity has been inherited from the colonial era. More recently the requirements of monitoring affirmative-action programmes in multicultural populations have resulted in the introduction or refinement of questions on these categories. A few states-a small minority of Commonwealth countries-remain hostile to such enquiries. Where the issues of race and identity are not pursued, questions of nationality, language, and religion often fill the gaps left, adding further refinements to the definition of identity. An examination of current questioning about identity in Commonwealth censuses reveals a highly complex picture. PMID:17060057

  14. Microcomputers and minipopulations: the 1981 Cook Islands census.

    PubMed

    Hayes, G R

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents some of the background behind the installation and use of a microcomputer for census processing and briefly reviews the results of the 1981 census in the light of the Cook Islands' special demographic situation. Since independence from New Zealand in 1965, the Cook Islands has gradually developed a capacity for statistics gathering in general and census taking in particular. The 1981 quinquennial census represents a watershed in the development of local personnel without the aid of external advisors; it was the 1st census to be processed within the Cook Islands by means of a computer. Both the installation of the microcomputer and the processing of the 1981 census are counted as successes. This is due to a number of factors, namely: a long period of careful planning procedures which preceded the choice of system and installation; the enthusiasm of the local staff closely involved in the planning; the emphasis on training; tests of the equipment before installation by computer practitioners with knowledge of local needs and capacities; reasonable goal setting; and the supply, with the system, of adequate spare parts tools and maintenance and training manuals. Like many island populations, that of the Cook Islands is characterized by considerable instability as illustrated by the 1981 census results. As the rate and direction of population change varies from island to island, generalizations across the nation as a whole are difficult. For example, while some of the northern atolls experienced population decline during the latest intercensal period, most had their popultion increase in 1981. All the southern islands declined during the 1976-81 period at annual rates varying from 0.6% to 3.2%. The explanation for these patterns of change lies primarily in the different rates and direction of external migration on each island, as Cook Islanders are exempt from immigration regulations to New Zealand and Australia. In recent years, women have formed a

  15. [The Bulgarian population censuses of 1878, 1912, 1928, and 1968].

    PubMed

    Koledarov, P

    1990-01-01

    "Having studied a number of original sources and statistical data, the author reviews the Bulgarian population censuses in 1878, 1912, 1928 and 1968. He analyses the causes for the population's small number which does not correspond to the long historical existence of the Bulgarian nationality. The author finds its basic cause in the long Ottoman domination which was connected with physical destruction, purposeful Islamisation and assimilation, and mass deportation of large groups of Bulgarians." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  16. An introduced predator alters Aleutian Island plant communities by thwarting nutrient subsidies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maron, J.L.; Estes, J.A.; Croll, D.A.; Danner, E.M.; Elmendorf, S.C.; Buckelew, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The ramifying effects of top predators on food webs traditionally have been studied within the framework of trophic cascades. Trophic cascades are compelling because they embody powerful indirect effects of predators on primary production. Although less studied, indirect effects of predators may occur via routes that are not exclusively trophic. We quantified how the introduction of foxes onto the Aleutian Islands transformed plant communities by reducing abundant seabird populations, thereby disrupting nutrient subsidies vectored by seabirds from sea to land. We compared soil and plant fertility, plant biomass and community composition, and stable isotopes of nitrogen in soil, plants, and other organisms on nine fox-infested and nine historically fox-free islands across the Aleutians. Additionally, we experimentally augmented nutrients on a fox-infested island to test whether differences in plant productivity and composition between fox-infested and fox-free islands could have arisen from differences in nutrient inputs between island types. Islands with historical fox infestations had soils low in phosphorus and nitrogen and plants low in tissue nitrogen. Soils, plants, slugs, flies, spiders, and bird droppings on these islands had low d15N values indicating that these organisms obtained nitrogen from internally derived sources. In contrast, soils, plants, and higher trophic level organisms on fox-free islands had elevated d15N signatures indicating that they utilized nutrients derived from the marine environment. Furthermore, soil phosphorus (but not nitrogen) and plant tissue nitrogen were higher on fox-free than fox-infested islands. Nutrient subsidized fox-free islands supported lush, high biomass plant communities dominated by graminoids. Fox-infested islands were less graminoid dominated and had higher cover and biomass of low-lying forbs and dwarf shrubs. While d15N profiles of soils and plants and graminoid biomass varied with island size and distance from

  17. Gabbroic and Peridotitic Enclaves from the 2008 Kasatochi Eruption, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentner, A.; Nadin, E. S.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nye, C. J.; Neill, O. K.

    2012-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano of the Andreanof Islands in the western Aleutian Arc violently erupted over a two day period from August 7-8, 2008. The eruption involved multiple explosive events generating pyroclastic flows, which included abundant mafic and ultramafic enclaves that have since weathered out and accumulated in talus along the coast. These and other mafic enclaves sampled by modern island arc lavas provide insight into subduction magmatism because they emerge from a section of the subduction system that is less likely than shallower zones to be modified by magmatic processes such as mixing, assimilation, or fractionation. We present new whole rock, clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, and melt compositions from Kasatochi enclaves of the 2008 eruption. The highly crystalline (~40 vol. % phenocryst content), medium-K basaltic andesite host rock contains ~52-55 wt. % SiO2 and 0.6-0.9 wt. % K2O, and is composed of plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene, amphibole, and Ti-magnetite in a microlite-rich groundmass. Upon eruption, this magma sampled two distinct enclave populations: gabbro and peridotite. The gabbro has abundant amphibole (mostly magnesio-hastingsite) and plagioclase with minor clinopyroxene, olivine, and magnetite, while the peridotite is composed of olivine with minor amounts of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. There is little textural variation amongst the peridotitic samples collected, but the gabbroic samples vary from layered to massive and cover a range in grain size from fine-grained to pegmatitic. The layered gabbros display centimeter-scale bands of alternating plagioclase- and amphibole-rich layers, with a strong preferential alignment of the amphibole grains. The coarser-grained samples are very friable, with ~10% pore space; disaggregation of these upon host-magma ascent likely formed the amphibole and plagioclase xenocrysts in the andesitic host. Based on the textural and compositional differences, we divide the enclaves into four groups

  18. Natural Gas and Hydrate Accumulations in the Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, G. A.; Scholl, D. W.; Childs, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    The deep water Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea is a major storehouse of trapped greenhouse gases. Preliminary volume estimates based on seismic reflection observations easily approach 1000 Tcf of natural gas within the basin. USGS seismic reflection data from the deep water (>3500 m) Bering Sea region include over 20,000 km of single channel profiles coincident with GLORIA sonar tracks acquired during the 1986-7 EEZscan program, plus several older multichannel lines also crossing the deep water Aleutian and Bowers Basins. These airgun-source data all provide images from seafloor to basement, over 3 km of penetration. The basin fill includes generally horizontal and uniform sedimentary reflection sequences, comprising predominantly mudstones and distal turbidites, upon oceanic crust of probable Cretaceous age. In seismic reflection images of these flat-lying sediments, methane chimneys overlain by hydrate caps stand out as distinctive velocity pseudostructures. These velocity-amplitude anomaly structures ("VAMPs") characteristically include a zone of velocity pull-up (attributed to high-seismic-velocity hydrate within the sediment) directly overlying a zone of velocity push-down (attributed to low-seismic-velocity gas in the pore spaces). A prominent hydrate bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is also present throughout the basin. Within the VAMPs, the BSR roughly separates the pull-up from the push-down. Hundreds of VAMPs have been imaged, and thousands must exist within the deep water basin. Individual examples vary widely in lateral extent, focused appearance, and amplitude effects. Some also present a seafloor manifestation of slight doming. Five example case studies are presented, focusing particularly on interval travel time anomalies and quantitative interpretation in terms of presence of hydrate and free gas. Individual large VAMPs (1-3 km across, ˜30 ms pull-up, ˜80 ms push-down) are estimated to contain gas volumes (including hydrate) similar to those of

  19. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  20. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  1. A new weather warning tool that incorporates census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J.; Paxton, C. H.; Hansen, T. L.; Simms, J. L.; Hirvela, K.; Saurabh Kotiyal, S.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the NWS Integrated Hazard Information Services (IHIS) is to transition the current hazard program from a paradigm of issuing products to one of providing information for decision support. This IHIS project is intended to significantly improve the decision making process of emergency managers and other public officials who manage resources during periods of deadly weather, and also better inform the media and public. The IHIS system has two components; internal and external. Forecasters use the internal graphical component to issue watches, warnings, advisories and statements for hazardous weather by zone, county, or polygon. The IHIS system converts all specified areas into polygons and parses the appropriate information from census block data, displaying the results in tabular and graphical formats for use in the warning decision process. As one example, infrastructure such as hospitals and fire stations are available as overlays. The external component of the IHIS system is a Web site accessible to the emergency managers, the media and the public that shows the polygons with accompanying tables and graphs of census and infrastructure information for the specified areas. Interviews of emergency managers and the media provided positive feedback, illustrating the functionality of the data obtained through the graphical tool on the NWS Web site. This presentation will provide an overview of the interface, the method for census data extraction, user feedback and direction for the future.

  2. Stereo matching based on census transformation of image gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stentoumis, C.; Grammatikopoulos, L.; Kalisperakis, I.; Karras, G.; Petsa, E.

    2015-05-01

    Although multiple-view matching provides certain significant advantages regarding accuracy, occlusion handling and radiometric fidelity, stereo-matching remains indispensable for a variety of applications; these involve cases when image acquisition requires fixed geometry and limited number of images or speed. Such instances include robotics, autonomous navigation, reconstruction from a limited number of aerial/satellite images, industrial inspection and augmented reality through smart-phones. As a consequence, stereo-matching is a continuously evolving research field with growing variety of applicable scenarios. In this work a novel multi-purpose cost for stereo-matching is proposed, based on census transformation on image gradients and evaluated within a local matching scheme. It is demonstrated that when the census transformation is applied on gradients the invariance of the cost function to changes in illumination (non-linear) is significantly strengthened. The calculated cost values are aggregated through adaptive support regions, based both on cross-skeletons and basic rectangular windows. The matching algorithm is tuned for the parameters in each case. The described matching cost has been evaluated on the Middlebury stereo-vision 2006 datasets, which include changes in illumination and exposure. The tests verify that the census transformation on image gradients indeed results in a more robust cost function, regardless of aggregation strategy.

  3. Analysis of Aleutian disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo: demonstration of Aleutian disease virus DNA in tissues of infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Aasted, B; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1985-01-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV) infection was analyzed in vivo and in vitro to compare virus replication in cell culture and in mink. Initial experiments compared cultures of Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with the avirulent ADV-G strain or the highly virulent Utah I ADV. The number of ADV-infected cells was estimated by calculating the percentage of cells displaying ADV antigen by immunofluorescence (IFA), and several parameters of infection were determined. Infected cells contained large quantities of viral DNA (more than 10(5) genomes per infected cell) as estimated by dot-blot DNA-DNA hybridization, and much of the viral DNA, when analyzed by Southern blot hybridization, was found to be of a 4.8-kilobase-pair duplex monomeric replicative form (DM DNA). Furthermore, the cultures contained 7 to 67 fluorescence-forming units (FFU) per infected cell, and the ADV genome per FFU ratio ranged between 2 X 10(3) and 164 X 10(3). Finally, the pattern of viral antigen detected by IFA was characteristically nuclear, although cytoplasmic fluorescence was often found in the same cells. Because no difference was noted between the two virus strains when cultures containing similar numbers of infected cells were compared, it seemed that both viruses behaved similarly in infected cell culture. These data were used as a basis for the analysis of infection of mink by virulent Utah I ADV. Ten days after infection, the highest levels of viral DNA were detected in spleen (373 genomes per cell), mesenteric lymph node (MLN; 750 genomes per cell), and liver (373 genomes per cell). In marked contrast to infected CRFK cells, the predominant species of ADV DNA in all tissues was single-stranded virion DNA; however, 4.8-kilobase-pair DM DNA was found in MLN and spleen. This observation suggested that MLN and spleen were sites of virus replication, but that the DNA found in liver reflected sequestration of virus produced elsewhere. A final set of experiments examined MLN taken

  4. Characteristics of Rural Residents in West Virginia. Results of a 1981 Survey in Nine Counties. Bulletin 683.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colyer, Dale; And Others

    As a result of trends toward increasing instead of decreasing population growth in rural areas (as confirmed by the 1980 Census of Population), a sample of 2,752 rural residents from 967 households in 9 West Virginia counties were surveyed in 1981 to gain information that might be useful in public policy, education, and related programs. The…

  5. Genetic differentiation of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birt, T.P.; Mackinnon, D.; Piatt, J.F.; Friesen, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the distribution of genetic variation within and among local populations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is needed for effective conservation of this rare and declining species. We compared variation in a 429 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci among 53 Kittlitz's Murrelets from three sites in the western Aleutian Islands (Attu Island) and Gulf of Alaska (Glacier Bay and Kachemak Bay). We found that birds in these two regions differ genetically in three assessments: (1) global and pairwise indices of genetic differentiation were significantly greater than zero, (2) mitochondrial haplotypes differed by a minimum of nine substitutions, and (3) molecular assignments indicated little gene flow between regions. The data suggest that birds in these regions have been genetically isolated for an extended period. We conclude that Kittlitz's Murrelets from Attu Island and from the Gulf of Alaska represent separate evolutionarily significant units, and should be treated as such for conservation. Genetic data for Kittlitz's Murrelets from the remainder of the breeding range are urgently needed.

