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Sample records for alex incident period

  1. GPM Flyby of Hurricane Alex

    NASA Video Gallery

    Most of the rainfall measured by GPM on Jan.15 was measured at less than 20 mm (.8 inches) per hour. GPM found that maximum storm top heights northwest of Alex's cloudy eye were found to reach alti...

  2. Tropical Depression Alex hits Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Depression Alex on June 27, 2010 at 2214 UTC (6:14 PM EST). Tropical depression Alex was near the western coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. ...

  3. Incident light adjustable solar cell by periodic nanolens architecture

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Eunsongyi; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, Wayne A.; Kim, Joondong; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Zeng, Jinwei; Yi, Junsin; Kumar, M. Melvin David; Sun, Jingbo

    2014-01-01

    Could nanostructures act as lenses to focus incident light for efficient utilization of photovoltaics? Is it possible, in order to avoid serious recombination loss, to realize periodic nanostructures in solar cells without direct etching in a light absorbing semiconductor? Here we propose and demonstrate a promising architecture to shape nanolenses on a planar semiconductor. Optically transparent and electrically conductive nanolenses simultaneously provide the optical benefit of modulating the incident light and the electrical advantage of supporting carrier transportation. A transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanolens was designed to focus the incident light-spectrum in focal lengths overlapping to a strong electric field region for high carrier collection efficiency. The ITO nanolens effectively broadens near-zero reflection and provides high tolerance to the incident light angles. We present a record high light-conversion efficiency of 16.0% for a periodic nanostructured Si solar cell. PMID:25371099

  4. Backscatter from a periodic rough surface at near grazing incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, A. K.; Shamansky, H. T.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of periodic surface roughness on the radar cross section (RCS) was studied. The surface roughness was formed by a small sinusoidal variation in a planar surface. RCS measurements were obtained for two different sinusoidal variations near grazing incidence for both principle polarizations. Significant grating lobes were observed in the measurements which directly correspond to the roughness characteristics. A physical optics solution was generated and compared to the measurements with reasonable agreement.

  5. Increased incidence of adult pneumococcal pneumonia during school holiday periods

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chamira; Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; McKeever, Tricia M.; Slack, Mary; Lim, Wei Shen

    2017-01-01

    Child contact is a recognised risk factor for adult pneumococcal disease. Peaks in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence observed during winter holidays may be related to changes in social dynamics. This analysis was conducted to examine adult pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) incidence during school holiday periods. Between September 2008 and 2013, consecutive adults admitted to hospitals covering the Greater Nottingham area with a diagnosis of CAP were studied. Pneumococcal pneumonia was detected using culture and antigen detection methods. Of 2221 adults studied, 575 (25.9%) were admitted during school holidays and 643 (29.0%) had pneumococcal CAP. CAP of pneumococcal aetiology was significantly more likely in adults admitted during school holidays compared to term time (35.3% versus 26.7%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11–1.72, p=0.004). Over the 5-year period, the age-adjusted incidence of hospitalised pneumococcal CAP was higher during school holidays compared to term time (incident rate ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.14–1.60, p<0.001); there was no difference in rates of all-cause CAP or non-pneumococcal CAP. Reported child contact was higher in individuals with pneumococcal CAP admitted during school holidays compared to term time (42.0% versus 33.7%, OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.00–2.03, p=0.046). Further study of transmission dynamics in relation to these findings and to identify appropriate intervention strategies is warranted. PMID:28326311

  6. Alex Bloom, Pioneer of Radical State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Alex Bloom is one of the greatest figures of radical state education in England. His approach to "personalised learning" and the development of a negotiated curriculum was immeasurably more profound and more inspiring than anything to emerge thus far from the current DfES. His approach to student voice was much more radical than anything…

  7. The Black Scholar Interviews: Alex Haley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Robert L.

    1976-01-01

    A native of Henning, Tennessee, Alex Haley taught himself to write during a twenty year career in the U.S. Coast Guard. After retiring from that service, in 1959, he became a magazine writer and interviewer, and has spent 12 years researching and writing "Roots" (Doubleday, 1976), the epic drama of his family from the abduction of his…

  8. Alex Sanchez's Fiction: A Resource for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, G. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The young adult novels of Alex Sanchez belong in every high school English classroom and media center. With compelling plots and significant themes, Sanchez's six novels create numerous rich learning opportunities for students. In this article, the author describes how Sanchez's novels on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender themes can be…

  9. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 SMOKE HOUSE - Colonel John Young Kilpatrick House & Outbuildings, Bridgeport Road (County Road 37), Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  10. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1937 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SMOKE HOUSE. - Dr. William Hughes House & Outbuildings, Hughes Creek vicinity, Aliceville, Pickens County, AL

  11. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 INTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT ENTRANCE - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  12. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH ELEVATION - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, 1937 REAR ELEVATION. VIEW FROM SOUTH EAST - Benjamin Pinckney Worthington House, Sixth Avenue South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, 1937 FRONT (NORTH) AND WEST ELEVATION - Benjamin Pinckney Worthington House, Sixth Avenue South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 46. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 LOOKING DOWN ON WALK AND DRIVE - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  16. 31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 FRONT VIEW OF BUILDING, FACES NORTH - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1936 DENNY'S TOWER, COMPANY F IN BACKGROUND - University of Alabama, Denny's Tower, University Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, 1936 WEST ELEVATION (REAR) - University of Alabama, Observatory, Stadium Drive & Fifth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  19. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 31, 1936 NORTH WALL OF AUDITORIUM, SECOND FLOOR - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  20. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, 1936 GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Southern University, Chancellor's House, College Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  1. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 31, 1936 STAGE IN SOUTH END OF AUDITORIUM - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, 1936 SOUTH EAST ELEVATION (GENERAL VIEW) - Southern University, Chancellor's House, College Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  3. Age-period-cohort analysis of hepatitis A incidence rates in Korea from 2002 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Korea from 2002 to 2012 using age-period-cohort analyses. METHODS We used claims data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation for the entire population. Census data from 2010 were used as the standard population. The incidence of hepatitis A was assumed to have a Poisson distribution, and the models and effects were evaluated using the intrinsic estimator method, the likelihood ratio, and the Akaike information criterion. RESULTS The incidence of hepatitis A gradually increased until 2007 (from 17.55 to 35.72 per 100,000 population) and peaked in 2009 (177.47 per 100,000 population). The highest incidence was observed among 27-29-year-old individuals when we omitted data from 2005 to 2007. From 2005 to 2007, the peak incidence was observed among 24-26-year-old individuals, followed by 27-29-year-olds. The best model fits were observed when the age-period-cohort variables were all considered at the same time for males, females, and the whole population. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of hepatitis A exhibited significant age-period-cohort effects; its incidence peaked in 2009 and was especially high among Koreans 20-39 years of age. These epidemiological patterns may help predict when high incidence rates of hepatitis A may occur in developing countries during their socioeconomic development. PMID:27703127

  4. ASK Talks with Alex McCool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As a charter member at Marshall, McCool was instrumental in the design of the propulsion systems for the Saturn launch vehicles that propelled Apollo to the Moon and directed project engineering for Skylab, the first space science laboratory. Alex McCool's 48-year career includes exceptional contributions to the vehicles that launched America into orbit and carried human beings to the moon. Presently, he is the manager of the Space Shuttle Projects Office at Marshall. Among his many honors he recently received the National Space Club's 2002 Astronautics Engineer Award. The award recognizes those who have made outstanding contributions in engineering management to the national space program.

  5. Split-field FDTD method for oblique incidence study of periodic dispersive metallic structures.

    PubMed

    Baida, F I; Belkhir, A

    2009-08-15

    The study of periodic structures illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is a simple task that can be numerically simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. On the contrary, for off-normal incidence, a widely modified algorithm must be developed in order to bypass the frequency dependence appearing in the periodic boundary conditions. After recently implementing this FDTD algorithm for pure dielectric materials, we here extend it to the study of metallic structures where dispersion can be described by analytical models. The accuracy of our code is demonstrated through comparisons with already-published results in the case of 1D and 3D structures.

  6. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, 1936 VIEW THROUGH LIVING ROOM DOOR ACROSS HALL INTO GUEST ROOM SHOWING BASE OF STAIR IN HALL - Oak Manor, State Road 28, Livingston, Sumter County, AL

  7. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING NORTH IN CROSS HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH ELEVATION - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  9. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW IN FRONT OF MAIN HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 GENERAL VIEW OF REAR OF MAIN HALL - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  11. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON SOUTH WALL OF PARLOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  12. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING SOUTH WEST AT OLD STABLE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW INTO LIVING ROOM SHOWING MANTEL - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  14. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF MAIN ENTRANCE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  15. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON NORTH WALL OF DINING ROOM - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT OF ENTRANCE HALL (GENERAL VIEW) - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  17. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 SERVANT'S HOUSE AND GARAGE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 REAR (WEST) AND NORTH SIDE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ELEVATION FROM SOUTH SIDE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  20. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW THROUGH DOUBLE SLIDING DOORS INTO DINING ROOM - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1936 MANTEL IN S. WALL OF S. E. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Rhea-Burleson-McEntire House, 120 Sycamore Street, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  2. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1936 INTERIOR OF FRONT ENTRANCE IN HALL, 2nd FLOOR - Rhea-Burleson-McEntire House, 120 Sycamore Street, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  3. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, 1935 VIEW FROM HALL ON 2nd FLOOR SHOWING SUN PARLOR - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, 1937 ENTRANCE FROM SUN PARLOR IN CROSS HALL, ALSO STAIRWAY - Governor Robert Lindsay House, U.S. Highway 72, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  5. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 WINDOW IN N. WALL OF N. E. FRONT ROOM (PARLOR), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  6. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 WINDOW IN N. WALL OF N. W. FRONT ROOM (LIVING ROOM), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Alex Bush, Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Alex Bush, Photographer, March 15, 1935 OLD COLLEGE PAMPHLET. NOT COPYRIGHTED. FRONT AND SIDE VIEW S.E. (BEFORE ALTERATION). - Marion Female Seminary, Monroe & Centreville Streets, Marion, Perry County, AL

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, 1934 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. EAST ENTRANCE GATE TO BURIAL LOT - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, 1937 CLOSE-UP DETAIL OF NORTH EAST CORNER - Doctor Wilkins House, State Highways 14 & 86 vicinity, Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  10. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 12, 1935 OLD SLAVE HOUSE, SMOKE HOUSE IN REAR - Greenlawn, U.S. Highway 431 (Memorial Parkway), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 25, 1935 FRONT (WEST) AND NORTH SIDE OF SMOKE HOUSE - J. O. Banks House & Smokehouse, Springfield Avenue & Pickens Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  12. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 INTERIOR VIEW OF N. W. CORNER SMOKE HOUSE - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 LOOKING SOUTH AT PART OF OLD KITCHEN. SERVANT'S HOUSE ON LEFT, SMOKE HOUSE ON RIGHT - C. W. Dunlap House, 237 Wilson Avenue, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  14. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE AND WELL AT REAR OF HOME - Samuel M. Peck House, Eighteenth Street & Thirtieth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 SMOKE HOUSE. WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE - Sellers-Henderson House & Smokehouse, State Route 28, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  16. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1937 LOOKING EAST AT SMOKE HOUSE AND COOK'S HOME. - Ingleside, House & Outbuildings, Second Street (State Highway 14), Aliceville, Pickens County, AL

  17. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 LOOKING NORTH EAST IN COURT ROOM - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  18. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 VAULT DOOR IN SO. WALL BETWEEN PROBATE JUDGE AND CLARK'S OFFICE, FIRST FLOOR - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF REAR (EAST), NORTH - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  20. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT PORTICO FROM SOUTH SIDE - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 MAIN ENTRANCE DOOR TO COURT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  2. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 CORNICE TREATMENT ON NORTH SIDE OF PORTICO - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  3. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 MANTEL ON EAST WALL IN COURT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  4. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 WINDOW IN COURT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  5. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 31, 1936 MANTEL IN NORTH WALL OF NORTH WEST FRONT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Frank Tait House, County Road 19, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  6. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 MANTEL ON EAST WALL OF SHERRIF OFFICE, 1st FLOOR - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  7. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 LOOKING DOWN ON STAIR LANDING ON NORTH SIDE OF PORTICO - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  8. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 FIREPLACE AND WINDOW IN CLERK'S OFFICE, 1st FLOOR - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  9. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 STAIR ON NORTH END OF PORTICO - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  10. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 VAULT DOOR IN PROBATE JUDGE'S OFFICE, FIRST FLOOR - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  11. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, 1937 MANTEL ON NORTH WALL OF N.E. ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Benjamin Pinckney Worthington House, Sixth Avenue South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, 1937 MANTEL ON EAST WALL OF N. E. ROOM - Benjamin Pinckney Worthington House, Sixth Avenue South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, 1937 DOUBLE DOORS IN N.E. ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Benjamin Pinckney Worthington House, Sixth Avenue South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, 1937 WINDOW DETAIL ON SOUTH WALL OF FRONT PORCH - Benjamin Pinckney Worthington House, Sixth Avenue South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 30, 1936 SOUTH END OF BACK PORCH SHOWING BLINDS AND STAIR RAIL, SECOND FLOOR - Burford House, County Road 33 vicinity, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  16. GOES-13 Satellite Catches Alex as a Tropical Storm

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video of satellite imagery from the GOES-13 satellite shows Hurricane Alex's track from the Western Gulf of Mexico through landfall in northeastern Mexico in the early morning hours of July 1 ...

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1935 MANTEL IN S. W. ROOM ON FIRST FLOOR, TAX OFFICE - Lawrence County Courthouse, Courthouse Square bounded by Main Street, Lawrence Street, Market Street & Court Street, Moulton, Lawrence County, AL

  18. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 REAR VIEW, SHOWING SMALL OLD-TIME WINDOW OF SLAVE HOUSE - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  19. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, 1937 OLD TIME TOOLS USED IN ANTI-BELLUM TIMES, TUSCUMBIA VICINITY. - Carl Rand House, 501 East Third Street, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  20. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, 1935 OLD- TIME KITCHEN, WEST SIDE (NOW GARAGE), SLAVES CABIN No. 3 IN SHEETS, E SIDE OF YARD - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL IN EAST WALL OF NORTH EAST FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  2. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL AND WINDOW IN EAST WALL OF NORTH EAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  3. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 SOUTH WALL OF DINING ROOM SHOWING MANTEL AND DOORS - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  4. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, 1936 VIEW IN FRONT PORCH SHOWING ALL OF THE DETAILS - Collier-Whitt-Boone House, 905 Twenty-first Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  5. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 2, 1937 LOOKING EAST IN GIRL'S DORMITORY, FOURTH FLOOR - East Alabama Masonic Female Institute, 205 East South Street, Talladega, Talladega County, AL

  6. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, 1934. BRICK WALL, WAS ONCE USED AS A COW LOT - Jemison-van de Graaf-Burchfield House, 1305 Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 9, 1935 OLD SLAVE QUARTERS, KITCHEN AND DRIVERS ROOM, FACES S. - Shackelford-McCrary-Otts House, 901 Centreville Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  8. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF PORCH TRIM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  9. 47. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 SLAVE CABIN #1 (WESTERNMOST) IN SHEETS, CABIN AT WEST SIDE OF PLOT, FACES EAST, GIRL'S DORMITORY IN REAR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  10. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING SOUTH EAST AT OLD STORE - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  11. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 SOUTH END OF HALL (GENERAL VIEW) - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  12. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL AND WINDOWS ON EAST WALL OF N.E. FRONT ROOM - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT AND WEST ELEVATION FROM N. W. - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON WEST WALL N.W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ELEVATION - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT) OF OLD MUSIC BUILDING - Eutaw Female Academy, Main Street & Wilson Avenue (moved from original site), Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  17. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, 1935 LOOKING UP AT CORNICE IN REAR PARLOR - MUSIC ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  18. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, 1935 CLOSE UP OF CORNICE IN REAR PARLOR (MUSIC ROOM), N. E. ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  19. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, 1935 CORNICE IN CORNER OF REAR PARLOR - MUSIC ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  20. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 12, 1936 PLAQUE (IN CHURCH) TO MEMORY OF WILLIAM C. THOMPSON AND WIFE - Methodist Church, State Highway 25, Dayton, Marengo County, AL

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 14, 1936 STAIR ON SOUTH WALL IN CROSS-HALL - Martin-Randolph-Marlowe House, 816 Twenty-second Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) FRONT VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) FRONT AND SIDE VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) SIDE VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. 26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, 1936 MANTEL, WINDOWS AND CORNICE TREATMENT ON SO. WALL OF PARLOR, FIRST FLOOR - Cedar Grove, Uniontown Road, Faunsdale, Marengo County, AL

  6. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, 1936 DETAIL OF DINING ROOM DOOR IN WEST WALL (OPENS INTO HALL) - Cedar Grove, Uniontown Road, Faunsdale, Marengo County, AL

  7. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 14, 1936 LOOKING S. E. IN SOUTH CROSS HALL SHOWING STAIR AND DOOR ON EAST WALL AND ENTRANCE DOOR - Cedar Grove, Uniontown Road, Faunsdale, Marengo County, AL

  8. 27. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 14, 1936 MANTEL, WINDOW, AND CORNICE TREATMENT IN SO. WALL OF PARLOR, FIRST FLOOR - Cedar Grove, Uniontown Road, Faunsdale, Marengo County, AL

  9. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, 1936 LOOKING SOUTH FROM LIVING ROOM DOORWAY ACROSS HALL INTO PARLOR - Cedar Grove, Uniontown Road, Faunsdale, Marengo County, AL

  10. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, 1936 VIEW IN FRONT HALL (N. AND E. WALLS) SHOWING DOORWAYS AND HEAD OF STAIR RAIL, 2nd FLOOR - Cedar Grove, Uniontown Road, Faunsdale, Marengo County, AL

  11. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, 1936 MANTEL AND DOOR TREATMENT IN W. WALL OF BED ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Cedar Grove, Uniontown Road, Faunsdale, Marengo County, AL

  12. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, 1936 DETAIL OF MANTEL ON WEST WALL OF S. W. BED ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Cedar Grove, Uniontown Road, Faunsdale, Marengo County, AL

  13. 30. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 11, 1936 VIEW OF SOUTH AND EAST WALLS IN HALL, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING STAIR RAIL ON E. WALL - Cedar Grove, Uniontown Road, Faunsdale, Marengo County, AL

  14. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, 1936 NORTH WEST CORNER OF ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR SHOWING WINDOW AND MANTEL - Strawberry Hill Plantation, U.S. Route 43, Forkland, Greene County, AL

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 1, 1936 MANTEL IN FRONT ROOM (ON LEFT), FIRST FLOOR - Gayle-Locke House, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  16. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 VIEW FROM STAGE TOWARD NORTH, MAIN FLOOR - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 1, 1936 MANTEL IN N. WALL OF N. E. CORNER ROOM - Gayle-Locke House, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  18. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 RIGHT STAIRS TOWARDS WEST IN EAST END OF HALL EAST OF MAIN HALLWAY - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  19. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, 1936 VIEW OF S. W. CORNER OF S. W. REAR ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Southern University, Chancellor's House, College Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  20. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 FIREPLACE IN NORTH EAST ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 MAIN HALL TOWARDS SOUTH FROM FRONT DOOR - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  2. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 VIEW SHOWING BALCONY OF AUDITORIUM (HAS 800 SEATS) - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  3. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, 1936 DETAIL OF N. AND E. WALLS IN LIVING ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Southern University, Chancellor's House, College Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 30, 1936 MANTEL AND WINDOW TREATMENT IN E. WALL OF LIVING ROOM - Southern University, Chancellor's House, College Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  5. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 MANTEL IN N. W. ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge William Harrison Walker House, 309 East Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  6. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL ON WEST WALL OF NORTH WEST BEDROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 WALL AROUND REAR YARD OF BANK (SERPENTINE WALL) - State Bank of Alabama, Decatur Branch, Bank Street & Wilson Avenue, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  8. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  9. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P < 0.05). In multiparous cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P < 0.01). The double ovulators experienced more anovulatory repeated waves of follicles before their first ovulations than the single ovulators, which resulted in an extension of the period from parturition to third ovulation (81.5 days vs. 64.2 days, P < 0.05). In the multiparous cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P < 0.01) with lower milk lactose concentration (P < 0.05), indicating the prevalence of a more severe negative energy balance during the postpartum 3-month compared to the multiparous single ovulators. Our results showed that, regardless of their parity, double ovulation had no impact on the reproductive performance of the cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early

  10. Cancer incidence among asbestos-exposed chemical industry workers: An extended observation period

    SciTech Connect

    Hilt, B.; Andersen, A.; Rosenberg, J.; Langard, S. )

    1991-01-01

    A previous study on the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 286 asbestos-exposed electrochemical industry workers observed from 1953 through 1980 has been extended with another 8 years of follow-up. The incidence of cancer was derived from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and the expected figures were calculated by a life table method. During the extended follow-up period from 1981 through 1988, among the cohort members there were 12 new cancer cases versus 14.2 expected (SIR 85, 95% CI 44-158). In a lightly exposed sub-cohort, the extended follow-up revealed 4 cases of lung cancer or pleural mesothelioma (ICD, 7th revision 162-163) versus 1.6 cases expected (SIR 256, 95% CI71-654). In a heavily exposed sub-cohort, the corresponding figures were 3 and 0.5 (SIR 588, 95% CI 118-1,725).

  11. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Great Britain, 1976-2005: age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J Q; Blakey, Karen; James, Peter W; Gomez Pozo, Basilio; Basta, Nermine O; Hale, Juliet

    2012-08-01

    Increases in the incidence of thyroid cancer have been previously reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine temporal trends in the incidence of primary thyroid cancer diagnosed in 0-49 year olds in parts of Great Britain during 1976-2005. Data on 4,337 cases of thyroid cancer were obtained from regional cancer registries. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated. Negative binomial regression was used to examine effects of age, sex, drift (linear trend), non-linear period and non-linear cohort. The best fitting negative binomial regression model included age (P < 0.001), sex (P < 0.001) and drift (P < 0.001). Non-linear period (P = 0.648) and non-linear cohort (P = 0.788) were not statistically significant. For males aged 0-14, the ASR increased from 0.2 per million persons per year in 1976-1986 to 0.6 in 1997-2005. For males aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 1.9 to 3.3 and from 7.4 to 12.7, respectively. For females aged 0-14, the corresponding ASR increased from 0.3 to 0.5. For females aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 6.9 to 12.4 and from 21.2 to 42.3, respectively. For all age groups, there has been a linear increase in incidence of thyroid cancer, which has led to a doubling of the number of cases diagnosed over a twenty year span. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, but it is consistent with findings from other countries.

  12. Periodic transition on an axial compressor stator: Incidence and clocking effects. Part 1: Experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.J.; Hughes, J.D.; Solomon, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Periodic wake-induced transition on the outlet stator of a 1.5-stage axial compressor is examined using hot-film arrays on both the suction and pressure surfaces. The time-mean surface pressure distribution is varied by changing the blade incidence, while the free-stream disturbance field is altered by clocking of the stator relative to an inlet guide vane row. Ensemble-averaged plots of turbulent intermittency and relaxation factor (extent of calmed flow following the passage of a turbulent spot) are presented. These show the strength of periodic wake-induced transition phenomena to be significantly influenced by both incidence and clocking effects. The nature and extent of transition by other modes (natural, bypass, and separated flow transition) are altered accordingly. Leading edge and midchord separation bubbles are affected in a characteristically different manner by changing free-stream periodicity. There are noticeable differences between suction and pressure surface transition behavior, particularly as regards the strength and extent of calming. In Part 2 of this paper, the transition onset observations from the compressor stator are used to evaluate the quasi-steady application of conventional transition correlations to predict unsteady transition onset on the blading of an embedded axial compressor stage.

  13. Incidence of Hepatitis C Infection among Prisoners by Routine Laboratory Values during a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Andrés; Gallego, Carlos; Caylà, Joan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the predictive factors through repeated routine laboratory analyses. Methods An observational cohort study was carried out in Quatre Camins Prison, Barcelona. The study included subjects with an initial negative HCV result and routine laboratory analyses containing HCV serology from 1992 to 2011. The incidence of infection was calculated for the study population and for sub-groups by 100 person-years of follow-up (100 py). The predictive factors were determined through Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results A total of 2,377 prisoners were included with a median follow-up time of 1,540.9 days per patient. Among the total population, 117 HCV seroconversions were detected (incidence of 1.17/100 py). The incidence was higher between 1992 and 1995 (2.57/100 py), among cases with HIV co-infection (8.34/100 py) and among intravenous drug users (IDU) without methadone treatment (MT) during follow-up (6.66/100 py). The incidence rate of HCV seroconversion among cases with a history of IDU and current MT was 1.35/100 py, which is close to that of the total study population. The following variables had a positive predictive value for HCV infection: IDU (p<0.001; HR = 7,30; CI: 4.83–11.04), Spanish ethnicity (p = 0.009; HR = 2,03; CI: 1.93–3.44) and HIV infection (p = 0.015; HR = 1.97; CI: 1.14–3.39). Conclusion The incidence of HCV infection among prisoners was higher during the first part of the study and among IDU during the entire study period. Preventative programs should be directed toward this sub-group of the prison population. PMID:24587394

  14. Strong resonances on periodic arrays of cylinders and optical bistability with weak incident waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lijun; Lu, Ya Yan

    2017-02-01

    A one-dimensional periodic array of circular dielectric cylinders surrounded by air is a simple structure on which guided modes above the light line, also called bound states in the continuum (BICs), may exist. Recent studies reveal that such an array supports not only antisymmetric standing waves which are symmetry-protected BICs, but also propagating Bloch BICs and symmetric standing waves. Near a BIC, there is a family of resonant modes (depending on the Bloch wave number β ) with arbitrarily large quality factors. Using a perturbation method, we show that the quality factor of the resonant mode typically depends on β like 1 /(β-β*) 2 , where β* is the Bloch wave number of the BIC, but near a symmetric standing wave (β*=0 ) , the quality factor blows up like 1 /β4 . This indicates that strong resonances can be more easily induced near a symmetric standing wave. As an application, we numerically study optical bistability for the periodic array assuming the cylinders have a Kerr nonlinearity. With the nonlinear effects enhanced by the resonances, it is possible to have optical bistability for weak incident waves. The numerical results confirm that the weakest incident wave for optical bistability is realized through the resonances near the symmetric standing waves.

  15. Impact of vaccination on the incidence of measles in Mozambique in the period 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Verani, José Fernando Souza; Simões, Taynãna César; Dgedge, Martinho do Carmo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the better planning of measles elimination actions in Mozambique, by considering the impact of vaccination actions over the period 2000 to 2011. Descriptive and ecological studies and case records made available by the Ministry of Health were used to analyze measles vaccination coverage. Statistical analysis was performed using time series and spatial analysis. Vaccine coverage rates ranged from 82% to 99%. Coverage rates in Maputo city were under 70% and in Niassa province they were over 100%. Coverage showed a clustered pattern in the districts. The measles incidence rate was 1.58 per 100,000 inhabitants (0.00-40.08 per 100,000 inhabitants); districts bordering neighboring countries presented high incidence rates. Although measles morbidity and mortality has decreased in Mozambique, vaccine coverage has been insufficient to interrupt measles transmission. Enhanced surveillance, including investigation of cases and outbreaks, and improvements in measles vaccination are recommended in order to achieve a homogenous coverage rate of ≥ 95% for both routine and mass vaccination campaigns.

  16. Alex Haley: At Home in the Hills of East Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Ann

    1992-01-01

    An interview with Alex Haley six months before his death in February 1992 discusses his impressions of life in Appalachia; the media image of Appalachia; reminiscences of his hometown, Henning, Tennessee; race relations in Appalachia; and his plans for future books. Included are photographs and a eulogy from his funeral. (SV)

  17. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  18. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 SMOKE HOUSE AND DAIRY, W SIDE AND S END (SLAVE CABIN No. 2 IN SHEETS, W SIDE OF YARD) - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  19. OD-ing on Reality: An Interview with Alex Flinn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri S.

    2005-01-01

    Alex Flinn discusses her debut novel, Breathing Underwater, which received much critical acclaim. She absolutely felt like her second book was being compared to Breathing Underwater at first. Breaking Point (which was completed before Breathing Underwater was published) was very different in tone. It was darker. The voice was different. The ending…

  20. The Revolutionary Vision in Alex La Guma's Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asein, Samuel Omo

    1978-01-01

    The pervasive note in Alex La Guma's novels is that of hope in the eventual overthrow of the oppressive regime in South Africa. La Guma's position is characterized by a strong belief in the close correspondence which should be maintained between literature and life, and by the pursuit of social justice. (Author/GC)

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 30, 1936 (WEST SIDE) VIEW LOOKING S.E. SHOWING 'DOG RUN' WALL EXPOSED AFTER REMOVAL OF WEST HALF OF HOUSE - Adam Weaver Log House, U.S. Highway 72, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  2. A Web Tool for Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Philip S.; Check, David P.; Anderson, William F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. METHODS We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly web tool. RESULTS Input data for the web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates; period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift); and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value (csv) file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats including R and Excel. CONCLUSIONS APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely-available user-friendly web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. IMPACT The web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. PMID:25146089

  3. Spatial analysis of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region in the period 1995-2005.

    PubMed

    Cecconi, Lorenzo; Busolin, Anna; Barbone, Fabio; Serraino, Diego; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Biggeri, Annibale; Catelan, Dolores

    2016-04-18

    Incidence distribution of cutaneous melanoma depends on phenotypic characteristics of population and geographic location. In Italy, in the period 1999-2003 Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region had the second highest incidence rates for males and the third for females. We analysed melanoma and lip cancer incidence data of the FVG cancer registry for the period 1995-2005. We used Bayesian hierarchical spatial models to describe the spatial pattern by gender. We decomposed the geographical distribution of the risk in two parts: a component linked to chronic exposure and a component related to intermittent exposure. In order to model the chronic component we considered the geographical distribution of incidence cases of lip cancer, for which chronic occupational solar radiation exposure is a documented risk factor. We also analysed the distribution by site and we calculated standardised rates for body surface area. This study documents a significant gradient in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma in FVG. High-standardized incidence rates are present in the area of Trieste and in the coastal area. The descriptive analysis by age group and by site, showed risks associated with intermittent exposures in both genders. For the coastal area the risk is especially high for sites traditionally linked to high cumulative exposures (face and neck), especially among men. The results suggest diagnostic preventive interventions in the populations living in the area of Trieste, given the high rates observed in the young age groups.

  4. [Notification of incidents related to patient safety in hospitals in Catalonia, Spain during the period 2010-2013].

    PubMed

    Oliva, Glòria; Alava, Fernando; Navarro, Laura; Esquerra, Miquel; Lushchenkova, Oksana; Davins, Josep; Vallès, Roser

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discover the aggregated results of a general notification system for incidents related to patient safety implemented in Catalan hospitals from 2010 to 2013. Observational study describing the incidents notified from January 2010 to December 2013 from all hospitals in Catalonia forming part of the project to create operational patient safety management units. The Patient Safety Notification and Learning System (SiNASP) was used. This makes it possible to classify incidents depending on the area where they occur, the type of incident notified, the consequences, the seriousness according to the Severity Assessment Code (SAC) and the profession of the notifying party, as the principal variables. The system was accessed via the Internet (SiNASP portal). Access was voluntary and anonymous or with a name given and later removed. During the study period, notification of a total of 5,948 incidents came from 22-29 hospitals. 5,244 of the incidents were handled by the centres and these are the ones analysed in the study. 64% (3,380) affected patients, 18% (950) created a situation capable of causing an incident and 18% (914) did not affect patients. 26% of incidents that affected patients (864) caused some kind of harm. Most incidents occurred during hospitalisation (54%) and in casualty (15%), followed by the ICU (9%) and the surgical block (8%). The most frequent notifying parties were nurses (71%) followed by doctors (15%) and pharmacists (9%). In terms of severity, most incidents were classified as low-risk (37%) or incidents that did not affect the patient (36%). However, 40 cases (0.76%) of extreme risk should be highlighted. In terms of the types of incident notified, most were due to a medication error (26.8%), followed by falls (16.3%) and patient identification (10.6%). The majority of notifications were incidents that affected patients and, of these, 26% caused harm. In general, they occurred in hospitalisation units and notification was

  5. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990–2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Merletti, Franco; Novelli, Giulia; Falorni, Alberto; Iannilli, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Altobelli, Emma; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Piffer, Silvano; Pozzilli, Paolo; Iafusco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Roncarolo, Federico; Toni, Sonia; Carle, Flavia; Cherubini, Valentino

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate age-period-cohort effects on the temporal trend of type 1 diabetes in children age 0–14 years in Italian registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This report is based on 5,180 incident cases in the period 1990–2003 from the Registry for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy (RIDI). Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. RESULTS The incidence rate was 12.26 per 100,000 person-years and significantly higher in boys (13.13 [95% CI 12.66–13.62]) than in girls (11.35 [10.90–11.82]). Large geographical variations in incidence within Italy were evident; incidence was highest in Sardinia, intermediate in Central-Southern Italy, and high in Northern Italy, particularly in the Trento Province, where the incidence rate was 18.67 per 100,000 person-years. An increasing temporal trend was evident (2.94% per year [95% CI 2.22–3.67]). With respect to the calendar period 1990–1992, the incidence rates increased linearly by 15, 27, 35, and 40% in the following time periods (P for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 1987–1993 birth cohort, the incidence rate ratio increased approximately linearly from 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.73) in the 1975–1981 cohort to 1.38 (1.06–1.80) in the 1999–2003 cohort. The best model, however, included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). CONCLUSIONS Large geographical variations and an increasing temporal trend in diabetes incidence are evident among type 1 diabetic children in Italy. Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. PMID:20566665

  6. [Incidence of diabetic nephropathy in the province of Badajoz along the period from 1990 to 1994].

    PubMed

    Robles, N R; Cid, M C; Roncero, F; Pizarro, J L; Sánchez-Casado, E; Pérez Miranda, M

    1996-12-01

    Current registries provide information only on the number of diabetic patients with end-stage renal failure, more detailed information on the incidence of diabetic nephropathy with incipient renal failure is currently not available. The Nephrology Service of Hospital Infanta Cristina in Badajoz serves a population of approximately 650,000. In the time span between 1.1.90 and 31.12.94 the outpatient clinic and the renal ward had 1,717 admissions for evaluation of renal illness, 166 due to diabetic nephropathy (9.7% of total. Twelve (7.2%) were type I diabetics (mean age, 29.9 +/- 6.2 years), and 154 were type II diabetics (mean age 63.4 +/- 9.8 years). The annual incidence increased from 41.5/mio in 1990 to 61.5/mio in 1994. In parallel, 286 patients were admitted for renal replacement therapy, i.e. 88/mio/year. Of this group 60 patients had diabetes: type I, 8 patients (13.3%, mean age 3.7 +/- 6.4); type II, 52 patients (86.7%, mean age 66.0 +/- 6.6 years). This corresponds to an admission rate for dialysis of 18.5/mio/year (19.6% of all patients), with a increasing incidence rate from 13.8/mio in 1990 to 23.1/mio in 1994. This incidence of diabetic nephropathy is more than two-fold greater than the previously reported incidence by the EDTA registry for Spain, it is six-fold greater that the figure recorded for our region. Although the rates of incidence and prevalence of renal failure due to diabetic nephropathy founded in this study seems still to be lower than those of other developed european countries, it is detected a trend toward an increase of these figures in the latter years.

