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Sample records for alex mud volcano

  1. Diversity and activity of benthic microbial communities at the North Alex mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarow, Dorothee; Feseker, Tomas; Schmitz, Ruth; Treude, Tina

    2010-05-01

    North Alex mud volcano, located on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan, is characterized by an active seepage center transporting pore fluids, hydrocarbons and gases from deep subsurface sources to the sediment-water interface. Surface sediments feature steep temperature gradient of 8.5°C m-1. We sampled the top 40 cm of the sediments at different locations between the center and rim of the mud volcano to study the diversity, activity, and physiological characteristics of benthic microorganisms. The sediments revealed the activity of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction with a mesophilic temperature optimum. Organisms involved in the process include consortia of methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2 group) and an unknown bacterial partner. Besides methanotrophic organisms the sediments harbored a variety of other bacterial and archaeal groups - including potentially thermophilic bacteria that could be involved in sulfur cycling. This poster presentation will provide an overview of microbial activities and community compositions of North Alex mud volcano sediments.

  2. 3-D Seismic Images of Mud Volcano North Alex, West-Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, J.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Gehrmann, R.; Sommer, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mud volcanoes within shelf areas are the bathymetric expression of mobilized overpressured sediments causing a feature of possible instability within the slope. Such a scene is given in the West-Nile Delta offshore Alexandria, Egypt at 700 m water depth. The West Nile Delta forms part of the source of the large turbiditic Nile Deep Sea Fan. Since the late Miocene sediments have formed an up to 10 km thick pile, which includes about 1 - 3 km of Messinian evaporates. The sediment load of the overburden implies strong overpressures and salt-related tectonic deformation. Both are favourable for fluid migration towards the seafloor guided by the fractured margin. Deep-cutting channel systems like the Rosetta channel characterize the continental slope. Bathymetric expressions of slides and numerous mud volcanoes in the area are expressions of active processes, which contribute to the ongoing modification of the slope. The western deltaic system, Rosetta branch, has formed an 80 km wide continental shelf. Here at 700 m water depth the mud volcano North Alex developed his circular bathymetric feature, which proved to be an active gas and mud-expelling structure. A grid of 2-D seismic profiles did reveal a large set of faults located within the main mud volcano as well as surrounding the structure. Internal faults are mainly related to episodic mud expulsion processes and continuous gas and fluid production. Deep cutting external faults surround the structure in a half circle shape. They can be tracked up to the seafloor indicating ongoing tectonic activity of the slope area. A recently build 3-D acquisition system suitable for mid-size research vessels was applied to collect an active seismic cube of the mud volcano. Based on the P-Cable design 11 parallel streamers (each 12.5 m long with 1.5 m group interval) were used to record shots of a single 210 cinch GI airgun. After stacking a 3D time migration within the cube provided final signal to noise reduction and filled

  3. Zonation of North Alex Mud Volcano Highlighted by 3-D Active and Passive Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, J.; Lefeldt, M. R.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Brueckmann, W.

    2010-12-01

    The West Nile Delta forms part of the source of the large turbiditic Nile Deep Sea Fan. Since the late Miocene sediments have formed an up to 10 km thick pile, which includes about 1 - 3 km of Messinian evaporates. The sediment load of the overburden implies strong overpressures and salt-related tectonic deformation. Both are favourable for fluid migration towards the seafloor guided by the fractured margin. The western deltaic system, Rosetta branch, has formed an 80 km wide continental shelf. Here at 700 m water depth the mud volcano North Alex (NA) developed his circular bathymetric feature, which proved to be an active gas and mud-expelling structure. A 3-D high-resolution multichannel seismic survey (IFM-GEOMAR P-Cable system) was completed across the mud volcano. 3-D time migration provided a 3-D data cube with a 6.25 m grid. Vertical seismic sections did reveal a large set of faults located within the main mud volcano as well as surrounding the structure. Internal faults are mainly related to episodic mud expulsion processes and continuous gas and fluid production. Deep cutting external faults surround the structure in a half circle shape. Horizontal amplitude maps (time slices) of indicate recent activity of these faults even up to the seafloor. High gas saturation of the sediments is indicated by inverted reflection events. In the centre the gas front cuts into the seafloor reflection while it dips down with increasing radius. Only with the small grid resolution inward dipping reflections become visible, which form an upward opened concave reflector plane underlying the top gas front. The interpretation assumes an oval lens shaped body (conduit) saturated with gas at the top of the mud volcano. It provides the upper termination of the mud chimney. This separation is further supported by passive seismic observations. Distant earthquakes can stimulate long-period harmonic oscillations in mud volcanoes. Such oscillations are detectable with three

  4. 3-D Seismic Images of Mud Volcano North Alex, West-Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Joerg; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Gehrmann, Romina; Sommer, Malte

