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Sample records for aleutians west census

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Sigma) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordane cyclodienes, Sigmaother cyclodienes, and Sigmachlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by SigmaDDTs and Sigmachlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'DDE) composed 52 to 66% of SigmaDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but SigmaPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with delta15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of SigmaPCBs and p,p'DDE among species and locations. PMID:19374473

  2. East meets West: Differing views of the Aleutian Low's role in affecting Holocene productivity in the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, J. A.; Finney, B. P.; Harada, N.

    2012-12-01

    Modern instrumental and monitoring observations indicate strong multi-decadal changes and spatial heterogeneities affect climate and marine ecosystems in the North Pacific Ocean. Networks of high-resolution paleoclimate archives from this dynamic region are therefore required to describe changes prior to historical records. We present new decadally-resolved marine sediment core data from the Kuril Islands in the Sea of Okhotsk, together with sub-decadal data from the temperate fjords of the Gulf of Alaska (GoAK). These distant sites are located along the western (Kuril) and eastern (GoAK) boundaries of the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean, where micronutrient-rich coastal waters interact with North Pacific high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to drive highly productive marine ecosystems. In the Sea of Okhotsk, a notable increase in opal concentrations (a proxy for past siliceous primary productivity) occurs during the middle Holocene between ~5000 and 6000 yrs ago, while alkenone-based warm season SST proxies either decline or remain relatively constant. A similar middle Holocene increase in opal concentrations is also observed in the GoAK during an interval of declining warm season coastal SAT as inferred from pollen transfer functions [Heusser et al., 1985]. Declining summer solar insolation during the middle Holocene can explain the overall decline in warm-season SST in both the Sea of Okhotsk and the Gulf of Alaska. However, as the increase in opal likely reflects an improvement in North Pacific phytoplankton growing conditions during the spring/summer bloom season, then the opal increase seems unlikely to be related directly to summer solar insolation. We propose a middle Holocene intensification of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure cell and concomitant changes in North Pacific circulation may be responsible. In both regions, several potential mechanisms related to an intensified AL could result in greater productivity including: (i) increased advection

  3. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  4. Aleutian terranes from Nd isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, R. W.; Kay, S. M.; Rubenstone, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Nd isotope ratios substantiate the identification of oceanic crustal terranes within the continental crustal basement of the Aleutian island arc. The oceanic terranes are exposed in the westernmost Aleutians, but to the east, they are completely buried by isotopically distinct arc-volcanic rocks. Analogous oceanic terranes may be important components of the terrane collages that comprise the continents.

  5. Subsurface hydrographic structures and the temporal variations of Aleutian eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Rui; Yasuda, Ichiro; Komatsu, Kosei; Ishiyama, Hiromu; Ueno, Hiromichi; Onishi, Hiroji; Setou, Takeshi; Shimizu, Manabu

    2016-05-01

    Aleutian eddies are mesoscale anticyclonic eddies formed within the Alaskan Stream region between 180° meridian and 170° E south of the Aleutian Islands. They propagate southwestward after the isolation from the Alaskan Stream and pass through the Western Subarctic Gyre. We compared hydrographic structures of three Aleutian eddies observed during summer, west of 170° E (Eddy A) and east of 170° E (Eddies B and C). In each eddy, a subsurface dichothermal water (3.0-4.0 °C) was observed above a subsurface mesothermal water (4.0-4.5 °C). The minimum temperature in the dichothermal water at around a depth of 100 m was colder in Eddy A (2.8 °C) than in Eddies B and C (3.0-3.2 °C). This difference could be ascribed to wintertime cooling and influence of surrounding waters during spring warming period. The wintertime cooling makes the dichothermal water colder for eddies isolated from the Alaskan Stream region for a longer time. Particle-tracking experiments using re-analysis products from a data-assimilative eddy resolving ocean model suggested that the dichothermal water within Eddy A was cooled by the entrainment of surrounding colder water even during the spring warming period. The mesothermal waters at depth around 250 m demonstrated similarity among the observed eddies, and the maximum temperature in the mesothermal water within Eddy A (4.3 °C) was close to that of Eddies B and C (4.2 °C) in the in situ observations. These results indicated that the dichothermal water of Aleutian eddies modifies over time, whereas the mesothermal water maintains the original feature as they propagate southwestward from the Alaskan Stream region to the Western Subarctic Gyre.

  6. Significance of an Active Volcanic Front in the Far Western Aleutian Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Hoernle, K.

    2015-12-01

    Discovery of a volcanic front west of Buldir Volcano, the western-most emergent Aleutian volcano, demonstrates that the surface expression of Aleutian volcanism falls below sea level just west of 175.9° E longitude, but is otherwise continuous from mainland Alaska to Kamchatka. The newly discovered sites of western Aleutian seafloor volcanism are the Ingenstrem Depression, a 60 km-long structural depression just west of Buldir, and an unnamed area 300 km further west, referred to as the Western Cones. These locations fall along a volcanic front that stretches from Buldir to Piip Seamount near the Komandorsky Islands. Western Aleutian seafloor volcanic rocks include large quantities of high-silica andesite and dacite, which define a highly calc-alkaline igneous series and carry trace element signatures that are unmistakably subduction-related. This indicates that subducting oceanic lithosphere is present beneath the westernmost Aleutian arc. The rarity of earthquakes below depths of 200 km indicates that the subducting plate is unusually hot. Some seafloor volcanoes are 6-8 km wide at the base, and so are as large as many emergent Aleutian volcanoes. The seafloor volcanoes are submerged in water depths >3000 m because they sit on oceanic lithosphere of the Bering Sea. The volcanic front is thus displaced to the north of the ridge of arc crust that underlies the western Aleutian Islands. This displacement, which developed since approximately 6 Ma when volcanism was last active on the islands, must be a consequence of oblique convergence in a system where the subducting plate and large blocks of arc crust are both moving primarily in an arc-parallel sense. The result is a hot-slab system where low subduction rates probably limit advection of hot mantle to the subarc, and produce a relatively cool and perhaps stagnant mantle wedge. The oceanic setting and highly oblique subduction geometry also severely limit rates of sediment subduction, so the volcanic rocks, which

  7. Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan

    2010-08-29

    The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the

  8. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  9. Influence of the Amlia fracture zone on the evolution of the Aleutian Terrace forearc basin, central Aleutian subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Holly F.; Draut, Amy E.; Keranen, Katie M.; Scholl, David W.

    2012-01-01

    During Pliocene to Quaternary time, the central Aleutian forearc basin evolved in response to a combination of tectonic and climatic factors. Initially, along-trench transport of sediment and accretion of a frontal prism created the accommodation space to allow forearc basin deposition. Transport of sufficient sediment to overtop the bathymetrically high Amlia fracture zone and reach the central Aleutian arc began with glaciation of continental Alaska in the Pliocene. As the obliquely subducting Amlia fracture zone swept along the central Aleutian arc, it further affected the structural evolution of the forearc basins. The subduction of the Amlia fracture zone resulted in basin inversion and loss of accommodation space east of the migrating fracture zone. Conversely, west of Amlia fracture zone, accommodation space increased arcward of a large outer-arc high that formed, in part, by a thickening of arc basement. This difference in deformation is interpreted to be the result of a variation in interplate coupling across the Amlia fracture zone that was facilitated by increasing subduction obliquity, a change in orientation of the subducting Amlia fracture zone, and late Quaternary intensification of glaciation. The change in coupling is manifested by a possible tear in the subducting slab along the Amlia fracture zone. Differences in coupling across the Amlia fracture zone have important implications for the location of maximum slip during future great earthquakes. In addition, shaking during a great earthquake could trigger large mass failures of the summit platform, as evidenced by the presence of thick mass transport deposits of primarily Quaternary age that are found in the forearc basin west of the Amlia fracture zone.

  10. The world's biggest census.

    PubMed

    Xu, J H

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of the 3rd national population census, taken 18 years after "New China's" 2nd census, was to ascertain accurate population figures for China and the spatial population distribution in order to carry out socialist modernization, improve the people's material and cultural lives, and draw up a population policy and program in light of China's actual conditions. The census questionnaire contained 19 items, including 13 for individuals; and 6 items about the household. Preparations for the census began at the end of 1979 even though the census would not begin until July 1, 1982. The preparatory stage included: drafting the Census Statute; conducting pilot censuses in certain areas; rectifying household registration; installing computers; training computer technicians; convening national census work conference and similar conferences at various levels; selecting and training field census workers; printing census forms; and conducting widespread publicity. Pilot censuses were conducted at central, provincial, and county levels in order to draw useful experience for the nationwide census. A large number of census workers were selected and trained. Among them were about a million staff members working in census offices at various levels, 1000 computer technical personnel, 4000 data entry personnel, 100,000 coders, and 1 million census supervisors. 8 million cadres and volunteers at the grassroots actively helped conduct the census. Enumeration and verification was completed between July 1 and July 15, 1982. The postenumeration check on a sample basis showed only a net overcount of 0.15/1000 with an overcount of 0.71/1000 and an undercount of 0.56/1000. All levels of the government, the Communist Party, Trade Unions, and Women's Federations were mobilized to take part in the census, and all mass media were utilized. All census information will be finally tabulated by computers before the end of 1984, and census reports will be compiled and submitted to the State

  11. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

    2007-09-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

  12. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  13. 2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

  14. Census Bureau Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Data User Services Div.

    This document consists of nine individual booklets published by the Bureau of the Census. "Census Bureau Education Program: Update 1" consists of introductory material and describes the teaching resource series that are presented here and that make up the Bureau's education program. "Census Bureau Teaching Resource 1 - Congressional Redistricting"…

  15. [Population census, 1980].

    PubMed

    Suharto, S

    1980-12-01

    The author describes the types of data collected in the 1980 population census of Indonesia, considers the differences between the 1971 and 1980 censuses, and discusses which data and tables are scheduled to be published. A copy of the census questionnaire and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used are also included. PMID:12338729

  16. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

  17. The Pathogenesis of Aleutian Disease of Mink

    PubMed Central

    Porter, David D.; Larsen, Austen E.; Porter, Helen G.

    1973-01-01

    Mink chronically infected with Aleutian disease virus develop a severe necrotizing arteritis affecting muscular arteries. Acute, subacute and healing lesions may be found. Extracellular deposits of host immunoglobulin and complement and, after acid elution, viral antigen can be shown by immunofluorescence technics in areas of fibrinoid necrosis and between proliferating endothelial cells. No intracellular viral antigen was found, indicating that the virus probably does not replicate in vascular structures. The arteritis of Aleutian disease appears to be the result of immune complex deposits in vessel walls. Imagesp[341]-aFig 4p[343]-aFig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:4576760

  18. Tracking along-arc sediment inputs to the Aleutian arc using thallium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Yogodzinski, Gene; Prytulak, Julie; Plank, Terry; Kay, Suzanne M.; Kay, Robert W.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Owens, Jeremy D.; Auro, Maureen; Kading, Tristan

    2016-05-01

    Sediment transport from the subducted slab to the mantle wedge is an important process in understanding the chemical and physical conditions of arc magma generation. The Aleutian arc offers an excellent opportunity to study sediment transport processes because the subducted sediment flux varies systematically along strike (Kelemen et al., 2003) and many lavas exhibit unambiguous signatures of sediment addition to the sub-arc mantle (Morris et al., 1990). However, the exact sediment contribution to Aleutian lavas and how these sediments are transported from the slab to the surface are still debated. Thallium (Tl) isotope ratios have great potential to distinguish sediment fluxes in subduction zones because pelagic sediments and low-temperature altered oceanic crust are highly enriched in Tl and display heavy and light Tl isotope compositions, respectively, compared with the upper mantle and continental crust. Here, we investigate the Tl isotope composition of lavas covering almost the entire Aleutian arc a well as sediments outboard of both the eastern (DSDP Sites 178 and 183) and central (ODP Hole 886C) portions of the arc. Sediment Tl isotope compositions change systematically from lighter in the Eastern to heavier in the Central Aleutians reflecting a larger proportion of pelagic sediments when distal from the North American continent. Lavas in the Eastern and Central Aleutians mirror this systematic change to heavier Tl isotope compositions to the west, which shows that the subducted sediment composition is directly translated to the arc east of Kanaga Island. Moreover, quantitative mixing models of Tl and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes reveal that bulk sediment transfer of ∼0.6-1.0% by weight in the Eastern Aleutians and ∼0.2-0.6% by weight in the Central Aleutians can account for all four isotope systems. Bulk mixing models, however, require that fractionation of trace element ratios like Ce/Pb, Cs/Tl, and Sr/Nd in the Central and Eastern Aleutians occurs after

  19. Material culture across the Aleutian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Virginia L

    2010-12-01

    The material evidence from sites across the Aleutian Islands reflects colonization events, subsequent adaptations, and influxes of ideas and/or people from the east. The occurrence in the eastern Aleutians of bifacial technology around 7000 BP, of artifacts similar to the Arctic Small Tool tradition between 4000 and 3500 BP, and of slate and jet objects around 1000 BP reflects repeated surges of influence or movement of peoples from further east into the eastern end of the chain. In the central and western Aleutians, influence or perhaps colonization from east of the Aleutians is also marked by the occurrence of bifacial technology about 6500 BP and the appearance of slate artifacts after 1000 BP, suggesting the movement of ideas or people from further east. Basic trends across the archipelago include a decrease in formal chipped-stone tools, an increase in the use and the complexity of bone technology, and the increase in use and variety of ground-stone tools. In addition, increasing village site sizes and denser midden deposits are seen later in time throughout the archipelago. The similarity in sites and assemblages, albeit with regional variations, reflects trends that are seen across the chain and indicates that these island communities were not isolated from one another or from mainland Alaska. PMID:21417883

  20. Crustal recycling and the aleutian arc

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, R.W.; Kay, S.M. )

    1988-06-01

    Two types of crustal recycling transfer continental crust back into its mantle source. The first of these, upper crustal recycling, involves elements that have been fractionated by the hydrosphere-sediment system, and are subducted as a part of the oceanic crust. The subduction process (S-process) then fractionates these elements, and those not removed at shallow tectonic levels and as excess components of arc magmas are returned to the mantle. Newly determined trace element composition of Pacific oceanic sedimants are variable and mixing is necessary during the S-process, if sediment is to provide excess element in the ratios observed in Aleutian arc magmas. Only a small fraction of the total sediment subducted at the Aleutian trench is required to furnish the excess elements in Aleutian arc magmas. Ba and {sub 10}Be data indicate that this small fraction includes a contribution from the youngest subducted sediment. The second type of recycling, lower crustal recycling, involves crystal cumulates of both arc and oceanic crustal origin, and residues from crustal melting within arc crust. Unlike the silicic sediments, recycled lower crust is mafic to ultramafic in composition. Trace element analyses of xenoliths representing Aleutian arc lower crust are presented. Recycling by delamination of lower crust and attached mantle lithosphere may occur following basalt eclogite phase transformations that are facilitated by terrane suturing events that weld oceanic island arcs to the continents. The relative importance of upper and lower crustal recycling exerts a primary control on continental crustal composition.

  1. Insights Into Aleutian Volcanism from Insar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Dzurisin, D.

    2013-12-01

    With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has become an increasingly important technique for studying magma dynamics at volcanoes in remote regions, such as the Aleutian Islands. The spatial distribution of surface deformation derived from InSAR data enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to enhance the study of magmatic processes. To study Aleutian volcanism, we processed nearly 12,000 SAR images acquired by ERS-1, JERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat-1, Envisat, ALOS, and TerraSAR-X from the early 1990s to 2010. We combined these SAR images to produce about 25,000 interferograms, which we analyzed for evidence of surface deformation at most of the arc's Holocene volcanoes. Where surface displacements were sufficiently strong, we used analytical models to estimate the location, shape, and volume change of deformation sources. This paper summarizes deformation processes at Aleutian volcanoes observed with InSAR, including: (1) time-variant volcanic inflation and magmatic intrusion, (2) deformation preceding and accompanying seismic swarms , (3) persistent volcano-wide subsidence at calderas that last erupted tens of years ago, (4) episodic magma intrusion and associated tectonic stress release, (5) subsidence caused by a decrease in pore fluid pressure in active hydrothermal systems, (6) subsidence of surface lava and pyroclastic flows, and (7) a lack of deformation at some volcanoes with recent eruptions, where deformation might be expected. Among the inferred mechanisms are magma accumulation in and withdrawal from crustal magma reservoirs, pressurization/depressurization of hydrothermal systems, and thermo-elastic contraction of young lava flows. Our work demonstrates that deformation patterns and associated magma supply mechanisms at Aleutian volcanoes are diverse and vary in both space and time. By combining InSAR results with information from the geologic record, accounts of historical

  2. Nigerian census surprises experts.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1992-06-01

    In 1989, Nigeria set up the independent National Population Commission (NPC) to undertake a long awaited, free of political tampering census. The head of the NPC separated the country into 7 census areas. Someone with no natal or marital connection to the area headed each area. The NPC followed current guidelines on conducting a census and held pretests and a rehearsal. It hired about 800,000 enumerators. Finally, in 3 days in November 1991, they collected census data from households where people were instructed to remain between 6-18 o'clock. This request along with other points helped to depoliticize this census. For example, population size would no longer determine distribution of government expenditures. Further the census questionnaire did not contain any questions to politicized topics mainly ethnic group, language, or religion. The results of the census revealed that population size was actually 88.5 million instead of the 1991 population estimates of 112-123 million. Lawmakers and leaders in several states have already called for recounts. In the past, census counts were inflated to increase revenue and due to ethnic conflict. Past population estimates have been based on the 1963 census which, despite its questionable reliability, was deemed more accurate than that of 1973. The 1963 count was officially 56 million, but the UN Demographic Yearbook reported it to be 46 million. Yet, now that the results of the much more reliable 1991 census are known, even 46 million was probably too high. The 1991 count indicated that the 1963 count was more likely between 36-41 million which was quite compatible with the 1953 count. Some population specialists fear that this much smaller population size will result in the government and people downplaying population policies and family planning. Indeed 1 political leader already told men to marry more wives and have more children. Yet the population may reach 120 million by 2000 at its current 3% rate of natural increase

  3. Parsing Aleutian Arc Magma Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The first-order subdivision of Aleutian arc magma compositions is based on SiO2, and the second-order subdivision is usually based on the change of FeOt/MgO as a function of SiO2, resulting in the additional twofold subdivision into (TH) and calcalkaline (CA) magmas. However, additional robust compositional variations exist. The two most important of these are (1) variation of the calcium number [Ca#; Ca/(Na+Ca)] as a function of SiO2, and (2) the Rate of Incompatible Trace-element Enrichment (RITE) at individual volcanic centers. Additionally, the data show that the low FeOt/MgO of CA andesite and dacite is more controlled by MgO excess than FeOt depletion. The Ca# of andesites and dacites is strongly bimodal. The low-Ca# group is "calc-alkalic", while the high-Ca# group is "calcic", using Peacock (1931) criteria. A continuum of Ca#s exists, but lavas intermediate between high-Ca# and low-Ca# are much less abundant. Ca#s merge below about 55% SiO2, and have a simple normal distribution. RITE, with rare but important exceptions, is generally constant at the temporal and spatial scale of a single volcano. Among high-RITE magmas LILE, LREE, HFSE, and Th increase ~3.5-fold, and HREE increase ~2.5-fold from basalt or basaltic-andesite through andesite to dacite. There is no strong indication that RITE is silica-dependant. High-RITE magmas develop a strong negative Eu anomaly, and are qualitatively compatible with an origin primarily involving fractionation of plagioclase-dominated mineral assemblages. Low-RITE magmas, in contrast, have nearly invariant REE and HFSE, and LILE and Th increase merely 1.5-fold over the same silica range. Low-RITE magmas are not compatible with fractionation of a plagioclase-dominant mineral assemblage. Alternative qualitatively plausible explanations (needing rigorous evaluation) include fractionation of an ultramafic mineral assemblage (Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic bodies may be a model; see USGS Prof Paper 1564); that low-RITE basaltic

  4. QUICK FACTS (CENSUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quick, easy access to facts about people, business, and geography. QuickFacts tables are summary profiles showing frequently requested data items from various Census Bureau programs. Profiles are available at the national, state, and county level.

  5. Review of crustal seismicity in the Aleutian Arc and implications for arc deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, Natalia A.; Kozyreva, Natalia P.; Hansen, Roger A.

    2012-02-01

    Central and eastern Aleutian Arc is characterized by oblique convergence between the subducting Pacific and overriding Bering Plates. This results in westward arc translation and formation of rotating crustal blocks in the forearc. In 2006-2010 several moderate, shallow crustal earthquakes (up to magnitude 6.7) occurred in the region. These events are located about 150 km away from the trench, on the volcanic axis, and have either strike-slip (west of 174°W) or normal (east of 174°W) faulting mechanisms. We improve aftershock locations by applying precise relocation methods to aid in identifying preferred fault planes. We also review similar earthquakes that occurred prior to 2006. For the central Aleutian Arc we conclude that, while some of these events occurred along the boundaries of the rotating blocks, the majority are left-lateral strike-slip events on NW- to N-oriented fault planes in the unrotated Bering massif. These manifest Riedel shearing in response slip partitioning due to the oblique convergence. Normal faulting events in eastern Aleutian Arc reflect along-arc extension.

  6. Lithium Isotopic Composition of Aleutian Arc Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Park, Y.; Liu, X.; Kay, S. M.; Kay, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    The lithium isotopic compositions of inputs to subduction zones can be highly variable. For example, altered oceanic crust is isotopically heavy (δ7Li = 4 to 22, Chan et al., 1996; Bouman et al., 2004) due to uptake of seawater Li (32). Sea floor sediments can have highly variable compositions, ranging from isotopically heavy pelagic sediments (6 to 14) to isotopically light terrigneous clays (-1.5 to 5), derived from highly weathered continental crust (Chan et al., 2006). Despite this variability in inputs, arc outputs (magmatic rocks) typically have mantle-like δ7Li (e.g., 2 to 6; Tomascak et al., 2002; Walker et al., 2009). To explore the behavior of lithium and its isotopes in arcs, we have analyzed [Li] and δ7Li in 48 lavas and plutons from the Aleutian island arc, which span the temporal (0 to 38 Ma), geographical (165-184oW) and compositional variations (SiO2 = 46-70 wt.%) seen in this arc. Previous studies have indicated a systematic geographic change in lava chemistry related to changing sediment composition along the arc (terrigneous in the east, pelagic in the west, e.g., Kay and Kay, 1994; Yogodinski et al., 2010), as well as temporal changes that may also reflect changes in sedimentary input (Kay and Kay, 1994), and we wished to determine if Li isotopes also reflect such changes. Lithium concentration [Li] shows a generally positive correlation with SiO2, consistent with the expected incompatible behavior of Li during magmatic differentiation. Intrusive rocks (all from the Adak region) show more scatter than lavas on this plot, suggesting the influence of cumulate processes. The δ7Li of the rocks span an immense range from -1 to +29, well outside the values considered typical for the MORB-source mantle (e.g., 2-6). However, the majority of the samples (28 out of 48) have δ7Li falling within the range of typical mantle values. There is a general tendency for the lavas (all but one are <2 Ma) to have slightly lower δ7Li than intrusions (which range

  7. 1980 breeding bird censuses

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.

  8. Transpressional Strain Partitioning and the Compatibility of GPS Velocities and Earthquakes Focal Mechanisms in the Aleutian Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, E. V.; Oldow, J. S.; Lewis, D. S.; Hans, A.

    2002-12-01

    Oblique plate convergence is commonly partitioned into boundary normal and parallel components resulting in displacement of the frontal portion of the overriding plate with respect to the backarc region along arc-parallel strike-slip faults. In the Aleutian Islands, the east to west increase in relative plate motion between the North American and Pacific plates from 65 mm/yr to 75 mm/yr is accompanied by a change from normal convergence to boundary parallel displacement. The convergence obliquity increases from near zero to ~80 degrees along strike together with an observed increase in velocities based on GPS measurements from 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2000. GPS velocities have a strong arc-parallel orientation and systematically increase around the curved arc from 4 mm/yr in the east (Unalaska), to 7-10 mm/yr in the center (Atka and Adak), and 25-31 mm/yr in the west (Shemya and Attu). In all cases, GPS velocities record a small arc-normal component of displacement. The orientation of the incremental shortening axis derived from earthquake focal mechanisms on the Aleutian megathrust has an obliquity that varies systematically from zero (normal to the plate boundary) in the east to ~35 degrees in the west. The variation in incremental shortening axes, however, does not document displacement field partitioning but rather is a consequence of transpressional nonplane strain. Existence of displacement partitioning can only be assessed by direct measurement. Unfortunately, GPS velocities record permanent and recoverable strain, necessitating determination of the elastic strain component in the velocity field. The incremental shortening axis related to megathrust deformation constrains the azimuth of the elastic component of the GPS velocity field and yields minimum arc-parallel displacement components of 4 mm/yr in the east, 5-6 mm/yr in the central Aleutian chain, and 22-27 mm/yr in the west. GPS velocities along the Aleutian chain record a lateral variation in

  9. Strain Accommodation Along an Oblique Subduction Zone: Integrating Paleomagnetic Data and Stress Patterns in the Central Aleutian Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutikov, L.; Reynolds, J. R.; Stone, D. B.

    2005-12-01

    Present day motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate shifts along the Aleutian arc from normal convergence in the east to transform motion in the west. Oblique subduction, partitioned into an arc-normal component and an arc-parallel component, creates a spatially complex pattern of deformation in the overriding plate. Strain partitioning results in tectonic segmentation of the forearc region, caused by increasing obliquity of plate convergence and apparently characterized by clockwise rotation and westward translation of discrete blocks in the central and western Aleutian arc [e.g., Geist et al., Tectonics 7, 327-341, 1988]. Archived cores collected from islands in the central Aleutian arc for previous paleomagnetic studies are being remeasured and reanalyzed using modern thermal demagnetization techniques that were not available at the time of collection. These new measurements indicate counterclockwise rotation or less significant clockwise rotations than those predicted by the block rotation model. Paleomagnetic results are presented for Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the central Aleutians. Results range from no statistically significant rotation in young intrusives, to a number of paleomagnetic vectors in the Finger Bay volcanics (~55 Ma) that suggest clockwise rotation since the time of original magnetization. Paleomagnetic results are combined with analyses of seafloor lineations in high-resolution multibeam sonar data collected in 2003 and 2004 of representative sites between 173W and 179E along the central Aleutian arc. Major fault lineations and joint patterns observed in the bathymetry data are analyzed to estimate the direction of maximum horizontal stress. Lineations in rocks of different stratigraphic ages and paleomagnetic results are being compared with 0-5Ma regional stress patterns [Scholl et al., 1989] to constrain the style and timing of deformation.

  10. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D.

    1995-12-31

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m{sup 3} of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations.

  11. Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved tsunami deposits and tsunami modeling to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By modeling various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not tsunamis that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple tsunamis in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of tsunami inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 tsunami, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if tsunami inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we modeled the 1957 tsunami using GeoCLAW, a numerical model that simulates tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the tsunami source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. Model results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic

  12. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  13. Census '80 Projects for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Data User Services Div.

    This workbook contains exercises for use with college students to teach them about the use of census data and to help them acquire census related skills. The workbook supplements "Census '80: Continuing the Factfinder Tradition," an undergraduate textbook published in early 1980. The volume is divided into two parts. The first provides an overview…

  14. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA FOR CENSUS 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include ...

  15. Massive edifice failure at Aleutian arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, M.L.; White, S.M.; Scholl, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    Along the 450-km-long stretch of the Aleutian volcanic arc from Great Sitkin to Kiska Islands, edifice failure and submarine debris-avalanche deposition have occurred at seven of ten Quaternary volcanic centers. Reconnaissance geologic studies have identified subaerial evidence for large-scale prehistoric collapse events at five of the centers (Great Sitkin, Kanaga, Tanaga, Gareloi, and Segula). Side-scan sonar data collected in the 1980s by GLORIA surveys reveal a hummocky seafloor fabric north of several islands, notably Great Sitkin, Kanaga, Bobrof, Gareloi, Segula, and Kiska, suggestive of landslide debris. Simrad EM300 multibeam sonar data, acquired in 2005, show that these areas consist of discrete large blocks strewn across the seafloor, supporting the landslide interpretation from the GLORIA data. A debris-avalanche deposit north of Kiska Island (177.6?? E, 52.1?? N) was fully mapped by EM300 multibeam revealing a hummocky surface that extends 40??km from the north flank of the volcano and covers an area of ??? 380??km2. A 24-channel seismic reflection profile across the longitudinal axis of the deposit reveals a several hundred-meter-thick chaotic unit that appears to have incised into well-bedded sediment, with only a few tens of meters of surface relief. Edifice failures include thin-skinned, narrow, Stromboli-style collapse as well as Bezymianny-style collapse accompanied by an explosive eruption, but many of the events appear to have been deep-seated, removing much of an edifice and depositing huge amounts of debris on the sea floor. Based on the absence of large pyroclastic sheets on the islands, this latter type of collapse was not accompanied by large eruptions, and may have been driven by gravity failure instead of magmatic injection. Young volcanoes in the central and western portions of the arc (177?? E to 175?? W) are located atop the northern edge of the ??? 4000-m-high Aleutian ridge. The position of the Quaternary stratocones relative to the

  16. THE EXTENT OF SEA FLOOR VOLCANISM AND NATURE OF PRIMITIVE MAGMAS IN THE WESTERN ALEUTIANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Turka, J.; Portnyagin, M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Vervoort, J. D.; Sims, K. W.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2009-12-01

    Results of the 2005 Western Aleutian Volcano Expedition (WAVE) and the June 2009 cruise of the German-Russian KALMAR project (Kamchatka-Aleutian Margin) include the discovery of seafloor volcanism at the Ingenstrem Depression and at unnamed seamounts located 300 km west of Buldir Island, the westernmost emergent volcano in the Aleutians. The newly discovered features fall on a volcanic line connecting Buldir and other emergent volcanoes to Piip Seamount, which is located in the far west. These discoveries suggest that the surface expression of Aleutian volcanism slips below sea level at 175°E, but is otherwise continuous from 170°W to 167°E. Geochemical results from the Ingenstrem Depression (60 km west of Buldir) define two compositional groups, which provide insight into the nature of primitive Aleutian magmatism. Low-Sr lavas (<700 ppm Sr) are basalts and andesites with moderately enriched trace element patterns (La/Yb 4-8, Sr/Y<30) and relatively radiogenic Sr (87/86=0.7031-0.7033), typical of IAB. High-Sr lavas (>700 ppm) are plagioclase and hornblende-phyric andesites and dacites with fractionated trace element patterns (Sr/Y>50) and low Y (<12 ppm) and HREE. Sr isotopes for all lavas are inversely correlated with Sr/Y and SiO2, so the most felsic samples (65-67% SiO2), which have the highest Sr abundances and most fractionated trace element patterns (Sr/Y>120) are also the most isotopically depleted (87/86<0.7028). Major and trace elements are well correlated with isotopes defining primitive end-members at 87/86<0.7027 (high-Sr), and >0.7032 (low Sr). The narrow range for Nd isotopes (8.5-9.5 epsNd) suggests that the main source of Sr and Nd may be seawater-altered subducted oceanic crust; however, oxygen isotopes on olivine and hornblende separates are similar to MORB for both groups (delta18O=5.1-5.6 per-mil, olivine-equ). Available data do not identify a high-Sr lava with whole-rock Mg# and olivine phenocryst compositions appropriate for equilibration

  17. Dispersal and behavior of pacific halibut hippoglossus stenolepis in the bering sea and Aleutian islands region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, A.C.; Loher, T.; Norcross, B.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, it is assumed that eastern Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis belong to a single, fully mixed population extending from California through the Bering Sea, in which adult halibut disperse randomly throughout their range during their lifetime. However, we hypothesize that hali but dispersal is more complex than currently assumed and is not spatially random. To test this hypo thesis, we studied the seasonal dispersal and behavior of Pacific halibut in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). Pop-up Archival Transmitting tags attached to halibut (82 to 154 cm fork length) during the summer provided no evidence that individuals moved out of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region into the Gulf of Alaska during the mid-winter spawning season, supporting the concept that this region contains a separate spawning group of adult halibut. There was evidence for geographically localized groups of halibut along the Aleutian Island chain, as all of the individuals tagged there displayed residency, with their movements possibly impeded by tidal currents in the passes between islands. Mid-winter aggregation areas of halibut are assumed to be spawning grounds, of which 2 were previously unidentified and extend the species' presumed spawning range ~1000 km west and ~600 km north of the nearest documented spawning area. If there are indeed independent spawning groups of Pacific halibut in the BSAI, their dynamics may vary sufficiently from those of the Gulf of Alaska, so that specifically accounting for their relative segregation and unique dynamics within the larger population model will be necessary for correctly predicting how these components may respond to fishing pressure and changing environmental conditions.?? Inter-Research 2011.

  18. 76 FR 3089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands Crab Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  19. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris along the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak and Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Erica N.; Piatt, John F.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Nelson, S. Kim; Williams, Jeffrey C.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is adapted for life in glacial-marine ecosystems, being concentrated in the belt of glaciated fjords in the northern Gulf of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Cook Inlet. Most of the remaining birds are scattered along coasts of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, where they reside in protected bays and inlets, often in proximity to remnant glaciers or recently deglaciated landscapes. We summarize existing information on Kittlitz's Murrelet in this mainly unglaciated region, extending from Kodiak Island in the east to the Near Islands in the west. From recent surveys, we estimated that ~2400 Kittlitz's Murrelets were found in several large embayments along the Alaska Peninsula, where adjacent ice fields feed silt-laden water into the bays. On Kodiak Island, where only remnants of ice remain today, observations of Kittlitz's Murrelets at sea were uncommon. The species has been observed historically around the entire Kodiak Archipelago, however, and dozens of nest sites were found in recent years. We found Kittlitz's Murrelets at only a few islands in the Aleutian chain, notably those with long complex shorelines, high mountains and remnant glaciers. The largest population (~1600 birds) of Kittlitz's Murrelet outside the Gulf of Alaska was found at Unalaska Island, which also supports the greatest concentration of glacial ice in the Aleutian Islands. Significant populations were found at Atka (~1100 birds), Attu (~800) and Adak (~200) islands. Smaller numbers have been reported from Unimak, Umnak, Amlia, Kanaga, Tanaga, Kiska islands, and Agattu Island, where dozens of nest sites have been located in recent years. Most of those islands have not been thoroughly surveyed, and significant pockets of Kittlitz's Murrelets may yet be discovered. Our estimate of ~6000 Kittlitz's Murrelets along the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands is also likely to be conservative because of the survey protocols we employed (i.e. early

  20. 2000 CENSUS URBAN AREA/URBAN CLUSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the U.S. Census Bureau. ZCTA is a trademark of the U.S. Census Bureau. The UA Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geo...

  1. 76 FR 14375 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department...) is giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The Committee will... appointed by the Director, U.S. Census Bureau. The Committee provides scientific and technical expertise,...

  2. 78 FR 49725 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of... giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The C-SAC will meet in a... adjustments. DATES: September 19 and 20, 2013. On September 19, the Census Scientific Advisory...

  3. 76 FR 54197 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department...) is giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The Committee will...: Members of the C-SAC are appointed by the Director, U.S. Census Bureau. The Committee provides...

  4. 77 FR 52680 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of... giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The Committee will...-SAC are appointed by the Director, U.S. Census Bureau. The Committee provides scientific and...

  5. 75 FR 16078 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of... giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The Committee will... appointed by the Director, U.S. Census Bureau. The Committee provides scientific and technical expertise,...

  6. 77 FR 12799 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Bureau of the Census Census Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of... giving notice of a meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (C-SAC). The Committee will... appointed by the Director, U.S. Census Bureau. The Committee provides scientific and technical expertise,...

  7. 78 FR 57128 - Census Advisory Committees; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Census Bureau Census Advisory Committees; Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) is giving notice of a meeting, the National Advisory Committee on Racial, Ethnic, and Other Populations (NAC). The...

  8. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose. This section's purpose is to implement the... Fishery Management Plan for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs pursuant to § 679.2...

  9. Evidence for a Great Aleutian Paleotsunami on Kaua`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R.; Bai, Y.; Burney, D. A.; Cheung, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands location amid the Pacific Ocean is threatened by tsunamis from great earthquakes in nearly all directions. Historical great earthquakes Mw>8.5 in the last 100 years have produced large inundations and loss of life in the Islands, but have not accounted for a substantial (>100 m^3) paleotsunami deposit in the Makauwahi sinkhole at Maha`ulepu on the Island of Kaua`i. High-resolution, digital elevation models of bathymetry and topography have been used in conjunction with a non-linear, hydrostatic tsunami model to simulate inundations from giant earthquakes in the Aleutian Islands and elsewhere to estimate the extent of tsunami threats to the State of Hawaii. We model the inundation of the sinkhole by an earthquake with a minimum moment-magnitude of Mw 9.2 located within the eastern Aleutians, where the tsunami energy is focused toward Hawaii. An alternative hypothesis wherein the deposit entered through a small cave entrance is not consistent with fine speleothems, intact in the cave, that pre-date the deposit. The results indicate that a giant earthquake in the eastern Aleutian Islands circa 1425-1665 AD, located between the source regions of the 1946 and 1957 great tsunamigenic earthquakes, generated a tsunami in Hawaii much larger than the historical record. A tsunami deposit in the Aleutians dated circa ~1550 AD is consistent with this eastern Aleutian source region.