  6. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, C.J. . Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  7. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-10-27

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida.

  8. Characterization of deoxyribonucleic acid from cells infected with Aleutian disease virus

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, E.C.; Ramos, L.; Kenyon, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Viral DNA was extracted from Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with Aleutian disease virus (ADV) and labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. The sedimentation coefficient in alkaline sucrose gradients was 16S corresponding to a molecular weight of 1.5 X 10(6). The buoyant densities of DNA from infected and control cells were determined by isopyknic sedimentation in CsCl and NaI gradients. Two additional peaks of (/sup 3/H)DNA were found in infected cells, but not in control cell extracts. Fractionation of this DNA on hydroxylapatite indicated that the new peaks represented a single-stranded component, density 1.728 g/cm3, and a double-stranded component, presumed to be a viral replicative intermediate, density 1.718 g/cm3. The target antigen formation in CRFK cells was measured by gamma-irradiation of ADV and assayed for focus formation. The calculated size of ADV based on these measurements was 1.1 X 10(6). The H-1 parvovirus also was shown to have a size of 1.5 X 10(6) daltons for both antigen and plaque formation. The data indicated similarities existed between ADV and other autonomously replicating parvoviruses in most properties, except that less-than-unit length genome of ADV may be transcribed.

  9. August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  10. Little late Holocene strain accumulation and release on the Aleutian megathrust below the Shumagin Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Briggs, Richard W.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Koehler, Richard D.; Barnhart, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Can a predominantly creeping segment of a subduction zone generate a great (M > 8) earthquake? Despite Russian accounts of strong shaking and high tsunamis in 1788, geodetic observations above the Aleutian megathrust indicate creeping subduction across the Shumagin Islands segment, a well-known seismic gap. Seeking evidence for prehistoric great earthquakes, we investigated Simeonof Island, the archipelago's easternmost island, and found no evidence for uplifted marine terraces or subsided shorelines. Instead, we found freshwater peat blanketing lowlands, and organic-rich silt and tephra draping higher glacially smoothed bedrock. Basal peat ages place glacier retreat prior to 10.4 ka and imply slowly rising (<0.2 m/ka) relative sea level since ~3.4 ka. Storms rather than tsunamis probably deposited thin, discontinuous deposits in coastal sites. If rupture of the megathrust beneath Simeonof Island produced great earthquakes in the late Holocene, then coseismic uplift or subsidence was too small (≤0.3 m) to perturb the onshore geologic record.

  11. Cryogenic preservation of semen from the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen containing 6% or 7% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) resulting in 32 fertile eggs and 17 goslings; with 7% DMSO, 19 of 31 eggs were fertile. Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE), adjusted to 270 ? 30 mOs and 7.5 ? 0.4 pH, was used to dilute semen samples and the DMSO before cryopreservation. About half of the live spermatozoa in the fresh semen (92.9 ? 2.5% live cells, laboratory studies; 87.3 ? 7.3%, insemination trials) survived the freeze-thaw process (46.7 ? 7.8%, laboratory; 33.3 ? 17.8%, insemination trials). Samples of frozen-thawed semen contained a greater percentage of bent spermatozoa (27.1 ? 8.4% of live cells) than fresh semen (14.4 ? 3.0% of live cells). Fecal- and urate-contaminated semen (a common problem when collecting goose semen) reduced the sperm motility score from 3.2 ? 0.6 to 2.7? 0.7 and number of live spermatozoa in frozen-thawed semen from 49 ? 9% to 24 ?18%. Other variables examined that had less of an effect on semen quality included semen extenders, semen holding temperature, dilution and equilibration, relationship between hour of semen collection and level of semen contamination, and the relationship between season and sperm concentration.

  12. Monitoring chronic infection with a field strain of Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-31

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) readily spread within farmed mink and causes chronic infections with significant impacts for welfare and economy. In the present study a currently circulating Danish AMDV strain was used to induce chronic experimental infection of farmed mink. PCR was used to detect viral DNA in full blood, organs, faeces and oro-nasal swabs weekly for the first 8 weeks and then biweekly for another 16 weeks after AMDV challenge inoculation of wild type mink. The mink (n=29) was infected and seroconverted 2-3 weeks after AMDV inoculation and AMDV antibodies persisted during the maximum experimental period of 24 weeks. Viraemia and faecal excretion of viral DNA was detected in the mink (n=29) at various and intermittent time intervals. Excretion of viral DNA in oro-nasal swabs was detected for 1-8 weeks in 21 mink. This highlights the risk of transmitting AMDV between infected farms. PCR was successfully used to detect viral DNA in organs 8, 16 and 24 weeks after AMDV inoculation with only minor differences between these weeks which is of diagnostic interest. This AMDV challenge model was also used to mimic natural infection of susceptible sapphire mink. Four of 6 sapphire mink were infected indirectly via the AMDV inoculated wild type mink whereas the other 2 sapphire mink remained uninfected. PMID:24389253

  13. Genetic characterization of the complete genome of an Aleutian mink disease virus isolated in north China.

    PubMed

    Xi, Ji; Wang, Jigui; Yu, Yongle; Zhang, Xiaomei; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-01

    The genome of a highly pathogenic strain of Aleutian disease mink virus (AMDV-BJ) isolated from a domestic farm in North China has been determined and compared with other strains. Alignment analysis of the major structural protein VP2 revealed that AMDV-BJ is unique among 17 other AMDV strains. Compared with the nonpathogenic strain ADV-G, the 3' end Y-shaped hairpin was highly conserved, while a 4-base deletion in the 5' U-shaped terminal palindrome resulted in a different unpaired "bubble" group near the NS1-binding region of the 5' end hairpin which may affect replication efficiency in vivo. We also performed a protein analysis of the NS1, NS2, and new-confirmed NS3 of AMDV-BJ with some related AMDV DNA sequence published, providing information on evolution of AMDV genes. This study shows a useful method to obtain the full-length genome of AMDV and some other parvoviruses. PMID:27007772

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian disease virus in free-ranging domestic, hybrid, and wild mink.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus' molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild. PMID:25568054

  15. Epitope mapping of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus virion protein VP1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Costello, F; Steenfos, N; Jensen, K T; Christensen, J; Gottschalck, E; Holm, A; Aasted, B

    1999-04-01

    Six overlapping fragments of the Aleutian Mink Disease parvoVirus (AMDV) virion protein VP1 and 2 (VP1/2) gene were inserted into the expression vector pMAL-c2. Four of the clones carried large overlapping fragments covering the entire VP1/2 gene. The remaining two clones covered specifically chosen regions within the VP1/2 gene. Using a Western blotting detection system, sera from AMDV-infected mink were tested against the recombinant polypeptides. These studies showed reactions primarily directed against the two AMDV polypeptides ranging from amino acids 297 to 518. Weaker reactions against other regions of the VP1/2 were also observed. The small fusion protein designed to cover the presumed AMDV VP1/2 loop 4 was purified by affinity chromatography and used to develop solid-phase immunoassays. Twelve small synthetic peptides were constructed and used as inhibitors. A peptide covering amino acids S428 to T448 was shown to block the reactivity of a pool of positive mink sera, indicating the presence of one dominant linear epitope. PMID:10219758

  16. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian disease virus in free-ranging domestic, hybrid, and wild mink

    PubMed Central

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus’ molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild. PMID:25568054

  17. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover. PMID:25647590

  18. Three-Dimensional Structure of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus: Implications for Disease Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Robert; Olson, Norman H.; Chipman, Paul R.; Baker, Timothy S.; Booth, Tim F.; Christensen, Jesper; Aasted, Bent; Fox, James M.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Wolfinbarger, James B.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of expressed VP2 capsids of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus strain G (ADVG-VP2) has been determined to 22 Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction techniques. A structure-based sequence alignment of the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) provided a means to construct an atomic model of the ADVG-VP2 capsid. The ADVG-VP2 reconstruction reveals a capsid structure with a mean external radius of 128 Å and several surface features similar to those found in human parvovirus B19 (B19), CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), and minute virus of mice (MVM). Dimple-like depressions occur at the icosahedral twofold axes, canyon-like regions encircle the fivefold axes, and spike-like protrusions decorate the threefold axes. These spikes are not present in B19, and they are more prominent in ADV compared to the other parvoviruses owing to the presence of loop insertions which create mounds near the threefold axes. Cylindrical channels along the fivefold axes of CPV, FPV, and MVM, which are surrounded by five symmetry-related β-ribbons, are closed in ADVG-VP2 and B19. Immunoreactive peptides made from segments of the ADVG-VP2 capsid protein map to residues in the mound structures. In vitro tissue tropism and in vivo pathogenic properties of ADV map to residues at the threefold axes and to the wall of the dimples. PMID:10400786

  19. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida. PMID:26624419

  20. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover.

  1. [The impact of technological change on census taking: some thoughts on implications for the 1990 round of censuses and on the statistical use of administrative records].

    PubMed

    Brackstone, G J

    1984-01-01

    The author presents some general thoughts on the implications of technological change for the 1990 round of censuses and for the statistical use of administrative records. Consideration is also given to alternative methods of obtaining the type of data traditionally collected in a population census, by using these new technologies in association with administrative record systems.

  2. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  3. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  4. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  5. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  6. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  7. History and Organization. U.S. Bureau of the Census--Factfinder for the Nation. CFF No. 4 (Rev.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This document chronicles the history and organization of census taking in the United States. The first census (1790) counted only free white males, free white females, all other free persons, and the number of slaves. Since that time the need for information has grown and the census has changed to meet new demands. The expansion of the census, the…

  8. Cyberbullying, School Bullying, and Psychological Distress: A Regional Census of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Coulter, Robert W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. Methods. In the fall of 2008, 20 406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. Results. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Conclusions. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health. PMID:22095343

  9. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  10. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person. ... avoid getting West Nile virus infection after a mosquito bite. People in good health generally do not develop ...

  11. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  12. Locations and focal mechanisms of deep long period events beneath Aleutian Arc volcanoes using back projection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, A. C.; Roman, D. C.; Haney, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep long period (DLP) earthquakes are commonly observed in volcanic settings such as the Aleutian Arc in Alaska. DLPs are poorly understood but are thought to be associated with movements of fluids, such as magma or hydrothermal fluids, deep in the volcanic plumbing system. These events have been recognized for several decades but few studies have gone beyond their identification and location. All long period events are more difficult to identify and locate than volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes because traditional detection schemes focus on high frequency (short period) energy. In addition, DLPs present analytical challenges because they tend to be emergent and so it is difficult to accurately pick the onset of arriving body waves. We now expect to find DLPs at most volcanic centers, the challenge lies in identification and location. We aim to reduce the element of human error in location by applying back projection to better constrain the depth and horizontal position of these events. Power et al. (2004) provided the first compilation of DLP activity in the Aleutian Arc. This study focuses on the reanalysis of 162 cataloged DLPs beneath 11 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc (we expect to ultimately identify and reanalyze more DLPs). We are currently adapting the approach of Haney (2014) for volcanic tremor to use back projection over a 4D grid to determine position and origin time of DLPs. This method holds great potential in that it will allow automated, high-accuracy picking of arrival times and could reduce the number of arrival time picks necessary for traditional location schemes to well constrain event origins. Back projection can also calculate a relative focal mechanism (difficult with traditional methods due to the emergent nature of DLPs) allowing the first in depth analysis of source properties. Our event catalog (spanning over 25 years and volcanoes) is one of the longest and largest and enables us to investigate spatial and temporal variation in DLPs.

  13. Taking the Galactic Exoplanet Census with K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jessie; CHAI (California/Hawaii/Arizona/Indiana) K2 Follow-up Consortium

    2016-06-01

    The NASA Kepler mission was designed and executed with the goal of measuring planet occurrence rates. The stellar sample, the science pipeline, and the planet candidate sample have all been chosen and characterised with an eye to generating uniform, robust statistical measurements. The subsequent K2 mission, however, has been much more open to all science goals, and subsequently the target selection, planet candidate generation and catalogue assembly have been substantially more ad hoc. Here we discuss the pathway forward to using the Galactic latitude coverage of K2 to begin the Galactic exoplanet census that will be continued by the NASA TESS mission.