    2010-05-01

    Mud volcanoes within shelf areas are the bathymetric expression of mobilized overpressured sediments causing a feature of possible instability within the slope. Such a scene is given in the West-Nile Delta offshore Alexandria, Egypt at 700 m water depth, ,which was studied during a RWE Dea funded research project. The West Nile Delta forms part of the source of the large turbiditic Nile Deep Sea Fan. Since the late Miocene sediments have formed an up to 10 km thick pile, which includes about 1 - 3 km of Messinian evaporates. The sediment load of the overburden implies strong overpressures and salt-related tectonic deformation. Both are favourable for fluid migration towards the seafloor guided by the fractured margin. Deep-cutting channel systems like the Rosetta channel characterize the continental slope. Bathymetric expressions of slides and numerous mud volcanoes in the area are expressions of active processes, which contribute to the ongoing modification of the slope. The western deltaic system, Rosetta branch, has formed an 80 km wide continental shelf. Here at 700 m water depth the mud volcano North Alex developed his circular bathymetric feature, which proved to be an active gas and mud-expelling structure. A grid of 2-D seismic profiles did reveal a large set of faults located within the main mud volcano as well as surrounding the structure. Internal faults are mainly related to episodic mud expulsion processes and continuous gas and fluid production. Deep cutting external faults surround the structure in a half circle shape. They can be tracked up to the seafloor indicating ongoing tectonic activity of the slope area. A recently build 3-D acquisition system (funded by RWE Dea) suitable for mid-size research vessels was applied to collect an active seismic cube of the mud volcano. Based on the P-Cable design 11 parallel streamers (each 12.5 m long with 1.5 m group interval) were used to record shots of a single 210 cinch GI airgun. Based on GPS positions of

  5. Development of a CSEM system for the electromagnetic investigation of the North Alex Mud Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölz, S.; Jegen, M.

    2009-04-01

    Controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) may be used to measure the electrical resistivity of the seafloor, which is indicative of the presence of fluids, gas or methane hydrates. A typical CSEM system consists of an electric dipole transmitter producing a time varying source field and electric dipole receivers, which measure the earth's response to this signal. Large CSEM systems are used in oil and gas exploration as well as methane hydrate detection, mapping electrical resistivity variations on a depth scale of up to several kilometers and a horizontal scale of several hundred meters to kilometers. For a detailed investigation of fluid and gas leakage of the North Alex Mud Volcano with a target area of about 1 km2, we developed a new high resolution CSEM system. The system consists of a lightweight electric dipole transmitter mounted on a small remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) and autonomous electric dipole receivers. Since the ROV is used to place the transmitter, electromagnetic signals may be transmitted from different directions with respect to the stationary receivers, allowing for a 3D-style tomographic experiment. With respect to the experiment at the North Alex, crucial points in the system development were: - Weight and power-supply of the transmitter, - mechanical stability of the transmitter's dipole antenna, - exact time synchronization (<1ms) between transmitter and receivers over an extended time period (14 days) - precise determination of distances (<5m) between transmitter and receivers. The new system, developed within the framework of the West Nile Delta Project funded by RWE Dea, was first tested on North Alex in November 2007. Ten receivers were deployed at a total of 16 receiver locations. During three successful dives with a Cherokee ROV (Ghent University, Belgium), the transmitter was deployed at a total of 80 locations. At each location the transmitter was placed stationary during transmissions and operated twice, once inline

  6. The resistivity structure of the North Alex Mud Volcano as derived from the interpretation of CSEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölz, Sebastian; Jegen, Marion

    2010-05-01

    Active mud volcanoes, where changing salinities of pore fluids, large temperature gradients and occurrences of free gas are frequently observed, should potentially exhibit significant variability in their internal resistivity structure. This is due to the fact that the bulk resistivity is mainly determined by the porosity of sediments and the electrical resistivity of the pore filling contained therein. The resistivity variations may be derived from controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) measurements. CSEM systems consist of an electric dipole transmitter producing a time varying source field and electric dipole receivers, which measure the earth's response to this signal. For a RWE Dea funded investigation of fluid and gas leakages at the North Alex Mud Volcano (NAMV) - a comparatively small target with an area of about 1km2 - we have developed a new high resolution CSEM system. The system consists of several autonomous electric dipole receivers and a lightweight electric dipole transmitter, which can be mounted on a small remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). The use of a ROV allows for a precise placement of the transmitter, which is a necessary prerequisite for the investigation of such a small target. Furthermore, electromagnetic signals may be transmitted from different directions with respect to the stationary receivers, allowing for a 3D-style tomographic experiment. In this experiment, ten receivers were deployed over the surface of NAMV at a total of 16 receiver locations. During three successful dives with a Cherokee ROV (Ghent University, Belgium), the transmitter was deployed at a total of 80 locations. Here we present first quantitative results consisting of apparent resistivity estimations from the CSEM time domain data for each transmitter-receiver pair. The apparent resistivity map shows that the NAMV indeed has a heterogeneous resistivity structure with apparent resistivities varying by at least a factor of two: low apparent resistivities