  7. Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhong; Huang, Jian-Feng; Hu, Jie; Gu, Yi-An; Yang, Chun-Lan; Mei, Xin-Lan; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun; Friman, Ville-Petri

    2015-01-01

    Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)-organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria-is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer simple

  8. Altering Transplantation Time to Avoid Periods of High Temperature Can Efficiently Reduce Bacterial Wilt Disease Incidence with Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhong; Huang, Jian-Feng; Hu, Jie; Gu, Yi-An; Yang, Chun-Lan; Mei, Xin-Lan; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun; Friman, Ville-Petri

    2015-01-01

    Tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium is a severe problem in Southern China, where relatively high environmental temperatures commonly prevails during the crop seasons. Previous research has indicated that bacterial wilt disease incidence generally increases during the warm months of summer leading to reduced tomato yield. Moreover, the efficacy of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs)–organic compost fortified with pathogen-suppressive bacteria—is often lost during the periods of high environmental temperatures. Here we studied if the disease incidence could be reduced and the BOF performance enhanced by simply preponing and postponing the traditional seedling transplantation times to avoid tomato plant development during periods of high environmental temperature. To this end, a continuous, two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of BOF in two traditional (late-spring [LS] and early-autumn [EA]) and two alternative (early-spring [ES] and late-autumn [LA]) crop seasons. We found that changing the transplantation times reduced the mean disease incidence from 33.9% (LS) and 54.7% (EA) to 11.1% (ES) and 7.1% (LA), respectively. Reduction in disease incidence correlated with the reduction in R. Solanacearum pathogen density in the tomato plant rhizosphere and stem base. Applying BOF during alternative transplantation treatments improved biocontrol efficiency from 43.4% (LS) and 3.1% (EA) to 67.4% (ES) and 64.8% (LA). On average, the mean maximum air temperatures were positively correlated with the disease incidence, and negatively correlated with the BOF biocontrol efficacy over the crop seasons. Crucially, even though preponing the transplantation time reduced the tomato yield in general, it was still economically more profitable compared to LS season due to reduced crop losses and relatively higher market prices. Preponing and postponing traditional tomato transplantation times to cooler periods could thus offer

  9. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  10. Incidence and risk factors for intimate partner violence during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elisabete Pereira; Valongueiro, Sandra; de Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for intimate partner violence during postpartum. METHODS This prospective cohort study was conducted with women, aged between 18-49 years, enrolled in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Of the 1.057 women interviewed during pregnancy and postpartum, 539 women, who did not report violence before or during pregnancy, were evaluated. A theoretical-conceptual framework was built with three levels of factors hierarchically ordered: women’s and partners’ sociodemografic and behavioral characteristics, and relationship dynamics. Incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence were estimated by Poisson Regression. RESULTS The incidence of violence during postpartum was 9.3% (95%CI 7.0;12.0). Isolated psychological violence was the most common (4.3%; 95%CI 2.8;6.4). The overlapping of psychological with physical violence occurred at 3.3% (95%CI 2.0;5.3) and with physical and/or sexual in almost 2.0% (95%CI 0.8;3.0) of cases. The risk of partner violence during postpartum was increased for women with a low level of education (RR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.3;5.4), without own income (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9) and those who perpetrated physical violence against their partner without being assaulted first (RR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2;3.4), had a very controlling partner (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.1;5.8), and had frequent fights with their partner (RR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0;2.9). CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of intimate partner violence during postpartum and its association with aspects of the relationship’s quality between the couple, demonstrated the need for public policies that promote conflict mediation and enable forms of empowerment for women to address the cycle of violence. PMID:26270012

  11. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS using calendar period as an instrumental variable.

    PubMed

    Cain, Lauren E; Cole, Stephen R; Greenland, Sander; Brown, Todd T; Chmiel, Joan S; Kingsley, Lawrence; Detels, Roger

    2009-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) researchers often use calendar periods as an imperfect proxy for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when estimating the effect of HAART on HIV disease progression. The authors report on 614 HIV-positive homosexual men followed from 1984 to 2007 in 4 US cities. During 5,321 person-years, 268 of 614 men incurred acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 49 died, and 90 were lost to follow-up. Comparing the pre-HAART calendar period (<1996) with the HAART calendar period (>or=1996) resulted in a naive rate ratio of 3.62 (95% confidence limits: 2.67, 4.92). However, this estimate is likely biased because of misclassification of HAART use by calendar period. Simple calendar period approaches may circumvent confounding by indication at the cost of inducing exposure misclassification. To correct this misclassification, the authors propose an instrumental-variable estimator analogous to ones previously used for noncompliance corrections in randomized clinical trials. When the pre-HAART calendar period was compared with the HAART calendar period, the instrumental-variable rate ratio was 5.02 (95% confidence limits: 3.45, 7.31), 39% higher than the naive result. Weighting by the inverse probability of calendar period given age at seroconversion, race/ethnicity, and time since seroconversion did not appreciably alter the results. These methods may help resolve discrepancies between observational and randomized evidence.

  12. Incidence of cancer among ferrochromium and ferrosilicon workers: an extended observation period.

    PubMed Central

    Langård, S; Andersen, A; Ravnestad, J

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of a cohort study on the incidence of cancers and crude death rates in ferrochromium and ferrosilicon workers. The whole cohort was observed from 1 January 1953 to 31 December 1985. Two sets of results are presented; one restricted to workers first employed before 1960 and one to workers first employed before 1965. The latter cohort consists of 1235 workers. The total mortality in the whole cohort was low (SMR = 81) as was the overall incidence of cancers (SIR = 84). There was an overall deficit of deaths and cases of cancer in the ferrosilicon group. An excess of lung cancer (SIR = 154) and cancer of the prostate (SIR = 151) was observed in the ferrochromium workers employed before 1965. Cancer of the kidney was also in excess (SIR = 273) in the ferrochromium group, with a mean "latency time" of 39 years. Two cases of malignant melanomas had occurred versus 0.19 expected in a small subgroup of workers in electrical shops and an electric power station. PMID:2310703

  13. Incubation period for campylobacteriosis and its importance in the estimation of incidence related to travel.

    PubMed

    Horn, B J; Lake, R J

    2013-10-03

    Differentiation between travel-related and domestic cases of infectious disease is important in managing risk. Incubation periods of cases from several outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada, Europe, and the United States with defined exposure time of less than 24 hours were collated to provide information on the incubation period distribution. This distribution was consistent across the varied outbreaks considered, with 84% (702/832) of cases having an incubation period of four days or less and 1% having an incubation period of eight days or more. The incubation period distribution was incorporated into a model for the number of travel-related cases presenting with symptom onset at given dates after return to their country of residence. Using New Zealand notification data between 2006 and 2010 for cases who had undertaken foreign travel within 10 days prior to symptom onset, we found that 29.6% (67/227 cases; 95% confidence interval (CI): 28.3–30.8%) of these cases were likely to have been domestic cases. When cases with symptom onset prior to arrival were included, the probable domestic cases represented 11.8% (67/571; 95% CI: 11.2–12.3%). Consideration of incubation time distributions and consistent collection of travel start/end dates with symptom onset dates would assist attribution of cases to foreign travel.

  14. Can measuring environmental cleanliness using ATP aid in the monitoring of wards with periods of increased incidence of Clostridium difficile?

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Katherine; Abbott, Gill; Bashford, Sarah; Bucior, Helen; Codd, Jane; Holland, Madelaine; Reynolds, Mandy; Simms, Avril

    2013-01-01

    Management of periods of increased incidence of Clostridium difficile (PIIs) on a ward have become multi-factorial and involve isolation of patients, typing of the isolates, antibiotic audit and a weekly environmental audit completed until three consecutive weekly passes are obtained. The aim of this study was to establish if monitoring the environment using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) could aid in reducing the length of time the wards remained on the weekly environmental audit. Secondly, it was to establish if certain pieces of equipment had continually high ATP scores requiring wider interventions. The study took place across three hospital sites covered by one infection control team over a 22 month period. There were three study periods, with the only difference being that ATP monitoring was conducted during period B. There was a difference in the length of time the wards remained on the audit between the first period and the ATP period; however this decrease was sustained in the third period when ATP monitoring ceased. There was an increase in the percentage of sites achieving a pass with ATP week on week. ATP monitoring provided the staff with non-subjective results and immediate feedback that facilitated discussions about cleaning regimes. ATP monitoring was a useful adjunct to environmental audits.

  15. A Dance Class, a Drag King, & the Pedagogical Possibilities of Performative Hip-Hop: An Interview with Carmen Morrison & Alex U. Inn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schönfeldt-Aultman, Scott M.; Morrison, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Alex U. Inn is the co-founder and one of the two MCs of the hip-hop drag king group, Momma's Boyz. Momma's Boyz celebrated their tenth anniversary in 2014. Carmen Morrison is the offstage name of Alex U. Inn, though "Carmen" now goes by Alex offstage, as well. Within this interview, the names "Carmen" and "Alex" are…

  16. Efficient Modeling of Electromagnetic Scattering by Symmetric Lamellar Periodic Structures at Normal Incidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    SYMMETRIZED MODAL-FIELD METHOD We are interested in a biaxial lamellar structure that is periodic along the x-direction. If a is the size of the primitive cell , then...structure must be symmetric about the center of each primitive cell . Thus if the origin in x is chosen to be at the center of one of the primitive cells

  17. Chewing gum in the preoperative fasting period: an analysis of de-identified incidents reported to webAIRS.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, S; Goulding, G; Gibbs, N M; Taraporewalla, K; Culwick, M

    2016-03-01

    The role of preoperative fasting is well established in current anaesthetic practice with different guidelines for clear fluids and food. However, chewing gum may not be categorised as either food or drink by some patients, and may not always be specified in instructions given to patients about preoperative fasting. The aim of this paper was to review anaesthesia incidents involving gum chewing reported to webAIRS to obtain information on the risks, if any, of gum chewing during the preoperative fasting period. There were nine incidents involving chewing gum reported between late 2009 and early 2015. There were no adverse outcomes from the nine incidents other than postponement of surgery in three cases and cancellation in one. In particular, there were no reports of aspiration or airway obstruction. Nevertheless, there were five cases in which the gum was not detected preoperatively and was found in the patient's mouth either intraoperatively or postoperatively. These cases of undetected gum occurred despite patient and staff compliance with their current preoperative checklists. While the risk of increased gastric secretions related to chewing gum preoperatively are not known, the potential for airway obstruction if the gum is not detected and removed preoperatively is very real. We recommend that patients should be specifically advised to avoid gum chewing once fasting from clear fluids is commenced, and that a specific question regarding the presence of chewing gum should be added to all preoperative checklists.

  18. Periodic transition on an axial compressor stator: Incidence and clocking effects. Part 2: Transition onset predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, W.J.; Walker, G.J.; Hughes, J.D.

    1999-07-01

    Transition onset observations from a 1.5-stage axial compressor outlet stator presented in Part 1 of this paper are compared with the predictions of conventional transition correlations applied in a quasi-steady manner. The viscous/inviscid interaction code MISES is used to predict the blade surface pressure distributions, and boundary layer development. The temporal variation in transition onset is then predicted using ensemble-averaged free-stream turbulence data from the compressor measurements. This simple procedure captures most significant features of the complex transition process on the compressor, and is clearly superior to fixed transition models based on long-term average free-stream turbulence levels. Parallel computations for both natural and bypass transition modes indicate that the natural transition mode tends to dominate on the compressor. This is at variance with turbine airfoil experience, where bypass transition is clearly more important. Comparison of prediction and experiment highlights the significance of leading edge potential flow interactions in promoting periodic wake-induced transition. Viscous/inviscid interactions in the neighborhood of transition can also have an important influence on boundary layer stability and separation phenomena.

  19. Fall in incidence of guinea-worm infection in western Nigeria after periodic treatment of infected persons.

    PubMed

    Kale, O O

    1982-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1974 a series of drug trials was conducted in 17 rural communities in western Nigeria where guinea-worm is endemic. During these trials and in subsequent years treatment, in the form of chemotherapy and/or dressing of ulcers, was given to all infected persons. A longitudinal study of infection in these villages showed a marked fall in the annual incidence over an 8-year period. The aggregate reduction in incidence in the three sectors surveyed was from 15.5% to 0.5% in sector 1, 29.8% to 0.4% in sector 2, and 20.3% to 0.0% in sector 3. The change appeared to be partly due to the treatment, which reduced the reservoir of infection and the rate of pollution of the water supply. Most of the sources of water continued to harbour Cyclops, none of which was found to be infected with Dracunculus, but which were shown experimentally to be capable of sustaining infection. The study demonstrates the potential role of therapeutic measures in controlling guinea-worm infection. It is suggested that the satisfactory measure of control that has been achieved could be increased by elimination of the Cyclops, with a view to total eradication of the disease from affected communities. Attention is drawn to the relevance of the findings for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

  20. A Behavioral Look at the Training of Alex: A Review of Pepperberg's "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Bruce E.; Potter, Bill

    2004-01-01

    "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots" by Irene Pepperberg is reviewed from a behavior analytic orientation. The results of the majority of her experiments are discussed in terms drawn from the general literature of behavior analysis and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. We conclude that she has provided…

  1. Reflection and transmission of a wave incident on a slab with a time-periodic dielectric function {epsilon}(t)

    SciTech Connect

    Zurita-Sanchez, Jorge R.; Halevi, P.; Cervantes-Gonzalez, Juan C.

    2009-05-15

    We present a theoretical description of the response of a dynamic slab, with time-periodic dielectric function {epsilon}(t), to a normally incident monochromatic plane wave of frequency {omega}{sub o}. As a consequence of the interaction of this incoming wave with the dynamic slab, the reflected and transmitted waves contain harmonics of the modulating frequency {omega}, namely, the slab itself becomes a polychromatic source of frequencies {omega}{sub o}-n{omega}(n=0,{+-}1,{+-}2,...). We establish a general formalism to quantify the reflected and transmitted fields for any periodic variation in the dielectric function. To achieve this, a description of wave propagation in a dynamic bulk is needed. A theoretical framework to treat such propagation, based on the concept of a temporal photonic crystal, is developed. As a consequence of the Bloch-Floquet theorem, the dispersion relation is a band structure that is periodic with frequency and exhibits forbidden wave vector gaps. The Poynting vectors of the transmitted and reflected fields are analyzed in detail. Our theory is applied to the case in which the dielectric function is modulated sinusoidally. We calculate numerically the magnitudes and phases of the reflection and transmission coefficients for several harmonics {omega}{sub o}-n{omega} and slab thicknesses. Three modulation regimes are considered: weak, moderate, and strong. The response in the weak regime is similar to that of a Fabry-Perot etalon--the strengths of the harmonics are weak. For the strong-modulation regime, the strengths of reflection and transmission coefficients of the harmonics become large; they can even exceed one due to the openness of the system in which an external modulating agent can provide part of the invested energy. Dynamic variation in the dielectric properties of materials can give rise to new effects in wave propagation and to novel optical applications and is readily attainable with present-day technology.

  2. THE INCIDENCE OF JACKAL BITES AND INJURIES IN THE ZAGREB ANTI RABIES CLINIC DURING THE 1995-2014 PERIOD.

    PubMed

    Vodopija, Radovan; Racz, Aleksandar; Pahor, Đana

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease (a disease transmitted to humans from animals) that is caused by a virus. The disease affects domestic and wild animals, and is spread to people through close contact with infectious material, usually saliva, via bites or scratches. Rabies is present on all continents with the exception of Antarctica, but more than 95% of human deaths occur in Asia and Africa. Once the symptoms of the disease have developed, rabies is nearly always fatal. People are usually infected following deep bite or scratch by an infected animal. Dogs are the main host and transmitter of rabies. They are the source of infection in all of the estimated 55 000 human rabies deaths annually in Asia and Africa. Bats are the source of most human rabies deaths in the Americas. Bat rabies has also recently emerged as a public health threat in Australia and Western Europe. Human deaths following exposure to foxes, raccoons, skunks, jackals, mongooses and other wild carnivore host species are very rare. In the Zagreb Anti Rabies Clinic, from 1995 to 2014, there were 18,094 patients bitten by various animals, but only 2 cases were caused by jackals. One was imported (from France), and the other was from Croatia. The incidence of jackal injuries during the observed period was extremely low, accounting for 0.011% of all animals. When the imported case is excluded, the incidence was 0.0055%. Accordingly, it is concluded that jackal bites and injuries are exceptionally low and that they pose no risk for patients who present routinely to the Zagreb Anti Rabies Clinic. Therefore, it is justified that jackal as an animal species be classified in the group of 'other animals', when officially reported.

  3. Finite-number-of-periods holographic gratings with finite-width incident beams: analysis using the finite-difference frequency-domain method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shun-Der; Glytsis, Elias N.

    2002-10-01

    The effects of finite number of periods (FNP) and finite incident beams on the diffraction efficiencies of holographic gratings are investigated by the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method. Gratings comprising 20, 15, 10, 5, and 3 periods illuminated by TE and TM incident light with various beam sizes are analyzed with the FDFD method and compared with the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Both unslanted and slanted gratings are treated in transmission as well as in reflection configurations. In general, the effect of the FNP is a decrease in the diffraction efficiency with a decrease in the number of periods of the grating. Similarly, a decrease in incident-beam width causes a decrease in the diffraction efficiency. Exceptions appear in off-Bragg incidence in which a smaller beam width could result in higher diffraction efficiency. For beam widths greater than 10 grating periods and for gratings with more than 20 periods in width, the diffraction efficiencies slowly converge to the values predicted by the RCWA (infinite incident beam and infinite-number-of-periods grating) for both TE and TM polarizations. Furthermore, the effects of FNP holographic gratings on their diffraction performance are found to be comparable to their counterparts of FNP surface-relief gratings. 2002 Optical Society of America

  4. User's guide for ALEX: uncertainty propagation from raw data to final results for ORELA transmission measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, N.M.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes a computer code (ALEX) developed to assist in AnaLysis of EXperimental data at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Reduction of data from raw numbers (counts per channel) to physically meaningful quantities (such as cross sections) is in itself a complicated procedure; propagation of experimental uncertainties through that reduction procedure has in the past been viewed as even more difficult - if not impossible. The purpose of the code ALEX is to correctly propagate all experimental uncertainties through the entire reduction procedure, yielding the complete covariance matrix for the reduced data, while requiring little additional input from the eperimentalist beyond that which is required for the data reduction itself. This report describes ALEX in detail, with special attention given to the case of transmission measurements (the code itself is applicable, with few changes, to any type of data). Application to the natural iron measurements of D.C. Larson et al. is described in some detail.

  5. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  6. Ciguatera incidence in the US Virgin Islands has not increased over a 30-year time period despite rising seawater temperatures.

    PubMed

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Cook, Robert L; Smith, Tyler B; Anderson, Donald M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature.

  7. Temporal effects on the incidence and severity of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding injury to peaches and apples during the fruiting period in Virginia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exclusion cages were used to compare the incidence and severity of feeding injury from brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), on ‘Redhaven’ peaches, ‘Golden Delicious’ apples and ‘Smoothee Golden’ apples at harvest, following sequential periods of exposure to natural H. halys populati...

  8. The secular trend in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the region of Osijek, Eastern Croatia in the period 1988-2000--a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Kadojić, D; Barac, B; Trkanjec, Z; Kadojić, M

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the possible environmental influences in the observed peculiar rising and falling oscillations in the numbers of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in Eastern Croatia (region of Osijek) during the last thirteen-years' period (1988-2000). In this period 1,222 HS were registered and treated. A constant increase in the incidence of HS was observed, from 60 (in 1988) to 139 (in 1998), with an average annual proportion of 16.5% of all stroke cases. A sharp increase in proportion of HS in total stroke incidence was recorded during the war in Croatia (1991-1995), with a peak incidence of 27.4% in 1993. Typical hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was the most common (57.1%), atypical ICH occurred in 26.4%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 16.5%. Analysis of the annual number of hypertensive-ICH and SAH disclosed peculiar rising and falling oscillations. These variations were in correlation with heavy living conditions. During the war-period the SAH incidence sharply rose. Immediately after the war it suddenly decreased. The authors named this phenomenon a "pool depletion", supposing the relatively stable proportion of the bearers of aneurysms in population. The observed variations seem to be the consequence of the war stress and other negative psychosocial and economic factors in post-war period, which increases the risk for SAH and typical hypertensive-ICH through complex pathophysiological mechanisms.

  9. Translating English Compound Verbs into German. An Investigation Based on Alex Haley's "Roots/Wurzeln."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hullen, Werner

    Compound verbs such as "stage-manage" and "curry-comb," taken from Alex Haley's novel "Roots," are compared to their equivalents in the German version of the book. In most cases, one of three strategies is used for translation: (1) using a non-compound semantic equivalent, (2) constructing an expression that coincides…

  10. AlexSys: a knowledge-based expert system for multiple sequence alignment construction and analysis.

    PubMed

    Aniba, Mohamed Radhouene; Poch, Olivier; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Thompson, Julie Dawn

    2010-10-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a cornerstone of modern molecular biology and represents a unique means of investigating the patterns of conservation and diversity in complex biological systems. Many different algorithms have been developed to construct MSAs, but previous studies have shown that no single aligner consistently outperforms the rest. This has led to the development of a number of 'meta-methods' that systematically run several aligners and merge the output into one single solution. Although these methods generally produce more accurate alignments, they are inefficient because all the aligners need to be run first and the choice of the best solution is made a posteriori. Here, we describe the development of a new expert system, AlexSys, for the multiple alignment of protein sequences. AlexSys incorporates an intelligent inference engine to automatically select an appropriate aligner a priori, depending only on the nature of the input sequences. The inference engine was trained on a large set of reference multiple alignments, using a novel machine learning approach. Applying AlexSys to a test set of 178 alignments, we show that the expert system represents a good compromise between alignment quality and running time, making it suitable for high throughput projects. AlexSys is freely available from http://alnitak.u-strasbg.fr/∼aniba/alexsys.

  11. Incidence and mortality of solid cancer among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident: assessment of radiation risks for the follow-up period of 1992-2009.

    PubMed

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Shchukina, N V; Ivanov, V K

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident, for the follow-up period 1992-2009. The cohort selected for analysis consists of 67,568 emergency workers who worked in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 1986-1987. External radiation whole-body absorbed dose varied from 0.0001 gray (Gy) to 1.24 Gy, with a median of 0.102 Gy. Over the follow-up period 1992-2009, a total of 4,002 solid cancers of different sites were identified as the result of annual compulsory health examination, and a total of 2,442 deaths from all solid cancers in the study cohort were reported. Poisson regression was applied for the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. The analysis of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) has shown a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence in the cohort as compared with baseline cancer incidence among males of Russia. The average excess over the entire follow-up period is 18 % [SIR = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15; 1.22]. In contrast, however, no increase in the mortality from all cancers among the emergency workers as compared to the baseline mortality in Russian men was found. Values of excess relative risk of cancer incidence and mortality per 1 Gy (ERR Gy(-1)) are 0.47 (95 % CI 0.03; 0.96, p value = 0.034) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.002; 1.25, p value = 0.049), respectively. These values are statistically significant.

  12. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Hungary Representing Two Peak Incidence Periods in Three Decades

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Tímea; Szabó, Móni; Szmolka, Ama; Kiss, János

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from humans (1980 to 1982) and broiler chickens (2016) have been sequenced. They represent the early and recent peak incidences of this serovar in Hungary. Genome sequences of these isolates provide comparative data on the evolution and rise of an endemic S. Infantis clone in Hungary. PMID:28254986

  13. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Infantis Strains from Hungary Representing Two Peak Incidence Periods in Three Decades.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Tímea; Szabó, Móni; Szmolka, Ama; Kiss, János; Olasz, Ferenc; Nagy, Béla

    2017-03-02

    Four strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from humans (1980 to 1982) and broiler chickens (2016) have been sequenced. They represent the early and recent peak incidences of this serovar in Hungary. Genome sequences of these isolates provide comparative data on the evolution and rise of an endemic S Infantis clone in Hungary.

  14. The incidence of lymphocytic thyroid infiltration and Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased in patients operated for benign goiter over a 31-year period.

    PubMed

    Ott, Johannes; Meusel, Moritz; Schultheis, Andrea; Promberger, Regina; Pallikunnel, Shannon Joan; Neuhold, Nikolaus; Hermann, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) seems to have increased over the last several decades. Since there is a lack of recent studies in the literature that evaluate this phenomenon on a histological basis, we aimed to assess the incidence of lymphocytic thyroid infiltration (LTI) in our large surgical patient collective over a 31-year period. In our study, a total of 1,050 patients who had undergone uni- or bilateral thyroid surgery for benign goiter were included (150 patients in each group, during 1979 to 2009). The stored histological sections of the removed thyroid specimens were re-analyzed, including routine grading of LTI severity on a scale of 0-4, according to Williams and Doniach. Positive correlations were seen for the incidences of LTI grading (0-4) (r = 0.077, p = 0.013) and HT (r = 0.044, p = 0.078) over the years. Furthermore, when comparing the years 1979-1989 and 1994-2009, i.e., before and after the second iodine prophylaxis had been introduced in Austria, a higher incidence of HT was found for the later years (2 out of 450, 0.4%, vs. 6 out of 600, 1.0%, respectively; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the incidence of LTI and HT has increased substantially over the last 31 years.

  15. Suitability of the ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) for assessing invasion of macroalgae across different Mediterranean habitats.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Luigi; Gennaro, Paola; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2015-08-15

    The ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) has been recently proposed to evaluate biological invasions in soft-bottom macro-invertebrate assemblages. The present paper proposes the use of ALEX in sessile assemblages of Mediterranean hard bottom habitats and tests it along gradients of invasion. For five invasive macroalgae a variable number of case studies per each of four habitats were examined from the available data sets. For each case study samples were attributed to four levels of invasion depending on the abundance of the invading macroalgae. Results showed that the application of ALEX to sessile assemblages of hard bottoms allows to qualify the level of invasion along the considered gradients. Moreover, the decline of index values matched the impact of invasion on species number of the assemblages. Results also suggest that the concurrent use of ALEX and indices of benthic quality status can be a valuable tool to assess biopollution in hard bottom habitats.

  16. A behavioral look at the training of Alex: A review of Pepperberg's the Alex studies: Cognitive and communicative abilities of grey parrots

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Bruce E.; Potter, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots by Irene Pepperberg is reviewed from a behavior analytic orientation. The results of the majority of her experiments are discussed in terms drawn from the general literature of behavior analysis and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. We conclude that she has provided evidence of the complex control of vocal behavior that illustrates a functional verbal repertoire of tacts and mands. This book suggests several areas for future research on the methods needed to establish verbal repertoires in species other than humans. PMID:22477296

  17. Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation Infant and Childhood Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Quinn T; de Blank, Peter M; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Claire M; Liao, Peter; Finlay, Jonathan L; Stearns, Duncan S; Wolff, Johannes E; Wolinsky, Yingli; Letterio, John J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    The CBTRUS Statistical Report: Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation Infant and Childhood Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2007–2011 comprehensively describes the current population-based incidence of primary malignant and non-malignant brain and CNS tumors in children ages 0–14 years, collected and reported by central cancer registries covering approximately 99.8% of the United States population (for 2011 only, data were available for 50 out of 51 registries). Overall, brain and CNS tumors are the most common solid tumor, the most common cancer, and the most common cause of cancer death in infants and children 0–14 years. This report aims to serve as a useful resource for researchers, clinicians, patients, and families.

  18. Incidence of Mastitis in the Neonatal Period in a Traditional Breastfeeding Society: Results of a Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Lee, Andy H.; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mastitis is a painful problem experienced by breastfeeding women, especially in the first few weeks postpartum. There have been limited studies of the incidence of mastitis from traditionally breastfeeding societies in South Asia. This study investigated the incidence, determinants, and management of mastitis in the first month postpartum, as well as its association with breastfeeding outcomes at 4 and 6 months postpartum, in western Nepal. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were a subsample of 338 mothers participating in a larger prospective cohort study conducted in 2014 in western Nepal. Mothers were interviewed during the first month postpartum and again at 4 and 6 months to obtain information on breastfeeding practices. The association of mastitis and determinant variables was investigated using multivariable logistic regression, and the association with breastfeeding duration was examined using Kaplan–Meier estimation. Results: The incidence of mastitis was 8.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%, 10.8%) in the first month postpartum. Prelacteal feeding (adjusted odds ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 7.40) and cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.09, 11.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of mastitis. Kaplan–Meier estimation showed no significant difference in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers who experienced an episode of mastitis and those who did not. Conclusions: Roughly one in 10 (8.0%) women experienced mastitis in the first month postpartum, and there appeared to be little effect of mastitis on breastfeeding outcomes. Traditional breastfeeding practices should be encouraged, and the management of mastitis should be included as a part of lactation promotion. PMID:26488802

  19. Mobile technologies in the service of students' learning of mathematics: the example of game application A.L.E.X. in the context of a primary school in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakides, Andreas O.; Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria; Prodromou, Theodosia

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on the main experiences gained from a 2-year study which incorporated A.L.E.X., an educational puzzle game available on iPad or Android tablet devices, within the primary school mathematics curriculum. The study took place in a public primary school, located in a rural area of Cyprus. The majority of its students come from low socioeconomic status families. Among the school community, a group of 15 pupils (eight boys and seven girls), aged 10-11 years old, was randomly selected to comprise the sample. The same group of students was visited twice within a period of 2 years, and a teaching intervention was organized. In both interventions, the application A.L.E.X. accompanied by a student worksheet constituted the main means of instruction. The worksheets were designed to integrate a technology with core mathematical ideas embedded in the national mathematics curriculum. Findings gained from the teaching intervention suggest that game apps hold a lot of promise as a tool for reforming mathematics education. While working with A.L.E.X., the children identified and processed mathematical themes that emerged spontaneously. They experienced unique emotions of surprise and enthusiasm regarding the existence of games with mathematical content that led them to acknowledge the pedagogical role that tablet devices could play. This helped them to broaden their fundamentally narrow viewpoint of mathematics as being primarily computation and arithmetic.

  20. Vaccine-associated measles in the low-incidence country of Korea over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye Suk; Bae, Geun-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of measles decreases, cases reported as suspected measles will increasingly involve rash associated with measles vaccination itself. In this study, we assessed vaccine-associated measles cases reported in Korea between 2002 and 2012 using a standardized assessment and following by the World Health Organization case definition criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding (i) wild-type measles and (ii) vaccine-associated measles in patients aged 12-23 months. The presence or absence of fever, rash, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and Koplik spots were reviewed. Males were more likely to be reported with vaccine-associated measles than with wild-type measles (68% vs. 47%, P < 0.05). The number of patients with wild-type measles peaked between April and July, whereas that of patients with vaccine-associated measles remained relatively constant throughout the year. However, after excluding the cases reported during the 2007 outbreak in Korea, the trend was similar between the two groups. Cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis were more likely to be present in patients with wild-type measles (32-61% vs. 10-43%, P < 0.05); conversely, the absence of these symptoms was noted in most patients with vaccine-associated measles. We therefore conclude that cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis may be useful as key positive findings to distinguish between wild-type measles and vaccine-associated measles infection among 12-23-month-old patients in a country with a low incidence of measles.

  1. Genetic basis of incidence and period length of circadian rhythm for locomotor activity in populations of a seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Harano, T; Miyatake, T

    2010-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in a wide variety of organisms, although their genetic variation has been analyzed in only a few species. We found genetic differences in the circadian rhythm of adult locomotor activity among strains of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis, which differed in origin and have been maintained in isolation. All beetles in some strains clearly had free-running rhythms in constant darkness whereas most beetles in other strains were arrhythmic. The period of free-running rhythm varied from approximately 19 to 23 h between the strains. F(1) males from reciprocal crosses among strains with different periods of circadian rhythms had circadian periods that were intermediate between their parental strains. Segregation of the circadian rhythm appeared in the F(2) generation. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in the period length of circadian rhythm is explained by a major autosomal gene with additive effects and no dominance. This hypothesis was supported by the joint scaling test for the free-running period in the F(1) and F(2) generations. We discuss possible causes for genetic variation in circadian rhythm in the C. chinensis strains in terms of random factors and selection.

  2. Time trends of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in urban Guangzhou over a 12-year period (2000-2011): declines in both incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Shen, Ji-Chuan; Zhou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an uncommon disease in most countries but occurs with much greater frequency in southern China. This study aimed to examine the secular trends of NPC in urban Guangzhou over the time period of 2000-2011 using data from the Guangzhou Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates of NPC were calculated by the direct method using the WHO World Standard Population (1960) as the reference. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) was used as an estimate of the trend. A total of 7,532 new cases of NPC and 3,449 related deaths were registered. In both genders, the peak incidence occurred in the 50- to 59-year age group, and this age distribution pattern remained similar throughout. The AAPC in NPC incidence rates was -3.26% (95% CI: -5.4%--1.1) for males and -5.74% (95% CI: -8.9%--2.5) for females, resulting in a total decrease of 39.3% (from 22.14 to 13.44 per 100,000 population) for males and 48.6% (from 10.1 to 5.18 per 100,000 population) for females over this 12-year period. The AAPCs in NPC mortality rates were -4.62% (95%CI: -3.5%--5.7) for males and -6.75% (95% CI: -5.2%--8.3) for females, resulting in a total decrease of -46.1% (from 12.1 to 6.54 per 100,000 population) for males and 51.7% (from 4.14 to 2.00 per 100,000 population) for females. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates of NPC declined during 2000-2011 in urban Guangzhou but remained high. Future efforts to improve prevention, early detection and treatment strategies are needed.

  3. Hurricane Alex as Observed by NASA's Spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for August 3, 2004 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor

    These images of hurricane Alex were captured on August 3, 2004 at 1:30pm EDT. Located in the Atlantic Ocean located about 80 miles south-southeast of Charleston, South Carolina, Alex is now a category 2 hurricane with maximum sustained winds were near 100 mph (161 kph). Alex's center was about 65 miles (104 kilometers) northeast of Cape Hatteras and moving away from the U.S. coast.

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS infrared channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS infrared channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to warm as the movie progresses.

    Clouds block the infrared radiation. Thus wherever there are clouds we can penetrate no deeper in infrared. The color remains fixed as the movie progresses, for that area of the image is 'stuck' to the cloud top temperature. The coldest temperatures around 220 K (about -65 F) come from altitudes of about 10 miles.

    We therefore see in a 'surface channel' at the end of the movie, signals from clouds as cold as 220 K and from Earth's surface at 310 K (about 100 F). The very coldest clouds are seen in deep convection thunderstorms over land. Images [figure removed for brevity, see original site] August 2, 2004, 1:30am ET Frame from August 2 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor. Alex a tropical storm, sustained winds at 60 mph. The storm is 115 miles southeast of Charleston, South

  4. Mapping the structural order of laser-induced periodic surface structures in thin polymer films by microfocus beam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fabiani, Ignacio; Rebollar, Esther; García-Gutiérrez, Mari Cruz; Rueda, Daniel R; Castillejo, Marta; Ezquerra, Tiberio A

    2015-02-11

    In this work we present an accurate mapping of the structural order of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in spin-coated thin polymer films, via a microfocus beam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS) scan, GISAXS modeling, and atomic force microscopy imaging all along the scanned area. This combined study has allowed the evaluation of the effects on LIPSS formation due to nonhomogeneous spatial distribution of the laser pulse energy, mapping with micrometric resolution the evolution of the period and degree of structural order of LIPSS across the laser beam diameter in a direction perpendicular to the polarization vector. The experiments presented go one step further toward controlling nanostructure formation in LIPSS through a deep understanding of the parameters that influence this process.

  5. Incidence of inferior vena cava thrombosis detected by transthoracic echocardiography in the immediate postoperative period after adult cardiac and general surgery.