  14. [Sequencing Analyses of the Hypervariable Region within the VP2 Gene of a Strain of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Jianjun; Wang, Zhenjun; Ma, Fanshu; Yan, Xijun; Wu, Wei; Xu, Shujuan

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the molecular mechanisms of cross-host transmission of the Aleutian mink disease vi rus (ADV), the hypervariable region fragment of the VP2 gene of the ADV in Jilin Province (China) was amplified. Sequencing analyses showed diversity at residue 174 by comparison with other VP2 genes in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the ADV-JL strain had a close relationship with the highly pathogenic strain from Denmark: ADV-K. Results implied that residue 174 may be associated with ADV infectivity. PMID:26470526

  15. Revised 40Ar/39Ar age of Aleutian Island arc formation implies high rate of magma production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jicha, B. R.; Scholl, D. W.; Singer, B. S.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kay, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data from subaerial and submarine volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Aleutian Island arc provide insight into the timing of arc formation in the late Eocene. Groundmass and plagioclase separates from the Finger Bay volcanics, the oldest exposed rocks in the arc, gave a weighted mean isochron age of 37.4 ± 0.6 Ma, that is 12-17 m.y. younger than a widely cited age of 55-50 Ma. Twenty-six 40Ar/39Ar ages agree with existing K-Ar ages and constrain the duration of arc magmatism to the last 40 m.y. The initiation of magmatism at this time is in agreement with the late Eocene to early Oligocene ages for the fossiliferous sequence of sedimentary deposits on northern Adak Island that overlie 37-38 Ma units, yet it is at odds with all of the existing models of Aleutian arc formation because no major tectonic events in the north Pacific occurred at that time. We have also identified three main pulses of arc-wide plutonism and volcanism at 38-29, 16-11, and 6-0 Ma. The geochronology--in concert with new-generation transverse and arc-parallel seismic constraints on the composition and structure of the Aleutian Island arc and volumetric estimates of crust generated and eroded over the last 40 m.y.--leads to astonishingly high time-averaged magma production rates of 110-205 km3/km/m.y. for the entire arc. This exceeds magma production rates based on older geophysical and petrologic paradigms for the Aleutian arc by almost an order of magnitude. Because the majority of crustal growth likely occurred during the first few m.y. of the arc's history, magma productivity may have been as high as that of mid-ocean ridge spreading centers or continental batholiths (e.g., near 1000 km3/km/m.y.). Rapid Eocene arc growth has recently been proposed for both the Izu Bonin-Mariana and Tonga island arcs in the western Pacific Ocean. Determining whether extraordinarily high rates of island arc magma production in the Eocene reflects increased plate velocities and

  16. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells.

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiewicz, M B; Costello, F; Huhtanen, M; Wolfinbarger, J B; Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP proteins formed hollow intranuclear shells around the inclusions. Later, nuclei had irregular outlines and were virtually free of ADV products. In these cells, inclusions of viral DNA with or without associated NS protein were embedded in cytoplasmic VP protein. These findings implied that ADV replication within an infected cell is regulated spatially as well as temporally. PMID:8627805

  17. Temporal variation in fish mercury concentrations within lakes from the western Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Leah A; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; von Hippel, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    We assessed temporal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Agattu Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Total Hg concentrations in whole-bodied stickleback were measured at two-week intervals from two sites in each of two lakes from June 1 to August 10, 2011 during the time period when lakes were ice-free. Across all sites and sampling events, stickleback Hg concentrations ranged from 0.37-1.07 µg/g dry weight (dw), with a mean (± SE) of 0.55 ± 0.01 µg/g dw. Mean fish Hg concentrations declined by 9% during the study period, from 0.57 ± 0.01 µg/g dw in early June to 0.52 ± 0.01 µg/g dw in mid-August. Mean fish Hg concentrations were 6% higher in Loon Lake (0.56 ± 0.01 µg/g dw) than in Lake 696 (0.53 ± 0.01 µg/g dw), and 4% higher in males (0.56 ± 0.01 µg/g dw) than in females (0.54 ± 0.01 µg/g dw). Loon Lake was distinguished from Lake 696 by the presence of piscivorous waterbirds during the breeding season. Mercury concentrations in stickleback from Agattu Island were higher than would be expected for an area without known point sources of Hg pollution, and high enough to be of concern to the health of piscivorous wildlife. PMID:25029042

  18. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Akutan Volcano east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Power, John A.; Richter, Donlad H.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Akutan Volcano is a 1100-meter-high stratovolcano on Akutan Island in the east-central Aleutian Islands of southwestern Alaska. The volcano is located about 1238 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 56 kilometers east of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. Eruptive activity has occurred at least 27 times since historical observations were recorded beginning in the late 1700?s. Recent eruptions produced only small amounts of fine volcanic ash that fell primarily on the upper flanks of the volcano. Small amounts of ash fell on the Akutan Harbor area during eruptions in 1911, 1948, 1987, and 1989. Plumes of volcanic ash are the primary hazard associated with eruptions of Akutan Volcano and are a major hazard to all aircraft using the airfield at Dutch Harbor or approaching Akutan Island. Eruptions similar to historical Akutan eruptions should be anticipated in the future. Although unlikely, eruptions larger than those of historical time could generate significant amounts of volcanic ash, fallout, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that would be hazardous to life and property on all sectors of the volcano and other parts of the island, but especially in the major valleys that head on the volcano flanks. During a large eruption an ash cloud could be produced that may be hazardous to aircraft using the airfield at Cold Bay and the airspace downwind from the volcano. In the event of a large eruption, volcanic ash fallout could be relatively thick over parts of Akutan Island and volcanic bombs could strike areas more than 10 kilometers from the volcano.

  19. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  20. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species. PMID:25325089

  1. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H.; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen. PMID:25822750

  2. Temporal replication of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus in royal pastel mink.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1985-09-01

    Information was sought on the temporal replication of Aleutian disease virus in 27 royal pastel mink. Groups of three were examined 8 to 126 days after they were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(3) 50% lethal doses of the Pullman strain. Much individual variation was noted in the onset of infection, occurrence of viremia, and extent of virus replication in the tissues. Thus, virus was detected in lymph nodes regional to the site of inoculation in only some mink during the first 14 days after inoculation. During this period, virus was often present as well in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen. First detected on day 10, viremia was present in all mink examined on day 28 but occurred irregularly thereafter, even when virus was widespread in the tissues. Except in five mink succumbing to the disease, the tissue distribution of virus after day 28 tended to be more limited, and the titers were generally lower than they had been earlier. Even though present in the lymph nodes and spleen, virus was often absent from the kidney, liver, and intestine after day 28. Specific antibody was detected on day 28 and was present in all mink thereafter, ostensibly without any adverse effect on virus replication. In most mink, the infection was considered subclinical, for it was usually not accompanied by a rise in serum gamma globulin or by morphologic evidence of the disease. The virologic findings in this study have a bearing on the relationship of subclinical infections to both horizontal and vertical transmission of the virus.

  3. Aleutian mink disease virus in furbearing mammals in Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is widespread among ranched and free-ranging American mink in Canada, but there is no information on its prevalence in other wild animal species. This paper describes the prevalence of AMDV of 12 furbearing species in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada. Methods Samples were collected from carcasses of 462 wild animals of 12 furbearing species, trapped in 10 NS counties between November 2009 and February 2011. Viral DNA was tested by PCR using two primer pairs, and anti-viral antibodies were tested by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) on spleen homogenates. Results Positive PCR or CIEP samples were detected in 56 of 60 (93.3%) American mink, 43 of 61 (70.5%) short-tailed weasels, 2 of 8 (25.0%) striped skunks, 2 of 11 (18.2%) North American river otters, 9 of 85 (10.6%) raccoons, and 2 of 20 (10.0%) bobcats. Samples from six fishers, 24 coyotes, 25 red foxes, 58 beavers, 45 red-squirrels and 59 muskrats were negative. Antibodies to AMDV were detected by CIEP in 16 of 56 (28.6%) mink and one of the 8 skunks (12.5%). Thirteen of the mink were positive for PCR and CIEP, but three mink and one skunk were CIEP positive and PCR negative. Positive CIEP or PCR animals were present in all nine counties from which mink or weasel samples were collected. Conclusions The presence of AMDV in so many species across the province has important epidemiological ramifications and could pose a serious health problem for the captive mink, as well as for susceptible wildlife. The mechanism of virus transmission between wildlife and captive mink and the effects of AMDV exposure on the viability of the susceptible species deserve further investigation. PMID:23394546

  4. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  5. Temporal Variation in Fish Mercury Concentrations within Lakes from the Western Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Leah A.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; von Hippel, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed temporal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Agattu Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Total Hg concentrations in whole-bodied stickleback were measured at two-week intervals from two sites in each of two lakes from June 1 to August 10, 2011 during the time period when lakes were ice-free. Across all sites and sampling events, stickleback Hg concentrations ranged from 0.37–1.07 µg/g dry weight (dw), with a mean (± SE) of 0.55±0.01 µg/g dw. Mean fish Hg concentrations declined by 9% during the study period, from 0.57±0.01 µg/g dw in early June to 0.52±0.01 µg/g dw in mid-August. Mean fish Hg concentrations were 6% higher in Loon Lake (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in Lake 696 (0.53±0.01 µg/g dw), and 4% higher in males (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in females (0.54±0.01 µg/g dw). Loon Lake was distinguished from Lake 696 by the presence of piscivorous waterbirds during the breeding season. Mercury concentrations in stickleback from Agattu Island were higher than would be expected for an area without known point sources of Hg pollution, and high enough to be of concern to the health of piscivorous wildlife. PMID:25029042

  6. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  7. Temporal variation in fish mercury concentrations within lakes from the western Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Leah A.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; von Hippel, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed temporal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Agattu Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Total Hg concentrations in whole-bodied stickleback were measured at two-week intervals from two sites in each of two lakes from June 1 to August 10, 2011 during the time period when lakes were ice-free. Across all sites and sampling events, stickleback Hg concentrations ranged from 0.37–1.07 µg/g dry weight (dw), with a mean (± SE) of 0.55±0.01 µg/g dw. Mean fish Hg concentrations declined by 9% during the study period, from 0.57±0.01 µg/g dw in early June to 0.52±0.01 µg/g dw in mid-August. Mean fish Hg concentrations were 6% higher in Loon Lake (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in Lake 696 (0.53±0.01 µg/g dw), and 4% higher in males (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in females (0.54±0.01 µg/g dw). Loon Lake was distinguished from Lake 696 by the presence of piscivorous waterbirds during the breeding season. Mercury concentrations in stickleback from Agattu Island were higher than would be expected for an area without known point sources of Hg pollution, and high enough to be of concern to the health of piscivorous wildlife.

  8. SURFACE REMEDIATION IN THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: A CASE STUDY OF AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, M. O.; Stahl, D. C.; Bechtel, J. A.

    2002-02-25

    Amchitka Island, Alaska, was at one time an integral player in the nation's defense program. Located in the North Pacific Ocean in the Aleutian Island archipelago, the island was intermittently inhabited by several key government agencies, including the U.S. Army, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy), and the U.S. Navy. Since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted extensive investigations on Amchitka to determine the nature and extent of contamination resulting from historic nuclear testing. The uninhabited island was the site of three high-yield nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. These test locations are now part of the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's Environmental Management Program. In the summer of 2001, the DOE launched a large-scale remediation effort on Amchitka to perform agreed-upon corrective actions to the surface of the island. Due to the lack of resources available on Amchitka and logistical difficulties with conducting work at such a remote location, the DOE partnered with the Navy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to share certain specified costs and resources. Attempting to negotiate the partnerships while organizing and implementing the surface remediation on Amchitka proved to be a challenging endeavor. The DOE was faced with unexpected changes in Navy and USACE scope of work, accelerations in schedules, and risks associated with construction costs at such a remote location. Unfavorable weather conditions also proved to be a constant factor, often slowing the progress of work. The Amchitka Island remediation project experience has allowed the DOE to gain valuable insights into how to anticipate and mitigate potential problems associated with future remediation projects. These lessons learned will help the DOE in conducting future work more efficiently, and can also serve as a guide for other agencies performing similar work.

  9. Indirect food web interactions: Sea otters and kelp forest fishes in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisewitz, S.E.; Estes, J.A.; Simenstad, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although trophic cascades - the effect of apex predators on progressively lower trophic level species through top-down forcing - have been demonstrated in diverse ecosystems, the broader potential influences of trophic cascades on other species and ecosystem processes are not well studied. We used the overexploitation, recovery and subsequent collapse of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in the Aleutian archipelago to explore if and how the abundance and diet of kelp forest fishes are influenced by a trophic cascade linking sea otters with sea urchins and fleshy macroalgae. We measured the abundance of sea urchins (biomass density), kelp (numerical density) and fish (Catch per unit effort) at four islands in the mid-1980s (when otters were abundant at two of the islands and rare at the two others) and in 2000 (after otters had become rare at all four islands). Our fish studies focused on rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus), the numerically dominant species in this region. In the mid-1980s, the two islands with high-density otter populations supported dense kelp forests, relatively few urchins, and abundant rock greenling whereas the opposite pattern (abundant urchins, sparse kelp forests, and relatively few rock greenling) occurred at islands where otters were rare. In the 2000, the abundances of urchins, kelp and greenling were grossly unchanged at islands where otters were initially rare but had shifted to the characteristic pattern of otter-free systems at islands where otters were initially abundant. Significant changes in greenling diet occurred between the mid-1980s and the 2000 although the reasons for these changes were difficult to assess because of strong island-specific effects. Whereas urchin-dominated communities supported more diverse fish assemblages than kelp-dominated communities, this was not a simple effect of the otter-induced trophic cascade because all islands supported more diverse fish assemblages in 2000 than in the mid-1980s

  10. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species.