  7. Organic Geochemistry of Sediments, Interstitial Fluids and Light Volatile Hydrocarbon Gases from Giza and North Alex Mud Volcanoes, Western Nile Deep-Sea Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuzzo, Marianne; Elvert, Marcus; Heuer, Verena; Schmidt, Mark; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Scholz, Florian; Reitz, Anja; Hensen, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The West Nile Delta Project is a multi-disciplinary research project lead at IFM-GEOMAR (Kiel, Germany) and funded by RWE-DEA (Hamburg, Germany). It aims at investigating the sources and transport mechanisms of fluids and hydrocarbon gases seeping at two mud volcanoes (MVs) of the western Nile Deep-Sea Fan: North Alex and Giza MVs, and at the long-term monitoring of the seepage activity at these sites [1,2]. A comparative study of the organic geochemistry of sediments, gases and fluids was carried out in order to constrain (i) the sources of fluids, mud and gases erupted at these cold seeps, and (ii) the microbial hydrocarbon-oxidation processes associated with the extrusion of mud and gases. The molecular and stable isotope composition of light volatile hydrocarbon gases stripped from pore fluids reveal a clear thermogenic origin at the less active Giza MV and at the active centre of N. Alex MV. However, they probably originate from different sources, as shown by the distinct 13C-CH4 values of ~ -45‰ and -37‰VPDB at North Alex and Giza MVs, respectively, while 2H-CH4 values are similar (~ -228‰VSMOW). Away from the centre at North Alex MV the gases have variable compositions and are mainly produced by Archaea microbes. The microbial production of CH4 is probably sustained by the high content of the mud breccia sediments in labile organic matter. Indeed Total Organic Carbon content values are high (~ 1 and 2%weight) in MV sediments from both sites as well as at the reference site away from Giza MV, suggesting a main shallow (Plio-Pleistocene) sedimentary source. Consistently, the sedimentary lipids contain high amounts of compounds typically issued from terrestrial plants such as -amyrin and nC26:0 to nC30:0 fatty acids & alkenols. The hypothesis that labile terrestrial organic matter sustains intense microbial activity in the mud volcano sediments is supported by the extreme enrichment of pore fluids in a suite of Volatile Fatty Acids, in particular

  8. The use of rotational invariants for the interpretation of marine CSEM data with a case study from the North Alex mud volcano, West Nile Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölz, Sebastian; Swidinsky, Andrei; Sommer, Malte; Jegen, Marion; Bialas, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Submarine mud volcanos at the seafloor are surface expressions of fluid flow systems within the seafloor. Since the electrical resistivity of the seafloor is mainly determined by the amount and characteristics of fluids contained within the sediment's pore space, electromagnetic methods offer a promising approach to gain insight into a mud volcano's internal resistivity structure. To investigate this structure, we conducted a controlled source electromagnetic experiment, which was novel in the sense that the source was deployed and operated with a remotely operated vehicle, which allowed for a flexible placement of the transmitter dipole with two polarization directions at each transmitter location. For the interpretation of the experiment, we have adapted the concept of rotational invariants from land-based electromagnetics to the marine case by considering the source normalized tensor of horizontal electric field components. We analyse the sensitivity of these rotational invariants in terms of 1-D models and measurement geometries and associated measurement errors, which resemble the experiment at the mud volcano. The analysis shows that any combination of rotational invariants has an improved parameter resolution as compared to the sensitivity of the pure radial or azimuthal component alone. For the data set, which was acquired at the `North Alex' mud volcano, we interpret rotational invariants in terms of 1-D inversions on a common midpoint grid. The resulting resistivity models show a general increase of resistivities with depth. The most prominent feature in the stitched 1-D sections is a lens-shaped interface, which can similarly be found in a section from seismic reflection data. Beneath this interface bulk resistivities frequently fall in a range between 2.0 and 2.5 Ωm towards the maximum penetration depths. We interpret the lens-shaped interface as the surface of a collapse structure, which was formed at the end of a phase of activity of an older mud

  9. Mud volcanoes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komar, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    The term mud volcano is applied to a variety of landforms having in common a formation by extrusion of mud from beneath the ground. Although mud is the principal solid material that issues from a mud volcano, there are many examples where clasts up to boulder size are found, sometimes thrown high into the air during an eruption. Other characteristics of mud volcanoes (on Earth) are discussed. The possible presence of mud volcanoes, which are common and widespread on Earth, on Mars is considered.

  10. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  11. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  12. Isotopic composition of gases from mud volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Valysaev, B.M.; Erokhin, V.E.; Grinchenko, Y.I.; Prokhorov, V.S.; Titkov, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    A study has been made of the isotopic composition of the carbon in methane and carbon dioxide, as well as hydrogen in the methane, in the gases of mud volcanoes, for all main mud volcano areas in the USSR. The isotopic composition of carbon and hydrogen in methane shows that the gases resemble those of oil and gas deposits, while carbon dioxide of these volcanoes has a heavier isotopic composition with a greater presence of ''ultraheavy'' carbon dioxide. By the chemical and isotopic composition of gases, Azerbaidzhan and South Sakhalin types of mud volcano gases have been identified, as well as Bulganak subtypes and Akhtala and Kobystan varieties. Correlations are seen between the isotopic composition of gases and the geological build of mud volcano areas.