  10. Characterization of Aleutian disease virus as a parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1980-01-01

    We characterized a strain of Aleutian disease virus adapted to growth in Crandall feline kidney cells at 31.8 degrees C. When purified from infected cells, Aleutian disease virus had a density in CsCl of 1.42 to 1.44 g/ml and was 24 to 26 nm in diameter. [3H]thymidine could be incorporated into the viral genome, and the viral DNA was then studied. In alkaline sucrose gradients, Aleutian disease virus DNA was a single species that cosedimented at 15.5S with single-stranded DNA from adeno-associated virus. When the DNA was analyzed on neutral sucrose gradients, a single species was again observed, which sedimented at 21S and was clearly distinct from 16S duplex adeno-associated virus DNA. A similar result was obtained even after incubation under annealing conditions, implying that the bulk of Aleutian disease virus virions contained a single non-complementary strand with a molecular weight of about 1.4 X 10(6). In addition, two major virus-associated polypeptides with molecular weights of 89,100 and 77,600 were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of virus purified from infected cultures labeled with [35S]methionine. These data suggest that Aleutian disease virus is a nondefective parvovirus. Images PMID:6252342

  11. Episodes of Aleutian Ridge explosive volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Scholl, D. W.; Miller, J.

    1978-01-01

    Earlier workers have overlooked deep-sea bentonite beds when unraveling the Cenozoic volcanic history of an area. In the North Pacific, identification of Miocene and older volcanic episodes is possible only if both altered (bentonite) and unaltered ash beds are recognized. Our study, which includes bentonite beds, shows that volcanism on the Aleutian Ridge and Kamchatka Peninsula has been cyclic. Volcanic activity seems to have increased every 2.5 ?? 10 6 years for the past 10 ?? 106 years and every 5.0 ?? 106 years for the time span from 10 to 20 ?? 10 6 years ago. The middle and late Miocene and the Quaternary were times of greatly increased volcanic activity in the North Pacific and elsewhere around the Pacific Basin. The apparent absence of a volcanic record before the late Miocene at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 192 is the result not of plate motion, as suggested by Stewart and by Ninkovich and Donn, but rather of the diagenesis of ash layers. Major, apparently global volcanic episodes occurred at least twice in the last 20 ?? 106 years. Yet, only one major glacial epoch (the Pleistocene) has occurred. Therefore, even though glaciation coincided with an increase in Quaternary volcanism, the increased volcanism itself may not have been the primary cause of global cooling. Copyright ?? 1978 AAAS.

  12. Criconematina (nematoda: tylenchida) from the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    A new genus (Cerchnotocriconema) and three new species (C. psephinum, Hemicycliophora anchitkaensis, and Paratylenchus amundseni) are described from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the Aleutian chain. The new genus differs from all other criconematid genera in having irregular, convex sculpturing consisting of small, oval plates on the anterior and posterior regions of each annule, with the mid-annular region minutely punctate or dentate. H. amchitkaensis n. sp. resembles H. sinilis Thorne and H. zuckermani Brzeski, but has only one head annule, instead of two. P. amundseni n. sp., which has a stylet 17 to 19 ..mu..m long, is similar to P. tatea Wu and Townsend and P. labiosus Anderson and Kimpinski, but differs by the presence of males and the possession of conoid-truncate lip region, functional spermatheca, and long male tail (c = 8.5 to 9.5). Seriespinula seymouri Wu (Mehta and Raski), Nothocriconema longulum (Gunhold) De Grisse and Loof, and Macroposthonia xenoplax (Raski) De Grisse and Loof are also reported from the islands.

  13. Diverse deformation patterns of Aleutian volcanoes from InSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C., Jr.; Power, J.

    2008-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is capable of measuring ground-surface deformation with centimeter-to-subcentimeter precision at a spatial resolution of tens of meters over an area of hundreds to thousands of square kilometers. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, InSAR has become an increasingly important measurement technique for constraining magma dynamics of volcanoes over remote regions such as the Aleutian Islands. The spatial pattern of surface deformation data derived from InSAR images enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to enhance the study of magmatic processes. This paper summarizes the diverse deformation patterns of the Aleutian volcanoes observed with InSAR and demonstrates that deformation patterns and associated magma supply mechanisms in the Aleutians are diverse and vary between volcanoes. These findings provide a basis for improved models and better understanding of magmatic plumbing systems.

  14. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations. PMID:21328563

  15. Understanding Who Reported Multiple Races in the U.S. Decennial Census: Results From Census 2000 and the 2010 Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nicholas A.; Bullock, Jungmiwha J.

    2013-01-01

    The United States's collection of race data in Census 2000 and the 2010 Census provides a historical and landmark opportunity to compare results from two decennial censuses on the distributions of people reporting multiple races in response to the census. This research provides insights on the number of people who reported more than one race and…

  16. AIBS Report: The Biologist Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BioScience, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes latest results of AIBS membership census for persons in the biological sciences. Areas of response were disciplinary specialty, employment, and salary. Tables include salaries for males and females by age bracket and by degree (bachelor's, master's, and doctor's). (CS)

  17. Census in Schools Educator Update, May 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census: The…

  18. Census in Schools Educator Update, February 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census Video: A…

  19. The Census, Constitution, Reapportionment, and Redistricting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gerald R.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that census results are the basis for geographic distribution of political power in the United States. Discusses the census, offering historical information that focuses on the issue of territorial representation. Explores the "reapportionment revolution," its impact on the census, and the controversy surrounding the 2000 Census. (CMK)

  20. It's About Us: 2010 Census in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau has created a Census in Schools program called 2010 Census: It's about Us. The program will provide educators with resources to teach the nation's students about the importance of the census so children can help deliver this message to their families. The program will engage America's youth to help ensure every child and…

  1. People Count: Census Day April 1, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Continuing Education.

    This packet is designed to aid teachers of Adult Basic Education Programs conduct census education/participation programs. The objective is to rectify the census undercount problem, especially among minorities. The document is presented in five chapters. Chapter I focuses on the census in perspective. Chapter II discusses the 1980 census and…

  2. Census in Schools Educator Update, April 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census; (2)…

  3. Census in Schools Educator Update, June 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) 2010 Census; (2)…

  4. Paleomagnetic Evidence for Significant Rotations Within the Aleutian Island Arc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, D. B.; Krutikov, L.

    2006-12-01

    Present-day motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate changes along the Aleutian arc from normal convergence in the east to transform motion in the west. It was postulated by Geist et al. (Tectonics 7, 327-341, 1988) that strain partitioning could result in tectonic segmentation of the lithosphere, caused by increasing obliquity of plate convergence and characterized by clockwise rotation and westward translation of discrete blocks. Their analysis of the present day morphology and tectonic setting of the western half of the arc suggests the presence of rotated blocks, and implies that the rotation is ongoing. Published high-quality paleomagnetic data from the far western end of the arc show rotations that are compatible with this model. This result is based on rocks of Eocene (Bering and Medny Islands) and Miocene (Shemya Island) age, thus the magnetically observed rotations could have occurred at any time since their origin. New paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from Miocene age volcanic rocks on Amchitka Island also indicate clockwise rotation at some time since the rocks were formed (13.8+/-0.2 Ma). However, two other high-quality paleomagnetic data sets from Eocene/Oligocene aged sediments from the eastern part of the arc (Atka and Umnak Islands) are significantly rotated in the same clockwise sense as the western end. Since plate convergence at these two eastern sites has been roughly normal since mid-Eocene time, strain partitioning related to oblique convergence is unlikely to be the cause of the rotation. Models involving rotation of the entire island arc to explain the similarity in magnitude and sense of the rotations seen in the paleomagnetic data require large relative latitude changes between the two ends of the arc. Though possible, such a model would put serious constraints on scenarios for the tectonic development of the Bering Sea Plate required to accommodate the degree of rotation suggested by the data. The answer may

  5. Displacement Partitioning, Boundary-Parallel Terrane Migration, and Arc-Parallel Extension in the Aleutian Islands Based on Structural Analysis and GPS Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave Lallemant, H. G.; Oldow, J. S.; Lewis, D. S.

    2001-12-01

    Structural analysis of the deformed rocks on several Aleutian Islands (Attu, Adak, Atka, and Unalaska) combined with published bathymetric and seismic reflection data support the existence of displacement partitioning along the Aleutian arc. Brittle structures are remarkably consistent among all islands studied and record arc-normal contraction, arc-parallel transcurrent motion, and arc-parallel extension. This process is still active as shown by earthquake-focal mechanisms and a GPS velocity field determined from five Aleutian Islands (Attu, Shemya, Adak, Atka, and Unalaska). GPS site velocities determined from campaigns in 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2000 increase from east to west along the island arc. Primary GPS sites on five islands were occupied for three-weeks each during two to four campaigns. In a North American reference frame the sites show a systematic increase in arc-parallel motion from Unalaska (4 mm/yr) in the east to Shemya (25 mm/yr) and Attu (31 mm/yr) in the west. Velocities for Adak and Atka near the center of the Aleutian arc are 10 mm/yr and 7 mm/yr, respectively and show a greater component of arc-normal displacement than sites at the eastern and western ends of the island chain. Secondary sites occupied for several days during alternating campaigns on Attu, Adak, and Unalaska have velocities consistent with the primary GPS sites for each island. On Atka, secondary site velocities record a significant divergence from the velocity of the primary site and indicate either transtensional deformation within the island or contamination of the primary site velocity by local strain accumulation. These results indicate that convergence between the North American and Pacific plates is partitioned into arc-normal and arc-parallel components. The arc-normal component causes shortening (thrusting and folding) along an axis oriented at a high-angle to the plate boundary and the arc-parallel component causes displacements along several arc

  6. Seasonal and distributional patterns of seabirds along the Aleutian Archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renner, M.; Hunt, G.L., Jr.; Piatt, J.F.; Byrd, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is of global importance to seabirds during the northern summer, but little is known about seabird use of these waters during winter. We compare summer and winter abundances of seabirds around 3 islands: Buldir in the western, Kasatochi in the central, and Aiktak in the eastern Aleutians. The density of combined seabird biomass in nearshore marine waters was higher in summer than in winter at Buldir and Kasatochi, but was higher in winter at Aiktak, despite the departure of abundant migratory species. Comparing foraging guilds, we found that only piscivores increased at the western and central sites in winter, whereas at the eastern site several planktivorous species increased as well. The only planktivore remaining in winter at the central and western sites in densities comparable to summer densities was whiskered auklet Aethia pygmaea. Crested auklet Aethia cristatella and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia showed the greatest proportional winter increase at the eastern site. The seasonal patterns of the seabird communities suggest a winter breakdown of the copepod-based food web in the central and western parts of the archipelago, and a system that remains rich in euphausiids in the eastern Aleutians. We suggest that in winter crested auklets take the trophic role that short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris occupy during summer. We hypothesize that advection of euphausiids in the Aleutian North Slope Current is important for supporting the high biomass of planktivores that occupy the Unimak Pass region on a year-round basis. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  7. Cascades/Aleutian Play Fairway Analysis: Data and Map Files

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Shevenell

    2015-11-15

    Contains Excel data files used to quantifiably rank the geothermal potential of each of the young volcanic centers of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs using world power production volcanic centers as benchmarks. Also contains shapefiles used in play fairway analysis with power plant, volcano, geochemistry and structural data.

  8. The Undercount in the 2000 Census. A Kids Count/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonston, Barry

    Every 10 years, the national census describes the number of U.S. residents and their characteristics. This decennial census, however, is subject to error. This report summarizes what is known about census undercount and methods used to adjust census data, emphasizing the undercount of children and minorities. The Census Bureau reported that more…

  9. Sedimentation and deformation in the Amlia Fracture Zone sector of the Aleutian Trench

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, D. W.; Vallier, T.L.; Stevenson, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    A wedge-shaped, landward thickening mass of sedimentary deposits composed chiefly of terrigenous turbidite beds underlies the west-south west-trending Amlia sector (172??20???-173??30???W) of the Aleutian Trench. Pacific oceanic crust dips northward beneath the sector's sedimentary wedge and obliquely underthrusts (30?? off normal) the adjacent Aleutian Ridge. The trench floor and subsurface strata dip gently northward toward the base of the inner trench slope. The dip of the trench deposits increases downsection from about 0.2?? at the trench floor to as much as 6-7?? just above basement. The wedge is typically 2-2.5 km thick, but it is thickest (3.7-4.0 km) near the base of the inner slope overlying the north-trending Amlia Fracture Zone and also east of this structure. Slight undulations and relatively abrupt offsets of the trench floor reflect subsurface and generally west-trending structures within the wedge that are superimposed above ridges and swales in the underlying oceanic basement. The southern or seaward side of some of these structures are bordered by high-angle faults or abrupt flexures. Across these offsets the northern side of the trench floor and underlying wedge is typically upthrown. West-flowing turbidity currents originating along the Alaskan segment of the trench (1200 km to the east) probably formed the greater part of the Amlia wedge during the past 0.5 m.y. The gentle northward or cross-trench inclination of the trench floor and underlying wedge probably reflects regional downbending of the oceanic lithosphere and trench-floor basement faulting and rotation. Much of the undulatory flexuring of the trench wedge can be attributed to differential compaction over buried basement relief. However, abrupt structural offsets attest to basement faulting. Faulting is associated with extensional earthquakes in the upper crust. The west-trending basement offsets are probably normal faults that dip steeply south or antithetic to the north dip of the

  10. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and

  11. Non-volcanic tremor in the Aleutian Islands captured by a mini-seismic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Prejean, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Aleutian Islands are an interesting place to study because of the presence of abundant seismicity, both subduction and volcano related. In addition to regular earthquakes, the Islands host both volcanic and non-volcanic tremor. To capture this rich variety of seismicity, we designed and installed a mini-seismic array on Akutan Island in 2012. Akutan is located in the eastern Aleutians just off the tip of the Alaska Peninsula, near the eastern edge of the 1957 Mw8.6 earthquake rupture zone. A mini-seismic array is particularly useful in this logistically challenging environment where land cover is limited. We recorded and analyzed about 2 months of data, and found both volcanic and non-volcanic events. Here we focus on non-volcanic tremor and its characteristics as captured by the Akutan array. Akutan Island and the surrounding area turn out to be prolific producers of tremor. An automatic beam-backprojection algorithm [Ghosh et al., 2009] detects almost daily tremor activity with durations ranging from several minutes to more than 3.5 hours. On average, beam-backprojection detects 1.3 hours of tremor activity per day and in total, it detects about 5 times more duration of tremor activity compared to a visual check for tremor signal using the existing seismic network. We observe tremor sources both west and east of the Akutan array. Western sources are the most active ones and their slowness parameters are consistent with the locations of low-frequency earthquakes detected by Brown et al., 2013. The eastern source area has not been identified previously and appears to be active for only a few times during this study, but shows continuous activity for several hours. In addition, we observe temporal evolution of slowness parameters consistent with steady tremor migration. Moreover, low frequency earthquakes with impulsive body wave phases are identified within the tremor signal. They show S-minus-P times consistent with their being located at the model plate

  12. Identification of a nonvirion protein of Aleutian disease virus: mink with Aleutian disease have antibody to both virion and nonvirion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1982-01-01

    We studied Aleutian disease virus polypeptides in Crandall feline kidney (CRFK) cells. When CRFK cells labeled with [35S]methionine at 60 h postinfection were studied by immunoprecipitation with sera from infected mink, the major Aleutian disease virus virion polypeptides (p85 and p75) were consistently identified, as was a 71,000-dalton nonvirion protein (p71). The peptide maps of p85 and p75 were similar, but the map of p71 was different. p85, p75, and p71 were all precipitated by sera from Aleutian disease virus-infected mink, including those with signs of progressive disease, but heterologous sera raised against purified Aleutian disease virus did not precipitate the nonvirion p71. These results indicated that the nonvirion p71 was unrelated to p85 and p75 and further suggested that mink infected with Aleutian disease virus develop antibody to nonvirion, as well as structural, viral proteins. Images PMID:6287034

  13. Geology and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the medium- to high-K Tanaga volcanic cluster, western Aleutians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jicha, Brian R.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Singer, Brad S.

    2012-01-01

    We used geologic mapping and geochemical data augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating to establish an eruptive chronology for the Tanaga volcanic cluster in the western Aleutian arc. The Tanaga volcanic cluster is unique in comparison to other central and western Aleutian volcanoes in that it consists of three closely spaced, active, volumetrically significant edifices (Sajaka, Tanaga, and Takawangha), the eruptive products of which have unusually high K2O contents. Thirty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained in two different laboratories constrain the duration of Pleistocene–Holocene subaerial volcanism to younger than 295 ka. The eruptive activity has been mostly continuous for the last 150 k.y., unlike most other well-characterized arc volcanoes, which tend to grow in discrete pulses. More than half of the analyzed Tanaga volcanic cluster lavas are basalts that have erupted throughout the lifetime of the cluster, although a considerable amount of basaltic andesite and basaltic trachyandesite has also been produced since 200 ka. Major- and trace-element variations suggest that magmas from Sajaka and Tanaga volcanoes are likely to have crystallized pyroxene and/or amphibole at greater depths than the older Takawangha magmas, which experienced a larger percentage of plagioclase-dominated fractionation at shallower depths. Magma output from Takawangha has declined over the last 86 k.y. At ca. 19 ka, the focus of magma flux shifted to the west beneath Tanaga and Sajaka volcanoes, where hotter, more mafic magma erupted.

  14. Census in Schools Educator Update, November 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter focuses on the following topics: (1) New Web Site for the…

  15. 78 FR 19446 - Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a Virtual Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The Bureau of the Census (U.S. Census Bureau) is giving notice of a virtual meeting of the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (CSAC). The CSAC..., demography, economics, geography, psychology, survey methodology, social and behavioral sciences,...

  16. Census in Schools Educator Update, February 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter includes the following items: (1) Have You Seen the Census…

  17. Census Concepts in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Leah

    1989-01-01

    Presents guidelines teachers may use to develop a series of interdisciplinary lessons on the census for elementary students. Offers rationale for teaching about the census,and outlines social studies objectives that can be met by census activities. Provides ideas for primary and intermediate level activities. (LS)

  18. 75 FR 4491 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to fully use the 2010 A season total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these...

  19. 78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... under Sec. 679.2(d)(1)(iii) on June 11, 2013 (78 FR 35771, June 14, 2013). As of July 8, 2013, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

  20. 75 FR 69600 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  1. 77 FR 34262 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  2. 76 FR 43933 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  3. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  4. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  5. 77 FR 39440 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  6. 76 FR 65972 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Eastern Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this...

  7. 75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the crab fisheries in the waters off the coast of Alaska under the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab. The Magnuson-Stevens...

  8. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  9. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  10. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  11. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  12. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  18. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  19. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  20. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  1. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  2. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  3. Geologic implications of great interplate earthquakes along the Aleutian arc

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.F.; Scholl, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    We present new marine geophysical observations and synthesize previous geologic interpretations of the Aleutian arc to show that the epicenters of these great thrust-type earthquakes coincide with upper plate segments of the arc characterized by a coherent forearc structural fabric. We propose that variations in upper plate structural strength and mobility affect the mechanical properties of the interplate thrust zone and need to be considered in localizing interplate asperities. Forearc tectonic segmentaion associated with the partitioning of strike-slip and thrust motions may exert long-term controls on the rates of seismic moment release.

  4. Observations of Seafloor Outcrops in the Oblique Subduction Setting of Adak Canyon: Implications for Understanding the Early History of the Aleutian Island Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogodzinski, G.; Scholl, D.; Jicha, B.; Wyatt, C.; Singer, B.; Kelemen, P.

    2004-12-01

    Submarine canyons in the western Aleutians (west of 177°W) are formed by oblique subduction, which has broken crustal blocks away from the arc massif and rotated them in clockwise sense, resulting in the formation of triangular-shaped summit basins and deep, structurally controlled submarine canyons (Geist et al., Tectonics v7, p327, 1988). A series of dives with the ROV Jason II on July 28-30, 2004 on Adak Canyon has provided the first-ever view of seafloor outcrops in an Aleutian canyon formed by this process. Two dives on the canyon's steep eastern wall revealed extensive exposures of blocky outcrops of volcanic rock at depths of 2900-1500 m. Samples of these units collected by the Jason II are a mixture of dark, pyroxene and plagioclase-phyric lavas and volcaniclastics. Degree of weathering/alteration is highly variable but some samples appear fresh. We anticipate that these rocks are offshore-equivalents of the Finger Bay Volcanics, which represent the earliest phase of Aleutian volcanism exposed on nearby Adak Island (e.g., Coats, 1956, USGS Bull. 1028-C). Exposures of granitic rock in Adak Canyon form low ledges of exfoliating outcrop interspersed with spheroidally weathered, bouldery sub-crop, in the depth range of 1800-1600 meters. Obtaining in-situ samples from these massive and subrounded exposures was not possible with the Jason II, but recovery of large, sub-angular slabs that litter the surface included samples of fresh diorite, fine-grained felsic intrusives and hydrothermally altered volcanic country rock. The stratigraphically highest exposures observed in Adak Canyon are gently dipping, poorly lithified `Middle Series' sedimentary rocks of probable Miocene-Oligocene age. All outcrop surfaces in Adak Canyon are covered with a uniformly dark brown, opaque coating of Mn oxide less than 1mm thick. Well-rounded cobbles and boulders interpreted to be glacial drift are largely free of Mn oxide coatings. Thick pavements of Mn-oxide were not observed

  5. Computer systems to support census geography.

    PubMed

    Deecker, G; Cunningham, R; Kidd, K

    1986-01-01

    The development of computer systems that support the geography of the census in Canada is described. The authors "present proposals for the 1991 Census that increase the level of automation, whether the geography changes or not. In addition, opportunities for change and improvement, should the geography change, are outlined. To minimize the risks involved, it is important to give these different proposals serious consideration early in the planning of a census." PMID:12341362

  6. GLORIA side-scan imagery of Aleutian basin, Bering Sea slope and Abyssal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.R.; Cooper, A.K.; Gardner, J.V.; Karl, H.A.; Marlow, M.S.; Stevenson, A.J.; Huggett, Q.; Kenyon, N.; Parson, L.

    1987-05-01

    During July-September 1986, about 700,000 km/sup 2/ of continental slope and abyssal plain of the Aleutian basin, Bering Sea, were insonified with GLORIA (Geological Long Range Inclined Asdic) side-scane sonar. A sonar mosaic displays prominent geomorphic features including the massive submarine canyons of the Beringian and the northern Aleutian Ridge slopes and shows well-defined sediment patterns including large deep-sea channels and fan systems on the Aleutian basin abyssal plain. Dominant erosional and sediment transport processes on both the Beringian and the Aleutian Ridge slopes include varieties of mass movement that range from small debris flows and slides to massive slides and slumps of blocks measuring kilometers in dimension. Sediment-flow patterns that appear to be formed by sheet flow rather than channelized flow extend basinward from the numerous canyons and gullies that incise the slopes of the Beringian margin and of Bowers Ridge and some places along the Aleutian Ridge. These Beringian and Bowers canyon sediment sources, however, appear to have contributed less modern sediment to the Aleutian basin than the large, well-defined channel systems that emanate from Bering, Umnak, and Amchitka submarine canyons and extend for several hundred kilometers across the abyssal plain. This GLORIA imagery emphasizes the important contribution of the Aleutian Ridge to modern sedimentation in the deep Bering Sea.

  7. 76 FR 56395 - Census Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... joint meeting of the Census Advisory Committees (CACs) on the African American Population, the American...-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The CACs on the African American Population, the American Indian...

  8. Public Service Announcement about the 1940 Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Zarr, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In late 1939, the United States Bureau of the Census was gearing up for the 16th official enumeration, or count, of the nation's population. Authorities wanted to insure widespread participation. So, they made good use of some information revealed in the 1930 Census--namely that roughly 40 percent of American households had a radio set. In…

  9. Census in Schools Educator Update, January 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Census in Schools" newsletter contains the following articles: (1) 2010 Census; (2) Your State is a Winner; (3) "What High School Teachers Need to Know"--Handbook for Teachers About the American Community Survey; (4) February is Black (African-American) History Month; and (5) Educational Attainment and School Enrollment in 2007.

  10. 75 FR 17835 - Census Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8018 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am... Proclamation 8488--Census Day, 2010 Proclamation 8489--National Cancer Control Month, 2010 Proclamation 8490...; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8488 of March 31, 2010 Census Day, 2010 By the...

  11. Tools for Looking at Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Leah; Giese, James

    1989-01-01

    Shows how census data illustrated in pie charts, bar graphs, line graphs, and a map can be used in teaching students to read and interpret large amounts of information about the community, state, and country. Provides examples from "An Advance Look at the 1990 Census" (World Eagle) and suggests activities and discussion questions. (LS)

  12. Roles of magmatic oxygen fugacity and water content in generating signatures of continental crust in the Alaska-Aleutian arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.; Cottrell, E.; Brounce, M. N.; Gentes, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Early depletion of Fe during magmatic differentiation is a characteristic of many arc magmas, and this may drive them towards the bulk composition of continental crust. In the Alaska-Aleutian arc, magmas are strongly Fe-depleted both in the east, where the arc sits atop pre-existing continental crust, and in the west, where the system is oceanic but convergence is highly oblique. Primary basaltic arc magmas may achieve early Fe depletion through a combination of high magmatic H2O, which delays silicate saturation, and high oxygen fugacity (fO2), which promotes early onset of Fe-oxide crystallization. Alternatively, low-Fe, high Mg# magmas may emerge directly from the arc mantle, possibly due to slab melting, driving mixing with Fe-rich basaltic magmas. Yet, the relative importance of H2O, fO2, and magmatic bulk composition in generating Fe-depletion is not clearly resolved. Here, we present new measurements of the oxidation state of Fe (Fe3+/∑Fe ratio; a proxy for magmatic fO2), in combination with major element and volatile data, of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from four Alaska-Aleutian arc volcanoes (Okmok, Seguam, Korovin, Augustine), acquired using XANES spectroscopy. We use the Tholeiitic Index (THI) of Zimmer et al., 2010 to quantify the behavior of Fe in each volcano magma series (<1 is Fe-depleted, >1 is Fe-enriched). These volcanoes span a range of THI, from 0.9-0.65. The Fe3+/∑Fe ratios of Aleutian basalts, corrected for fractional crystallization to 6 wt.% MgO (i.e., Fe3+/∑Fe6.0) range from 0.22-0.31 and correlate strongly with THI (r2>0.99), such that more Fe-depleted magmas contain a greater proportion of oxidized Fe. The maximum dissolved H2O contents of basaltic melt inclusions from these volcanoes also strongly correlate with THI (r2>0.96), and with measured Fe3+/∑Fe ratios (although H2O is not the direct cause of oxidation). These links point to a slab-derived origin of both H2O and oxidation and thus relate slab fluxes to the Fe

  13. Tsunami recurrence in the eastern Alaska-Aleutian arc: A Holocene stratigraphic record from Chirikof Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard; Dura, Tina; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Forman, S.L.; Vane, Christopher H.; Kelley, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the role of the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust as the source of some of the largest earthquakes and tsunamis, the history of its pre–twentieth century tsunamis is largely unknown west of the rupture zone of the great (magnitude, M 9.2) 1964 earthquake. Stratigraphy in core transects at two boggy lowland sites on Chirikof Island’s southwest coast preserves tsunami deposits dating from the postglacial to the twentieth century. In a 500-m-long basin 13–15 m above sea level and 400 m from the sea, 4 of 10 sandy to silty beds in a 3–5-m-thick sequence of freshwater peat were probably deposited by tsunamis. The freshwater peat sequence beneath a gently sloping alluvial fan 2 km to the east, 5–15 m above sea level and 550 m from the sea, contains 20 sandy to silty beds deposited since 3.5 ka; at least 13 were probably deposited by tsunamis. Although most of the sandy beds have consistent thicknesses (over distances of 10–265 m), sharp lower contacts, good sorting, and/or upward fining typical of tsunami deposits, the beds contain abundant freshwater diatoms, very few brackish-water diatoms, and no marine diatoms. Apparently, tsunamis traveling inland over low dunes and boggy lowland entrained largely freshwater diatoms. Abundant fragmented diatoms, and lake species in some sandy beds not found in host peat, were probably transported by tsunamis to elevations of >10 m at the eastern site. Single-aliquot regeneration optically stimulated luminescence dating of the third youngest bed is consistent with its having been deposited by the tsunami recorded at Russian hunting outposts in 1788, and with the second youngest bed being deposited by a tsunami during an upper plate earthquake in 1880. We infer from stratigraphy, 14C-dated peat deposition rates, and unpublished analyses of the island’s history that the 1938 tsunami may locally have reached an elevation of >10 m. As this is the first record of Aleutian tsunamis extending throughout the Holocene, we

  14. 7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, skins were rolled in borax and packed into barrels, such as those seen in background. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  15. 6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated the skins while they soaked in brine. The skins were then hung to dry. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  16. 5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Cart, on the floor, was used for moving skins around plant by way of an overhead track. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  17. Fault trends on the seaward slope of the Aleutian Trench: Implications for a laterally changing stress field tied to a westward increase in oblique convergence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Scholl, D. W.; Carlson, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Normal faults along the seaward trench slope (STS) commonly strike parallel to the trench in response to bending of the oceanic plate into the subduction zone. This is not the circumstance for the Aleutian Trench, where the direction of convergence gradually changes westward, from normal to transform motion. GLORIA side-scan sonar images document that the Aleutian STS is dominated by faults striking oblique to the trench, west of 179??E and east of 172??W. These images also show a pattern of east-west trending seafloor faults that are aligned parallel to the spreading fabric defined by magnetic anomalies. The stress-strain field along the STS is divided into two domains west and east, respectively, of 179??E. Over the western domain, STS faults and nodal planes of earthquakes are oriented oblique (9??-46??) to the trench axis and (69??-90??) to the magnetic fabric. West of 179??E, STS fault strikes change by 36?? from the E-W trend of STS where the trench-parallel slip gets larger than its orthogonal component of convergence. This rotation indicates that horizontal stresses along the western domain of the STS are deflected by the increasing obliquity in convergence. An analytical model supports the idea that strikes of STS faults result from a superposition of stresses associated with the dextral shear couple of the oblique convergence and stresses caused by plate bending. For the eastern domain, most nodal planes of earthquakes strike parallel to the outer rise, indicating bending as the prevailing mechanism causing normal faulting. East of 172??W, STS faults strike parallel to the magnetic fabric but oblique (10??-26??) to the axis of the trench. On the basis of a Coulomb failure criterion the trench-oblique strikes probably result from reactivation of crustal faults generated by spreading. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Identifying potential habitat for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duarte, Adam; Wolcott, Daniel M.; Chow, T. Edwin, Ricca, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The Aleutian shield fern Polystichum aleuticum is endemic to the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska and is listed as endangered pursuant to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite numerous efforts to discover new populations of this species, only four known populations are documented to date, and information is needed to prioritize locations for future surveys. Therefore, we incorporated topographical habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, aspect, distance from coastline, and anthropogenic footprint) found at known Aleutian shield fern locations into a Geographical Information System (GIS) model to create a habitat suitability map for the entirety of the Andreaonof Islands. A total of 18 islands contained 489.26 km2 of highly suitable and moderately suitable habitat when weighting each factor equally. This study reports a habitat suitability map for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics, which can be used to assist current and future recovery efforts for the species.

  19. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for Gulf of Alaska groundfish fisheries, arbitration system, monitoring, economic data collection, and cost recovery fee collection. The Crab Rationalization Program Arbitration System is established by...

  20. 15 CFR 90.2 - Policy of the Census Bureau.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCEDURE FOR CHALLENGING POPULATION ESTIMATES § 90.2 Policy of the Census Bureau. It is the policy of the Census Bureau to provide the most accurate population estimates...

  1. Surface wind characteristics of some Aleutian Islands. [for selection of windpowered machine sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentink, T., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The wind power potential of Alaska is assessed in order to determine promising windpower sites for construction of wind machines and for shipment of wind derived energy. Analyses of near surface wind data from promising Aleutian sites accessible by ocean transport indicate probable velocity regimes and also present deficiencies in available data. It is shown that winds for some degree of power generation are available 77 percent of the time in the Aleutians with peak velocities depending on location.

  2. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    PubMed Central

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-01-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink. PMID:6193063

  3. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

  5. Origins of linguistic diversity in the Aleutian Islands.

    PubMed

    Berge, Anna

    2010-12-01

    The Aleut language, currently spoken along the Aleutian chain and the Pribilof and Commander islands, is the only language in its branch of the Eskimo-Aleut language family, and traditional methods of linguistic reconstruction have neither satisfactorily explained its relationship with languages on the Asian continent nor its development from Proto-Eskimo-Aleut. Linguistic reconstruction has always been important in understanding the prehistory and history of the Aleuts, and new approaches in comparative linguistics, more comprehensive information on typological features of neighboring languages, and continuing language documentation allow us to propose a rich and continuous history of contact with various groups of people. I evaluate evidence that the Aleut language may have been shaped by contact with neighbors in Asia and Alaska, eventually giving rise to its differentiation from the Eskimo languages. I look at dialect differentiation along the Aleutian chain and what this differentiation reveals about the migration trends of the Aleut along the chain. I look at the colonial expansion of the Aleut-speaking area and resulting additional varieties of Aleut in the historical period. Finally, I review the effects of the Russian and American colonial periods on the Aleut language and the severe endangerment that the language faces today as a result. I conclude that there is evidence of possible Aleut contact with both neighboring peoples; however, much of this evidence has not yet been subjected to systematic comparative reconstructions. Linguistic evidence supports theories of at least two westward expansions of Aleuts along the island chain, but it is not yet clear what motivated the dialect differentiations. Finally, I offer some thoughts on directions for future dialect studies and the continuing documentation of Aleut. PMID:21417884

  6. A Census of Past and Present Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, N. Gary

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an accounting of known numbers of major categories of life, from viruses to mammals. The construction of the census is described. Included are living and nonliving species and genera. (CW)

  7. 75 FR 13494 - Census Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... joint meeting of the Census Advisory Committees (CACs) on the African American Population, the American... the Federal Relay Service 1-800- 877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The CACs on the African...

  8. 76 FR 17620 - Census Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... joint meeting of the Census Advisory Committees (CACs) on the African American Population, the American...- 877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The CACs on the African American Population, the American...

  9. 75 FR 54853 - Census Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... joint meeting, the Census Advisory Committees (CACs) on the African American Population, the American... the Federal Relay Service 1-800- 877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The CACs on the African...

  10. Communication support for first Afghan census.

    PubMed

    Assifi, N; Murty, D V

    1979-01-01

    An intensive communciations program is preceding the national census in Afghanistan. The census, scheduled for 20 days in June 1979, is being publicized and explained by a special communication unit under the Central Statistical Office. Approximately 1 million teachers and students are being enlisted to explain census objectives. 10,000 enumerators will be teachers. Banners, posters, literature, exhibition boards, logo stickers, and flip chart shows given by mobile units are supplemented with radio messages. In a traditional society like Afghanistan interpersonal communciation with village leaders is the best way to recruit cooperation. Provincial field communicators have been trained for this purpose, and village leaders will be recruited to explain radio broadcasts. The census results will be segmented for different audiences and highlights will be made available to various government departments. The entire campaign may serve as a model for other countries. PMID:12309577

  11. USSR ethnic composition: preliminary 1989 census results.

    PubMed

    Kingkade, W

    1990-03-01

    Some preliminary results concerning ethnic distribution and language spoken from the 1989 census of the USSR that have been published in the Soviet media are summarized. Comparative data for 1979 are also provided. PMID:12342632

  12. Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Jason G.