  11. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen. PMID:25822750

  12. Accuracy of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for quantification of antibodies against Aleutian mink disease virus.

    PubMed

    Farid, A H; Rupasinghe, P P

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest among mink ranchers to select their stock for tolerance to the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are used to identify mink which have low anti-AMDV antibody titres and are expected to tolerate the AMDV infection. The objective of this study was to calculate the accuracy of three ELISA systems which were performed on blood or serum of AMDV-inoculated American mink (Neovison vison) at five laboratories in Canada, USA, Finland, the Netherlands and Denmark. The accuracy was determined by comparing the ELISA results with antibody titres measured by the counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) using 10 two-fold serial dilutions of the plasma. Antibody titres of 880 black mink which were inoculated with a spleen homogenate from a naturally infected mink were measured between 16 and 176 weeks post-inoculation. Each ELISA result from every laboratory covered a wide range of antibody titres and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between CIEP and ELISA results from different laboratories varied between 0.41 and 0.83, indicating a low to moderate accuracy of ELISA systems for ranking mink by antibody titre. The recombinant VP2-based ELISA used in the Netherlands and Finland ranked the mink by antibody titres more accurately than did the AMDV-G-based ELISA platforms developed in Denmark and the USA, suggesting that the source of antigen was one of the factors affecting the accuracy of ELISA results. It was concluded that the ELISA systems, particularly those based on AMDV-G antigen, require further refinement to improve their accuracy for ranking mink by antibody titre. PMID:27283885

  13. Volcanic and tectonic deformation on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, DöRte; Freymueller, Jeffrey

    2003-02-01

    GPS measurements on Unimak Island in the eastern Aleutian arc between 1998 and 2001 show deformation of Westdahl volcano and Fisher caldera. Westdahl is inflating, with the best fit point source located at 7.2-1.2+ 2.3 km depth and a volume change rate of 6.7-1.8+ 3.3 × 106 m3 yr-1. The GPS data indicate that inflation may have slowed down slightly compared with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations between 1993 and 1998. The accumulated subsurface volume increase during the GPS and InSAR observation period (1993-2001), ˜70 × 106 m3, already accounts for at least 15% more than the erupted volume from the last eruption in 1991-1992. Fisher caldera shows subsidence and contraction across the caldera center. The data are fit best with a rectangular dislocation source at a shallow depth. It is 14 km long and 0.5 km wide, dips 80° to the NW, and strikes N35°E, with rather large uncertainties for most of these parameters. Its volume decrease is 2.0 × 106 m3yr-1. The main mechanisms to explain the subsidence and contraction are degassing and contractional cooling of a shallow magma body and depressurization of Fisher's hydrothermal system, possibly triggered by an earthquake in 1999. At the 95% confidence level, no significant strain accumulation due to subduction is observed across the entire island. The low coupling across the rupture zone of the 1946 earthquake is a strong argument for the idea that the earthquake and tsunami did not result from a purely double-couple (earthquake) source.

  14. Sedimentation in the central segment of the Aleutian Trench: Sources, transport, and depositional style

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, A.J.; Scholl, D.W.; Vallier, T.L. ); Underwood, M.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The central segment of the Aleutian Trench (162{degree}W to 175{degree}E) is an intraoceanic subduction zone that contains an anomalously thick sedimentary fill (4 km maximum). The fill is an arcward-thickening and slightly tilted wedge of sediment characterized acoustically by laterally continuous, closely spaced, parallel reflectors. These relations are indicative of turbidite deposition. The trench floor and reflection horizons are planar, showing no evidence of an axial channel or any transverse fan bodies. Cores of surface sediment recover turbidite layers, implying that sediment transport and deposition occur via diffuse, sheetlike, fine-grained turbidite flows that occupy the full width of the trench. The mineralogy of Holocene trench sediments document a mixture of island-arc (dominant) and continental source terranes. GLORIA side-scan sonar images reveal a westward-flowing axial trench channel that conducts sediment to the eastern margin of the central segment, where channelized flow cases. Much of the sediment transported in this channel is derived from glaciated drainages surrounding the Gulf of Alaska which empty into the eastern trench segment via deep-sea channel systems (Surveyor and others) and submarine canyons (Hinchinbrook and others). Insular sediment transport is more difficult to define. GLORIA images show the efficiency with which the actively growing accretionary wedge impounds sediment that manages to cross a broad fore-arc terrace. It is likely that island-arc sediment reaches the trench either directly via air fall, via recycling of the accretionary prism, or via overtopping of the accretionary ridges by the upper parts of thick turbidite flows.

  15. Geothermal Drilling In The Aleutians Reveals New Insights On Volcanic History Of Akutan Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, two thermal gradient wells were drilled in the Hot Springs Bay Valley geothermal resource area on Akutan Island, Alaska. Well TG-2 was drilled in the region of hot springs occurrence near the mouth of the valley and reached a depth of 253 m (833'). Well TG-4 was drilled near the head of the valley, closer to the current volcano, and reached a depth of 457 m (1500'). The core recovered from these wells represent the only drill core extracted from an Aleutian volcano to date and reveals an important missing piece of the surficial eruptive and erosional history of the volcano that cannot be determined from surface evaluation of recent eruptive deposits laid down on 500 ka bedrock outcrops. No intrusive rocks were encountered, indicating a rich history of surficial activity. The core is dominated (46% of recovered core) by basaltic lava flow deposits (49-52 wt% SiO2), consistent with other observed deposits on the island. These flows are interspersed with andesite lava flows (20% of core, ranging from 53-58 wt% SiO2), abundant mass wasting deposits (27% of core) and a series of ash and ash tuff layers that are some of the most silicic deposits identified at Akutan (up to 66 wt% SiO2). Ash deposits are restricted to the upper 125 m in both wells, are significantly thicker in TG-4, and are difficult to correlate between the two wells. Mass wasting deposits are diverse, including a subset characterized by matrix-supported heterolithologic breccias enclosed in a crystalline basaltic lava host. A shell-rich zone at 273 meters depth indicates that the transition between sub-marine and sub-aerial activity may be recorded in the core.

  16. The 7-8 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Scott, William E.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Schneider, David J.; Izbekov, Pavel; Nye, Christopher J.

    2010-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano in the central Aleutian Islands erupted unexpectedly on 7-8 August 2008. Kasatochi has received little study by volcanologists and has had no confirmed historical eruptions. The island is an important nesting area for seabirds and a long-term biological study site of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. After a notably energetic preeruptive earthquake swarm, the volcano erupted violently in a series of explosive events beginning in the early afternoon of 7 August. Each event produced ash-gas plumes that reached 14-18 km above sea level. The volcanic plume contained large amounts of SO2 and was tracked around the globe by satellite observations. The cumulative volcanic cloud interfered with air travel across the North Pacific, causing many flight cancelations that affected thousands of travelers. Visits to the volcano in 2008-2009 indicated that the eruption generated pyroclastic flows and surges that swept all flanks of the island, accumulated several tens of meters of pyroclastic debris, and increased the diameter of the island by about 800 m. Pyroclastic flow deposits contain abundant accidental lithic debris derived from the inner walls of the Kasatochi crater. Juvenile material is crystal-rich silicic andesite that ranges from slightly pumiceous to frothy pumice. Fine-grained pyroclastic surge and fall deposits with accretionary lapilli cover the lithic-rich pyroclastic flow deposits and mark a change in eruptive style from episodic explosive activity to more continuous ash emission with smaller intermittent explosions. Pyroclastic deposits completely cover the island, but wave erosion and gully development on the flanks have begun to modify the surface mantle of volcanic deposits.

  17. Disability Divides in India: Evidence from the 2011 Census

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Nandita; Bora, Jayanta Kumar; Jasilionis, Domantas; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the socioeconomic and regional divides in disability prevalence in India has considerable relevance for designing public health policies and programs. Objectives The aim of the present study is to quantify the prevalence of disability by gender, region (rural and urban; states and districts), and caste. We also examine the association between disability prevalence and the major socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the districts in India. Methods Age-standardized disability prevalence (ASDP) was calculated using 2011 census data and applying the WHO World Standard Population. A regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between disability prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics across districts of India. Results The study found that ASDP varies substantially across districts and is higher among women, rural dwellers, and members of scheduled tribes (STs) and scheduled castes (SCs). The regression model showed that the disability rate in districts rises with increasing proportions of the population who are urban dwellers, aged 65 or older, members of STs, and living in dilapidated housing; and that the disability prevalence decreases with increasing proportions of the female population who are literate, and of the general population who are working and have access to safe drinking water. Conclusion As the burden of disability falls disproportionately across geographic regions and socioeconomic groups, public health policies in India should take this variation into account. The definition of disability used in the census should be modified to generate internationally comparable estimates of disability prevalence. PMID:27490469

  18. Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-09-01

    The ocean constitutes one of the vastest and richest biomes on our planet. Most recent estimations, all based on indirect approaches, suggest that there are millions of marine eukaryotic species. Moreover, a large majority of these are small (less than 1 mm), cryptic and still unknown to science. However, this knowledge gap, caused by the lack of diagnostic morphological features in small organisms and the limited sampling of the global ocean, is currently being filled, thanks to new DNA-based approaches. The molecular technique of PCR amplification of homologous gene regions combined with high-throughput sequencing, routinely used to census unculturable prokaryotes, is now also being used to characterize whole communities of marine eukaryotes. Here, we review how this methodological advancement has helped to better quantify the magnitude and patterns of marine eukaryotic diversity, with an emphasis on taxonomic groups previously largely overlooked. We then discuss obstacles remaining to achieve a global understanding of marine eukaryotic diversity. In particular, we argue that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and suggest combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve our understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481783

  19. Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-09-01

    The ocean constitutes one of the vastest and richest biomes on our planet. Most recent estimations, all based on indirect approaches, suggest that there are millions of marine eukaryotic species. Moreover, a large majority of these are small (less than 1 mm), cryptic and still unknown to science. However, this knowledge gap, caused by the lack of diagnostic morphological features in small organisms and the limited sampling of the global ocean, is currently being filled, thanks to new DNA-based approaches. The molecular technique of PCR amplification of homologous gene regions combined with high-throughput sequencing, routinely used to census unculturable prokaryotes, is now also being used to characterize whole communities of marine eukaryotes. Here, we review how this methodological advancement has helped to better quantify the magnitude and patterns of marine eukaryotic diversity, with an emphasis on taxonomic groups previously largely overlooked. We then discuss obstacles remaining to achieve a global understanding of marine eukaryotic diversity. In particular, we argue that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and suggest combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve our understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'.

  20. Texture-Aware Dense Image Matching Using Ternary Census Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Han; Chen, Chongtai; Wu, Bo; Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Qing; Ding, Yulin

    2016-06-01

    Textureless and geometric discontinuities are major problems in state-of-the-art dense image matching methods, as they can cause visually significant noise and the loss of sharp features. Binary census transform is one of the best matching cost methods but in textureless areas, where the intensity values are similar, it suffers from small random noises. Global optimization for disparity computation is inherently sensitive to parameter tuning in complex urban scenes, and must compromise between smoothness and discontinuities. The aim of this study is to provide a method to overcome these issues in dense image matching, by extending the industry proven Semi-Global Matching through 1) developing a ternary census transform, which takes three outputs in a single order comparison and encodes the results in two bits rather than one, and also 2) by using texture-information to self-tune the parameters, which both preserves sharp edges and enforces smoothness when necessary. Experimental results using various datasets from different platforms have shown that the visual qualities of the triangulated point clouds in urban areas can be largely improved by these proposed methods.

  1. The application of visual census on Mediterranean rocky habitats.

    PubMed

    De Girolamo, M; Mazzoldi, C

    2001-02-01

    In this study we examined the effect of: observer presence; observer speed; and the impact that multiple surveys had on the number of counted fish in a visual census survey in a typical Mediterranean rocky habitat. SCUBA observer presence had no influence on the number of fish per survey. An improvement in the methodology to estimate the number of fish was demonstrated by using two different speeds: slow speed for benthic species and higher speed for epibenthic ones. No differences in the number of fish per survey were found among successive surveys along the same transects, even with the shortest time interval used: 5 min. We also examined the ability of observers to estimate fish length during visual census by using wooden fish models. Significant differences in size estimations were found using two different estimation methods (i.e. size-classes estimates and continuous measures). Estimating fish length to a size class was more accurate in estimating size, while transformed size to calculate biomass from length estimates was more accurate using continuous measures.