  13. Mud Volcanoes, Geodynamics and Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Panahi, Behrouz

    The purpose of the book is to link together knowledge obtained in the observation of mud volcanism and local seismicity. Geological, Seismological, Geophysical and Geochemical parameters are considered. The book represents the modern state of the art after many decades of observations. The book fills an editorial gap and improves knowledge in the fields of natural risks and energy resources. Mud volcanism occurs both onshore and offshore in many places of the world. Mud volcanic phenomena have been to date described by local monographs or by articles published in scientific journals and no books were published on topics highlighting the link between mud volcanism, geodynamics and seismicity.

  14. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  15. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution and characters of the mud diapirs and mud volcanoes off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song-Chuen; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Wang, Yunshuen; Chung, San-Hsiung; Chen, Po-Chun; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Liu, Char-Shine; Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Lee, Yuan-Wei

    2014-10-01

    In order to identify the mud diapirs and mud volcanoes off SW Taiwan, we have examined ∼1500 km long MCS profiles and related marine geophysical data. Our results show ten quasi-linear mud diapirs, oriented NNE-SSW to N-S directions. Thirteen mud volcanoes are identified from the multibeam bathymetric data. These mud volcanoes generally occur on tops of the diapiric structures. Moreover, the active mud flow tracks out of mud volcanoes MV1, MV3 and MV6 are observed through the high backscatter intensity stripes on the sidescan sonar images. The heights of the cone-shaped mud volcanoes range from 65 m to 345 m, and the diameters at base from 680 m to 4100 m. These mud volcanoes have abrupt slopes between 5.3° and 13.6°, implying the mudflow is active and highly viscous. In contrast, the flat crests of mud volcanoes are due to relative lower-viscosity flows. The larger cone-shaped mud volcanoes located at deeper water depths could be related to a longer eruption history. The formation of mud diapirs and volcanoes in the study area are ascribed to the overpressure in sedimentary layers, compressional tectonic forces and gas-bearing fluids. Especially, the gas-bearing fluid plays an important role in enhancing the intrusion after the diapirism as a large amount of gas expulsions is observed. The morphology of the upper Kaoping Slope is mainly controlled by mud diapiric intrusions.

  17. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  18. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  19. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  20. The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidov, Tofig

    2014-05-01

    As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts

  1. Imaging mud fluid conduits of the Gunshuiping mud volcano with Electric Resistivity Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ling-Rong; Lin, Ting-Li; Chang, Ping-Yu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted the resistivity survey at the Gunshuiping mud volcano and produced a 3D model in order to delineate the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. The Gunshuiping mud volcano is located in a 175-m × 90-m plateau in Southwest of Taiwan. There are three main mud-volcano craters: craters 1, 2 and 3. Crater 3 is active and the others are inactive. We conducted thirteen survey lines using the Wenner configuration to obtain the resistivity profile images. The lengths of the lines are about 155 m and 60 m, which can resolve the resistivity image down to 30 m and 10 m in depth, respectively. The results appeared that there is a vertical structure under the crater 3, and we suggest that it is the mud-fluid conduit. There is a chamber at depth between 3 and 14 m, and we interpret it is the temporary storage of mud fluid during the erupting process. Beneath the craters 1 and 2, there is a near-surface, horizontal conduit connecting the craters 1 and 2. At depth between 15 and 25 m, the vertical conduit beneath the crater 3 and the horizontal conduit beneath the craters 1 and 2 are connected. The resistivity images clearly delineate the conduit underneath the craters and suggest that the crater 3 is the main erupting conduit, which is consistent with the surface features, in the Gunshuiping mud volcano system.

  2. THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND LOOP ROAD. ACIDIC HOT SPRINGS HAVE REDUCED THE UNDERLYING LAVA TO A FINE CLAY, PRODUCING AN AREA OF BOILING MUD. THE ODOR OF ROTTEN EGGS IS FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS. - Grand Loop Road, Forming circuit between Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Junction, Madison Junction, Old Faithful, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  3. Multibeam Bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Andreas; Rathlau, Rike; Schenke, Hans Werner

    2005-03-01

    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano is a natural laboratory to study geological, geochemical, and ecological processes related to deep-water mud volcanism. High resolution bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano was recorded during RV Polarstern expedition ARK XIX/3 utilizing the multibeam system Hydrosweep DS-2. Dense spacing of the survey lines and slow ship speed (5 knots) provided necessary point density to generate a regular 10 m grid. Generalization was applied to preserve and represent morphological structures appropriately. Contour lines were derived showing detailed topography at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano and generalized contours in the vicinity. We provide a brief introduction to the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano area and describe in detail data recording and processing methods, as well as the morphology of the area. Accuracy assessment was made to evaluate the reliability of a 10 m resolution terrain model. Multibeam sidescan data were recorded along with depth measurements and show reflectivity variations from light grey values at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano to dark grey values (less reflective) at the surrounding moat.