    This publication provides census questionnaires and instructions for decennial censuses beginning in 1790 and ending in 2000. It also presents a history of the decennial censuses from 1790 to 2000 and offers individual histories of the U.S. census from the first (1790) to the sixteenth (1940). The publication discusses the seventeenth (1950),…

  13. Census in Schools Educator Update, July/August 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Census in Schools Educator Update" is sent to educators and educational organizations periodically to keep them informed about current and upcoming census data and to provide ideas about how to use data in the classroom. This issue of the "Census in Schools Educator Update" newsletter includes the following items: (1) Census in Schools and…

  14. Near-field survey of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami on Unimak and Sanak Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okal, E.A.; Plafker, G.; Synolakis, C.E.; Borrero, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The 1946 Aleutian earthquake stands out among tsunamigenic events because it generated both very high run-up near the earthquake source region and a destructive trans-Pacific tsunami. We obtained new data on the distribution of its tsunami in the near field along south-facing coasts between Unimak Pass on the west and Sanak Island on the east by measuring the height of driftwood and beach materials that were deposited by the tsunami above the extreme storm tide level. Our data indicate that (1) the highest measured run-up, which is at the Scotch Cap lighthouse, was 42 m above tide level or about 37 m above present storm tide elevation; (2) run-up along the rugged coast from Scotch Cap for 12 km northwest to Sennett Point is 12-18 m, and for 30 km east of Scotch Cap to Cape Lutke it is 24-42 m; (3) run-up along the broad lowlands bordering Unimak Bight is 10-20 m, and in-undation is locally more than 2 km; (5) run-up diminishes to 8 m or less at the southeast corner of Unimak Island; (6) no evidence was found for run-up above present storm tides (about 4-5 m above MLLW) on the Ikatan Peninsula or areas along the coast to the west; and (7) run-up above storm tide level in the Sanak Island group is restricted to southwest-facing coasts of Sanak, Long, and Clifford Islands, where it is continuous and locally up to 24 m high. Generation of the tsunami by one or more major earthquake-triggered submarine landslides near the shelf edge south of Unimak Island seems to be the only viable mechanism to account for the data on wave arrival time, run-up heights, and distribution, as well as for unconfirmed anecdotal reports of local postquake increases in water depth and diminished bottom-fisheries productivity. A preliminary hydrodynamic simulation of the local tsunami propagation and run-up using a dipolar model of a possible landslide off Davidson Bank provides an acceptable fit to the characteristics of the distribution of local run-up, with a value at 34 m at the Scotch Cap

  15. Preliminary geology of the Tanaga Island volcanic cluster, western Aleutians (Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, M. L.; Browne, B. L.; Larsen, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    During 2003, the northwestern portion of Tanaga Island (178° W) was mapped in detail for the first time during fieldwork by Alaska Volcano Observatory geologists in conjunction with the installation of a volcano monitoring seismic network. The northern half of the island is approximately 20 km across and comprises four discrete volcanic centers, from west to east: Sajaka (area = 22 km2), Tanaga (20 km2), East Tanaga (15 km2), and Takawangha (54 km2). The three western centers are steep-sided cones of Holocene age, and have grown in the scar formed by a catastrophic Pleistocene sector collapse directed to the northwest. To the east, a >300 m-thick sequence of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks (Pre-Tanaga unit) underlies Takawangha, which has been active throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. Holocene eruptive products from all four centers are predominantly lava flows, with minor explosive activity recorded in tephra sections. Additionally, Sajaka experienced a relatively young (mid-Holocene?) sector collapse of its west flank, accompanied by eruption of laterally-directed pyroclastic flows. A morphologically young cone of scoria and thin basalt flows has grown in the collapse scar. Whole-rock geochemical data on 130 samples of lava and scoria from the four centers and the Pre-Tanaga unit are basalts through low-SiO2 andesites. All but ten lavas have molar Mg# between 0.35 and 0.5 and the remainder are between 0.5 and 0.61; no primitive lavas were discovered on Tanaga Island. Lava flows of Holocene age from Tanaga and East Tanaga follow medium-K trends, all lavas from Takawangha are high-K, and Sajaka and Pre-Tanaga lavas fall along both trends. High-K lavas are enriched in other LILE (Rb, Ba, Pb) as well, and fall near or above the high end of published Aleutian lavas for these elements. The lavas exhibit petrographic as well as compositional diversity: mafic phases in Tanaga lavas are olivine, two pyroxenes, and amphibole, at East Tanaga lavas contain two

  16. Diatoms confirm coseismic uplift and subsidence along the eastern Alaska-Aleutian megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura, T.; Briggs, R. W.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nelson, A. R.; Horton, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone is the source of a series of Mw 8-9.2 20th century ruptures, including the second largest historical earthquake ever recorded in 1964. Paleoseismic studies, employing coastal stratigraphic sequences, have been successfully applied at sites within the 1964 rupture zone, but geologic records are unstudied west of the 1964 rupture. Understanding the behavior of the megathrust is important because a tsunamigenic rupture could damage the west coast of the United States. Investigations in the tidal marshes of Sitkinak Island, off the southwest coast of Kodiak Island, have uncovered stratigraphic evidence of five apparent coseismic land-level changes. Radiocarbon, 210Pb, and 137Cs dating indicate this record may include the 1964 and 1788 earthquakes and some predecessors. Here, we present new paleoecological evidence that independently confirms the inference that at least four of the abrupt lithologic changes in the stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island record coseismic land-level changes. Sudden and lasting changes in fossil diatom assemblages spanning tidal lithologic contacts reveal both coseismic subsidence (mud over peat) and coseismic uplift (peat over mud) during the last 1000 years. Across the contact that may mark the 1964 earthquake, a shift from a brackish, low-marsh diatom assemblage dominated by Diploneis interrupta and Navicula cincta to a tidal flat assemblage containing Actinocyclus normanii and Synedra tabulata indicates a sudden rise in relative sea-level, which we infer to record coseismic subsidence. In contrast, diatoms show evidence of coseismic uplift across the probable 1788 contact. An abrupt transition from a fully marine assemblage containing coastal planktonic and tychoplanktonic taxa to a freshwater marsh assemblage dominated by the salt-intolerant benthic diatom Eunotia fallax is consistent with a sudden and lasting relative sea-level fall. Abrupt changes in lithology across a contact dated about ~575 cal yr

  17. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2010 Aleutian arc and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This map shows details of the Aleutian arc not visible in an earlier publication. The Aleutian arc extends about 3,000 km from the Gulf of Alaska to the Kamchatka Peninsula. It marks the region where the Pacific plate subducts into the mantle beneath the North America plate. This subduction is responsible for the generation of the Aleutian Islands and the deep offshore Aleutian Trench. Relative to a fixed North America plate, the Pacific plate is moving northwest at a rate that increases from about 55 mm per year at the arc's eastern edge to 75 mm per year near its western terminus. In the east, the convergence of the plates is nearly perpendicular to the plate boundary. However, because of the boundary's curvature, as one travels westward along the arc, the subduction becomes more and more oblique to the boundary until the relative plate motion becomes parallel to the arc at the Near Islands near its western edge. Subduction zones such as the Aleutian arc are geologically complex and produce numerous earthquakes from multiple sources. Deformation of the overriding North America plate generates shallow crustal earthquakes, whereas slip at the interface of the plates generates interplate earthquakes that extend from near the base of the trench to depths of 40 to 60 km. At greater depths, Aleutian arc earthquakes occur within the subducting Pacific plate and can reach depths of 300 km. Since 1900, six great earthquakes have occurred along the Aleutian Trench, Alaska Peninsula, and Gulf of Alaska: M8.4 1906 Rat Islands; M8.6 1938 Shumagin Islands; M8.6 1946 Unimak Island; M8.6 1957 Andreanof Islands; M9.2 1964 Prince William Sound; and M8.7 1965 Rat Islands. Several relevant tectonic elements (plate boundaries and active volcanoes) provide a context for the seismicity presented on the main map panel. The plate boundaries are most accurate along the axis of the Aleutian Trench and more diffuse or speculative in extreme northeastern Russia. The active volcanoes parallel

  18. Using the New Racial Categories in the 2000 Census: A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sharon M.

    This report addresses issues that data users will face in using, interpreting, and presenting new data on race from the 2000 census, which allowed multiple racial responses. Changing how the census collects data on race is not new. Almost every census for the past 200 years has collected racial data differently than the previous census. New…

  19. Buldir Depression - A Late Tertiary graben on the Aleutian Ridge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Scholl, D. W.; Buffington, E.C.; Boyce, R.E.; Alpha, T.R.; Smith, P.J.; Shipek, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    Buldir Depression is a large, rectilinear basin that lies on the northern edge of the Aleutian Ridge and is aligned with the arcuate chain of active volcanoes on the ridge crest. The depression appears to be a volcanic-tectonic feature, which began to form in Late Tertiary time and which is still forming. It is a graben formed by extensional rifting and accompanied by contemporaneous volcanism on the Aleutian Ridge. Subsidence rates for the depression are estimated at 20-70 cm/1,000 years. Sediments in the depression are 300 m thick and are probably pelagic and turbidite deposits of Pleistocene age. The turbidites were apparently derived from the plateau area of the Aleutian Ridge surrounding the depression. Older sediments on the northern slope of the Aleutian Ridge have a maximum thickness of 550 m and are deformed and slumped toward the Bering Sea. These sediments are postulated to overlie a mid-flank terrace on the northern Aleutian Ridge that titled to the north during the formation of Buldir Depression. ?? 1970.

  20. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  1. 76 FR 44297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources.... SUMMARY: The Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Rationalization Program (CR Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. Amendment 30 would amend...

  2. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2010/2011 crab fishing year so...

  3. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year....

  4. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2013/2014 crab fishing year so...

  5. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  7. 76 FR 49417 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...NMFS proposes regulations that would implement Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). This proposed rule would amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Amendment 80 Program to modify the criteria for forming and participating in a harvesting cooperative. This action is necessary to encourage greater......

  8. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... chapter defined as groundfish area/species endorsements. (c) Reduction loan amount. The reduction...

  9. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... chapter defined as groundfish area/species endorsements. (c) Reduction loan amount. The reduction...

  10. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... chapter defined as groundfish area/species endorsements. (c) Reduction loan amount. The reduction...

  11. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock groundfish species fee payment and collection system... chapter defined as groundfish area/species endorsements. (c) Reduction loan amount. The reduction...

  12. [Chen Muhua announces nationwide census in 1982].

    PubMed

    1981-03-10

    A nationwide census, only the 3rd in the history of the People's Republic of China, will be taken in July 1982, announced Vice-Premier Chen Muhua at a meeting of the census office under the State Council which opened here today. The 1st census was conducted in 1953, and the 2nd in 1964. Chen, who is in charge of the census, told officials, population specialists and statisticians from across China it was unprecedented in both Chinese history and the history of the world to attempt to count a population that has been long estimated at 1 billion. The census has been proposed in order to ascertain a range of 20 demographic factors necessary for the effective administration of the current economic readjustment and China's modernization drive, the vice-premier said. It will assist family planning and population control, facilitate food and clothing supplies, and make possible assessment of construction needs--housing, hospitals, schools, and other public services, she continued. A great deal of trouble in planning and administration has been caused by the inadequacy of available figures, Chen said. The results will be calculated in 2 stages. Figures such as the number of households and people will be announced first, while other more precise breakdowns such as sex, age, nationality, education, marital status, and occupation will be available later. 2 experimental censuses were carried out in July, 1980. The 950,000 residents in both Wuxi City and Wuxi County in east China's Jiangsu Province, were surveyed. The conference, acting on reports and recommendations from these, will establish further experimental counts in the coming months, while preparatory procedures, organizational work, and regulations are to be discussed and consolidated. The 1982 nationwide census has the support of the UN's fund for population activities. PMID:12338073

  13. An Evaluation of 1970 Census Occupational Classification. The Postcensal Manpower Survey-Census Match Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Thomas J.; Valdisera, Victor M.

    To evaluate the accuracy of the 1970 census' occupational classification system, a comparison was made between that year's responses to census questions and the replies by the same population group to the 1972 Postcensal Manpower Survey (PMS). Each of these questionnaires relied on a different methodology; in the PMS the respondent classified…

  14. 2010 Census: It's in Our Hands. What Educators Need to Know about the 2010 Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Constitution requires a national census once every 10 years. The census is a count of everyone (all ages, races, ethnic groups, both citizens and non-citizens) residing in the United States: in all 50 states, Washington D.C., Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa.…

  15. Symposium on the Economic Censuses, United States Bureau of the Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Information Quarterly, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Six articles discuss the 1987 Economic Censuses: a historical review by Bohme; Worden on the value of economic censuses; Wikoff and Powell-Hill on planning the questionnaire; Blum, Bowman, and Sullivan on changing data needs; Zeisset on the data's availability to users; and Schlueter, Ray, and Hartz on international economic statistics. (EM)

  16. Census Tracts (PHC80-2). Census '80 Product Primers: Primer Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Data User Services Div.

    This primer is designed to teach about the concept of census tracts. Census tracts are relatively small statistical subdivisons that vary in population from about 2,500 to 8,000 and are designed to include fairly homogeneous populations. They are most often found in cities and counties of metropolitan areas of the nation. In all, there are over…

  17. Far-field simulation of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Hébert, Hélène

    2007-06-01

    We present hydrodynamic far-field simulations of the Aleutian tsunami of 1946 April 1, using both a dislocation source representing a slow earthquake and a dipolar one modelling a large landslide. The earthquake source is derived from the recent seismological study by López and Okal, while the landslide source was previously used to explain the exceptional run-up at Scotch Cap in the near field. The simulations are compared to a field data set previously compiled from testimonies of elderly witnesses at 27 far-field locations principally in the Austral and Marquesas Islands, with additional sites at Pitcairn, Easter and Juan Fernández. We find that the data set is modelled satisfactorily by the dislocation source, while the landslide fails to match the measured amplitudes, and to give a proper rendition of the physical interaction of the wavefield with the shore, in particular at Nuku Hiva, Marquesas. The emerging picture is that the event involved both a very slow earthquake, responsible for the far-field tsunami, and a major landslide explaining the near-field run-up, but with a negligible contribution in the far field.

  18. Three new species of heteroderoidea (nematoda) from the Aleutian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, E.C.

    1981-10-01

    Three new species of Heteroderoidea are described from Adak and Amchitka Islands in the Aleutian chain. Second-stage juveniles of Thecavermiculatus crassicrustata, n. sp., differ from those of T. gracililancea Robbins by having longer stylets (40 to 50 ..mu..m vs 19 to 22 ..mu..m). The female of T. crassicrustata has a longer neck, a more posterior excretory pore, and lacks a posterior protuberance. Meloidodera eurytyla, n. sp., differs from other Meloidodera spp. in that second-stage juveniles have longer stylets (32 to 35 ..mu..m) and much more massive styletknobs, while males have a longitudinally striated basal head annule. Meloidogyne subarctica, n. sp., can be separated from other Meloidogyne spp. by combinations of the following characteristics: perineal pattern with large oval areas in the tail region devoid of striae, arch with few unbroken striae; female excretory pore 1.5 to 2.5 x the stylet length from the anterior end; haploid chromosome number = 18; the spermatheca filled with sperm; stylet length of second-stage juveniles 13.5 to 15.4 ..mu..m.

  19. Hair methylmercury levels of mummies of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Egeland, G.M. Ponce, Rafael Bloom, Nicolas S. Knecht, Rick Loring, Stephen Middaugh, John P.

    2009-04-15

    Ancient human hair specimens can shed light on the extent of pre-historic exposures to methylmercury and provide valuable comparison data with current-day exposures, particularly for Indigenous Peoples who continue to rely upon local traditional food resources. Human hair from ancient Aleutian Island Native remains were tested for total and methylmercury (Hg, MeHg) and were radiocarbon dated. The remains were approximately 500 years old (1450 A.D.). For four adults, the mean and median total hair mercury concentration was 5.8 ppm (SD=0.9). In contrast, MeHg concentrations were lower with a mean of 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and a median of 0.54 ppm (0.12-3.86). For the five infants, the mean and median MeHg level was 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and 0.20 ppm (0.007-4.61), respectively. Segmental analyses showed variations in MeHg concentrations in 1-cm segments, consistent with fluctuations in naturally occurring exposure to mercury through dietary sources. The levels are comparable to or lower than those found in fish and marine mammal-eating populations today who rely far less on subsistence food than pre-historic humans. The findings are, therefore, compatible with increased anthropogenic release of trace metals during the past several centuries.

  20. Clinical Chemical Studies in Aleutian Disease of Mink

    PubMed Central

    Gershbein, Leon L.; Spencer, Kathryn L.

    1964-01-01

    Clinical chemical determinations were carried out on blood removed by cardiac puncture from 49 mink affected with Aleutian disease and 25 normal animals and the respective differences tested for statistical significance. Blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein and globulin, thymol turbidity, glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases and amylase were definitely elevated in the affected animals whereas serum calcium, albumin and A/G ratio were depressed. No statistically significant difference was apparent between the two groups in the comparison of inorganic phosphorus, alkaline and acid phosphatases, bilirubin, total cholesterol and esters, cephalin-cholesterol flocculation (3+ in each case), sodium, potassium, chloride, CO2-combining power, leucine aminopeptidase and lactic dehydrogenase (means: over 2,000 u./ml.). For both the control and affected mink, the distribution of serum lactic dehydrogenase isozymes resembled that of human homologous serum hepatitis. Electrophoresis of serum proteins confirmed earlier findings of hypergammaglobulinemia in the diseased animals but a fast-moving or pre-albumin component, averaging 4% of the total protein, occurred in both the diseased and normal mink. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17649484

  1. Oxygen isotope constraints on the petrogenesis of Aleutian arc magmas

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, B.S.; O'Neil, J.R. ); Brophy, J.G. )

    1992-04-01

    The first measurement of {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and titanomagnetite phenocrysts from modern Aleutian island-arc lavas provides new insight and independent constraints on magma sources and intracrustal processes. Basalts are heterogeneous on the scale of the entire arc and individual volcanic centers. Combined with Sr isotope and trace element data {delta}{sup 18}O{sub plag} values suggest a variable magma source characterized by differences in the mantle wedge or the subducted sediment component along the volcanic front. Seven tholeiitic basalt to rhyodacite lavas from the Seguam volcanic center have nearly identical {delta}{sup 18}O{sub plag} values of 6.0{per thousand} {plus minus} 0.2{per thousand}, reflecting extensive closed-system plagioclase-dominated crystal fractionation. Oxygen isotope thermometry and pyroxene and oxide equilibria indicate that differentiation occurred between 1,150 {plus minus} 100C (basalt) and 950 {plus minus} 100C (rhyodacite). In contrast, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub plag} values of 12 calc-alkalic basaltic andesites and andesites from the smaller Kanaga volcanic center span a broader range of 5.9{per thousand}-6.6{per thousand}, and consist of mostly higher values. Isotopic disequilibrium in the Kanaga system is manifest in two ways: two types of basaltic inclusions with contrasting {delta}{sup 18}O values occur in one andesite, and in two other andesites plagioclase-titanomagnetite and clinopyroxene-titanomagnetite oxygen isotope temperatures are inconsistent.

  2. Detailed transcription map of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E; Perryman, S

    1988-01-01

    We studied the transcription program of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) by using a combination of cDNA cloning and sequencing, primer extension, and Northern (RNA) blot hybridization with splice-specific oligonucleotides. The 4.8-kilobase ADV genome was transcribed in the rightward direction, yielding plus-sense polyadenylated transcripts of 4.3 (R1 RNA), 2.8 (R2), 2.8 (R3), 1.1 (RX), and 0.85 (R2') kilobases. Each RNA transcript had potential translation initiation sites within open reading frames, suggesting protein translation, and a scheme encompassing ADV structural and nonstructural proteins is proposed. Each of the five RNA transcripts had a characteristic set of splices and originated from a promoter at nucleotide 152 (map unit 3 [R1, R2, R2', and RX]) or at nucleotide 1729 (map unit 36 [R3]). The transcripts terminated with a poly(A) tail at one of two positions: either at map unit 53 (R2' and RX) or at map unit 92 (R1, R2, and R3). Similarities with and differences from the transcription maps of other parvoviruses are discussed, and possible roles of the unique features found in ADV transcription are related to the special pathogenic features of this virus. Images PMID:2843669

  3. Multi-centennial reconstruction of Aleutian climate from coralline algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B.; Halfar, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Smith, E.; Steneck, R.; Lebednik, P.; Jacob, D. E.; Fietzke, J.; Moore, K.

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived encrusting coralline algae yield robust reconstructions of mid-to-high latitude environmental change from their annually-banded high-magnesium calcite skeleton. The magnesium to calcium ratio measured in their skeleton reflects ambient seawater temperature at the time of formation. Thus, reconstructions from these algae are important to understanding the role of natural modes of climate variability versus that of external carbon dioxide in controlling climate in data sparse regions such as the northern North Pacific Ocean/southern Bering Sea. Here, we reconstruct regional seawater temperature from the skeletons of nine algae specimens from two islands in the Aleutian Archipelago. We find that seawater temperature increased ~1.4°C degrees over the past 350 years. The detrended seawater reconstruction correlates with storminess because storms moving across the North Pacific Ocean bring warmer water to the archipelago. Comparison of the algal seawater temperature reconstruction with instrumental and terrestrial proxy reconstructions reveals that atmospheric teleconnections to North America via the North Pacific storm tracks are not robust before the 20th century. This indicates that North Pacific climate processes inferred from the instrumental records should be cautiously extrapolated when describing earlier non-analogous climates or future climate change.

  4. InSAR imaging of volcanic deformation over cloud-prone areas - Aleutian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) is capable of measuring ground-surface deformation with centimeter-tosubcentimeter precision and spatial resolution of tens-of meters over a relatively large region. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, INSAR is an important technique for measuring ground-surface deformation of volcanoes over cloud-prone and rainy regions such as the Aleutian Islands, where only less than 5 percent of optical imagery is usable due to inclement weather conditions. The spatial distribution of surface deformation data, derived from INSAR images, enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to enhance the study of magmatic processes. This paper reviews the basics of INSAR for volcanic deformation mapping and the INSAR studies of ten Aleutian volcanoes associated with both eruptive and noneruptive activity. These studies demonstrate that all-weather INSAR imaging can improve our understanding of how the Aleutian volcanoes work and enhance our capability to predict future eruptions and associated hazards.

  5. Condition of groundfish resources of the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bakkala, R.G.; Low, L.; Ito, D.H.; Narita, R.E.; Ronholt, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    This report contains an assessment of the condition of groundfish and squid in the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region through 1982. The assessments are based on species-by-species analyses of the data collected from the commercial fishery and research vessel surveys. Most of the resources in the Bering Sea-Aleutians management region are in good condition, including walleye pollock, Pacific cod, the flatfishes, and Atka mackerel. Pacific cod and yellowfin sole are in excellent condition and at historic high levels of abundance.

  6. Hanford Site Regional Population - 2010 Census

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Erin L.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Population dose estimates must be performed to provide a measure of the impact from site radiological releases. Results of the U.S. 2010 Census were used to determine counts and distributions for the residential population located within 50-miles of several operating areas of the Hanford Site. Year 2010 was the first census year that a 50-mile population of a Hanford Site operational area exceeded the half-million mark.

  7. Optimizing census geography: the separation of collection and output geographies.

    PubMed

    Martin, D

    1998-01-01

    "This paper reviews the changing way in which census geography has been treated with the increasing automation of census data processing. A four-stage model of modern census geography development is presented. In the context of this model, current practice is reviewed, and new opportunities for automated census geography design presented, culminating in a current prototype for the separation of purpose-designed data collection and output geographies. The narrative is presented primarily from a British perspective, but focuses on internationally relevant issues such as the implementation of census geography design, and the influence of census output geography on data analysis." PMID:12294535

  8. New Field Surveys of The Great 1946 Aleutian Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, E. A.; Synolakis, C. E.; Plafker, G.

    We seek to reopen the case of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami, which was the most destruc- tive transpacific event in the past century, despite the relatively moderate size of its parent earthquake. As a result, the exact nature of its source, and in particular whether it requires a submarine landslide, remains controversial. In 1999, we started a system- atic effort to build a modern database of runup and inundation values for the 1946 event throughout the Pacific Basin. At teleseismic distances, we rely on interviews from elderly witnesses whose testimony is then quantified using standard surveying techniques. As of early 2002, we were able to gather about 60 such measurements in the Marquesas, Society and Austral Islands, French Polynesia; and at Easter and Juan Fernandez Islands. They point out to the concentration of high runup values (8 m or more) in a narrow band of epicentral azimuths including Hawaii, the Marque- sas and Easter, but excluding Juan Fernandez. In the near field, we surveyed in 2001 the islands of Unimak and Sanak, based on available Coast Guard reports at Scotch Cap, and on subsisting watermarks such as large logs of driftwood deposited on these unforrested islands. We obtain a maximum runup height of 42 m on the Southern coast of Unimak and of 22 m at Sanak. These preliminary results suggest the combi- nation of a slow earthquake dislocation responsible for the strong far-field directivity of the tsunami, and of a co-seismic underwater landslide necessary to account for the exceptional near-field amplitudes, which are many times larger than the seismic dis- placement at the source for any acceptable seismological model of the dislocation. The existence of a large landslide is also suggested by anectodal reports of post-quake changes in local bathymetry and diminished fisheries productivity, and a preliminary confirmation is found on post-1946 bathymetric charts of the continental slope around 53.75 deg.N and 163.75 deg.W.

  9. Lesson Plans: The Census of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This publication contains four lesson plans to assist teachers in instructing their students about the census of agriculture and its uses. Designed primarily for vocational agricultural classes, the lesson plans may also have applications in math, social studies, and journalism or writing classes. Teachers do not need specialized knowledge about…

  10. Ethnic origin in the Australian census.

    PubMed

    Horn, R V

    1987-05-01

    "This article discusses the Australian statistics of ethnic origin, collected under the headings of race and ancestry in the Australian census, with particular reference to conceptual precision and neutrality and to validity of results. It deals with European and non-European groups, but not with the special problems of counting the Australian aboriginal population." PMID:12341346

  11. 77 FR 18651 - Qualifying Urban Areas for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... urban area criteria published in the Federal Register on August 24, 2011 (76 FR 53030).\\4\\ This Notice... residential population density measured at the census tract and census block levels of geography, but...

  12. 76 FR 68161 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Aleutian Islands Pollock Fishery Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... signed into law on January 23, 2004. Section 803 of this law allocates the Aleutian Islands (AI) directed... Aleut Corporation to authorize one or more agents for activities necessary for conducting the AI directed pollock fishery. Management provisions for the AI directed pollock fishery include:...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 679 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Statistical and Reporting Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... Islands Statistical and Reporting Areas ER15NO99.000 b. Coordinates Code Description 300 Russian waters... Islands and straight lines between the islands connecting the following coordinates in the order...

  14. Aleutian Ancorinidae (Porifera, Astrophorida): Description of three new species from the genera Stelletta and Ancorina.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Stelletta and one new species of Ancorina are described from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and compared to congeners of the region. This is the first record of the genus Ancorina in the North Pacific Ocean. Stelletta ovalae Tanita 1965 is also reported for the first time from the Bering Sea and Alaska.  PMID:24990051

  15. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sound blue king crab. NVDC means the U.S. Coast Guard's National Vessel Documentation Center located in...) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section 600.1103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose. This section's purpose is to implement...

  16. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section 600.1103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Specific Fishery or Program...

  17. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section 600.1103 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Specific Fishery or Program...

  18. Spawning phenology and geography of Aleutian Islands and eastern Bering Sea Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidetcher, Sandra K.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Logerwell, Elizabeth A.

    2014-11-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) is an economically and ecologically important species in the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, yet little is known about the spawning dynamics of Pacific cod in these regions. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a gross anatomical maturity key for Pacific cod to describe temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive status over three winter spawning seasons: 2005, 2006, and 2007. Maturity status of female Pacific cod was assessed by fishery observers during sampling of commercial catches and used to construct maps showing spawning activity in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. Most spawning activity was observed on the Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Island plateaus between 100 and 200 m depth. Data for those days when a high percentage of spawning stage fish were observed were used to identify areas with concentrations of spawning fish. Spawning concentrations were identified north of Unimak Island, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, at the shelf break near Zhemchug Canyon, and adjacent to islands in the central and western Aleutian Islands along the continental shelf. The spawning season was found to begin in the last days of February or early March and extend through early to mid-April. Variation in spawning time (averaging ~10 days between years) may have been associated with a change from warm (2005) to cold (2007) climate conditions during the study period. Our information on Pacific cod spawning patterns will help inform fishery management decisions, models of spawning and larval dispersal and the spatial structure of the stock.

  19. A Program Evaluation Using Client Records and Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachrach, Kenneth M.; Zautra, Alex

    Use of client records and census data as a research methodology can provide mental health planners with information on community needs as well as the adequacy of existing programs. Three ways of analyzing client records in conjunction with census data are: (1) tract by tract, comparing client geographic distribution with census characteristics;…

  20. Application of satellite pictures to census operations. Bolivian experience in census-taking of population and residences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The use of photographs from satellites to assist in census operations is discussed. Principles of selecting the sources of cartographic information are outlined, and the use of LANDSAT pictures in census cartography is examined.

  1. Studies of Aleutian volcanoes based on two decades of SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has become an increasingly important technique for studying magma dynamics at volcanoes in remote regions, such as the Aleutian Islands. The spatial distribution of surface deformation derived from InSAR data enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to aid the investigation of magmatic processes. We processed nearly 12,000 SAR images of Aleutian volcanoes acquired by ERS-1, JERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat-1, Envisat, ALOS, and TerraSAR-X from the early 1990s to 2010. We combined these SAR images to produce about 25,000 interferograms, which we analyzed for evidence of surface deformation at most of the arc's Holocene volcanoes. This talk summarizes deformation processes at Aleutian volcanoes observed with InSAR, including: (1) time-varying volcanic inflation and magmatic intrusion, (2) deformation preceding and accompanying seismic swarms , (3) persistent volcano-wide subsidence at calderas that last erupted tens of years ago, (4) episodic magma intrusion and associated tectonic stress release, (5) subsidence caused by a decrease in pore fluid pressure in active hydrothermal systems, (6) subsidence of surface lava and pyroclastic flows, and (7) a lack of deformation at some volcanoes with recent eruptions, where deformation might be expected. Our work demonstrates that deformation patterns and associated magma supply mechanisms at Aleutian volcanoes are diverse and vary in both space and time. By combining InSAR results with information from the geologic record, accounts of historical eruptions, and data from seismology, petrology, gas geochemistry, and other sources, we have developed conceptual models for the magma plumbing systems and behaviors of many volcanoes in the Aleutian arc. We realize that these models are simplistic, but it is our hope that they will serve as foundations that will be refined as additional information becomes available.

  2. Data from the 2006 International Piping Plover Census

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott-Smith, Elise; Haig, Susan M.; Powers, Brandi M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 2006 International Census of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus). Two sets of tabular data are reported: one for distribution and abundance of wintering Piping Plovers, the other for distribution and abundance of breeding Piping Plovers. The winter census resulted in the observation of 3,884 Piping Plovers at 546 sites. The breeding census resulted in the observation of 8,092 adult piping plovers at 1,925 sites. An appendix provides census reports for each location surveyed. This report was prepared to meet an immediate need of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for census data for Piping Plovers.

  3. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... fishery in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea on September 1, 2010 (75 FR 53606... remain anonymous). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel,...

  4. Census cities experiment in urban change detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work continues on mapping of 1970 urban land use from 1970 census contemporaneous aircraft photography. In addition, change detection analysis from 1972 aircraft photography is underway for several urban test sites. Land use maps, mosaics, and census overlays for the two largest urban test sites are nearing publication readiness. Preliminary examinations of ERTS-1 imagery of San Francisco Bay have been conducted which show that tracts of land of more than 10 acres in size which are undergoing development in an urban setting can be identified. In addition, each spectral band is being evaluated as to its utility for urban analyses. It has been found that MSS infrared band 7 helps to differentiate intra-urban land use details not found in other MSS bands or in the RBV coverage of the same scene. Good quality false CIR composites have been generated from 9 x 9 inch positive MSS bands using the Diazo process.

  5. 78 FR 77646 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test AGENCY: U.S. Census..., reducing the need for more costly enumerator-administered options. The 2014 Census Site Test will allow the... under consideration for the 2020 Census. To improve self- response, the Census Bureau plans to test...

  6. [SIN census 2008: the management model].

    PubMed

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Postorino, Maurizio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Limido, Aurelio; Dal Canton, Antonio; Balducci, Alessandro; Contu, Bruno; Salomone, Mario; Nordio, Maurizio; Levialdi Ghiron, Jung Hee; Viglino, Giusto; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Coppo, Rosanna

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the second part of the data obtained from the second SIN census and illustrates the management model of the Italian dialysis centers, highlighting its strengths but also its limits. The census was carried out between March and December 2008 with a webbased survey using fillable PDF forms. The survey was validated by comparing the data with those sent to the Italian Dialysis and Transplant Register (Registro Italiano di Dialisi e Trapianti, RIDT) and hence it refers to December 31, 2008, the date of the last RIDT report. Forty-two percent of dialysis centers, which altogether take care of 50% of Italian dialysis patients, participated in the census. The participation percentage was very variable among Italian regions (from 5% to 100% of dialysis centers). By excluding the three regions with a participation rate below 10%, the survey reached a participation rate of 68% of all Italian dialysis centers and is therefore sufficient to give an estimate of the Italian dialysis situation. However, because of this variability it was not possible to compare regional situations, and the data were evaluated only by analyzing the ''complex'' and ''simple'' dialysis centers separately. The state of affairs of dialysis in Italy on the whole proved to be complicated. It is striking, for example, that 15% of the ''complex'' dialysis centers do not have their own hospital beds and some of them lack traceability programs. Noteworthy are also the increasing use of central venous catheters and the number of patients that need an ambulance to get to the dialysis center. Despite its limits due to the reduced participation in the census, this work offers a fair description of the state of affairs of dialysis in Italy, where there is certainly space for qualitative improvement. First of all, however, every effort should be made to implement and improve the use of the existing structures and to standardize protocols and behaviors in all Italian dialysis

  7. The 2008 Eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Reconnaissance Observations and Preliminary Physical Volcanology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Schneider, D. J.; Prejean, S. G.

    2008-12-01

    The August 7, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano was the first documented historical eruption of this small (3 x 3 km) island volcano with a 1 km2 lake filled crater in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Reports of previous Kasatochi eruptions are unconfirmed and lacking in detail and little is known about the eruptive history. Three explosively-generated ash plumes reaching altitudes of 15 to 20 km were observed in satellite data and were preceded by some of the most intense seismicity yet recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) seismic network. Eruptive products on Kasatochi Island observed on August 22 and 23 consist of pumice-bearing, lithic-rich pyroclastic-flow deposits overlain by a 1-2 m thick sequence of fine- grained pyroclastic-surge, and -fall deposits all exposed at the coastline. These deposits completely blanket Kasatochi Island to a depth of many meters. Pyroclastic flows entered the sea and extended the coastline 300-400 m beyond prominent wave cut cliffs and sea stacks. Tide gauge data from Adak Island, 80 km to the west, indicate a small tsunami with maximum water amplitude of 20 cm, was initiated during the eruption. Kasatochi volcano lacks a real-time seismic monitoring network. Seismic activity was detected by AVO instruments on Great Sitkin Island 40 km to the west, and thus the timing of eruptive events is approximate. The eruption began explosively at 2201 UTC on August 7, and was followed by at least two additional strong eruptive bursts at 0150 UTC and 0435 UTC, August 8. Satellite data show a significant ash cloud associated with the 0435 UTC event followed by at least 14 hours of continuous ash emission. The lack of a strong ash signature in satellite data suggest that the first two plumes were ash poor. Satellite data also show a large emission of SO2 that entered the stratosphere. Correlation of eruptive periods with deposits on the island is not yet possible, but it appears that pyroclastic flows were emplaced during

  8. Computers stand out at Tenth Population Census Conference.

    PubMed

    Hearn, R L

    1985-05-01

    The 10th Population Census Conference (April 29-May 3, 1985), in Honolulu, Hawaii, featured sessions on computers, fertility and mortality estimation, population projections, and mid-decade censuses and surveys. Senior officials from 15 national statistical offices attended sessions on computers in data analysis, integrated microcomputer systems and workstations of the future, and heard presentations on automation plans for the 1990 US census and New Zealand's Department of Statistics' census operation. 5 fertility and mortality estimation papers discussed own-children fertility estimates for Japan, Korea, and Pakistan, parity progression ratios use in estimating total fertility rates, and results from the 1981 Indian census. Population projection reports included presentations on 1) number and characteristics of Thailand's households, 2) Hong Kong projections based on period fertility rates, 3) computer-assisted Sri Lanka projections for 1981-2001, 4) Philippine population projections, 5) cohort-component projections for Australia, 6) Malaysia projections for 1985-2000, and 7) 1981 census based population projections in Bangladesh. Special country-specific studies included papers on 1) the 1983 Korean National Migration Survey, 2) Indonesian migration, 3) Indian immigrants in the US, 4) China's 1982 census, 5) Malaysia's census publications and demographic studies, and 6) the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics' census and survey programs. A discussion on the 1980 World Census Program, which had as its goal the quality improvement of worldwide data, led into a discussion on the activities of the US Census Bureau's International Statistical Programs Center (ISPC) for the 1990 census. The conference included a demonstration of an integrated census data processing system recently developed at ISPC, and concluded with a session on mid-decade censuses and surveys. PMID:12267276

  9. Slab melting in the Aleutians: implications of an ion probe study of clinopyroxene in primitive adakite and basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.

    1998-05-01

    An ion probe study of trace elements in Mg-rich clinopyroxene phenocrysts in primitive Aleutian lavas provides constraints on the genesis of Aleutian adakites, and possible insights into the source of common Aleutian magmas. Clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts in the primitive adakites have high Sr and Nd/Yb compared to cpx in Aleutian basalts. In the adakites, Sr and Nd/Yb are highest for high Mg# cpx, and these concentrations decrease toward lower Mg# compositions. These trends are the opposite of those seen in basalt cpx which generally show increasing incompatible trace element contents with decreasing Mg#, and are unlike antithetic compatible-incompatible trace element trends produced by chemical or kinetic effects of crystal growth. Petrographic observations and major and trace element zonation in cpx phenocrysts indicate that primitive Aleutian adakites are in part the product of mixing between primitive and relatively evolved magmas. The adakite trace element signature (high Sr, Nd/Yb) is clearly associated with the primitive mixing end-member. This observation supports the idea that adakites are derived by equilibration of slab melts with mantle olivine, and appears to rule out an origin by melting in the lower crust. Adakites are relatively rare in the Aleutians, but arc-wide correlations between Sr and La/Yb indicates that an adakite-type slab melt component may be present in the magmatic source throughout the arc.

  10. Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin information status and research planning meeting.

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K. E.; Krummel, J. R.; Hayse, J. W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Stull, E. A.; Gorenflo, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-26

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant ecological and natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea continental shelf including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals including federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012 and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) were contracted to assist the MMS Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region in identifying and prioritizing information needs related to the North Aleutian Basin and potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities. The overall approach focused on three related but separate tasks: (1) identification and

  11. Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified

  12. "Home Work" and Nineteenth-Century West Virginia Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Barbara J.

    This paper investigates the paid employment of mid-nineteenth century women, especially female heads of households, in two West Virginia cities. During this period, Wheeling was a large industrial city and major transportation center, while Morgantown was an isolated college town. An examination of census entries and city directories for Wheeling…

  13. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the

  14. Unusually large tsunamis frequent a currently creeping part of the Aleutian megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, Robert C.; Carver, Gary A.; Briggs, Richard W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Koehler, Richard D.; La Selle, SeanPaul; Bender, Adrian M.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Hill, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Current models used to assess earthquake and tsunami hazards are inadequate where creep dominates a subduction megathrust. Here we report geological evidence for large tsunamis, occurring on average every 300-340 years, near the source areas of the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These areas bookend a postulated seismic gap over 200 km long where modern geodetic measurements indicate that the megathrust is currently creeping. At Sedanka Island, evidence for large tsunamis includes six sand sheets that blanket a lowland facing the Pacific Ocean, rise to 15 m above mean sea level, contain marine diatoms, cap terraces, adjoin evidence for scour, and date from the past 1700 years. The youngest sheet and modern drift logs found as far as 800 m inland and >18 m elevation likely record the 1957 tsunami. Previously unrecognized tsunami sources coexist with a presently creeping megathrust along this part of the Aleutian Subduction Zone.