  2. Declining average daily census. Part 2: Possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Weil, T P

    1986-01-01

    Several possible solutions are available to hospitals experiencing a declining average daily census, including: Closure of some U.S. hospitals; Joint ventures between physicians and hospitals; Development of integrated and coordinated medical-fiscal-management information systems; Improvements in the hospital's short-term marketing strategy; Reduction of the facility's internal operation expenses; Vertical more than horizontal diversification to develop a multilevel (acute through home care) regional health care system with an alternative health care payment system that is a joint venture with the medical staff(s); Acquisition or management by a not-for-profit or investor-owned multihospital system (emphasis on horizontal versus vertical integration). Many reasons exist for an institution to choose the solution of developing a regional multilevel health care system rather than being part of a large, geographically scattered, multihospital system. Geographic proximity, lenders' preferences, service integration, management recruitment, and local remedies to a declining census all favor the regional system. More answers lie in emphasizing the basics of health care regionalization and focusing on vertical integration, including a prepayment plan, rather than stressing large multihospital systems with institutions in several states or selling out to the investor-owned groups.

  3. Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The ocean constitutes one of the vastest and richest biomes on our planet. Most recent estimations, all based on indirect approaches, suggest that there are millions of marine eukaryotic species. Moreover, a large majority of these are small (less than 1 mm), cryptic and still unknown to science. However, this knowledge gap, caused by the lack of diagnostic morphological features in small organisms and the limited sampling of the global ocean, is currently being filled, thanks to new DNA-based approaches. The molecular technique of PCR amplification of homologous gene regions combined with high-throughput sequencing, routinely used to census unculturable prokaryotes, is now also being used to characterize whole communities of marine eukaryotes. Here, we review how this methodological advancement has helped to better quantify the magnitude and patterns of marine eukaryotic diversity, with an emphasis on taxonomic groups previously largely overlooked. We then discuss obstacles remaining to achieve a global understanding of marine eukaryotic diversity. In particular, we argue that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and suggest combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve our understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481783

  4. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  5. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  6. Potential for generation of natural gas in sediments of the convergent margin of the Aleutian Trench Area

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; von Huene, R.

    1983-01-01

    Sediment being subducted in the eastern part of the convergent margin of the Aleutian Trench has a potential to generate large volumes of natural gas, perhaps as much as 2.8 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of methane per km/sup 3/ of sediment, even though the content of organic carbon in the sediment is very low, averaging about 0.4%. This high potential for gas generation results primarily from the enormous volume of sediment undergoing subduction. Along the eastern Aleutian Arc-Trench system a 3-km thick sheet of sediment is being subducted at a rate of about 60 km per million years. We estimate, based on considerations of the stability requirements for gas hydrates observed as anomalous reflectors in some of our seismic records, and on one measurement in a deep well, that the geothermal gradient in this region is about 30/sup 0/C/km. Such a gradient suggests a temperature regime in which the maximum gas generation in the subducting sediment occurs beneath the upper slope. Thus the sediment of the upper slope, as opposed to that of the shelf and lower slope, could be the most prospective for gas accumulation if suitable reservoirs are present. 40 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Diagnosing Aleutian mink disease infection by a new fully automated ELISA or by counter current immunoelectrophoresis: a comparison of sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Dam-Tuxen, Rebekka; Dahl, Jan; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Dam-Tuxen, Thomas; Struve, Tina; Bruun, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Aleutian disease (AD) is a severe disease characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia causing multiple symptoms such as acute renal failure, arteritis, reduced reproductive performance and pneumonia in mink. AD is caused by the parvovirus Aleutian mink disease virus (ADV) and diagnosed primarily based on ADV serology sometimes supplemented by organ PCR analysis. In Denmark, approximately 3.5-4 million serum samples are tested every year for the presence of anti ADV antibodies as part of a national eradication program. The present study compares the diagnostic performance of the two most commonly used assays for serological screening for Aleutian disease: counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) and ELISA. In total, 3810 mink were sampled in doublets and analyzed by CIEP and a newly developed fully automated ELISA. The results show that the two assays have a comparable diagnostic performance with the ELISA having a higher sensitivity but lower specificity than the CIEP assay. The ELISA has been approved by the Danish authorities for diagnosing Aleutian disease in mink.

  8. Spatial Risk Assessments Based on Vector-Borne Disease Epidemiologic Data: Importance of Scale for West Nile Virus Disease in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Anna M.; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Delorey, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc; Nasci, Roger S.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Moore, Chester G.; Pape, W. John; Eisen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    We used epidemiologic data for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Colorado from 2003 and 2007 to determine 1) the degree to which estimates of vector-borne disease occurrence is influenced by spatial scale of data aggregation (county versus census tract), and 2) the extent of concordance between spatial risk patterns based on case counts versus incidence. Statistical analyses showed that county, compared with census tract, accounted for approximately 50% of the overall variance in WNV disease incidence, and approximately 33% for the subset of cases classified as West Nile neuroinvasive disease. These findings indicate that sub-county scale presentation provides valuable risk information for stakeholders. There was high concordance between spatial patterns of WNV disease incidence and case counts for census tract (83%) but not for county (50%) or zip code (31%). We discuss how these findings impact on practices to develop spatial epidemiologic data for vector-borne diseases and present data to stakeholders. PMID:20439980

  9. A GSC Global Genome Census (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos [DOE JGI

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses the notion of a global genome census at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

  10. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  11. [Information on the current population census and policy of China].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, K

    1991-07-01

    China conducted its 4th national population census in July 1990 for entire population. Its population count, numbering 1,133,682,501, was obtained in face-to-face interviews with people holding citizenship in the People's Republic of China and who resided on the mainland. Compared with the figures in the 1982 census, 6 minority nationalities have increased their populations by 100% over the past 8 years. This was due to the changes in historical policies and the special protection and privileges they have obtained since 1978. These groups may have 2 children and even 3 under certain special conditions through the practice of family planning. They may also marry 2 years earlier than the marriage age prescribed by law. These differences have come from the 1-child policy which has excluded minority nationalities since 1979. Secondly, marriages between the Han and the minority nationalities have increased. Their children are reported mostly as minority nationalities so that their numbers have been on the increase. The preferential policies for minority nationalities have raised their potential, social, and economic standing from one of being discriminated against to one of autonomy. Concrete examples are: relaxation of family planning guidelines; preferential treatment in admission to higher schools; preferential treatment for dormitory expenses and scholarship; advantages in getting jobs or positions of a cadre; and grant-in-aid. Thirdly, prior to 1978, minority nationalities were looked down upon and thus, they frequently concealed their origins and lived as the Han. Later, most of them officially admitted and reported their backgrounds, which resulted in an increase in numbers. There were many people who revised their nationalities since 1978 and most of them changed from the Han to minority nationalities. (author's modified)

  12. Stratigraphic framework of Holocene volcaniclastic deposits, Akutan Volcano, east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Akutan Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, but until recently little was known about its history and eruptive character. Following a brief but sustained period of intense seismic activity in March 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory began investigating the geology of the volcano and evaluating potential volcanic hazards that could affect residents of Akutan Island. During these studies new information was obtained about the Holocene eruptive history of the volcano on the basis of stratigraphic studies of volcaniclastic deposits and radiocarbon dating of associated buried soils and peat. A black, scoria-bearing, lapilli tephra, informally named the 'Akutan tephra,' is up to 2 m thick and is found over most of the island, primarily east of the volcano summit. Six radiocarbon ages on the humic fraction of soil A-horizons beneath the tephra indicate that the Akutan tephra was erupted approximately 1611 years B.P. At several locations the Akutan tephra is within a conformable stratigraphic sequence of pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits that are all part of the same eruptive sequence. The thickness, widespread distribution, and conformable stratigraphic association with overlying pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits indicate that the Akutan tephra likely records a major eruption of Akutan Volcano that may have formed the present summit caldera. Noncohesive lahar and pyroclastic-flow deposits that predate the Akutan tephra occur in the major valleys that head on the volcano and are evidence for six to eight earlier Holocene eruptions. These eruptions were strombolian to subplinian events that generated limited amounts of tephra and small pyroclastic flows that extended only a few kilometers from the vent. The pyroclastic flows melted snow and ice on the volcano flanks and formed lahars that traveled several kilometers down broad, formerly glaciated valleys, reaching the coast as thin, watery, hyperconcentrated flows or water floods. Slightly

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in benthic invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jewett, Stephen C

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of 13 radionuclides (137Cs, 129I, 60Co, 152Eu, 90Sr, 99Tc, 241Am, 238Pu, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U) were examined in seven species of invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska, using gamma spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and alpha spectroscopy. Amchitka Island was the site of three underground nuclear test (1965-1971), and we tested the null hypotheses that there were no differences in radionuclide concentrations between Amchitka and the reference site (Kiska) and there were no differences among species. The only radionuclides where composite samples were above the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) were 137Cs, 241Am, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. Green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus), giant chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri), plate limpets (Tectura scutum) and giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) were only tested for 137Cs; octopus was the only species with detectable levels of 137Cs (0.262 +/- 0.029 Bq/kg, wet weight). Only rock jingle (Pododesmus macroschisma), blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) were analyzed for the actinides. There were no interspecific differences in 241Am and 239,240Pu, and almost no samples above the MDA for 238Pu and 236U. Horse mussels had significantly higher concentrations of 234U (0.844 +/- 0.804 Bq/kg) and 238U (0.730 +/- 0.646) than the other species (both isotopes are naturally occurring). There were no differences in actinide concentrations between Amchitka and Kiska. In general, radionuclides in invertebrates from Amchitka were similar to those from uncontaminated sites in the Northern Hemisphere, and below those from the contaminated Irish Sea. There is a clear research need for authors to report the concentrations of radionuclides by species, rather than simply as 'shellfish', for comparative purposes in determining geographical patterns, understanding possible effects, and for

  14. Evolution and petroleum geology of Amlia and Amukta intra-arc summit basins, Aleutian Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Childs, J. R.; Scholl, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    Amlia and Amukta Basins are the largest of many intra-arc basins formed in late Cenozoic time along the crest of the Aleutian Arc. Both basins are grabens filled with 2-5 km of arc-derived sediment. A complex system of normal faults deformed the basinal strata. Although initial deposits of late Micocene age may be non-marine in origin, by early Pliocene time, most of the basinfill consisted of pelagic and hemipelagic debris and terrigenous turbidite deposits derived from wavebase and subaerial erosion of the arc's crestal areas. Late Cenozoic volcanism along the arc commenced during or shortly after initial subsidence and greatly contributed to active deposition in Amlia and Amukta Basins. Two groups of normal faults occur: major boundary faults common to both basins and 'intra-basin' faults that arise primarily from arc-parallel extension of the arc. The most significant boundary fault, Amlia-Amukta fault, is a south-dipping growth fault striking parallel to the trend of the arc. Displacement across this fault forms a large half-graben that is separated into the two depocentres of Amlia and Amukta Basins by the formation of a late Cenozoic volcanic centre, Seguam Island. Faults of the second group reflect regional deformation of the arc and offset the basement floor as well as the overlying basinal section. Intra-basin faults in Amlia Basin are predominantly aligned normal to the trend of the arc, thereby indicating arc-parallel extension. Those in Amukta basin are aligned in multiple orientations and probably indicate a more complex mechanism of faulting. Displacement across intra-basin faults is attributed to tectonic subsidence of the massif, aided by depositional loading within the basins. In addition, most intra-basin faults are listric and are associated with high growth rates. Although, the hydrocarbon potential of Amlia and Amukta Basins is difficult to assess based on existing data, regional considerations imply that an adequate thermal history conducive

  15. SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (< 7 km2) glaciers in rugged topography. The glaciers chosen for this study lie on Isanotski Volcano in Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images

  16. Prevalence of the Aleutian mink disease virus infection in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Farid, A H; Zillig, M L; Finley, G G; Smith, G C

    2012-10-01

    Despite many years of testing mink for serum antibodies against the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) and elimination of reactors, this virus has remained the number one disease threat for the mink industry in Nova Scotia (NS). The objective of this study was to analyze CIEP test results to determine the success of the AMDV-control strategy in NS. A total of 2,964,920 CIEP test results from 82 ranches, spanning an eight-year period between 1998 and 2005, were analyzed. This survey included approximately 60% of the active ranchers in the province. The number of ranchers that tested their animals was 42 in 1998, gradually increased to 58 in 2003 and then showed some decline. The overall proportion of CIEP-positive mink was 3.34%, and varied between 5.22% in 1999 and 1.35% in 2005. The proportion of infected ranches ranged between 23.8% in 1998 and 70.7% in 2003. The overall trend was for a smaller proportion of infected animals but a larger proportion of infected ranches during this time period. Of the 82 ranches, 24 (29.3%) had negative CIEP in all tests, 15 (18.3%) had CIEP positive animals in every year tested, and 43 (52.4%) had positive and negative results in different years, indicating that AMDV infection was widespread in NS. There were 23 infected ranches with 8 years of uninterrupted testing. These ranchers performed 75.8% of the total samples tested (2,246,711), implying that they have diligently been trying to eradicate the virus. Infection persisted on three of these ranches for the entire 8 year period, and only two of the ranches remained CIEP negative for longer than four years. The average percentage of CIEP-positive mink on these ranches was 2.2, which was lower than 6.35% for the 33 infected ranches with occasional testing, and 73.6% and 82.4% for two ranches that had never used the CIEP test, showing that persistent test-and-removal strategy has been effective in reducing the prevalence of infected animals