  4. Mud volcanoes: Indicators of stress orientation and tectonic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the use of specific mud volcano features (i.e., elongated calderas, aligned vents and elongated volcanoes) as potential indicators of tectonic stress orientation. The stress indicator principles, widely recognised for magmatic systems, have been discussed and applied to mud volcano settings such as in the Northern Apennines and the Azerbaijan Greater Caucasus, as well as in other instances where the analysis was fully based on a remote sensing study. The results of these applications are promising, the obtained maximum horizontal stress (SH) directions generally showing a good correlation with those determined in the upper crust by classical methods (i.e., earthquake focal mechanism solutions, well bore breakouts). Therefore, stress information from mud volcanoes could be used as a proxy for stress orientation (1) where stress data is lacking, (2) where settings are inaccessible (i.e., underwater or the surface of planets), or simply (3) as supplementary stress indicators. This study also pays special attention to structural elements that may control fluid expulsion at various length scales, and pathways that should have spawned the mud volcanoes and controlled their paroxysmal events and eruptions. Different types of sub-planar brittle elements have been found to focus fluid flow rising up-through fold cores, where the vertical zonation of stresses may take part in this process by creating distinctive feeder fracture/fault sets. On a regional scale, mud volcanoes in active fold-and-thrust belts may occur over wider areas, such as the prolific mud volcanism in Azerbaijan, or may cluster along discrete structures like the steep Pede-Apennine thrust in the Northern Apennines, where the generation of overpressures is expected to establish a positive feedback loop allowing for fault movement and mud volcanism.

  5. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  6. Geochemical characterization of the Nirano Mud Volcano Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Cantucci, Barbara; Ricci, Tullio; Conventi, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    Mud volcanoes, among fluid venting structures, are the most important phenomena related to natural seepage from the Earth's surface. The occurrence of mud volcanoes is controlled by several factors, such as tectonic activity and continuous hydrocarbon accumulation in a reservoir. Mud volcanoes in Italy occur along the external compressive margin of the Apennine chain. These mud volcanoes are usually small and unspectacular, when compared to other world examples. They rarely exhibit the periodic explosions, which is often related to important seismic activity. The Nirano Mud Volcano Field (NMVF) is located in the western sector of the Modena Apennine margin (Italy), which belongs to the Northern Apennines. The NMVF occurs over the crest of a thrust anticline associated with the main Pede-Apennine thrust and represents a good example of an onshore relationship between a mud volcano caldera structure and active thrust deformation, even if the fluid pathways are still not well understood at depth. The mud volcanoes are distributed along an area of about 10 ha, inside of the wider Natural Reserve, and are situated at the bottom of a wide sub-circular depression. The NMVF is currently formed by four main vents composed of a number of individual active cones (or gryphons) defining structural alignments trending ENE-WSW. A geochemical soil gas survey of 230 CO2 and CH4 fluxes and 150 CO2, CH4, Rn, He, H2 concentration measurements has been carried out inside the NMVF. Moreover, the fluid emissions from 4 active cones located in different sectors of NMVF have been sampled for chemical and isotopical analysis of water and free gas. The distribution of pathfinder elements as 222Rn, He e H2 has been studied in order to identify potential faults and/or fractures related to preferential migration pathways and the possible interactions between reservoir and surface. Soil gas data highlight two zones characterized by higher values, localized in the WSW and ENE of the NMVF area. In

  7. Triggering and dynamic evolution of the LUSI mud volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensen, H.; Mazzini, A.; Akhmanov, G. G.; Aloisi, G.; Planke, S.; Sørenssen, A.; Istadi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are geologically important manifestations of vertical fluid flow and mud eruption in sedimentary basins worldwide. Their formation is predominantly ascribed to release of overpressure from clay- and organic- rich sediments, leading to impressive buildup of mud mountains in submarine and subaerial settings. Here we report data from two fieldworks on a newly born mud volcano named LUSI eruption in Eastern Java (Indonesia). The eruption site appears close to an active magmatic complex in a backarc sedimentary basin in Indonesia. Its specific location results in a high background temperature gradient that triggers mineralogical transformations and geochemical reactions at shallow depth. The eruption of 100 deg.C mud and gas that started the 29th of May 2006 flooded a large area within the Sidoarjo village in Northeast Java. Thousands of people have so far been evacuated and, since the initial eruption, the flow rate escalated from 5000 to 120,000 m3/d during the first eleven weeks. Then the erupted volume started to pulsate between almost zero and 120,000 m3/d in the period August-September, whereas it increased dramatically following swarms of earthquakes in September, before reaching almost 180,000 m3/d in December 2006. Fifteen months after the initial burst, LUSI is still vigorously erupting up to 111,000 m3/d, the average subsidence of the area reached 11 m. Seismic images show that a pre-existing structure was present before the eruption. Based on geochemical and field results, we propose a mechanism where the eruptions started following the 27th of May earthquake due to fracturing and accompanied depressurization of >100 deg.C pore fluids from > 1700 m depth released from a structure in already critical conditions. This resulted in the formation of a quasi-hydrothermal system with a geyser-like surface expression and with an activity influenced by the regional seismicity.