  15. Unusually large tsunamis frequent a currently creeping part of the Aleutian megathrust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Carver, G.A.; Briggs, Richard; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Koehler, R.D.; La selle, Seanpaul M.; Bender, Adrian M.; Engelhart, S.E.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Hill, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Current models used to assess earthquake and tsunami hazards are inadequate where creep dominates a subduction megathrust. Here we report geological evidence for large tsunamis, occurring on average every 300–340 years, near the source areas of the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These areas bookend a postulated seismic gap over 200 km long where modern geodetic measurements indicate that the megathrust is currently creeping. At Sedanka Island, evidence for large tsunamis includes six sand sheets that blanket a lowland facing the Pacific Ocean, rise to 15 m above mean sea level, contain marine diatoms, cap terraces, adjoin evidence for scour, and date from the past 1700 years. The youngest sheet, and modern drift logs found as far as 800 m inland and >18 m elevation, likely record the 1957 tsunami. Modern creep on the megathrust coexists with previously unrecognized tsunami sources along this part of the Aleutian Subduction Zone.

  16. A new population of Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) on Adak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Talbot, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    We report and describe a new population of the endangered Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) discovered on Mount Reed, Adak Island, Alaska. The new population is located at a lower elevation than the other known populations, placing the species' known elevational range between 338 m and 525 m. The discovery of this population is significant because it increases the total number of known populations and individuals for the species.

  17. Observations of deep long-period (DLP) seismic events beneath Aleutian arc volcanoes; 1989-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, J.A.; Stihler, S.D.; White, R.A.; Moran, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Between October 12, 1989 and December 31, 2002, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 162 deep long-period (DLP) events beneath 11 volcanic centers in the Aleutian arc. These events generally occur at mid- to lower-crustal depths (10-45 km) and are characterized by emergent phases, extended codas, and a strong spectral peak between 1.0 and 3.0 Hz. Observed wave velocities and particle motions indicate that the dominant phases are P- and S-waves. DLP epicenters often extend over broad areas (5-20 km) surrounding the active volcanoes. The average reduced displacement of Aleutian DLPs is 26.5 cm2 and the largest event has a reduced displacement of 589 cm2 (or ML 2.5). Aleutian DLP events occur both as solitary events and as sequences of events with several occurring over a period of 1-30 min. Within the sequences, individual DLPs are often separated by lower-amplitude volcanic tremor with a similar spectral character. Occasionally, volcano-tectonic earthquakes that locate at similar depths are contained within the DLP sequences. At most, Aleutian volcanoes DLPs appear to loosely surround the main volcanic vent and occur as part of background seismicity. A likely explanation is that they reflect a relatively steady-state process of magma ascent over broad areas in the lower and middle portions of the crust. At Mount Spurr, DLP seismicity was initiated by the 1992 eruptions and then slowly declined until 1997. At Shishaldin Volcano, a short-lived increase in DLP seismicity occurred about 10 months prior to the April 19, 1999 eruption. These observations suggest a link between eruptive activity and magma flux in the mid- to lower-crust and uppermost mantle.

  18. Geological and operational summary, North Aleutian Shelf Coast No. 1 well, Bering Sea, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    Discusses the first continental offshore stratigraphic test well drilled in the North Aleutian Basin Planning Area, Bering Sea, Alaska. The well was drilled to determine the hydrocarbon potential of the area. The report covers drilling operations; lithology and core data; velocity analysis; geologic setting and tectonic framework; seismic stratigraphy; well-log interpretation and lithostratigraphy; paleontology and biostratigraphy; geothermal gradient; organic geochemistry; abnormal formation pressure; geologic hazards and shallow geology; and environmental considerations.

  19. Four new species of Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Haplosclerida are described from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Callyspongia mucosa n.sp., Cladocroce infundibulum n. sp., Cladocroce attu n. sp. and Cladocroce kiska n. sp. The new species are described and compared to congeners of the region. This is the northernmost record of the genus Callyspongia and the first record of the subgenus Callyspongia from the North Pacific Ocean. To accommodate Cladocroce kiska in its genus the definition has to be broadened to allow sigmas. PMID:26106744

  20. Craniometric variation in the Aleutians: integrating morphological, molecular, spatial, and temporal data.

    PubMed

    Ousley, Stephen D; Jones, Erica B

    2010-12-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward about the origins and evolution of the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. Both Hrdlička [The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants (Philadelphia: Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945)] and Laughlin ["The Alaska gateway viewed from the Aleutian Islands," in Papers on the Physical Anthropology of the American Indian, W. S. Laughlin, ed. (New York: Viking Fund, 1951), 98-126] analyzed cranial morphology and came to somewhat different conclusions using a typological approach and limited analytical methods. Subsequent investigations using morphological data have not significantly improved our understanding of Aleut prehistory. More recently, radiocarbon dating and mitochondrial DNA analyses have shed light on Aleut genetic variation and changes over time, but better morphological methods using multivariate statistical analysis have not yet been used. We analyzed craniometric data using multivariate procedures and found that Aleuts demonstrate significant changes in cranial morphology over time, and these changes correspond to Hrdlička's observations but may not necessarily reflect in-migration. The morphological changes were concentrated in the very aspects of morphology that are easily observable and that Hrdlička most often measured, namely, cranial length, breadth, and height, but they were obscured when craniometric variation as a whole was analyzed. Also, we found that the morphological changes over time were not related to the changes in haplogroup frequencies over time, suggesting that migration into the Aleutians did not play a significant role in producing the morphological changes. However, craniometric variability apparently increases over time, suggesting in-migration, localized selection, and/or greater environmental heterogeneity. Our results contradict Laughlin's observations but may be more in line with his hypothesis of in situ evolutionary changes absent gene flow. In addition to

  1. A new climatological oceanic eddy census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Evan; Pascual, Ananda; Pujol, Isabel; Faugère, Yannice; Delepoulle, Antoine; Briol, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    We present a new climatological oceanic eddy census dataset based on gridded sea level anomalies from satellite altimeter observations that is due for release by Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO). The identification and automated tracking of oceanic eddies is carried out using the py-eddy-tracker of Mason et al. (2014). Daily outputs of eddy properties (including position, radius, amplitude and nonlinearity) covering the period 1993-2013 over the global domain are presented and discussed. Validation and comparison is made with the published global eddy track database of Chelton et al. (2011).

  2. A Water Census of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on the development of a water census of the United States, and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  3. GLORIA imagery links sedimentation in Aleutian Trench to Yakutat margin via surveyor channel

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.R.; Bruns, T.R.; Mann, D.M.; Stevenson, A.J. ); Huggett, Q.J. )

    1990-06-01

    GLORIA side-scan sonar imagery shows that the continental slope developing along the active margin of the Gulf of Alaska is devoid of large submarine canyons, in spite of the presence of large glacially formed sea valleys that cross the continental shelf. In the western and northern Gulf, discontinuous, actively growing deformation structures disrupt or divert the downslope transport of sediment into the Aleutian Trench. To the east of Middleton Island, the slope is intensively gullied and incised only by relatively small canyons. At the base of the gullied slope between Pamplona Spur and Alsek Valley, numerous small slope gullies coalesce into three turbidity current channels that merge to form the Surveyor deep-sea channel. About 350 km from the margin, the channel crosses the structural barrier formed by the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount chain and heads south for another 150 km where it bends northerly, perhaps influenced by the oceanic basement relief of the Patton Seamounts. The channel, now up to 5 km wide and deeply entrenched to 450 m, continues northerly for 200 km where it intercepts the Aleutian Trench, some 700 km from the Yakutat margin. South of Surveyor Channel, GLORIA imagery revealed evidence of another older channel. The older channel meanders through a gap in the seamount chain and eventually bends northwesterly. This now inactive, largely buried channel may have carried turbidity currents to the Aleutian Trench concurrent with the active Surveyor Channel.

  4. Census, CD-ROM, and You! New Horizons for Microcomputer Users of Census Bureau Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Data User Services Div.

    This introductory guide to Census Bureau data that is currently available to microcomputer users on compact disc (CD-ROM) begins by explaining the types of information available, how CD-ROM works, and the hardware and software required to access the databases using a microcomputer. Descriptions of data currently available on CD-ROM include…

  5. Geology and 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Akutan Volcano, Eastern Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, M. L.; Jicha, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating and new whole-rock geochemical analyses are used to establish an eruptive chronology for Akutan volcano, Akutan Island, in the eastern Aleutian island arc. Akutan Island (166° W, 54.1° N) is the site of long-lived volcanism and the entire island comprises volcanic rocks as old as 3.3 Ma (Richter et al., 1998, USGS Open-File 98-135). Our current focus is on the 225 km2 western half of the island, which is home to the Holocene active cone, Holocene to latest Pleistocene satellite vents, and underlying middle Pleistocene volcanic basement rocks. Eruptive products span the tholeiitic-calc-alkaline boundary, are medium-K, and range from basalt to dacite. Furnace incremental heating experiments on groundmass separates of 38 samples resulted in 29 40Ar/39Ar ages. The remainder did not yield radiogenic 40Ar contents and are likely Holocene in age. The oldest ages (1251×10 and 1385×12 ka) are from a wedge of flat-lying dissected lavas north of the Holocene cone; these likely represent the upper part of the volcanic basement that underlies the entire island. Above a major unconformity lie basaltic andesite to dacite lavas that range from 765× 4 to 522×8 ka. The eroded remnants of the source volcano for these flows appears to crop out as a series of variably hydrothermally altered breccias and domes 5 km east-northeast of the current summit. A 625 m-tall eroded basaltic center, Lava Peak, sits 6 km northwest of the summit; its deeply incised western flank exposes lava flows and a plug. Two flows are dated at 598×16 and 602×15 ka. A high ridge 1.5 km south of the summit is made of oxidized, mostly andesitic lavas 284-249 ka old; these are presumably the remnants of an eruptive center located near the current cone. Flat Top Peak, 3.5 km southwest of the summit, produced almost exclusively basalts and six dated lavas range from 155×8 to 98×18 ka. Lavas from Flat Top (1065 m asl) are deeply eroded suggesting extensive ice cover during marine isotope

  6. The Mass Census for RESOLVE and ECO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila; Stark, David; Moffett, Amanda J.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Baker, Ashley; Lagos, Claudia; Norris, Mark A.; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We quantify the stellar, baryonic, and dynamical mass census for galaxies and groups in the volume-limited RESOLVE and ECO surveys, which are complete for galaxies with baryonic mass >10^9 Msun. First, we present optimized methods of stellar and gas mass estimation based on newly reprocessed multi-wavelength imaging, deep fractional mass-limited 21cm data, and a probability density field approach to the photometric gas fractions technique. Second, we examine the stellar and baryonic mass functions for RESOLVE and ECO, including an analysis of how galaxy mass functions vary between distinct, physically motivated group halo mass regimes. These "conditional" mass functions display complex substructure suggesting that the galaxy population is shaped through satellite destruction and merging during the process of multiple-occupancy group formation. Third, we present the group-integrated stellar and baryonic mass functions and examine the cold baryon fraction of groups as a function of group halo mass. We find that group halo mass measurements based on abundance matching and dynamical mass estimates sometimes disagree, pointing to the existence of a wide range of cold baryon fractions in groups at intermediate halo mass. Finally, we provide a brief overview of RESOLVE's dynamical mass census, which relies on new 3D optical spectroscopy probing both stellar and gas kinematics. This work has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614, the NC Space Grant Graduate Research Fellowship Program, and a UNC Royster Society of Fellows Dissertation Completion Fellowship.

  7. Exploring Paleoclimatic and -Oceanographic Consequences for Arctic Beringia by the Eocene Formation and Progressive E-W Lengthening of the Aleutian Ridge (arc) Across the North Pacific Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: During the past ~50 Myr, magmatic growth of the offshore Aleutian Ridge (AR) or arc and its progressive tectonic lengthening to the west cordoned off the NW corner of the Pacific Basin to formed the deep water (3000-4000 m), marginal sea of the Bering Sea Basin (BSB). Cordoning continuously altered the paths, depths, and locations of water-exchange passes controlling the circulation of waters between the north Pacific and the Bering Sea (BS), and, via the fixed Bering Strait, that entering the Pacific sector of the Arctic Basin. PRESENT PATTERN OF PACIFIC-BERING-ARCTIC WATER EXCHANGE: Cool, low salinity water of the Alaska Stream flowing west along the Pacific side of the AR crosses northward into the BS via tectonically controlled, inter-island passes. The largest volume (~9 SV) enters near the western end of the AR via Near Pass. Flow turns back to the east and CCW northward over the BSB. Surface water exits southward around the western end of the AR through the far western, deep-water (~4000 m) pass of Kamchatka Strait. Because water salinity is low, vertical thermohaline circulation (THC) does not occur over the BSB. However, the deposition of the larger Meiji Drift body, which is charged with Bering-sourced, detritus, on the Pacific side of Kamchatka Strait implies THC may have occurred in the past. Deep-water circulation is presently linked to the inflow of Pacific abyssal water via Kamchatka Strait. A small volume (~0.8 SV) of cool, low salinity water entering the BS mainly through eastern, shallow-silled passes continues northward across the broad Beringian shelf to enter the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait. EVOLUTION OF ALEUTIAN RIDGE: At it's inception, the arc massif of the AR likely extended only about 1200 km west of Alaska. Because convergence is increasingly oblique to the west, plate-boundary-driven, right-lateral strike-slip faulting extensionally fragmented the AR and progressively rotated and transported blocks and slivers

  8. 75 FR 13484 - Renewal of the Census Advisory Committees on the Race and Ethnic Populations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Bureau of the Census Renewal of the Census Advisory Committees on the Race and Ethnic Populations AGENCY... Advisory Committee on the African American Population, Census Advisory Committee on the American Indian and Alaska Native Populations, Census Advisory Committee on the Asian Population, Census Advisory...

  9. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679 Wildlife and... 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open...

  10. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  11. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  12. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  13. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table 24 to Part 679... Table 24 to Part 679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area...

  14. Seismic Census Technique for African Elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. D.; O'Connell-Rodwell, C. E.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    Large mammal populations are difficult to census and monitor in remote areas. In particular, elephant populations in Central Africa are difficult to census due to dense forest making aerial surveys impractical. Conservation management would be improved by a census technique that was accurate and precise, did not require large efforts in the field, and could record numbers of animals over a period of time. We report a new detection technique that relies on sensing the footfalls of large mammals. Geophones were used to record the footfalls of elephants and other large mammal species at a water hole in Etosha National Park, Namibia. We were able to discriminate between species using the spectral content of their footfalls with an 85% accuracy rate while only using a single geophone. This was done using correlation coefficients comparing the shape of the spectra for various species. An ANOVA found significant differences between these correlation coefficients (F4,1785 = 147.78, P = 0.000). An estimate of the energy created by passing elephants (the area under the amplitude envelope) can be used to estimate the number of elephants passing the geophone. Our best regression line plotting number of elephants versus energy recorded in the geophone explained 55% of the variance in the data. Much of the unexplained variance is due to the variation in distance from the geophone to the passing elephants. By subjecting the recordings to a narrow band-pass filter and using beamforming techniques on array data, we believe that we can control for the variation in distance between animal and geophones, and thus achieve better estimates of the number of animals passing the array. Using 7 pairs of geophones in a linear array, we offset the pairs of time series to correspond with the time delay associated with the signal intersecting the pair of geophones at increments of 2 degrees. The offset time series were then summed and the RMS value calculated. The largest RMS value was then

  15. Alaska: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates, input…

  16. New Mexico: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates,…

  17. Use of the United States Census in Social Studies Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Charles

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can use U.S. census data in secondary U.S. history classes. Four census-based activities dealing with the themes of social mobility among Detroit and Alabama Blacks, definition of megalopolis, poverty in Boston, and Irish immigrants in Walpole, Massachusetts, in 1850 are described. (AM)

  18. School Census; A Means for Identifying Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Handicapped Children.

    Whereas the question included on handicapped children in the 1965 school census in Madison (Wisconsin) yielded incomplete results, the 1966 school census employing a questionnaire identified 314 handicapped children not in school. Of these, 50% were enrolled in an educational program, 52% were male, 58% were preschoolers, and 42% were aged 6 to…

  19. 75 FR 29508 - The 2010 Census Count Question Resolution Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ..., indicate on a map the location of the governmental unit boundary in dispute and show where the Census... challenged address on a map containing 2010 Census Tract and tabulation block(s). Non-City Style Address... Tribal area government must provide the exact location for each challenged address on a map...

  20. Census Tracts More Precisely Define Rural Populations and Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John B.; Swanson, Linda L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of census tracts in place of counties to identify metro and nonmetro components of a five-level "rural-urban continuum." Application of the system to Arizona, South Carolina, and Minnesota demonstrates the superiority of census tracts in providing a more precise territorial delineation of areas and classification of population in…

  1. Thermal imagery for census of ungulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wride, M. C.; Baker, K.

    1977-01-01

    A Daedalus thermal linescanner mounted in a light single engine aircraft was used to image the entire 270 square kilometers within the fenced perimeter of ElK Island Park, Alberta, Canada. The data were collected during winter, 1976 in morning and midday (overcast conditions) processed and analyzed to obtain a number for total ungulates. Five different ungulate species were present during the survey. Ungulates were easily observed during the analysis of linescanner imagery and the total number of ungulates was established at 2175 compared to figures of 1010 and 1231 for visual method aerial survey results of the same area that year. It was concluded that the scanner was much more accurate and precise for census of ungulates than visual techniques.

  2. The 1990 World Population and Housing Census Programme.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    A population census is the primary source of demographic information for every country. In planning for the 1990 round of censuses, the international community has adopted a number of recommendations for changes for countries and regions to consider in planning for and carrying out their census. In particular, alternatives for the measurement of economic activity have been proposed in order to obtain a more realistic indication of employment and unemployment in countries where the agriculture and informal sectors are important. New recommendations have also been made for the measurement of stocks and flows of international migrants. In each of the major regions, recommendations have been adapted to local concerns. Preparations are being made for technical cooperation in the 190 census round, and a calendar of the census dates in all countries is shown to be nearly complete. PMID:12342618

  3. Census Cities Project and Atlas of Urban and Regional Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Census Cities Project has several related purposes: (1) to assess the role of remote sensors on high altitude platforms for the comparative study of urban areas; (2) to detect changes in selected U.S. urban areas between the 1970 census and the time of launching of an earth-orbiting sensor platform prior to the next census; (3) to test the utility of the satellite sensor platform to monitor urban change (When the 1970 census returns become available for small areas, they will serve as a control for sensor image interpretation.); (4) to design an information system for incorporating graphic sensor data with census-type data gathered by traditional techniques; (5) to identify and design user-oriented end-products or information services; and (6) to plan an effective organizational capability to provide such services on a continuing basis.

  4. Data from the 2011 International Piping Plover Census

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott-Smith, Elise; Bidwell, Mark; Holland, Amanda E.; Haig, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides results from the 2011 International Census of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus). Distribution and abundance data for wintering and breeding Piping Plovers are summarized in tabular format. An appendix provides census data for every site surveyed in every state, province, and island. The 2011 winter census resulted in the observation of 3,973 Piping Plovers. Expanded coverage outside of the United States led to the discovery of more than 1,000 Piping Plovers wintering in the Bahamas. The breeding census detected 2,771 birds in Atlantic Canada and the Plains, Prairies, and Great Lakes regions of the United States and Canada. Combining the census count with the U.S. Atlantic “window census” provides a total minimum estimate of 5,723 breeding birds for the species.

  5. 77 FR 18790 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the 2020 Census Field Tests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... directed to Erin Love, Census Bureau, HQ-3H468E, Washington, DC 20233; (301) 763-2034 (or via the Internet at erin.s.love@census.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The U.S. Census Bureau...

  6. 75 FR 16424 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census Coverage Measurement Final Housing Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census Coverage Measurement Final Housing.... Abstract The 2010 Census Coverage Measurement (CCM) Final Housing Unit Followup and Final Housing Unit... for previous coverage measurement programs were designed to measure only net coverage error,...

  7. Evidence from Census 2000 about Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women. Census 2000 Special Reports. CENSR-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Daniel H.

    2004-01-01

    This report looks at the distribution of earnings by occupation for all workers and separately for men and women as reported on the Census 2000 long form. Earnings include wages, salaries, and self-employment income (see Text Box: What is "Earnings"? for more details). Whereas income questions have been asked on the decennial census only since…

  8. Pacific Basin tsunami hazards associated with mass flows in the Aleutian arc of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Watts, Philip; Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze mass-flow tsunami generation for selected areas within the Aleutian arc of Alaska using results from numerical simulation of hypothetical but plausible mass-flow sources such as submarine landslides and volcanic debris avalanches. The Aleutian arc consists of a chain of volcanic mountains, volcanic islands, and submarine canyons, surrounded by a low-relief continental shelf above about 1000–2000 m water depth. Parts of the arc are fragmented into a series of fault-bounded blocks, tens to hundreds of kilometers in length, and separated from one another by distinctive fault-controlled canyons that are roughly normal to the arc axis. The canyons are natural regions for the accumulation and conveyance of sediment derived from glacial and volcanic processes. The volcanic islands in the region include a number of historically active volcanoes and some possess geological evidence for large-scale sector collapse into the sea. Large scale mass-flow deposits have not been mapped on the seafloor south of the Aleutian Islands, in part because most of the area has never been examined at the resolution required to identify such features, and in part because of the complex nature of erosional and depositional processes. Extensive submarine landslide deposits and debris flows are known on the north side of the arc and are common in similar settings elsewhere and thus they likely exist on the trench slope south of the Aleutian Islands. Because the Aleutian arc is surrounded by deep, open ocean, mass flows of unconsolidated debris that originate either as submarine landslides or as volcanic debris avalanches entering the sea may be potential tsunami sources. To test this hypothesis we present a series of numerical simulations of submarine mass-flow initiated tsunamis from eight different source areas. We consider four submarine mass flows originating in submarine canyons and four flows that evolve from submarine landslides on the trench slope. The flows have lengths

  9. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

    2006-11-01

    Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

  10. Subsidence at Kiska volcano, Western Aleutians, detected by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Masterlark, Timothy; Power, J.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C.

    2002-01-01

    Sequential interferometric synthetic aperture radar images of Kiska, the westernmost historically active volcano in the Aleutian arc, show that a circular area about 3 km in diameter centered near the summit subsided by as much as 10 cm from 1995 to 2001, mostly during 1999 and 2000. An elastic Mogi-type deformation model suggests that the source is within 1 km of the surface. Based on the shallow source depth, the copious amounts of steam during recent eruptions, and recent field reports of vigorous steaming and persistent ground shaking near the summit area, we attribute the subsidence to decreased pore-fluid pressure within a shallow hydrothermal system beneath the summit area.

  11. Double Glacier Volcano, a 'new' Quaternary volcano in the eastern Aleutian volcanic arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, B.L.; Lanphere, M.A.; Miller, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Double Glacier Volcano (DGV) is a small dome complex of porphyritic hornblende andesite and dacite that is part of the Cook Inlet segment of Quaternary volcanoes of the eastern Aleutian arc. Its discovery reduces the previously described large volcano gap in Cook Inlet segment to a distance similar to that between other volcanoes in the area. DGV lavas are medium-K, calcalkaline andesites and dacites with concentrations of major and minor elements similar to the other Quaternary volcanoes of the Cook Inlet segment. Available K-Ar ages indicate that DGV was active 600-900 ka. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Distinctly different parental magmas for plutons and lavas in the central Aleutian arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Rioux, M. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.; Bolge, L.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    While it is generally agreed that continental crust is generated by arc magmatism, average arc lavas are basaltic while the bulk continental crust is andesitic, and this has led to many models for secondary reprocessing of the arc crust in order to form continental crust. We report new data on calc-alkaline plutons in the central Aleutians showing that they have distinctly different sources compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas. Therefore the lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks from the central Aleutian arc show higher SiO2 at a given Mg#, higher ɛNd- and ɛHf-values, and lower Pb isotope ratios than Holocene volcanic rocks from the same region. Instead, the plutonic rocks resemble volcanics from the western Aleutians isotopically, and have chemical compositions similar to bulk continental crust. These data could reflect temporal variation of Aleutian magma source compositions, from Eocene-Miocene "isotopically depleted" and predominantly calc-alkaline to Holocene "isotopically enriched" and predominantly tholeiitic. Alternatively, they may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons and lavas: calc-alkaline magmas with higher Si content and high viscosity may preferentially form plutons, perhaps after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. The latter case implies that the upper and middle arc crust is more like the calc-alkaline bulk composition of the continental crust than the lavas alone. Crustal reprocessing mechanisms that preserve upper and middle arc crust, while removing lower arc crust, can account for the genesis and evolution of continental crust. Since gabbroic lower arc crust extends from ca 20-40 km depth, and is density stable over most of this depth range, "delamination" of dense lithologies [1] may not be sufficient to accomplish this. Alternatively

  13. The Aleutian Tsunami of 1946: the Compound Earthquake-Landslide Source and Near-Field Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, G. J.; Yamazaki, Y.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The tsunami of April 1, 1946, spread death and destruction throughout the Pacific from the Aleutians to Antarctica, and produced exceptional runup, 42 m, at Scotch Cap on Unimak Island in the near field. López & Okal (2006) showed that the triggering earthquake was at least MW = 8.6, large enough to explain the far-field tsunami but still requiring a landslide or other secondary source to achieve the local runup. No convincing landslide was found until von Huene, et al (2014) merged all available multibeam data and reprocessed a old multichannel line to show that a feature on the Aleutian Terrace they call Lone Knoll (LK) is the displaced block of a translational slide. From 210Pb dating of push cores taken near the summit of LK, we find that a disruption in sedimentation occurred in 1946 at one site, but sedimentation was not disrupted at another site nearby. We infer that the slide block moved coherently at a speed close to the threshold for erosion of the hemipelagic clays. From GLORIA sidescan, Fryer, et al (2004) had earlier tentatively identified LK as a landslide deposit, but if the tsunami crossed the shallow Aleutian Shelf at the long-wave speed, that landslide had to extend up to the shelf edge to satisfy the known 48-min travel time to Scotch Cap. The resulting landslide was enormous, and a multibeam survey later in 2004 showed that it could not exist. The slide imaged by von Huene, et al is far smaller, with a headwall 30 km downslope at a depth of 3 km. The greater distance demands that the tsunami travel much faster across the shelf. The huge runup, however, suggests that wave height was a significant fraction of the water depth (only 80 m), so the tsunami probably crossed the Aleutian Shelf as a bore. From modeling the landslide-generated tsunami with a shock-capturing dispersive code we infer that it did indeed cross the shelf as a bore traveling at roughly twice the long-wave speed. We are still exploring the dependence of the tsunami on slide

  14. Ensemble-based methods for forecasting census in hospital units

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to accurately forecast census counts in hospital departments has considerable implications for hospital resource allocation. In recent years several different methods have been proposed forecasting census counts, however many of these approaches do not use available patient-specific information. Methods In this paper we present an ensemble-based methodology for forecasting the census under a framework that simultaneously incorporates both (i) arrival trends over time and (ii) patient-specific baseline and time-varying information. The proposed model for predicting census has three components, namely: current census count, number of daily arrivals and number of daily departures. To model the number of daily arrivals, we use a seasonality adjusted Poisson Autoregressive (PAR) model where the parameter estimates are obtained via conditional maximum likelihood. The number of daily departures is predicted by modeling the probability of departure from the census using logistic regression models that are adjusted for the amount of time spent in the census and incorporate both patient-specific baseline and time varying patient-specific covariate information. We illustrate our approach using neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) data collected at Women & Infants Hospital, Providence RI, which consists of 1001 consecutive NICU admissions between April 1st 2008 and March 31st 2009. Results Our results demonstrate statistically significant improved prediction accuracy for 3, 5, and 7 day census forecasts and increased precision of our forecasting model compared to a forecasting approach that ignores patient-specific information. Conclusions Forecasting models that utilize patient-specific baseline and time-varying information make the most of data typically available and have the capacity to substantially improve census forecasts. PMID:23721123

  15. Implementation of a model for census prediction and control.

    PubMed Central

    Swain, R W; Kilpatrick, K E; Marsh, J J

    1977-01-01

    A model is described that predicts hospital census and computes, for each day, the number of elective admissions that will maximize the census over the short run, subject to constraints on the probability of overflow. Where a computer is available the model provides detailed predictions of census in units as small as 10 beds; used with manual computation the model allows production of tables of the recommended numbers of elective admissions to the hospital as a whole. The model has been tested in five hospitals and is part of the admissions system in two of them; implementation is described, and the results obtained are discussed. PMID:591350

  16. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  17. Aleutian lead isotopic data: additional evidence for the evolution of lithospheric plumbing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.D.; Marsh, B.D.

    1987-07-01

    Lead isotopic ratios and concentrations have been measured in lavas from the Aleutian volcanic centers of Adak (12) and Atka (12). Lead contents in lavas from Atka increase four-fold over the compositional range of the volcanic suite. In contrast, Adak lavas have concentration levels of 0.6-13 ppm and display no simple correlation with SiO/sub 2/. The lead isotopic data alone can be explained by three different processes. Model 1 assigns lead isotopic differences to original magma source heterogeneity. According to Model 2, the isotopic ratios of a primary, non-radiogenic component from the mantle are elevated by the addition of an isotopically enriched slab-derived component. In contrast, Model 3 assumes a primary radiogenic magma produced by melting of the slab is contaminated by a non-radiogenic lithospheric component during conduit formation. Because these models all adequately explain the lead isotopic data, supplementary geologic, petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data must be used to select the most likely model. Careful consideration of the evidence suggests Model 3 best explains their extensive lead isotopic data as well as other characteristics of Aleutian lavas. The authors study suggests detailed isotopic studies of individual volcanic centers can be extremely useful in understanding the complex processes of magma generation, extraction, ascent and evolution.

  18. Multi-segment earthquakes and tsunami potential of the Aleutian megathrust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shennan, I.; Bruhn, R.; Plafker, G.

    2009-01-01

    Large to great earthquakes and related tsunamis generated on the Aleutian megathrust produce major hazards for both the area of rupture and heavily populated coastlines around much of the Pacific Ocean. Here we use paleoseismic records preserved in coastal sediments to investigate whether segment boundaries control the largest ruptures or whether in some seismic cycles segments combine to produce earthquakes greater than any observed since instrumented records began. Virtually the entire megathrust has ruptured since AD1900, with four different segments generating earthquakes >M8.0. The largest was the M9.2 great Alaska earthquake of March 1964 that ruptured ???800 km of the eastern segment of the megathrust. The tsunami generated caused fatalities in Alaska and along the coast as far south as California. East of the 1964 zone of deformation, the Yakutat microplate experienced two >M8.0 earthquakes, separated by a week, in September 1899. For the first time, we present evidence that earthquakes ???900 and ???1500 years ago simultaneously ruptured adjacent segments of the Aleutian megathrust and the Yakutat microplate, with a combined area ???15% greater than 1964, giving an earthquake of greater magnitude and increased tsunamigenic potential. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury concentrations of a resident freshwater forage fish at Adak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Leah A; von Hippel, Frank A; Willacker, James J; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-11-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is an isolated arc of over 300 volcanic islands stretching 1,600 km across the interface of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Although remote, some Aleutian Islands were heavily impacted by military activities from World War II until recently and were exposed to anthropogenic contaminants, including mercury (Hg). Mercury is also delivered to these islands via global atmospheric transport, prevailing ocean currents, and biotransport by migratory species. Mercury contamination of freshwater ecosystems is poorly understood in this region. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) collected from eight lakes at Adak Island, an island in the center of the archipelago with a long military history. Mean THg concentrations for fish whole-body homogenates for all lakes ranged from 0.314 to 0.560 mg/kg dry weight. Stickleback collected from seabird-associated lakes had significantly higher concentrations of THg compared to non-seabird lakes, including all military lakes. The δ(13)C stable isotope ratios of stickleback collected from seabird lakes suggest an input of marine-derived nutrients and/or marine-derived Hg. PMID:22912068

  20. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS OF A RESIDENT FRESHWATER FORAGE FISH AT ADAK ISLAND, ALEUTIAN ARCHIPELAGO, ALASKA

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Leah A.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Willacker, James J.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is an isolated arc of over 300 volcanic islands stretching 1,600 km across the interface of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Although remote, some Aleutian Islands were heavily impacted by military activities from World War II until recently and were exposed to anthropogenic contaminants, including mercury (Hg). Mercury is also delivered to these islands via global atmospheric transport, prevailing ocean currents, and biotransport by migratory species. Mercury contamination of freshwater ecosystems is poorly understood in this region. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) collected from eight lakes at Adak Island, an island in the center of the archipelago with a long military history. Mean THg concentrations for fish whole-body homogenates for all lakes ranged from 0.314 to 0.560 mg/kg dry weight. Stickleback collected from seabird-associated lakes had significantly higher concentrations of THg compared to non-seabird lakes, including all military lakes. The δ13C stable isotope ratios of stickleback collected from seabird lakes suggest an input of marine-derived nutrients and/or marine-derived Hg. PMID:22912068

  1. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of Aleutian convergent-margin basins - ridge crest to trench floor

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, D.W.; Ryan, H.F.; Geist, E.L.; Vallier, T.L.; Stevenson, A.J.; Childs, J.R. )

    1988-02-01

    The Aleutian Ridge lies along nearly 2000 km of the north Pacific's obliquely converging plate boundary with North America. Since middle Eocene time, convergent-margin basins have repeatedly formed here, typically as summit basins along the ridge crest, and as forearc basins on the landward trench slope. Summit and forearc basins formed as a consequence of plate-boundary coupling and the application of compressional and right-lateral shear stresses to the arc massif. Basins typically evolved along shear zones in response to transtensional processes, and as trailing-edge grabens behind rotating blocks of arc massif. In the late Cenozoic, high rates of trench sedimentation led to the growth of an accretionary complex that underthrust forearc basement. Wedging and improved plate coupling elevated and laterally shifted blocks of outer forearc rocks, creating much of the structural framework of the regionally extensive Aleutian Terrace forearc basin. Changes in plate-boundary conditions that affected the ridge's volcanic activity and regional elevation importantly influenced basinal sedimentation. Changes of greatest significance were a major shift in convergence direction and rate about 42 Ma (reduced volcanism), ridge underthrusting by increasingly younger ocean crust in Oligocene and Miocene time (arc elevation), and the combination of more orthogonal underthrusting and the subduction of a dead spreading center 5-10 Ma (arc subsidence).

  2. Structural and stratigraphic evolution of Aleutian convergent-margin basins - Ridge crest to trench floor

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, D.W.; Ryan, H.F.; Geist, E.L.; Vallier, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Aleutian Ridge lies along nearly 2,000 km of the north Pacific's obliquely converging plate boundary with North America. Since middle Eocene time, convergent-margin basins have repeatedly formed here, typically as summit basins along the ridge crest, and as forecarc basins on the landward trench slope. Thick (1-4 km) sequences of terrigenous, hemipelagic, and biogenic debris have accumulated in these depressions, which are mostly intra-arc structures floored by arc-basement rocks. Summit and forearc basins formed as a consequence of plate-boundary coupling and the application of compressional and right-lateral shear stresses to the arc massif. Basins typically evolved along shear zones in response to transtensional processes, and as trailing-edge grabens behind rotating blocks of arc massif. In the late Cenozoic, high rates of trench sedimentation led to the growth of an accretionary complex that underthrust forearc basement. Wedging and improved plate coupling elevated and laterally shifted blocks of outer forearc rocks, creating much of the structural framework of the regionally extensive Aleutian Terrace forearc basin. Changes in plate-boundary conditions that affected the ridge's volcanic activity and regional elevation importantly influenced basinal sedimentation. Changes of greatest significant were a major shift in convergence direction and rate about 42 Ma (reduced volcanism), ridge underthrusting by increasingly younger ocean crust in Oligocena and Miocene time (arc elevation), and the combination of more orthogonal underthrusting and the subduction of a dead spreading center 5-120 Ma (arc subsidence).

  3. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2015-11-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California. PMID:25445322

  4. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  5. 75 FR 69597 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod in the Bering...

  6. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and an apportionment from the non-specified reserve of groundfish (76 FR 17360, March 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  11. 75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    .../processors using hook-and-line in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on November 16, 2009 (74 FR 59918... catcher Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands.../processors using hook-and-line gear in the BSAI. Classification This action responds to the best...

  12. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...NMFS has requested the Center for Independent Experts (CIE) to conduct a peer review of the agency's economic data collection program for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization program. The CIE, operated by Northern Taiga Ventures, Inc., provides independent peer reviews of NMFS's fisheries stock assessments and other science products. The......

  13. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...

  14. 77 FR 74161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Program. Regulations implementing these amendments were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are... blue king crab, and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab. The North Region is north of 54 20' N... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery...

  15. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...

  16. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pribilof blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Pribilof red king and blue king crab), and (6) St. Matthew blue king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is also St. Matthew blue... Aleutian Islands red king, $237,588.04; (5) For Pribilof red king and Pribilof blue king,...

  17. 78 FR 35771 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  18. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  19. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  20. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  1. 77 FR 26212 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  2. 76 FR 65975 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  3. 77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  4. 75 FR 6129 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  5. 76 FR 10780 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 1539... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  6. 78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  7. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... GOA (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and apportionment of non-specified reserves (76 FR 53840, August 30... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  8. 78 FR 16195 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC311 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and 2014 Harvest Specifications...

  9. 75 FR 11778 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...NMFS announces final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications and prohibited species catch allowances for the groundfish fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to establish harvest limits for groundfish during the 2010 and 2011 fishing years, and to accomplish the goals and objectives of the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the BSAI......