  17. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiewicz, M B; Alexandersen, S

    1997-01-01

    We examined replication of the autonomous parvovirus Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cycle arrest occurred exclusively in cells containing de novo-synthesized viral nonstructural (NS) proteins. Production of ADV NS proteins, indicative of ADV replication, was triggered during S-phase traverse. The NS+ cells that were generated during later parts of S phase did not undergo cytokinesis and formed a distinct population, termed population A. Formation of population A was not prevented by VM-26, indicating that these cells were arrested in late S or G2 phase. Cells in population A continued to support high-level ADV DNA replication and production of infectious virus after the normal S phase had ceased. A second, postmitotic, NS+ population (termed population B) arose in G0/G1, downstream of population A. Population B cells were unable to traverse S phase but did exhibit low-level DNA synthesis. Since the nature of this DNA synthesis was not examined, we cannot at present differentiate between G1 and early S arrest in population B. Cells that became NS+ during S phase entered population A, whereas population B cells apparently remained NS- during S phase and expressed high NS levels postmitosis in G0/G1. This suggested that population B resulted from leakage of cells with subthreshold levels of ADV products through the late S/G2 block and, consequently, that the binary pattern of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest may be governed merely by viral replication levels within a single S phase. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide fluorescence and bromodeoxyuridine uptake showed that population A cells sustained significantly higher levels of DNA replication than population B cells during the ADV-induced cell cycle arrest. Therefore, the type of ADV-induced cell

  18. Radionuclide concentrations in benthic invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jewett, Stephen C

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of 13 radionuclides (137Cs, 129I, 60Co, 152Eu, 90Sr, 99Tc, 241Am, 238Pu, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U) were examined in seven species of invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska, using gamma spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and alpha spectroscopy. Amchitka Island was the site of three underground nuclear test (1965-1971), and we tested the null hypotheses that there were no differences in radionuclide concentrations between Amchitka and the reference site (Kiska) and there were no differences among species. The only radionuclides where composite samples were above the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) were 137Cs, 241Am, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. Green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus), giant chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri), plate limpets (Tectura scutum) and giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) were only tested for 137Cs; octopus was the only species with detectable levels of 137Cs (0.262 +/- 0.029 Bq/kg, wet weight). Only rock jingle (Pododesmus macroschisma), blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) were analyzed for the actinides. There were no interspecific differences in 241Am and 239,240Pu, and almost no samples above the MDA for 238Pu and 236U. Horse mussels had significantly higher concentrations of 234U (0.844 +/- 0.804 Bq/kg) and 238U (0.730 +/- 0.646) than the other species (both isotopes are naturally occurring). There were no differences in actinide concentrations between Amchitka and Kiska. In general, radionuclides in invertebrates from Amchitka were similar to those from uncontaminated sites in the Northern Hemisphere, and below those from the contaminated Irish Sea. There is a clear research need for authors to report the concentrations of radionuclides by species, rather than simply as 'shellfish', for comparative purposes in determining geographical patterns, understanding possible effects, and for

  19. Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade-Range and Aleutian-Arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, Robert B.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, William C.; Ritchie, B.E.; Counce, Dale; Poreda, R.J.; Iven, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1998, we sampled gas discharges from ≤173°C fumaroles and springs at 12 quiescent but potentially restless volcanoes in the Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc (CRAA) including Mount Shasta, Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Augustine Volcano, Mount Griggs, Trident, Mount Mageik, Aniakchak Crater, Akutan, and Makushin. For each site, we collected and analyzed samples to characterize the chemical (H2O, CO2, H2S, N2, CH4, H2, HCl, HF, NH3, Ar, O2, He) and isotopic (δ13C of CO2, 3He/4He, 40Ar/36Ar, δ34S, δ13C of CH4, δ15N, and δD and δ18O of water) compositions of the gas discharges, and to create baseline data for comparison during future unrest. The chemical and isotopic data show that these gases contain a magmatic component that is heavily modified from scrubbing by deep hydrothermal (150° - 350°C) water (primary scrubbing) and shallow meteoric water (secondary scrubbing). The impact of scrubbing is most pronounced in gas discharges from bubbling springs; gases from boiling-point fumaroles and superheated vents show progressively less impact from scrubbing. The most effective strategies for detecting gas precursors to future CRAA eruptions are to measure periodically the emission rates of CO2 and SO2, which have low and high respective solubilities in water, and to monitor continuously CO2 concentrations in soils around volcanic vents. Timely resampling of fumaroles can augment the geochemical surveillance program by watching for chemical changes associated with drying of fumarolic pathways (all CRAA sites), increases in gas geothermometry temperatures (Mount Mageik, Trident, Mount Baker, Mount Shasta), changes in δ13C of CO2 affiliated with magma movement (all CRAA site), and increases in 3He/4He coupled with intrusion of new magma (Mount Rainier, Augustine Volcano, Makushin, Mount Shasta). Repose magmatic degassing may discharge substantial amounts of S and Cl into the edifices of Mount Baker and several other CRAA

  20. 78 FR 67103 - Request for Nominations of Members To Serve on the Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ...: Please submit nominations to Jeri Green, Chief, Office of External Engagement, U.S. Census Bureau, Room...-8609 or by email to jeri.green@census.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeri Green, Chief, Office..., demographic, economic, field operations, geographic, information technology, and statistics). 2. The...

  1. Official Statistics as Curriculum: Biopolitics and the United States "Census in Schools" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdayes, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    One way that people learn to recognize themselves as members of a nation-state is by participating in the ritual of a national census. In the United States acquaintance with such enumerations is cultivated during childhood by the federal government's "Census in Schools" (CIS) program, which distributes a variety of educational materials designed…

  2. Educational Attainment in South Africa: A View from the Census 1865-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Population censuses record considerable volumes of personal information, which when aggregated and tabulated provide significant insights into national societies. South African censuses have recorded levels of educational attainment since their inception in the mid-nineteenth century, initially measuring literacy and later the level of education…

  3. Colorado: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series, EC02-61A-CO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. This document contains statistical census data from 2002 for the state of Colorado. Statistical information is presented in table form, on the…

  4. School-Based Health Centers: National Census School Year 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strozer, Jan; Juszczak, Linda; Ammerman, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care's (NASBHC) 2007-2008 Census is the 11th request for data from school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986. The Census: (1) provides a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collects relevant trend data on demographics,…

  5. The Fifth Cell: Correlation Bias in U.S. Census Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Freedman, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a method for estimating the total national number of doubly missing people (missing from Census counts and adjusted counts as well) and their distribution by race and sex. Application to the 1990 U.S. Census yields an estimate of three million doubly-missing people. (SLD)

  6. Tiger Tales: A Presentation of the Automated Geographic Support Systems for the 1990 Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Gerald; And Others

    A description of the geographic planning and operation of the 1990 U.S. Census presented in cartoon form, this booklet carries the user through the stages of the development of the materials needed for census field enumeration activities. Maps were drawn for address reference files, and geographic reference files were created. These cartoons…

  7. 77 FR 50082 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the 2013... currently accepting stakeholder feedback in the form of content requests for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture... online at: http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/follow-ons or via mail to: USDA-NASS, Census Content Team,...

  8. Latino Questions on Race, Ethnicity, and Language at the Advent of the 2010 Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorzano, Ramon, Jr.; Ahlen, Sondra

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in the 1960s, U.S. Census Bureau data became central to achieving legislatively mandated social justice through nondiscriminatory elections and the fair allocation of federal funds. In recent years, the census has become increasingly politicized due in part to close elections and changing minority voter demographics. For Latinos, the…

  9. Sensitive resettable odometer aids roadside census of red-winged blackbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harke, D.T.; Stickley, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    A sensitive resettable odometer reading to 0.01 mile facilitated censusing breeding male redwinged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) from a vehicle. Territorial males along roadsides were 'marked' with recorded mileage readings rather than with landmarks of the types employed by Hewitt for censuses based on the Lincoln index principle. Sensitive odometers that can be reset have many potential uses in wildlife investigations.

  10. 77 FR 54887 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Census Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... an opportunity to investigate a variety of different strategies and methods aimed at increasing the... census. As part of this data collection, the Census Bureau will test different strategies for contacting... on attitudes regarding contact strategies, response modes, and other proposed methods of...

  11. We the People: Women and Men in the United States. Census 2000 Special Reports. CENSR-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spraggins, Renee E.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of women in the United States and highlights comparisons with men at the national level. It is part of the Census 2000 Special Reports series that presents several demographic, social, and economic characteristics collected from Census 2000. The data contained in this report are based on the samples of households…

  12. [Statistical Profiles and Characteristics of the American Indian Population: 1980 Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This packet includes six statistical profiles of American Indians and Alaska Natives based on the 1980 census, and a report on 1990 census plans for Native Americans. Three general profiles outline statistics on: (1) the American Indian population as a whole; (2) selected characteristics of American Indian men; and (3) selected characteristics of…

  13. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  14. 76 FR 3609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census in Schools and Partnership Program Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census in Schools and Partnership Program... other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information... at dHynek@doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or...

  15. 77 FR 4542 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Special Census Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U.S. Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Special Census Program AGENCY: U.S... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). DATES: To ensure...

  16. [The measurement of data quality in censuses of population and housing].

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The determination of data quality in population and housing censuses is discussed. Principal types of errors commonly found in census data are reviewed, and the parameters used to evaluate data quality are described. Various methods for measuring data quality are outlined and possible applications of the methods are illustrated using Canadian examples

  17. Using U.S. Census Data to Teach Mathematics for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Teachers can use census data to teach important mathematics content while addressing issues of social justice. The author describes activities that teach students to read and write large numbers, interpret census data and statistics, and apply algebraic concepts to describe U.S. population growth. Additional learning outcomes include applying…

  18. Experimental U.S. Census Bureau Race and Hispanic Origin Survey Questions: Reactions from Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Rodney L.; Fond, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    People of Hispanic origin, including monolingual Spanish speakers, have experienced difficulty identifying with a race category on U.S. demographic surveys. As part of a larger research effort by the U.S. Census Bureau to improve race and Hispanic origin questions for the 2020 Census, we tested experimental versions of race and Hispanic origin…

  19. 76 FR 13981 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census Covering the Construction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ..., United States Code, is the primary source of facts about the structure and functioning of the Nation's.... Abstract The Census Bureau is the preeminent collector and provider of timely, relevant and quality data about the people and economy of the United States. Economic data are the Census Bureau's primary...

  20. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  1. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  2. 2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation and stack associated with Building 3 to right. View looking SEE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 5, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  4. 13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE WEST ANCHORAGE. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. Fatal traumatic brain injury, West Virginia, 1989-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Adekoya, Nelson; Majumder, Ranjit

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe fatal cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among West Virginia residents. METHODS: The authors analyzed data from the National Center for Health Statistics Multiple Cause of Death tapes for the period 1989-1998. They compared West Virginia's annualized average TBI death rate with the rates of other states and with the rate among U.S. residents for the same period. U.S. Bureau of Census population estimates were used as denominators. RESULTS: A total of 4,416 TBI deaths occurred in West Virginia in 1989-1998, for an annual average death rate of 23.6 per 100,000 population. From 1989 to 1998, TBI death rates declined 5% (p=0.4042). Seventy-five percent (n=3,315) of fatalities occurred among men. Adults > or =65 years of age accounted for the highest percentage of fatal injuries (n=1,135). The leading external causes of fatal TBI were: firearm-related (39% of reported fatalities), motor vehicles-related (34%), and fall-related (10%). Firearm-related TBI became the leading cause of TBI fatalities in 1991, surpassing motor vehicle-related TBI. Seventy-five percent of firearm-related TBI deaths were suicides (n=1,302). West Virginia's TBI death rate (23.6 per 100,000) was higher than the national rate (20.6 per 100,000). In 23 states, the average TBI death rates over the 10-year period were higher than West Virginia's. Whereas modest declines in TBI death rates occurred for motor vehicle-related and firearm-related causes in West Virginia, a concomitant 38% increase occurred in the fall-related TBI death rate during the decade. CONCLUSION: Data presented in this report can be used to develop targeted prevention programs in West Virginia. PMID:15313112

  6. History counts: a comparative analysis of racial/color categorization in US and Brazilian censuses.

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, M

    2000-01-01

    Categories of race (ethnicity, color, or both) have appeared and continue to appear in the demographic censuses of numerous countries, including the United States and Brazil. Until recently, such categorization had largely escaped critical scrutiny, being viewed and treated as a technical procedure requiring little conceptual clarity or historical explanation. Recent political developments and methodological changes, in US censuses especially, have engendered a critical reexamination of both the comparative and the historical dimensions of categorization. The author presents a comparative analysis of the histories of racial/color categorization in American and Brazilian censuses and shows that racial (and color) categories have appeared in these censuses because of shifting ideas about race and the enduring power of these ideas as organizers of political, economic, and social life in both countries. These categories have not appeared simply as demographic markers. The author demonstrates that censuses are instruments at a state's disposal and are not simply detached registers of population and performance. PMID:11076243

  7. The impact of a major televised sporting event on emergency department census.

    PubMed

    Reich, N T; Moscati, R; Jehle, D; Ciotoli, M

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effect of a major televised sporting event, the Super Bowl, on emergency department (ED) census. Daily patient census figures for the month of January 1988-1992 were obtained. Individual shift census was divided by monthly mean census to compare relative volume. Census figures for 4 of the 5 Super Bowl days were significantly lower than the remaining 143 days studied. The day of the Super Bowl was the month's slowest shift for 3 of the 5 days. When the local team was a playoff participant, a stronger association was noted. The results demonstrate a significant decrease in ED utilization coinciding with the Super Bowl broadcast. Major televised events can significantly decrease ED volume, especially when local interest is present. Staffing changes may then be made accordingly.