  8. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  9. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  10. Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud Volcano Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.

    2013-08-01

    Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  11. The Sirente crater, Italy: Impact versus mud volcano origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, Francesco

    2006-03-01

    The Sirente crater is a circular structure with a diameter of ˜80 m. The rim deposit is an inverse-graded, matrix-supported breccia. Sedimentological features of the rim deposit suggest that the crater is not related to an explosion or violent mechanical displacement. The structure and texture of the deposit exhibit a primary sedimentary character. The rim deposits do not contain artifacts and do not show evidence of reworking. A multistage formation is reconstructed for the rim growth and associated deposits. The geometry and sedimentology of the deposits indicate that they were produced by the extrusion and accumulation of mudflow deposits. The dominant ejection mechanism was low mud fountains and the transport medium was water. Petrographic and geochemical evidence does not indicate any physical or cryptic trace of an extraterrestrial body. The most realistic agent that explains the observed effects is a rapid local emission of mud and/or water. Geological processes capable of producing these features include piping sinkholes or, more probably, "caldera"-type mud volcanoes, which may result from underground water-table perturbation and/or decompression of deep CO2/hydrocarbon gas reservoirs due to tectonic deformation or faulting activity during a seismic event. In both cases, the name "crater" for this geological form may be maintained, but there is no compelling evidence for an impact origin. In this paper, the scientific literature on the Sirente crater is reconsidered in the light of new morphological, sedimentological, geochemical, and archaeological data. A new mechanism is proposed involving mud-fountaining.

  12. Organic chemical composition of mud from the LUSI mud volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbauer, R. J.; Campbell, P.; Lam, A.

    2009-12-01

    Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia is the site of LUSI, a terrestrial mud volcano that has been erupting since May 29, 2006. In response to a U.S. Department of State request, the U.S. Geological Survey has been assisting the Indonesian Government to describe the geological and geochemical aspects and potential health risk of the mud eruption. We report here on the organic chemical composition of the mud. Organic chemical analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy following organic extraction by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and compound fractionation by adsorption chromatography. There is a petroliferous component in the mud that is fresh, immature, and nonbiodegraded. There is a complete suite of n-alkanes with a bell-shaped pattern typical of fresh petroleum with a Cmax around C20. The alkane content ranges from 0.12 to 1.01 mg/kg dry mud. The presence of certain hopanes (i.e. 17 α,21β(H)-30-norhopane and 17α,21β(H)-hopane) is also indicative of the presence of oil. The proportions of other biomarker compounds (pristane/phytane = 2.4) and the dominance of the C27 sterane (5α(H),14α(H),17α(H)-chlolestane) suggest that oil formed under oxic conditions and has a likely coastal marine or terrigenous source. The presence of oleanane indicates a Cretaceous or younger age for the petrogenic material. These geochemical parameters are consistent with Indonesian oil derived from Tertiary marlstone source rocks that contained kerogen deposited under oxic conditions, probably the upper Miocene Klasafet Formation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present and range in content from 0.1 to 2.2 mg/kg dry mud. The low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, in particular, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalene are dominant except for perylene which is ubiquitous in the environment. The presence of both parent and higher homologue PAHs indicate a petrogenic rather than combustion source. PAHs are known carcinogens but toxicity data in sediments are

  13. Active mud volcanoes on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan—first results from the P362/2 cruise of R/V Poseidon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feseker, Tomas; Brown, Kevin R.; Blanchet, Cecile; Scholz, Florian; Nuzzo, Marianne; Reitz, Anja; Schmidt, Mark; Hensen, Christian

    2010-06-01

    In February 2008, cruise P362/2 was undertaken aboard R/V Poseidon to the Giza and North Alex mud volcanoes (MVs) on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan. Emitted fluids were strongly depleted in chloride and rich in hydrocarbons, predominantly of thermogenic origin. In-situ sediment temperature measurements indicate extremely high and moderate levels of activity for the North Alex MV and Giza MV, respectively, and suggest rapid changes from dormant to active stages. Both the physical properties of core sediments (e.g., color and magnetic susceptibility), and their assemblages of micro- and nannofossils point to different sources for the two mud volcanoes. Biostratigraphic dating suggests source depths of 2,100-2,450 mbsf for the Giza MV and 1,150-1,550 mbsf for the North Alex MV. Very high temperatures of up to 70°C in shallow sediments at the North Alex MV can be explained only if the fluid source were warmer and deeper than the sediment source.