  10. Reliability and validity of disability questions for US Census 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, E M; Fitch, C A; McLendon, P M; Meyers, A R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the validity and proxy reliability of 7 new disability questions from the 2000 US census ("Census 2000"). METHODS: A total of 131 people with disabilities and their proxies from St Louis, Mo, and Massachusetts were interviewed, and responses were compared for concordance. Responses also were compared with responses to questions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) instrument. RESULTS: Overall, proxies reported more impairment than did people with disabilities, and agreement was low (kappa = 0.24-0.55). Concordance was moderate between the census questions and their BRFSS and ADL counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The Census 2000 questions may not provide an accurate profile of disability in America. PMID:10937013

  11. Drawing Statistical Inferences from Historical Census Data, 1850–1950

    PubMed Central

    DAVERN, MICHAEL; RUGGLES, STEVEN; SWENSON, TAMI; ALEXANDER, J. TRENT; OAKES, J. MICHAEL

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all quantitative microdata used by social scientists derive from samples that incorporate clustering, stratification, and weighting adjustments (Kish 1965, 1992). Such data can yield standard error estimates that differ dramatically from those derived from a simple random sample of the same size. Researchers using historical U.S. census microdata, however, usually apply methods designed for simple random samples. The resulting p values and confidence intervals could be inaccurate and could lead to erroneous research conclusions. Because U.S. census microdata samples are among the most widely used sources for social science and policy research, the need for reliable standard error estimation is critical. We evaluate the historical microdata samples of the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) project from 1850 to 1950 in order to determine (1) the impact of sample design on standard error estimates, and (2) how to apply modern standard error estimation software to historical census samples. We exploit a unique new data source from the 1880 census to validate our methods for standard error estimation, and then we apply this approach to the 1850–1870 and 1900–1950 decennial censuses. We conclude that Taylor series estimation can be used effectively with the historical decennial census microdata samples and should be applied in research analyses that have the potential for substantial clustering effects. PMID:19771946

  12. [SIN census 2008: the nephrologist's workload].

    PubMed

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Postorino, Maurizio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Limido, Aurelio; Dal Canton, Antonio; Balducci, Alessandro; Contu, Bruno; Salomone, Mario; Nordio, Maurizio; Levialdi Ghiron, Jung Hee; Viglino, Giusto; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Coppo, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a first analysis of data of the second survey promoted by the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN), with particular regard to data referring to the nephrologist's workload. The survey was carried out through a Web-based questionnaire that participants could fill in online between March and December 2010. The data were validated against those of the Italian Dialysis and Transplant Registry (RIDT) and therefore refer to 31 December 2008, the date of the last RIDT report. Accurate completion of the questionnaires and reminders were monitored by the presidents of the regional sections of the SIN and the regional registries' chairpersons under the coordination of four area managers and a census committee. The response to the survey represented 42% of all nephrology centers, treating about 50% of all dialysis patients in Italy. The response percentage varied widely among regions (from 5% to 100% of the centers). After exclusion of the three regions with responses below 10%, it reached 68%, which was sufficient to give an idea of the state of nephrology in Italy. However, due to this wide variability, it was not possible to make an overall comparison of the regional situations, hence data for complex and simple structures were assessed separately. Despite the limits due to the incomplete participation in the survey, this article provides a clear description of the state of nephrology in Italy. The results confirm the hypothesis presented in the work of Bocconi Cergas, namely that the nephrology market is broader than nephrologists are able to control. The work of the nephrologist, which still seems to be focused mainly on dialysis in its various forms, should be directed more towards the development of methods for early detection of kidney disease and close follow-up. The ultimate aim is the early diagnosis of kidney disease and hence prevention of its complications, so that the focus no longer needs to be on ESKD treatment systems. PMID:22167614

  13. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  14. 75 FR 16078 - Reestablishment of the Census Advisory Committee of Professional Associations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Secretary of Commerce has determined that the reestablishment of an advisory committee of technical advisors is necessary and in the public interest. Accordingly, the Bureau of the Census (Census Bureau) has chartered the Census Scientific Advisory Committee (CSAC), which succeeds the Census Advisory Committee of Professional Associations (CACPA). The charter......

  15. 77 FR 13532 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 National Census Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 National Census Test AGENCY: U.S... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Census Bureau must conduct a series of research projects and tests throughout... Decennial Census questionnaire on the Internet. One of the first tests to support this planning effort...

  16. The Child Population: First Data from the 2000 Census. A Kids Count/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.

    This report provides an overview of American children based on the first data released from the 2000 Census. Overall, at 72.3 million in 2000, the number of children recorded in the 2000 Census was the largest in U.S. history. There was a substantial increase in the number of children during the 1990s as the under-18 population grew 8.7 million…

  17. A census of fishes and everything they eat: How the census of marine life advanced fisheries science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dor, Ron; Boustany, Andre M.; Chittenden, Cedar M.; Costello, Mark J.; Moustahfid, Hassan; Payne, John; Steinke, Dirk; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Vanden Berghe, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The Census of Marine Life was a 10-year, international research effort to explore poorly known ocean habitats and conduct large-scale experimentation with new technology. The goal of Census 2010 in its mission statement was to describe what did live in the oceans, what does live in the oceans, and what will live in the ocean. Many of the findings and techniques from census research may prove valuable in making a transition, which many governments have publicly endorsed, from single-species fisheries management to more holistic ecosystem management. Census researchers sampled continental margins, mid-Atlantic ridges, ocean floor vents and seeps, and abyssal plains and polar seas and organized massive amounts of past and new information in a public online database called the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (www.iobis.org). The census described and categorized seamount biology worldwide for its vulnerability to fishing, advanced large-scale animal tracking with acoustic arrays and satellite archival tags, and accelerated species identification, including nearshore, coral reef, and zooplankton sampling using genetic barcoding and pyrotag sequencing for microbes and helped to launch the exciting new field of marine environmental history. Above all, the census showed the value of investing in large-scale, collaborative projects and sharing results publicly.

  18. Amphibious Magnetotelluric Investigation of the Aleutian Arc: Mantle Melt Generation and Migration beneath Okmok Caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenak, G.; Key, K.; Bennington, N. L.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors controlling the release of volatiles from the downgoing slab, the subsequent generation of melt in the overlying mantle wedge, the migration of melt to the crust, and its evolution and emplacement within the crust are important for advancing our understanding of arc magmatism and crustal genesis. Because melt and aqueous fluids are a few orders of magnitude more electrically conductive than unmelted peridotite, the conductivity-mapping magnetotelluric (MT) method is well-suited to imaging fluids and melt beneath arc volcanoes. Here we present conductivity results from an amphibious MT profile crossing Okmok volcano in the central Aleutian arc. The Aleutian arc is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America, making it an ideal location for studying arc magnetism. Okmok volcano, located on the northeastern portion of Umnak Island, is among the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian chain. In addition to two caldera-forming events in the Holocene, numerous eruptions in the past century indicate a robust magmatic supply. Previous coarse resolution seismic studies have inferred a crustal magma reservoir. In order to investigate the role fluids play in melting the mantle wedge, how melts ascend through the corner flow regime of the mantle wedge, how melt migrates and is stored within the upper mantle and crust, and how this impacts explosive caldera forming eruptions, we carried out an amphibious geophysical survey across the arc in June-July 2015. Twenty-nine onshore MT stations and 10 offshore stations were collected in a 3D array covering Okmok, and 43 additional offshore MT stations completed a 300 km amphibious profile starting at the trench, crossing the forearc, arc and backarc. Thirteen onshore passive seismic stations were also installed and will remain in place for one year to supplement the twelve permanent stations on the island. Data collected by this project will be used to map seismic velocity and electrical

  19. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  20. The Census of Objects within 10 Parsecs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Winters, Jennifer G.; Dieterich, Sergio; Finch, Charlie T.; Hambly, Nigel C.; Ianna, Philip A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.; RECONS Team

    2016-01-01

    The sample of stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets known within 10 parsecs of our Solar System as of January 1, 2015 is presented. All systems have trigonometric parallaxes of 100 mas or more with errors of 10 mas or less. Included in the sample are 12 systems in the southern sky added to the sample via new parallaxes from the RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) effort at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m.The census consists of 366 stars (including the Sun and white dwarfs), 37 brown dwarfs, and 34 planets (eight in our Solar System and 26 exoplanets). Red dwarfs clearly dominate the sample, accounting for 75% of all stars known within 10 pc, while brown dwarfs are currently outnumbered 10 to 1 by stars. The completeness of the sample is assessed, indicating that additional discoveries of red, brown, and white dwarfs within 10 pc, both as primaries and secondaries, are likely, although we estimate that roughly 90% of the stellar systemshave been identified. The evolution of the 10 pc sample over the past 70 years is outlined to illustrate the growth of the sample. The luminosity and mass functions are described. In contrast to many studies, once all known close multiples are resolved into individual components, the true stellar mass function rises to the end of the main sequence. With far fewer brown dwarfs than stars, different formation scenarios for objects that fuse hydrogen and those that do not are likely. Of 270 stellar primaries, 28% have companion stars, only 2% have brown dwarf companions, and 6% have detected planets. The planetary rate so far is low but climbing, while searches forbrown dwarf companions to stars within 10 pc have been quite rigorous, so the brown dwarf companion rate is unlikely to rise noticeably. Overall, the solar neighborhood is dominated by small stars that are potentially orbited by many small, as yet unseen, planets.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402, AST-1109445, and AST-1412026, and

  1. Status of the Archaeal and Bacterial Census: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Rene A.; Martin, Thomas; Edwards, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A census is typically carried out for people across a range of geographical levels; however, microbial ecologists have implemented a molecular census of bacteria and archaea by sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. We assessed how well the census of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences is proceeding in the context of recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies because full-length sequences are typically used as references for classification of the short sequences generated by newer technologies. Among the 1,411,234 and 53,546 full-length bacterial and archaeal sequences, 94.5% and 95.1% of the bacterial and archaeal sequences, respectively, belonged to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that have been observed more than once. Although these metrics suggest that the census is approaching completion, 29.2% of the bacterial and 38.5% of the archaeal OTUs have been observed more than once. Thus, there is still considerable diversity to be explored. Unfortunately, the rate of new full-length sequences has been declining, and new sequences are primarily being deposited by a small number of studies. Furthermore, sequences from soil and aquatic environments, which are known to be rich in bacterial diversity, represent only 7.8 and 16.5% of the census, while sequences associated with host-associated environments represent 55.0% of the census. Continued use of traditional approaches and new technologies such as single-cell genomics and short-read assembly are likely to improve our ability to sample rare OTUs if it is possible to overcome this sampling bias. The success of ongoing efforts to use short-read sequencing to characterize archaeal and bacterial communities requires that researchers strive to expand the depth and breadth of this census. PMID:27190214

  2. Mid-Pliocene Planktic Foraminifer Census Data and Alkenone Unsaturation Indices from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 677A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Marci; Caballero, Rocio; Pohlman, Emily; Herbert, Timothy; Peck, Victoria; Dowsett, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of mid-Pliocene climatic and oceanographic conditions. One of the key elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages in conjunction with other proxies to constrain estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST) and to identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses. Raw census data are made available as soon as possible after analysis through a series of reports that provide the basic data for future work. In this report we present raw census data (table 1) for planktic foraminifer assemblages in 14 samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 677A. We also present alkenone unsaturation index (UK'37) analyses for 89 samples from ODP Hole 677A (table 2). ODP Hole 677A is located in the Panama basin, due west of Ecuador at 1?12.138'N., 83?44.220'W., in 3461.2 meters of water (fig. 1). A variety of statistical methods have been developed to transform foraminiferal census data in Pliocene sequences into quantitative estimates of Pliocene SST. Details of statistical techniques, taxonomic groupings, and oceanographic interpretations are presented in more formal publications (Dowsett and Poore, 1990, 1991; Dowsett, 1991, 2007a,b; Dowsett and Robinson, 1998, 2007; Dowsett and others, 1996, 1999).

  3. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  4. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Bruce Albert

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  5. Topographical analysis of the G virion of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Barnard, D L; Johnson, F B

    1992-01-01

    The topography of the Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) G virion was analyzed with monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antiserum. There was homology between the two major structural proteins as others have previously reported. Trypsin treatment of the virion with subsequent immunoblotting revealed that VP2 represents the main peptide on the exterior of virion and that VP1 is probably embedded within the capsid. Additional analyses of the trypsin-treated virions showed that VP2 is responsible for binding complement and that it also represents the structural part of the virion that binds to cellular receptors. A third protein, p34, was detected that might represent a third structural polypeptide because of its many unique epitopes relative to the other peptides detected. PMID:1280944

  6. Detection and characterization of transient forcing episodes affecting earthquake activity in the Aleutian Arc system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverso, T.; Marsan, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2015-02-01

    Crustal, slow deformation transients can be caused by fluid or magmatic intrusions, and by slow slip on faults. They can affect earthquake dynamics, if they occur close to or within seismically active zones. We here further develop, and test, a statistical method for detecting and characterizing seismicity anomalies that is only based on earthquake occurrence times and locations. We make use of this method to analyze the 2004-2013 seismicity at mc = 3.5 in the Aleutian subduction system, to find six statistically significant anomalies, with typical 1 day duration and 30 to 50 km size, that are likely related to slow deformation transients. They tend to be located in zones characterized by intermediate seismic coupling, and to mark the termination of past large to mega-thrust earthquakes. These anomalies account for a non-negligible (9%) part of the total activity, proving that non-stationary aseismic loading plays an important role in the dynamics of crustal deformation.

  7. Challenges in making a seismic hazard map for Alaska and the Aleutians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.; Boyd, O.S.; Mueller, C.S.; Frankel, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    We present a summary of the data and analyses leading to the revision of the time-independent probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Alaska and the Aleutians. These maps represent a revision of existing maps based on newly obtained data, and reflect best current judgments about methodology and approach. They have been prepared following the procedures and assumptions made in the preparation of the 2002 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the lower 48 States, and will be proposed for adoption in future revisions to the International Building Code. We present example maps for peak ground acceleration, 0.2 s spectral amplitude (SA), and 1.0 s SA at a probability level of 2% in 50 years (annual probability of 0.000404). In this summary, we emphasize issues encountered in preparation of the maps that motivate or require future investigation and research.

  8. Remodeling census population with spatial information from Landsat TM imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, Y.; Smith, R.M.; Limp, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    In geographic information systems (GIS) studies there has been some difficulty integrating socioeconomic and physiogeographic data. One important type of socioeconomic data, census data, offers a wide range of socioeconomic information, but is aggregated within arbitrary enumeration districts (EDs). Values reflect either raw counts or, when standardized, the mean densities in the EDs. On the other hand, remote sensing imagery, an important type of physiogeographic data, provides large quantities of information with more spatial details than census data. Based on the dasymetric mapping principle, this study applies multivariable regression to examine the correlation between population counts from census and land cover types. The land cover map is classified from LandSat TM imagery. The correlation is high. Census population counts are remodeled to a GIS raster layer based on the discovered correlations coupled with scaling techniques, which offset influences from other than land cover types. The GIS raster layer depicts the population distribution with much more spatial detail than census data offer. The resulting GIS raster layer is ready to be analyzed or integrated with other GIS data. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Report on phase 2 of 1990 OSSA data census

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 NASA Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) data census contributed significantly to a database intended to identify and briefly describe all archived data and potentially archive-desirable data from active and inactive NASA/OSSA spaceflight investigations. This database is being created at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) and will be more comprehensive than the databases describing data held at individual sites such as NSSDC. Active investigations are defined as those flying on currently operational spacecraft or those that flew on recently operational spacecraft for which project-coordinated data archiving is continuing. Inactive investigations are those that flew on spacecraft that are no longer operational, and for which systematic archiving has ended. The principal purpose of this report is to describe phase two of the 1990 census. The previously reported phase one of this census, as well as a relevant 1981 census, are briefly discussed. The phase two survey instrument is described, those surveyed and respondents/reponses are identified, and data sets from inactive OSSA investigations discovered during the 1990 census (phase two) are briefly discussed individually.

  10. Census Cities Project and atlas of urban and regional change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    The research design and imagery utilization for urban applications of remote sensing are reviewed, including the combined use of sensor and census data and aircraft and spacecraft sensor platforms. The related purposes of the Census Cities Project are elucidated: (1) to assess the role of remote sensors on high altitude platforms for comparative study of urban areas; (2) to detect changes in selected U.S. urban areas between the 1970 census and the time of launching of an earth-orbiting sensor platform prior to next census; (3) to test the satellite sensor platform utility to monitor urban change and serve as a control for sensor image interpretation; (4) to design an information system for incorporating graphic sensor data with census-type data gathered by traditional techniques; (5) to identify and to design user-oriented end-products or information services; and (6) to ascertain what organizational capability would be needed to provide such services on a continuing basis. A need to develop not only a spatial data information system, but also a methodology for detecting and interpreting change is implied.

  11. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: interspecific and locational differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:24727640

  12. Genetic structure of the Common Eider in the western Aleutian Islands prior to fox eradication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Wilson, Robert E.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Byrd, G. Vernon; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 18th century bird populations residing in the Aleutian Archipelago have been greatly reduced by introduced arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We analyzed data from microsatellite, nuclear intron, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci to examine the spatial genetic structure, demography, and gene flow among four Aleutian Island populations of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) much reduced by introduced foxes. In mtDNA, we found high levels of genetic structure within and between island groups (ΦST = 0.643), but we found no population subdivision in microsatellites or nuclear introns. Differences in genetic structure between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are consistent with the Common Eider's breeding and winter biology, as females are highly philopatric and males disperse. Nevertheless, significant differences between islands in the mtDNA of males and marginal significance (P =0.07) in the Z-linked locus Smo 1 suggest that males may also have some level of fidelity to island groups. Severe reduction of populations by the fox, coupled with females' high philopatry, may have left the genetic signature of a bottleneck effect, resulting in the high levels of genetic differentiation observed in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.460–0.807) between islands only 440 km apart. Reestablishment of the Common Eider following the fox's eradication was likely through recruitment from within the islands and bolstered by dispersal from neighboring islands, as suggested by the lack of genetic structure and asymmetry in gene flow between Attu and the other Near Islands.

  13. Mt. St. Augustine, Alaska: Geochemical evolution of an eastern Aleutian volcanic center

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.E. . Dept. of Geology); Harmon, R.S. . Kingsley Dunham Centre); Moorbath, S. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Sigmarsson, O. )

    1993-04-01

    Mt. St. Augustine is a calc-alkaline Quaternary volcano, situated within Cook Inlet, Alaska. The island is composed of low- to medium-K andesite and dacite domes and pyroclastic flows. Major element variations indicate the magmatic evolution is dominantly influenced by fractionation and magma-mixing processes. Incompatible element and isotopic compositions suggest that despite its continental location, crustal assimilation is not significant factor in magmatic evolution. Alkali contents for Augustine are generally lower than elsewhere in the Aleutians (e.g. Augustine Cs/Rb = 0.016--0.024, K/Rb = 372--553; Aleutians Cs/Rb = 0.016--0.17, K/Rb = 231--745). Sr- and Nd-isotope ratios encompass narrow ranges ([sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr = 0.70317--0.70343; [sup 143]Nd/[sup 144]Nd = 0.513011--0.513085), characteristic of uncontaminated mantle-derived melts. U-Th disequilibrium isotopic values also indicate little or no assimilation of evolved continental crust. Pb-isotopic ranges are also relatively restricted ([sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 18.62--18.82; [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 15.54--15.57; [sup 208]Pb/[sup 204]Pb = 38.18--38.34) and comparison with north Pacific enriched (OIB) and depleted (MORB) mantle sources suggest the incorporation of only a small percentage of subducted terrigenous sediments. A model for Augustine magma genesis is proposed where parental magmas are generated by 5--20% partial melting of a lherzolite mantle with up to a 5% subducted terrigenous sediment component. The major influence of the thickened continental crust is to prevent the ascent and eruption of basaltic magma. The data exhibit no temporal variations, indicating that the magmatic system which produced the historic eruptions is well established.

  14. Uses of the 1980 census for Hispanic health services research.

    PubMed

    Giachello, A L; Bell, R; Aday, L A; Andersen, R M

    1983-03-01

    The 1980 Census data provide a valuable resource for health services research on Hispanics. Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States and yet there is a paucity of large-scale empirical research on their health care and access needs. This paper describes how the census can assist in: 1) estimating the overall health care needs of this group, 2) identifying target groups within the Hispanic population who may have special health care problems (e.g., children, elderly, pregnant women, etc.); and 3) using other data sources to improve the quality of studies carried out on Hispanics. It also discusses problems in using the census for Hispanic health services research and some strategies for dealing with these problems. PMID:6824113

  15. Energy statistics data finder. [Monograph; energy-related census data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Energy-related data collected by the Bureau of the Census covers economic and demographic areas and provides data on a regular basis to produce current estimates from survey programs. Series report numbers, a summary of subject content, geographic detail, and report frequency are identified under the following major publication title categories: Agriculture, Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade, Service Industries, Construction, Transportation, Enterprise Statistics, County Business Patterns, Foreign Trade, Governments, Manufacturers, Mineral Industries, 1980 Census of Population and Housing, Annual Housing Survey and Travel-to-Work Supplement, and Statistical Compendia. The data are also available on computer tapes, microfiche, and in special tabulations. (DCK)

  16. Incorporating GIS and remote sensing for census population disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shuo-Sheng'derek'

    Census data are the primary source of demographic data for a variety of researches and applications. For confidentiality issues and administrative purposes, census data are usually released to the public by aggregated areal units. In the United States, the smallest census unit is census blocks. Due to data aggregation, users of census data may have problems in visualizing population distribution within census blocks and estimating population counts for areas not coinciding with census block boundaries. The main purpose of this study is to develop methodology for estimating sub-block areal populations and assessing the estimation errors. The City of Austin, Texas was used as a case study area. Based on tax parcel boundaries and parcel attributes derived from ancillary GIS and remote sensing data, detailed urban land use classes were first classified using a per-field approach. After that, statistical models by land use classes were built to infer population density from other predictor variables, including four census demographic statistics (the Hispanic percentage, the married percentage, the unemployment rate, and per capita income) and three physical variables derived from remote sensing images and building footprints vector data (a landscape heterogeneity statistics, a building pattern statistics, and a building volume statistics). In addition to statistical models, deterministic models were proposed to directly infer populations from building volumes and three housing statistics, including the average space per housing unit, the housing unit occupancy rate, and the average household size. After population models were derived or proposed, how well the models predict populations for another set of sample blocks was assessed. The results show that deterministic models were more accurate than statistical models. Further, by simulating the base unit for modeling from aggregating blocks, I assessed how well the deterministic models estimate sub-unit-level populations

  17. A spatial-seasonal analysis of the oiling risk from shipping traffic to seabirds in the Aleutian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Renner, Martin; Kuletz, Kathy J

    2015-12-15

    Some of the largest seabird concentrations in the northern hemisphere are intersected by major shipping routes in the Aleutian Archipelago. Risk is the product of the probability and the severity incidents in an area. We build a seasonally explicit model of seabird distribution and combine the densities of seabirds with an oil vulnerability index. We use shipping density, as a proxy for the probability of oil spills from shipping accident (or the intensity chronic oil pollution). We find high-risk (above-average seabird and vessel density) areas around Unimak Pass, south of the Alaska Peninsula, near Buldir Island, and north of Attu Island. Risk to seabirds is greater during summer than during winter, but the month of peak risk (May/July) varies depending on how data is analyzed. The area around Unimak Pass stands out for being at high-risk year-round, whereas passes in the western Aleutians are at high risk mostly during summer. PMID:26602441

  18. Bayesian probabilities for Mw 9.0+ earthquakes in the Aleutian Islands from a regionally scaled global rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Rhett; Frazer, L. Neil; Templeton, William J.

    2016-05-01

    We use the global rate of Mw ≥ 9.0 earthquakes, and standard Bayesian procedures, to estimate the probability of such mega events in the Aleutian Islands, where they pose a significant risk to Hawaii. We find that the probability of such an earthquake along the Aleutians island arc is 6.5% to 12% over the next 50 years (50% credibility interval) and that the annualized risk to Hawai'i is about $30 M. Our method (the regionally scaled global rate method or RSGR) is to scale the global rate of Mw 9.0+ events in proportion to the fraction of global subduction (units of area per year) that takes place in the Aleutians. The RSGR method assumes that Mw 9.0+ events are a Poisson process with a rate that is both globally and regionally stationary on the time scale of centuries, and it follows the principle of Burbidge et al. (2008) who used the product of fault length and convergence rate, i.e., the area being subducted per annum, to scale the Poisson rate for the GSS to sections of the Indonesian subduction zone. Before applying RSGR to the Aleutians, we first apply it to five other regions of the global subduction system where its rate predictions can be compared with those from paleotsunami, paleoseismic, and geoarcheology data. To obtain regional rates from paleodata, we give a closed-form solution for the probability density function of the Poisson rate when event count and observation time are both uncertain.

  19. Distinctly different parental magmas for calc-alkaline plutons and tholeiitic lavas in the central and eastern Aleutian arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yue; Rioux, Matthew; Kelemen, Peter B.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Bolge, Louise; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cenozoic calc-alkaline plutons that comprise the middle crust of the central and eastern Aleutians have distinct isotopic and elemental compositions compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas in the same region, including those from the same islands. Therefore the Holocene lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Compared to the lavas, the Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks show higher SiO2 at a given Fe/Mg ratio, and have higher εNd-εHf values and lower Pb-Sr isotope ratios. However, the plutonic rocks strongly resemble calc-alkaline Holocene volcanics with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the western Aleutians, whose composition has been attributed to significant contributions from partial melting of subducted basaltic oceanic crust. These data could reflect a temporal variation of central and eastern Aleutian magma source compositions, from predominantly calc-alkaline compositions with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the Paleogene, to tholeiitic compositions with more "enriched" isotopes more recently. Alternatively, the differences between central Aleutian plutonic and volcanic rocks may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons versus lavas. Calc-alkaline parental magmas, with higher SiO2 and high viscosity, are likely to form plutons after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. This conclusion has overarching importance because the plutonic rocks are chemically similar to bulk continental crust. Formation of similar plutonic rocks worldwide may play a key role in the genesis and evolution of continental crust.

  20. Agricultural Census 2012: Publishing Mashable GIS Big Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2012 Agricultural Census was released by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) on May 2nd 2014; published on a quinquennial basis covering all facets of American production agriculture. The Agricultural Census is a comprehensive source of uniform published agricultural data for every state and county in the US. This is the first Agricultural Census that is disseminated with web mapping services using REST APIs. USDA developed an open GIS mashable web portal that depicts over 250 maps on Crops and Plants, Economics, Farms, Livestock and Animals, and Operators. These mapping services written in JavaScript replace the traditional static maps published as the Ag Atlas. Web users can now visualize, interact, query, and download the Agricultural Census data in a means not previously discoverable. Stakeholders will now be able to leverage this data for activities such as community planning, agribusiness location suitability analytics, availability of loans/funds, service center locations and staffing, and farm programs and policies. Additional sites serving compatible mashable USDA Big Data web services are as follows: The Food Environment Atlas, The Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America, The Farm Program Atlas, SNAP Data System, CropScape, and VegScape. All portals use a similar data organization scheme of "Categories" and "Maps" providing interactive mashable web services for agricultural stakeholders to exploit.

  1. 76 FR 53029 - Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... blocks, and use of interactive analysis of population density patterns at the census block level, or by...-rural classification keeps pace with changes in settlement patterns and with changes in theoretical and... actual settlement patterns on the ground in relation to boundaries of administrative units, or...

  2. Who's in the Picture: Comparing Census Data with Newspaper Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Myleea D.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions of what images are portrayed in newspapers and their proportion in comparison to the actual census data provide an opportunity for consideration of how the agenda setting and framing theories of media could affect perceptions of a community and population. In the exercise described here, students are expected to learn a research skill…

  3. 2011 Census of Technology: Missouri Schools K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Census of Technology (COT) is designed to assess Missouri's continuing investment in K-12 education technologies. The COT provides important data for the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) to share with state and national decision-makers to help advance public policy and increase public awareness and support for education…

  4. Grandparents Living with Grandchildren: 2000. Census 2000 Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Tavia; Dye, Jane Lawler

    This report presents information obtained from three questions on the U.S. Census 2000 long form about coresident grandparents, focusing on data from people over age 29 years. Results indicated that the percentage of coresident grandparents varied sharply by race and Hispanic origin. More than half of American Indian and Alaska Native coresident…

  5. 76 FR 12694 - The 2010 Census Count Question Resolution Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... disabilities. Non-institutional GQs include college or university dormitories and residence halls, military... (CQR) Program (75 FR 29508). This notice provides final information concerning the CQR Program. The CQR... FR 25908). The Census Bureau received one set of comments. The comments suggested...

  6. Census of Population: 1970; Subject Reports: Vocational Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This report presents detailed statistics for the population of the United States on the field of vocational training, classified by various social and economic characteristics. The statistics are based on the 1970 Census of Population. The introduction contains information relating specifically to this report, including definitions. The tables…

  7. Students Leaving before Census. Survey Series, Spring 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Pamela M.

    This survey analyzes the characteristics of students who dropped all of their classes at City College of San Francisco (CCSF) before the college's census date. The survey finds that students who drop all of their classes are similar to students who remain enrolled, yet tend to be older, to hold a college-level degree, and to hold at least one…

  8. Demographic Trends in the Twentieth Century. Census 2000 Special Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Frank; Stoops, Nicole

    This report consolidates U.S. Census information from 1900-2000 to illustrate population changes over the 20th century. The population more than tripled, from 76 million in 1900 to 281 million in 2000. It grew increasingly metropolitan each decade. In 1900, half of the population was under 22.9 years old. By 2000, half of the population was over…

  9. Income and Poverty. What the 1990 Census Says about Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichy, John; Craig, William J.

    This report is a look at what the 1990 Census has to say about income and poverty in Minnesota and its major metropolitan area, the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and Saint Paul). The report is organized into five parts, each addressing a different variation on the central theme of income and poverty: (1) Income Overview; (2) Income Types; (3) Poverty…

  10. EPA - NEW ENGLAND CENSUS 2000 POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Region's Potential Environmental Justice (EJ Areas) are based on the 2000 Census Block Group Boundary layer. The methodology used to determine how the areas are coded involved identifying those blockgroups with percentages in the top 15% of the region for low-income res...

  11. CENSUS TIGER ROADS/RAILS/STREAMS FOR EPA REGION 10

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data is available for each county in the region. The information is in line format generally at the 100K scale. In heavily urbanized areas, the roads and streams are from the Census Dime files and in those areas, the stream data is not very accurate. The 100K scale looks ...

  12. The 1820 Census of Manufactures. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann; Schamel, Wynell

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the emergence of employment opportunities for women outside the home. Focuses specifically on the Dover Cotton Factory in Dover, New Hampshire. Provides a reproduction of the page from the 1820 Census of Manufactures that contains information about the Dover Cotton Factory. (Contains document based teaching activities.) (CMK)

  13. Title: Modeling Rupture Through Stable-Sliding Zones and Implications for an Alaskan-Aleutian Megathrust Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, K. J.; Oglesby, D. D.; Geist, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki event and potential earthquakes on the Alaskan-Aleutian Megathrust, we investigate the effects of rate-strengthening friction (e.g., Dieterich, 1992) on rupture propagation and slip. It is known that faults contain stable-sliding zones that may be a result of rate-strengthening friction (e.g. Hyndman et al., 1997; Scholz, 1998). First, using the dynamic finite element code FaultMod (Barall, 2008) we show that simple slip-weakening friction (e.g. Ida, 1972) can serve as a proxy for rate-strengthening friction as derived from the rate-state framework (Dieterich, 1978, 1979; Ruina, 1983, Linker and Dieterich, 1992). In particular, slip-weakening ruptures and rate-state ruptures with equal fracture-energy densities can tunnel through similar-sized stable zones. By properly tuning the frictional parameters in slip-weakening friction, we can closely approximate the effects of rate-strengthening friction on rupture propagation and slip. Second, using dynamic finite element code EQDyna (Duan and Oglesby, 2006) we model 3D ruptures, using slip-weakening friction, along a megathrust geometrically similar to part of the Alaskan-Aleutian megathrust (Hayes et al., 2012). Preliminary homogeneous models (spatially-constant prestress, dip angle, and frictional coefficients) show vertical seafloor displacements of up to 6 meters. Using slip-weakening friction as a proxy for rate-strengthening friction, and given plate-coupling data along the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust assembled from the Science Application for Risk Reduction team (SAFRR) (e.g., Bruns et al., 1987; Hayes et al., 2012; Iinuma et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2004; Santini et al., 2003; Wells et al., 2011), we are able to dynamically model rupture along a megathrust geometrically similar to a portion of the Alaskan-Aleutian megathrust while incorporating accurate coupling data to determine the resultant effects on seafloor displacement. The resultant tsunami of such an earthquake could

  14. The relationship between censuses and civil registration in the Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Dibbs, M C

    1980-01-01

    The author examines the history and use of censuses of civil registration in the Syrian Arab Republic. The reliability and completeness of the civil register and of the census data on which it is based are discussed PMID:12338410

  15. CENSUS DESIGNATED PLACE AND FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) POPULATED PLACEBOUNDARIES FOR THE STATE OF ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set consists of Census Designated Place and Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Populated Place boundaries for the State of Arizona which were extracted from the 1992 U.S. Census Bureau TIGER line files.

  16. A Spitzer Census of the IC 348 Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, August A.; Lada, Charles J.; Luhman, K. L.; Muzerolle, James; Young, Erick

    2007-07-01

    Spitzer mid-infrared surveys enable an accurate census of young stellar objects by sampling large spatial scales, revealing very embedded protostars, and detecting low-luminosity objects. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we present a Spitzer-based census of the IC 348 nebula and embedded star cluster, covering a 2.5 pc region and comparable in extent to the Orion Nebula. Our Spitzer census supplemented with ground-based spectra has added 42 Class II T Tauri sources to the cluster membership and identified ~20 Class 0/I protostars. The population of IC 348 likely exceeds 400 sources after accounting statistically for unidentified diskless members. Our Spitzer census of IC 348 reveals a population of Class I protostars that is anticorrelated spatially with the Class II/III T Tauri members, which comprise the centrally condensed cluster around a B star. The protostars are instead found mostly at the cluster periphery about ~1 pc from the B star and spread out along a filamentary ridge. We further find that the star formation rate in this protostellar ridge is consistent with that rate which built the older exposed cluster, while the presence of 15 cold, starless, millimeter cores intermingled with this protostellar population indicates that the IC 348 nebula has yet to finish forming stars. Moreover, we show that the IC 348 cluster is of order 3-5 crossing times old, and, as evidenced by its smooth radial profile and confirmed mass segregation, is likely relaxed. While it seems apparent that the current cluster configuration is the result of dynamical evolution and its primordial structure has been erased, our finding of a filamentary ridge of Class I protostars supports a model in which embedded clusters are built up from numerous smaller subclusters. Finally, the results of our Spitzer census indicate that the supposition that star formation must progress rapidly in a dark cloud should not preclude these observations that show it can be relatively long lived.

  17. Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, C.; Hobcraft, J.; Hill, K.; Kodjogbé, N.; Mapeta, W. T.; Munene, F.; Naghavi, M.; Rabeza, V.; Sisouphanthong, B.; Campbell, O.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies. PMID:11477969

  18. 4. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Each skin was put on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF BLUBBERING ROOM Each skin was put on a metal mold and stripped of its blubber with a curved knife. The blubber ran off to the left to barrels outside, where it was saved for use in preserving the texture of the skins. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  19. 3. VIEW OF KENCH TANK Used to preserve skins before ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF KENCH TANK Used to preserve skins before processing, the skins were placed in tanks in layers, alternating with salt. Some skins and salt remain. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  20. 2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through hatches, seen on rear wall, and washed of blood and flesh in redwood tanks, with wooden grates to hold skins down in water. Superstructure and screening on tanks are a later alteration, unrelated to this process. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  1. An introduced predator alters Aleutian Island plant communities by thwarting nutrient subsidies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maron, J.L.; Estes, J.A.; Croll, D.A.; Danner, E.M.; Elmendorf, S.C.; Buckelew, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The ramifying effects of top predators on food webs traditionally have been studied within the framework of trophic cascades. Trophic cascades are compelling because they embody powerful indirect effects of predators on primary production. Although less studied, indirect effects of predators may occur via routes that are not exclusively trophic. We quantified how the introduction of foxes onto the Aleutian Islands transformed plant communities by reducing abundant seabird populations, thereby disrupting nutrient subsidies vectored by seabirds from sea to land. We compared soil and plant fertility, plant biomass and community composition, and stable isotopes of nitrogen in soil, plants, and other organisms on nine fox-infested and nine historically fox-free islands across the Aleutians. Additionally, we experimentally augmented nutrients on a fox-infested island to test whether differences in plant productivity and composition between fox-infested and fox-free islands could have arisen from differences in nutrient inputs between island types. Islands with historical fox infestations had soils low in phosphorus and nitrogen and plants low in tissue nitrogen. Soils, plants, slugs, flies, spiders, and bird droppings on these islands had low d15N values indicating that these organisms obtained nitrogen from internally derived sources. In contrast, soils, plants, and higher trophic level organisms on fox-free islands had elevated d15N signatures indicating that they utilized nutrients derived from the marine environment. Furthermore, soil phosphorus (but not nitrogen) and plant tissue nitrogen were higher on fox-free than fox-infested islands. Nutrient subsidized fox-free islands supported lush, high biomass plant communities dominated by graminoids. Fox-infested islands were less graminoid dominated and had higher cover and biomass of low-lying forbs and dwarf shrubs. While d15N profiles of soils and plants and graminoid biomass varied with island size and distance from

  2. Seismic Velocity and Thickness of Sediments Beneath the Aleutian Basin, Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheirer, D. S.; Barth, G. A.; Sliter, R. W.; Hart, P. E.; Childs, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The thickness and seismic velocity structure of sediments of the Aleutian Basin were mapped during a 2011 multichannel seismic (MCS) cruise of the R/V Langseth. Combined with legacy MCS, sonobuoy, and scientific drilling data, the Langseth observations allowed us to study the history of sedimentation in this area. Semblance velocity analyses from common-depth-point gathers of the 8-km-long streamer data were conducted at-sea every 6.25 km. Post-cruise, these semblance analyses were refined and supplemented with new analyses where significant basement topography is present. The flat-lying nature of both the seafloor and the within-sediment reflectors allowed determination of interval velocity and thickness values with high precision using the Dix equation. Two prominent bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) are common within the sediment column: a shallower one inferred to represent the base of gas hydrate stability, and a deeper one inferred to represent the diagenetic transformation from opal-A to opal-CT. This latter transition was reached by the one deep hole (Site 190, DSDP Leg19) drilled into the Aleutian Basin, where the lithologic contrast prevented further penetration. The gas hydrate BSR is associated with subvertical velocity-amplitude anomalies, and the opal A/CT transition is associated with a large decrease in reflector amplitudes beneath it, indicating the decrease in acoustic impedance contrasts associated with diagenetic dewatering. Seismic interval velocities range from 1600 m/sec at the top of the sediment column to 2800-3500 m/sec at its base. The largest step in interval velocity occurs at the opal A/CT transition. Interval velocities are laterally continuous over many tens of kilometers, and this continuity allows the generation of seismic travel-time vs. sediment thickness relationships across the basin. A second-degree polynomial relationship between time and thickness, developed by regression of all of the semblance velocity analyses from the

  3. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  4. Gabbroic and Peridotitic Enclaves from the 2008 Kasatochi Eruption, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentner, A.; Nadin, E. S.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nye, C. J.; Neill, O. K.