  8. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  9. Slow Slip Events and rotation of the Peninsula block in Lower Cook Inlet of the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Freymueller, J.; McCaffrey, R.

    2015-12-01

    We identified a series of abrupt changes in GPS site motions observed in Lower Cook Inlet of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone in late 2004, early 2010 and late 2011. The site motions during each interval (1992-2004, 2004-2010 and post-2011) appear to be steady. The deformation rates for 1992-2004 and 2010-2011 are similar to each other, as are 2004-2010 and post-2011. This pattern of toggling between two deformation patterns is due to time-dependent slip on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface. We modeled slow slip events in the seismogenic zone using the software TDEFNODE to estimate the slip rate deficit distribution on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface. Then we applied three different measures of the significance of the velocity change to estimate their timing in ~2010 and ~2011. Based on the estimated dates of velocity changes, we divided the GPS time series into the four time periods. Then a weighted non-linear least-squares inversion was applied to estimate the angular velocity of the Peninsula block and estimate the plate coupling variation simultaneously using TDEFNODE (McCaffrey, 2009). Fixing the angular velocity of all the blocks in the block model, we estimated the slip deficit rate distribution on the Alaska thrust for the four time periods with two different limiting ranges of the locking fraction (phi): [-2, 1] and [0, 1]. Negative slip deficit rates identified in period 1 and period 3 fit the data significantly better, which indicate that slip rates are faster than plate convergence rates during these two time periods. And our results suggest that a slow slip event in Lower Cook Inlet lasted at least 9 years (given that our data begin in 1995) with a moment magnitude of Mw = 7.5. Another slow slip event in the same area lasted almost 2 years from the end of 2009 to the end of 2011, with a cumulative moment magnitude of Mw = 6.8. We conclude that slip rates appear to be relatively constant during the time periods with SSEs

  10. Time-Dependent Variations of Slow Slip Events in Lower Cook Inlet of the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Freymueller, J. T.; McCaffrey, R.

    2014-12-01

    We identfied a series of abrupt changes in GPS site motions observed in Lower Cook Inlet of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone in late 2004, early 2010 and late 2011. The site motions from 1995-2004, 2004-2010 and post-2011, however, appear to be steady. To first order, the deformation rates for 1995-2004 and 2010-2011 are similar to each other, as are 2004-2010 and post-2011. This pattrn of toggling between two deformation patterns is due to the time-dependent slip variations on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface. It is possible that a deeper part of the subduction interface had been suddenly locked between 2004 and 2010, causing additional interseismic strain accumulation, and we test this hypothesis. We model time-dependent variatins in this seismogenic zone using the software TDEFNODE to estimate the slip rate deficit distribution on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface along with block rotation of upper plate blocks. To do so, we first divided the GPS time series into four time periods: before 2004, 2004 to 2010, 2010-2011, and post-2011. We removed the ongoing postseismic deformation due to the 1964 earthquake fom these GPS velocity fields. We constructed an upper plate block model including three main blocks, Southern Alaska (SOAK), the Peninsula block and the Bering Plate to model the contributions from the secular tectonic motions of the upper plate. We modeled the subduction fault surface based on the Slab1.0 model for the subduction zone, with the slab extended to the east as Slab1.0 terminates the slab under Prince William Sound. We found 50~60 mm/yr slip rate deficit in the shallow part of the seismogenic zone, to depths of ~30km which we identify as the main asperity that ruptured in 1964 earthquake. The shape of the locked region under Lower Cook Inlet differs for each time period, with the locked region being wider in 2004-2010 and post-2011. In the near future we will use TDEFNODE to model the GPS time series directly to

  11. Evaluation of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for serodiagnosis of Aleutian mink disease virus infection in mink

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aleutian disease in mink is caused by infection with Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV). In Sweden, the infection most commonly causes classical Aleutian disease in which the immune system fails to neutralize the virus and the infection becomes persistent. Diagnosis of AMDV infection is based on serological methods that detect virus-specific antibodies. Traditionally counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has been the preferred method, but in order to enable automation interest has been paid to other antibody detecting systems. Recently, at least two different ELISA systems that detect antibodies to AMDV have been manufactured; one is based on an in vitro grown AMDV as antigen, and the other system is based on the AMDV capsid protein VP2 as antigen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the two ELISA systems for detection of antibodies to AMDV using CIEP as the gold standard. Results When employing the mean optical density of the samples from CIEP negative mink plus three standard deviations as cut-off value, the ELISA with the VP2 antigen had a sensitivity of 99.7% and a specificity of 98.3% compared to CIEP (n = 364). Analysis of samples with the AMDV-G antigen based ELISA employing an assay cut-off value based on the negative control samples, as suggested by the manufacturer, resulted in a sensitivity of 54.3% and a specificity of 93.2% with reference to CIEP as the gold standard (n = 359). When employing the mean optical density of the samples from CIEP negative mink plus three standard deviations as cut-off value, the AMDV-G ELISA had a sensitivity of 37.6% and a specificity of 98.3%. Conclusions The ELISA system based on VP2 antigen had high sensitivity and specificity, and was concluded to be an alternative to the CIEP as a diagnostic tool for AMDV antibodies. In contrast, the AMDV-G ELISA suffered from low sensitivity when compared to CIEP. PMID:24274663

  12. Dome growth at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Arc, quantified by time-series TerraSAR-X imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Teng; Poland, Michael; Lu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar imagery is widely used to study surface deformation induced by volcanic activity; however, it is rarely applied to quantify the evolution of lava domes, which is important for understanding hazards and magmatic system characteristics. We studied dome formation associated with eruptive activity at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Volcanic Arc, in 2011–2012 using TerraSAR-X imagery. Interferometry and offset tracking show no consistent deformation and only motion of the crater rim, suggesting that ascending magma may pass through a preexisting conduit system without causing appreciable surface deformation. Amplitude imagery has proven useful for quantifying rates of vertical and areal growth of the lava dome within the crater from formation to removal by explosive activity to rebirth. We expect that this approach can be applied at other volcanoes that host growing lava domes and where hazards are highly dependent on dome geometry and growth rates.

  13. Antibody-forming cells and serum hemolysin responses of pastel and sapphire mink inoculated with Aleutian disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J

    1973-11-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV.

  14. Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051

  15. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario.

  16. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario. PMID:24807350

  17. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Uttenthal, A

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus. PMID:1335756

  18. A Census of the Young Cluster IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Stauffer, John R.; Muench, A. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Lada, E. A.; Bouvier, J.; Lada, C. J.

    2003-08-01

    We present a new census of the stellar and substellar members of the young cluster IC 348. We have obtained images at I and Z for a 42'×28' field encompassing the cluster and have combined these measurements with previous optical and near-infrared photometry. From spectroscopy of candidate cluster members appearing in these data, we have identified 122 new members, 15 of which have spectral types of M6.5-M9, corresponding to masses of ~0.08-0.015 Msolar by recent evolutionary models. The latest census for IC 348 now contains a total of 288 members, 23 of which are later than M6 and thus are likely to be brown dwarfs. From an extinction-limited sample of members (AV<=4) for a 16'×14' field centered on the cluster, we construct an initial mass function (IMF) that is unbiased in mass and nearly complete for M/Msolar>=0.03 (<~M8). In logarithmic units where the Salpeter slope is 1.35, the mass function for IC 348 rises from high masses down to a solar mass, rises more slowly down to a maximum at 0.1-0.2 Msolar, and then declines into the substellar regime. In comparison, the similarly derived IMF for Taurus from Briceño et al. and Luhman et al. rises quickly to a peak near 0.8 Msolar and steadily declines to lower masses. The distinctive shapes of the IMFs in IC 348 and Taurus are reflected in the distributions of spectral types, which peak at M5 and K7, respectively. These data provide compelling, model-independent evidence for a significant variation of the IMF with star-forming conditions. Based on observations obtained at Keck Observatory, Steward Observatory, the MMT Observatory, and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

  19. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A; Bain, Robert E S; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A

    2016-01-01

    Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring. PMID:26986472

  20. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A; Bain, Robert E S; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A

    2016-01-01

    Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring.

  1. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Keith, Miles A.; Anthony, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (??15N) and carbon source (??13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of ?? polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of ?? PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high ?? PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of ?? PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p??? DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with ??15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of ?? PCBs and p,p??? DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of atmospheric

  2. Quaternary Sediment Accumulation in the Aleutian Trench: Implications for Dehydration Reaction Progress and Pore Pressure Development Offshore Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meridth, L. N.; Screaton, E.; Jaeger, J. M.; James, S. R.; Villaseñor, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment inputs to subduction zones impart a significant control on diagenetic reaction progress, fluid production and pore pressure development and thus affect hydrologic and tectonic behavior during subduction. Intensified glaciation following the mid-Pleistocene transition increased sediment flux to the Gulf of Alaska. Rapid sediment accumulation (>1 km/my) in the Aleutian Trench increases overburden and should accelerate dehydration of hydrous sedimentary components by elevating temperatures in the incoming sediment column. These processes have the potential to generate fluid overpressures in the mud-dominated, low permeability sediments deposited on the incoming plate, offshore SE Alaska. Mineralogical analyses on incoming sediments from Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 18 and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 show that both smectite and Opal-A are present as hydrous mineral phases. A 1-D numerical model was developed to track dehydration reaction progress and pore pressures in the incoming sediment column from the abyssal plain to the Aleutian Trench. Simulated temperatures in the incoming column increase due to the insulating effect of trench sediments. As a result, trench sedimentation causes smectite dehydration to begin and Opal-A dehydration to nearly reach completion at the deformation front. Simulated excess pore pressures in the proto-decollement zone increase from nearly hydrostatic to almost half of lithostatic due to the rapid deposition of trench sediments. The 1-D modeling results were incorporated into a 2-D model that follows the underthrust column at the deformation front into the subduction zone. Simulated results of the 2-D flow model illustrate the effects of lateral flow on pore pressure distribution following subduction.

  3. The Capsid Proteins of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus Activate Caspases and Are Specifically Cleaved during Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Chen, Aaron Yun; Best, Sonja M.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Pintel, David; Qiu, Jianming

    2010-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is currently the only known member of the genus Amdovirus in the family Parvoviridae. It is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. We have previously shown that a small protein with a molecular mass of approximately 26 kDa was present during AMDV infection and following transfection of capsid expression constructs (J. Qiu, F. Cheng, L. R. Burger, and D. Pintel, J. Virol. 80:654-662, 2006). In this study, we report that the capsid proteins were specifically cleaved at aspartic acid residue 420 (D420) during virus infection, resulting in the previously observed cleavage product. Mutation of a single amino acid residue at D420 abolished the specific cleavage. Expression of the capsid proteins alone in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells reproduced the cleavage of the capsid proteins in virus infection. More importantly, capsid protein expression alone induced active caspases, of which caspase-10 was the most active. Active caspases, in turn, cleaved capsid proteins in vivo. Our results also showed that active caspase-7 specifically cleaved capsid proteins at D420 in vitro. These results suggest that viral capsid proteins alone induce caspase activation, resulting in cleavage of capsid proteins. We also provide evidence that AMDV mutants resistant to caspase-mediated capsid cleavage increased virus production approximately 3- to 5-fold in CrFK cells compared to that produced from the parent virus AMDV-G at 37°C but not at 31.8°C. Collectively, our results indicate that caspase activity plays multiple roles in AMDV infection and that cleavage of the capsid proteins might have a role in regulating persistent infection of AMDV. PMID:20042496

  4. Identification of a Cell Surface Protein from Crandell Feline Kidney Cells That Specifically Binds Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James M.; Bloom, Marshall E.