    PubMed

    Saranteas, T; Kostopanagiotou, G; Tzoufi, M; Drachtidi, K; Knox, G M; Panou, F

    2013-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism is an important complication after general and cardiac surgery. Using transthoracic echocardiography, this study assessed the incidence of inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis among a total of 395 and 289 cardiac surgical and major surgical patients in the immediate postoperative period after cardiac and major surgery, respectively. All transthoracic echocardiography was performed by a specialist intensivist within 24 hours after surgery with special emphasis on using the subcostal view in the supine position to visualise the IVC. Of the 395 cardiac surgical patients studied, the IVC was successfully visualised using the subcostal view in 315 patients (79.8%) and eight of these patients (2.5%) had a partially obstructive thrombosis in the IVC. In 250 out of 289 (85%) general surgical patients, the IVC was also clearly visualised, but only one patient (0.4%) had an IVC thrombosis (2.5 vs 0.4%, P <0.05). In summary, visualisation of the IVC was feasible in most patients in the immediate postoperative period after both adult cardiac and major surgery. IVC thrombosis appeared to be more common after adult cardiac surgery than general surgery. A large prospective cohort study is needed to define the risk factors for IVC thrombus and whether early thromboprophylaxis can reduce the incidence of IVC thrombus after adult cardiac surgery.

  6. Incidence of Esophageal Carcinomas After Surgery for Achalasia: Usefulness of Long-Term and Periodic Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Masaho; Narumiya, Kosuke; Kudo, Kenji; Yagawa, Yohsuke; Maeda, Shinsuke; Osugi, Harushi; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patients: Male, 48 • Male, 60 • Male, 63 • Male, 69 • Male, 68 • Female, 63 Final Diagnosis: Esophageal cancer Symptoms: None Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Patients with esophageal achalasia are considered to be a high-risk group for esophageal carcinoma, and it has been reported that this cancer often arises at a long interval after surgery for achalasia. However, it is unclear whether esophageal carcinoma is frequent when achalasia has been treated successfully and the patient is without dysphagia. In this study, we reviewed patients with esophageal carcinoma who were detected by regular follow-up after surgical treatment of achalasia. Case Report: Esophageal cancer was detected by periodic upper GI endoscopy in 6 patients. Most of them had early cancers that were treated by endoscopic resection. All 6 patients had undergone surgery for achalasia and the outcome had been rated as excellent or good. Annual follow-up endoscopy was done and the average duration of follow-up until cancer was seen after surgery was 14.3 years (range: 5 to 40 years). Five patients had early cancer. Four cases had multiple lesions. Conclusions: In conclusion, surgery for achalasia usually improves passage symptoms, but esophageal cancer still arises in some cases and the number of tumors occurring many years later is not negligible. Accordingly, long-term endoscopic follow-up is needed for detection of malignancy at an early stage. PMID:27840406

  7. Incidence of Esophageal Carcinomas After Surgery for Achalasia: Usefulness of Long-Term and Periodic Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ota, Masaho; Narumiya, Kosuke; Kudo, Kenji; Yagawa, Yohsuke; Maeda, Shinsuke; Osugi, Harushi; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2016-11-14

    BACKGROUND Patients with esophageal achalasia are considered to be a high-risk group for esophageal carcinoma, and it has been reported that this cancer often arises at a long interval after surgery for achalasia. However, it is unclear whether esophageal carcinoma is frequent when achalasia has been treated successfully and the patient is without dysphagia. In this study, we reviewed patients with esophageal carcinoma who were detected by regular follow-up after surgical treatment of achalasia.   CASE REPORT Esophageal cancer was detected by periodic upper GI endoscopy in 6 patients. Most of them had early cancers that were treated by endoscopic resection. All 6 patients had undergone surgery for achalasia and the outcome had been rated as excellent or good. Annual follow-up endoscopy was done and the average duration of follow-up until cancer was seen after surgery was 14.3 years (range: 5 to 40 years). Five patients had early cancer. Four cases had multiple lesions.   CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, surgery for achalasia usually improves passage symptoms, but esophageal cancer still arises in some cases and the number of tumors occurring many years later is not negligible. Accordingly, long-term endoscopic follow-up is needed for detection of malignancy at an early stage.

  8. Persistent HIV-related stigma in rural Uganda during a period of increasing HIV incidence despite treatment expansion

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Brian T.; Weiser, Sheri D.; Boum, Yap; Siedner, Mark J.; Mocello, A. Rain; Haberer, Jessica E.; Hunt, Peter W.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bangsberg, David R.; Tsai, Alexander C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Program implementers have argued that the increasing availability of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) will reduce the stigma of HIV. We analyzed data from Uganda to assess how HIV-related stigma has changed during a period of ART expansion. Design Serial cross-sectional surveys. Methods We analyzed data from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) study during 2007-2012 to estimate trends in internalized stigma among people living with HIV (PLHIV) at the time of treatment initiation. We analyzed data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 2006 and 2011 to estimate trends in stigmatizing attitudes and anticipated stigma in the general population. We fitted regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, with year of data collection as the primary explanatory variable. Results We estimated an upward trend in internalized stigma among PLHIV presenting for treatment initiation (adjusted b=0.18; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.30). In the general population, the odds of reporting anticipated stigma were greater in 2011 compared to 2006 (adjusted OR=1.80; 95% CI, 1.51 to 2.13), despite an apparent decline in stigmatizing attitudes (adjusted OR=0.62; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.74). Conclusions Internalized stigma has increased over time among PLHIV in the setting of worsening anticipated stigma in the general population. Further study is needed to better understand the reasons for increasing HIV-related stigma in Uganda and its impact on HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25268886

  9. Temporal Effects on the Incidence and Severity of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury to Peaches and Apples during the Fruiting Period in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V; Nita, Mizuho; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Exclusion cages were used to compare the incidence and severity of feeding injury from brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on 'Redhaven' peaches, 'Golden Delicious' apples, and 'Smoothee Golden' apples at harvest, following sequential periods of exposure to natural H. halys populations during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in Virginia. The fruit used in these experiments were in orchards or on trees that were not managed for H. halys. Treatments were sets of 50 fruit that were always caged, never caged, or exposed during one interval during the fruiting period of peaches and apples in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The cages effectively prevented feeding injury from H. halys. Peaches and apples that were never caged showed the highest percentages of injured fruit at harvest. Exposure treatment had a significant effect on the percentage of fruit showing external injury at harvest in both years for apples and in 2012 for peaches, and a significant effect on the percentage of apples and peaches showing internal injury at harvest in both years. There was no consistent effect of each exposure period on peach injury, but apples exposed during the mid- to latter portion of the season tended to show most injury. Across all exposure periods, more internal than external injuries were recorded at harvest from peaches, while apples tended to have equal or very similar numbers of both kinds of injury. The implications of these results to H. halys management in eastern apple orchards are discussed.

  10. The Influence of Radiation in Altering the Incidence of Mutations in Drosophila. Progress Report on the Past Twelve Months and Renewal Proposal for the Period September 15, 1960 to September 14, 1961

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Muller, H. J.

    1960-05-31

    Progress is reported in studies on the effects of radiation on the incidence of mutations in Drosophila. Results are summarized and the findings are interpreted. A list is included of papers published during the period. (C.H.)

  11. Modelling normal and impaired letter recognition: implications for understanding pure alexic reading.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Letter recognition is the foundation of the human reading system. Despite this, it tends to receive little attention in computational modelling of single word reading. Here we present a model that can be trained to recognise letters in various spatial transformations. When presented with degraded stimuli the model makes letter confusion errors that correlate with human confusability data. Analyses of the internal representations of the model suggest that a small set of learned visual feature detectors support the recognition of both upper case and lower case letters in various fonts and transformations. We postulated that a damaged version of the model might be expected to act in a similar manner to patients suffering from pure alexia. Summed error score generated from the model was found to be a very good predictor of the reading times of pure alexic patients, outperforming simple word length, and accounting for 47% of the variance. These findings are consistent with a hypothesis suggesting that impaired visual processing is a key to understanding the strong word-length effects found in pure alexic patients.

  12. Hurricane Alex

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... halted cleanup efforts associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The two panels show a nadir (vertical-viewing) camera image of ... cleanup efforts associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  13. The Study of School Hygiene and Physical Education in Chosun during the Early Japanese Colonial Period Carried Out through Educational Magazines: Focusing on the Time Period before the Manchurian Incident in 1910-1931.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eui-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2013-12-01

    This research mainly dealt with sanitation and hygiene related editorials quoted from educational magazines published in Chosun until the Manchurian Incident during the Japanese colonial period. The study revealed that modern Japan became aware of the importance of public sanitation from the late nineteenth century and established modern programs so that schools can comprehensively teach students about sanitation and hygiene so as to enter modern imperial society. Japan particularly introduced and carried out modern physical(gymnastics) education as a means of "complete sanitation and hygiene" to improve students' health. As a result of having two times of war, the Japanese Empire reaffirmed the significance of modern sanitation and hygiene. After colonization of Chosun, Japan organized official educational groups and enlightened the public about sanitation and hygiene through editorials on the educational magazines which the groups had published. In order for schools to promote complete sanitation and hygiene based on modern medicine, Japan actively engaged in suggesting the necessity of physical(gymnastics) education which was critical to human's growth and development. After Japanese Government-General of Korea legislated on school hygiene in 1913, Japanese governments school started hiring school doctors and nurses. They stressed the need of providing sanitation and hygiene education in school to prepare for war in 1910's in advance; highlighted that physical (gymnastics) education should be enforced to help students grow and improve their physical strength from a modern medical point of view. In April, 1919, the Japanese Empire implemented the same instruction to the schools where Chosun people attended. But it was found that the law was not applied well to those schools in effect. The Japanese Empire was seen to proclaim the second educational decree in 1922; proposed international hygienic achievement of the time and comments; enlightened the public by

  14. Incidence of Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, T; Kleijer, W J; Horn, N

    1991-02-01

    We have calculated the incidence of Menkes disease for Denmark, France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and West Germany, based on known Menkes patients born during the time period 1976-87. Considering live-born Menkes patients, the combined incidence for these five countries is 1 Menkes patient per 298,000 live-born babies. If the number of affected aborted fetuses are taken into account, the incidence is 1 Menkes per 254,000 live-born babies. This incidence, which is 2-4 times lower than earlier published incidence figures, places Menkes disease as an extremely rare disease. The mutation rate for Menkes disease is estimated to be 1.96 x 10(-6), based on the number of isolated Menkes cases born during the time period 1976-87 and the total number of newborn males during this time.

  15. Analysis of Lipid Experiments (ALEX): A Software Framework for Analysis of High-Resolution Shotgun Lipidomics Data

    PubMed Central

    Katafiasz, Maciej; Sokol, Elena; Vogt, Johannes; Baumgart, Jan; Nitsch, Robert; Ekroos, Kim; Ejsing, Christer S.

    2013-01-01

    Global lipidomics analysis across large sample sizes produces high-content datasets that require dedicated software tools supporting lipid identification and quantification, efficient data management and lipidome visualization. Here we present a novel software-based platform for streamlined data processing, management and visualization of shotgun lipidomics data acquired using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The platform features the ALEX framework designed for automated identification and export of lipid species intensity directly from proprietary mass spectral data files, and an auxiliary workflow using database exploration tools for integration of sample information, computation of lipid abundance and lipidome visualization. A key feature of the platform is the organization of lipidomics data in ”database table format” which provides the user with an unsurpassed flexibility for rapid lipidome navigation using selected features within the dataset. To demonstrate the efficacy of the platform, we present a comparative neurolipidomics study of cerebellum, hippocampus and somatosensory barrel cortex (S1BF) from wild-type and knockout mice devoid of the putative lipid phosphate phosphatase PRG-1 (plasticity related gene-1). The presented framework is generic, extendable to processing and integration of other lipidomic data structures, can be interfaced with post-processing protocols supporting statistical testing and multivariate analysis, and can serve as an avenue for disseminating lipidomics data within the scientific community. The ALEX software is available at www.msLipidomics.info. PMID:24244551

  16. Radical Democratic Education as Response to Two World Wars and a Contribution to World Peace: The Inspirational Work of Alex Bloom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A key contributor to the 1948 New Education Fellowship "The Teacher and World Peace" submission to UNESCO, Alex Bloom is one of the most remarkable pioneers of radical democratic education of the twentieth century. In many important respects, Bloom's internationally renowned work from 1945-55 at St George-in-the-East Secondary Modern…

  17. Chickenpox complications, incidence and financial burden in previously healthy children and those with an underlying disease in Ankara in the pre-vaccination period.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Halil; Candir, Mehmet Onur; Karbuz, Adem; Belet, Nurşen; Tapisiz, Anil; Ciftçi, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the complications, financial burden and mortality caused by chickenpox using the data of Ankara, Turkey in the pre-vaccination period. The study was conducted as a retrospective sectional study. Of the 65 patients admitted to our hospital, 34 (52.3%) had been previously healthy, 10 (15.4%) had previous chronic disease and 21 (32.3%) were immunocompromised. The most common complications of chickenpox in those patient groups were skin and soft tissue infections (41.2%), hematological complications (50%) and gastrointestinal complications (38.1%), respectively. We found 10.6/100,000 and 8.7/100,000 rates of hospitalization due to chickenpox in Ankara for all children and for previously healthy children, respectively. The chickenpox-related mortality rate for the 0-17 age group was 3.03/1,000,000 in Ankara. In conclusion, we feel that a national vaccination program for chickenpox will lead to a significant decrease in the overall cost to our country.

  18. Incidence of urinary tract tumours in a two-year period (2010-2011) at the Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Skopje, Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Kostadinova-Kunovska, Slavica; Janevska, Vesna; Komina, Selim; Dukova, Blagica; Bogdanovska-Todorovska, Magdalena; Domazetovski, Ivan; Labachevski, Bojan; Saidi, Skender; Stavridis, Sotir; Petrushevska, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of tumours of the kidneys and the lower urinary tract diagnosed at the Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia, in a two-year period (2010-2011), with the aim of highlighting the main morphological characteristics and to present the statistical features of these tumours. All the cases were diagnosed on paraffin sections from surgical specimens routinely stained with H&E, and immunohistochemically with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The analysis revealed a total of 755 cases, of which 166 (14%) were located in the kidney including the renal pelvis, and 649 (86%) were tumours of the urinary bladder. Twelve of the renal tumours (11.3%) were benign, and the rest were malignant tumours. Most of them were adenocarcinomas (n=77; 72.6%) and 17 cases (16%) were transitional cell carcinomas originating from the renal pelvis. The analysis of the lower urinary tract tumours showed a strong prevalence of malignant urothelial tumours (96%), with a male to female ratio of almost 4:1. Low grade morphology was a predominant feature (71.7%) and 51 cases (22.9%) were of high grade. The percentage of urothelial tumours of the kidney in our series is higher than in most of the reported series, which should lead to an expanded analysis.

  19. Dew Duration and Amount on Corn Leaves as Determined From SMEX05 Measurements and Reanalysis Using the ALEX Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabela, E. D.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Cosh, M. H.; Anderson, M. C.; Gleason, M. L.

    2006-05-01

    Dew plagues crop producers in many facets of agriculture. Many studies have been done on the effects of dew in terms of pest formation and diseases on crops. Although the formation of dew is significant on a micro- scale, satellite projects such as SMOS aim to measure soil moisture on a meso or synoptic scale. The presence of dew has been found to decrease soil brightness temperature, which in turn effects soil moisture readings. The purpose of the dew collection portion of the Soil Moisture Experiment in 2005 (SMEX05) was to manually measure dew so that the effect could be studied on measurements made by remotely sensed soil moisture readings. The purpose of this paper is to determine if manual dew measurements obtained during SMEX05 are accurately modeled by the atmosphere-land exchange model, ALEX. Dew measurements were taken during SMEX05 from June 16 to July 3, 2005 in corn, soybean, and alfalfa fields south of Ames, Iowa. Collection usually began at approximately 645 CDT and commenced at approximately 900 CDT each morning. My hypothesis for this paper is that dew amount and duration collected from SMEX05 are predicted accurately by the atmosphere-land exchange (ALEX) model. Accuracy for dew amount is definded as an amount within 0.05 to 0.1 mm of manual measurements. Accuracy for dew duration is defined as 0.5 hours within automated observations from leaf wetness sensors deployed in various fields within the Walnut Creek watershed. It was found that dew amount is accurate for light, moderate, and heavy dew events, while dew duration is predicted within 0.5 to 1.0 hours.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of the Korean Seismological Research Station Short-Period Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-29

    PREUMINARV (VAIUAVION OF THE KOREAN SEISMOlOCICAl RESEARCH STAIION SHORT PERIOO ARRAY TECHNICAL REPORT NO. S VELA NETWORK EVAIUAT10N AND AUTOMATIC... accomplished under the tech. nical direction of the Air Force Technical Applications Center under Contract No. F08606-7 5-(,-0029. FORMATION SERVICE...34 ALEX(01)-TR-75-05 PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE KOREAN SEISMOLOGICAL RESEARCH STATION SHORT PERIOD ARRAY TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 5 VELA NETWORK

  1. INCIDENCE OF ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA

    PubMed Central

    REED, Susan D.; NEWTON, Katherine M.; CLINTON, Walter L.; EPPLEIN, Meira; GARCIA, Rochelle; ALLISON, Kimberly; VOIGT, Lynda F.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Estimate age-specific incidence of endometrial hyperplasia: simple, complex, and atypical, in order of increasing likelihood of progression to carcinoma. Study design Women ages 18–90 years with endometrial pathology specimens (1985–2003) at a large integrated health plan were identified using automated data. Incidence rates were obtained by dividing the number of cases by the estimated number of female health plan enrollees who retained a uterus. Results Endometrial hyperplasia peak incidence was: simple-142/100,000 woman-years, complex-213/100,000 woman-years, both in the early 50s; and atypical-56/100,000 woman-years in the early 60s. Age-adjusted incidence decreased over the study period, especially for atypical hyperplasia. Conclusions Endometrial hyperplasia incidence without and with atypia peaks in the early postmenopausal years and in the early 60s, respectively. Given that some cases of endometrial hyperplasia likely go undiagnosed, the figures provided should be viewed as minimum estimates of the true incidence. PMID:19393600

  2. [Critical incidents].

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  3. Neural, pituitary, and mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with X irradiation to the heat and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) during the early postnatal period: a statistical study of tumor incidence and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mandybur, T.I.; Ormsby, I.; Samuels, S.; Mancardi, G.L.

    1985-03-01

    To study the late effects of early postnatal treatment with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) preceded by X irradiation to the heat, 226 neonatal CD rats were divided into six groups which received the following treatment: (1) 500-rad X irradiation to the head on the third postnatal day (pnd); (2) injection ip with 30 mg/kg ENU on the fourth pnd; (3) injection ip with 30 mg/kg ENU on the seventh pnd; (4) a combination of 500-rad X irradiation to the head on the third pnd, followed by ip 30 mg/kg ENU on the fourth pnd; (5) a combination of 500-rad X irradiation to the head on the third pnd, followed by ip 30 mg/kg ENU on the seventh pnd; and (6) untreated controls. The results indicate that (1) X irradiation to the head alone significantly extended the life span of females compared to that of control females, and did not affect survival of males; (2) X irradiation did not influence the latent period of mortality from neurogenic tumors when ENU was given 1 or 3 days afterward; (3) ENU itself was a factor in shortening latent period for mammary tumors; (4) X irradiation alone did not increase the incidence of mammary tumors, and revealed no protective effect on the ENU-induced mammary carcinogenesis; (5) X irradiation increased the prevalence of pituitary tumors in the females; (6) no enhancement of pituitary tumors by ENU was observed; and (7) there was a statistically significant association of pituitary and mammary tumors in females.

  4. Organic Geochemistry of Sediments, Interstitial Fluids and Light Volatile Hydrocarbon Gases from Giza and North Alex Mud Volcanoes, Western Nile Deep-Sea Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuzzo, Marianne; Elvert, Marcus; Heuer, Verena; Schmidt, Mark; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Scholz, Florian; Reitz, Anja; Hensen, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The West Nile Delta Project is a multi-disciplinary research project lead at IFM-GEOMAR (Kiel, Germany) and funded by RWE-DEA (Hamburg, Germany). It aims at investigating the sources and transport mechanisms of fluids and hydrocarbon gases seeping at two mud volcanoes (MVs) of the western Nile Deep-Sea Fan: North Alex and Giza MVs, and at the long-term monitoring of the seepage activity at these sites [1,2]. A comparative study of the organic geochemistry of sediments, gases and fluids was carried out in order to constrain (i) the sources of fluids, mud and gases erupted at these cold seeps, and (ii) the microbial hydrocarbon-oxidation processes associated with the extrusion of mud and gases. The molecular and stable isotope composition of light volatile hydrocarbon gases stripped from pore fluids reveal a clear thermogenic origin at the less active Giza MV and at the active centre of N. Alex MV. However, they probably originate from different sources, as shown by the distinct 13C-CH4 values of ~ -45‰ and -37‰VPDB at North Alex and Giza MVs, respectively, while 2H-CH4 values are similar (~ -228‰VSMOW). Away from the centre at North Alex MV the gases have variable compositions and are mainly produced by Archaea microbes. The microbial production of CH4 is probably sustained by the high content of the mud breccia sediments in labile organic matter. Indeed Total Organic Carbon content values are high (~ 1 and 2%weight) in MV sediments from both sites as well as at the reference site away from Giza MV, suggesting a main shallow (Plio-Pleistocene) sedimentary source. Consistently, the sedimentary lipids contain high amounts of compounds typically issued from terrestrial plants such as -amyrin and nC26:0 to nC30:0 fatty acids & alkenols. The hypothesis that labile terrestrial organic matter sustains intense microbial activity in the mud volcano sediments is supported by the extreme enrichment of pore fluids in a suite of Volatile Fatty Acids, in particular

  5. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  6. Mobile Technologies in the Service of Students' Learning of Mathematics: The Example of Game Application A.L.E.X. in the Context of a Primary School in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Andreas O.; Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Maria; Prodromou, Theodosia

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the main experiences gained from a 2-year study which incorporated A.L.E.X., an educational puzzle game available on iPad or Android tablet devices, within the primary school mathematics curriculum. The study took place in a public primary school, located in a rural area of Cyprus. The majority of its students come from low…

  7. Introduction to Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will explain and facilitate such incident reporting.

  8. The portraiture of William Harvey (1578-1657) unveiled by the detective work of Geoffrey Keynes (1887-1983) and Alex Sakula (1917-2003).

    PubMed

    James, D Geraint

    2005-05-01

    In November 1948, Sir Geoffrey Keynes exhibited the only known portrait of William Harvey in mid-life. The recovery of this rare portrait was due to Keynes's detective work at visits to Rolls Park in Essex. Dr Alex Sakula discovered the Betchworth portraits of the Harvey family by accident when he was invited to visit a patient, Major General Goulburn, at Betchworth in Surrey. After much research work Sakula was able to mount an informative exhibition at the Royal College of Physicians. Sakula also reminded us of Eliab Harvey (1758-1830), William's descendant, captain of the Téméraire at the Battle of Trafalgar; the year 2005 marks the bicentenary.

  9. Improving incident reporting among junior doctors

    PubMed Central

    Hotton, Emily; Jordan, Lesley; Peden, Carol

    2014-01-01

    To ensure systems in hospitals improve to make patient care safer, learning must occur when things go wrong. Incident reporting is one of the commonest mechanisms used to learn from harm events and near misses. Only a relatively small number of incidents that occur are actually reported and different groups of staff have different rates of reporting. Nationally, junior doctors are low reporters of incidents, a finding supported by our local data. We set out to explore the culture and awareness around incident reporting among our junior doctors, and to improve the incident reporting rate within this important staff group. In order to achieve this we undertook a number of work programmes focused on junior doctors, including: assessment of their knowledge, confidence and understanding of incident reporting, education on how and why to report incidents with a focus on reporting on clinical themes during a specific time period, and evaluation of the experience of those doctors who reported incidents. Junior doctors were asked to focus on incident reporting during a one week period. Before and after this focussed week, they were invited to complete a questionnaire exploring their confidence about what an incident was and how to report. Prior to “Incident Reporting Week”, on average only two reports were submitted a month by junior doctors compared with an average of 15 per month following the education and awareness week. This project highlights the fact that using a focussed reporting period and/or specific clinical themes as an education tool can benefit a hospital by promoting awareness of incidents and by increasing incident reporting rates. This can only assist in improving hospital systems, and ultimately increase patient safety. PMID:26734264

  10. Critical incident reporting systems.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jag; Marriott, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 10% of all hospital admissions are complicated by critical incidents in which harm is caused to the patient - this amounts to more than 850,000 incidents annually. Critical incident reporting (CIR) systems refer to the structured reporting, collation and analysis of such incidents. This article describes the attributes required for an effective CIR system. Example neonatal trigger events and a management pathway for handling a critical incident report are described. The benefits and limitations of CIR systems, reactive and prospective approaches to the analysis of actual or potential critical incidents and the assessment of risk are also reviewed. Individual human error is but one contributor in the majority of critical incidents. Recognition of this and the fostering of an organisational culture that views critical incident reports as an opportunity to learn and to improve future patient care is vital if CIR systems are to be effective.

  11. True rise in anaphylaxis incidence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Byung-Keun; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The incidence trend of anaphylaxis in Asia is not well investigated. The aim of this study is to estimate the entire population-based incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea using a nationwide administrative database. Data over a 7-year period (2008–2014) was obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database which covers 97.9% of the entire Korean population. Using diagnosis codes from the International Classification of Diseases-10 for anaphylaxis (T78.0, T78.2, T80.5, and T88.6), we identified the annual number of patients who had visited any hospital with a primary diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Incidence rates were calculated using the population distribution data of all NHI beneficiaries. The incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea was 32.19 episodes per 100,000 person-years in 2014, which nearly doubled from 2008 (16.02 episodes per 100,000 person-years). The incidence of anaphylaxis increased continuously throughout these years regardless of gender and age groups (P for trend < 0.001). Female was significantly less predisposed than male (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confident interval [CI], 0.66–0.72; P < 0.001). The incidence was the lowest in 0 to 19 age group and the highest in 40 to 69 age group (adjusted OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.29–2.54; P < 0.001). In conclusion, we report the increasing time trend of anaphylaxis incidence rates using nationwide claims database for the first time in Asia. PMID:28151851

  12. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  13. Customer focused incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Khimani, S

    2007-06-01

    The database of incident forms relating to anaesthesia services in an institutional risk management programme were reviewed for 2003-2005, the aim being to identify any recurring patterns. Incidents were prospectively categorised as relating to attitude/behaviour, communication breakdown, delay in service, or were related to care, cost, environment, equipment, security, administrative process, quality of service or miscellaneous. The total number of anaesthesia-related incidents reported during the period was 287, which related to 0.44% of the total number of anaesthetics administered during the time period. In all, 170 incidents were reported by the department, 96 by internal customers and 21 by external customers. Only 30% of the complaints came from the operating room. Thirty-four per cent of all incidents related to communication, behaviour and delay in service. A requirement to teach communication skills and stress handling formally in anaesthesia training programmes, and at the time of induction of staff into the department, has been identified.

  14. Incident analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, D.W.; Buerer, A.; Leeds, S.

    1996-02-20

    This document presents information about a fire that occurred in January 1996 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This fire was caused by the spontaneous combustion of 100% fuming nitric acid. Topics discussed include: Summary of the incident; technical background; procedural background; supervision; previous incidents with 100% fuming nitric acid; and judgment of potential hazards.

  15. Incidence of lead shot in canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, 2,544 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from North Dakota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Maryland were flouroscoped to determine the incidence of body shot. A significant increase from west to east was detected in the incidence of shot for immatures from the four states. The incidence of shot in immatures after the 1975-76 hunting season was 18 percent in Maryland and 20 percent in Illinois. In Wisconsin no difference in the incidence of shot could be detected between areas trapped or time periods when trapping was conducted. In Maryland a significant decrease in the incidence of body shot was detected in adults, but not immatures, between 1975 and 1976. shot was located throughout the body of canvasbacks. Frequency varied from one to nine shot per bird and averaged 2.0 for adults and 1.5 for immatures.

  16. Safety incident reporting in emergency radiology: analysis of 1717 safety incident reports.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Shaqdan, Khalid W; Aran, Shima; Raja, Ali S; Lev, Michael H; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the incidence and types of safety reports logged in the radiology safety incident reporting system in our emergency radiology section over an 8-year period. Electronic incident reporting system of our institute was searched for the variables in emergency radiology. All reports from April 2006 to June 2014 were included and deindentified. The following event classifications were investigated in radiography, CT, and MRI modalities: diagnostic test orders, ID/documentation/consent, safety/security/conduct, service coordination, surgery/procedure, line/tube, fall, medication/IV safety, employee general incident, environment/equipment, adverse drug reaction, skin/tissue, and diagnosis/treatment. A total of 881,194 emergency radiology examinations were performed during the study period, 1717 (1717/881,194 = 0.19 %) of which resulted in safety reports. Reports were classified into 14 different categories, the most frequent of which were "diagnostic test orders" (481/1717 = 28 % total incident reports), "medication/IV safety" (302/1717 = 18 % total incident reports), and "service coordination" (204/1717 = 12 % total incident reports). X-ray had the highest report rate (873/1717 = 50 % total incident reports), followed by CT (604/1717 = 35 % total incident reports) and MRI (240/1717 = 14 % total incident reports). Forty-six percent of safety incidents (789/1717) caused no harm and did not reach the patient, 36 % (617/1717) caused no harm but reached the patient, 18 % (308/1717) caused temporary or minor harm/ damage, and less than 1 % caused permanent or major harm/ damage or death. Our study shows an overall safety incident report rate of 0.19 % in emergency radiology including radiography, CT, and MRI modalities. The most common safety incidents were diagnostic test orders, medication/IV safety, and service coordination.

  17. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  18. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  19. Anatomy of an incident

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identified as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.

  20. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; ...

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  1. Meteorite incidence angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    1993-06-01

    Think about an asteroid smashing into the surface of the Moon and excavating a crater; or hitting Earth and scattering meteorite fragments over a strewn field. Imagine a fragment of cometary dust burning out in the Earth's atmosphere and producing a meteor. These bodies have paths that are inclined at some angle to the vertical. But what is the predominant value of this angle of incidence, i? How does the number of incident bodies vary as a function of angle i? And how do both these affect the prevalence of non- circular lunar craters and the ellipticity of meteorite strewn fields?

  2. RAPID INCIDENT RESPONSE FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will discuss WERF Contract (RFP# 03-HHE-5PP), Protocols for the Timely Investigation of Potential Health Incidents Associated with Biosolids Land Application, as a member of the project advisory committee. The contractor, University of North Carolina, started work in early June, ...

  3. New model for predicting freeway incidents and incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents a new model that predicts the number of freeway incidents and associated delays based on general freeway segment characteristics, traffic volumes, and incident management procedures. The model is intended to be used in planning capacity-enhancing freeway improvements and incident management programs. Estimates of incident frequencies, severity, durations, and delays are provided for seven standard incident types, each of which represents a significant fraction of total unplanned incidents and has severity and/or duration characteristics substantially different from the others. In addition to describing the incident prediction model, the paper addresses the need for a coordinated national strategy for collecting incident data, with particular attention to urban freeways. It concludes that the incident data systems that have evolved in several urban areas, often in connection with freeway service patrols and incident response team activities, already provide a valuable nationwide data resource for understanding incident patterns and their variations. However, better national coordination of locally collected incident data would be helpful for addressing issues beyond the scope of the local concerns for which virtually all current systems were originally designed. Specific areas for improvement include the definitions of incident types, descriptions of incident locations (relative to both the length and breadth of the highway), and data recording the critical times during incidents such as when detection, response, and clearing occur.

  4. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  5. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  6. Patient safety incidents are common in primary care: A national prospective active incident reporting survey

    PubMed Central

    Brami, Jean; Chanelière, Marc; Kret, Marion; Mosnier, Anne; Dupie, Isabelle; Haeringer-Cholet, Anouk; Keriel-Gascou, Maud; Maradan, Claire; Villebrun, Frédéric; Makeham, Meredith; Quenon, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Background The study objectives were to describe the incidence and the nature of patient safety incidents (PSIs) in primary care general practice settings, and to explore the association between these incidents and practice or organizational characteristics. Methods GPs, randomly selected from a national influenza surveillance network (n = 800) across France, prospectively reported any incidents observed each day over a one-week period between May and July 2013. An incident was an event or circumstance that could have resulted, or did result, in harm to a patient, which the GP would not wish to recur. Primary outcome was the incidence of PSIs which was determined by counting reports per total number of patient encounters. Reports were categorized using existing taxonomies. The association with practice and organizational characteristics was calculated using a negative binomial regression model. Results 127 GPs (participation rate 79%) reported 317 incidents of which 270 were deemed to be a posteriori judged preventable, among 12,348 encounters. 77% had no consequences for the patient. The incidence of reported PSIs was 26 per 1000 patient encounters per week (95% CI [23‰ -28‰]). Incidents were three times more frequently related to the organization of healthcare than to knowledge and skills of health professionals, and especially to the workflow in the GPs’ offices and to the communication between providers and with patients. Among GP characteristics, three were related with an increased incidence in the final multivariable model: length of consultation higher than 15 minutes, method of receiving radiological results (by fax compared to paper or email), and being in a multidisciplinary clinic compared with sole practitioners. Conclusions Patient safety incidents (PSIs) occurred in mean once every two days in the sampled GPs and 2% of them were associated with a definite possibility for harm. Studying the association between organizational features of general

  7. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Cancer.gov

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and two-phase stratified sampling. Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  8. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope <-10, -10 to <-5, and -5 to <-1 versus -1 to <0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.20; 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.09; and 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03, respectively). More severe constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  10. Auxiliary Library Explorer (ALEX) Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Joint and Operations Analysis Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TN–1492 ABSTRACT In this report we describe the development of...and Operations Analysis Division Defence Science and Technology Group 506 Lorimer St, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207, Australia Telephone: 1300 333...Cascading Style Sheet CSV comma separated values DST Group Defence Science and Technology Group ETL extract, transform and load EWRD Electronic

  11. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis. We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20–99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population. A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57–3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36–1.51). The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041

  12. The use of rotational invariants for the interpretation of marine CSEM data with a case study from the North Alex mud volcano, West Nile Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölz, Sebastian; Swidinsky, Andrei; Sommer, Malte; Jegen, Marion; Bialas, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Submarine mud volcanos at the seafloor are surface expressions of fluid flow systems within the seafloor. Since the electrical resistivity of the seafloor is mainly determined by the amount and characteristics of fluids contained within the sediment's pore space, electromagnetic methods offer a promising approach to gain insight into a mud volcano's internal resistivity structure. To investigate this structure, we conducted a controlled source electromagnetic experiment, which was novel in the sense that the source was deployed and operated with a remotely operated vehicle, which allowed for a flexible placement of the transmitter dipole with two polarization directions at each transmitter location. For the interpretation of the experiment, we have adapted the concept of rotational invariants from land-based electromagnetics to the marine case by considering the source normalized tensor of horizontal electric field components. We analyse the sensitivity of these rotational invariants in terms of 1-D models and measurement geometries and associated measurement errors, which resemble the experiment at the mud volcano. The analysis shows that any combination of rotational invariants has an improved parameter resolution as compared to the sensitivity of the pure radial or azimuthal component alone. For the data set, which was acquired at the `North Alex' mud volcano, we interpret rotational invariants in terms of 1-D inversions on a common midpoint grid. The resulting resistivity models show a general increase of resistivities with depth. The most prominent feature in the stitched 1-D sections is a lens-shaped interface, which can similarly be found in a section from seismic reflection data. Beneath this interface bulk resistivities frequently fall in a range between 2.0 and 2.5 Ωm towards the maximum penetration depths. We interpret the lens-shaped interface as the surface of a collapse structure, which was formed at the end of a phase of activity of an older mud

  13. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  14. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  15. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  16. Grazing incidence beam expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkapeddi, P. R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V. K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  17. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  18. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'.