  14. The geological and geochemical study of the mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect

    Guliyev, I.A.; Aliyev, A.A.; Rahmanov, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Azerbaijan is a classic region for the study of mud volcanism. Of the 700 mud volcanoes known in the world, 220 are in Azerbaijan. These are of great interest, not least in relation to oil and gas exploration since they give information on subsurface sediments beyond the reach of drilling. Mud volcanoes are clearly visible on satellite images. They are confined to structural lineaments and associated fractures. Changes in the morphology of some mud volcanoes post-eruption can be detected from a series of images pre-dating and post-dating eruptions. Mud volcanoes are notable for gradients of temperature that are by an order of magnitude or a factor of 102 greater than the temperature gradients established elsewhere. The gases of mud volcanoes consist mainly of methane (95-100%). There are small amounts of C{sub 2-6}, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, He and Ar. The isotopic composition of carbon (ICC) within the methane varies from -61.29. to -35.W{close_quotes} which is isotopically heavier than the methane from producing fields. The ICC of the CO{sub 2} has a very wide range (from -49.6% to +23.1%), indicating several sources of its formation. The isotopically superheavy CO{sub 2} (+5%) is especially interesting. Oils from mud volcanoes are typically severely biodegraded. Their ICC ranges from -24.76% to -28.2%. A relationship between {partial_derivative}{sup l3}C of oils and ages of accumulations has been established. Waters of mud volcanoes are lightly mineralised, containing chiefly bicarbonates and sodium. The hydrogen composition of the water is abnormally heavy. Ejected rocks from mud volcanoes range in age from Cretaceous - Pliocene. Their study suggests that deeply buried reservoirs maintain good poroperm characteristics because of relatively little catagenesis.

  15. Mud Volcanoes from the Beaufort Sea to the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Dallimore, S.; Melling, H.; Liu, C. S.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2015-12-01

    The detailed morphology of five submarine mud volcanoes were surveyed using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Mud volcanoes are constructional features built by extrusion of gas, subsurface fluids and fine-grained sediment. Two surveys covering four submarine mud volcanoes were conducted on the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. A survey of one mud volcano was conducted on the Taiwanese Ocean Research V in the South China Sea, SE of Taiwan. The AUV carried a multibeam sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a110 kHz sidescan, and obtained overlapping multibeam bathymetric coverage at a vertical resolution of 0.15 m with a horizontal footprint of 0.9 m and chirp seismic-reflection profiles with a vertical resolution of 0.11 m. Mud volcanoes were either flat topped or conical. The conical mud volcano off Taiwan had a diameter of ~2 km and 10° side slopes; the conical feature in the Beaufort Sea had a diameter of ~1.5 km and 4° side slopes. The sides of the conical mud volcanoes were smooth, suggesting they were formed by sediment flows that emanate from a vent on their crests. The flanks of the conical mud volcanoes characteristically had very low acoustic reflectivity, but one single high reflectivity trail from the crest of the Beaufort Sea mud volcano indicates a recent flow. Three mud volcanoes in the Beaufort Sea formed circular, flat-topped plateaus that are up to ~1.1 km in diameter and elevated up to 30 m from the surrounding seafloor. The fine scale morphology and reflectivity on these plateaus show low relief, concentric, and ovoid circles that appear to be mud boils probably associated with eruptive events of varying ages at shifting vent sites. The different mud volcano shapes are attributed to variations in the viscosity of the erupting sediment slurries and may represent a sequential morphology, which is altered by shifts in venting position over

  16. Mud Volcanoes - A New Class of Sites for Geological and Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C.C.; Oehler, D.Z.; Baker, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Mud volcanoes provide a unique low-temperature window into the Earth s subsurface - including the deep biosphere - and may prove to be significant sources of atmospheric methane. The identification of analogous features on Mars would provide an important new class of sites for geological and astrobiological exploration. We report new work suggesting that features in Acidalia Planitia are most consistent with their being mud volcanoes.

  17. DInSAR Analysis Reveals Bulging of Azerbaijan Mud Volcano Edifices Before an Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido

    2015-05-01

    Mud volcanism consists in the surface extrusion of gases, saline waters and mud breccias, which produce conical edifices of various sizes with morphology similar to that of magmatic volcanoes. In this work, DInSAR technique has been used to investigate the ground deformation related to the activity of Azerbaijan mud volcanoes during the period October 2003-November 2005. This work focuses on two important deformation events at the Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara-Zira mud volcanoes. The ground deformations at mud volcanoes are generally originated by fluid pressure and volume variations in the reservoir. The observed deformation pattern is characterized by pre-eruptive inflation that reaches a cumulative value of up to 20 cm at Ayaz-Akhtarma in about two years. Similar pre-eruptive bulging has been observed at magmatic volcanoes, where uplift is typically associated with magma intrusion. We conclude that mud and magmatic volcanoes display some similarities in the behavior of ground deformation during pre-eruptive stages.