    1999-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is the etiological agent of Aleutian disease of mink. The acute disease caused by ADV consists of permissive infection of alveolar type II cells that results in interstitial pneumonitis. The permissive infection is experimentally modeled in vitro by infecting Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells with a tissue culture-adapted isolate of ADV, ADV-G. ADV-G VP2 empty virions expressed in a recombinant baculovirus system were analyzed for the ability to bind to the surface of CrFK cells. Radiolabeled VP2 virions bound CrFK cells specifically, while they did not bind either Mus dunni or Spodoptera frugiperda cells, cells which are resistant to ADV infection. The binding to CrFK cells was competitively inhibited by VP2 virions but not by virions of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), another unenveloped virus similar in size to ADV. Furthermore, preincubation of CrFK cells with the VP2 virions blocked infection by ADV-G. The VP2 virions were used in a virus overlay protein binding assay to identify a single protein of approximately 67 kDa, named ABP (for ADV binding protein), that demonstrates specific binding of VP2 virions. Exogenously added VP2 virions were able to competitively inhibit the binding of labeled VP2 virions to ABP, while CCMV virions had no effect. Polyclonal antibodies raised against ABP reacted with ABP on the outer surface of CrFK cells and blocked infection of CrFK cells by ADV-G. In addition, VP2 virion attachment to CrFK cells was blocked when the VP2 virions were preincubated with partially purified ABP. Taken together, these results indicate that ABP is a cellular receptor for ADV. PMID:10196278

  5. Long-range Receiver Function Profile of Crustal and Mantle Discontinuities From the Aleutian Arc to Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieker, Kathrin; Rondenay, Stéphane; Sawade, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The Circum-Pacific belt, also called the Pacific Ring of Fire, is the most seismically active region on Earth. Multiple plate boundaries form a zone characterized by frequent volcanic eruptions and seismicity. While convergent plate boundaries such as the Peru-Chile trench dominate the Circum-Pacific belt, divergent and transform boundaries are present as well. The eastern section of the Circum-Pacific belt extends from the Aleutian arc, through the Cascadia subduction zone, San Andreas Fault, middle America trench and the Andean margin down to Tierra del Fuego. Due to the significant hazards posed by this tectonic activity, the region has been densely instrumented by thousands of seismic stations deployed across fifteen countries, over a distance of more than 15000 km. Various seismological studies, including receiver function analyses, have been carried out to investigate the crustal and mantle structure beneath local segments of the eastern Circum-Pacific belt (i.e., at ~100-500 km scale). However, to the best of our knowledge, no study to date has ever attempted to combine all available seismic data from the eastern Circum-Pacific belt to generate a continuous profile of seismic discontinuities extending from the Aleutians to Tierra del Fuego. Here, we use results from the "Global Imaging using Earthquake Records" (GLImER) P-wave receiver function database to create a long-range profile of crustal and upper mantle discontinuities across the entire eastern portion of the Circum-Pacific belt. We image intermittent crustal and mantle discontinuities along the profile, and examine them with regard to their behaviour and properties across transitions between different tectonic regimes.

  6. Dredged trachyte and basalt from kodiak seamount and the adjacent aleutian trench, alaska.

    PubMed

    Forbes, R B; Hoskin, C M

    1969-10-24

    Blocky fragments of aegirine-augite trachyte (with accompanying icerafted gravels.) were recovered from the upper slopes of Kodiak Seamount in several dredge hauls. An alkali basalt pillow segment was also dredged from a moatlike depression, at a depth of 5000 meters, near the west base of the seamount. These retrievals confirm the volcanic origin of Kodiak Seamount and further support the view of Engel, Engel, and Havens that the higher elevations of seamounts are composed of alkali basalts or related variants.

  7. 38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON WEST WALL AND OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  8. West side of the north and west wings of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of the north and west wings of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. West and south sides of the west wing of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West and south sides of the west wing of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. A digital map of Public-Use Microdata Areas in the 1990 U.S. census.

    PubMed

    Walters, W H

    1997-06-01

    "Public-Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) are the smallest geographic units for which many U.S. Census variables are reported. In particular, 1990 microdata records for households and individuals can be aggregated only by PUMA, metropolitan area, state, and region. The Census Bureau distributes maps of these PUMAs only on paper, however, and only for individual states. This note describes the construction of a national, digital base map of the PUMAs used in the 1990 U.S. Census microdata files (5% sample)."

  11. [The 1988 general census in light of the expected recommendations of the CMEA Permanent Statistical Commission].

    PubMed

    Zalewski, L

    1987-11-01

    The author describes a set of principles concerning census procedures agreed to by the countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. These include an agreement to conduct a decennial census at the end of each decade and close to the beginning of a year, and an agreed number of minimum and optimum components. Dates of future censuses include: Poland, 1988; USSR, 1989; Mongolia, 1989; Viet Nam, 1989; Romania, 1990; Hungary, 1990; Cuba, 1990; Czechoslovakia, 1990; German Democratic Republic, 1991; Yugoslavia, 1991; and Bulgaria, 2000.

  12. Pliocene planktic foraminifer census data from the North Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    PRISM Project Members

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of the climatic and oceanographic conditions of the Pliocene known as PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping). One of the major elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages to estimate seasurface temperatures and identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses (Dowsett, 1991; Dowsett and Poore, 1991; Dowsett et al., 1992; Dowsett et al., 1994). We have analyzed more than 900 samples from 19 core sites in the North Atlantic Basin (Fig. 1) resulting in a large volume of raw census data. These data are presented here together to facilitate comparison of North Atlantic faunal assemblages. Latitude, longitude, water depth, source of faunal data and source of data used to construct age model (or publication from which age model was taken) are provided for each locality in Table 1. All ages refer to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Counts of species tabulated in each sample are given in Tables 2-20. DSDP and ODP sample designations are abbreviated in Tables 2-20 as core-section, depth within section in centimeters (eg. 10-5, 34 = core 10, section 5, 34 cm below top of section 5).

  13. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    SciTech Connect

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  14. Census taking in the hat: FRW/CFT duality

    SciTech Connect

    Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard

    2009-10-15

    In this paper a holographic description of eternal inflation is developed. We focus on the description of an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe that results from a tunneling event in which a false vacuum with positive vacuum energy decays to a supersymmetric vacuum with vanishing cosmological constant. The observations of a 'census taker' in the final vacuum can be organized into a holographic dual conformal field theory that lives on the asymptotic boundary of space. We refer to this bulk-boundary correspondence as FRW/CFT duality. The dual conformal field theory (CFT) is a Euclidean two-dimensional theory that includes a Liouville 2D gravity sector describing geometric fluctuations of the boundary. The renormalization-group flow of the theory is richer than in the AdS/CFT correspondence, and generates two space-time dimensions--one spacelike and one timelike. We discuss a number of phenomena such as bubble collisions, and the Garriga, Guth Vilenkin 'persistence of memory', from the dual viewpoint.

  15. [IMSS in Numbers: the Census of Diabetic Patients, 2004].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    The census of diabetic patients at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social describes the state and level of control of biologic markers, such as glucose, BMI and blood pressure of all diabetic patients attending the family medicine units during 2004. The main results show that 2,334,340 diabetic patients visited the health units of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social with an average of 3.7 visits per year. Around 75% of the patients had their weight and height registered; 73%, their blood pressure, and only 28.8%, their glycemia level. One third of the patients (35.7%) had an unspecified diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and 91.3% had no complications reported. Of those with glycemia reported, 56.9% had a poor blood glucose control. Half of the diabetic patients were also diagnosed as hypertensive though 74% had good blood pressure control. The BMI reported that 40.4% were obese and 39.6% were overweight. All these data are important to measure the impact of different health interventions that point to a better control of diabetes at the IMSS.

  16. Census in a rural area of Ethiopia: methodology and results.

    PubMed

    Materia, E; Mehari, W; Mele, A; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Damen, H M; Basile, G; Kifle, T; Miuccio, G; Ferrigno, L

    1993-01-01

    A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic services were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary meetings and community health agents participated in the data collection process. A total of 64,714 people in 12,152 households were registered. The repeatability of age assessment was investigated by comparing the results from two villages with data obtained in a pilot study carried out 6 months earlier. The technical error was only 0.80 and 1.67 in the 0-5 and 6-15 age-groups, respectively. Three percent of the total population was under one year, less than previously estimated. This may, in part, be due to the family planning programme in the region. Eighteen percent of the households were headed by females. School attendance was less common among females and in the Oromo ethnic group. The availability of basic services, including safe water and basic sanitation supplies, was very poor in the area.

  17. Quantifying relative diver effects in underwater visual censuses.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Luke C; Goatley, Christopher H R; Tanner, Jennifer K; Bellwood, David R

    2011-01-01

    Diver-based Underwater Visual Censuses (UVCs), particularly transect-based surveys, are key tools in the study of coral reef fish ecology. These techniques, however, have inherent problems that make it difficult to collect accurate numerical data. One of these problems is the diver effect (defined as the reaction of fish to a diver). Although widely recognised, its effects have yet to be quantified and the extent of taxonomic variation remains to be determined. We therefore examined relative diver effects on a reef fish assemblage on the Great Barrier Reef. Using common UVC methods, the recorded abundance of seven reef fish groups were significantly affected by the ongoing presence of SCUBA divers. Overall, the diver effect resulted in a 52% decrease in the mean number of individuals recorded, with declines of up to 70% in individual families. Although the diver effect appears to be a significant problem, UVCs remain a useful approach for quantifying spatial and temporal variation in relative fish abundances, especially if using methods that minimise the exposure of fishes to divers. Fixed distance transects using tapes or lines deployed by a second diver (or GPS-calibrated timed swims) would appear to maximise fish counts and minimise diver effects.

  18. Quantifying Relative Diver Effects in Underwater Visual Censuses

    PubMed Central

    Dickens, Luke C.; Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Tanner, Jennifer K.; Bellwood, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Diver-based Underwater Visual Censuses (UVCs), particularly transect-based surveys, are key tools in the study of coral reef fish ecology. These techniques, however, have inherent problems that make it difficult to collect accurate numerical data. One of these problems is the diver effect (defined as the reaction of fish to a diver). Although widely recognised, its effects have yet to be quantified and the extent of taxonomic variation remains to be determined. We therefore examined relative diver effects on a reef fish assemblage on the Great Barrier Reef. Using common UVC methods, the recorded abundance of seven reef fish groups were significantly affected by the ongoing presence of SCUBA divers. Overall, the diver effect resulted in a 52% decrease in the mean number of individuals recorded, with declines of up to 70% in individual families. Although the diver effect appears to be a significant problem, UVCs remain a useful approach for quantifying spatial and temporal variation in relative fish abundances, especially if using methods that minimise the exposure of fishes to divers. Fixed distance transects using tapes or lines deployed by a second diver (or GPS-calibrated timed swims) would appear to maximise fish counts and minimise diver effects. PMID:21533039

  19. California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) census results, Spring 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.

    2016-09-19

    The 2016 census of southern sea otters Enhydra lutris nereis was conducted in May along the mainland coast of central California and in April at San Nicolas Island in southern California. The 3-year average of combined counts from the mainland range and San Nicolas Island was 3,272. This is the first year that the official index has exceeded 3,090, the Endangered Species Act delisting threshold suggested by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (the threshold would need to be exceeded for 3 consecutive years before delisting consideration). The 5-year average trend in abundance, including both the mainland range and San Nicolas Island populations, is positive at 3.2 percent per year; however, regional trends vary, with localized declines at the southern and northern peripheries of the mainland range. The lack of population growth in the range peripheries over recent years likely explains the cessation of range expansion, with the range limits remaining almost unchanged from the previous 5 years.

  20. A census of nuclear cyanobacterial recruits in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Makai, Szabolcs; Li, Xiao; Hussain, Javeed; Cui, Cuiju; Wang, Yuesheng; Chen, Mingjie; Yang, Zhaowan; Ma, Chuang; Guo, An-Yuan; Zhou, Yanhong; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2015-01-01

    The plastids and mitochondria of the eukaryotic cell are of endosymbiotic origin. These events occurred ~2 billion years ago and produced significant changes in the genomes of the host and the endosymbiont. Previous studies demonstrated that the invasion of land affected plastids and mitochondria differently and that the paths of mitochondrial integration differed between animals and plants. Other studies examined the reasons why a set of proteins remained encoded in the organelles and were not transferred to the nuclear genome. However, our understanding of the functional relations of the transferred genes is insufficient. In this paper, we report a high-throughput phylogenetic analysis to identify genes of cyanobacterial origin for plants of different levels of complexity: Arabidopsis thaliana, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Physcomitrella patens, Populus trichocarpa, Selaginella moellendorffii, Sorghum bicolor, Oryza sativa, and Ostreococcus tauri. Thus, a census of cyanobacterial gene recruits and a study of their function are presented to better understand the functional aspects of plastid symbiogenesis. From algae to angiosperms, the GO terms demonstrated a gradual expansion over functionally related genes in the nuclear genome, beginning with genes related to thylakoids and photosynthesis, followed by genes involved in metabolism, and finally with regulation-related genes, primarily in angiosperms. The results demonstrate that DNA is supplied to the nuclear genome on a permanent basis with no regard to function, and only what is needed is kept, which thereby expands on the GO space along the related genes.