  19. Incidence of fractures requiring inpatient care

    PubMed Central

    Somersalo, Axel; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lönnroos, Eija; Heinänen, Mikko; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Background The overall incidence of fractures has been addressed in several studies, but there are few data on different types of fractures that require inpatient care, even though they account for considerable healthcare costs. We determined the incidence of limb and spine fractures that required hospitalization in people aged ≥ 16 years. Patients and methods We collected data on the diagnosis (ICD10 code), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 9 additional characteristics of patients admitted to the trauma ward of Central Finland Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Incidence rates were calculated for all fractures using data on the population at risk. Results and interpretation During the study period, 3,277 women and 2,708 men sustained 3,750 and 3,030 fractures, respectively. The incidence of all fractures was 4.9 per 103 person years (95% CI: 4.8–5.0). The corresponding numbers for women and men were 5.3 (5.1–5.4) and 4.5 (4.3–4.6). Fractures of the hip, ankle, wrist, spine, and proximal humerus comprised two-thirds of all fractures requiring hospitalization. The proportion of ankle fractures (17%) and wrist fractures (9%) was equal to that of hip fractures (27%). Four-fifths of the hospitalized fracture patients were operated. In individuals aged < 60 years, fractures requiring hospitalization were twice as common in men as in women. In individuals ≥ 60 years of age, the opposite was true. PMID:24694275

  20. Lunar tractive forces and renal stone incidence.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, Spyridon; Thalmann, George N; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2011-01-01

    Background. Several factors are implicated in renal stone formation and peak incidence of renal colic admissions to emergency departments (ED). Little is known about the influence of potential environmental triggers such as lunar gravitational forces. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that the incidence of symptomatic renal colics increases at the time of the full and new moon because of increased lunar gravitational forces. Methods. We analysed 1500 patients who attended our ED between 2000 and 2010 because of nephrolithiasis-induced renal colic. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± 1 day, new moon ± 1 day, and the days in-between as "normal" days. Results. During this 11-year period, 156 cases of acute nephrolithiasis were diagnosed at the time of a full moon and 146 at the time of a new moon (mean of 0.4 per day for both). 1198 cases were diagnosed on "normal" days (mean 0.4 per day). The incidence of nephrolithiasis in peak and other lunar gravitational phases, the circannual variation and the gender-specific analysis showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. In this adequate powered longitudinal study, changes in tractive force during the different lunar phases did not influence the incidence of renal colic admissions in emergency department.

  1. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  2. Incidence and Demographics of Childhood Ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Griepentrog, Gregory J.; Diehl, Nancy; Mohney, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and demographics of childhood ptosis diagnosed over a 40-year period in a well-defined population. Design Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Participants Patients (< 19 years) diagnosed with childhood ptosis as residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 2004 Methods The medical records of all potential patients identified by the Rochester Epidemiology Project were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Calculated annual age- and sex-specific incidence rates and demographic information. Results A total of 107 children were diagnosed with ptosis during the 40-year period, yielding an incidence of 7.9/100,000 < 19 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4-9.5) of age. Ninety-six (89.7%) of the 107 were congenital in onset, 81 (75%) of which had simple congenital ptosis, yielding a birth prevalence of 1 in 842 births. A family history of childhood ptosis was present in twelve percent of queried patients with simple congenital ptosis. Three (4%) of the simple congenital ptosis cases were bilateral and 55 (68%) of the unilateral cases involved the left upper eyelid (95% CI: 57%-78%, p<0.001). Conclusion Childhood ptosis was diagnosed in 7.9 per 100,000 patients less than 19 years (95% CI: 6.4-9.5). Simple congenital ptosis was the most prevalent form, occurring in 1 in 842 births, and significantly more likely to involve the left side. PMID:21496927

  3. SU-E-P-07: Retrospective Analysis of Incident Reports at a Radiology Department: Feedback From Incident Reporting System

    SciTech Connect

    Kakinohana, Y; Toita, T; Heianna, J; Murayama, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide an overview of reported incidents that occurred in a radiology department and to describe the most common causal source of incidents. Methods: Incident reports from the radiology department at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital between 2008 and 2013 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The incident report form contains the following items, causal factors of the incident and desirable corrective actions to prevent recurrence of similar incidents. These items allow the institution to investigate/analyze root causes of the incidents and suggest measures to be taken to prevent further, similar incidents. The ‘causal factors of the incident’ item comprises multiple selections from among 24 selections and includes some synonymous selections. In this study, this item was re-categorized into four causal source types: (i) carelessness, (ii) lack of skill or knowledge, (iii) deficiencies in communication, and (iv) external factors. Results: There were a total of 7490 incident reports over the study period and 276 (3.7%) were identified as originating from the radiology department. The most frequent causal source type was carelessness (62%). The other three types showed similar frequencies (10–14%). The staff members involved in incidents indicate three predominant desirable corrective actions to prevent or decrease the recurrence of similar incidents. These are ‘improvement in communication’ (24%), ‘staff training/education’ (19%), and ‘daily medical procedures’ (22%), and the most frequent was ‘improvement in communication’. Even though the most frequent causal factor was related to carelessness, the most desirable corrective action indicated by the staff members was related to communication. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that the most immediate causes are strongly related to carelessness. However, the most likely underlying causes of incidents would be related to deficiencies in effective communication. At our

  4. The increasing toll of adolescent cancer incidence in the US

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, David; Clapp, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Cancer incidence is rising among adolescents (“teens”). The causes of the increase are unknown but studying incidence patterns and trends may produce insights into etiology. Using data from the US National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program we described trends of cancer incidence among teens (15–19 year olds). We reviewed and summarized incidence patterns for histologic cancer groups and the most frequently diagnosed sites of cancer among teens during 2008–2012 reported by the SEER Cancer Statistics Review. We calculated annual incidence rates for the years 1975–2012 and used linear regression analysis to evaluate trends and calculate rates of change. Incidence for all sites combined increased annually by 0.67% for males and 0.62% for females during the period 1975 through 2012 –resulting in more than a 25% increase over 38 years. The biggest annual incidence increases occurred in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (2.16% females; 1.38% males), thyroid cancer (2.12% females; 1.59% males), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (1.73% females) and testicular cancer (1.55% males). Incidence rates for most histologic groups and sites showed steady long term increases over the 38 years of data. Despite improvements in survival, rising incidence trends mean growing numbers of young adults are undergoing painful and costly cancer treatments. A concerted research program is vital to investigate causes of steadily rising teen cancer rates. PMID:28235028

  5. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intracranial compliance (a “tighter fit”), increased altitude may be related to a reduction in concussion rates in high school athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on concussions and athlete exposures (AEs) between 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 were obtained from a large national sample of high schools (National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System [High School RIO]) and were used to calculate total, competition, and practice concussion rates for aggregated sports and for football only. Results: Altitude of participating schools ranged from 7 to 6903 ft (median, 600 ft), and a total of 5936 concussions occurred in 20,618,915 exposures (2.88 per 10,000 AEs). When concussion rates were dichotomized by altitude using the median, elevated altitude was associated with a reduction in concussion rates overall (rate ratio [RR], 1.31; P < .001), in competition (RR, 1.31; P < .001), and in practice (RR, 1.29; P < .001). Specifically, high school sports played at higher altitude demonstrated a 31% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-38%) in the incidence of total reported concussions. Likewise, concussion rates at increased altitude were reduced 30% for overall exposures, 27% for competition exposures, and 28% for practice exposures in football players (P < .001). Conclusion: The results of this epidemiological investigation indicate increased physiological responses to altitude may be associated with a reduction in sports

  6. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p <0,001) over the study period. This figure was higher than that reported in Spain (0,16) by the Microbiological Information System, which is voluntary, showing that underreporting exists. The inclusion of listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control.

  7. Harnessing Critical Incidents for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A critical incident is a situation or event that holds significance for learning, both for the students and teachers. This paper presents four examples of critical incidents from a Year 7 teacher's lesson excerpts in Indonesia involving teaching of fractions, to show how they shaped classroom situation, brought forward elements of conflict, and…

  8. Women, Loneliness, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between loneliness and risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) over a 19-year follow-up period in a community sample of men and women. Loneliness, the perceived discrepancy between actual and desired social relationships, has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, no previous research has prospectively examined the association between loneliness and incident CHD in a community sample of men and women. Methods Hypotheses were examined using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey and its follow-up studies (n = 3003). Loneliness, assessed by one item from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale, and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. Incident CHD was derived from hospital records/death certificates over 19 years of follow-up. Hypotheses were evaluated, using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among women, high loneliness was associated with increased risk of incident CHD (high: hazard ratio = 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.17â2.63; medium: hazard ratio = 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.64â1.49; reference: low), controlling for age, race, education, income, marital status, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index. Findings persisted additionally controlling for depressive symptoms. No significant associations were observed among men. Conclusions Loneliness was prospectively associated with increased risk of incident CHD, controlling for multiple confounding factors. Loneliness among women may merit clinical attention, not only due to its impact on quality of life but also its potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:19661189

  9. The incidence of inherited porphyrias in Europe.

    PubMed

    Elder, George; Harper, Pauline; Badminton, Michael; Sandberg, Sverre; Deybach, Jean-Charles

    2013-09-01

    Retrospective estimates of the prevalence of porphyrias have been reported but there has been no large scale prospective study of their incidence. The European Porphyria Network collected information prospectively over a 3 year period about the number of newly diagnosed symptomatic patients with an inherited porphyria (335 patients from 11 countries). Prevalence was calculated from the incidence and mean disease duration. The incidence of hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC) in acute hepatic porphyria and the prevalence of patients with recurrent acute attacks of porphyria were also investigated. The incidence of symptomatic acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) was similar in all countries (0.13 per million per year; 95 % CI: 0.10 - 0.14) except Sweden (0.51; 95 % CI: 0.28-0.86). The incidence ratio for symptomatic AIP: variegate porphyria: hereditary coproporphyria was 1.00:0.62: 0.15. The prevalence of AIP (5.4 per million; 95 % CI: 4.5-6.3) was about half that previously reported. The prevalence of erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) was less uniform between countries and, in some countries, exceeded previous estimates. Fourteen new cases of HCC (11 from Sweden) were reported in patients with acute porphyria. Sixty seven patients (3 VP; 64 AIP: 53 females, 11 males) with recurrent attacks of acute porphyria were identified. The estimated percentage of patients with AIP that will develop recurrent acute attacks was 3-5 %. In conclusion, the prevalence of symptomatic acute porphyria may be decreasing, possibly due to improved management, whereas the prevalence of EPP may be increasing due to improved diagnosis and its greater recognition as a cause of photosensitivity.

  10. Different incidences of knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    NiemeläInen, Mika J; MäKelä, Keijo T; Robertsson, Otto; W-Dahl, Annette; Furnes, Ove; Fenstad, Anne M; Pedersen, Alma B; Schrøder, Henrik M; Huhtala, Heini; Eskelinen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The annual number of total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) has increased worldwide in recent years. To make projections regarding future needs for primaries and revisions, additional knowledge is important. We analyzed and compared the incidences among 4 Nordic countries Patients and methods Using Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) data from 4 countries, we analyzed differences between age and sex groups. We included patients over 30 years of age who were operated with TKA or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) during the period 1997–2012. The negative binomial regression model was used to analyze changes in general trends and in sex and age groups. Results The average annual increase in the incidence of TKA was statistically significant in all countries. The incidence of TKA was higher in women than in men in all 4 countries. It was highest in Finland in patients aged 65 years or more. At the end of the study period in 2012, Finland’s total incidence was double that of Norway, 1.3 times that of Sweden and 1.4 times that of Denmark. The incidence was lowest in the youngest age groups (< 65 years) in all 4 countries. The proportional increase in incidence was highest in patients who were younger than 65 years. Interpretation The incidence of knee arthroplasty steadily increased in the 4 countries over the study period. The differences between the countries were considerable, with the highest incidence in Finland. Patients aged 65 years or more contributed to most of the total incidence of knee arthroplasty. PMID:28056570

  11. Incidence of systemic mycoses in autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Koch, S; Höhne, F-M; Tietz, H-J

    2004-02-01

    The incidence of systemic mycoses was investigated in the autopsy material of the Institute of Pathology of the Humaine Hospital in Bad Saarow, Germany. This hospital provides qualified standard care in east Brandenburg with a wide spectrum of medical disciplines caring for patients with acute medical conditions as well as oncological cases (660 beds). Between 1973 and 2001, 47 systemic mycoses were diagnosed in 4813 autopsies of deceased adults, corresponding to 0.98%. During the period of investigation, both the care provided by the hospital and the organization of the health service changed. The autopsy frequency fell from about 80% (1973-1991) to about 28% (1992-2001). This is thus still far higher than the average of about 3% assumed for the Federal Republic of Germany. Although the incidence of systemic mycoses increased during the entire 29-year period of investigation, the number of cases in whom this was the immediate cause of death decreased. Whereas candidoses predominated from 1973 to 1991, a shift in favor of aspergilloses was noticed in the period from 1992 to 2001. Systemic mycosis was diagnosed intravitally in only three of 47 cases. The present study therefore underscores the significance of clinical autopsy as a diagnostic method and means of medical quality control.

  12. Measles incidence and reporting trends in Germany, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Ole; Rieck, Thorsten; Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective We aimed to quantify progress towards measles elimination in Germany from 2007 to 2011 and to estimate any potential underreporting over this period. Methods We determined the annual incidence of notified cases of measles – for each year – in northern, western, eastern and southern Germany and across the whole country. We then used measles-related health insurance claims to estimate the corresponding incidence. Findings In each year between 2007 and 2011, there were 6.9–19.6 (mean: 10.8) notified cases of measles per million population. Incidence decreased with age and showed geographical variation, with highest mean incidence – 20.3 cases per million – in southern Germany. Over the study period, incidence decreased by 10% (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.85–0.95) per year in western Germany but increased by 77% (IRR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.62–1.93) per year in eastern Germany. Although the estimated incidence of measles based on insurance claims showed similar trends, these estimates were 2.0- to 4.8-fold higher than the incidence of notified cases. Comparisons between the data sets indicated that the underreporting increased with age and was generally less in years when measles incidence was high than in low-incidence years. Conclusion Germany is still far from achieving measles elimination. There is substantial regional variation in measles epidemiology and, therefore, a need for region-specific interventions. Our analysis indicates underreporting in the routine surveillance system between 2007 and 2011, especially among adults. PMID:25378728

  13. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    DOEpatents

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  14. Incidence and mortality of bullous pemphigoid in France.

    PubMed

    Joly, Pascal; Baricault, Sophie; Sparsa, Agnès; Bernard, Philippe; Bédane, Christophe; Duvert-Lehembre, Sophie; Courville, Philippe; Bravard, Pierre; Rémond, Brigitte; Doffoel-Hantz, Valérie; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-08-01

    A major increase in the incidence of BP has been recently reported in the United Kingdom. In addition, there are some controversies about the over-mortality of BP patients. The primary objective was to reevaluate the incidence of BP in France as compared with that we estimated 15 years ago. The secondary objective was to assess mortality of BP patients. BP incidence was retrospectively estimated from all BP cases diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2005 in three French regions with a total population of 3.858 million inhabitants. BP mortality was assessed from a prospective cohort accrued during the same time period. A total of 502 incident BP patients (mean age: 82.6±8.8 years) were identified. Overall estimated incidence was 21.7 cases per million persons per year (95%CI:19.8-23.7 cases per million persons per year), which is about 3-fold higher than the incidence that we estimated 15 years ago. In the population aged 70 years or above, BP incidence was 162 cases per million per year (95%CI:147-177 cases per million per year). The overall 1-year survival rate was 62% (95% CI: 56-67%). The risk of death for BP patients was more than six times greater than that for the general population (SMR:6.60; 95%CI:5.47-7.90). The incidence of BP in France has increased 3-fold in the last 15 years. BP is associated with high mortality.

  15. Incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Staines, A; Hanif, S; Ahmed, S; McKinney, P; Shera, S; Bodansky, H

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 16 September 1996
 OBJECTIVES—To determine the incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) among children aged up to 16 years residing in the city of Karachi, Pakistan, during the five years from 1989 to 1993.
DESIGN—Retrospective study of incidence using hospital and clinic records.
SETTING—The city of Karachi, Pakistan.
SUBJECTS—Children satisfying standard criteria for the diagnosis of IDDM, attending treatment facilities for the first time during the study period.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The incidence of IDDM in this population and its variation by age and sex.
RESULTS—The incidence of IDDM in this population is 1.02/100 000 per year, which is one of the lowest incidence rates yet reported.
CONCLUSIONS—The very low incidence of IDDM, contrasted with the substantially higher incidence among migrants, supports the view that environmental factors are the major determinants of variations in the incidence of this condition between populations.

 PMID:9068300

  16. Climate controls on valley fever incidence in Kern County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Charles S.; Talamantes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Coccidiodomycosis (valley fever) is a systemic infection caused by inhalation of airborne spores from Coccidioides immitis, a soil-dwelling fungus found in the southwestern United States, parts of Mexico, and Central and South America. Dust storms help disperse C. immitis so risk factors for valley fever include conditions favorable for fungal growth (moist, warm soil) and for aeolian soil erosion (dry soil and strong winds). Here, we analyze and inter-compare the seasonal and inter-annual behavior of valley fever incidence and climate risk factors for the period 1980-2002 in Kern County, California, the US county with highest reported incidence. We find weak but statistically significant links between disease incidence and antecedent climate conditions. Precipitation anomalies 8 and 20 months antecedent explain only up to 4% of monthly variability in subsequent valley fever incidence during the 23 year period tested. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting that C. immitis tolerates hot, dry periods better than competing soil organisms and, as a result, thrives during wet periods following droughts. Furthermore, the relatively small correlation with climate suggests that the causes of valley fever in Kern County could be largely anthropogenic. Seasonal climate predictors of valley fever in Kern County are similar to, but much weaker than, those in Arizona, where previous studies find precipitation explains up to 75% of incidence. Causes for this discrepancy are not yet understood. Higher resolution temporal and spatial monitoring of soil conditions could improve our understanding of climatic antecedents of severe epidemics.

  17. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment.

  18. Cancer incidence among creosote-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Karlehagen, S; Andersen, A; Ohlson, C G

    1992-02-01

    Cancer incidence was studied among 922 creosote-exposed impregnators at 13 plants in Sweden and Norway. The subjects had been impregnating wood (eg, railroad cross-ties and telegraph poles), but no data on individual exposures were available. The study population was restricted to men employed during the period 1950-1975, and their cancer morbidity was checked through the cancer registries. The total cancer incidence was somewhat lower than expected, 129 cases versus 137 expected [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 0.94]. Increased risks in both countries combined were observed for lip cancer (SIR 2.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-5.83), skin cancer (SIR 2.37, 95% CI 1.08-4.50), and malignant lymphoma (SIR 1.9, 95% CI 0.83-3.78). Exposure to sunlight may have contributed to the risk of lip and skin cancer. The small number of cancer cases does not permit valid conclusions. The findings indicate that impregnating wood with creosote in earlier decades increased the risk of skin cancer.

  19. Increasing incidence of coeliac disease in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, H; Krantz, I; Kristiansson, B

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the incidence of coelic disease was studied among children born in Göteborg, Sweden, between 1970 and 1988. A total of 188 patients with coeliac disease were found. Of these, 83% were less than 2 years old at the time of their first duodenal biopsy and 74% of them have so far been verified according to the criteria of the European Society for Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). The cumulative incidence at 2 years of age/1000 liveborn infants increased significantly from 0.31 in the first birth cohort to 2.93 in the last. This increase could only partly be explained by improvements in detection. Weight for age at diagnosis was generally considerably below the reference value, but was slightly less affected towards the end of the period. The increase in incidence of coeliac disease is the first reported since the middle 1970s and makes the disease one of the most common chronic diseases among Swedish children. PMID:2039251

  20. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  1. Perioperative Hypothermia: Incidence and Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    1990 Thesis/" Perioperative Hypothermia: Incidence and Prevention CRodney L. Fisher AFIT Student at: Columbia University AFIT/CI/CIA 90-120 AFT/I/I...Civilian Institution Programs DTIC CTELECTE 0 36 UNCLASSIFIFD 4 PERIOPERATIVE HYPOTHERMIA: INCIDENCE AND PREVENTION By Rodney L. Fisher, CAPT., USAF...Availability Codes Avall and/or Dit Special ABSTRACT Perioperative thermal regulation is discussed. A retrospective audit was conducted to identify the

  2. Prevalence and incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2013-06-01

    Several studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) incidence and prevalence indicate that occurrence of the disease varies significantly among different populations. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of RA in South Korea. We used Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data to estimate the prevalence of RA in 2007-2009 and the incidence of RA in 2008. On the basis of our previous validation study, the presence of RA was defined by the diagnostic code for RA with biologic or non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in the same claim in each year. To estimate the incidence of RA, we identified cases of RA in 2008 and set the 12-month period prior to 2008 as a disease-free period. Among the incident case of 2008, only patients who continued treatment in 2009 were defined as true incident case of RA in 2008. The corresponding prevalence estimates were 0.26 % (95 % CI 0.25-0.27) in 2006, 0.27 % (95 % CI 0.26-0.28) in 2007, and 0.27 % (95 % CI 0.26-0.28) in 2008. The incidence of RA in 2008 was estimated at 42/100,000 (95 % CI 29.3-54.7) in the general population of South Korea. Data gathered nationwide through the NHI yielded estimates of RA prevalence and incidence in South Korea. This study is the first report of nationwide prevalence and incidence of South Korea and those are comparable to values for other countries in Asia.

  3. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  4. A Risk Model for Lung Cancer Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Hoggart, Clive; Brennan, Paul; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla; Overvad, Kim; Østergaard, Jane Nautrup; Kaaks, Rudolf; Canzian, Federico; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Johansson, Mattias; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Braaten, Tonje; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Arriola, Larraitz; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rasmuson, Torgny; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Risk models for lung cancer incidence would be useful for prioritizing individuals for screening and participation in clinical trials of chemoprevention. We present a risk model for lung cancer built using prospective cohort data from a general population which predicts individual incidence in a given time period. We build separate risk models for current and former smokers using 169,035 ever smokers from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and considered a model for never smokers. The data set was split into independent training and test sets. Lung cancer incidence was modeled using survival analysis, stratifying by age started smoking, and for former smokers, also smoking duration. Other risk factors considered were smoking intensity, 10 occupational/environmental exposures previously implicated with lung cancer, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at two loci identified by genome-wide association studies of lung cancer. Individual risk in the test set was measured by the predicted probability of lung cancer incidence in the year preceding last follow-up time, predictive accuracy was measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Using smoking information alone gave good predictive accuracy: the AUC and 95% confidence interval in ever smokers was 0.843 (0.810–0.875), the Bach model applied to the same data gave an AUC of 0.775 (0.737–0.813). Other risk factors had negligible effect on the AUC, including never smokers for whom prediction was poor. Our model is generalizable and straightforward to implement. Its accuracy can be attributed to its modeling of lifetime exposure to smoking. PMID:22496387

  5. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled.

  6. Colorectal Cancer Incidence Among Young Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kathryn E.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Pan, Chuan-Ju G.; Stamos, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has decreased over the past three decades, due largely to screening efforts. Relatively little is known about CRC incidence among the young adult (YA) population ages 20–39, as screening typically commences at age 50 for average-risk individuals. We examined CRC incidence with a focus on YAs in order to identify high-risk subgroups. Methods: We analyzed 231,544 incident CRC cases from 1988–2009 (including 5617 YAs 20–39 years of age) from the California Cancer Registry. We assessed age-specific incidence rates by race/ethnicity, gender, and colorectal tumor location, and calculated the biannual percent change (BAPC) to monitor change in incidence over the 22-year study period. Results: The absolute incidence of CRC per 100,000 was low among YAs 20–29 and 30–39 years old (ranging from 0.7 per 100,000 among Hispanic and African American females aged 20–29 up to 5.0 per 100,000 among Asian/Pacific Islander males aged 30–39). However, we observed increasing CRC incidence rates over time among both males and females in the YA population, particularly for distal colon cancer in Hispanic females aged 20–29 (BAPC=+15.9%; p<0.042). Conclusion: The absolute incidence of CRC remains far lower for YAs than among adults aged 50 and over. However, CRC incidence is increasing among young adults, in contrast to the decreasing rates observed for adults in the screened population (aged 50 and above). More research is needed to better characterize YAs at increased risk for CRC. PMID:25538862

  7. Global dynamics of an SIRS epidemic model with saturation incidence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijie; Jiang, Guirong; Liu, Suyu; Ling, Lin

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the dynamical behavior of an SIRS epidemic model with birth pulse, pulse vaccination, and saturation incidence is studied. By using a discrete map, the existence and stability of the infection-free periodic solution and the endemic periodic solution are investigated. The conditions required for the existence of supercritical bifurcation are derived. A threshold for a disease to be extinct or endemic is established. The Poincaré map and center manifold theorem are used to discuss flip bifurcation of the endemic periodic solution. Moreover, numerical simulations for bifurcation diagrams, phase portraits and periodic solutions, which are illustrated with an example, are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  8. Incidence of cancer among workers producing calcium carbide.

    PubMed Central

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S

    1986-01-01

    The overall mortality and the incidence of cancer have been studied among male employees at a plant producing calcium carbide. The cohort was defined as all men employed at the plant for at least 18 months in the period 1953 to 1970 and was classified according to 10 occupational categories. The 790 men have been observed from 1953 to 1983 and the incidence of cancer in the cohort has been compared with national incidence rates. A significant excess of colonic cancer (standardised incidence ratio, SIR = 2.09) and of prostatic cancer (SIR = 1.78) was found, and also a slight excess of lung cancer among furnace and maintenance workers (SIR = 1.56). The possible exposure of the workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, and cadmium is discussed. PMID:3964572

  9. Trends in pyloric stenosis incidence, Atlanta, 1968 to 1982.

    PubMed Central

    Lammer, E J; Edmonds, L D

    1987-01-01

    Four studies reported an increasing incidence of pyloric stenosis during the late 1970s from geographically diverse areas of the United Kingdom. It was suggested that the increased incidence might be related to changes in infant feeding practices. We used data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, a population based birth defects registry, to examine the secular trends and descriptive epidemiology of pyloric stenosis in a North American city. For the period 1968 to 1982, the incidence of pyloric stenosis was 1.33 per 1000 live births; there was no evidence of an increasing trend for either race or sex specific rates of pyloric stenosis. The descriptive epidemiology of the pyloric stenosis cases showed higher rates for males, whites, and infants of higher birth weight. We found no increasing trend in pyloric stenosis incidence in Atlanta, despite well documented changes in US infant feeding practices (an increased prevalence of breast feeding) during the 1970s. PMID:3656370

  10. Increasing incidence of hip fracture in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongtriratanachai, Prasit; Luevitoonvechkij, Sirichai; Songpatanasilp, Thawee; Sribunditkul, Siripoj; Leerapun, Taninnit; Phadungkiat, Sompant; Rojanasthien, Sattaya

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture is a major health problem in Thailand. This study attempted to examine the incidence, related factors, and trends of hip fracture in Chiang Mai, Thailand. All hip fracture data among patients aged 50 yr or older were collected from hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand from August 1, 2006 to July 3, 2007. Data from the 1997 Chiang Mai hip fracture study were used for comparison. In the study period, 690 hip fractures were reported: 203 males and 487 females (male to female ratio was 1 to 2.4), with a mean age of 76.7 yr. The estimated cumulative incidence was 181.0 per 100,000, and the adjusted incidence was 253.3 (males: 135.9; females: 367.9). A simple fall was the most common mechanism (79%) of fracture, and 80% of the hip fractures occurred in patients aged 70 yr or older. The highest incidence of hip fracture was observed in patients older than 85 yr (1239). At 6 mo postfracture, most patients (61%) used a walking aid. Compared with the 1997 data, hip fracture incidence had increased by an average of 2% per yr, and the incidence of hip fracture had increased significantly from August 1, 2006 to July 31, 2007, especially in patients older than 75 yr. In patients older than 84 yr, the incidence increased by a factor of 2. Urgent strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and hence hip fracture, are needed.

  11. Temporal trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Indridason, Olafur S; Haraldsson, Gudjon; Kjartansson, Olafur; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports show an increased occurrence of kidney stone disease worldwide. To further evaluate and quantify this observation, we examined recent trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease in the adult population of Iceland over a 24-year period. Computerized databases of all major hospitals and medical imaging centers in Iceland were searched for International Classification of Diseases, radiologic and surgical procedure codes indicative of kidney stones in patients aged 18 years and older. The time trends in stone frequency of 5945 incident patients (63% men) were assessed by Poisson regression analysis. The majority of patients (90.5%) had symptomatic stone disease. The total incidence of kidney stones rose significantly from 108 per 100,000 in the first 5-year interval of the study to 138 per 100,000 in the last interval. The annual incidence of symptomatic stones did not increase significantly in either men or women. There was, however, a significant increase in the annual incidence of asymptomatic stones over time, from 7 to 24 per 100,000 for men and from 7 to 21 per 100,000 for women. The increase in the incidence of asymptomatic stones was only significant for women above 50 years of age and for men older than 40 years. Thus, we found a significant increase in the incidence of kidney stone disease resulting from increased detection of asymptomatic stones. This was largely due to a more frequent use of high-resolution imaging studies in older patients.

  12. Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liderazgo de la DEA Resource Center » Statistics & Facts » Methamphetamine Lab Incidents Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014 NOTE: These maps include all meth incidents, including labs, "dumpsites" or "chemical and glassware" ...

  13. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. Methods/Design During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing

  14. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  15. Incidents Unsuitable for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray; And Others

    Educators from over 30 countries judged the suitability of incidents in moral education in the context of their native environment. Participants were 54 secondary school principals or teachers, most of whom were graduate students or married to graduate students at the University of California, Santa Barbara. They were given descriptions of 23…

  16. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  17. INCIDENT REPORTING: LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Dean, Jesse D.; Davis, Patrick B.; Ruiz, Antonio

    2007-09-12

    Experience makes a superior teacher. Sharing the details surrounding safety events is one of the best ways to help prevent their recurrence elsewhere. This approach requires an open, non-punitive environment to achieve broad benefits. The Hydrogen Incident Reporting Tool (www.h2incidents.org) is intended to facilitate the sharing of lessons learned and other relevant information gained from actual experiences using and working with hydrogen and hydrogen systems. Its intended audience includes those involved in virtually any aspect of hydrogen technology, systems and use, with an emphasis towards energy and transportation applications. The database contains records of safety events both publicly available and/or voluntarily submitted. Typical records contain a general description of the occurrence, contributing factors, equipment involved, and some detailing of consequences and changes that have been subsequently implemented to prevent recurrence of similar events in the future. The voluntary and confidential nature and other characteristics surrounding the database mean that any analysis of apparent trends in its contents cannot be considered statistically valid for a universal population. A large portion of reported incidents have occurred in a laboratory setting due to the typical background of the reporting projects, for example. Yet some interesting trends are becoming apparent even at this early stage of the database’s existence and general lessons can already be taken away from these experiences. This paper discusses the database and a few trends that have already become apparent for the reported incidents. Anticipated future uses of this information are also described. This paper is intended to encourage wider participation and usage of the incidents reporting database and to promote the safety benefits offered by its contents.

  18. Cancer incidence following exposure to drinking water with asbestos leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, H.L.; Wolfgang, P.E.; Burnett, W.S.; Nasca, P.C.; Youngblood, L.

    1989-05-01

    In November 1985, the New York State Department of Health was altered to extraordinary concentrations of asbestos leachate in the drinking water in the Town of Woodstock. Concentrations of 3.2 million fibers per liter (MFL) to 304.5 MFL were found, depending on location. An investigation of cancer incidence in the area was conducted for the period 1973-83 using the State Cancer Registry to compute standardized incidence ratios. No evidence was found of elevated cancer incidence at sites associated with asbestos exposure. A statistically non-significant excess of kidney cancer was seen among men, but not women. Colon cancer among men was significantly low, but incidence among women was similar to that expected. Lung cancer incidence was lower than expected for both sexes. Ovarian cancer rates were not different from expected rates. At sites not previously related to asbestos exposure, cancer of the oral cavity was significantly high, with most affected persons having a history of cigarette smoking. Surveillance of the community is continuing because of an insufficient latent period for some exposed groups.

  19. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  20. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  1. Metamaterial properties of periodic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we show that a 1-D phononic crystal (laminate) can exhibit metamaterial wave phenomena which are traditionally associated with 2- and 3-D crystals. Moreover, due to the absence of a length scale in 2 of its dimensions, it can outperform higher dimensional crystals on some measures. This includes allowing only negative refraction over large frequency ranges and serving as a near-omnidirectional high-pass filter up to a large frequency value. First we provide a theoretical discussion on the salient characteristics of the dispersion relation of a laminate and formulate the solution of an interface problem by the application of the normal mode decomposition technique. We present a methodology with which to induce a pure negative refraction in the laminate. As a corollary to our approach of negative refraction, we show how the laminate can be used to steer beams over large angles for small changes in the incident angles (beam steering). Furthermore, we clarify how the transmitted modes in the laminate can be switched on and off by varying the angle of the incident wave by a small amount. Finally, we show that the laminate can be used as a remarkably efficient high-pass frequency filter. An appropriately designed laminate will reflect all plane waves from quasi-static to a large frequency, incident at it from all angles except for a small set of near-normal incidences. This will be true even if the homogeneous medium is impedance matched with the laminate. Due to the similarities between SH waves and electromagnetic (EM) waves it is expected that some or all of these results may also apply to EM waves in a layered periodic dielectric.

  2. The incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) in the Hospital "La Fe" of Valencia, Spain (1985-1989).

    PubMed

    Morales, M M; Llopis, A; Ballester, M L; Sanjuan, L

    1993-05-01

    We studied the incidence of TB and TB-AIDS in the area served by "La Fe" hospital in Valencia. We also studied the different evolution of the incidence of TB and TB-AIDS during the 1985-1989 period. We noticed the progressive increase of the incidence of TB in AIDS patients, while the incidence of TB without AIDS remained the same.

  3. HIV incidence estimate among non-nationals in Italy.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Laura; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Regine, Vincenza; Pasqualini, Chiara; Borghi, Vanni; Icardi, Giancarlo; Curtale, Filippo; Ferro, Antonio; Suligoi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of new HIV infections among non-nationals living in Italy for the period 1992-2004, calculated as the number of new diagnoses among legally and illegally residing non-nationals out of the number of new residence permits (which does not include illegal non-nationals). This incidence was compared to that among Italians by calculating the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) by age and gender. There were 17,309 new diagnoses; 19.0% were among non-nationals. The incidence of new diagnoses among non-nationals was 69 cases per 100,000 residence permits, compared to 8.7 per 100,000 population among Italians. The SIR confirmed the marked difference between the two populations, with the incidence being six times higher among non-nationals, compared to Italians. This difference increased over time: in 1992-1994, it was five times higher among non-nationals, compared to Italians, whereas it was eight times higher in 2002-2004. Although the incidence of infection among non-nationals seems to have decreased in the past 10 years, it is still high if compared to that among Italians, suggesting that non-nationals constitute a population subgroup with a high circulation of HIV. Furthermore, HIV is mainly transmitted through the sexual route among non-nationals, prevalently affecting younger persons and women. Access to testing, treatment, and care needs to be facilitated for non-nationals.