    2012-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano of the Andreanof Islands in the western Aleutian Arc violently erupted over a two day period from August 7-8, 2008. The eruption involved multiple explosive events generating pyroclastic flows, which included abundant mafic and ultramafic enclaves that have since weathered out and accumulated in talus along the coast. These and other mafic enclaves sampled by modern island arc lavas provide insight into subduction magmatism because they emerge from a section of the subduction system that is less likely than shallower zones to be modified by magmatic processes such as mixing, assimilation, or fractionation. We present new whole rock, clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, and melt compositions from Kasatochi enclaves of the 2008 eruption. The highly crystalline (~40 vol. % phenocryst content), medium-K basaltic andesite host rock contains ~52-55 wt. % SiO2 and 0.6-0.9 wt. % K2O, and is composed of plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene, amphibole, and Ti-magnetite in a microlite-rich groundmass. Upon eruption, this magma sampled two distinct enclave populations: gabbro and peridotite. The gabbro has abundant amphibole (mostly magnesio-hastingsite) and plagioclase with minor clinopyroxene, olivine, and magnetite, while the peridotite is composed of olivine with minor amounts of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. There is little textural variation amongst the peridotitic samples collected, but the gabbroic samples vary from layered to massive and cover a range in grain size from fine-grained to pegmatitic. The layered gabbros display centimeter-scale bands of alternating plagioclase- and amphibole-rich layers, with a strong preferential alignment of the amphibole grains. The coarser-grained samples are very friable, with ~10% pore space; disaggregation of these upon host-magma ascent likely formed the amphibole and plagioclase xenocrysts in the andesitic host. Based on the textural and compositional differences, we divide the enclaves into four groups

  5. Natural Gas and Hydrate Accumulations in the Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, G. A.; Scholl, D. W.; Childs, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    The deep water Aleutian Basin of the Bering Sea is a major storehouse of trapped greenhouse gases. Preliminary volume estimates based on seismic reflection observations easily approach 1000 Tcf of natural gas within the basin. USGS seismic reflection data from the deep water (>3500 m) Bering Sea region include over 20,000 km of single channel profiles coincident with GLORIA sonar tracks acquired during the 1986-7 EEZscan program, plus several older multichannel lines also crossing the deep water Aleutian and Bowers Basins. These airgun-source data all provide images from seafloor to basement, over 3 km of penetration. The basin fill includes generally horizontal and uniform sedimentary reflection sequences, comprising predominantly mudstones and distal turbidites, upon oceanic crust of probable Cretaceous age. In seismic reflection images of these flat-lying sediments, methane chimneys overlain by hydrate caps stand out as distinctive velocity pseudostructures. These velocity-amplitude anomaly structures ("VAMPs") characteristically include a zone of velocity pull-up (attributed to high-seismic-velocity hydrate within the sediment) directly overlying a zone of velocity push-down (attributed to low-seismic-velocity gas in the pore spaces). A prominent hydrate bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is also present throughout the basin. Within the VAMPs, the BSR roughly separates the pull-up from the push-down. Hundreds of VAMPs have been imaged, and thousands must exist within the deep water basin. Individual examples vary widely in lateral extent, focused appearance, and amplitude effects. Some also present a seafloor manifestation of slight doming. Five example case studies are presented, focusing particularly on interval travel time anomalies and quantitative interpretation in terms of presence of hydrate and free gas. Individual large VAMPs (1-3 km across, ˜30 ms pull-up, ˜80 ms push-down) are estimated to contain gas volumes (including hydrate) similar to those of

  6. Children in Puerto Rico: Results from the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    This report provides data on children in Puerto Rico based on the 2000 U.S. Census. It compares the situation of Puerto Rico's children with that of children living in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, noting how characteristics of Puerto Rican children have changed over time. Between 1990-2000, the number of Puerto Rican children…

  7. American Indian and Alaska Native Children in the 2000 Census. A Kids Count/PRB Report on Census, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    Because of their unique social, legal, and political status, American Indians and Alaska Natives are subject to legislative oversight unlike any other group in the United States. Census data are used to monitor the size and characteristics of the American Indian and Alaska Native population living on and off reservations. Passed in 1978 to ensure…

  8. A Census Chronicle--Reflections on the Campaign for a Religion Question in the 2001 Census for England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherif, Jamil

    2011-01-01

    The campaign from 1996-2000 to include the religion question in the 2001 Census for England and Wales was a defining event for Muslim communities in Britain because it provided formal recognition of their collective identity as a faith group, rather than being subsumed in the "black", "Asian" or "Pakistani/Bangladeshi" ethnic categorisations of…

  9. Children in American Samoa: Results of the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Using 2000 U.S. Census data, this report compares the situation of children in American Samoa to children's situations in neighboring territories and the nation overall. Between 1999-2000, the number of children in American Samoa increased 24 percent, while the increase was only 14 percent nationwide during the past decade. In 2000, 45 percent of…

  10. Analysis of Aleutian disease virus infection in vitro and in vivo: demonstration of Aleutian disease virus DNA in tissues of infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Aasted, B; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1985-01-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV) infection was analyzed in vivo and in vitro to compare virus replication in cell culture and in mink. Initial experiments compared cultures of Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with the avirulent ADV-G strain or the highly virulent Utah I ADV. The number of ADV-infected cells was estimated by calculating the percentage of cells displaying ADV antigen by immunofluorescence (IFA), and several parameters of infection were determined. Infected cells contained large quantities of viral DNA (more than 10(5) genomes per infected cell) as estimated by dot-blot DNA-DNA hybridization, and much of the viral DNA, when analyzed by Southern blot hybridization, was found to be of a 4.8-kilobase-pair duplex monomeric replicative form (DM DNA). Furthermore, the cultures contained 7 to 67 fluorescence-forming units (FFU) per infected cell, and the ADV genome per FFU ratio ranged between 2 X 10(3) and 164 X 10(3). Finally, the pattern of viral antigen detected by IFA was characteristically nuclear, although cytoplasmic fluorescence was often found in the same cells. Because no difference was noted between the two virus strains when cultures containing similar numbers of infected cells were compared, it seemed that both viruses behaved similarly in infected cell culture. These data were used as a basis for the analysis of infection of mink by virulent Utah I ADV. Ten days after infection, the highest levels of viral DNA were detected in spleen (373 genomes per cell), mesenteric lymph node (MLN; 750 genomes per cell), and liver (373 genomes per cell). In marked contrast to infected CRFK cells, the predominant species of ADV DNA in all tissues was single-stranded virion DNA; however, 4.8-kilobase-pair DM DNA was found in MLN and spleen. This observation suggested that MLN and spleen were sites of virus replication, but that the DNA found in liver reflected sequestration of virus produced elsewhere. A final set of experiments examined MLN taken

  11. Childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional insight into small-scale geographical inequalities from Census data

    PubMed Central

    Kazembe, Lawrence; Clarke, Aileen; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate and quantify childhood mortality, its spatial correlates and the impact of potential correlates using recent census data from three sub-Saharan African countries (Rwanda, Senegal and Uganda), where evidence is lacking. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Nation-wide census samples from three African countries participating in the 2010 African Census round. All three countries have conducted recent censuses and have information on mortality of children under 5 years. Participants 111 288 children under the age of 5 years in three countries. Primary and secondary outcome measures Under-five mortality was assessed alongside potential correlates including geographical location (where children live), and environmental, bio-demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Multivariate analysis indicates that in all three countries the overall risk of child death in the first 5 years of life has decreased in recent years (Rwanda: HR=0.04, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.09; Senegal: HR=0.02 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.05); Uganda: HR=0.011 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.018). In Rwanda, lower deaths were associated with living in urban areas (0.79, 0.73, 0.83), children with living mother (HR=0.16, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.17) or living father (HR=0.38, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.39). Higher death was associated with male children (HR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.08) and Christian children (HR=1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.27). Children less than 1 year were associated with higher risk of death compared to older children in the three countries. Also, there were significant spatial variations showing inequalities in children mortality by geographic location. In Uganda, for example, areas of high risk are in the south-west and north-west and Kampala district showed a significantly reduced risk. Conclusions We provide clear evidence of considerable geographical variation of under-five mortality which is unexplained by factors considered in the data. The resulting under-five mortality maps can be used as a

  12. Census Data: Geographic Significance and Classroom Utility. NCGE Pacesetters in Geography Series. No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dent, Bordon D., Ed.

    The volume contains essays and classroom activities on a variety of U. S. and Canadian census materials. Designed to present census data in a less formidable manner than it is usually presented, it is intended for social studies teachers and college professors who want to introduce census materials in their classrooms. Essays treat various…

  13. Why Are Young Children Missed so Often in the Census? KIDS COUNT Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.

    2009-01-01

    The Decennial Census is the most important data collection activity undertaken by the U.S. federal statistical system. Because census data are used to apportion Congress and draw redistricting lines for thousands of state and local single-member districts to meet the one-person/one-vote guidelines, the census is at the heart of the political…

  14. Who Was Thaddeus Lee? Using the 1940 Digitized Census for Personalized Historical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Friedman, Adam; Bolick, Cheryl Mason; Mink, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Once every 10 years, the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) makes millions of U.S. census records available for use by eager historians and genealogists. The release of a new batch of census records is a highly anticipated event, but only for the select few who are able to access the published microfilm versions of the census.…

  15. Maine: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series. EC02-61A-ME.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years, covering…

  16. User's Manual for 1970 Census Fourth Count (Population) School District Data Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Urbanetics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This user's manual is intended to aid in the use of the Fourth Count (population) School District Data Tapes (SDDTs) derived from the 1970 Census. The manual, which is designed to complement the 1970 Census Users' Guide prepared by the United States Census Bureau, covers sources of the data, structure and contents of the tapes, and use of the…

  17. 1970 Census Fourth Count (Population) School District Data Tapes [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Statistics (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    The Fourth Count (population) School District Data Tapes (SDDTs), derived from the 1970 Census, are presented. Because school districts are not generally coterminous with area organizations used by the 1970 Census, school administrators could not apply the Census data directly. To alleviate this problem, the data tapes, which are a recompilation…

  18. 78 FR 54863 - Bureau of the Census Geographically Updated Population Certification Program (GUPCP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Suspension, 63 FR 27706 (May 20, 1998)). At that time, it was stated that the program would resume in three... taking of the 2010 Census (see 72 FR 46602 (Aug. 21, 2007)). Although there is no legal requirement that... Bureau of the Census Bureau of the Census Geographically Updated Population Certification Program...

  19. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  20. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  1. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  2. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  3. 15 CFR 50.10 - Fee structure for special population censuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fee structure for special population... § 50.10 Fee structure for special population censuses. The Bureau of the Census is authorized to conduct special population censuses at the request of and at the expense of the community concerned....

  4. 77 FR 32138 - Agency Information Collection Agencies: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested Census of Problem...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... Census of Problem-Solving Courts 2012 ACTION: 30-Day notice of information collection under review. The... collection, Census of Problem-Solving Courts (CPSC), 201 2. The title of the form/collection: Census of Problem-Solving Courts or CPSC 2012 3. The agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of...

  5. 77 FR 54557 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content... (NASS) to suspend a currently approved information collection, the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content... Census of Agriculture Content Testing. OMB Control Number: 0535-0243. ] Expiration Date of...

  6. Use of Census Bureau Data in GPO Depository Libraries: Future Issues and Trends. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.; Hernon, Peter

    A discussion piece to assist the U.S. Bureau of the Census in planning for the effective use and dissemination of future census data and products in the Government Printing Office's Depository Library Program (DLP), this report identifies key issues that may affect the role of the DLP in providing the public with access to Census Bureau data. The…

  7. Making Sense of Census 2000--Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. [Teaching Guide]. Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The United States Census Bureau's mission is to be the preeminent collector and provider of timely, relevant, and quality data about the nation's people and economy. The Census 2000 teaching guide aims to help teachers bring the census to life for students. The guide outlines skills that correlate with national standards; fulfills curriculum…

  8. 76 FR 22864 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census Employment Inquiry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... job applicants at the time they are tested. Selecting officials review the information shown on the..., one-time or recurring survey operations at one of the ROs and/ or which require the establishment of a... recruit approximately 61,500 applicants for census jobs (i.e., one-time censuses, special censuses...

  9. Making Sense of Census 2000--Puerto Rico. [Teaching Guide]. Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The United States Census Bureau's mission is to be the preeminent collector and provider of timely, relevant, and quality data about the nation's people and economy. The Census 2000 teaching guide aims to help teachers bring the census to life for students. The guide outlines skills that correlate with national standards; fulfills curriculum…

  10. 2000 CENSUS SUMMARY TABLE FOR GEOGRAPHIC AREA CODES, P.L. 94 - 171

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geographic area codes for the 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Public Law (P.L.)94-171,enacted in 1975,directs the U.S.Census Bureau to make special preparations to provide redistricting data needed by the 50 states.It specifies that within a year following Census Day (by...

  11. Census tract analysis of lead exposure in Rhode Island children.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D; Bailey, A; Simon, P; Blake, M; Dalton, M A

    1997-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in a targeted approach to the screening and prevention of lead exposure in children. Targeted screening requires an understanding of variation in lead exposure in individual children or by region. In order to better understand variation by region, we studied Rhode Island lead poisoning screening data, examining average lead exposure to children living in 136 Providence County census tracts (CTs). The study population included 17,956 children aged 59 months and under, who were screened between May 1, 1992, and April 30, 1993. We evaluated the relationship between the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 10 micrograms/dL (pe10) and sociodemographic and housing characteristics, derived from United States 1990 Census data, of these CTs. CT descriptors included population density, percentage of households receiving public assistance income, median per capita income, percentage of households female headed, percentage of houses owner occupied, percentage of houses built before 1950, percentage of houses vacant, percentage of population Black, percentage of recent immigrants, and intraurban mobility. On average, 109 children were screened in each census tract; mean screening rate was 44%. There was wide variation in average lead exposure among census tracts, with pe10 ranging from 3 to 60% of screened children (mean 27%). Individual census variables explained between 24 and 67% of the variance in pe10 among CTs. A multiple regression model including percentage screened, percentage of households receiving public assistance, percentage of houses built before 1950, In (percentage of houses vacant), and percentage of recent immigrants explained 83% of variance in pe10. The percentage of houses built before 1950, a variable which models the presence of lead paint in old houses, displayed the largest adjusted effect on pe10 over the range observed for that variable in RI CTs. The percentage of houses vacant was also a highly

  12. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida. PMID:26624419

  13. Genetic differentiation of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birt, T.P.; Mackinnon, D.; Piatt, J.F.; Friesen, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the distribution of genetic variation within and among local populations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is needed for effective conservation of this rare and declining species. We compared variation in a 429 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci among 53 Kittlitz's Murrelets from three sites in the western Aleutian Islands (Attu Island) and Gulf of Alaska (Glacier Bay and Kachemak Bay). We found that birds in these two regions differ genetically in three assessments: (1) global and pairwise indices of genetic differentiation were significantly greater than zero, (2) mitochondrial haplotypes differed by a minimum of nine substitutions, and (3) molecular assignments indicated little gene flow between regions. The data suggest that birds in these regions have been genetically isolated for an extended period. We conclude that Kittlitz's Murrelets from Attu Island and from the Gulf of Alaska represent separate evolutionarily significant units, and should be treated as such for conservation. Genetic data for Kittlitz's Murrelets from the remainder of the breeding range are urgently needed.

  14. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    PubMed

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover. PMID:25647590

  15. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, C.J. . Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  16. Cryogenic preservation of semen from the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen containing 6% or 7% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) resulting in 32 fertile eggs and 17 goslings; with 7% DMSO, 19 of 31 eggs were fertile. Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE), adjusted to 270 ? 30 mOs and 7.5 ? 0.4 pH, was used to dilute semen samples and the DMSO before cryopreservation. About half of the live spermatozoa in the fresh semen (92.9 ? 2.5% live cells, laboratory studies; 87.3 ? 7.3%, insemination trials) survived the freeze-thaw process (46.7 ? 7.8%, laboratory; 33.3 ? 17.8%, insemination trials). Samples of frozen-thawed semen contained a greater percentage of bent spermatozoa (27.1 ? 8.4% of live cells) than fresh semen (14.4 ? 3.0% of live cells). Fecal- and urate-contaminated semen (a common problem when collecting goose semen) reduced the sperm motility score from 3.2 ? 0.6 to 2.7? 0.7 and number of live spermatozoa in frozen-thawed semen from 49 ? 9% to 24 ?18%. Other variables examined that had less of an effect on semen quality included semen extenders, semen holding temperature, dilution and equilibration, relationship between hour of semen collection and level of semen contamination, and the relationship between season and sperm concentration.

  17. Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y. J.; Tolstoy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Significant tidal triggering of earthquakes has been observed precursory to the Tohoku and Sumatra megathrust earthquakes (Tanaka 2010; 2012). The appearance of high correlation between tidally-induced stresses and earthquake occurrence frequency several to ten years before these megathrust earthquakes suggests that such statistical analysis could be useful in improving forecasting of future subduction zone earthquakes. Using this statistical method, we analyzed the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone which has been known to produce devastating tsunamigenic earthquakes, and specifically the Semidi Segment that is probably late in its earthquake cycle (Davies et. al. 1981). Our study aims to understand if significant tidal triggering of earthquakes were present precursory to historical great earthquakes in this region. We also aim to understand if any segment along the subduction zone is currently displaying statistically significant tidal triggering of earthquakes and whether such observations are indicative of the stress state of the segment. Finally, we test if the strength of tidal triggering captured by this statistical method is sensitive to the tidal stress azimuth used. Such sensitivity could be indicative of the predominant fault slip direction in the specific segment.

  18. August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  19. Genetic characterization of the complete genome of an Aleutian mink disease virus isolated in north China.

    PubMed

    Xi, Ji; Wang, Jigui; Yu, Yongle; Zhang, Xiaomei; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-01

    The genome of a highly pathogenic strain of Aleutian disease mink virus (AMDV-BJ) isolated from a domestic farm in North China has been determined and compared with other strains. Alignment analysis of the major structural protein VP2 revealed that AMDV-BJ is unique among 17 other AMDV strains. Compared with the nonpathogenic strain ADV-G, the 3' end Y-shaped hairpin was highly conserved, while a 4-base deletion in the 5' U-shaped terminal palindrome resulted in a different unpaired "bubble" group near the NS1-binding region of the 5' end hairpin which may affect replication efficiency in vivo. We also performed a protein analysis of the NS1, NS2, and new-confirmed NS3 of AMDV-BJ with some related AMDV DNA sequence published, providing information on evolution of AMDV genes. This study shows a useful method to obtain the full-length genome of AMDV and some other parvoviruses. PMID:27007772

  20. Neotectonics and recent uplift at Kamchatka and Aleutian arc junction, Kamchatka Cape area, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflanz, Dorthe; Gaedicke, Christoph; Freitag, Ralf; Krbetschek, Matthias; Tsukanov, Nikolay; Baranov, Boris

    2013-04-01

    The tectonic position of the Kamchatka Cape Peninsula at the junction of the active Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian arcs exposes the coastline of the peninsula to strong neotectonic activities. Fracture zones have variable influence on uplift of the Kamchatka Cape Peninsula. Relevant morphologic indicators of neotectonic activity are multilevel, highly uplifted marine terraces and terraces displaced along active faults. Recent uplift rates of coastal sediments are determined by remote sensing via ASTER and SRTM DEM combined with optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL). On the Kamchatka Cape Peninsula, terraces from the same generation are mapped at different elevations by remote sensing methods. After defining different areas of uplifted terraces, four neotectonic blocks are identified. According to apatite fission track data, the mean differential exhumation rates range from 0.2 to 1.2 mm year-1 across the blocks since Late Miocene. The OSL data presented point to significant higher uplift rates of up to 3 ± 0.5 and 4.3 ± 1 mm year-1, which indicates an acceleration of the vertical movement along the coast of Kamchatka Cape Peninsula in Upper Pleistocene and Holocene times.

  1. Microcomputers and minipopulations: the 1981 Cook Islands census.

    PubMed

    Hayes, G R

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents some of the background behind the installation and use of a microcomputer for census processing and briefly reviews the results of the 1981 census in the light of the Cook Islands' special demographic situation. Since independence from New Zealand in 1965, the Cook Islands has gradually developed a capacity for statistics gathering in general and census taking in particular. The 1981 quinquennial census represents a watershed in the development of local personnel without the aid of external advisors; it was the 1st census to be processed within the Cook Islands by means of a computer. Both the installation of the microcomputer and the processing of the 1981 census are counted as successes. This is due to a number of factors, namely: a long period of careful planning procedures which preceded the choice of system and installation; the enthusiasm of the local staff closely involved in the planning; the emphasis on training; tests of the equipment before installation by computer practitioners with knowledge of local needs and capacities; reasonable goal setting; and the supply, with the system, of adequate spare parts tools and maintenance and training manuals. Like many island populations, that of the Cook Islands is characterized by considerable instability as illustrated by the 1981 census results. As the rate and direction of population change varies from island to island, generalizations across the nation as a whole are difficult. For example, while some of the northern atolls experienced population decline during the latest intercensal period, most had their popultion increase in 1981. All the southern islands declined during the 1976-81 period at annual rates varying from 0.6% to 3.2%. The explanation for these patterns of change lies primarily in the different rates and direction of external migration on each island, as Cook Islanders are exempt from immigration regulations to New Zealand and Australia. In recent years, women have formed a

  2. Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses.

    PubMed

    Christopher, A J

    2006-11-01

    All Commonwealth census authorities have posed questions about identity in the millennium round of enumerations. The most controversial issue has been ethnicity. No universal definition or classification system has been devised and each of the 71 states and dependencies has tended to pursue the enquiry in virtual isolation from its neighbours. The attempt to describe the population in terms of race and ethnicity has been inherited from the colonial era. More recently the requirements of monitoring affirmative-action programmes in multicultural populations have resulted in the introduction or refinement of questions on these categories. A few states-a small minority of Commonwealth countries-remain hostile to such enquiries. Where the issues of race and identity are not pursued, questions of nationality, language, and religion often fill the gaps left, adding further refinements to the definition of identity. An examination of current questioning about identity in Commonwealth censuses reveals a highly complex picture. PMID:17060057

  3. Bureau of the Census Center for International Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, Nina Pane

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the organization and activities of the Center for International Research at the Bureau of the Census. There is a formal publication exchange program with other government's statistical programs. This has resulted in the Center's collection being one of the world's largest in the area of international census and demographic information. Foreign statistical publications are in three libraries, one being dedicated to the former Soviet Union and one to the Peoples Republic of China. In addition to the libraries there are two computerized data bases. The International data base is a source of demographic and socio-economic statistics for all countries of the world. The second data base is the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Data Base which contains information related to the publication and dissemination of the results of seroprevalence surveys.

  4. Completing the AGN Census for Nearby Galaxies (Archival Component)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2010-09-01

    The census of AGNs in the local Universe provides an efficient and effective estimate of the occupation fraction of central black holes in galaxies. While the demographics of AGNs in bulge-dominated systems is fairly well known, the situation in later-type galaxies is still murky because of potential optical selection biases. Searching for X-ray cores using Chandra can bypass these complications. We propose to complete the local AGN census by surveying all 188 star-forming (H II) nuclei in the well-studied Palomar sample of nearby galaxies. We request funding to analyze the 85 objects already in the archive; new observations have been proposed for the rest. We will establish with unprecedented reliability the AGN fraction across a wide range in Hubble type and Eddington ratios.

  5. Characteristics of Rural Residents in West Virginia. Results of a 1981 Survey in Nine Counties. Bulletin 683.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colyer, Dale; And Others

    As a result of trends toward increasing instead of decreasing population growth in rural areas (as confirmed by the 1980 Census of Population), a sample of 2,752 rural residents from 967 households in 9 West Virginia counties were surveyed in 1981 to gain information that might be useful in public policy, education, and related programs. The…

  6. Stereo matching based on census transformation of image gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stentoumis, C.; Grammatikopoulos, L.; Kalisperakis, I.; Karras, G.; Petsa, E.

    2015-05-01

    Although multiple-view matching provides certain significant advantages regarding accuracy, occlusion handling and radiometric fidelity, stereo-matching remains indispensable for a variety of applications; these involve cases when image acquisition requires fixed geometry and limited number of images or speed. Such instances include robotics, autonomous navigation, reconstruction from a limited number of aerial/satellite images, industrial inspection and augmented reality through smart-phones. As a consequence, stereo-matching is a continuously evolving research field with growing variety of applicable scenarios. In this work a novel multi-purpose cost for stereo-matching is proposed, based on census transformation on image gradients and evaluated within a local matching scheme. It is demonstrated that when the census transformation is applied on gradients the invariance of the cost function to changes in illumination (non-linear) is significantly strengthened. The calculated cost values are aggregated through adaptive support regions, based both on cross-skeletons and basic rectangular windows. The matching algorithm is tuned for the parameters in each case. The described matching cost has been evaluated on the Middlebury stereo-vision 2006 datasets, which include changes in illumination and exposure. The tests verify that the census transformation on image gradients indeed results in a more robust cost function, regardless of aggregation strategy.

  7. A new weather warning tool that incorporates census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J.; Paxton, C. H.; Hansen, T. L.; Simms, J. L.; Hirvela, K.; Saurabh Kotiyal, S.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the NWS Integrated Hazard Information Services (IHIS) is to transition the current hazard program from a paradigm of issuing products to one of providing information for decision support. This IHIS project is intended to significantly improve the decision making process of emergency managers and other public officials who manage resources during periods of deadly weather, and also better inform the media and public. The IHIS system has two components; internal and external. Forecasters use the internal graphical component to issue watches, warnings, advisories and statements for hazardous weather by zone, county, or polygon. The IHIS system converts all specified areas into polygons and parses the appropriate information from census block data, displaying the results in tabular and graphical formats for use in the warning decision process. As one example, infrastructure such as hospitals and fire stations are available as overlays. The external component of the IHIS system is a Web site accessible to the emergency managers, the media and the public that shows the polygons with accompanying tables and graphs of census and infrastructure information for the specified areas. Interviews of emergency managers and the media provided positive feedback, illustrating the functionality of the data obtained through the graphical tool on the NWS Web site. This presentation will provide an overview of the interface, the method for census data extraction, user feedback and direction for the future.

  8. Locations and focal mechanisms of deep long period events beneath Aleutian Arc volcanoes using back projection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, A. C.; Roman, D. C.; Haney, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep long period (DLP) earthquakes are commonly observed in volcanic settings such as the Aleutian Arc in Alaska. DLPs are poorly understood but are thought to be associated with movements of fluids, such as magma or hydrothermal fluids, deep in the volcanic plumbing system. These events have been recognized for several decades but few studies have gone beyond their identification and location. All long period events are more difficult to identify and locate than volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes because traditional detection schemes focus on high frequency (short period) energy. In addition, DLPs present analytical challenges because they tend to be emergent and so it is difficult to accurately pick the onset of arriving body waves. We now expect to find DLPs at most volcanic centers, the challenge lies in identification and location. We aim to reduce the element of human error in location by applying back projection to better constrain the depth and horizontal position of these events. Power et al. (2004) provided the first compilation of DLP activity in the Aleutian Arc. This study focuses on the reanalysis of 162 cataloged DLPs beneath 11 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc (we expect to ultimately identify and reanalyze more DLPs). We are currently adapting the approach of Haney (2014) for volcanic tremor to use back projection over a 4D grid to determine position and origin time of DLPs. This method holds great potential in that it will allow automated, high-accuracy picking of arrival times and could reduce the number of arrival time picks necessary for traditional location schemes to well constrain event origins. Back projection can also calculate a relative focal mechanism (difficult with traditional methods due to the emergent nature of DLPs) allowing the first in depth analysis of source properties. Our event catalog (spanning over 25 years and volcanoes) is one of the longest and largest and enables us to investigate spatial and temporal variation in DLPs.

  9. [Sequencing Analyses of the Hypervariable Region within the VP2 Gene of a Strain of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Jianjun; Wang, Zhenjun; Ma, Fanshu; Yan, Xijun; Wu, Wei; Xu, Shujuan

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the molecular mechanisms of cross-host transmission of the Aleutian mink disease vi rus (ADV), the hypervariable region fragment of the VP2 gene of the ADV in Jilin Province (China) was amplified. Sequencing analyses showed diversity at residue 174 by comparison with other VP2 genes in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the ADV-JL strain had a close relationship with the highly pathogenic strain from Denmark: ADV-K. Results implied that residue 174 may be associated with ADV infectivity. PMID:26470526

  10. 2. DETAIL OF RUBBLE ABUTMENT AT WEST END OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF RUBBLE ABUTMENT AT WEST END OF WEST MULTNOMAH FALLS VIADUCT. - Historic Columbia River Highway, West Multnomah Falls Viaduct, West of Multnomah Falls on Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  12. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  13. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  14. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  15. 15 CFR 50.40 - Fee structure for statistics for city blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... blocks in the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. 50.40 Section 50.40 Commerce and Foreign Trade... the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. (a) As part of the regular program of the 1980 census, the Census Bureau will publish printed reports containing certain summary population and housing...

  16. History and Organization. U.S. Bureau of the Census--Factfinder for the Nation. CFF No. 4 (Rev.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    This document chronicles the history and organization of census taking in the United States. The first census (1790) counted only free white males, free white females, all other free persons, and the number of slaves. Since that time the need for information has grown and the census has changed to meet new demands. The expansion of the census, the…

  17. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the U.S. in ...

  18. Temporal Variation in Fish Mercury Concentrations within Lakes from the Western Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Leah A.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; von Hippel, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed temporal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Agattu Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Total Hg concentrations in whole-bodied stickleback were measured at two-week intervals from two sites in each of two lakes from June 1 to August 10, 2011 during the time period when lakes were ice-free. Across all sites and sampling events, stickleback Hg concentrations ranged from 0.37–1.07 µg/g dry weight (dw), with a mean (± SE) of 0.55±0.01 µg/g dw. Mean fish Hg concentrations declined by 9% during the study period, from 0.57±0.01 µg/g dw in early June to 0.52±0.01 µg/g dw in mid-August. Mean fish Hg concentrations were 6% higher in Loon Lake (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in Lake 696 (0.53±0.01 µg/g dw), and 4% higher in males (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in females (0.54±0.01 µg/g dw). Loon Lake was distinguished from Lake 696 by the presence of piscivorous waterbirds during the breeding season. Mercury concentrations in stickleback from Agattu Island were higher than would be expected for an area without known point sources of Hg pollution, and high enough to be of concern to the health of piscivorous wildlife. PMID:25029042

  19. Geothermal Drilling In The Aleutians Reveals New Insights On Volcanic History Of Akutan Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, two thermal gradient wells were drilled in the Hot Springs Bay Valley geothermal resource area on Akutan Island, Alaska. Well TG-2 was drilled in the region of hot springs occurrence near the mouth of the valley and reached a depth of 253 m (833'). Well TG-4 was drilled near the head of the valley, closer to the current volcano, and reached a depth of 457 m (1500'). The core recovered from these wells represent the only drill core extracted from an Aleutian volcano to date and reveals an important missing piece of the surficial eruptive and erosional history of the volcano that cannot be determined from surface evaluation of recent eruptive deposits laid down on 500 ka bedrock outcrops. No intrusive rocks were encountered, indicating a rich history of surficial activity. The core is dominated (46% of recovered core) by basaltic lava flow deposits (49-52 wt% SiO2), consistent with other observed deposits on the island. These flows are interspersed with andesite lava flows (20% of core, ranging from 53-58 wt% SiO2), abundant mass wasting deposits (27% of core) and a series of ash and ash tuff layers that are some of the most silicic deposits identified at Akutan (up to 66 wt% SiO2). Ash deposits are restricted to the upper 125 m in both wells, are significantly thicker in TG-4, and are difficult to correlate between the two wells. Mass wasting deposits are diverse, including a subset characterized by matrix-supported heterolithologic breccias enclosed in a crystalline basaltic lava host. A shell-rich zone at 273 meters depth indicates that the transition between sub-marine and sub-aerial activity may be recorded in the core.

  20. Modulation of Aleutian Low and Antarctic Oscillation co-variability by ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Huijun; Gao, Yongqi

    2015-03-01

    We use both the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis data (1979-2013) and the Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 to explore the modulation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the co-variability of the Aleutian Low (AL) and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). The empirical orthogonal function analysis on the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data indicates that after the late-1990s the global sea level pressure (SLP) and 300-hPa geopotential height (Z300) in boreal January are characterized by the concurrence of the AL and the negative phase of the AAO (-AAO). Associated with this AL-AAO co-variation is a sea surface temperature anomaly that resembles the ENSO cycle. Further analyses reveal that the interdecadal change in ENSO signal (westward extension and more La Niña events) is responsible for the co-variability of AL and AAO after the late-1990s. Correspondingly, the El Niño-related anomalous heating and upward motion over the eastern-central equatorial Pacific can lead to the upper-tropospheric divergence in the western-central Pacific. This upper-tropospheric divergence plays an essential role in coupling the equatorial heat anomalies with the variation of the subtropical westerly jet of both hemispheres, and therefore results in the enhanced meridional circulation of the three cells. It thus implies that ENSO might act as a bridge linking AL and AAO after the late-1990s, causing their consistent co-variability. The numerical experiment also supports this hypothesis.

  1. Lava Textures, Magma Crystallization History, and the Dynamics of Merapi and Aleutian Mush Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.; Del Marmol, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The subsurface dynamics of magma in mush columns beneath arc volcanoes is recorded in the textures of the basic lavas. A detailed comparison of lava textures from large mature volcanoes in Indonesia (Merapi) and the Aleutian Islands (Adak and Atka), shows remarkably similar, often indistinguishable, textures of high alumina basalts (HAB) and basaltic andesites (BA). We suggest a systematic characterization of these distinctive textures into a few simple categories reflecting the subsurface history of crystallization within solidification fronts (SFs) and subsequent transport dynamics. The HABs are strongly plagioclase-phyric and of two main groups: A1 consists of large, idiomorphic, mildly zoned, plagioclase (20-30 vol.%) with small amounts of olivine (2-8%) set in a finely crystalline groundmass of these same phases; A2 is similar, but contains an additional pervasive population of large 'old' plagioclase, rounded, often highly zoned, and sometimes broken; A1+ is a subclass of A1 where traces of 'old' plagioclase are present. Similar categories exist in the BA lavas except overall crystallinity is higher and olivine is replaced by large clinopyroxenes containing or mantled with magnetite. In a temporal stratigraphic sense, the early lavas are generally HAB A1 types and transition into, sometimes alternating, HAB A2 types followed by BA types. The initial establishment of the mush column is by hot, highly mobile primary magmas, followed by increasingly more thermally mature magmas containing debris from disrupted SFs. The detailed nature of this debris, its variation in time, and the volumes give important insights on the size and vigor of the mush column staging chambers.

  2. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  3. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  4. Eocene to Pleistocene magmatic evolution of the Delarof Islands, Aleutian Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaen, Allen J.; Jicha, Brian R.; Kay, Suzanne M.; Singer, Brad S.; Tibbetts, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    The Delarof Islands in the Aleutian Arc near 179º W record ˜37 million years of discontinuous arc magmatism along a SW-NE cross-arc transect from near the trench to the active volcanic front. Geochemical and geochronologic data from the pre-Pleistocene volcanic record in this region are limited and the 40Ar/39Ar, isotopic, and trace element data presented here are the first from units older than the Pleistocene-Holocene volcanoes (Tanaga, Gareloi). Twenty-two new 40Ar/39Ar ages establish a temporal framework for geochemical data and reveal that magmatism in the Delarof region was coincident with two arc-wide magmatic flare ups in the late Eocene/early Oligocene and latest Miocene/Pliocene. Mafic lavas and plutons in the southern Delarofs give 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages ranging from 36.8 ± 0.2 to 26.9 ± 0.6 Ma on Amatignak Island and 37.0 ± 0.2 to 29.3 ± 1.0 Ma on Ulak Island. To the north 25 km, 40Ar/39Ar ages from the central Delarof Islands, Kavalga, Ogliuga, and Skagul are late Miocene (6.28 ± 0.04 Ma) to Pliocene (4.77 ± 0.18 Ma) with younger ages to the northeast. A significant transition in arc chemistry occurs in the Pleistocene where lavas from active volcanoes Gareloi and Tanaga exhibit higher sediment and hydrous fluid signatures (Th/La, Cs/Ta, La/Sm, LILE abundances) and lower 143Nd/144Nd than older Delarof Island units closer to the trench. Similar findings from Eocene-Miocene lavas from Amchitka to Adak suggest that a previously minor sediment melt component became more pronounced in the Quaternary.