  4. Deprivation, immigration and tuberculosis incidence in Naples, 1996-2000.

    PubMed

    Ponticiello, Antonio; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Simonetti, Andrea; Ortolani, Rosanna; Malerba, Mario; Sanduzzi, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    Most of the tuberculosis cases in Campania occur in Naples, the biggest city in the South of Italy with the highest unemployment and immigration rates. However, the occurrence of tuberculosis differs between the different neighbourhoods and it is not known whether these differences are associated with poverty or with immigration. We describe tuberculosis incidence and its association with socio-economic status and immigration in the city of Naples during the period 1996-2000. The basic design was an ecological study, correlating the incidence of tuberculosis which was calculated on the basis of notified tuberculosis cases to census data on immigration and socio-economic deprivation per neighbourhood. Immigrants had a high risk for tuberculosis (RR=34 for Africans) but the incidence of TB varied largely by districts and seemed independent of immigration. All socioeconomic factors increased the incidence of TB significantly. In a multivariate Poisson regression analysis only the rate of unemployment (p=0.02) and the population density (p=0.002) remained independently associated with tuberculosis incidence. In this study we showed that deprivation explained differences in tuberculosis incidence in Naples to a greater extent than immigration.

  5. State Methods for a Cyber Incident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Statewide Emergency Response and Response Plan SIPC State Infrastructure Protection Center SIRT Security Incident Response Team SIRT State Incident...by statute and policy to report agency information security incidents to the state Security Incident Response Team ( SIRT ). Those reports are made...through recent state statutes. P-16 Yes, agencies are required by statute and policy to report information security incidents to the SIRT . Q-17

  6. Replication of grazing incidence optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    1986-01-01

    The replication of grazing incidence optics is reviewed. Electroform and epoxy replication are described and compared. It is concluded that for light weight and deep nesting, replication has a distinct advantage over direct production. The resolution of optics produced in this manner is however, limited to about 10 arc seconds; a typical value is 40 arc seconds. Epoxy replicated pieces tend to have better optical figures than electroformed optics, but the latter can be made thinner to make more deeply nested systems.

  7. Incident trends for a hazardous waste cleanup company.

    PubMed

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, F; Rejent, G M

    1999-01-01

    Published reports to assess incidents in hazardous waste operations are scarce. This study was designed to evaluate incident trends in a relatively large hazardous waste cleanup company. The data for 6.5 years, winter 1990 through spring 1996, provided 1848 incident reports with 87% involving injury/illness cases. Over 75% of injury/illness incidents were due to mechanical agents, 10% occurred because of chemical exposure, 5% involved poisonous plants and insect bites, 2% resulted from temperature extremes, 1% were from cumulative injuries/illnesses, and in 7% the agent was not recorded. Almost 31% of injuries were related to the upper extremities, with the fingers most often injured, followed by the hands. Lower back strain cases constituted 11% of injuries, ankle/foot/toe cases 9%, and knee cases 5%. Recovery technicians (laborers) had the highest frequency of injury/illness incidents (52%), followed by supervisors (15%) and heavy machinery operators (10%). The incidence rates (IRs) for all recordable incidents ranged from 11.9 for the second quarter of 1990 down to 1.2 for the fourth quarter of 1995 with a mean (SD) and median of 6.3 (3.0) and 6.1, respectively. For the time period studied, IRs decreased significantly (p < 0.01). It was concluded that hands-on experience in the field and improvements in the health and safety program of the company--including expanding its focus (originally the prevention of chemical exposure) to include construction safety--reduced the incidents considerably. Introduction of new regulations has also contributed to this trend.

  8. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G.; Johnson, Jay R.; Miller, Federick W.; Matteson, Eric L.; Crowson, C. S.; Gabriel, S. E.

    2015-05-15

    Our objective was to examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results: The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions: AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. Lastly, the link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases.

  9. Melanoma incidence and frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Orjan; Johansson, Olle

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been increasing steadily in many countries since 1960, but the underlying mechanism causing this increase remains elusive. The incidence of melanoma has been linked to the distance to frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting towers. In the current study, the authors sought to determine if there was also a related link on a larger scale for entire countries. Exposure-time-specific incidence was extracted from exposure and incidence data from 4 different countries, and this was compared with reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. Geographic differences in melanoma incidence were compared with the magnitude of this environmental stress. The exposure-time-specific incidence from all 4 countries became almost identical, and they were approximately equal to the reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. A correlation between melanoma incidence and the number of locally receivable FM transmitters was found. The authors concluded that melanoma is associated with exposure to FM broadcasting.

  10. Changes in HIV-1 incidence in heroin users in Guangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lai, S; Liu, W; Chen, J; Yang, J; Li, Z J; Li, R J; Liang, F X; Liang, S L; Zhu, Q Y; Yu, X F

    2001-04-01

    Guangxi Province, China recently experienced an outbreak of HIV-1 infection among heroin users. We studied HIV-1 incidence rates and associated risk factors for HIV-1 infection among heroin users residing in Pingxiang City. A total of 318 heroin users were followed from February 1998 through January 1999 (median follow-up: 8.1 months). Of these, 130 were prospectively followed from January through September 1999 (median follow-up: 8.3 months). HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence rates for each period were calculated. A generalized estimating equation approach was implemented to identify independent risk factors associated with HIV-1 infection across both periods. Among 318 study participants, 97.2% were men. The median age was 22 years. Approximately 60% reported sharing needles. HIV-1 prevalence at baseline was 15.4%. During the first follow-up period, HIV-1 incidence was 2.38 per 100 person years (py), and HCV incidence was 26.8 per 100 py. During the second follow-up period, HIV-1 incidence was 6.86 per 100 py, and HCV incidence was 28.9 per 100 py. After controlling for age and other factors, HCV seropositivity, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and sharing needles were independently associated with HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that HIV-1 incidence was rising over time in Pingxiang City, Guangxi Province. The high incidence of HCV heightens the importance of enhanced prevention programs to reduce injection and needle sharing among heroin users.

  11. Clostridium difficile infection in the hospitalized pediatric population: increasing trend in disease incidence.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Pant, Chaitanya; Anderson, Michael P; Donskey, Curtis J; Sferra, Thomas J

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection continues to increase in hospitalized pediatric patients, we evaluated data from a United States national inpatient database. For the period of 2003 to 2009, we found an increasing trend in the incidence of C. difficile infection. These data suggest greater effort be given to prevent and treat this infection in children.

  12. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of periodic paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...

  13. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  14. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between periods Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  15. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing... Technology (NIST) is seeking information relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC). NIST is... Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) to coordinate effectively when responding to...

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Incidents Reported by Community Aged Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amina; Douglas, Heather E; Smith, Cheryl; Georgiou, Andrew; Osmond, Tracey; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the types of incidents that occur to aged care clients in the community. This limits the development of effective strategies to improve client safety. The objective of the study was to present a profile of incidents reported in Australian community aged care settings. All incident reports made by community care workers employed by one of the largest community aged care provider organizations in Australia during the period November 1, 2012, to August 8, 2013, were analyzed. A total of 356 reports were analyzed, corresponding to a 7.5% incidence rate per client year. Falls and medication incidents were the most prevalent incident types. Clients receiving high-level care and those who attended day therapy centers had the highest rate of incidents with 14% to 20% of these clients having a reported incident. The incident profile indicates that clients on higher levels of care had higher incident rates. Incident data represent an opportunity to improve client safety in community aged care.

  17. Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Joachim; Wöhrle, Johannes C; Palm, Frederick; Nix, Wilfred A; Maschke, Matthias; Safer, Anton; Becher, Heiko; Grau, Armin J

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of prospective and population based epidemiological data on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Germany to date. The ALS registry Rhineland-Palatinate was established to investigate the incidence, course and phenotypic variety of ALS in this south-west German state of about 4 million inhabitants. During the period 2010-2011, consecutive incident patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria were included and followed up using multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment. One hundred and forty-six patients were enrolled. The annual crude incidence for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate was 1.8/100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.6-2.2). Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Incidence increased with age reaching a peak in the 70-74 years age group and declined thereafter. Late-onset ALS (≥ 75 years) was found in 14.4% of patients. About 32% of patients presented with bulbar onset. In conclusion, incidence rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate is within the range of other prospective population based registers in Europe and North America. Gender ratio is nearly balanced.

  18. Heavy Rainfall Events and Diarrhea Incidence: The Role of Social and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Elizabeth J.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.; Goldstick, Jason; Cevallos, William; Trostle, James; Levy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The impact of heavy rainfall events on waterborne diarrheal diseases is uncertain. We conducted weekly, active surveillance for diarrhea in 19 villages in Ecuador from February 2004 to April 2007 in order to evaluate whether biophysical and social factors modify vulnerability to heavy rainfall events. A heavy rainfall event was defined as 24-hour rainfall exceeding the 90th percentile value (56 mm) in a given 7-day period within the study period. Mixed-effects Poisson regression was used to test the hypothesis that rainfall in the prior 8 weeks, water and sanitation conditions, and social cohesion modified the relationship between heavy rainfall events and diarrhea incidence. Heavy rainfall events were associated with increased diarrhea incidence following dry periods (incidence rate ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.87) and decreased diarrhea incidence following wet periods (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.92). Drinking water treatment reduced the deleterious impacts of heavy rainfall events following dry periods. Sanitation, hygiene, and social cohesion did not modify the relationship between heavy rainfall events and diarrhea. Heavy rainfall events appear to affect diarrhea incidence through contamination of drinking water, and they present the greatest health risks following periods of low rainfall. Interventions designed to increase drinking water treatment may reduce climate vulnerability. PMID:24256618

  19. Rising incidence of lymphoid malignancies--true or false?

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, N.; Cartwright, R. A.; O'Brien, C.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; Bird, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    The report contrasts the ascertainment of cases by the regional cancer registry with a specially designed search for records and pathology material which was then submitted to critical review irrespective of the original diagnosis. Boundary changes over the intervening years were accounted for and the results contrasted between time periods and with the cancer registry records. A large proportion of cancer registry cases were never subjected to histopathological diagnosis and comparisons between the new data and records are not easy to undertake. The study describes a probable true rise in the incidence of follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in certain parts of Yorkshire over the last 20 years; there is less evidence of a similar change in Hodgkin's disease incidence over the same period of time. PMID:3964541

  20. A Preliminary Study on Dressing Patterns and Incidence of Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Elegbe, Isaac A.; Botu, Modupe

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of candidiasis in two groups of voluntary participants wearing tight and loose fitted dresses was investigated by both microscopic and cultural techniques for a period of two months. Two-thirds of the positives by stain and culture were recovered from those wearing tight clothing (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that tight clothing can predispose the wearer to candidiasis, an organism that can cause vaginitis. (Am J Public Health 1982; 72:176-177.) PMID:7034553

  1. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    PubMed

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-07

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  2. Major incidents in Kenya: the case for emergency services development and training.

    PubMed

    Wachira, Benjamin W; Smith, Wayne

    2013-04-01

    Kenya's major incidents profile is dominated by droughts, floods, fires, terrorism, poisoning, collapsed buildings, accidents in the transport sector and disease/epidemics. With no integrated emergency services and a lack of resources, many incidents in Kenya escalate to such an extent that they become major incidents. Lack of specific training of emergency services personnel to respond to major incidents, poor coordination of major incident management activities, and a lack of standard operational procedures and emergency operation plans have all been shown to expose victims to increased morbidity and mortality. This report provides a review of some of the major incidents in Kenya for the period 2000-2012, with the hope of highlighting the importance of developing an integrated and well-trained Ambulance and Fire and Rescue service appropriate for the local health care system.

  3. Ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates in 17 cities, United States, 1991-2006.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S

    2014-04-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991-2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance.

  4. Incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania after introduction of the Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, G; Aleknaviciene, B

    2012-12-01

    In Lithuania, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is offered to healthy asymptomatic men as a screening test in the population-based Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme (EPCDP). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of prostate cancer before and after introduction of the EPCDP in Lithuania. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality data from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry were analysed for the period 1990-2008. Age-specific incidence and mortality data were adjusted to the European Standard Population. There have been extraordinary changes in the incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania following introduction of the EPCDP, and there is strong evidence that these changes are the result of increased detection rates, especially in men of screening age. Further observation of changes in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Lithuania may help to determine the extent to which PSA testing at the population level influences incidence and mortality in the general population.

  5. Alex Haley's Tips for "Roots" Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Sally

    1977-01-01

    The author of "Roots" gives some tips for launching family history projects with elementary students. He also tells why they are important. Included here is a tear-out-and-duplicate family tree chart which students can use in their own efforts. (Editor/RK)

  6. Factors affecting the incidence of hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, C W; Donner, A P

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of hypertension was determined among 10,173 patients of general practices in southwestern Ontario studied from 1978 to 1982. For both sexes the incidence of hypertension rose with increasing age. The incidence was higher among men than among women until age 50, after which it was similar for the two sexes. Obesity was positively associated with incidence for both sexes. In men this association diminished significantly with increasing age. The similar trend in women fell just short of statistical significance. In men but not women heavy alcohol consumption was positively related to the incidence of hypertension. However, the broad definition of this variable may have obscured a relation in women. Among men the effect of obesity on the incidence of hypertension was less for heavy drinkers than for light drinkers. Smoking was not related to the incidence of hypertension in either sex. PMID:3815197

  7. Optical localization in quasi-periodic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. S.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Mariz, A. M.

    1998-07-01

    We investigate the optical transmission spectra of quasi-periodic dielectric multilayer slabs arranged in a fashion that exhibits what has been called deterministic disorders. They can be of the so-called substitutional sequences type, and are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (e.g. a Fibonacci sequence) or singular continuous (e.g. Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). The transmission coefficients are conveniently derived by using a theoretical model based on the transfer-matrix approach. A comparison between the oblique-incidence optical transmission spectrum and the normal-incidence one shows quite a different transmission behaviours over a particular range of frequency.

  8. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  9. Epidural Analgesia in the Postoperative Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    an unwanted side effect of surgery, and is associated with many postoperative complications. This descriptive study was conducted to determine which...surgical patients experienced the most analgesia with the fewest side effects when receiving epidural analgesia in the postoperative period. A...hospital. A description of the patients age, gender, type of surgery, type of epidural medication, side effects , incidence of breakthrough pain, and

  10. Incidents of bee poisoning with pesticides in the United Kingdom, 1994-2003.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Elizabeth A; Charlton, Andrew J; Fletcher, Mark R

    2007-11-01

    For over 20 years, the UK Agriculture Departments have monitored the direct effects of pesticides on beneficial insects, mainly honeybees (Apis mellifera, L.) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris, L.), as part of the Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme (WIIS). The Central Science Laboratory (CSL) has contributed to WIIS by providing the required laboratory skills for the determination of bee diseases and the expert analytical experience necessary to determine low-level pesticide residues and interpret these results. The results from WIIS form part of the pesticide regulatory process coordinated by the Pesticides Safety Directorate (PSD) and are published each year. This paper has reviewed the data from WIIS over the 10 year period from 1994 to 2003. The overall trend is that suspected poisoning incidents, reported by beekeepers and the general public, have declined from 56 incidents per year to 23 incidents per year. The number of these incidents that have been attributed to pesticide poisoning has also declined, from 25 incidents to five incidents per year. The possible reasons for these changes and the circumstances involved in the bee poisoning incidents are discussed. However, the source of the pesticide in bee poisoning incidents is often uncertain and the likely cause of these incidents and any trends over time are also discussed.

  11. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  12. Community College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Eldor O.

    Drawing from an examination of community college periodicals, their availability and characteristics, the academic affiliations of contributing authors, and the topics of their articles, this paper discusses the minor role which community college periodicals appear to play. A list of 35 periodicals dealing primary with community college education…

  13. Smoking and incidence of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de-Arcelus, Mónica; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez-González, Miguel Á.; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Moreno-Montañés, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Smoking is a serious global public health concern that has been related to many chronic diseases. However, the effect of smoking on eye disorders has been less studied. The aim of this cohort study was to assess the association between current tobacco smokers and the risk of developing glaucoma and furthermore to evaluate the relationship between passive or former smokers and glaucoma. In this prospective and dynamic cohort, 16,797 participants initially who were found not to have glaucoma were followed up for a median of 8.5 years. Validated data on lifestyle, including tobacco consumption, were assessed at baseline. Information about new diagnosis of glaucoma was collected by follow-up questionnaires every 2 years. The outcome was the incidence of self-reported glaucoma during the follow-up. A subsample was used to validate the glaucoma diagnosis. During the 8.5 years of follow-up, 184 new glaucoma cases were identified. Current smokers had a significantly higher risk of glaucoma compared to participants who had never smoked after controlling for potential confounders (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.88 [95% coefficient interval (CI): 1.26–2.81]; P = 0.002). A nonsignificant increased risk was found among former smokers (HR 1.27 [95% CI: 0.88–1.82]; P = 0.198). When we assessed the exposure as per the number of cigarette pack-years, a dose–response relationship between pack-years and the risk of glaucoma was found (HR for the 5th quintile versus the 1st quintile: 1.70 [95% IC: 1.10–2.64], P for trend, 0.009). However, no relationship was found between passive smokers and glaucoma. (HR 0.67 [95% CI: 0.37–1.21]; P = 0.189). Our results suggest a direct association between current smokers and the incidence of glaucoma. In particular, this association was related to the number of pack-years, which was not found in the case of former smokers nor in the case of passive smokers. PMID:28072720

  14. Occupational Stress and Illness Incidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    diabetes mellitus ) among 13 Navy occupational groups during four phases of a 30-year career. The four phases included the first enlistmsnt, the second and...third decade, as noted for such conditions as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus , and ulcers. Of importance was the finding that not...other heart disease, cerebro- vascular disease, ulcers, and diabetes mellitus . During the 11-year period from January 1966 through December 1976, all

  15. Computer Simulation for Emergency Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L

    2004-12-03

    This report describes the findings and recommendations resulting from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Incident Management Simulation Workshop held by the DHS Advanced Scientific Computing Program in May 2004. This workshop brought senior representatives of the emergency response and incident-management communities together with modeling and simulation technologists from Department of Energy laboratories. The workshop provided an opportunity for incident responders to describe the nature and substance of the primary personnel roles in an incident response, to identify current and anticipated roles of modeling and simulation in support of incident response, and to begin a dialog between the incident response and simulation technology communities that will guide and inform planned modeling and simulation development for incident response. This report provides a summary of the discussions at the workshop as well as a summary of simulation capabilities that are relevant to incident-management training, and recommendations for the use of simulation in both incident management and in incident management training, based on the discussions at the workshop. In addition, the report discusses areas where further research and development will be required to support future needs in this area.

  16. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  17. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry.

    PubMed

    Tserkovny, Alex

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects "as if they were points." Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation "extended lines sameness" is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy "degree of indiscernibility" and "discernibility measure" of extended points.

  18. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  19. Sensitive periods in fear learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    King, Elizabeth C.; Pattwell, Siobhan S.; Glatt, Charles E.; Lee, Francis S.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a uniquely sensitive developmental stage in the transition from childhood to adulthood. During this transition, neuronal circuits are particularly susceptible to modification by experience. In addition, adolescence is a stage in which the incidence of anxiety disorders peaks in humans and over 75% of adults with fear-related disorders met diagnostic criteria as children and adolescents. While postnatal critical periods of plasticity for primary sensory processes, such as in the visual system are well established, less is known about potential critical or sensitive periods for fear learning and memory. Here, we review the nonlinear developmental aspects of fear learning and memory during a transition period into and out of adolescence. We also review the literature on the non-linear development of GABAergic neurotransmission, a key regulator of critical period plasticity. We provide a model that may inform improved treatment strategies for children and adolescents with fear-related disorders. PMID:23611461

  20. Longitudinal trends in organophosphate incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center, 1995–2007

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Regulatory decisions to phase-out the availability and use of common organophosphate pesticides among the general public were announced in 2000 and continued through 2004. Based on revised risk assessments, chlorpyrifos and diazinon were determined to pose unacceptable risks. To determine the impact of these decisions, organophosphate (OP) exposure incidents reported to the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) were analyzed for longitudinal trends. Methods Non-occupational human exposure incidents reported to NPIC were grouped into pre- (1995–2000) and post-announcement periods (2001–2007). The number of total OP exposure incidents, as well as reports for chlorpyrifos, diazinon and malathion, were analyzed for significant differences between these two periods. The number of informational inquiries from the general public was analyzed over time as well. Results The number of average annual OP-related exposure incidents reported to NPIC decreased significantly between the pre- and post-announcement periods (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon reports was observed over time (p < 0.001). No significant difference in the number of incident reports for malathion was observed (p = 0.4), which was not phased-out of residential use. Similar to exposure incidents, the number of informational inquiries received by NPIC declined over time following the phase-out announcement. Conclusion Consistent with other findings, the number of chlorpyrifos and diazinon exposure incidents reported to NPIC significantly decreased following public announcement and targeted regulatory action. PMID:19379510

  1. Kidney Stones: A Global Picture of Prevalence, Incidence, and Associated Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Victoriano; Akpinar, Haluk; Assimos, Dean G

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of nephrolithiasis is reported to be increasing across the world. Herein, we review information regarding stone incidence and prevalence from a global perspective. A literature search using PubMed and Ovid was performed to identify peer-reviewed journal articles containing information on the incidence and prevalence of kidney stones. Key words used included kidney stone prevalence, incidence, and epidemiology. Data were collected from the identified literature and sorted by demographic factors and time period. A total of 75 articles were identified containing kidney stone-related incidence or prevalence data from 20 countries; 34 provided suitable information for review. Data regarding overall prevalence or incidence for more than a single time period were found for 7 countries (incidence data for 4 countries; prevalence data for 5 countries). These included 5 European countries (Italy, Germany, Scotland, Spain, and Sweden), Japan, and the United States. The body of evidence suggests that the incidence and prevalence of kidney stones is increasing globally. These increases are seen across sex, race, and age. Changes in dietary practices may be a key driving force. In addition, global warming may influence these trends. PMID:20811557

  2. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma in Croatia: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Jurakić Toncić, Ruzica; Ledić-Drvar, Daniela; Marasović, Dujomir; Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Cabrijan, Leo; Bradamante, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence rate and age-standardized incidence rate were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants according to the latest population census in Croatia from 2001. In the study period, there were 7,244 BCC cases (3,519 men and 3,725 women) in Croatia. The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 54.9 for men and 53.9 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 33.6 for men and 24.5 for women. The head and neck were almost exclusive localizations of BCC. The highest BCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. The incidence of BCC was high in both littoral and inland counties of Croatia. Study results will serve as reference figures on studying the trend of BCC incidence in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  3. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further.

  4. Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia, 1968--1977.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W; Kannan Kutty, M; Dharmalingam, S K; Ponnudurai, J R

    1979-10-01

    A record of all known cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia is complete for 10 years from 1968 to 1977. Special efforts in case-finding were made in the State of Selangor where conditions are optimal. Age-adjusted incidence rates among Chinese males and females were 16.5 and 7.2 per 100,000, among Malay males and females 2.3 and 0.7 and among Indian males, 1.0. There were no significant changes in incidence rates over the 10-year period for sex and ethnic groups, or for Chinese subethnic groups. In Chinese subethnic groups, rates were highest among Cantonese, moderate among Khek and lowest among Hokkien and Teochiu. Standardized incidence ratios using Selangor as the standard population indicate considerable under-reporting in the less urban states of Malaysia, particularly among females. In Selangor, incidence rates were similar for urban and rural residents, but the frequency of cases was higher among Chinese working in industry and living in poor neighbourhoods.

  5. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik J.; Allison, Matthew A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ho, Samuel B.; Snetslaar, Linda G.; Lane, Dorothy S.; Tharp, Katie M.; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N = 83,778 women) was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups), and high (4+ cups). Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53%) new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38). Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36) and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02) were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research. PMID:27239197

  6. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  7. Incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease in Tokat province, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çakmak, Bülent; Toprak, Muhammet; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Köseoğlu, Reşid Doğan; Güneri, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in Tokat province, Turkey. Material and Methods The medical records of patients who had been diagnosed and treated at one university hospital, six government hospitals, and one specialist hospital in Tokat province between January 2005 and December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Results During the study period, there were 59,754 births and GTD was diagnosed in 73 cases. The calculated GTD incidence was 1.22/1000. The mean age of the patients diagnosed with GTD was 28.6±7.3 (range 17–51) years. In GTD, complete moles occurred in 26%, partial moles in 74%, and no invasive moles, choriocarcinomas, or placental site trophoblastic tumours were found. Only two patients received chemotherapy (methotrexate). There was no mortality associated with the disease during follow-up. Conclusion The incidence of GTD in Tokat province was 1.2 per 1000 births. Early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up play a critical role in preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with disease. The incidence of GTD, which has a high recovery rate with adequate treatment and follow-up, can be determined from regional and community-based research. PMID:24790512

  8. Cervical cancer: incidence and survival in migrants within Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Borràs, J M; Sánchez, V; Moreno, V; Izquierdo, A; Viladiu, P

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study examined the incidence of cervical cancer and survival rates according to migrant experience of women from different regions of Spain to Girona, Catalonia (Spain). DESIGN--Using data from the population based cancer registry of Girona for the period 1980-89, crude and age adjusted incidence rates were calculated for local-born and first generation migrants from other Spanish regions. The age standardised rate ratio (SRR) was calculated and Cox's regression model was used to adjust survival according to migrant status for age and stage at diagnosis. MAIN RESULTS--The incidence of cervical cancer was significantly higher in first generation Spanish migrants compared with locally born women (SRR: 2.02; 95% CI 1.40:2.92). The stage at diagnosis was more advanced among migrants. Survival probability was significantly associated with stage at diagnosis, but age and region of birth were not. CONCLUSIONS--Migrants from the southern Spanish regions show a twofold excess in the incidence of cervical cancer compared with the Girona-born female population. Cases of cervical cancer in migrants are diagnosed at a more advanced stage and as a consequence have a poorer prognosis. PMID:7798043

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors for Incident Syphilis among HIV-1-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Tokyo, 2008−2015

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Shibata, Satoshi; Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Mizushima, Daisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Kinai, Ei; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Genka, Ikumi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of incident syphilis infection among HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) largely remains unknown. Methods The incidence and risk factors for incident syphilis (positive TPHA and RPR> = 1:8) among HIV-1-infected MSM who visited a large HIV clinic in Tokyo for the first time between 2008 and 2013 were determined, using clinical data and stored blood samples taken every three months for screening and determination of the date of incident syphilis. Poisson regression compared the incidence of syphilis at different observation periods. Results Of 885 HIV-1-infected MSM with baseline data, 34% either presented with active syphilis at baseline (21%) or became infected with syphilis during follow-up (13%). After excluding 214 patients (MSM with syphilis at baseline (n = 190) and no follow-up syphilis test (n = 24)), of 671 men, 112 (17%) developed incident syphilis with an incidence of 43.7/1,000 person-years [95% CI, 36.5–52.3]. The incidence decreased slightly during observation period although the trend was not significant (2008–2009: 48.2/1,000 person-years, 2010–2011: 51.1/1,000 person-years, 2012–2013: 42.6/1,000 person-years, 2014 to 2015: 37.9/1,000 person-years, p = 0.315). Multivariable analysis identified young age (<33 years versus >40, HR 4.0, 95%CI 2.22–7.18, p<0.001), history of syphilis at baseline (HR 3.0, 95%CI 2.03–4.47, p<0.001), positive anti-amoeba antibody (HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.17–2.68, p = 0.006), and high baseline CD4 count (CD4 ≥350 /μL versus CD4 <200, HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.00–2.53, p = 0.050) as risk factors for incident syphilis. Incidence of syphilis was particularly high among young patients (age <33 years: 60.1/1,000 person-years). Interestingly, 37% of patients with incident syphilis were asymptomatic. Conclusions Although incidence of syphilis did not increase during the observation period, it was high among HIV-1-infected MSM, especially among young HIV-1-infected MSM and those with history

  10. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  11. Angular particle impingement studies of thermoplastic materials at normal incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope studies were conducted to characterize the erosion resistance of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Erosion was caused by a jet of angular microparticles of crushed glass at normal incidence. Material built up above the original surface on all of the materials. As erosion progressed, this buildup disappeared. UHMWPE was the most resistant material and PMMA the least. The most favorable properties for high erosion resistance were high values of ultimate elongation, maximum service temperature, and strain energy and a low value of the modulus of elasticity. Erosion-rate-versus-time curves of PC and PTFE exhibited incubation, acceleration, and steady-state periods. PMMA also exhibited a deceleration period, and an incubation period with deposition was observed for UHMWPE.

  12. Periodic Solutions of Spatially Periodic Hamiltonian Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-10

    Theorem 0.2 generalizes Theorem 1.5 of Rabinowitz in [201. 3 Equation (0.1), under spatially periodic assumptions has been studied by several au...n x n symmetric matrix, H satisfying (HO), (H1) and (H2), and f = (0, fq) satisfying (fM), (fl) and (f2), Rabinowitz in [201 showed the existence of... Rabinowitz [17]. We consider a functional I : E x M ) R of class C’, where E is a Hilbert space and M is a compact manifold. Assuming that I satisfies a

  13. Spatial analysis of highway incident durations in the context of Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to develop an incident duration model which can account for the spatial dependence of duration observations, and (2) to investigate the impacts of a hurricane on incident duration. Highway incident data from New York City and its surrounding regions before and after Hurricane Sandy was used for the study. Moran's I statistics confirmed that durations of the neighboring incidents were spatially correlated. Moreover, Lagrange Multiplier tests suggested that the spatial dependence should be captured in a spatial lag specification. A spatial error model, a spatial lag model and a standard model without consideration of spatial effects were developed. The spatial lag model is found to outperform the others by capturing the spatial dependence of incident durations via a spatially lagged dependent variable. It was further used to assess the effects of hurricane-related variables on incident duration. The results show that the incidents during and post the hurricane are expected to have 116.3% and 79.8% longer durations than those that occurred in the regular time. However, no significant increase in incident duration is observed in the evacuation period before Sandy's landfall. Results of temporal stability tests further confirm the existence of the significant changes in incident duration patterns during and post the hurricane. Those findings can provide insights to aid in the development of hurricane evacuation plans and emergency management strategies.

  14. Emergency Incident Rehabilitation: Resource Document to the Position Statement of the National Association of EMS Physicians.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; McEntire, Serina J; Rittenberger, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Position Statement: Emergency Incident Rehabilitation The National Association of EMS Physicians® believes that: Emergency operations and training conducted while wearing protective clothing and respirators is physiologically and cognitively demanding. The heat stress and fatigue created by working in protective clothing and respirators creates additional risk of illness/injury for the public safety provider. Emergency incident rehabilitation provides a structured rest period for rehydration and correction of abnormal body core temperature following work in protective clothing and respirators. Emergency incident rehab should be conducted at incidents (e.g. fireground, hazardous materials, and heavy rescue emergencies) and trainings involving activities that may lead to exceeding safe levels of physical and mental exertion. Emergency incident rehabilitation is incident care, not fitness for duty, and meant to reduce physiologic strain and prepare the responder to return to duty at the current incident and for the remainder of the shift. EMS should play a role in emergency incident rehabilitation with providers trained to understand the physiologic response of healthy individuals to environmental, exertional, and cognitive stress and implement appropriate mitigation strategies. An appropriately qualified physician should have oversight over the creation and implementation of emergency incident rehabilitation protocols and may be separate from the roles and responsibilities of the occupational medicine physician. There are no peer-reviewed data related to cold weather rehabilitation. Future studies should address this limitation to the literature.

  15. Incidence of instrument separation using LightSpeed rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Kenneth I; Hammond, Nathan B; Biggs, Stephen G; Ibarrola, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    The use of nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems has gained popularity over the past 10 years. One of these instrument systems is the LightSpeed (LightSpeed Technology, Inc, San Antonio, TX). One drawback for all nickel-titanium rotary instruments is the incidence of instrument separation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nonretrievable instrument separation using the LightSpeed system in a clinical setting. A total of 3543 canals were treated over a 24 month period and during that time, 46 LightSpeed instruments were separated and found to be nonretrievable, resulting in a separation rate of 1.30%. This rate was lower than previous reported studies.

  16. Effect of atmospheric factors on the incidence of Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    de, Diego J I; Prim, M P; Madero, R; Marcos, S; Gavilan, J

    2002-01-01

    To assess the possible influence of atmospheric factors on the incidence of Bell's palsy, a retrospective case review of patients seen between 1 January 1992 and 30 June 1996, was designed. The population included all Bell's palsy patients in whom the exact date of onset of paralysis (day, month, year) was known. The following parameters were registered daily by the Spanish National Service of Meteorology throughout the period of survey: temperature, atmospheric pressure and air pollutants (total number of particles and levels of SO2, CO, O3, NO2, NO, CH4 and total organic carbon). The only factor significantly related to Bell's palsy was temperature (P = 0.0164). Lower temperatures were associated with a higher incidence of Bell's palsy. A relationship between atmospheric pressure and/or air pollutants and Bell's palsy was not found.

  17. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  18. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  19. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  20. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  1. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  2. Noticing Critical Incidents in a Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Ban Heng

    2014-01-01

    What teachers attend to, how they make sense of, and respond to critical incidents in the classroom are important for improving teaching. However, seeing and understanding important features of critical incidents can be difficult. In this paper, I propose a notion of productive noticing, which I used to analyse a case study of what teachers…

  3. Critical Incidents in ELT Initial Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2008-01-01

    A critical incident is any unplanned event that occurs during class. In has been suggested that if trainee teachers formally reflect on these critical incidents, it may be possible for them to uncover new understandings of the teaching and learning process. This paper outlines and discusses how eighteen trainee teachers in an English language…

  4. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  5. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  6. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  7. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  8. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  9. Three-port binary reflective grating with high efficiency under second Bragg angle incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongtao; Wang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    A binary three-port reflective grating under second Bragg angle incidence is designed in this paper. Under second Bragg angle incidence, the grating can separate nearly 33% light wave energy into the 2nd order, the 1st order and the 0th diffractive orders, respectively. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis can give numerical calculation to optimize the three-port grating depths and periods. For the optimized reflective three-port grating, TE polarization and TM polarization can have different values of grating depth and period. Compared with the reported three-port binary grating under Bragg angle incidence, the diffraction efficiencies can be improved. Moreover, the modal method is applied to explain the propagating mechanism. The highly efficient three-port binary reflective grating under second Bragg angle incidence would be manufactured in the emerging industry for its novel performance.

  10. Incidence and Determinants of Ventilation Tubes in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Tine Marie; Mora-Jensen, Anna-Rosa Cecilie; Waage, Johannes; Bisgaard, Hans; Stokholm, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Many children are treated for recurrent acute otitis media and middle ear effusion with ventilation tubes (VT). The objectives are to describe the incidence of VT in Denmark during 1997–2011 from national register data, furthermore, to analyze the determinants for VT in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 (COPSAC2010) birth cohort. Methods The incidence of VT in all children under 16 years from 1997–2011 were calculated in the Danish national registries. Determinants of VT were studied in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort of 700 children. Results Nationwide the prevalence of VT was 24% in children aged 0 to 3 three years, with a significant increase over the study period. For all children 0–15 years, the incidence of VT was 35/1,000. In the VT population, 57% was male and 43% females. In the COPSAC2010 birth cohort, the prevalence of VT during the first 3 years of life was 29%. Determinants of VT were: maternal history of middle ear disease; aHR 2.07, 95% CI [1.45–2.96] and siblings history of middle ear disease; aHR 3.02, [2.11–4.32]. Paternal history of middle ear disease, presence of older siblings in the home and diagnosis of persistent wheeze were significant in the univariate analysis but the association did not persist after adjustment. Conclusion The incidence of VT is still increasing in the youngest age group in Denmark, demonstrating the highest incidence recorded in the world. Family history of middle ear disease and older siblings are the main determinants for VT. PMID:27875554

  11. Hazardous materials incidents in military aircraft.

    PubMed

    Voge, V M; Tolan, G

    1993-07-01

    We evaluated 10 years of reported hazardous cargo incident information from the U.S. Air Force and Naval Safety Centers. In this first of two papers describing the hazardous cargo problems reported by the two services, we describe types of aircraft and types of hazardous cargo involved in incidents not causing aircraft mishaps. Normally, hazardous cargo must be manifested as such and no passengers are allowed on such flights. Unauthorized hazardous cargo was found on military aircraft carrying passengers. The most common problem was fuel spills or fumes. The most frequent cause of a hazardous cargo incident was improper manifest of same. Improvements are recommended for the incompatible or inconsistent hazardous cargo incident reporting systems, in order to improve prevention of hazardous cargo incidents.