  5. Indirect food web interactions: Sea otters and kelp forest fishes in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisewitz, S.E.; Estes, J.A.; Simenstad, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although trophic cascades - the effect of apex predators on progressively lower trophic level species through top-down forcing - have been demonstrated in diverse ecosystems, the broader potential influences of trophic cascades on other species and ecosystem processes are not well studied. We used the overexploitation, recovery and subsequent collapse of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in the Aleutian archipelago to explore if and how the abundance and diet of kelp forest fishes are influenced by a trophic cascade linking sea otters with sea urchins and fleshy macroalgae. We measured the abundance of sea urchins (biomass density), kelp (numerical density) and fish (Catch per unit effort) at four islands in the mid-1980s (when otters were abundant at two of the islands and rare at the two others) and in 2000 (after otters had become rare at all four islands). Our fish studies focused on rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus), the numerically dominant species in this region. In the mid-1980s, the two islands with high-density otter populations supported dense kelp forests, relatively few urchins, and abundant rock greenling whereas the opposite pattern (abundant urchins, sparse kelp forests, and relatively few rock greenling) occurred at islands where otters were rare. In the 2000, the abundances of urchins, kelp and greenling were grossly unchanged at islands where otters were initially rare but had shifted to the characteristic pattern of otter-free systems at islands where otters were initially abundant. Significant changes in greenling diet occurred between the mid-1980s and the 2000 although the reasons for these changes were difficult to assess because of strong island-specific effects. Whereas urchin-dominated communities supported more diverse fish assemblages than kelp-dominated communities, this was not a simple effect of the otter-induced trophic cascade because all islands supported more diverse fish assemblages in 2000 than in the mid-1980s

  6. Temporal variation in fish mercury concentrations within lakes from the western Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Leah A.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; von Hippel, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed temporal variation in mercury (Hg) concentrations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from Agattu Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Total Hg concentrations in whole-bodied stickleback were measured at two-week intervals from two sites in each of two lakes from June 1 to August 10, 2011 during the time period when lakes were ice-free. Across all sites and sampling events, stickleback Hg concentrations ranged from 0.37–1.07 µg/g dry weight (dw), with a mean (± SE) of 0.55±0.01 µg/g dw. Mean fish Hg concentrations declined by 9% during the study period, from 0.57±0.01 µg/g dw in early June to 0.52±0.01 µg/g dw in mid-August. Mean fish Hg concentrations were 6% higher in Loon Lake (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in Lake 696 (0.53±0.01 µg/g dw), and 4% higher in males (0.56±0.01 µg/g dw) than in females (0.54±0.01 µg/g dw). Loon Lake was distinguished from Lake 696 by the presence of piscivorous waterbirds during the breeding season. Mercury concentrations in stickleback from Agattu Island were higher than would be expected for an area without known point sources of Hg pollution, and high enough to be of concern to the health of piscivorous wildlife.

  7. The 7-8 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Scott, William E.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Schneider, David J.; Izbekov, Pavel; Nye, Christopher J.

    2010-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano in the central Aleutian Islands erupted unexpectedly on 7-8 August 2008. Kasatochi has received little study by volcanologists and has had no confirmed historical eruptions. The island is an important nesting area for seabirds and a long-term biological study site of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. After a notably energetic preeruptive earthquake swarm, the volcano erupted violently in a series of explosive events beginning in the early afternoon of 7 August. Each event produced ash-gas plumes that reached 14-18 km above sea level. The volcanic plume contained large amounts of SO2 and was tracked around the globe by satellite observations. The cumulative volcanic cloud interfered with air travel across the North Pacific, causing many flight cancelations that affected thousands of travelers. Visits to the volcano in 2008-2009 indicated that the eruption generated pyroclastic flows and surges that swept all flanks of the island, accumulated several tens of meters of pyroclastic debris, and increased the diameter of the island by about 800 m. Pyroclastic flow deposits contain abundant accidental lithic debris derived from the inner walls of the Kasatochi crater. Juvenile material is crystal-rich silicic andesite that ranges from slightly pumiceous to frothy pumice. Fine-grained pyroclastic surge and fall deposits with accretionary lapilli cover the lithic-rich pyroclastic flow deposits and mark a change in eruptive style from episodic explosive activity to more continuous ash emission with smaller intermittent explosions. Pyroclastic deposits completely cover the island, but wave erosion and gully development on the flanks have begun to modify the surface mantle of volcanic deposits.

  8. SURFACE REMEDIATION IN THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: A CASE STUDY OF AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, M. O.; Stahl, D. C.; Bechtel, J. A.

    2002-02-25

    Amchitka Island, Alaska, was at one time an integral player in the nation's defense program. Located in the North Pacific Ocean in the Aleutian Island archipelago, the island was intermittently inhabited by several key government agencies, including the U.S. Army, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy), and the U.S. Navy. Since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted extensive investigations on Amchitka to determine the nature and extent of contamination resulting from historic nuclear testing. The uninhabited island was the site of three high-yield nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. These test locations are now part of the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's Environmental Management Program. In the summer of 2001, the DOE launched a large-scale remediation effort on Amchitka to perform agreed-upon corrective actions to the surface of the island. Due to the lack of resources available on Amchitka and logistical difficulties with conducting work at such a remote location, the DOE partnered with the Navy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to share certain specified costs and resources. Attempting to negotiate the partnerships while organizing and implementing the surface remediation on Amchitka proved to be a challenging endeavor. The DOE was faced with unexpected changes in Navy and USACE scope of work, accelerations in schedules, and risks associated with construction costs at such a remote location. Unfavorable weather conditions also proved to be a constant factor, often slowing the progress of work. The Amchitka Island remediation project experience has allowed the DOE to gain valuable insights into how to anticipate and mitigate potential problems associated with future remediation projects. These lessons learned will help the DOE in conducting future work more efficiently, and can also serve as a guide for other agencies performing similar work.

  9. Sedimentation in the central segment of the Aleutian Trench: Sources, transport, and depositional style

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, A.J.; Scholl, D.W.; Vallier, T.L. ); Underwood, M.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The central segment of the Aleutian Trench (162{degree}W to 175{degree}E) is an intraoceanic subduction zone that contains an anomalously thick sedimentary fill (4 km maximum). The fill is an arcward-thickening and slightly tilted wedge of sediment characterized acoustically by laterally continuous, closely spaced, parallel reflectors. These relations are indicative of turbidite deposition. The trench floor and reflection horizons are planar, showing no evidence of an axial channel or any transverse fan bodies. Cores of surface sediment recover turbidite layers, implying that sediment transport and deposition occur via diffuse, sheetlike, fine-grained turbidite flows that occupy the full width of the trench. The mineralogy of Holocene trench sediments document a mixture of island-arc (dominant) and continental source terranes. GLORIA side-scan sonar images reveal a westward-flowing axial trench channel that conducts sediment to the eastern margin of the central segment, where channelized flow cases. Much of the sediment transported in this channel is derived from glaciated drainages surrounding the Gulf of Alaska which empty into the eastern trench segment via deep-sea channel systems (Surveyor and others) and submarine canyons (Hinchinbrook and others). Insular sediment transport is more difficult to define. GLORIA images show the efficiency with which the actively growing accretionary wedge impounds sediment that manages to cross a broad fore-arc terrace. It is likely that island-arc sediment reaches the trench either directly via air fall, via recycling of the accretionary prism, or via overtopping of the accretionary ridges by the upper parts of thick turbidite flows.

  10. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species. PMID:25325089

  11. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  12. Cyberbullying, School Bullying, and Psychological Distress: A Regional Census of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Coulter, Robert W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. Methods. In the fall of 2008, 20 406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. Results. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Conclusions. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health. PMID:22095343

  13. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  14. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Census Influences Discharge of Moderately Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Profit, Jochen; McCormick, Marie C.; Escobar, Gabriel J.; Richardson, Douglas K.; Zheng, Zheng; Coleman-Phox, Kim; Roberts, Rebecca; Zupancic, John A. F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The timely discharge of moderately premature infants has important economic implications. The decision to discharge should occur independent of unit census. We evaluated the impact of unit census on the decision to discharge moderately preterm infants. Design/Methods In a prospective multicenter cohort study, we enrolled 850 infants born between 30 and 34 weeks' gestation at 10 NICUs in Massachusetts and California. We divided the daily census from each hospital into quintiles and tested whether discharges were evenly distributed among them. Using logistic regression, we analyzed predictors of discharge within census quintiles associated with a greater- or less-than-expected likelihood of discharge. We then explored parental satisfaction and postdischarge resource consumption in relation to discharge during census periods that were associated with high proportions of discharge. Results There was a significant correlation between unit census and likelihood of discharge. When unit census was in the lowest quintile, patients were 20% less likely to be discharged when compared with all of the other quintiles of unit census. In the lowest quintile of unit census, patient/nurse ratio was the only variable associated with discharge. When census was in the highest quintile, patients were 32% more likely to be discharged when compared with all of the other quintiles of unit census. For patients in this quintile, a higher patient/nurse ratio increased the likelihood of discharge. Conversely, infants with prolonged lengths of stay, an increasing Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology II, and minor congenital anomalies were less likely to be discharged. Infants discharged at high unit census did not differ from their peers in terms of parental satisfaction, emergency department visits, home nurse visits, or rehospitalization rates. Conclusions Discharges are closely correlated with unit census. Providers incorporate demand and case mix into their discharge decisions

  15. Investigation of the Influence of the Amlia Fracture Zone on the Islands of Four Mountains Region of the Aleutian Arc, AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaysen, K. P.; Myers, J. D.; Weis, D.

    2013-12-01

    Regional isotopic and trace element investigations of the magmatic source characteristics of the Aleutian arc have attributed regional patterns to variations in the contribution of eclogite through slab melting, to increased proportions of sediment melts, and to variation in the amount of fluid derived by progressive metamorphism of the downgoing slab. Currently the Amlia Fracture Zone (AFZ) is located between the islands of Atka and Seguam and marks a prominent boundary between subduction of large quantities of trench sediments to the east versus sediment impoverished subduction to the west of the AFZ. This boundary is not stationary through time. Instead oblique subduction of the Pacific plate moves the AFZ westward along the arc front, causing sequential subduction beneath the islands of Chuginadak, Yunaska and Seguam circa 5, 2.5 and 1 million years ago, respectively. Lavas from Atka Island, which has not yet received the sediment and fluid spike from the AFZ, act as reference compositions. Comparison of bulk rock trace element ratios and Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic compositions for lavas from these islands relative to Atka show that contributions from melted subducted sediment are important in the genesis of Holocene and Pleistocene lavas erupted in the Islands of Four Mountains region of the arc. Sr and Pb isotopic compositions for Yunaska and Chuginadak lavas are as high or higher than Seguam values and trend in the direction of sediment values. La/Nb ratios similarly indicate sediment melting is important for all these lavas. Comparison of values for Holocene relative to Pleistocene values indicate that once sediments are introduced to the magma source, they persist in affecting magma compositions. Comparison of higher Mg# lavas (molar Mg#>50) shows that a group of the oldest sampled lavas on Chuginadak have much lower 208Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb, and 87Sr/86Sr and higher 143Nd/144Nd, Zr/Y and Zn/Mn relative to all sampled Holocene and Pleistocene lavas from

  16. Potential for generation of natural gas in sediments of the convergent margin of the Aleutian Trench Area

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; von Huene, R.

    1983-01-01

    Sediment being subducted in the eastern part of the convergent margin of the Aleutian Trench has a potential to generate large volumes of natural gas, perhaps as much as 2.8 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of methane per km/sup 3/ of sediment, even though the content of organic carbon in the sediment is very low, averaging about 0.4%. This high potential for gas generation results primarily from the enormous volume of sediment undergoing subduction. Along the eastern Aleutian Arc-Trench system a 3-km thick sheet of sediment is being subducted at a rate of about 60 km per million years. We estimate, based on considerations of the stability requirements for gas hydrates observed as anomalous reflectors in some of our seismic records, and on one measurement in a deep well, that the geothermal gradient in this region is about 30/sup 0/C/km. Such a gradient suggests a temperature regime in which the maximum gas generation in the subducting sediment occurs beneath the upper slope. Thus the sediment of the upper slope, as opposed to that of the shelf and lower slope, could be the most prospective for gas accumulation if suitable reservoirs are present. 40 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  18. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  19. Coral habitat in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska: depth distribution, fine-scale species associations, and fisheries interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. P.

    2006-05-01

    The first in situ exploration of Aleutian Island coral habitat was completed in 2002 to determine the distribution of corals, to examine fine-scale associations between targeted fish species and corals, and to investigate the interaction between the areas’ diverse fisheries and coral habitat. Corals, mostly gorgonians and hydrocorals, were present on all 25 seafloor transects and at depths between 27 and 363 m, but were most abundant between 100 and 200 m depth. Mean coral abundance (1.23 colonies m-2) far exceeded that reported for other high-latitude ecosystems and high-density coral gardens (3.85 colonies m-2) were observed at seven locations. Slope and offshore pinnacle habitats characterized by exposed bedrock, boulders, and cobbles generally supported the highest abundances of coral and fish. Overall, 85% of the economically important fish species observed on transects were associated with corals and other emergent epifauna. Disturbance to the seafloor from bottom-contact fishing gear was evident on 88% of the transects, and approximately 39% of the total area of the seafloor observed had been disturbed. Since cold-water corals appear to be a ubiquitous feature of seafloor habitats in the Aleutian Islands, fisheries managers face clear challenges integrating coral conservation into an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  20. Occupational classification in the South African census before ISCO-58.

    PubMed

    Christopher, A J

    2010-01-01

    The population census is one of the major statistics gathering exercises undertaken by the state, when information on a wide range of personal attributes is demanded. None is more problematic than occupation, which, for clarity, requires the subsequent simplification and classification of the myriad of self-descriptions collected. Nowhere is this more evident than in South Africa before 1958. Conflict between British imperial directives and local peculiarities, notably the issue of race, resulted in the adoption of widely fluctuating classification schemes. Consequently, direct comparisons between the published occupational statistics of successive enumerations are highly problematic, if not impossible. PMID:20939133

  1. Taking the Galactic Exoplanet Census with K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jessie; CHAI (California/Hawaii/Arizona/Indiana) K2 Follow-up Consortium

    2016-06-01

    The NASA Kepler mission was designed and executed with the goal of measuring planet occurrence rates. The stellar sample, the science pipeline, and the planet candidate sample have all been chosen and characterised with an eye to generating uniform, robust statistical measurements. The subsequent K2 mission, however, has been much more open to all science goals, and subsequently the target selection, planet candidate generation and catalogue assembly have been substantially more ad hoc. Here we discuss the pathway forward to using the Galactic latitude coverage of K2 to begin the Galactic exoplanet census that will be continued by the NASA TESS mission.

  2. 76 FR 3609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Census in Schools and Partnership Program Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... primary and secondary school students about the 2010 Census; the students, in turn, would influence their...: Regular submission. Affected Public: School administrators and Teachers; representatives of...

  3. SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (< 7 km2) glaciers in rugged topography. The glaciers chosen for this study lie on Isanotski Volcano in Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images

  4. Evolution and petroleum geology of Amlia and Amukta intra-arc summit basins, Aleutian Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Childs, J. R.; Scholl, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    Amlia and Amukta Basins are the largest of many intra-arc basins formed in late Cenozoic time along the crest of the Aleutian Arc. Both basins are grabens filled with 2-5 km of arc-derived sediment. A complex system of normal faults deformed the basinal strata. Although initial deposits of late Micocene age may be non-marine in origin, by early Pliocene time, most of the basinfill consisted of pelagic and hemipelagic debris and terrigenous turbidite deposits derived from wavebase and subaerial erosion of the arc's crestal areas. Late Cenozoic volcanism along the arc commenced during or shortly after initial subsidence and greatly contributed to active deposition in Amlia and Amukta Basins. Two groups of normal faults occur: major boundary faults common to both basins and 'intra-basin' faults that arise primarily from arc-parallel extension of the arc. The most significant boundary fault, Amlia-Amukta fault, is a south-dipping growth fault striking parallel to the trend of the arc. Displacement across this fault forms a large half-graben that is separated into the two depocentres of Amlia and Amukta Basins by the formation of a late Cenozoic volcanic centre, Seguam Island. Faults of the second group reflect regional deformation of the arc and offset the basement floor as well as the overlying basinal section. Intra-basin faults in Amlia Basin are predominantly aligned normal to the trend of the arc, thereby indicating arc-parallel extension. Those in Amukta basin are aligned in multiple orientations and probably indicate a more complex mechanism of faulting. Displacement across intra-basin faults is attributed to tectonic subsidence of the massif, aided by depositional loading within the basins. In addition, most intra-basin faults are listric and are associated with high growth rates. Although, the hydrocarbon potential of Amlia and Amukta Basins is difficult to assess based on existing data, regional considerations imply that an adequate thermal history conducive

  5. Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade-Range and Aleutian-Arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, Robert B.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, William C.; Ritchie, B.E.; Counce, Dale; Poreda, R.J.; Iven, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1998, we sampled gas discharges from ≤173°C fumaroles and springs at 12 quiescent but potentially restless volcanoes in the Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc (CRAA) including Mount Shasta, Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Augustine Volcano, Mount Griggs, Trident, Mount Mageik, Aniakchak Crater, Akutan, and Makushin. For each site, we collected and analyzed samples to characterize the chemical (H2O, CO2, H2S, N2, CH4, H2, HCl, HF, NH3, Ar, O2, He) and isotopic (δ13C of CO2, 3He/4He, 40Ar/36Ar, δ34S, δ13C of CH4, δ15N, and δD and δ18O of water) compositions of the gas discharges, and to create baseline data for comparison during future unrest. The chemical and isotopic data show that these gases contain a magmatic component that is heavily modified from scrubbing by deep hydrothermal (150° - 350°C) water (primary scrubbing) and shallow meteoric water (secondary scrubbing). The impact of scrubbing is most pronounced in gas discharges from bubbling springs; gases from boiling-point fumaroles and superheated vents show progressively less impact from scrubbing. The most effective strategies for detecting gas precursors to future CRAA eruptions are to measure periodically the emission rates of CO2 and SO2, which have low and high respective solubilities in water, and to monitor continuously CO2 concentrations in soils around volcanic vents. Timely resampling of fumaroles can augment the geochemical surveillance program by watching for chemical changes associated with drying of fumarolic pathways (all CRAA sites), increases in gas geothermometry temperatures (Mount Mageik, Trident, Mount Baker, Mount Shasta), changes in δ13C of CO2 affiliated with magma movement (all CRAA site), and increases in 3He/4He coupled with intrusion of new magma (Mount Rainier, Augustine Volcano, Makushin, Mount Shasta). Repose magmatic degassing may discharge substantial amounts of S and Cl into the edifices of Mount Baker and several other CRAA

  6. Texture-Aware Dense Image Matching Using Ternary Census Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Han; Chen, Chongtai; Wu, Bo; Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhu, Qing; Ding, Yulin

    2016-06-01

    Textureless and geometric discontinuities are major problems in state-of-the-art dense image matching methods, as they can cause visually significant noise and the loss of sharp features. Binary census transform is one of the best matching cost methods but in textureless areas, where the intensity values are similar, it suffers from small random noises. Global optimization for disparity computation is inherently sensitive to parameter tuning in complex urban scenes, and must compromise between smoothness and discontinuities. The aim of this study is to provide a method to overcome these issues in dense image matching, by extending the industry proven Semi-Global Matching through 1) developing a ternary census transform, which takes three outputs in a single order comparison and encodes the results in two bits rather than one, and also 2) by using texture-information to self-tune the parameters, which both preserves sharp edges and enforces smoothness when necessary. Experimental results using various datasets from different platforms have shown that the visual qualities of the triangulated point clouds in urban areas can be largely improved by these proposed methods.

  7. Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The ocean constitutes one of the vastest and richest biomes on our planet. Most recent estimations, all based on indirect approaches, suggest that there are millions of marine eukaryotic species. Moreover, a large majority of these are small (less than 1 mm), cryptic and still unknown to science. However, this knowledge gap, caused by the lack of diagnostic morphological features in small organisms and the limited sampling of the global ocean, is currently being filled, thanks to new DNA-based approaches. The molecular technique of PCR amplification of homologous gene regions combined with high-throughput sequencing, routinely used to census unculturable prokaryotes, is now also being used to characterize whole communities of marine eukaryotes. Here, we review how this methodological advancement has helped to better quantify the magnitude and patterns of marine eukaryotic diversity, with an emphasis on taxonomic groups previously largely overlooked. We then discuss obstacles remaining to achieve a global understanding of marine eukaryotic diversity. In particular, we argue that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and suggest combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve our understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481783

  8. Disability Divides in India: Evidence from the 2011 Census

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Nandita; Bora, Jayanta Kumar; Jasilionis, Domantas; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the socioeconomic and regional divides in disability prevalence in India has considerable relevance for designing public health policies and programs. Objectives The aim of the present study is to quantify the prevalence of disability by gender, region (rural and urban; states and districts), and caste. We also examine the association between disability prevalence and the major socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the districts in India. Methods Age-standardized disability prevalence (ASDP) was calculated using 2011 census data and applying the WHO World Standard Population. A regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between disability prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics across districts of India. Results The study found that ASDP varies substantially across districts and is higher among women, rural dwellers, and members of scheduled tribes (STs) and scheduled castes (SCs). The regression model showed that the disability rate in districts rises with increasing proportions of the population who are urban dwellers, aged 65 or older, members of STs, and living in dilapidated housing; and that the disability prevalence decreases with increasing proportions of the female population who are literate, and of the general population who are working and have access to safe drinking water. Conclusion As the burden of disability falls disproportionately across geographic regions and socioeconomic groups, public health policies in India should take this variation into account. The definition of disability used in the census should be modified to generate internationally comparable estimates of disability prevalence. PMID:27490469

  9. Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Knowlton, Nancy

    2016-09-01

    The ocean constitutes one of the vastest and richest biomes on our planet. Most recent estimations, all based on indirect approaches, suggest that there are millions of marine eukaryotic species. Moreover, a large majority of these are small (less than 1 mm), cryptic and still unknown to science. However, this knowledge gap, caused by the lack of diagnostic morphological features in small organisms and the limited sampling of the global ocean, is currently being filled, thanks to new DNA-based approaches. The molecular technique of PCR amplification of homologous gene regions combined with high-throughput sequencing, routinely used to census unculturable prokaryotes, is now also being used to characterize whole communities of marine eukaryotes. Here, we review how this methodological advancement has helped to better quantify the magnitude and patterns of marine eukaryotic diversity, with an emphasis on taxonomic groups previously largely overlooked. We then discuss obstacles remaining to achieve a global understanding of marine eukaryotic diversity. In particular, we argue that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and suggest combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve our understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. PMID:27481783

  10. Spatial Risk Assessments Based on Vector-Borne Disease Epidemiologic Data: Importance of Scale for West Nile Virus Disease in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Anna M.; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Delorey, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc; Nasci, Roger S.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Moore, Chester G.; Pape, W. John; Eisen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    We used epidemiologic data for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Colorado from 2003 and 2007 to determine 1) the degree to which estimates of vector-borne disease occurrence is influenced by spatial scale of data aggregation (county versus census tract), and 2) the extent of concordance between spatial risk patterns based on case counts versus incidence. Statistical analyses showed that county, compared with census tract, accounted for approximately 50% of the overall variance in WNV disease incidence, and approximately 33% for the subset of cases classified as West Nile neuroinvasive disease. These findings indicate that sub-county scale presentation provides valuable risk information for stakeholders. There was high concordance between spatial patterns of WNV disease incidence and case counts for census tract (83%) but not for county (50%) or zip code (31%). We discuss how these findings impact on practices to develop spatial epidemiologic data for vector-borne diseases and present data to stakeholders. PMID:20439980

  11. Slow Slip Events and rotation of the Peninsula block in Lower Cook Inlet of the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Freymueller, J.; McCaffrey, R.

    2015-12-01

    We identified a series of abrupt changes in GPS site motions observed in Lower Cook Inlet of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone in late 2004, early 2010 and late 2011. The site motions during each interval (1992-2004, 2004-2010 and post-2011) appear to be steady. The deformation rates for 1992-2004 and 2010-2011 are similar to each other, as are 2004-2010 and post-2011. This pattern of toggling between two deformation patterns is due to time-dependent slip on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface. We modeled slow slip events in the seismogenic zone using the software TDEFNODE to estimate the slip rate deficit distribution on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface. Then we applied three different measures of the significance of the velocity change to estimate their timing in ~2010 and ~2011. Based on the estimated dates of velocity changes, we divided the GPS time series into the four time periods. Then a weighted non-linear least-squares inversion was applied to estimate the angular velocity of the Peninsula block and estimate the plate coupling variation simultaneously using TDEFNODE (McCaffrey, 2009). Fixing the angular velocity of all the blocks in the block model, we estimated the slip deficit rate distribution on the Alaska thrust for the four time periods with two different limiting ranges of the locking fraction (phi): [-2, 1] and [0, 1]. Negative slip deficit rates identified in period 1 and period 3 fit the data significantly better, which indicate that slip rates are faster than plate convergence rates during these two time periods. And our results suggest that a slow slip event in Lower Cook Inlet lasted at least 9 years (given that our data begin in 1995) with a moment magnitude of Mw = 7.5. Another slow slip event in the same area lasted almost 2 years from the end of 2009 to the end of 2011, with a cumulative moment magnitude of Mw = 6.8. We conclude that slip rates appear to be relatively constant during the time periods with SSEs

  12. Time-Dependent Variations of Slow Slip Events in Lower Cook Inlet of the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Freymueller, J. T.; McCaffrey, R.

    2014-12-01

    We identfied a series of abrupt changes in GPS site motions observed in Lower Cook Inlet of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone in late 2004, early 2010 and late 2011. The site motions from 1995-2004, 2004-2010 and post-2011, however, appear to be steady. To first order, the deformation rates for 1995-2004 and 2010-2011 are similar to each other, as are 2004-2010 and post-2011. This pattrn of toggling between two deformation patterns is due to the time-dependent slip variations on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface. It is possible that a deeper part of the subduction interface had been suddenly locked between 2004 and 2010, causing additional interseismic strain accumulation, and we test this hypothesis. We model time-dependent variatins in this seismogenic zone using the software TDEFNODE to estimate the slip rate deficit distribution on the Alaska-Aleutian subduction plate interface along with block rotation of upper plate blocks. To do so, we first divided the GPS time series into four time periods: before 2004, 2004 to 2010, 2010-2011, and post-2011. We removed the ongoing postseismic deformation due to the 1964 earthquake fom these GPS velocity fields. We constructed an upper plate block model including three main blocks, Southern Alaska (SOAK), the Peninsula block and the Bering Plate to model the contributions from the secular tectonic motions of the upper plate. We modeled the subduction fault surface based on the Slab1.0 model for the subduction zone, with the slab extended to the east as Slab1.0 terminates the slab under Prince William Sound. We found 50~60 mm/yr slip rate deficit in the shallow part of the seismogenic zone, to depths of ~30km which we identify as the main asperity that ruptured in 1964 earthquake. The shape of the locked region under Lower Cook Inlet differs for each time period, with the locked region being wider in 2004-2010 and post-2011. In the near future we will use TDEFNODE to model the GPS time series directly to

  13. Are There Spatial or Temporal Patterns to Holocene Explosive Eruptions in the Aleutian Archipelago? A Work in Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; McConville, K.; Hatfield, V.; West, D.

    2013-12-01

    By examining the existing geological and archeological record of radiocarbon dated Aleutian tephras of the last 12,000 years, this study sought to determine whether there were spatial or temporal patterns of explosive eruptive activity. The Holocene tephra record has important implications because two episodes of migration and colonization by humans of distinct cultures established the Unangan/Aleut peoples of the Aleutian Islands concurrently with the volcanic activity. From Aniakchak Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula to the Andreanof Islands (158 to 178° W longitude), 55 distinct tephras represent significant explosive eruptions of the last 12,000 years. Initial results suggest that the Andreanof and Fox Island regions of the archipelago have had frequent explosive eruptions whereas the Islands of Four Mountains, Rat, and Near Island regions have apparently had little or no eruptive activity. However, one clear result of the investigation is that sampling bias strongly influences the apparent spatial patterns. For example field reconnaissance in the Islands of Four Mountains documents two Holocene calderas and a minimum of 20 undated tephras in addition to the large ignimbrites. Only the lack of significant explosive activity in the Near Islands seems a valid spatial result as archeological excavations and geologic reports failed to document Holocene tephras there. An intriguing preliminary temporal pattern is the apparent absence of large explosive eruptions across the archipelago from ca. 4,800 to 6,000 yBP. To test the validity of apparent patterns, a statistical treatment of the compiled data grappled with the sampling bias by considering three confounding variables: larger island size allows more opportunity for geologic preservation of tephras; larger magnitude eruption promotes tephra preservation by creating thicker and more widespread deposits; the comprehensiveness of the tephra sampling of each volcano and island varies widely because of logistical and

  14. Sensitive resettable odometer aids roadside census of red-winged blackbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harke, D.T.; Stickley, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    A sensitive resettable odometer reading to 0.01 mile facilitated censusing breeding male redwinged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) from a vehicle. Territorial males along roadsides were 'marked' with recorded mileage readings rather than with landmarks of the types employed by Hewitt for censuses based on the Lincoln index principle. Sensitive odometers that can be reset have many potential uses in wildlife investigations.

  15. 3 CFR 8488 - Proclamation 8488 of March 31, 2010. Census Day, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8488 of March 31, 2010. Census Day... Proc. 8488 Census Day, 2010By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Since our... OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by...

  16. Experimental U.S. Census Bureau Race and Hispanic Origin Survey Questions: Reactions from Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Rodney L.; Fond, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    People of Hispanic origin, including monolingual Spanish speakers, have experienced difficulty identifying with a race category on U.S. demographic surveys. As part of a larger research effort by the U.S. Census Bureau to improve race and Hispanic origin questions for the 2020 Census, we tested experimental versions of race and Hispanic origin…

  17. We the People: Women and Men in the United States. Census 2000 Special Reports. CENSR-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spraggins, Renee E.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of women in the United States and highlights comparisons with men at the national level. It is part of the Census 2000 Special Reports series that presents several demographic, social, and economic characteristics collected from Census 2000. The data contained in this report are based on the samples of households…

  18. Colorado: 2002 Economic Census. Educational Services, Geographic Area Series, EC02-61A-CO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation's economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. This document contains statistical census data from 2002 for the state of Colorado. Statistical information is presented in table form, on the…

  19. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  20. Using U.S. Census Data to Teach Mathematics for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Teachers can use census data to teach important mathematics content while addressing issues of social justice. The author describes activities that teach students to read and write large numbers, interpret census data and statistics, and apply algebraic concepts to describe U.S. population growth. Additional learning outcomes include applying…

  1. Asian and Pacific Islander Population by State: 1980. Census of Population Supplementary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patricia A.; And Others

    This report presents 1980 census data on the geographic distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States. The 1980 census was the first one to identify the total Asian and Pacific Islander population and its subgroups. Information on the total Asian and Pacific Islander population is shown for the United States, regions,…

  2. 77 FR 4542 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Special Census Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U.S. Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Special Census Program AGENCY: U.S... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). DATES: To ensure...

  3. Official Statistics as Curriculum: Biopolitics and the United States "Census in Schools" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdayes, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    One way that people learn to recognize themselves as members of a nation-state is by participating in the ritual of a national census. In the United States acquaintance with such enumerations is cultivated during childhood by the federal government's "Census in Schools" (CIS) program, which distributes a variety of educational materials designed…

  4. 77 FR 50082 - Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Opportunity To Submit Content Request for the 2013... currently accepting stakeholder feedback in the form of content requests for the 2013 Census of Aquaculture... online at: http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/follow-ons or via mail to: USDA-NASS, Census Content Team,...

  5. School-Based Health Centers: National Census School Year 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strozer, Jan; Juszczak, Linda; Ammerman, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care's (NASBHC) 2007-2008 Census is the 11th request for data from school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986. The Census: (1) provides a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collects relevant trend data on demographics,…

  6. Latino Questions on Race, Ethnicity, and Language at the Advent of the 2010 Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorzano, Ramon, Jr.; Ahlen, Sondra

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in the 1960s, U.S. Census Bureau data became central to achieving legislatively mandated social justice through nondiscriminatory elections and the fair allocation of federal funds. In recent years, the census has become increasingly politicized due in part to close elections and changing minority voter demographics. For Latinos, the…

  7. 75 FR 75452 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census General Classification Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Economic Census General Classification Report (NC-99023) collects information on new businesses for the purpose of assigning a proper North American Industry Classification System... Classification Report AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of...

  8. School District-Census Geo-Reference File for Illinois for 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlmann, Vernon C.; Chaudhari, Ramesh B.

    A first draft of a School District-Census Geo-Reference File for Illinois for 1980 has been completed. In this file each census enumeration district or block group is matched with the appropriate school district or districts. Companion files have also been developed for community college districts, area vocational education districts, and for a…

  9. 76 FR 10624 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Census of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Register on October 20, 2010 (75 FR 64746). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB...; Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is..., ``Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review...

  10. [Statistical Profiles and Characteristics of the American Indian Population: 1980 Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This packet includes six statistical profiles of American Indians and Alaska Natives based on the 1980 census, and a report on 1990 census plans for Native Americans. Three general profiles outline statistics on: (1) the American Indian population as a whole; (2) selected characteristics of American Indian men; and (3) selected characteristics of…

  11. 76 FR 14647 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census Covering the Mining Sector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ..., United States Code, is the primary source of facts about the structure and functioning of the Nation's... the people and economy of the United States. Economic data are the Census Bureau's primary program... and other industry-specific measures. Primary strategies for reducing burden in Census Bureau...

  12. 76 FR 13978 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census Covering the Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... United States Code, is the primary source of facts about the structure and functioning of the Nation's... about the people and economy of the United States. Economic data are the Census Bureau's primary program.... Primary strategies for reducing burden in Census Bureau economic data collections are to...

  13. We the People: Asians in the United States. Census 2000 Special Reports. CENSR-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Terrance J.; Bennett, Claudette E.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of the Asian population in the United States and discusses the eleven largest detailed Asian groups at the national level. It is part of the Census 2000 Special Reports series that presents several demographic, social, and economic characteristics collected from Census 2000. The Asian population is not homogeneous.…

  14. Tiger Tales: A Presentation of the Automated Geographic Support Systems for the 1990 Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Gerald; And Others

    A description of the geographic planning and operation of the 1990 U.S. Census presented in cartoon form, this booklet carries the user through the stages of the development of the materials needed for census field enumeration activities. Maps were drawn for address reference files, and geographic reference files were created. These cartoons…

  15. Race, Color, and Ethnicity: Diverse, Unequal, and Uneven Categories of the U.S. Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Ella P.; Nandy, Bikash

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistent and shifting ways in which the U.S. Census treats race, color, and ethnicity. Suggests that long-term conceptual frameworks be developed so that the next census will not produce uneven categories based on unequal assumptions. (EVL)

  16. 77 FR 15369 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction GIS Data of Potentially Eligible Census Blocks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Mobility Fund Phase I Auction GIS Data of Potentially Eligible Census Blocks AGENCY: Federal... information system (GIS) data for the census blocks potentially eligible for Mobility Fund Phase I support to...-0432 (TTY). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This is a summary of the Mobility Fund Phase I Auction GIS...

  17. Selected 1970 Census Data for Alaska Communities. Part 6 - Southeast Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Community and Regional Affairs, Juneau. Div. of Community Planning.

    As 1 of 6 regional reports supplying statistical information on Alaska's incorporated and unincorporated communities (those of 25 or more people), this report on Southeast Alaska presents data derived from the 1970 U.S. Census first-count microfilm. Organized via the 9 Southeast census divisions, data are presented for the 40 communities of the…

  18. Educational Attainment in South Africa: A View from the Census 1865-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Population censuses record considerable volumes of personal information, which when aggregated and tabulated provide significant insights into national societies. South African censuses have recorded levels of educational attainment since their inception in the mid-nineteenth century, initially measuring literacy and later the level of education…

  19. Tracking the Demographics of (Urban) Language Shift--An Analysis of South African Census Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deumert, Ana

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of language shift from African languages to English (and Afrikaans) in South Africa, using home language data from the South African population census (1996 and 2001). Although census data have been criticised for its "essentialist" construction of language, they nevertheless provide sociolinguists with a unique…

  20. Dome growth at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Arc, quantified by time-series TerraSAR-X imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Teng; Poland, Michael; Lu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar imagery is widely used to study surface deformation induced by volcanic activity; however, it is rarely applied to quantify the evolution of lava domes, which is important for understanding hazards and magmatic system characteristics. We studied dome formation associated with eruptive activity at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Volcanic Arc, in 2011–2012 using TerraSAR-X imagery. Interferometry and offset tracking show no consistent deformation and only motion of the crater rim, suggesting that ascending magma may pass through a preexisting conduit system without causing appreciable surface deformation. Amplitude imagery has proven useful for quantifying rates of vertical and areal growth of the lava dome within the crater from formation to removal by explosive activity to rebirth. We expect that this approach can be applied at other volcanoes that host growing lava domes and where hazards are highly dependent on dome geometry and growth rates.

  1. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario. PMID:24807350

  2. Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051

  3. Nucleotide sequence analysis of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus shows that multiple virus types are present in infected mink.

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalck, E; Alexandersen, S; Cohn, A; Poulsen, L A; Bloom, M E; Aasted, B

    1991-01-01

    Different isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were cloned and nucleotide sequenced. Analysis of individual clones from two in vivo-derived isolates of high virulence indicated that more than one type of ADV DNA were present in each of these isolates. Analysis of several clones from two preparations of a cell culture-adapted isolate of low virulence showed the presence of only one type of ADV DNA. We also describe the nucleotide sequence from map units 44 to 88 of a new type of ADV DNA. The new type of ADV DNA is compared with the previously published ADV sequences, to which it shows 95% homology. These findings indicate that ADV, a single-stranded DNA virus, has a considerable degree of variability and that several virus types can be present simultaneously in an infected animal. PMID:1649336

  4. A GSC Global Genome Census (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos [DOE JGI

    2011-04-29

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses the notion of a global genome census at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

  5. A GSC Global Genome Census (GSC8 Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-09-09

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses the notion of a global genome census at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 9, 2009.

  6. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  7. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  8. 13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE WEST ANCHORAGE. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  10. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  11. Long-range Receiver Function Profile of Crustal and Mantle Discontinuities From the Aleutian Arc to Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieker, Kathrin; Rondenay, Stéphane; Sawade, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The Circum-Pacific belt, also called the Pacific Ring of Fire, is the most seismically active region on Earth. Multiple plate boundaries form a zone characterized by frequent volcanic eruptions and seismicity. While convergent plate boundaries such as the Peru-Chile trench dominate the Circum-Pacific belt, divergent and transform boundaries are present as well. The eastern section of the Circum-Pacific belt extends from the Aleutian arc, through the Cascadia subduction zone, San Andreas Fault, middle America trench and the Andean margin down to Tierra del Fuego. Due to the significant hazards posed by this tectonic activity, the region has been densely instrumented by thousands of seismic stations deployed across fifteen countries, over a distance of more than 15000 km. Various seismological studies, including receiver function analyses, have been carried out to investigate the crustal and mantle structure beneath local segments of the eastern Circum-Pacific belt (i.e., at ~100-500 km scale). However, to the best of our knowledge, no study to date has ever attempted to combine all available seismic data from the eastern Circum-Pacific belt to generate a continuous profile of seismic discontinuities extending from the Aleutians to Tierra del Fuego. Here, we use results from the "Global Imaging using Earthquake Records" (GLImER) P-wave receiver function database to create a long-range profile of crustal and upper mantle discontinuities across the entire eastern portion of the Circum-Pacific belt. We image intermittent crustal and mantle discontinuities along the profile, and examine them with regard to their behaviour and properties across transitions between different tectonic regimes.

  12. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: inferences from spatial and trophic variation.

    PubMed

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Anthony, Robert G

    2008-11-15

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (delta15N) and carbon source (delta13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of Sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of Sigma PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high Sigma PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of Sigma PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with delta15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of Sigma PCBs and p,p' DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of

  13. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Keith, Miles A.; Anthony, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (??15N) and carbon source (??13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of ?? polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of ?? PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high ?? PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of ?? PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p??? DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with ??15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of ?? PCBs and p,p??? DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of atmospheric

  14. Detection and location of earthquakes in the central Aleutian subduction zone using island and ocean bottom seismograph stations

    SciTech Connect

    Frohlich, C.; Billington, S.; Engdahl, E.R.; Malahoff, A.

    1982-08-10

    A network of eight University of Texas ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) operated for 6 weeks in 1978 about 50 km offshore of Adak Island, Alaska, and nearly islands. In 1979 a similar network of nine instruments was deployed for 7 weeks farther offshore within and up to 100 km seaward of the Aleutian trench. For shallow earthquakes on the outer trench slope, for shallow earthquakes in the thrust zone, and for intermediate-depth events we have analyzed the OBS and island-based network data and evaluated the island network's capabilities for earthquake detection and location and for focal mechanism determination. Our three major conclusions are presented. The first concerns shallow earthquakes on the outer trench slope. In 1979 about 30 earthquakes occurred within the Aleutian trench and up to 60 km seaward of the trench axis. The island network located none of these events and detected P phases for only three of them. Ray tracing shows that the islands lie in a geometric shadow zone for events on the outer trench slope. The best located events are shallower than 20 km and exhibit first motions consistent with normal faulting. Several authors have suggested that these events are caused by bending of the oceanic lithosphere at the outer rise prior to subduction. If so, then the event locations reported here show that the bending stresses exceed the strength of lithosphere only in a narrow zone extending about 10 km landward and 60 km seaward of the trench axis. The second conclusion concerns shallow earthquakes in the thrust zone. Epicenters determined by island stations alone are virtually identical to epicenters determined using data from both island and OBS stations. The third conclusion concerns earthquakes deeper than 70 km. Epicenters determined using island network stations alone lie 10 to 80 km south of those determined using OBS and island stations, with the differences between epicenters depending both on event depth and on the velocity model used.

  15. History counts: a comparative analysis of racial/color categorization in US and Brazilian censuses.

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, M

    2000-01-01

    Categories of race (ethnicity, color, or both) have appeared and continue to appear in the demographic censuses of numerous countries, including the United States and Brazil. Until recently, such categorization had largely escaped critical scrutiny, being viewed and treated as a technical procedure requiring little conceptual clarity or historical explanation. Recent political developments and methodological changes, in US censuses especially, have engendered a critical reexamination of both the comparative and the historical dimensions of categorization. The author presents a comparative analysis of the histories of racial/color categorization in American and Brazilian censuses and shows that racial (and color) categories have appeared in these censuses because of shifting ideas about race and the enduring power of these ideas as organizers of political, economic, and social life in both countries. These categories have not appeared simply as demographic markers. The author demonstrates that censuses are instruments at a state's disposal and are not simply detached registers of population and performance. PMID:11076243

  16. History counts: a comparative analysis of racial/color categorization in US and Brazilian censuses.

    PubMed

    Nobles, M

    2000-11-01

    Categories of race (ethnicity, color, or both) have appeared and continue to appear in the demographic censuses of numerous countries, including the United States and Brazil. Until recently, such categorization had largely escaped critical scrutiny, being viewed and treated as a technical procedure requiring little conceptual clarity or historical explanation. Recent political developments and methodological changes, in US censuses especially, have engendered a critical reexamination of both the comparative and the historical dimensions of categorization. The author presents a comparative analysis of the histories of racial/color categorization in American and Brazilian censuses and shows that racial (and color) categories have appeared in these censuses because of shifting ideas about race and the enduring power of these ideas as organizers of political, economic, and social life in both countries. These categories have not appeared simply as demographic markers. The author demonstrates that censuses are instruments at a state's disposal and are not simply detached registers of population and performance. PMID:11076243

  17. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  18. 15 CFR 70.2 - “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BOUNDARY CHANGES FOR THE 2010 CENSUS § 70.2 “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census... civil divisions (such as townships and magisterial districts). A more complete description appears...

  19. 15 CFR 70.2 - “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BOUNDARY CHANGES FOR THE 2010 CENSUS § 70.2 “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census... civil divisions (such as townships and magisterial districts). A more complete description appears...

  20. 15 CFR 70.2 - “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BOUNDARY CHANGES FOR THE 2010 CENSUS § 70.2 “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census... civil divisions (such as townships and magisterial districts). A more complete description appears...

  1. 15 CFR 70.2 - “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BOUNDARY CHANGES FOR THE 2010 CENSUS § 70.2 “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census... civil divisions (such as townships and magisterial districts). A more complete description appears...

  2. 15 CFR 70.2 - “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BOUNDARY CHANGES FOR THE 2010 CENSUS § 70.2 “Municipality” and “county subdivision” defined for census... civil divisions (such as townships and magisterial districts). A more complete description appears...

  3. Women's status and child survival in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Widayatun

    1991-03-01

    This study is introduced by a literature review of the concept of women's status, and related factors that determine infant and child mortality. Women's status is primarily defined by education, occupation and economic activity, which affect women's decision-making in the home and their independence in larger society. Cluster analysis was used to identify geographical patterns of standardized women's status variables among 20 regencies and 4 municipalities in West Java. Euclidian distances were computed between pairs of regencies across the 13 indicators. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression were used to compare associations between women's status variables and infant and child mortality, after controlling for economic development. Using data from the 1980 census, the study demonstrated large regional variations in women's status in West Java, with higher status in both the household and in society in the south and central highlands than in the north and west. Women's status is closely related to infant and child mortality, independent of the level of development. There was 1 notable exception, the municipality of Bogor, where infant and child mortality were higher than average rates for the cluster of areas with higher women's status. The results suggest that improved education, and increase in age at 1st marriage are key elements for improving the status of women in West Java. PMID:12343263

  4. Beach ridges as paleoseismic indicators of abrupt coastal subsidence during subduction zone earthquakes, and implications for Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone paleoseismology, southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Briggs, Richard; Nelson, Alan R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2015-01-01

    The Kenai section of the eastern Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone straddles two areas of high slip in the 1964 great Alaska earthquake and is the least studied of the three megathrust segments (Kodiak, Kenai, Prince William Sound) that ruptured in 1964. Investigation of two coastal sites in the eastern part of the Kenai segment, on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, identified evidence for two subduction zone earthquakes that predate the 1964 earthquake. Both coastal sites provide paleoseismic data through inferred coseismic subsidence of wetlands and associated subsidence-induced erosion of beach ridges. At Verdant Cove, paleo-beach ridges record the paleoseismic history; whereas at Quicksand Cove, buried soils in drowned coastal wetlands are the primary indicators of paleoearthquake occurrence and age. The timing of submergence and death of trees mark the oldest earthquake at Verdant Cove that is consistent with the age of a well documented ∼900-year-ago subduction zone earthquake that ruptured the Prince William Sound segment of the megathrust to the east and the Kodiak segment to the west. Soils buried within the last 400–450 years mark the penultimate earthquake on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula. The penultimate earthquake probably occurred before AD 1840 from its absence in Russian historical accounts. The penultimate subduction zone earthquake on the Kenai segment did not rupture in conjunction with the Prince William Sound to the northeast. Therefore the Kenai segment, which is presently creeping, can rupture independently of the adjacent Prince William Sound segment that is presently locked.

  5. Data on Holocene Tephra (Volcanic Ash) Deposits in the Alaska Peninsula and Lower Cook Inlet Region of the Aleutian Volcanic Arc, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Meyer, C.E.; Miyaoka, Ronny T.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction This site provides information about the number, thickness, and grainsize of Holocene volcanic ash deposits at 50 localities in the eastern Aleutian volcanic arc. In addition, the major-element compositions of the glasses separated from more than 350 samples of tephra from these localities, determined by electron microprobe, are presented as a basis for correlating samples. Where known with reasonable certainty, the source of an analyzed sample is also identified for use in comparative studies of magma chemistry.

  6. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A; Bain, Robert E S; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A

    2016-01-01

    Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring. PMID:26986472

  7. Comprehensive study of the seismotectonics of the eastern Aleutian arc and associated volcanic systems. Annual progress report, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, K.H.; Davies, J.N.; House, L.

    1981-01-01

    Refined hypocenter locations beneath the Shumagin Islands seismic network of the eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska, provide for the first time conclusive evidence for a double-sheeted dipping seismic (Benioff) zone in this arc. This refined seismicity structure was obtained in the arc section centered on the Shumagin seismic gap. A thorough review of three seismic gaps in the eastern Aleutian arc shows a high potential for great earthquakes within the next one to two decades in the Shumagin and Yakataga seismic gaps, and a less certain potential for a large or great earthquake in the possible Unalaska gap. A tilt reversal was geodetically observed to have occurred in 1978/79 in the forearc region of the Shumagin gap and could indicate the onset of a precursory strain relief episode prior to a great quake. A comparative study of the Pavlof volcano seismicity with that of other recently active volcanoes (i.e., Mt. St. Helens) indicates that island-arc (explosive-type) volcanoes respond to small ambient, periodic stress changes (i.e., tides). Stress drop measurements from earthquakes on the main thrust zone indicate high stress drops within the seismic gap regions of the Aleutian arc and low stress drops outside the gap region.

  8. A frameshift mutation in the LYST gene is responsible for the Aleutian color and the associated Chédiak-Higashi syndrome in American mink.

    PubMed

    Anistoroaei, R; Krogh, A K; Christensen, K

    2013-04-01

    One of the colors of mink is Aleutian (aa)-a specific gun-metal gray pigmentation of the fur-commonly used in combination with other color loci to generate popular colors such as Violet (aammpp) and Sapphire (aapp). The Aleutian color allele is a manifestation of mink Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), which has been described in humans and several other species. As with forms of CHS in other species, we report that the mink CHS is linked to the lysosomal trafficking regulator ( LYST ) gene. Furthermore, we have identified a base deletion (c.9468delC) in exon 40 of LYST, which causes a frameshift and virtually terminates the LYST product prematurely (p.Leu3156Phefs*37). We investigated the blood parameters of three wild-type mink and three CHS mink. No difference in the platelet number between the two groups was observed, but an accumulation of platelets between the groups appears different when collagen is used as a coagulant. Microscopic analysis of peripheral blood indicates giant inclusions in the neutrophils of the Aleutian mink types. Molecular findings at the LYST locus enable the development of genetic tests for analyzing the color selection in American mink. PMID:22762706

  9. Dredged trachyte and basalt from kodiak seamount and the adjacent aleutian trench, alaska.

    PubMed

    Forbes, R B; Hoskin, C M

    1969-10-24

    Blocky fragments of aegirine-augite trachyte (with accompanying icerafted gravels.) were recovered from the upper slopes of Kodiak Seamount in several dredge hauls. An alkali basalt pillow segment was also dredged from a moatlike depression, at a depth of 5000 meters, near the west base of the seamount. These retrievals confirm the volcanic origin of Kodiak Seamount and further support the view of Engel, Engel, and Havens that the higher elevations of seamounts are composed of alkali basalts or related variants. PMID:17731907

  10. 38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON WEST WALL AND OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  11. West side of the north and west wings of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of the north and west wings of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Causes of mortality in farmed mink in the Intermountain West, North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David J; Baldwin, Thomas J; Whitehouse, Chelsea H; Hullinger, Gordon

    2015-07-01

    The primary causes of mortality were identified in postmortem examination of 339 (90.9%) of 373 farmed mink (Neovison vison; syn. Mustela vison) from January 2009 through June 2014 at the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Logan, Utah). Mink were raised under farm conditions in the Intermountain West in North America, except for 1 submission of mink from Wisconsin. In the 339 mink where cause(s) of death were established, 311 (91.7%) died from a single disease or condition, whereas 28 (8.3%) had 2 diseases or conditions contributing to death. Where cause(s) of death were evident, 11 diseases accounted for 321 (94.7%) of the diagnoses: bacterial pneumonia (67, 18.8%), Aleutian mink disease (61, 17.7%), mink viral enteritis (56, 16.2%), hepatic lipidosis (28, 8.1%), nutritional myopathy (24, 7%), bacterial enterocolitis (17, 4.9%), bacterial septicemia (16, 4.6%), starvation (15, 4.3%), epizootic catarrhal gastroenteritis of mink (14, 4.1%), pancreatitis (13, 3.8%), and bacterial metritis (10, 2.9%). In 34 (9.1%) animals, a cause of death was not evident. In an additional 16 (4.3%) of the mink, botulism was suspected from clinical history but could not be confirmed by laboratory testing. Control measures for the most common causes of death in farmed mink include testing and removal of positive animals (Aleutian mink disease), vaccination (Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, mink viral enteritis), avoidance of obesity in mink (hepatic lipidosis), and environmental management, including maintaining clean water cups, floors, feed troughs, cages, feed silos, feed truck tires, workers' shoes, dining areas for farm personnel, leather mink handling gloves, street clothes, and coveralls. PMID:26077544

  13. Treatment of West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Yoichi

    2011-03-01

    West syndrome is one of the most refractory epileptic syndromes in infancy, and many researchers have made great effort to find optimal treatment modalities for this syndrome. In this review, previous literature on optimal treatments of West syndrome and its refractory nature were briefly presented, followed by an introduction of recent publication of expert opinions from the US and Europe. An Asian expert opinion generated by a short questionnaire survey was then presented. It was shown that medically proven optimal treatment of West syndrome is not always the practical treatment of choice in Asian countries. Cost and geographical regions should also be taken into account in making practical choices for treatment of West syndrome. PMID:21196092

  14. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis H.

    1999-01-14

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices.

  15. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  16. Pliocene planktic foraminifer census data from the North Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    PRISM Project Members

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of the climatic and oceanographic conditions of the Pliocene known as PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping). One of the major elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages to estimate seasurface temperatures and identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses (Dowsett, 1991; Dowsett and Poore, 1991; Dowsett et al., 1992; Dowsett et al., 1994). We have analyzed more than 900 samples from 19 core sites in the North Atlantic Basin (Fig. 1) resulting in a large volume of raw census data. These data are presented here together to facilitate comparison of North Atlantic faunal assemblages. Latitude, longitude, water depth, source of faunal data and source of data used to construct age model (or publication from which age model was taken) are provided for each locality in Table 1. All ages refer to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Counts of species tabulated in each sample are given in Tables 2-20. DSDP and ODP sample designations are abbreviated in Tables 2-20 as core-section, depth within section in centimeters (eg. 10-5, 34 = core 10, section 5, 34 cm below top of section 5).

  17. Comprehensive Census and Analysis of Nearby Debris Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotten, Tara H.

    2016-01-01

    Debris disks are intimately linked to planetary system evolution since the rocky material surrounding the star is believed to originate in collisions between planetesimals, asteroids and comets. With the conclusion of all major space infrared missions and lack of future large-scale infrared excess survey missions, it is time to make a complete list of all debris disk systems and search for trends in the population. A thorough search of the literature for infrared excess stars has been combined with a large-scale survey for excess stars in the Tycho-2 catalog that makes use of all available infrared photometry. The result is a list of ~580 unique high fidelity debris disk stars. This project seeks a comprehensive analysis of debris disk stars not yet completed on this large scale. A summary of the creation of the high fidelity debris disk census and the multi-facility endeavor to obtain various stellar and disk parameters for each debris disk will be presented. I will offer an exploration into the relationships between host stars and their debris disks through properties such as metallicity, age, and rotation.

  18. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    SciTech Connect

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  19. Census taking in the hat: FRW/CFT duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekino, Yasuhiro; Susskind, Leonard

    2009-10-01

    In this paper a holographic description of eternal inflation is developed. We focus on the description of an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe that results from a tunneling event in which a false vacuum with positive vacuum energy decays to a supersymmetric vacuum with vanishing cosmological constant. The observations of a “census taker” in the final vacuum can be organized into a holographic dual conformal field theory that lives on the asymptotic boundary of space. We refer to this bulk-boundary correspondence as FRW/CFT duality. The dual conformal field theory (CFT) is a Euclidean two-dimensional theory that includes a Liouville 2D gravity sector describing geometric fluctuations of the boundary. The renormalization-group flow of the theory is richer than in the AdS/CFT correspondence, and generates two space-time dimensions—one spacelike and one timelike. We discuss a number of phenomena such as bubble collisions, and the Garriga, Guth Vilenkin “persistence of memory,” from the dual viewpoint.

  20. Census of Blue Stars in SDSS DR8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2014-12-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g - r)0 < -0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  1. Completing the Census of Isolated Dwarf Galaxy Star Formation Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    We propose to complete our census of the ancient star formation histories (SFHs) of isolated dwarf galaxies by obtaining deep ACS/WFC optical imaging of WLM and Pegasus Dwarf Irregular Galaxy (PegDIG). They are the only two systems without previous deep HST imaging that are isolated yet close enough to guarantee that their oldest main sequence turnoffs are accessible with HST. We will measure their lifetime SFHs with an age resolution of < 1 Gyr at all epochs to address questions about growth of stellar mass, the effects of reionization, radial population gradients, and variable star populations in WLM and PegDIG. This program is a concerted effort between theorists and observers to obtain the best possible observational constraints on the early epochs of star formation in isolated low-mass galaxies, which are essential to the next generation of galaxy simulations. With these new observations we will have completed our efforts to collect precise lifetime SFHs of all nearby isolated dwarfs that are accessible with HST. In combination with archival data, we will create a legacy sample isolated dwarfs with identically derived SFHs, that will be serve as the baseline for the community's understanding of how low-mass galaxies form and evolve over a Hubble time and in the absence of environmental effects of a massive host (e.g., tides, ram pressure).

  2. A Full Census of Intracluster Light in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krick, Jessica; Desai, V.; Murphy, E.; Bridge, C.; Mihos, C.; Rudick, C.; Neill, J.; Surace, J.; Kenney, J.; van Gorkom, J.; Carlberg, R.

    2010-01-01

    We have begun a new multi-wavelength project to explore the interaction history and evolution of galaxies in clusters. As a cluster hierarchically grows, gravitational and gas dynamical effects (e.g. galaxy-galaxy interactions, harassment, ram pressure stripping, starvation) are capable of removing stars, gas, and dust from galaxies. The intracluster light (ICL) therefore holds a record of the growth history of the cluster. We intend to explore a full mass census of the intracluster light in the central degree of the Virgo cluster by looking at the stars, dust, and gas components. We have recently been awarded Spitzer Warm IRAC 3.6 and 4.5micron data to compare with the published V-band imaging of Mihos et al. 2005. In addition we have discovered the first ever detected ICL feature in the UV with GALEX. This feature is ˜50 kpc long, ˜40 kpc from the interacting galaxy pair NGC4438/4435, and is spatially coincident with a tidal plume detected in deep V -band imaging. The presence of this feature in the UV is extremely surpising because previous optical analyses indicate that IC stars are old, and should therefore be undetected in the FUV. Spectral energy distribution(SED) fitting of the GALEX and optical data of this plume reveal not only a population of young IC stars but also significant amounts of IC dust.

  3. Chandra Observation of Polaris: Census of Low-Mass Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Wolk, Scott; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Schlegel, Eric; Mason, Brian; Karovska, Margarita; Spitzbart, Bradley

    2009-09-01

    We have observed Polaris = HD 8890 with Chandra ACIS-I for 10 ksec and found an X-ray source at the location of the Cepheid Polaris A = Aa + Ab with log L_X = 28.89 ergs s^{-1} and a kT = 0.6 keV. Either the F7 Ib supergiant or the F6 V spectroscopic companion could produce a spectrum this soft. Polaris B is not an X-ray source, which is consistent with its early F spectral type. However, this shows that it does not itself have a lower mass companion. Two resolved low mass stars ``C and D" are not physical companions based on the lack of X-rays (indicating an older age than the Cepheid) and inconsistent motion. In addition, a possible more distant companion is identified, and also less plausible one. Thus, this observation provides a complete census of companions down to masses as small as an order of magnitude less than the Cepheid and nearly 15 mag fainter within the surrounding 0.1 pc.Funding for this work was provided by Chandra grant GO6-7011A Chandra X-ray Center NASA Contract NAS8-39073

  4. History of earthquakes and tsunamis along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust, with implications for tsunami hazards in the California Continental Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Holly F.; von Huene, Roland; Wells, Ray E.; Scholl, David W.; Kirby, Stephen; Draut, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    During the past several years, devastating tsunamis were generated along subduction zones in Indonesia, Chile, and most recently Japan. Both the Chile and Japan tsunamis traveled across the Pacific Ocean and caused localized damage at several coastal areas in California. The question remains as to whether coastal California, in particular the California Continental Borderland, is vulnerable to more extensive damage from a far-field tsunami sourced along a Pacific subduction zone. Assuming that the coast of California is at risk from a far-field tsunami, its coastline is most exposed to a trans-Pacific tsunami generated along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone. We present the background geologic constraints that could control a possible giant (Mw ~9) earthquake sourced along the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust. Previous great earthquakes (Mw ~8) in 1788, 1938, and 1946 ruptured single segments of the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust. However, in order to generate a giant earthquake, it is necessary to rupture through multiple segments of the megathrust. Potential barriers to a throughgoing rupture, such as high-relief fracture zones or ridges, are absent on the subducting Pacific Plate between the Fox and Semidi Islands. Possible asperities (areas on the megathrust that are locked and therefore subject to infrequent but large slip) are identified by patches of high moment release observed in the historical earthquake record, geodetic studies, and the location of forearc basin gravity lows. Global Positioning System (GPS) data indicate that some areas of the eastern Aleutian-Alaska megathrust, such as that beneath Sanak Island, are weakly coupled. We suggest that although these areas will have reduced slip during a giant earthquake, they are not really large enough to form a barrier to rupture. A key aspect in defining an earthquake source for tsunami generation is determining the possibility of significant slip on the updip end of the megathrust near

  5. Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangan, M.; Miller, T.; Waythomas, C.; Trusdell, F.; Calvert, A.; Layer, P.

    2009-01-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 km3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic andesite to andesite and historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 yr, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-aluminum basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern end of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (~ 28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (~ 500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts periodically separate from the lower parts of the column to feed voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic lavas record a complicated passage through cumulate zones and hydrous silicic residues as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain

  6. Creating Statistically Literate Global Citizens: The Use of IPUMS-International Integrated Census Microdata in Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Ann; Lam, David

    2012-01-01

    Census microdata are ideal for developing statistical literacy of university students. Access, particularly to internationally comparable microdata, has been a significant obstacle. The IPUMS-International project offers a uniform solution to providing access for policy analysts, researchers, and students to integrated microdata and metadata, while protecting statistical confidentiality. Eighty-five official statistical agencies have endorsed IPUMS-I dissemination principles and entrusted microdata for 249 censuses to the project. From June 2010, 159 integrated samples, representing 55 countries and totaling over 325 million person records, are available at no cost to researchers and their students. The database is being expanded with the addition of samples for 5–10 countries per year as well as samples for the 2010 round of censuses. This paper illustrates two approaches to using IPUMS-I census microdata in the university curriculum to promote statistical literacy among undergraduates. PMID:25279022

  7. 76 FR 321 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census Covering the Utilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Utilities, Transportation and Warehousing, Finance and Insurance, and Real Estate and Rental and Leasing.... The 2012 Economic Census covering Utilities, Transportation and Warehousing, Finance and Insurance... Collection Mail Selection Procedures Establishments in the Utilities, Transportation and Warehousing,...

  8. An analysis of howling response parameters useful for wolf pack censusing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrington, F.H.; Mech, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were studied from April-1972 through April 1974 in the Superior National Forest in northeastern Minnesota by radio-tracking and simulated howling. Based on replies during 217 of 456 howling sessions, the following recommendations were derived for using simulated howling as a census technique: (1) the best times of day are dusk and night; (2) July, August, and September are the best months; (3) precipitation and winds greater than 12 km/hour should be aVQided; (4) a sequence of 5 single howls should be used, alternating 'flat' and 'breaking' howls; (5) trials should be repeated 3 times at about 2-minute intervals with the first trial at lower volume; and (6) the trial series should be repeated on 3 nights as close to each other as possible. Two censuses are described: a saturation census and a sampling census.

  9. Incorporating GIS building data and census housing statistics for sub-block-level population estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.-S.; Wang, L.; Qiu, X.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a deterministic model for sub-block-level population estimation based on the total building volumes derived from geographic information system (GIS) building data and three census block-level housing statistics. To assess the model, we generated artificial blocks by aggregating census block areas and calculating the respective housing statistics. We then applied the model to estimate populations for sub-artificial-block areas and assessed the estimates with census populations of the areas. Our analyses indicate that the average percent error of population estimation for sub-artificial-block areas is comparable to those for sub-census-block areas of the same size relative to associated blocks. The smaller the sub-block-level areas, the higher the population estimation errors. For example, the average percent error for residential areas is approximately 0.11 percent for 100 percent block areas and 35 percent for 5 percent block areas.

  10. 76 FR 11195 - Request for Nominations of Members To Serve on the Census Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... data collection, statistical analysis, survey methodology, geospatial analysis, econometrics, cognitive psychology, and computer science as they pertain to the full range of Census Bureau programs and activities... following disciplines: demography, economics, geography, psychology, statistics, survey methodology,...

  11. Solar Census - Perfecting the Art of Automated, Remote Solar Shading Assessments (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    To validate the work completed by Solar Census as part of the Department of Energy SunShot Incubator 8 award, NREL validated the performanec of the Solar Census Surveyor tool against the industry standard Solmetric SunEye measurements for 4 residential sites in California who experienced light to heavy shading. Using the a two one-sided test (TOST) of statistical equivalence, NREL found that the mean differences between the Solar Census and SunEye mean solar access values for Annual, Summer, and Winter readings fall within the 95% confidence intervals and the confidence intervals themselves fall within the tolerances of +/- 5 SAVs, the Solar Census calculations are statistically equivalent to the SunEye measurements.

  12. China’s New Demographic Reality: Learning from the 2010 Census1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides an examination of China’s 2010 census data to evaluate its quality and to assess China’s demographic situation. The demographic trends revealed by the new census data suggest that China has entered a new demographic era characterized by prolonged low fertility, elevated sex ratios, rapid aging, fast urbanization and major geographic redistribution. How China responses to these demographic challenges will have profound implications for its social and economic future. PMID:25620818

  13. Long-range side scan sonar and geophysical survey of the Aleutian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, P. R.; Cooper, , A. K.; Gardner, J. V.; Karl, H. A.; Marlow, M. S.; Stevenson, A. J.; Huggett, Q.; Kenyon, N. H.; Parson, L. M.

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan established the Exclusive Economic Zone, an area of 3.9 billion acres (˜1.6 billion hectares) that gives the United States exclusive rights to energy and mineral resources on and under the seafloor for a distance of 200 nautical miles (˜370 km) from its coastline and in its territorial seas [Rowland et al., 1983]. The U.S. Geological Survey established a program, EEZ-Scan, in spring 1984 to map this new undersea territory [Gardner, 1984; EEZ-Scan Group, 1985]. The results of the first field season of mapping the EEZ off the conterminous west coast of the United States have been published as an atlas [EEZ-Scan 84 Scientific Staff, 1986] that is the first volume of a series.

  14. A stellar census of the Tucana-Horologium moving group

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Adam L.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Liu, Michael C.

    2014-06-01

    We report the selection and spectroscopic confirmation of 129 new late-type (SpT = K3-M6) members of the Tucana-Horologium moving group, a nearby (d ∼ 40 pc), young (τ ∼ 40 Myr) population of comoving stars. We also report observations for 13 of the 17 known Tuc-Hor members in this spectral type range, and that 62 additional candidates are likely to be unassociated field stars; the confirmation frequency for new candidates is therefore 129/191 = 67%. We have used radial velocities, Hα emission, and Li{sub 6708} absorption to distinguish between contaminants and bona fide members. Our expanded census of Tuc-Hor increases the known population by a factor of ∼3 in total and by a factor of ∼8 for members with SpT ≥ K3, but even so, the K-M dwarf population of Tuc-Hor is still markedly incomplete. Our expanded census allows for a much more detailed study of Tuc-Hor than was previously feasible. The spatial distribution of members appears to trace a two-dimensional sheet, with a broad distribution in X and Y, but a very narrow distribution (±5 pc) in Z. The corresponding velocity distribution is very small, with a scatter of ±1.1 km s{sup –1} about the mean UVW velocity for stars spanning the entire 50 pc extent of Tuc-Hor. We also show that the isochronal age (τ ∼ 20-30 Myr) and the lithium depletion boundary age (τ ∼ 40 Myr) disagree, following the trend in other pre-main-sequence populations for isochrones to yield systematically younger ages. The Hα emission line strength follows a trend of increasing equivalent width with later spectral type, as is seen for young clusters. We find that moving group members have been depleted of measurable lithium for spectral types of K7.0-M4.5. None of our targets have significant infrared excesses in the WISE W3 band, yielding an upper limit on warm debris disks of F < 0.7%. Finally, our purely kinematic and color-magnitude selection procedure allows us to test the efficiency and completeness for activity

  15. Census-based socioeconomic indicators for monitoring injury causes in the USA: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nathaniel; Arrington, Amanda; Adams, Swann Arp

    2015-01-01

    Background Unlike the UK or New Zealand, there is no standard set of census variables in the USA for characterising socioeconomic (SES, socioeconomic status) inequalities in health outcomes, including injury. We systematically reviewed existing US studies to identify conceptual and methodological strengths and limitations of current approaches to determine those most suitable for research and surveillance. Methods We searched seven electronic databases to identify census variables proposed in the peer-reviewed literature to monitor injury risk. Inclusion criteria were that numerator data were derived from hospital, trauma or vital statistics registries and that exposure variables included census SES constructs. Results From 33 eligible studies, we identified 70 different census constructs for monitoring injury risk. Of these, fewer than half were replicated by other studies or against other causes, making the majority of studies non-comparable. When evaluated for a statistically significant relationship with a cause of injury, 74% of all constructs were predictive of injury risk when assessed in pairwise comparisons, whereas 98% of all constructs were significant when aggregated into composite indices. Fewer than 30% of studies selected SES constructs based on known associations with injury risk. Conclusions There is heterogeneity in the conceptual and methodological approaches for using census data for monitoring injury risk as well as in the recommendations as to how these constructs can be used for injury prevention. We recommend four priority areas for research to facilitate a more unified approach towards use of the census for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in injury risk. PMID:25678685

  16. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A.

    2016-01-01

    Following the recent expiry of the United Nations’ 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census’s ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring. PMID:26986472

  17. A Census of marine life: unknowable or just unknown?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dor, Ron; Decker, Cynthia J.

    2002-01-01

    As an introduction to the entire volume, this article outlines the relationships among the five elements of the Census of Marine Life (CoML) that create new knowledge: (1) The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), a marine component of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, links marine databases around the world to provide an Internet accessible, dynamic interface for comparing species-level, geo-referenced biodiversity data in relation to ocean habitats. The entire CoML field project data will be managed in and accessible through OBIS. (2) The History of Marine Animal Populations (HMAP) is a unique new synthesis of historical and biological research that will document marine biodiversity, globally, up to 500 years ago, before significant human impact, and store it in formats compatible with modern data in OBIS. (3) The Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research Working Group 118 monitors and recommends advanced marine technologies, ready to be routinely used in CoML field projects. (4) CoML Initial Field Projects develop and calibrate these technologies in selected regions to facilitate and accelerate global biodiversity research. As calibrated technologies and protocols are adopted in many regions, qualitative and quantitative biodiversity discoveries accumulate. (5) The Future of Marine Animal Populations (FMAP) program will insure that the data in OBIS are suitable for modeling and predicting changes in global biodiversity in response to fishing, pollution, and climate change challenges. It will make datasets available for hindcasting and forecasting analyses linked to physical ocean observations and assist in documenting the impacts of conservation efforts on sustainability.

  18. A Census of Habitable Planets around Nearby stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Alain M.

    2015-12-01

    One day or another, a spectroscopic mission will be launched searching for biosignatures in the atmospheres of Earth-like planets, i.e. planets located in the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their stars and hopefully rocky. This could be done blindly, the expensive spectroscopic mission searching for the candidates before performing their spectroscopy. According to a clear tendency in the Kepler data, the mean number of Earth-like planets, ηEarth, around the Kepler stars is rather low (10% - 20%). It makes this approach pretty inefficient, most of the stars studied (90% - 80%) having no such planets, and the corresponding mission time being essentially lost. This is more severe when the random position of planets on their orbits is taken into account. An exhaustive census of these planets around the nearby stars, the only ones accessible to the mission, appears desirable priorly to its launch.Up to now, the detection of low mas planets in the HZ of their stars by the Radial Velocity technique is limited to stars with very low activity (~ 2% of F,G,K stars). The detection by transits is limited by the low probability the randomly oriented orbits, few of them leading to a transit (0.5% for solar-type stars). On the other hand, ultra accurate astrometry is less sensitive to stellar activity and could detect Earth-like planets around most of the nearby solar-type stars.We present the project of a space mission, Theia+, that could do the job and measure the masses and orbits of these planets, a key piece of information to derive a possible statement about the likelihood of the actual presence of life on a planet. Other capabilities of the mission regarding Dark Matter, Very Compact Object, Cosmology, and Stellar Formation is also rapidly mentioned.

  19. Effect of lipid extraction on analyses of stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Anthony, R.G.; Deng, X.; Hung, S.S.O.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether extracting lipids reduced confounding variation in ??13C and ??15N values by analyzing paired lipid-extracted (LE) and non-lipid-extracted (NLE) samples of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) whole eggs, muscle tissue from nine seabird and one terrestrial bird species, muscle tissue from four marine fish species, and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L., 1758) collected from the Aleutian archipelago, Alaska. Lipid extraction significantly increased ??13C by an average of 2.0??? in whole eggs, 0.8??? in avian muscle, 0.2??? in fish muscle, and 0.6??? in blue mussels. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples covaried positively with lipid content across all sample types. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples were not correlated with lipid content within bald eagle eggs and blue mussels, but covaried positively with percent lipid in avian and fish muscles. Neither lipid extraction nor percent lipid significantly changed ??15N values for any sample type. Lower ??13C values in most NLE avian and fish muscle tissues should not confound interpretation of pelagic versus nearshore sources of primary production, but lipid extraction may be necessary when highly precise estimates of ??13C are needed. Lipid extraction may not be necessary when only ??15N is of interest. ?? 2007 NRC.

  20. The Detection, Characterization and Tracking of Recent Aleutian Island Volcanic Ash Plumes and the Assessment of Their Impact on Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, John J.; Hudnall, L. A.; Matus, A.; Krueger, A. J.; Trepte, C. r.

    2010-01-01

    The Aleutian Islands of Alaska are home to a number of major volcanoes which periodically present a significant hazard to aviation. During summer of 2008, the Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes experienced moderate eruptive events. These were followed a dramatic, major eruption of Mount Redoubt in late March 2009. The Redoubt case is extensively covered in this paper. Volcanic ash and SO2 from each of these eruptions dispersed throughout the atmosphere. This created the potential for major problems for air traffic near the ash dispersions and at significant distances downwind. The NASA Applied Sciences Weather Program implements a wide variety of research projects to develop volcanic ash detection, characterization and tracking applications for NASA Earth Observing System and NOAA GOES and POES satellites. Chemistry applications using NASA AURA satellite Ozone Monitoring System (OMI) retrievals produced SO2 measurements to trace the dispersion of volcanic aerosol. This work was complimented by advanced multi-channel imager applications for the discrimination and height assignment of volcanic ash using NASA MODIS and NOAA GOES and POES imager data. Instruments similar to MODIS and OMI are scheduled for operational deployment on NPOESS. In addition, the NASA Calipso satellite provided highly accurate measurements of aerosol height and dispersion for the calibration and validation of these algorithms and for corroborative research studies. All of this work shortens the lead time for transition to operations and ensures that research satellite data and applications are operationally relevant and utilized quickly after the deployment of operational satellite systems. Introduction