  12. Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

  13. DOE's Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.

    1990-09-01

    Computer security is essential in maintaining quality in the computing environment. Computer security incidents, however, are becoming more sophisticated. The DOE Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) team was formed primarily to assist DOE sites in responding to computer security incidents. Among CIAC's other responsibilities are gathering and distributing information to DOE sites, providing training workshops, coordinating with other agencies, response teams, and vendors, creating guidelines for incident handling, and developing software tools. CIAC has already provided considerable assistance to DOE sites faced with virus infections and worm and hacker attacks, has issued over 40 information bulletins, and has developed and presented a workshop on incident handling. CIAC's experience in helping sites has produced several lessons learned, including the need to follow effective procedures to avoid virus infections in small systems and the need for sound password management and system administration in networked systems. CIAC's activity and scope will expand in the future. 4 refs.

  14. Investigation of a “Sharps” Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael Edward; Trujillo, Stanley; Schreiber, Stephen Bruce

    2016-08-03

    Special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities are provided at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. Engineered barriers provide the most effective protection from radioactive and hazardous materials. The Worker Safety Security Team augments these passive safety feature by investigating incidents to identify appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. “Learning Teams” facilitate employee feedback loop and integration toward process improvement. Here, this article reports an investigation of a “Sharps” incident and reviews a case study of a technician that cuts his left thumb while making a gasket. Causal analysis of the sharps incident uncovered contributing factors that created the environment in which the incident occurred. Finally, latent organizational conditions that created error-likely situations or weakened defenses were identified and controlled. Effective improvements that reduce the probability or consequence of similar sharps incidents were implemented.

  15. Incidence of hip fracture in southeastern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Reikerås, O.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of hip fracture has been studied extensively, but there is still some doubt whether the age-specific incidence is increasing. The proportion of trochanteric fractures has varied and has also been said to be increasing. We studied data on 1,730 prospectively registered cases from 1998–2003 and computed age- and gender-specific incidence rates for intracapsular and trochanteric fractures. The incidence of hip fracture for women over 50 years was 1,263 and for men 452 per 100,000. The proportion of trochanteric fractures was 38% for women and 41% for men. There was no significant difference in the proportion of trochanteric fractures either between or within the genders, and the proportion did not exceed 50% in any age group. These findings confirm the high incidence of hip fracture in Norway but do not indicate any increase. The proportion of trochanteric fractures also seems to be stable. PMID:17033761

  16. Investigation of a “Sharps” Incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael Edward; Trujillo, Stanley; Schreiber, Stephen Bruce

    2016-08-03

    Special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities are provided at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. Engineered barriers provide the most effective protection from radioactive and hazardous materials. The Worker Safety Security Team augments these passive safety feature by investigating incidents to identify appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. “Learning Teams” facilitate employee feedback loop and integration toward process improvement. Here, this article reports an investigation of a “Sharps” incident and reviews a case study of a technician that cuts his left thumb while making a gasket. Causal analysis of the sharps incident uncovered contributing factorsmore » that created the environment in which the incident occurred. Finally, latent organizational conditions that created error-likely situations or weakened defenses were identified and controlled. Effective improvements that reduce the probability or consequence of similar sharps incidents were implemented.« less

  17. Periodicity of extinction: A 1988 update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkowski, J. John, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that events of mass extinction recur periodically at approximately 26 my intervals is an empirical claim based on analysis of data from the fossil record. The hypothesis has become closely linked with catastrophism because several events in the periodic series are associated with evidence of extraterrestrial impacts, and terrestrial forcing mechanisms with long, periodic recurrences are not easily conceived. Astronomical mechanisms that have been hypothesized include undetected solar companions and solar oscillation about the galactic plane, which induce comet showers and result in impacts on Earth at regular intervals. Because these mechanisms are speculative, they have been the subject of considerable controversy, as has the hypothesis of periodicity of extinction. In response to criticisms and uncertainties, a data base was developed on times of extinction of marine animal genera. A time series is given and analyzed with 49 sample points for the per-genus extinction rate from the Late Permian to the Recent. An unexpected pattern in the data is the uniformity of magnitude of many of the periodic extinction events. Observations suggest that the sequence of extinction events might be the result of two sets of mechanisms: a periodic forcing that normally induces only moderate amounts of extinction, and independent incidents or catastrophes that, when coincident with the periodic forcing, amplify its signal and produce major-mass extinctions.

  18. Critical incidents during prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: what are the problems nobody wants to talk about?

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Christian; Rupp, Peter; Fleischmann, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    We wanted to identify incidents that led or could have led to patient harm during prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A nationwide anonymous and Internet-based critical incident reporting system gave the data. During a 4-year period we received 548 reports of which 74 occurred during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Human error was responsible for 85% of the incidents, whereas equipment failure contributed to 15% of the reports. Equipment failure was considered to be preventable in 61% of all the cases, whereas incidents because of human error could have been prevented in almost all the cases. In most cases, prevention can be accomplished by simple strategies with the Poka-Yoke technique. Insufficient training of emergency medical service physicians in Germany requires special attention. The critical incident reports raise concerns regarding the level of expertize provided by emergency medical service doctors.

  19. Cancer incidence in the workers cohort of textile manufacturing factory in Alytus, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kuzmickiene, Irena; Didziapetris, Remigijus; Stukonis, Mecys

    2004-02-01

    Altogether 14,650 workers employed at least for 1 year a the textile factory in Alytus, Lithuania, were included in the cohort and followed during the period from 1978 to 1997. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for men was 1.28. The incidence of esophagus cancer was significant higher (SIR 3.42). It increased only slightly for lung (SIR 1.35). In the women cohort, SIR was 1.05. However, there was a significant increase of the incidence of gallbladder cancer (SIR 3.19). Among textile-processing (spinning and weaving departments) women workers, we found elevated total cancer incidence (SIR 1.35), incidence of breast cancer (SIR 1.49), and cervical cancer (SIR 1.82). In this cohort increased SIR values were observed for more than 10 years since first exposure for all cancer (SIR 1.70) and cervical cancer (SIR 2.44).

  20. Fabrication and characterization of metallic quasi-periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjin

    2008-01-21

    A variety of intriguing interference patterns are generated as a template to create metallic quasi-periodic structures using our robust experimental setup. A combination of thermal evaporation and lift-off process, the 2D metallic quasi-periodic structures are generated, a twelve-fold symmetry structure can be clearly observed in fabricated structures with four exposures. The excitation of surface plasmon (SP) resonances, which are determined by the geometry of metallic structures, the incident angle alpha, and the refractive index n(d) of the adjacent dielectric medium, is demonstrated in the optical transmission experiments. The optical transmission of metallic quasi-periodic structures can be tuned by varying the refractive index n(d), changing the period a and altering the incident angle alpha. The experimental results agree well with the predication for SP resonances. It's the first step to investigate the interesting optical properties of metallic quasi-periodic structures.

  1. [New incidence and mortality data. 2003-2005].

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta

    2009-04-23

    This is an update of incidence and mortality cancer data provided by the Italian Network of Cancer Registry (AIRTUM) relative to the period 2003-2005.AIRTUM is a network of general and specialized population-based cancer registries that covers about 1/3 of the Italian resident population (www.registri-tumori.it). Incidence and mortality data for the period 2003-2005 are based on 20 Registries. The five most frequently diagnosed cancers were: - prostate (18.5%), non melanoma skin (15.8%), lung (13.1%), colorectal (12.0%), bladder (5.7%) among males; - breast (24.9%), non melanoma skin (15.1%), colorectal (11.9%), lung (5.0%) and stomach (4.1%) among females. In the same period the most frequent causes of cancer death were: - cancer of the lung (27.6%), colorectal (10.7%), prostate (8.5%), stomach (7.3%) and liver (6.1%) among males; - breast cancer (16.3%), colorectal (11.9%), lung (10.3%), stomach (7.2%) and pancreas (6.5%) among females. According to the age-specific incidence rates one man and one woman every two will receive a cancer diagnosis during his/hers life (from birth to the age of 84 years). From 1993-1995 to 2003-2005, overall crude cancer incidence rate (males and females together) increased from 555.4 to 654.8 x 100,000. Standardization showed that 63% of this increase was due to ageing of the population. Moreover, most of the residual increase was among those cancer sites (breast, prostate, colorectal, thyroid and melanoma) for which early detection may have played a relevant role in anticipating (and therefore increasing) the number of diagnoses. Due to population ageing also overall cancer mortality did not show any decrease when crude rates were compared. On the contrary, standardized mortality rates (all cancers together) showed a strong decrease (311.4 vs. 266.5 x 100.000). The risk of receiving a diagnosis or dying because of cancer is still lower in residents in the regions of the South of Italy than in those of Central and Northern Italy

  2. Thyroid cancer incidence in New Jersey: time trend, birth cohort and socioeconomic status analysis (1979-2006).

    PubMed

    Roche, Lisa M; Niu, Xiaoling; Pawlish, Karen S; Henry, Kevin A

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques.

  3. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979–2006)

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Lisa M.; Niu, Xiaoling; Pawlish, Karen S.; Henry, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques. PMID:22187575

  4. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  5. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  6. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  7. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G; Johnson, Jay R; Miller, Federick W; Matteson, Eric L; Gabriel, Sherine E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We used data from patients with GCA (1950–2004) and RA (1955–2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0–1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5–7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4–5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8–11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4–5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. The link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases. PMID:25979866

  8. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    DOE PAGES

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G.; Johnson, Jay R.; ...

    2015-05-15

    Our objective was to examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results: The correlationmore » of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions: AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. Lastly, the link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases.« less

  9. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dunscombe, Peter B. Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-05-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources.

  10. Cancer incidence pattern in Cordoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Díaz, María del Pilar; Osella, Alberto R; Aballay, Laura R; Muñoz, Sonia E; Lantieri, María J; Butinof, Mariana; Paz, Roberto Meyer; Pou, Sonia; Eynard, Aldo R; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death in Argentina; nevertheless the distribution of the cancer incidence rates throughout the country is unknown. This study was conducted to describe cancer incidence patterns in Córdoba Province. Incidence data were supplied by the Government Córdoba Cancer Registry. Demographic information (age, sex, and place of residence) and diagnosis, certified by a pathologist, about all incident cases from June 2003 to May 2005 by type and 5-year age groups were obtained. Comparison of the incidence rate of cancer in various counties was performed by using standardized incidence rates (SIR) per 100,000 inhabitants using the world standard population. Estimated SIRs were used to build up incidence maps. Two indicators were created: sex ratio and site-specific ratio. Mixed Poisson models were fitted. Taken as a whole for all counties, SIR was 121.42 and 141.57 for men and women, respectively. The most common sites in men were prostate (13.62), lung (10.12), colon (7.53), and bladder (7.03); in women were breast (22.51) and colon (3.31). The highest and lowest rates were in urban and rural areas, respectively. Cancer registry has a pivotal role in cancer control. Such information is the primary resource of information not only for epidemiological research on cancer determinants but also for planning and evaluating health services for the policies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  11. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  12. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  13. Helicopter sling load accident/incident survey: 1968 - 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, J. D.; Pardue, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    During the period considered a mean of eleven accidents per year occurred and a mean of eleven persons were killed or seriously injured per year. Forty-one percent of the accidents occurred during hover, and 63 percent of the accidents had pilot error listed as a cause/factor. Many accidents involved pilots losing control of the helicopter or allowing a collision with obstructions to occur. There was a mean of 58 incidents each year and 51 percent of these occurred during cruise.

  14. Modelling total duration of traffic incidents including incident detection and recovery time.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil; Shobeirinejad, Ameneh

    2014-10-01

    Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical data from an 'integrated database' is proposed. Incident duration models are developed using a selected freeway segment in the Southeast Queensland, Australia network. The models include incident detection and recovery time as components of incident duration. A hazard-based duration modelling approach is applied to model incident duration as a function of a variety of factors that influence traffic incident duration. Parametric accelerated failure time survival models are developed to capture heterogeneity as a function of explanatory variables, with both fixed and random parameters specifications. The analysis reveals that factors affecting incident duration include incident characteristics (severity, type, injury, medical requirements, etc.), infrastructure characteristics (roadway shoulder availability), time of day, and traffic characteristics. The results indicate that event type durations are uniquely different, thus requiring different responses to effectively clear them. Furthermore, the results highlight the presence of unobserved incident duration heterogeneity as captured by the random parameter models, suggesting that additional factors need to be considered in future modelling efforts.

  15. Fourth-year nursing student perceptions of incidents and incident reporting.

    PubMed

    Espin, Sherry; Meikle, Diane

    2014-04-01

    This study explored how fourth-year nursing students (n = 10) from one urban baccalaureate nursing program perceived incidents potentially harmful to patients, as well as incident reporting. Individual interviews were conducted. Five scenarios were presented in the interviews, with each scenario portraying a situation that varied in terms of the severity of potential for patient harm and the clinical team members involved. Participants' responses were analyzed using a descriptive thematic approach. Of the 50 events (10 participants × 5 scenarios), participants identified 37 events as incidents. Three themes emerged regarding how participants identified an incident: scope of practice, professional roles, and harm to the patient. Regarding 48 of the 50 events, participants said they would report these incidents either informally or formally. Findings from this study suggest a need for nursing education regarding what constitutes an incident, as well as how and when to report incidents.

  16. International patterns and trends in thyroid cancer incidence, 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Han, Xuesong; Ward, Mary H.; Sjodin, Andreas; Zhang, Yaqun; Bai, Yana; Zhu, Cairong; Guo, Grace L.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-01-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in many parts of the world. To date, no study has compared trends in thyroid cancer incidence across continents. We examined incidence data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) over the 30-year period 1973–2002 from 19 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Thyroid cancer rates have increased from 1973–1977 to 1998–2002 for most of the populations except for Sweden, in which the incidence rates decreased about 18% for both males and females. The average increase was 48.0% among males and 66.7% among females. More recently, the age-adjusted international thyroid cancer incidence rates from 1998–2002 varied 5-fold by geographic region for males and nearly 10-fold for females by geographic region. Considerable variation in thyroid cancer incidence was present for every continent but Africa, in which the incidence rates were generally low. Our analysis of published CI5 data suggests that thyroid cancer rates increased between 1973 and 2002 in most populations worldwide and that the increase does not appear to be restricted to a particular region of the world or by the underlying rates of thyroid cancer. PMID:19016336

  17. Dynamic Relations between Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Climatic Factors in Golestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mollalo, Abolfazl; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL), an important public health problem in Iran, is sensitive to climate conditions. This study aimed to examine dynamic relations between the climate factors and incidence of ZCL in Golestan Province, northern Iran during 2010–2012. Methods: Data of monthly climatic factors, including temperature variables, relative humidity variables, evaporation, total rainfall, and number of freezing and rainy days together with monthly ZCL incidence were used. Spear-man rank correlation was carried out to explain associations between the monthly ZCL incidence rate and climate factors at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months lagged periods. Pearson’s correlation analysis was conducted to examine the type and strength of relationships between the spatially averaged climate factors and ZCL incidence rate in district level. Stepwise multiple regression was used to find the best combination of independent climatic variables, which predict the ZCL incidence. Results: Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the highest correlations between climate factors and monthly ZCL incidence were established when the climate time-series lagged the ZCL incidence series, especially two month prior to disease incidence. Based on the results of the both Spearman rank correlation and Pearson correlation analyses, ZCL incidences in Golestan Province tend to be more prevalent in areas with higher temperature, lower relative humidity, lower total rainfall, higher evaporation and lower number of rainy days. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicated that minimum temperature, mean humidity, and rainfall had considerable effect on ZCL incidence. Conclusion: Climate factors are major determinants of ZCL incidence rate in Golestan Province and such climate conditions provide favourable conditions for propagation and transmission of ZCL in this endemic area. PMID:26623427

  18. The discourses of incidents: Cougars on Mt. Elden and in Sabino Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Clark, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    Incidents are relatively short periods of intensified discourse that arise from public responses to symbolically important actions by public officials, and an important part of the conflict that increasingly surrounds state wildlife management in the West. In an effort to better understand incidents as a facet of this conflict, we analyzed the discourses of two incidents in Arizona that were precipitated by the intended removal of cougars by managers in response to public safety concerns. We used newspaper content, 1999–2007, to elucidate seminal patterns of public discourses and discourse coalitions as well as differences in discursive focus between incident periods and background periods. Cougars were mentioned in newspaper articles 13–33 times more often during incidents compared with background periods. State wildlife agency commissioners and hunters were part of a discourse coalition that advocated killing cougars to solve problems, blamed cougars and those who promoted the animals’ intrinsic value and sought to retain power to define and solve cougar-related problems. Personnel from affected state and federal agencies expressed a similar discourse. Environmentalists, animal protection activists, and some elected officials were of a coalition that defined “the problem” primarily in terms of people’s behaviors, including behaviors associated with current institutional arrangements. This discourse advocated decentralizing power over cougar management. The discourses reflected different preferences for the allocations of power and use of lethal versus non-lethal methods, which aligned with apparent core beliefs and participants’ enfranchisement or disenfranchisement by current state-level management power arrangements.

  19. Community Diarrhea Incidence Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Meléndez, Marlon; Liu, Lan; Enrique Zambrana, Luis; Paniagua, Margarita; Weber, David J.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Cáceres, Mercedes; Källeståll, Carina; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix; Peña, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of watery diarrhea in the community before and after introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in León, Nicaragua. A random sample of households was selected before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. All children < 5 years of age in selected households were eligible for inclusion. Children were followed every 2 weeks for watery diarrhea episodes. The incidence rate was estimated as numbers of episodes per 100 child-years of exposure time. A mixed effects Poisson regression model was fit to compare incidence rates in the pre-vaccine and vaccine periods. The pre-vaccine cohort (N = 726) experienced 36 episodes per 100 child-years, and the vaccine cohort (N = 826) experienced 25 episodes per 100 child-years. The adjusted incidence rate ratio was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40, 0.91) during the vaccine period versus the pre-vaccine period, indicating a lower incidence of watery diarrhea in the community during the vaccine period. PMID:23817336

  20. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    PubMed

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  1. Incidence and outcome of rupture of the Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Cretnik, Andrej; Frank, Aleksander

    2004-01-01

    We determined the incidence of complete rupture of the Achilles tendon in the Maribor region (273,609 inhabitants) between 1991 and 1996. During this period, 116 ruptures were treated at Maribor Teaching Hospital. The average incidence was 7 ruptures per 100,000 inhabitants, with a peak incidence of almost 9 per 100,000. Most injuries (65%) occurred during sports activities, with soccer as the major cause of rupture. The average age of patients was 37 years with a male-to-female ratio of 18:1. All patients underwent open surgical repair of the ruptured Achilles tendon, with a minimum follow-up of two years. 19.8% of cases developed complications and in 10.4% of these the complications were major. 1.9% of patients sustained a re-rupture. The mean AOFAS score was 96 points. The patients were subjectively very satisfied with their treatment in 88% of cases. Good functional results with a return to the usual pre-injury activities were achieved in 96% of patients.

  2. Nonscaphoid carpal injuries – Incidence and associated injuries

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Anantha Krishnan; Kumar, Prathap

    2014-01-01

    Aims Nonscaphoid fractures comprise approximately 40% of all carpal fractures. But the exact incidence of these rare injuries is still not clear. Missed or late diagnosis can lead to serious ligamentous disruption and permanent wrist dysfunction. Methods A retrospective analysis of wrist X-rays and CT scans were carried out for a period of 3 years. Incidence and associated injuries from this study was compared with literature. A total of 33 patients were included in our study. Both wrist X-rays and CT scans were reviewed individually by two authors. DASH scores were recorded for each patient. Results There were 26 male and 7 female patients. Out of 33 patients 13 (35%) were Triquetral fractures, 10 (27%) were Hamate fractures, 5 (14%) were Capitate fractures, 4 (11%) were Lunate fractures, 3 (8%) were Trapezium fractures and 2 (5%) were Pisiform fractures. There were no Trapezoid fractures in our study. Conclusion Incidence of nonscaphoid carpal fractures in our study is considerably higher when compared to literature. We propose that high index of suspicion should always be borne in mind when dealing with carpal fractures and detailed examination of wrist should be conducted even when X-rays does not show any obvious bony injuries. CT scans and other specialized images should be judiciously used in areas of suspicion for early diagnosis, to initiate immediate treatment, for early mobilisation and good functional recovery. PMID:25104893

  3. Improving incidence of code status documentation through process and discipline.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Marcus A; Taniguchi, Cynthia B; Hoverman, J Russell

    2015-03-01

    Documentation of a patient's preferred code status is a critical outcome of advance care planning. Although there is agreement that code status is valuable information, little progress has been made to increase the incidence of documented code status within the medical record in an outpatient setting. Incidence of code status documentation in the community oncology setting has not been studied. In April 2013, the US Oncology Network and McKesson Specialty Health launched a new advance care planning initiative for the purpose of promoting conversations between clinicians and patients regarding end-of-life care preferences. The program-My Choices, My Wishes-provides a systematic approach for learning about and documenting a patient's values and goals for care in the electronic health record. Code status documentation is one of several program performance measures. During the 14-month period from August 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, collective sites participating in My Choices, My Wishes included discrete code status documentation within the medical record for 5,467 patients with metastatic disease. Although much work remains, early results show promise for improvement in incidence of code status documentation within health records in the outpatient setting.

  4. Classical Galactosaemia in Ireland: incidence, complications and outcomes of treatment.

    PubMed

    Coss, K P; Doran, P P; Owoeye, C; Codd, M B; Hamid, N; Mayne, P D; Crushell, E; Knerr, I; Monavari, A A; Treacy, E P

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening for the inborn error of metabolism, classical galactosaemia prevents life-threatening complications in the neonatal period. It does not however influence the development of long-term complications and the complex pathophysiology of this rare disease remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to report the development of a healthcare database (using Distiller Version 2.1) to review the epidemiology of classical galactosaemia in Ireland since initiation of newborn screening in 1972 and the long-term clinical outcomes of all patients attending the National Centre for Inherited Metabolic Disorders (NCIMD). Since 1982, the average live birth incidence rate of classical galactosaemia in the total Irish population was approximately 1:16,476 births. This reflects a high incidence in the Irish 'Traveller' population, with an estimated birth incidence of 1:33,917 in the non-Traveller Irish population. Despite early initiation of treatment (dietary galactose restriction), the long-term outcomes of classical galactosaemia in the Irish patient population are poor; 30.6 % of patients ≥ 6 yrs have IQs <70, 49.6 % of patients ≥ 2.5 yrs have speech or language impairments and 91.2 % of females ≥ 13 yrs suffer from hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) possibly leading to decreased fertility. These findings are consistent with the international experience. This emphasizes the requirement for continued clinical research in this complex disorder.

  5. Prevention of future incidents and investigational lines

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Miguel J.; Zapatero, José; López, Mario

    2011-01-01

    All radiation devices in use nowadays are subject to cause serious incidents and accidents, with potential risks in exposed population groups. These risks may have immediate or long term health implications. The detection of radioactive incidents is a procedure that should be systematized in economically developed societies. International organizations may provide support to other states in the event of a radioactive incident. Prevention, mitigation and treatment of the radiation effects are done by anticipating the moment of exposure and by establishing new efforts for investigation of radioprotective products. In this article we will analyze the causes of radiological incidents, the means to detect them, and the current preventive and therapeutic procedures available, with special emphasis on new biodosimetry methods for triage and investigational radioprotective drugs. Finally, we will explore the most efficient measures, for future prevention. PMID:24376973

  6. Risk-based Classification of Incidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Strunk, Elisabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    As the penetration of software into safety-critical systems progresses, accidents and incidents involving software will inevitably become more frequent. Identifying lessons from these occurrences and applying them to existing and future systems is essential if recurrences are to be prevented. Unfortunately, investigative agencies do not have the resources to fully investigate every incident under their jurisdictions and domains of expertise and thus must prioritize certain occurrences when allocating investigative resources. In the aviation community, most investigative agencies prioritize occurrences based on the severity of their associated losses, allocating more resources to accidents resulting in injury to passengers or extensive aircraft damage. We argue that this scheme is inappropriate because it undervalues incidents whose recurrence could have a high potential for loss while overvaluing fairly straightforward accidents involving accepted risks. We then suggest a new strategy for prioritizing occurrences based on the risk arising from incident recurrence.

  7. 40 CFR 68.81 - Incident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... investigation team shall be established and consist of at least one person knowledgeable in the process involved, including a contract employee if the incident involved work of the contractor, and other persons...

  8. Using Incidence Sampling to Estimate Covariances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Thomas R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the generalized symmetric means approach to the estimation of population covariances, complete with derivations and examples. Particular attention is paid to the problem of missing data, which is handled very naturally in the incidence sampling framework. (CTM)

  9. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  10. Properties And Performance Of Grazing Incidence Reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.; Kelso, S. M.

    We numerically analyze at near-grazing incidence various configurations containing elliptical, toroidal, and the recently proposed common-axis rotationally symmetric anamorphic (CARSA) elements to determine the type and importance of aberrations inherent in each. CARS pairs of elliptical mirrors are shown to have negligible focusing errors for typical synchrotron source dimensions, and therefore comprise useful building blocks from which to construct grazing-incidence optical systems. To minimize aberrations, cylindrical, spherical, or toroidal elements should be avoided.

  11. Properties and performance of grazing incidence reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.; Kelso, S. M.

    1982-05-01

    Various configurations containing elliptical, toroidal, and the recently proposed common-axis rotationally symmetric anamorphic (CARSA) elements are numerically analyzed at near-grazing incidence, to determine the type and importance of aberrations inherent in each. CARS pairs of elliptical mirrors are shown to have negligible focusing errors for typical synchrotron source dimensions, and therefore comprise useful building blocks from which to construct grazing-incidence optical systems. To minimize aberrations, cylindrical, spherical, or toroidal elements should be avoided.

  12. Solar Cell Angle of Incidence Corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission has three different solar arrays each of which sees changes in incidence angle during normal operation. When solar array angle of incidence effects was researched little published data was found. The small amount of-published data created a need to obtain and evaluate such data. The donation of the needed data, which was taken in the fall of 1994, was a major factor in the preparation of this paper.

  13. Estimating Insolation Incident on Tilted Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R. E.; Toelle, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    ASHMET computer program estimates amount of solar insolation incident on surfaces of several types of solar collectors, including fixed-position flat-plate, monthly-tilt-adjusted flat-plat, beam-tracting, and fixed-azimuthtracker. Basic methodology employed in ASHMET is to use ASHRAE relationships to obtain clear-day total daily insolation incident on collector surface of representative day of each month of year. ASHMET is interactive program and prompts user for all required data.

  14. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  15. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-09-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  16. International patterns and trends in testicular cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1973-2007.

    PubMed

    Trabert, B; Chen, J; Devesa, S S; Bray, F; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates of testicular cancer in Northern European and North American countries have been widely reported, whereas rates in other populations, such as Eastern Europe, Central/South America, Asia, and Africa, have been less frequently evaluated. We examined testicular cancer incidence rates overall and by histologic type by calendar time and birth cohort for selected global populations 1973-2007. Age-standardized incidence rates over succeeding 5-year periods were calculated from volumes 4-9 of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents electronic database (CI5plus) and the newly released CI5X (volume 10) database. Annual percent change over the 35-year period was calculated using weighted least squares regression. Age-period-cohort analyses were performed and observed rates and fitted rate ratios presented by birth cohort. Incidence rates of testicular cancer increased between 1973-1977 and 2003-2007 in most populations evaluated worldwide. Of note, incidence rates in Eastern European countries rose rapidly and approached rates in Northern European countries. Rates in Central and South America also increased and are now intermediate to the high rates among men of European ancestry and low rates among men of Asian or African descent. Some heterogeneity in the trends in seminoma and nonseminoma were observed in Denmark, the United Kingdom, and among US whites, particularly in recent generations, with rapid and uniform increases in the incidence of both histologic types in Slovakia. Reasons for the rising incidence rates among European and American populations remain unexplained; however, changing distributions in the prevalence of risk factors for testicular cancer cannot be ruled out.

  17. Trends in lip cancer incidence in Vaud, Switzerland.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, F.; La Vecchia, C.; Te, V. C.; Franceschi, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent trends in lip cancer incidence in the Swiss Canton of Vaud (approximately 600,000 inhabitants in 1990) were analysed over the period 1975-1990, when a total of 87 cases were registered. A steady and substantial decline was observed in both sexes, since age-standardised (world) rates declined from 1.8 to 0.6/100,000 males and from 0.14 to 0.02/100,000 females. These downward trends were evident across subsequent age groups. These trends were apparently not due to changes in registration or classification criteria in the study period and are discussed in terms of decreased occupational exposure to ultraviolet light, and reduced pipe and cigar smoking. PMID:8217589

  18. Pain typology and incident endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, K.C.; Mumford, S.L.; Peterson, C.M.; Chen, Z.; Johnstone, E.B.; Sharp, H.T.; Stanford, J.B.; Hammoud, A.O.; Sun, L.; Buck Louis, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    , reported more cyclic pelvic pain (49.5% versus 31.0% and 33.1%, P < 0.001). Additionally, women with endometriosis compared with women with a normal pelvis experienced more chronic pain (44.2 versus 30.2%, P = 0.04). Deep pain with intercourse, cramping with periods, and pain with bowel elimination were much more likely reported in women with versus without endometriosis (all P < 0.002). A higher percentage of women diagnosed with endometriosis compared with women with a normal pelvis reported vaginal (22.6 versus 10.3%, P < 0.01), right labial (18.4 versus 8.1%, P < 0.05) and left labial pain (15.3 versus 3.7%, P < 0.01) along with pain in the right/left hypogastric and umbilical abdominopelvic regions (P < 0.05 for all). Among women with endometriosis, no clear and consistent patterns emerged regarding pain characteristics and endometriosis staging or anatomic location. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Interpretation of our findings requires caution given that we were limited in our assessment of pain characteristics by endometriosis staging and anatomic location due to the majority of women having minimal (stage I) disease (56%) and lesions in peritoneum-only location (51%). Significance tests for pain topology related to gynecologic pathology were not corrected for multiple comparisons. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Results of our research suggest that while women with endometriosis appear to have higher pelvic pain, particularly dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, dyschezia and pain in the vaginal and abdominopelvic area than women with other gynecologic disorders or a normal pelvis, pelvic pain is commonly reported among women undergoing laparoscopy, even among women with no identified gynecologic pathology. Future research should explore causes of pelvic pain among women who seek out gynecologic care but with no apparent gynecologic pathology. Given our and other's research showing little correlation between pelvic pain and rASRM staging among women with endometriosis

  19. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  20. High Serum SHBG Predicts Incident Vertebral Fractures in Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Vandenput, Liesbeth; Mellström, Dan; Kindmark, Andreas; Johansson, Helena; Lorentzon, Mattias; Leung, Jason; Redlund‐Johnell, Inga; Rosengren, Björn E; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wang, Yi‐Xiang; Kwok, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous prospective cohort studies have shown that serum levels of sex steroids and sex hormone‐binding globulin (SHBG) associate with nonvertebral fracture risk in men. The predictive value of sex hormones and SHBG for vertebral fracture risk specifically is, however, less studied. Elderly men (aged ≥65 years) from Sweden and Hong Kong participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study had baseline estradiol and testosterone analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and SHBG by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Incident clinical vertebral fractures (n = 242 cases) were evaluated in 4324 men during an average follow‐up of 9.1 years. In a subsample of these men (n = 2256), spine X‐rays were obtained at baseline and after an average follow‐up of 4.3 years to identify incident radiographic vertebral fractures (n = 157 cases). The likelihood of incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models, respectively. Neither serum estradiol (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80–1.08) nor testosterone (1.05, 0.91–1.21) predicted incident clinical vertebral fractures in age‐adjusted models in the combined data set. High serum SHBG, however, associated with increased clinical vertebral fracture risk (1.24, 1.12–1.37). This association remained significant after further adjustment for FRAX with or without bone mineral density (BMD). SHBG also associated with increased incident radiographic vertebral fracture risk (combined data set; odds ratio [OR] per SD increase = 1.23, 95% CI 1.05–1.44). This association remained significant after adjustment for FRAX with or without BMD. In conclusion, high SHBG predicts incident clinical and radiographic vertebral fractures in elderly men and adds moderate information beyond FRAX with BMD for vertebral fracture risk prediction. © 2015 The

  1. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Hand, Gregory A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Blair, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of physical activity and incidence of physician-diagnosed depression have been limited to a single estimate of self-reported physical activity exposure, despite follow-up periods lasting many years. Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness, an objective marker of habitual physical activity, and incident depression complaints made to a physician. Methods Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at four clinic visits between 1971 and 2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used to objectively measure cumulative physical activity exposure in cohorts of 7936 men and 1261 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study who did not complain of depression at their first clinic visit in 1971–2003. Data were analyzed in August 2010. Results Across subsequent visits, there were 446 incident cases in men and 153 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, BMI at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each 1-minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately 1 half-MET) between ages 51 and 55 years in men and ages 53 and 56 years in women, increased the odds of incident depression complaints by approximately 2% and 9.5%, respectively. The increased odds remained significant but were attenuated to 1.3% and 5.4% after further adjustment at each visit for smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, anxiety, and sleep problems. Conclusions Maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during late middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates, helps protect against the onset of depression complaints made to a physician. PMID:22992353

  2. Persistent Ischemic Stroke Disparities despite Declining Incidence in Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Smith, Melinda A.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Brown, Devin L.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Garcia, Nelda; Kerber, Kevin A.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Adelman, Eric E.; Baek, Jonggyu; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in ischemic stroke incidence among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Methods We performed population-based stroke surveillance from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 in Corpus Christi, Texas. Ischemic stroke patients 45 years and older were ascertained from potential sources, and charts were abstracted. Neurologists validated cases based on source documentation blinded to ethnicity and age. Crude and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted annual incidence was calculated for first ever completed ischemic stroke. Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted ischemic stroke rates, rate ratios, and trends. Results There were 2,604 ischemic strokes in Mexican Americans and 2,042 in non-Hispanic whites. The rate ratios (Mexican American:non-Hispanic white) were 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67–2.25), 1.50 (95% CI = 1.35– 1.67), and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.90–1.11) among those aged 45 to 59, 60 to 74, and 75 years and older, respectively, and 1.34 (95% CI = 1.23–1.46) when adjusted for age. Ischemic stroke incidence declined during the study period by 35.9% (95% CI = 25.9–44.5). The decline was limited to those aged ≥60 years, and happened in both ethnic groups similarly (p > 0.10), implying that the disparities seen in the 45- to 74-year age group persist unabated. Interpretation Ischemic stroke incidence rates have declined dramatically in the past decade in both ethnic groups for those aged ≥60 years. However, the disparity between Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke rates persists in those <75 years of age. Although the decline in stroke is encouraging, additional prevention efforts targeting young Mexican Americans are warranted. PMID:23868398

  3. Incidence and relative risk of hearing disorders in professional musicians

    PubMed Central

    Schink, Tania; Kreutz, Gunter; Busch, Veronika; Pigeot, Iris; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Hearing disorders have been associated with occupational exposure to music. Musicians may benefit from non-amplified and low-intensity music, but may also have high risks of music-induced hearing loss. Aims To compare the incidence of hearing loss (HL) and its subentities in professional musicians with that in the general population. Methods We performed a historical cohort study among insurants between 19 and 66 years who were employed subject to social insurance contributions. The study was conducted with data from three German statutory health insurance providers covering the years 2004–2008 with about 7 million insurants. Incidence rates with 95% CIs of HL and the subentities noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), conductive HL, sensorineural HL, conductive and sensorineural HL, as well as tinnitus were estimated stratified by age, sex and federal state. A Cox regression analysis was conducted to estimate adjusted HRs and two-sided 95% CIs for HL and its subentities. Results More than 3 million insurants were eligible, of whom 2227 were identified as professional musicians (0.07%). During the 4-year observation period, 283 697cases of HL were seen, 238 of them among professional musicians (0.08%), leading to an unadjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.27. The adjusted hazard ratio of musicians was 1.45 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.65) for HL and 3.61 (95% CI 1.81 to 7.20) for NIHL. Conclusions Professional musicians have a high risk of contracting hearing disorders. Use of already available prevention measures should reduce the incidence of HL in professional musicians. PMID:24790053

  4. Evaluation of mortality and cancer incidence among alachlor manufacturing workers.

    PubMed Central

    Acquavella, J F; Riordan, S G; Anne, M; Lynch, C F; Collins, J J; Ireland, B K; Heydens, W F

    1996-01-01

    Alachlor is the active ingredient in a family of preemergence herbicides. We assessed mortality rates from 1968 to 1993 and cancer incidence rates from 1969 to 1993 for manufacturing workers with potential alachlor exposure. For workers judged to have high alachlor exposure, mortality from all causes combined was lower than expected [23 observed, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.4-1.0], cancer mortality was similar to expected (6 observed, SMR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.6), and there were no cancer deaths among workers with 5 or more years high exposure and 15 or more years since first exposure (2.3 expected, SMR = 0, 95% CI, 0-1.6). Cancer incidence for workers with high exposure potential was similar to the state rate [18 observed, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.7-2.0], especially for workers exposed for 5 or more years and with at least 15 years since first exposure (4 observed, SIR = 1.0, 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). The most common cancer for these latter workers was colorectal cancer (2 observed, SIR 3.9, 95% CI, 0.5-14.2 among workers). Despite the limitations of this study with respect to small size and exposure estimating, the findings are useful for evaluating potential alachlor-related health risks because past manufacturing exposures greatly exceeded those characteristic of agricultural operations. These findings suggest no appreciable effect of alachlor exposure on worker mortality or cancer incidence rates during the study period. PMID:8841758

  5. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  6. Evolving incidence of MRSA in urban hand infections.

    PubMed

    Fowler, John R; Greenhill, Dustin; Schaffer, Alyssa A; Thoder, Joseph J; Ilyas, Asif M

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most commonly cultured bacteria in hand infections. Understanding the most common bacteria involved in hand infections allows appropriate and efficient administration of antibiotics. Delay in treatment may lead to increased morbidity, including stiffness, contracture, and amputation. The purposes of this study are to determine whether the incidence of MRSA in culture-positive hand infections continues to increase and whether MRSA is a risk factor for increased length of stay. Electronic medical records were queried to identify patients admitted to a large, academic urban medical center with the diagnosis of a hand infection between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009. Methicillin-resistant S aureus accounted for 220 of the positive cultures over the 5-year study period. Polymicrobial infection represented 81 positive cultures, and MRSA was only present in 10 of these cases. Patients with MRSA were found to have a mean length of hospital stay of 4.1 days compared with 4.5 days in non-MRSA infections. Understanding the most common bacteria involved in hand infections allows appropriate and efficient administration of antibiotics. Methicillin-resistant S aureus is the most commonly cultured bacteria in the hand. However, polymicrobial infections have become increasingly more common. Although incidences of polymicrobial infections increased over the study period in this series, clinical judgment should be exercised before initiating broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage.

  7. Association between mean platelet volume and hypertension incidence.

    PubMed

    Gang, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Zhongwei, Zhu; Juan, Du

    2017-03-09

    Mean platelet volume (MPV) is increased in various cardiovascular diseases. We sought to determine the prognostic value of MPV for hypertension. We performed a retrospective cohort study. Baseline characteristics were measured in 9168 individuals without hypertension, and the follow-up period was 9 years. Hypertension was confirmed in 2881 participants during the follow-up period. When the participants were grouped according to MPV quartiles, the hazard ratio of future hypertension gradually increased across the MPV quartiles. The hazard ratios of hypertension for the II, III and IV (high) vs. I (low) quartiles of MPV were 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.25, P=0.027), 1.25 (95% CI 1.12-1.39, P<0.001) and 1.40 (95% CI 1.26-1.55, P<0.001), respectively. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, MPV predicted hypertension independently of age, sex, platelet count, waist circumference, drinking, systolic blood pressure and creatinine levels. The present study indicated that elevated MPV is associated with increased incidence of hypertension independent of other risk factors, which suggests that platelet activity may play a role in hypertension incidence.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 9 March 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.30.

  8. Incidence of cancer in Nairobi, Kenya (2004-2008).

    PubMed

    Korir, Anne; Okerosi, Nathan; Ronoh, Victor; Mutuma, Geoffrey; Parkin, Max

    2015-11-01

    Cancer incidence rates are presented for the Nairobi Cancer Registry, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR) covering the population of the capital city of Kenya (3.2 million inhabitants in 2009). Case finding was by active methods, with standard and checks for accuracy and validity. During the period 2004-2008 a total of 8,982 cases were registered comprising 3,889 men (an age standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 161 per 100,000) and 5,093 women (ASR 231 per 1,00,000). Prostate cancer was the most common cancer in men (ASR 40.6 per 100,000) while breast cancer was the most common among women (ASR 51.7 per 100,000). Cervical cancer ranked the second most common cancer among women in Nairobi with an ASR of 46.1 per 100,000, somewhat lower than those of other registries in East Africa region. Breast and cervical cancers accounted for 44% of all cancers in women. Cancer of the oesophagus was common in both sexes, with a slight excess of cases in men (sex ratio 1.3). Unlike other regions in East Africa, the rate of Kaposi sarcoma was relatively low during the period (men 3.6/100,000; women 2.0/100,000). Although incidence rates cannot be calculated for the early years of the registry, the increase in relative frequency of prostate cancer and declines in frequency of Kaposi sarcoma may indicate underlying trends in the risk of these cancers.

  9. A European project on incidence, treatment, and outcome of sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sarcomas are rare tumors (1-2% of all cancers) of mesenchymal origin that may develop in soft tissues and viscera. Since the International Classification of Disease (ICD) attributes visceral sarcomas (VS) to the organ of origin, the incidence of sarcoma is grossly underestimated. The rarity of the disease and the variety of histological types (more than 70) or locations account for the difficulty in acquiring sufficient personal experience. In view of the above the European Commission funded the project called Connective Tissues Cancers Network (CONTICANET), to improve the prognosis of sarcoma patients by increasing the level of standardization of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures through a multicentre collaboration. Methods/Design Two protocols of epidemiological researches are here presented. The first investigation aims to build the population-based incidence of sarcoma in a two-year period, using the new 2002 WHO classification and the "second opinion" given by an expert regional pathologist on the initial diagnosis by a local pathologist. A three to five year survival rate will also be determined. Pathology reports and clinical records will be the sources of information. The second study aims to compare the effects on survival or relapse-free period - allowing for histological subtypes, clinical stage, primary site, age and gender - when the disease was treated or not according to the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Discussion Within CONTICANET, each group was asked to design a particular study on a specific objective, the partners of the network being free to accept or not the proposed protocol. The first protocol was accepted by the other researchers, therefore the incidence of sarcoma will be assessed in three European regions, Rhone-Alpes and Aquitaine (France) and Veneto (Italy), where the geographic distribution of sarcoma will be compared after taking into account age and gender. The conformity of the clinical practice with the

  10. Leukemia incidence in the Russian cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V K; Tsyb, A F; Khait, S E; Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A

    2012-05-01

    Of all potentially radiogenic cancers, leukemia, a type of cancer of the blood, has the highest risk attributable to ionizing radiation. Despite this, the quantitative estimation of radiation risk of a leukemia demands studying very large exposed cohorts, because of the very low level of this disease in unexposed populations and because of the tendency for its radiation risk to decrease with time. At present, the Japanese cohort of atomic bomb survivors is still the primary source of data that allows analysis of radiation-induced leukemia and the underlying dose-response relationship. The second large cohort that would allow to study radiation-induced leukemia is comprised of individuals who were exposed due to the accident of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The objective of the present study was to estimate radiation risks of leukemia incidence among the Russian cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers, for different time periods after the accident. Twenty-five years after the Chernobyl accident and based on the results of the present study, one can conclude that the radiation risk of leukemia incidence derived from the Russian cohort of Chernobyl emergency workers is similar to that derived from the cohort of atomic bomb survivors: The time-averaged excess relative risk per Gray (ERR Gy(-1)) equals 4.98 for the Russian cohort and 3.9 for the life span study (LSS) cohort; excess absolute risk decreases with time after exposure at an annual rate of 9% for the Russian cohort, and of 6.5% for the LSS cohort. Thus, the excess in risk of leukemia incidence in a population due to a single exposure is restricted in time after exposure by the period of about 15 years.

  11. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  12. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  13. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  14. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

  15. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  16. Periodically structured plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.; Foteinopoulou, S.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2008-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guiding structures, which are a modification of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguide. The designs are constructed by introducing a periodic modulation in a MIM waveguide, with a glass core and silver claddings. This periodic modulation is created either by causing periodic indentations in the silver slabs encompassing the glass core, or by increasing the glass spacer material in certain periodic locations. Our objective is to achieve long range sub-wavelength waveguiding with vast dispersion engineering capabilities. We employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) with the Auxiliary Differential Equation method (ADE) for the calculation of the dispersion relation of the guided modes, as well as the real time propagation suggests that the guiding mechnism in the examined structures is based on the electromagnetic (EM) couping between the slit plasmon modes. These - depending on the design - exist in the grooves between the silver plates or in the larger areas of the glass core spacer. Put it different, the guiding mechanism in the examined SPP waveguide designs is analogous to the EM energy transfer along metallic nanoparticle chains.

  17. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  18. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  19. Identification of the prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, a Mekong Delta area in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh; Nguyen, Nga Huy; Manh, Cuong Do

    2015-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is highly vulnerable to climate change and a dengue endemic area in Vietnam. This study aims to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence and to identify the best climate prediction model for dengue incidence in Can Tho city, the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. We used three different regression models comprising: standard multiple regression model (SMR), seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA), and Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) to examine the association between climate factors and dengue incidence over the period 2003-2010. We validated the models by forecasting dengue cases for the period of January-December, 2011 using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to analyze the sensitivity of the forecast of a dengue outbreak. The results indicate that temperature and relative humidity are significantly associated with changes in dengue incidence consistently across the model methods used, but not cumulative rainfall. The Poisson distributed lag model (PDLM) performs the best prediction of dengue incidence for a 6, 9, and 12-month period and diagnosis of an outbreak however the SARIMA model performs a better prediction of dengue incidence for a 3-month period. The simple or standard multiple regression performed highly imprecise prediction of dengue incidence. We recommend a follow-up study to validate the model on a larger scale in the Mekong Delta region and to analyze the possibility of incorporating a climate-based dengue early warning method into the national dengue surveillance system.

  20. The influence of weather conditions on the relative incident rate of fishing vessels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Pelot, Ronald P; Hilliard, Casey

    2009-07-01

    There is a long history of studying the relationship between weather and maritime activities. This article analyzes the link between relative incident rate (RIR) and general weather factors within certain gridded areas and time periods. The study area, which encompasses a broad extent of Atlantic Canadian waters, includes fishing incidents recorded by the Canadian Coast Guard from 1997 to 1999. Methodologies used for traffic track generation in a geographical information system and aggregation of all relevant weather data needed for the statistical analyses are presented. Ultimately, a regression tree was built to illustrate the relationship between incident rate and the following six weather factors: wave height; sea surface temperature; air temperature; ice concentration; fog presence; and precipitation. Results from the regression tree reveal that the RIR defined as (incident number per area-day)/(traffic amount per area-day) across grid cells with incidents, increases as the weather conditions deteriorate in a general way, and the concentration of ice has the biggest influence on the magnitude of incident rates for a given level of traffic exposure. The results from this analysis may assist administrators of maritime traffic, especially those associated with fishing activities, through a better understanding of the influence on RIR of certain weather conditions within given areas in specific time periods.

  1. A Comparison of South African National HIV Incidence Estimates: A Critical Appraisal of Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rehle, Thomas; Johnson, Leigh; Hallett, Timothy; Mahy, Mary; Kim, Andrea; Odido, Helen; Onoya, Dorina; Jooste, Sean; Shisana, Olive; Puren, Adrian; Parekh, Bharat; Stover, John

    2015-01-01

    Background The interpretation of HIV prevalence trends is increasingly difficult as antiretroviral treatment programs expand. Reliable HIV incidence estimates are critical to monitoring transmission trends and guiding an effective national response to the epidemic. Methods and Findings We used a range of methods to estimate HIV incidence in South Africa: (i) an incidence testing algorithm applying the Limiting-Antigen Avidity Assay (LAg-Avidity EIA) in combination with antiretroviral drug and HIV viral load testing; (ii) a modelling technique based on the synthetic cohort principle; and (iii) two dynamic mathematical models, the EPP/Spectrum model package and the Thembisa model. Overall, the different incidence estimation methods were in broad agreement on HIV incidence estimates among persons aged 15-49 years in 2012. The assay-based method produced slightly higher estimates of incidence, 1.72% (95% CI 1.38 – 2.06), compared with the mathematical models, 1.47% (95% CI 1.23 – 1.72) in Thembisa and 1.52% (95% CI 1.43 – 1.62) in EPP/Spectrum, and slightly lower estimates of incidence compared to the synthetic cohort, 1.9% (95% CI 0.8 – 3.1) over the period from 2008 to 2012. Among youth aged 15-24 years, a declining trend in HIV incidence was estimated by all three mathematical estimation methods. Conclusions The multi-method comparison showed similar levels and trends in HIV incidence and validated the estimates provided by the assay-based incidence testing algorithm. Our results confirm that South Africa is the country with the largest number of new HIV infections in the world, with about 1 000 new infections occurring each day among adults aged 15-49 years in 2012. PMID:26230949

  2. [Chemical incidents and gathering information on toxicity].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2006-12-01

    Major cases of chemical incidents and information on chemical agents and chemical terrorist attacks are outlined. Since the late 1990s, major incidents occurred consecutively, such as two cases of sarin attack in 1994 and 1995, an oil spill from a Russian oil tanker in the Japan Sea in 1997, arsenic poisoning in Wakayama in 1998, the criticality incident at Tokai-Mura in 1999 in Japan, and terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in New York. The importance of crisis management and cooperation among relevant organizations has been emphasized. To provide information for an appropriate and quick response in emergencies, we prepared a Web portal site for information on chemicals including chemical agents, a chemical incident database, and links to relevant Web sites. In intentional cases of poisoning caused by toxic chemicals in Japan, 111 cases were collected mainly from a newspaper database (1984-1999). Many copy-cat poisonings occurred, especially in 1984-1985 and in 1998 just after an arsenic poisoning incident in Wakayama. Many cases occurred in the laboratories of institutes, universities, and hospitals where various types of chemicals are used.

  3. Comorbidities Among Persons With Incident Psychiatric Condition

    PubMed Central

    Fluegge, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: I sought to determine how medical comorbidities co-exist with incident psychiatric condition. Method: I used data from all 11 available waves (1992-2012) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). I identified 4,358 index participants with self-reported incident psychiatric condition. I collected comorbidity data from participants preceding, including, and succeeding that incident wave. Comorbidities assessed included high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes mellitus, cancer, lung disease, heart disease, stroke, and arthritis. Modified Poisson regression combined with log-linked binomial regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) of reporting a comorbidity preceding and following the incident wave. Multiple comparison testing dictated significance of RRs with p < .007. Results: For the waves preceding the index wave, the RRs of reporting all comorbidities except HBP and cancer were significantly (p < .007) increased. For the waves following incident psychiatric condition, the risks of reporting heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease were significantly (p < .007) increased. These results were adjusted for participant age, race, gender, other comorbidities listed, and the wave in which a comorbidity was reported. Conclusion: The bidirectional association between a psychiatric condition and medical illnesses could only be statistically confirmed for lung disease, diabetes, and heart disease. It is of interest to determine how reporting a psychiatric condition may affect the sequelae of health care use and treatment outcomes for patients with either of these comorbidities or a combination of them. PMID:28008416

  4. Timing of increased autistic disorder cumulative incidence.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Michael E; Paul, John F

    2010-03-15

    Autistic disorder (AD) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically identified in early childhood. Both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in its etiology. The number of individuals identified as having autism has increased dramatically in recent years, but whether some proportion of this increase is real is unknown. If real, susceptible populations may have exposure to controllable exogenous stressors. Using literature AD data from long-term (approximately 10-year) studies, we determined cumulative incidence of AD for each cohort within each study. These data for each study were examined for a changepoint year in which the AD cumulative incidence first increased. We used data sets from Denmark, California, Japan, and a worldwide composite of studies. In the Danish, California, and worldwide data sets, we found that an increase in AD cumulative incidence began about 1988-1989. The Japanese study (1988-1996) had AD cumulative incidence increasing continuously, and no changepoint year could be calculated. Although the debate about the nature of increasing autism continues, the potential for this increase to be real and involve exogenous environmental stressors exists. The timing of an increase in autism incidence may help in screening for potential candidate environmental stressors.

  5. Comparing center-specific cumulative incidence functions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ludi; Schaubel, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    The competing risks data structure arises frequently in clinical and epidemiologic studies. In such settings, the cumulative incidence function is often used to describe the ultimate occurrence of a particular cause of interest. If the objective of the analysis is to compare subgroups of patients with respect to cumulative incidence, imbalance with respect to group-specific covariate distributions must generally be factored out, particularly in observational studies. This report proposes a measure to contrast center- (or, more generally group-) specific cumulative incidence functions (CIF). One such application involves evaluating organ procurement organizations with respect to the cumulative incidence of kidney transplantation. In this case, the competing risks include (i) death on the wait-list and (ii) removal from the wait-list. The proposed method assumes proportional cause-specific hazards, which are estimated through Cox models stratified by center. The proposed center effect measure compares the average CIF for a given center to the average CIF that would have resulted if that particular center had covariate pattern-specific cumulative incidence equal to that of the national average. We apply the proposed methods to data obtained from a national organ transplant registry.

  6. Delphi technique used in laser incident surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Krystyn R.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Neal, Thomas A.

    2004-07-01

    There are several data sources for collecting laser incidents. All reviewed sources collect information differently for varying purposes. An effort was undertaken to combine laser exposure reporting data into a single database so that trends in laser incidents could be identified. A review of available datasets revealed significant disparities in laser exposure reporting. As a result, utilizing the existing database to predict personnel at increased risk for laser exposure and injury is challenging if not impossible. For example, many of the data sources do not contain information about physical examinations, diagnosis, or medical follow-up, which are important for studying laser injury outcomes. This study proposes using the Delphi Technique to identify relevant fields that should be collected for a laser incident database based on the experiences of three groups of United States Air Force (USAF) professionals: (1) Engineers (Bioenvironmental Engineers), (2) Health Physicists, and (3) Physicians (Ophthalmologists and Flight Surgeons). In broad terms, these three professional groups coordinate laser incident analyses and investigations. Knowing what information is most important for studying laser incidents is the first step in establishing an effective database that will assist in identifying occupations that are at high-risk for laser injury. Robust data sets obtained for analysis by these healthcare professionals can be an effective tool for laser injury prevention and management.

  7. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  8. Solar activity cycle and the incidence of foetal chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Gabrielle J.; Stoupel, Eliahu G.; Barkai, Gad; Chaki, Rina; Legum, Cyril; Fejgin, Moshe D.; Shohat, Mordechai

    1995-06-01

    We studied 2001 foetuses during the period of minimal solar activity of solar cycle 21 and 2265 foetuses during the period of maximal solar activity of solar cycle 22, in all women aged 37 years and over who underwent free prenatal diagnosis in four hospitals in the greater Tel Aviv area. There were no significant differences in the total incidence of chromosomal abnormalities or of trisomy between the two periods (2.15% and 1.8% versus 2.34% and 2.12%, respectively). However, the trend of excessive incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the period of maximal solar activity suggests that a prospective study in a large population would be required to rule out any possible effect of extreme solar activity.

  9. Soil Dust Aerosols and Wind as Predictors of Seasonal Meningitis Incidence in Niger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez Garcia Pando, Carlos; Stanton, Michelle C.; Diggle, Peter J.; Trzaska, Sylwia; Miller, Ron L.; Perlwitz, Jan P.; Baldasano, Jose M.; Cuevas, Emilio; Ceccato, Pietro; Yaka, Pascal; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa during the dry season, a period when the region is affected by the Harmattan, a dry and dusty northeasterly trade wind blowing from the Sahara into the Gulf of Guinea.Objectives: We examined the potential of climate-based statistical forecasting models to predict seasonal incidence of meningitis in Niger at both the national and district levels.Data and methods: We used time series of meningitis incidence from 1986 through 2006 for 38 districts in Niger. We tested models based on data that would be readily available in an operational framework, such as climate and dust, population, and the incidence of early cases before the onset of the meningitis season in January-May. Incidence was used as a proxy for immunological state.

  10. Prostate cancer incidence rates have started to decrease in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Ciatto, Stefano; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has dramatically changed the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Growing incidence rates have been documented in almost all western countries following the increased usage of PSA screening. In the United States after a period of huge increase in incidence, rates have decreased to values lower than those of the pre-PSA era. Similar changes have been documented also in the area of the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, where prostate cancer incidence rates doubled from the early 1990s to 2003 and afterwards decreased. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a decline in prostate cancer incidence in Italy following the screening-related increase.

  11. Airborne particle concentration and meteorologic conditions associated with pneumonia incidence in feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    MacVean, D.W.; Franzen, D.K.; Keefe, T.J.; Bennett, B.W.

    1986-12-01

    To elucidate the role of air quality on the occurrence of pneumonia in feedlot cattle, the following environmental values were measured at a feedlot: suspended particulates in 5 particle-size fractions, relative humidity, air temperature, and barometric pressure. Pneumonia incidence data were classified by the number of days the cattle had been at the feedlot (days on feed). The concentration of airborne particles, range of temperature, days on feed, and season of the year were associated with incidence of pneumonia in cattle. Pneumonia incidence rates were greatest both within 15 days of arrival at the feedlot and during the fall sampling periods. The incidence of pneumonia in the 16 to 30 days-on-feed group was closely associated with the concentration of particles 2.0 to 3.3 microns in diameter and the range of daily temperature when exposure occurred 15 days before the onset of disease in the fall and 10 days before in the spring.

  12. Incidence of childhood disease in Belarus associated with the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed Central

    Lomat, L; Galburt, G; Quastel, M R; Polyakov, S; Okeanov, A; Rozin, S

    1997-01-01

    Study of the childhood incidence of cancer and other diseases in Belarus is of great importance because of the present unfavorable environmental situation. About 20% of the children in the republic were exposed in various degrees to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Since 1987 increases in the incidence of most classes of disease have been reported, including the development of thyroid cancer. From 1987 to 1995, thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 424 children; its incidence having increased from 0.2 to 4.0/10(5) in 1995. According to preliminary data for 1996, 81 childhood cancer cases were reported. During 1995 there also were increases in the incidence of endocrine and dermatologic diseases and mental disorders. During the period 1987 to 1995 significant increases in the incidences of all illnesses were observed for children listed in the Chernobyl registry. The highest incidence rates were found in evacuated children and those residing in contaminated areas. There also were increased incidences of thyroid and digestive organ diseases among these children and in addition, high prevalence of chronic tonsillitis and adenoiditis was observed. Since 1990 an increase of autoimmune thyroiditis has been observed. The highest rates of hematopoietic tissue diseases were found in children born after the accident to irradiated parents. PMID:9467077

  13. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  14. Is your office prepared for an accidental needlestick or other unexpected exposure incident?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Roger E; Limes, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations and mandatory guidelines for preventing and managing needlestick incidents and other accidental exposures to bloodborne pathogens in healthcare facilities have been published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for more than 2 decades. Over the years, the incidence of official enforcement actions has declined and a complacency about the standards may have evolved in some dental offices. Some practitioners may not have written an occupational exposure incident protocol or made appropriate arrangements for medical laboratory testing and postexposure medical evaluation following an unexpected needlestick or other exposure incident in the office. When an unexpected event occurs, practitioners may become confused regarding the steps to be taken, and may turn to their local dental society or fellow practitioners for guidance. The provided information may or may not be complete, accurate and/or current. Implementation of periodic personnel training to prevent exposure incidents is extremely important and could ultimately save a dental practice thousands of dollars in expenses related to the occurrence of even one exposure incident, as well as save the life and/or career of a dental healthcare provider. This article does not comprehensively detail all infection control and bloodborne pathogen transmission prevention requirements for dental offices. Rather, the article provides suggestions for dental practitioners regarding the step by step management of exposure incidents, and provides resource information for additional steps that can be taken towards prevention, improved office compliance, and improved litigation protection.

  15. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  16. Evidence for Infection and Inflammation in Infant Deaths in a Country with Historically Low Incidences of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Törő, Klára; Vörös, Krisztina; Mészner, Zsófia; Váradi-T, Aletta; Tóth, Adrienn; Kovács, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Total infant mortality in Hungary has been higher than other European countries; however, the reported incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been lower. The low incidence of SIDS in Hungary has been supported by evidence obtained from the high rate of scene of death investigation and medico-legal autopsy mandatory since the 1950s. In this study, we compared the incidence of explained and unexplained infant deaths in Hungary for three periods: 1979–1989 when the incidence of SIDS was high in western Europe; 1990–1999 when the incidence of infant deaths was falling following introduction of the public health campaigns to reduce the risk factors associated with SIDS; and 2000–2012 to determine if introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b or pneumococcal vaccines or introduction of an earlier immunization schedule during this period had an effect on SIDS. Explained infant deaths fell consistently during this period; however, SIDS rose during the second period when the incidence of SIDS was falling in other European countries. Evidence for infection and/or inflammation was observed for the majority of SIDS during each period. The results are discussed in relation to campaigns to reduce infant mortality in Hungary and the introduction of new vaccines and an earlier immunization schedule in 2006. PMID:26379661

  17. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  18. Incident position detector for radiation beam

    SciTech Connect

    Koumura, N.; Niwa, Y.; Ogino, Y.; Ohwada, M.; Tanaka, K.

    1983-05-17

    Disclosed is a device for detecting an incident position of radiation beam, particularly, its center or center of gravity. The detecting device is provided with a scanning type radiation beam sensing device having a plurality of radiation sensing elements in a linear arrangement, and the sensing device is disposed in such a manner that its radiation receiving surface may be substantially coincided with an incident surface of the radiation beam to be detected. When reading an output from the sensing device, the time sequential output signals from the sensing device are split into predetermined sections, and the signal quantities among the sections are compared. In this way, the position of the center or the center of gravity of the radiation beam on the incident surface is detected with the position corresponding to a split point of the signals as the reference.

  19. Determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Most occupational health researchers have studied individual determinants, tending to forget those causes that are universally present. To explore some determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico, the authors carried out an ecological study with data from 32 Mexican states. Using ordinary least squares regression, they explored associations between occupational disease incidence and the Gini coefficient, the percentage of small and median enterprises, and migration. Income inequality and the combined percentage of small and median enterprises were negatively associated with the incidence of occupational disease. In Mexico, the "population strategy" of the prevention of occupational disease suggests that big enterprises' contexts are related to a higher occurrence of occupational diseases. Further studies using multilevel approaches are needed to establish whether these occupational diseases are related to exposures present in big or in small and median enterprises.

  20. Plasmonics metalens independent from the incident polarizations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Zhongyi; Li, Rongzhen; Zhang, Jingran; Li, Yan; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xinshun; Qu, Shiliang

    2015-06-29

    An ultra-thin, planar, broadband metalens composed of L-shaped gap antennas on a thin gold film has been designed, which is suitable for both circular and X/Y linear polarizations focusing simultaneously. The phase discontinuity of the cross-polarized transmisson light can be manipulated by the length and width of the L-shaped gap antenna accurately. The designed planar metalens posses a strong focusing ability over a large wavelength range, and the size of the focus spot is in sub-wavelength scale. The focal lengths change from 13 to 7 um with incident wavelength from 750 to 1300 nm, and the cause of dispersion is explained and analyzed in detail. The designed metalens can work very well at a wide incident angles of 0~45°. Most importantly, its unique focusing ability that is independent of the incident polarizations will greatly promotes the practical applications and developments of the metasurfaces.

  1. Incidence of bruxism in TMD population.

    PubMed

    Chandwani, Briesh; Ceneviz, Caroline; Mehta, Noshir; Scrivani, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study presented here was to examine the incidence of bruxism in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders. Two cohorts of patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders were evaluated. One group, composed of 163 patients, was asked specifically about the occurrence of bruxism, while the other group, composed of 200 patients, was not specifically asked about bruxism (self-reporting). The incidence of bruxism was only 20.5% for the group that only self-reported bruxism, while the incidence was 65% when asked specifically about bruxism. It is critical to ask specifically about bruxism. Patients are more likely to report bruxism when asked specifically about it. It is important to incorporate this as part of a TMD evaluation.

  2. Methods of responding to healthcare security incidents.

    PubMed

    Furnell, S; Gritzalis, D; Katsikas, S; Mavroudakis, K; Sanders, P; Warren, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the increasing requirement for security in healthcare IT systems and, in particular, identifies the need for appropriate means by which healthcare establishments (HCEs) may respond to incidents. The main discussion focuses upon two significant initiatives that have been established in order to improve understanding and awareness of healthcare security issues. The first is the establishment of a dedicated Incident Reporting Scheme (IRS) for HCEs, enabling the level and types of security incidents faced within the healthcare community to be monitored and advice appropriately targeted. The second aspect presents a description of healthcare security World Wide Web service, which provides a comprehensive source of advice and guidance for establishments when trying to address and prevent IT security breaches. The discussion is based upon work that is currently being undertaken with the ISHTAR (Implementing Secure Healthcare Telematics Applications in Europe) project, as part of the Telematics Applications for Health programme of the European Commission.

  3. The incidence and prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Donald S A; Cooper, David S

    2012-10-01

    The thyroid gland is the most common organ affected by autoimmune disease. Other autoimmune diseases, most notably type 1 diabetes mellitus, are increasing in incidence. It is unknown whether autoimmune thyroid diseases are following the same pattern. This review summarizes studies of autoimmune thyroid disease incidence and prevalence since 1950, not only for these measures of occurrences, but also for commenting on identified risk factors for thyroid autoimmunity. We find that incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease is currently higher than in historic series although the studies are so variable in design, patient population, disease definition, and laboratory methods that it is impossible to tell whether this difference is real. Further research is required to assess the possibility of changing disease patterns of autoimmune thyroid disease as opposed to simple changes in diagnostic thresholds.

  4. Oblique incidence effect on steering efficiency of liquid crystal polarization gratings used for optical phased array beam steering amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Jiazhu, Duan; Dayong, Zhang; Cangli, Liu; Yongquan, Luo

    2016-10-01

    A liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) is proposed that amplifies the steering angle of a liquid crystal optical phased array for non-mechanical beam steering, taking advantage of its high steering efficiency under normal incidence. However, oblique incidence may play an important role in the overall steering efficiency. The effect of oblique incidence on steering efficiency of a LCPG was analyzed by numerically solving the extended Jones matrix and considering propagation crosstalk. The results indicate that the outgoing laser beam is amplitude-modulated under the effect of oblique incidence and behaves as a sinusoidal-modulated amplitude grating, which diffracts certain energies to non-blazed orders. Over-oblique incidence may even eliminate the steering effect of the incident beam. The modulation depth of the induced amplitude grating was found to be proportional to the product of sinusoidal value of oblique incidence angle and the LC layer thickness, and inversely proportional to the periodic pitch length of the LCPG. Both in-plane incidence and out-of-plane incidence behave similarly to influence the steering efficiency. Finally, the overall steering efficiency for cascaded LCPGs was analyzed and a difference of up to 11 % steering efficiency can be induced between different LCPG configurations, even without considering the over-oblique incidence effect. Both the modulation depth and final steering efficiency can be optimized by varying the LC birefringence and layer thickness.

  5. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  6. The effect of dams and seasons on malaria incidence and anopheles abundance in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reservoirs created by damming rivers are often believed to increase malaria incidence risk and/or stretch the period of malaria transmission. In this paper, we report the effects of a mega hydropower dam on P. falciparum malaria incidence in Ethiopia. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted over a period of 2 years to determine Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence among children less than 10 years of age living near a mega hydropower dam in Ethiopia. A total of 2080 children from 16 villages located at different distances from a hydropower dam were followed up from 2008 to 2010 using active detection of cases based on weekly house to house visits. Of this cohort of children, 951 (48.09%) were females and 1059 (51.91%) were males, with a median age of 5 years. Malaria vectors were simultaneously surveyed in all the 16 study villages. Frailty models were used to explore associations between time-to-malaria and potential risk factors, whereas, mixed-effects Poisson regression models were used to assess the effect of different covariates on anopheline abundance. Results Overall, 548 (26.86%) children experienced at least one clinical malaria episode during the follow up period with mean incidence rate of 14.26 cases/1000 child-months at risk (95% CI: 12.16 - 16.36). P. falciparum malaria incidence showed no statistically significant association with distance from the dam reservoir (p = 0.32). However, P. falciparum incidence varied significantly between seasons (p < 0.01). The malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, was however more abundant in villages nearer to the dam reservoir. Conclusions P. falciparum malaria incidence dynamics were more influenced by seasonal drivers than by the dam reservoir itself. The findings could have implications in timing optimal malaria control interventions and in developing an early warning system in Ethiopia. PMID:23566411

  7. Changing annual incidence of hypothyroidism after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, 1951-1975

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E.

    1982-02-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism was analyzed in 4,553 hyperthyroid patients treated with I-131 between 1951 and 1975. The average annual rate of hypothyroidism during the first 7 yr after therapy increased continuously for each 5-yr period of treatment, from 3.6% for patients treated between 1951 and 1955 to 7.7% for patients treated during the period from 1971 though 1975 (p less than 0.001). The increase in the incidence of hypothyroidism was seen before the introduction of TSH assays and when allowance was made for thyroid gland size, the age of the patient, and the experience of the radiotherapist. The use of TSH assays has probably resulted in an earlier recognition of hypothyroidism, which may explain why the most marked rise in the incidence of hypothyroidism was observed after the introduction of TSH assays.

  8. Changing annual incidence of hypothyroidism after iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism, 1951-1975

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E.

    1982-02-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism was analyzed in 4,553 hyperthyroid patients treated with I-131 between 1951 and 1975. The average annual rate of hypothyroidism during the first 7 yr after therapy increased continuously for each 5-yr period of treatment, from 3.6% for patients treated between 1951 and 1955 to 7.7% for patients treated during the period from 1971 through 1975 (p<0.001). The increase in the incidence of hypothyroidism was seen before the introduction of TSH assays and when allowance was made for thyroid gland size, the age of the patient, and the experience of the radiotherapist. The use of TSH assays has probably resulted in an earlier recognition of hypothyroidism, which may explain why the most marked rise in the incidence of hypothyroidism was observed after the introduction of TSH assays.

  9. Design of a structure with low incident and viewing angle dependence inspired by Morpho butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Deng, Tao; Zhang, Di; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Morpho butterflies are well known for their brilliant iridescent colors, which arise from periodic arrays of scales. These brilliant colors have a low angle dependence, in contrast to similar phenomena that are commonly caused by the periodic structures. We designed a structure with a low incident and viewing angle dependence inspired by Morpho butterflies. This structure was studied using the finite-difference time-domain method. The lamellae distribution of tree-like structure was found to be the determining factor for producing a low incident angle dependence. Two advanced models were designed to produce a low viewing angle dependence. Model I was constructed using two layers of scales. The particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to construct Model II. The angle dependence of Model II exhibited a large viewing angle range under various incident angles. PMID:24305852

  10. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (−1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and

  11. Changing pattern of age-specific breast cancer incidence in the Swiss canton of Geneva.

    PubMed

    Bouchardy, Christine; Usel, Massimo; Verkooijen, Helena M; Fioretta, Gérald; Benhamou, Simone; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Schaffar, Robin; Vlastos, Georges; Wespi, Yves; Schäfer, Peter; Rapiti, Elisabetta

    2010-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use declined sharply after mid-2002, when the Women's Health Initiative trial reported an association between breast cancer occurrence and HRT. Hypothesized mechanism behind this association is that HRT promotes growth of pre-existing small tumors, leading to earlier tumor detection. We evaluated the impact of the sudden decline in HRT use on age distribution of breast cancer in Geneva. We included all incident breast cancer cases recorded from 1975 to 2006 at the Geneva cancer registry. We calculated mean annual incidence rates per 100,000 for 2 year periods for three age groups and assessed temporal changes by joinpoint regression. We compared age-specific incidence curves for different periods, reflecting different prevalence rates of HRT use. After increasing constantly between 1986 and 2002 among women aged 50-69 years [annual percent change (APC): +4.4, P < 0.0001], rates declined sharply after 2003 (APC: -6.0; P = 0.0264). Age-specific breast cancer rates changed dramatically with changes in prevalence of HRT use. During low HRT prevalence, breast cancer incidence increased progressively with age, when HRT prevalence was reaching its maximum (1995-2002), higher rates were seen in 60- to 64-year-old women, with a concomitant decrease in risk among elderly. After the sudden decline in HRT use, the incidence peak diminished significantly and incidence increased again with age. Following the abrupt decline in HRT use in Geneva, breast cancer incidence rates among post-menopausal women decreased considerably with striking changes in age-specific incidence rates before, during and after the peak in HRT prevalence.

  12. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (-1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and body weight

  13. Recording pressure ulcer risk assessment and incidence.

    PubMed

    Plaskitt, Anne; Heywood, Nicola; Arrowsmith, Michaela

    2015-07-15

    This article reports on the introduction of an innovative computer-based system developed to record and report pressure ulcer risk and incidence at an acute NHS trust. The system was introduced to ensure that all patients have an early pressure ulcer risk assessment, which prompts staff to initiate appropriate management if a pressure ulcer is detected, thereby preventing further patient harm. Initial findings suggest that this electronic process has helped to improve the timeliness and accuracy of data on pressure ulcer risk and incidence. In addition, it has resulted in a reduced number of reported hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  14. The incidence of urea cycle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Summar, Marshall L.; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency, are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6 million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about 113 new patients per year across all age groups. PMID:23972786

  15. Trends in Incidence of Common Cancers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Enayatrad, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Maryam; Salehiniya, Hamid; Karimirad, Mohammad Reza; Vaziri, Siavash; Mansouri, Fiezollah; Moudi, Asieh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in incidence of ten common cancers in Iran, based on the national cancer registry reports from 2004 to 2009. This epidemiological study was carried out based on existing age-standardized estimate cancer data from the national report on cancer registry/Ministry of Health in Iran. The obtained data were analyzed by test for linear trend and P ≥ 0.05 was taken as the significant level. Totals of 41,169 and 32,898 cases of cancer were registered in men and females, respectively, during these years. Overall age-standard incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population according to primary site weres 125.6 and 113.4 in males and females, respectively. Between 2004 and 2009, the ten most common cancers (excluding skin cancer) were stomach (16.2), bladder (12.6), prostate (11), colon-rectum (10.14), hematopoeitic system (7.1), lung (6.1), esophagus (6.4), brain (3.2), lymph node (3.8) and larynx (3.4) in males; and in females were breast (27.4), colon-rectum (9.3), stomach (7.6), esophagus (6.4), hematopoeitic system (4.9), thyroid (3.9), ovary (3.6), corpus uteri (2.9), bladder (3.2) and lung (2.6). Moreover, results showed that skin cancer was estimated as the most common cancer in both sexes. The lowest and the highest incidence in females and males were reported respectively in 2004 and 2009. Over this period, the incidence of cancer in both sexes has been significantly increasing (p<0.01). Like other less developed and epidemiologically transitioning countries, the trend of age-standardized incidence rate of cancer in Iran is rising. Due to the increasing trends, the future burden of cancer in the Iran is going to be acute with the expected increases in aging populations. Determining and controlling potential risk factors of cancer should hopefully lead to decrease in its burden.

  16. The Incidence of Conditional Statements in the Natural Speech of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Ann; Evely, Susan

    This study examines the incidence and character of conditional statements ("if...then") in the spontaneous speech of young children. Twenty-four pairs of siblings, ranging in age from 2.1 years to 7.3 years, were observed and recorded while interacting in their homes for a period of 1 hour. Sixty-nine statements including "if"…

  17. Development Patterns of Occupational Aspirations in Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gregg, Noel; Gemici, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the longitudinal development of occupational aspiration prestige scores over a 12-year period (Grade 8 to 8 years postsecondary) to better understand this aspect of career choice from adolescence into adulthood for people with high-incidence disabilities. A curvilinear trajectory was detected where aspirations increased during…

  18. Secular trends in fracture incidence in the UK between 1990 and 2012.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, R Y; Wyers, C E; Curtis, E M; Geusens, P P M M; van den Bergh, J P W; de Vries, F; Cooper, C; van Staa, T P; Harvey, N C

    2016-11-01

    We studied sex-specific incidence rates in a population 50 years or older in the UK. In the period of 1990-2012, the overall rate of fracture did not change, but there were marked secular alterations in the rates of individual fracture types, particularly hip and spine fractures in the elderly.

  19. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  20. Disparities Between Blacks and Whites in Stage at Diagnosis, Incidence, and Anatomic Subsite of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hobley, James; Lindsay II, Jerome A.; McGarrity, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Background A disparity in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality has been reported for black men and women in the United States. Objective To determine the magnitude and direction of temporal change in black/white disparity, by anatomic subsites of the colon and rectum. Design Population-based, epidemiologic study. Setting Pennsylvania, 1997–2002. Measurements Black/white ratios of the percentage of cases diagnosed at late stage and of age-adjusted incidence rates, by anatomic subsite, for four 3-year time periods. Results In 2000–2002, 54.6% of CRC cases among blacks were diagnosed at late stage, compared with 51.3% among whites. The percentage of cases in the cecum, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and recto-sigmoid diagnosed at a late stage was larger among blacks than among whites. The disparity in the percentage of cases diagnosed at a late stage in the colon and rectum, transverse colon, and descending colon increased during the study period (P<.05). In 2000–2002, incidence was greater among blacks (64.1/100,000) than among whites (59.8/100,000). Incidence for segments of the proximal colon tended to be higher among blacks than among whites. The disparity in the incidence in the transverse colon increased during the study period (P=.021), while the increase in the disparity in the appendix approached statistical significance (P=.051). Limitations The effect of race may have been confounded by unavailable data, including socioeconomic position. Conclusions The black/white disparity in the percentage of cases diagnosed at late stage increased during the study period. The disparity in the percentage of cases diagnosed at a late stage and incidence for the transverse colon also increased. Efforts to increase screening for CRC, especially among blacks, should be enhanced.

  1. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  2. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-05

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  3. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  4. The impact of roster changes on absenteeism and incident frequency in an Australian coal mine

    PubMed Central

    Baker, A; Heiler, K; Ferguson, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: The occupational health and safety implications associated with compressed and extended work periods have not been fully explored in the mining sector. Aims: To examine the impact on employee health and safety of changes to the roster system in an Australian coal mine. Methods: Absenteeism and incident frequency rate data were collected over a 33 month period that covered three different roster schedules. Period 1 covered the original 8-hour/7-day roster. Period 2 covered a 12-month period under a 12-hour/7-day schedule, and period 3 covered a 12-month period during which a roster that scheduled shifts only on weekdays, with uncapped overtime on weekends and days off (12-hour/5-day) was in place. Data were collected and analysed from the maintenance, mining, and coal preparation plant (CPP) sectors. Results: The only significant change in absenteeism rates was an increase in the maintenance sector in the third data collection period. Absenteeism rates in the mining and CPP sectors were not different between data collection periods. The increase in the maintenance sector may be owing to: (1) a greater requirement for maintenance employees to perform overtime as a result of the roster change compared to other employee groups; or (2) greater monotony associated with extended work periods for maintenance employees compared to others. After the first roster change, accident incident frequency decreased in the CPP sector but not in the other sectors. There was no effect on incident frequency after the second roster change in any sector. Conclusions: The current study did not find significant negative effects of a 12-hour pattern, when compared to an 8-hour system. However, when unregulated and excessive overtime was introduced as part of the 12-hour/5-day roster, absenteeism rates were increased in the maintenance sector. The combination of excessive work hours and lack of consultation with employees regarding the second change may have contributed to the

  5. Injury Types and Incidence Rates in Precollegiate Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Saluan, Paul; Styron, Joseph; Ackley, J. Freeland; Prinzbach, Arianna; Billow, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Background: With childhood sports opportunities continuing to increase at an enormous rate along with participation starting at younger ages, the number of female participants in sports has increased in paramount fashion over the past few decades. A review of the current literature reveals a very small number of studies (<30) that document specific injuries suffered by competitive female gymnasts. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the incidence of various injuries and injury rates for different gymnast levels among young precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period, from 1985 to 2005. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This institutional review board–approved study retrospectively evaluated young, precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period. Gymnasts were stratified into 1 of 4 competition levels based on the number of hours spent training. In addition to the frequency of injuries and hours trained, data collected on each gymnast included the following: age at the time of injury, body part injured, laterality of the injury, and diagnosis. Results: Over the 21-year period, 3681 new injuries were evaluated by a single physician. The injury incidence (2.155 per 1000 exposure hours) was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. There were 1,452,574 total exposure hours documented from training facility records. The injury rate per 1000 exposure hours was 2.859 for elite, 2.820 for high-level, 1.667 for intermediate, and 0.687 for novice gymnasts. The lower extremity was injured more often than the upper extremity (60.9% compared with 22.6% of total injuries). This difference was statistically significant across all levels. Conclusion: The injury incidence in this study was 2.155 per 1000 exposure hours. This was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. Although those studies only lasted 3 years or less, the injury rates can be directly compared because they are reported as

  6. Multifunctional periodic cellular metals.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Haydn N G

    2006-01-15

    Periodic cellular metals with honeycomb and corrugated topologies are widely used for the cores of light weight sandwich panel structures. Honeycombs have closed cell pores and are well suited for thermal protection while also providing efficient load support. Corrugated core structures provide less efficient and highly anisotropic load support, but enable cross flow heat exchange opportunities because their pores are continuous in one direction. Recent advances in topology design and fabrication have led to the emergence of lattice truss structures with open cell structures. These three classes of periodic cellular metals can now be fabricated from a wide variety of structural alloys. Many topologies are found to provide adequate stiffness and strength for structural load support when configured as the cores of sandwich panels. Sandwich panels with core relative densities of 2-10% and cell sizes in the millimetre range are being assessed for use as multifunctional structures. The open, three-dimensional interconnected pore networks of lattice truss topologies provide opportunities for simultaneously supporting high stresses while also enabling cross flow heat exchange. These highly compressible structures also provide opportunities for the mitigation of high intensity dynamic loads created by impacts and shock waves in air or water. By filling the voids with polymers and hard ceramics, these structures have also been found to offer significant resistance to penetration by projectiles.

  7. Periodic truss structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zok, Frank W.; Latture, Ryan M.; Begley, Matthew R.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the recognition of the enormous potential of periodic trusses for use in a broad range of technologies, there are no widely-accepted descriptors of their structure. The terminology has been based loosely either on geometry of polyhedra or of point lattices: neither of which, on its own, has an appropriate structure to fully define periodic trusses. The present article lays out a system for classification of truss structure types. The system employs concepts from crystallography and geometry to describe nodal locations and connectivity of struts. Through a series of illustrative examples of progressively increasing complexity, a rational taxonomy of truss structure is developed. Its conceptual evolution begins with elementary cubic trusses, increasing in complexity with non-cubic and compound trusses as well as supertrusses, and, finally, with complex trusses. The conventions and terminology adopted to define truss structure yield concise yet unambiguous descriptions of structure types and of specific (finite) trusses. The utility of the taxonomy is demonstrated by bringing into alignment a disparate set of ad hoc and incomplete truss designations previously employed in a broad range of science and engineering fields. Additionally, the merits of a particular compound truss (comprising two interpenetrating elementary trusses) is shown to be superior to the octet truss for applications requiring high stiffness and elastic isotropy. By systematically stepping through and analyzing the finite number of structure types identified through the present classification system, optimal structures for prescribed mechanical and functional requirements are expected to be ascertained in an expeditious manner.

  8. Analysis of immediate transfusion incidents reported in a regional blood bank

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Neto, Adriana Lemos; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is imperative when treating certain patients; however, it is not risk free. In addition to the possible transmission of contagious infectious diseases, incidents can occur immediately after transfusion and at a later time. Aims This study aimed to examine the immediate transfusion incidents reported in a regional blood bank in the state of Minas Gerais between December 2006 and December 2009. A retrospective quantitative epidemiological study was conducted. Data were obtained from 202 transfusion incident reports of 42 health institutions served by the blood bank. Data processing and analysis were carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results The rate of immediate transfusion incidents reported in the period was 0.24%; febrile non-hemolytic reactions were the most common type of incident (56.4%). The most frequent clinical manifestations listed in transfusion incident reports were chills (26.9%) and fever (21.6%). There was a statistically significant association (p-value < 0.05) between the infusion of platelet concentrates and febrile non-hemolytic reactions and between fresh frozen plasma and febrile non-hemolytic reaction. The majority (73.3%) of transfused patients who suffered immediate transfusion incidents had already been transfused and 36.5% of the cases had previous transfusion incident reports. Conclusions Data from the present study corroborate the implementation of new professional training programs aimed at blood transfusion surveillance. These measures should emphasize prevention, identification and reporting of immediate transfusion incidents aiming to increase blood transfusion quality and safety. PMID:23049336

  9. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee: Pesticide Incidents Workgroup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA formed this workgroup to assist in meeting its long-term goal of creating a publically-available framework that improves the reporting, quality and efficient use of pesticide incident data to ensure high-quality, science-based pesticide decisions.

  10. Oscillating cascade aerodynamics at large mean incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffum, Daniel H.; King, Aaron J.; El-Aini, Yehia M.; Capece, Vincent R.

    1996-01-01

    The aerodynamics of a cascade of airfoils oscillating in torsion about the midchord is investigated experimentally at a large mean incidence angle and, for reference, at a low mean incidence angle. The airfoil section is representative of a modern, low aspect ratio, fan blade tip section. Time-dependent airfoil surface pressure measurements were made for reduced frequencies of up to 1.2 for out-of-phase oscillations at a Mach number of 0.5 and chordal incidence angles of 0 deg and 10 deg; the Reynolds number was 0.9 x l0(exp 6). For the 10 deg chordal incidence angle, a separation bubble formed at the leading edge of the suction surface. The separated flow field was found to have a dramatic effect on the chordwise distribution of the unsteady pressure. In this region, substantial deviations from the attached flow data were found with the deviations becoming less apparent in the aft region of the airfoil for all reduced frequencies. In particular, near the leading edge the separated flow had a strong destabilizing influence while the attached flow had a strong stabilizing influence.

  11. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.14 Incident response. (a) An individual or entity required to register... select agent or toxin; inventory discrepancies; security breaches (including information systems); severe... response procedures must account for hazards associated with the select agent or toxin and...

  12. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players

    PubMed Central

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. Methods: A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at p<0.05, Odds ratios, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: 75.50% participated, 71.40% were 18 years old, and 71.40% were White. Injury was sustained by 83% of players with the knee (25%) most commonly injured. Injury incidence was 1.52 per player with an injury rate of 5.95 injuries per 1000 match playing hours. The Stability Index increased significantly (p=0.03) by 15% in the medial/lateral direction post-season compared to pre-season. Significant differences in post-test anterior posterior and overall static and front and front right dynamic stability between injured and uninjured players were noted. Risk factors for injury included the scrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only. PMID:25674136

  13. Delphi Technique Used in Laser Incident Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    incidents, some recommendations will be made in how this useful tool can be part of a surveillance program primarily based on Air Force Occupational ... Safety and Health Standard (AFOSH) Standard 48-139. Future studies are needed toward promoting the use of this tool but a better system for reporting

  14. The Incidence of Poverty among the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Marilyn

    1979-01-01

    Examines changes in incidences of poverty among the aged using measures that include in-kind public and private transfers, tax liabilities, and a share of net worth. Alternative poverty threshold indicators are suggested for use with the improved economic-status measure. These changes make possible alternative estimates of progress against poverty…

  15. Stephanie Clark: From Teaching Incident to Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Rita; Welty, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Steps taken by instructional designers in constructing a case study for use in faculty development are outlined, from the original case study idea to selection of an appropriate classroom incident, writing the case, and planning the teaching process (identifying relevant issues, preparing discussion questions, and organizing discussion). The text…

  16. Focusers of obliquely incident laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharskiy, A. V.; Danilov, V. A.; Popov, V. V.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Sisakyan, I. N.; Sayfer, V. A.; Stepanov, V. V.

    1984-08-01

    Focusing obliquely incident laser radiation along a given line in space with a given intensity distribution is treated as a problem of synthesizing a mirror surface. The intricate shape of such a surface, characterized by a function z= z (u,v) in the approximation of geometrical optics, is determined from the equation phi (u,v,z) - phi O(u,v,z)=O, which expresses that the incident field and the reflected field have identical eikonals. Further calculations are facilitated by replacing continuous mirror with a more easily manufactured piecewise continuous one. The problem is solved for the simple case of a plane incident wave with a typical iconal phi O(u,v,z)= -z cos0 at a large angle to a focus mirror in the z-plane region. Mirrors constructed on the basis of the theoretical solution were tested in an experiment with a CO2 laser. A light beam with Gaussian intensity distribution was, upon incidence at a 45 deg angle, focused into a circle or into an ellipse with uniform intensity distribution. Improvements in amplitudinal masking and selective tanning technology should reduce energy losses at the surface which results in efficient laser focusing mirrors.

  17. Incidence of herpes zoster, 1997-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Mullooly, J. P.; Riedlinger, K.; Chun, C.; Weinmann, S.; Houston, H.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated age-specific herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Health Plan (KPNW) during 1997-2002 and tested for secular trends and differences between residents of two states with different varicella vaccine coverage rates. The cumulative proportions of 2-year-olds vaccinated increased from 35% in 1997 to 85% in 2002 in Oregon, and from 25% in 1997 to 82% in 2002 in Washington. Age-specific HZ incidence rates in KPNW during 1997-2002 were compared with published rates in the Harvard Community Health Plan (HCHP) during 1990-1992. The overall HZ incidence rate in KPNW during 1997-2002 (369/100,000 person-years) was slightly higher than HCHP's 1990-1992 rate when adjusted for age differences. For children 6-14 years old, KPNW's rates (182 for females, 123 for males) were more than three times HCHP's rates (54 for females, 39 for males). This increase appears to be associated with increased exposure of children to oral corticosteroids. The percentage of KPNW children exposed to oral corticosteroids increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 3.6% in 2002. Oregon residents had slightly higher steroid exposure rates during 1997-2002 than Washington residents. There were significant increases in HZ incidence rates in Oregon and Washington during 1997-2002 among children aged 10-17 years, associated with increased exposure to oral steroids. PMID:15816149

  18. 78 FR 38878 - Critical Incident Stress Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... incident; (2) reduce their chance of developing a disorder such as depression, Post-Traumatic Stress... severe emotional and psychological distress, including Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the more immediate Acute Stress Disorder (ASD).\\2\\ There are concerns about the impact of exposure to...

  19. 42 CFR 73.14 - Incident response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... roles and lines of authority and communication, (6) Planning and coordination with local emergency... risk assessment.2 The incident response plan must be coordinated with any entity-wide plans, kept in... emergencies such as fire, gas leak, explosion, power outage, and other natural and man-made events. (c)...

  20. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bramble, Bev; Landine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian…

  1. Reducing Incidents of Cheating in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Mary; Gleason, Patricia; Misicka, Stacey

    This report describes a program implemented to raise the awareness of the dramatic increases of reported academic cheating, to influence the attitudes of the targeted students towards cheating, and ultimately to reduce incidents of cheating in the targeted classrooms. The targeted populations consisted of middle school students in growing…

  2. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  3. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  5. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  6. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  7. Evaluating Computer-Related Incidents on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothschild, Daniel; Rezmierski, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    The Computer Incident Factor Analysis and Categorization (CIFAC) Project at the University of Michigan began in September 2003 with grants from EDUCAUSE and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The project's primary goal is to create a best-practices security framework for colleges and universities based on rigorous quantitative analysis of…

  8. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  9. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  10. A midpoint assessment of the American Cancer Society challenge goal to decrease cancer incidence by 25% between 1992 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Sedjo, Rebecca L; Byers, Tim; Barrera, Ermilo; Cohen, Carmel; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Newman, Lisa A; Runowicz, Carolyn D; Thorson, Alan G; Thun, Michael J; Ward, Elizabeth; Wender, Richard C; Eyre, Harmon J

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the American Cancer Society (ACS) set a challenge goal for the nation to reduce cancer incidence by 25% over the period between 1992 and 2015. This report examines the trends in cancer incidence between 1992 and 2004. Trends were calculated using data on incident malignant cancer cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registry. Delay-adjusted incidence trends for all cancer sites; all cancer sites without prostate cancer included; all cancer sites stratified by gender, age, and race; and for 20 selected cancer sites are presented. Over the first half of the ACS challenge period, overall cancer incidence rates have declined by about 0.6% per year. The greatest overall declines were observed among men and among those aged 65 years and older. The pace of incidence reduction over the first half of the ACS challenge period was only half that necessary to put us on target to achieve the 25% cancer incidence reduction goal in 2015. New understandings of preventable factors are needed, and new efforts are also needed to better act on our current knowledge about how we can prevent cancer, especially by continuing to reduce tobacco use and beginning to reverse the epidemic of obesity.

  11. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  12. Solar cell angle of incidence corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Literature on solar array angle of incidence corrections was found to be sparse and contained no tabular data for support. This lack along with recent data on 27 GaAs/Ge 4 cm by 4 cm cells initiated the analysis presented in this paper. The literature cites seven possible contributors to angle of incidence effects: cosine, optical front surface, edge, shadowing, UV degradation, particulate soiling, and background color. Only the first three are covered in this paper due to lack of sufficient data. The cosine correction is commonly used but is not sufficient when the incident angle is large. Fresnel reflection calculations require knowledge of the index of refraction of the coverglass front surface. The absolute index of refraction for the coverglass front surface was not known nor was it measured due to lack of funds. However, a value for the index of refraction was obtained by examining how the prediction errors varied with different assumed indices and selecting the best fit to the set of measured values. Corrections using front surface Fresnel reflection along with the cosine correction give very good predictive results when compared to measured data, except there is a definite trend away from predicted values at the larger incident angles. This trend could be related to edge effects and is illustrated by a use of a box plot of the errors and by plotting the deviation of the mean against incidence angle. The trend is for larger deviations at larger incidence angles and there may be a fourth order effect involved in the trend. A chi-squared test was used to determine if the measurement errors were normally distributed. At 10 degrees the chi-squared test failed, probably due to the very small numbers involved or a bias from the measurement procedure. All other angles showed a good fit to the normal distribution with increasing goodness-of-fit as the angles increased which reinforces the very small numbers hypothesis. The contributed data only went to 65 degrees

  13. International measles incidence and immunization coverage.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert; Jolley, Damien

    2011-07-01

    Measles is exquisitely sensitive to immunization programs. We investigated the decline in measles incidence after immunization with 1 or 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV), with or without supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Using data from the World Health Organization, we modeled the impact of measles immunization using a negative binomial regression model. All countries offer measles immunization, and 192 of 193 countries offer a second dose of MCV (MCV2), using either a routine second dose, SIAs, or both. The incidence of measles fell from a median of 70.9 cases/100,000/year when coverage with a first dose of MCV (MCV1) was in the range of 0%-39% to a median of .9 cases/100,000/year when MCV1 coverage was 90%-100%, in both cases with no MCV2. Further reductions followed the introduction of MCV2 and SIAs. Modeling showed that each 1% increase in MCV1 coverage was followed by a 2.0% decrease in incidence in the same and following years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%-1.9%, and 2.1%-1.9%, respectively). For a second dose, a rise of 1% in MCV2 coverage was followed by a decrease in measles incidence by .4% (95% CI, .3%-.5%) in the same year and .3% (95% CI, .2%-.5%) in the following year. SIAs were followed by decreases of measles incidence by 40.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-33.8%) in the same year and 45.2% (95% CI, 51.1%-48.7%) in the following year. A herd immunity effect was demonstrated with MCV1 coverage of >80%, and SIAs are an extraordinarily effective strategy for measles control.

  14. Incidence of Posttraumatic Shoulder Dislocation in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szyluk, Karol J.; Jasiński, Andrzej; Mielnik, Michał; Koczy, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of shoulder joint dislocation has been estimated at 11–26 per 100 000 population per year. In our opinion, basic epidemiological data need to be continually updated in studies of large populations. To study the incidence of posttraumatic dislocation of the shoulder joint in the Polish population. Material/Methods We retrospectively investigated the entire Polish population between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2015. To identify the study group, data collected in the electronic database of the National Health Fund were used. The study group was divided into subgroups to detect possible differences in the incidence of shoulder dislocation with regard to age, sex, and season of the year (month) when the dislocation occurred. Results The cumulative size of the study sample was 192.72 million over the 5 years of the study. We identified 51 409 patients with first posttraumatic shoulder dislocation, at a mean age of 50.83 years (SD 21.12), from 0 to 104 years. The incidence of traumatic shoulder dislocations for the entire study group ranged from 24.75/100 000/year (number of posttraumatic shoulder dislocations per 100 000 persons per year) to 29.09/100 000/year, for a mean of 26.69/100 000/year. Conclusions In this study, the overall incidence of first-time posttraumatic shoulder dislocations in the Polish general population was 26.69 per 100 000 persons per year. These results are higher than estimates presented by other authors. It is necessary to study, regularly update, and monitor this problem in the general population. PMID:27777396

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Incident Syphilis in a Cohort of High-Risk Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Konda, Kelika A.; Roberts, Chelsea P.; Maguiña, Jorge L.; Leon, Segundo R.; Clark, Jesse L.; Coates, Thomas J.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Syphilis is concentrated among high-risk groups, but the epidemiology of syphilis reinfection is poorly understood. We characterized factors associated with syphilis incidence, including reinfection, in a high-risk cohort in Peru. Methods Participants in the NIMH CPOL trial were assessed at baseline and 2 annual visits with HIV/STI testing and behavioral surveys. Participants diagnosed with syphilis also attended 4- and 9-month visits. All participants underwent syphilis testing with RPR screening and TPPA confirmation. Antibiotic treatment was provided according to CDC guidelines. Reinfection was defined as a 4-fold titer increase or recurrence of seroreactivity after successful treatment with subsequent negative RPR titers. The longitudinal analysis used a Possion generalized estimating equations model with backward selection of variables in the final model (criteria P <0.02). Results Of 2,709 participants, 191 (7.05%) were RPR-reactive (median 1:8, range 1:1–1:1024) with TPPA confirmation. There were 119 total cases of incident syphilis, which included both reinfection and first-time incident cases. In the bivariate analysis, the oldest 2 quartiles of age (incidence ratio (IR) 3.84; P <0.001 and IR 8.15; P <0.001) and being MSM/TW (IR 6.48; P <0.001) were associated with higher risk of incident syphilis infection. Of the sexual risk behaviors, older age of sexual debut (IR 12.53; P <0.001), not being in a stable partnership (IR 1.56, P = 0.035), higher number of sex partners (IR 3.01; P <0.001), unprotected sex in the past 3 months (IR 0.56; P = 0.003), HIV infection at baseline (IR 3.98; P <0.001) and incident HIV infection during the study period (IR 6.26; P = 0.003) were all associated with incident syphilis. In the multivariable analysis, older age group (adjusted incidence ratio (aIR) 6.18; P <0.001), men reporting having sex with a man (aIR 4.63; P <0.001), and incident HIV infection (aIR 4.48; P = 0.008) were significantly associated

  16. Incidence rate of thyroid cancer in Neuquén (2001-2012).

    PubMed

    Cohen Sabban, Marcos Alejandro; Palmero, Cintia; Bertrand, Beatriz; Aiello, Ana; Ghiglioni, Amalia; Mac Donell, Maria Celina; Croci, Cecilia; Cabaeiro, Patricia; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan

    2014-11-01

    During the past decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has been reported worldwide. In Argentina there is no national cancer registry, and its incidence has therefore not been established. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of TC in the province of Neuquén and to compare it to that reported in the literature. The medical records of 229 patients admitted over a period of 12 years (2001 to 2012) were used for data analysis. Tumor size, age, sex, and histological type were evaluated. The study period was divided into four three-year periods, and differences in each of these features were analyzed. We found an incidence of 4.72/100,000 inhabitants/year, and almost all patients had papillary TC. TC was five times more common in females as compared to males (7.78 and 1.55 respectively). Mean tumor size was 22.2 ± 1.1 mm. Tumor size was significantly greater in men (31.8 ± 3.7 mm) than in women (20.4 ± 1.0 mm). When grouped by three-year periods, a higher number of cases was found in the last one (47, 49, 49 and 84 respectively). As regards tumor distribution by size, there was a significant decrease in mean tumor size in the fourth period and an increase in the proportion of tumors <10mm. We report an increase in TC incidence in the Argentinean province of Neuquén which is similar to the overall increase reported in the international literature.

  17. Melanoma incidence increase in the elderly of Catalonia with stabilization of incidence in the younger population: effect of prevention or consequence of immigration?

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Susana; Marcoval, Joaquim; Paradelo, Cristina; Azon, Antoni; Bartralot, Ramon; Bel, Susana; Bigata, Xavier; Boada, Aram; Campoy, Antoni; Carrera, Cristina; Curco, Neus; Dalmau, Joan; Ferrandiz, Carlos; Ferreres, Josep R.; Formigon, Manel; Gallardo, Fernando; Gonzalez, Alberto; Just, Miquel; Llistosella, Enric; Marti, Rosa M.; Nogues, M. Elena; Pedragosa, Ramon; Pujol, Josep A.; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Sabat, Mireia; Salleras, Montserrat; Smandia, Juan A.; Zaballos, Pedro; Plana, Estel; Malvehy, Josep

    2016-01-01

    All cases of MM diagnosed in 23 Hospitals in Catalonia, from 2000 to 2007 were recorded and its incidence calculated and adjusted for the European standard population through the direct method. The age standardized rate varied from 6.74 in 2000 to 8.64 in 2007 for all melanomas and from 4.79 to 5.80 for invasive MMs, the Breslow thickness being stable during the period. The increase in invasive melanoma incidence in the elderly was remarkable, the crude rate increasing from 11.04 (2000) to 15.49 (2007) in the 60–64 yr population, while remaining more stable from 3.97 in 2000 to 4.55 in 2007 for the age range of 30–34 ys or with a tendency to decrease from 5.1 in 2000 to 2.5 in 2007 for age range of 25–29 yr, age ranges much more affected by immigration. Despite the large immigrant population (nearly one million immigrants that arrived in Catalonia during the study period from countries with a low melanoma incidence), melanoma incidence in our region has risen considerably and this trend will likely persist in the near future. PMID:25367888

  18. Model Valid Prediction Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.

    2002-12-01

    A new concept, valid prediction period (VPP), is presented here to evaluate model predictability. VPP is defined as the time period when the prediction error first exceeds a pre-determined criterion (i.e., the tolerance level). It depends not only on the instantaneous error growth, but also on the noise level, the initial error, and tolerance level. The model predictability skill is then represented by a single scalar, VPP. The longer the VPP, the higher the model predictability skill is. A theoretical framework on the base of the backward Fokker-Planck equation is developed to determine the probability density function (pdf) of VPP. Verification of a Gulf of Mexico nowcast/forecast model is used as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of VPP. Power law scaling is found in the mean square error of displacement between drifting buoy and model trajectories (both at 50 m depth). The pdf of VPP is asymmetric with a long and broad tail on the higher value side, which suggests long-term predictability. The calculations demonstrate that the long-term (extreme long such as 50-60 day) predictability is not an "outlier" and shares the same statistical properties as the short-term predictions. References Chu P. C., L. M. Ivanov, and C.W. Fan, Backward Fokker-Plank equation for determining model predictability with unknown initial error distribution. J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2002. Chu P.C., L.M.Ivanov, T.M. Margolina, and O.V.Melnichenko, 2002b: On probabilistic stability of an atmospheric model to various amplitude perturbations. J. Atmos. Sci., in press Chu P.C., L.M. Ivanov, L. Kantha, O.V. Melnichenko and Y.A. Poberezhny, 2002c: The long-term correlations and power decay law in model prediction skill. Geophys. Res. Let., in press.

  19. Incidence of mandibular fractures in Eastern part of Libya.

    PubMed

    Elgehani, Rafa-Abdelsalam; Orafi, Maraai-Idris

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to evaluate the incidence of mandibular fractures in the eastern part of Libya and to present our experience in treating this type of facial fracture. We analyzed factors such as the incidence of age, sex, time distribution, cause and site of the fracture and the associated injuries in 493 patients presenting a total of 666 mandibular fractures. These patients were treated at Al-Jala Trauma Hospital, Benghazi-Libya between 2000 and 2006. The results were obtained from 432 males and 61 females, for which the ages ranged from 8 months to 72 years. The maximum number of the patients was recorded in 2004, and the busiest month was May. The most common cause of fracture was road traffic accidents and the most common site was the parasymphysis. Among those treated with closed reduction were 241 patients, whereas 201 patients were treated with open reduction. In conclusion, we found that the results were similar to most studies from developing countries and were in contrast to other studies. This may be due factors such as geography, socioeconomic trends, religion, road traffic legislation and seasons, which differ from one country to another. The period during which there was an embargo in Libya also appears to have affected the results.

  20. Incidence of renal stones among cadmium exposed battery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Järup, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-01-01

    The health effects of occupational exposure to cadmium were studied in a group of 902 workers employed for at least one year in a Swedish battery factory between 1931 and 1982. Data on air cadmium concentrations for different periods were combined with company employment records to obtain individual cumulative exposure estimates. A questionnaire including questions on the occurrence of kidney stones was sent to all 601 living workers and to the next of kin of 267 of the deceased workers. The response rate was 88%. 73 workers reported renal calculi that appeared after initial employment. A dose-response relation was found between cumulative exposure to cadmium and age standardised cumulative incidence. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were then computed for three exposure categories (< 250, 250- < 5000, and 5000 micrograms/m3 x years) standardised for calendar time, age, and smoking with the low exposure group as reference level. The IRRs were 1.0, 1.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.7-3.4], and 3.0 (95% CI 1.3-6.8) respectively. beta 2 Microglobulin measurements were available for 33 workers who formed stones; 13 of these workers had tubular proteinuria (beta 2 microglobulin > or = 34 micrograms/mmole creatinine)--that is, a prevalence of 39%. There was also an indication of a steeper dose-response relation among workers with tubular proteinuria. PMID:8343420