  18. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yao-Chang; Sracek, Ondra; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Yang, Huai-Jen; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ(18)O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water-rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of organic matter among the mud volcanoes being examined. Because arsenate concentration in the mud fluids was found to be independent from geochemical factors, it was considered that organic matter may induce arsenic mobilization through an adsorption/desorption mechanism with humic substances under reducing conditions. Organic matter therefore plays a significant role in the mobility of arsenic in mud volcanoes. PMID:22809631

  19. Mud volcanoes in central Italy: Subsoil characterization through a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainone, M. L.; Rusi, S.; Torrese, P.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanoes are common geological phenomenons observed worldwide as in Italy. They are well described in the scientific literature for their morphological, tectonic and hydrogeological features. They represent not only a relevant geological and geomorphological interest but also not negligible elements of hazard and risk associated with the presence of soft and pliable sediments and with the possible unexpected emission of gas and mud. Therefore, the understanding of their structure and hydrogeological circuits in the subsurface is an important key to define hazard and risk conditions in the adjacent areas. This paper deals with a multidisciplinary study including geophysical and hydrochemical surveys undertaken at the Pineto (central Italy) mud volcano site to achieve an interpretative conceptual model explaining the shallow upward migration of deep mud fluids. Shallow electrical and seismic imaging of the mud volcano was obtained using two dimensional and three dimensional (2D-3D) electrical resistivity tomography and 2D reflection seismic surveys. The hydrochemical properties of the rising fluids were assessed by means of seasonal measurements of the chemical-physical parameters, the concentrations of major ions, and some natural isotopes. This mud volcano or mud lump appears as a dome of about 15 × 10 m in size. The height of the crater is 2 m approximately, while the diameter of the crater is 2.5 m. Emission of fluids and solids (cold brine, mud, gas) occurs from this crater. Upper Pliocene-lower Pleistocene foredeep pelitic deposits (over-compacted clays with silty-sandy levels) overlain by clayey-silty deposits crop out in the area. The survey results seem to reveal that the uprising of deep fluids does not occur exactly below the mud volcano at present. Instead, a high conductivity body is present within a fractured zone in the pelitic deposits at 60 m approximately to the ENE. The probable occurrence of a high permeability layer approximately between 20

  20. Preliminary Analytical Results for a Mud Sample Collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2008-01-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

  1. Microbial methane turnover at mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, H.; Duarte, J.; Hensen, C.; Omoregie, E.; Magalhães, V. H.; Elvert, M.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Kopf, A.; Boetius, A.

    2006-11-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is a tectonically active area of the European continental margin and characterised by a high abundance of mud volcanoes, diapirs, pockmarks and carbonate chimneys. During the R/V SONNE expedition "GAP-Gibraltar Arc Processes (SO-175)" in December 2003, several mud volcanoes were surveyed for gas seepage and associated microbial methane turnover. Pore water analyses and methane oxidation measurements on sediment cores recovered from the centres of the mud volcanoes Captain Arutyunov, Bonjardim, Ginsburg, Gemini and a newly discovered, mud volcano-like structure called "No Name" show that thermogenic methane and associated higher hydrocarbons rising from deeper sediment strata are completely consumed within the seabed. The presence of a distinct sulphate-methane transition zone (SMT) overlapping with high sulphide concentrations suggests that methane oxidation is mediated under anaerobic conditions with sulphate as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and sulphate reduction (SR) rates show maxima at the SMT, which was found between 20 and 200 cm below seafloor at the different mud volcanoes. In comparison to other methane seeps, AOM activity (<383 mmol m -2 year -1) and diffusive methane fluxes (<321 mmol m -2 year -1) in mud volcano sediments of the Gulf of Cadiz are low to mid range. Corresponding lipid biomarker and 16S rDNA clone library analysis give evidence that AOM is mediated by a mixed community of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and associated sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the studied mud volcanoes. Little is known about the variability of methane fluxes in this environment. Carbonate crusts littering the seafloor of mud volcanoes in the northern part of the Gulf of Cadiz had strongly 13C-depleted lipid signatures indicative of higher seepage activities in the past. However, actual seafloor video observations showed only scarce traces of methane seepage and associated biological processes at the seafloor. No

  2. Novel microbial communities of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano and their role as a methane sink.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Helge; Lösekann, Tina; de Beer, Dirk; Elvert, Marcus; Nadalig, Thierry; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Sauter, Eberhard J; Schlüter, Michael; Klages, Michael; Foucher, Jean Paul; Boetius, Antje

    2006-10-19

    Mud volcanism is an important natural source of the greenhouse gas methane to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Recent investigations show that the number of active submarine mud volcanoes might be much higher than anticipated (for example, see refs 3-5), and that gas emitted from deep-sea seeps might reach the upper mixed ocean. Unfortunately, global methane emission from active submarine mud volcanoes cannot be quantified because their number and gas release are unknown. It is also unclear how efficiently methane-oxidizing microorganisms remove methane. Here we investigate the methane-emitting Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV, Barents Sea, 72 degrees N, 14 degrees 44' E; 1,250 m water depth) to provide quantitative estimates of the in situ composition, distribution and activity of methanotrophs in relation to gas emission. The HMMV hosts three key communities: aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (Methylococcales), anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2) thriving below siboglinid tubeworms, and a previously undescribed clade of archaea (ANME-3) associated with bacterial mats. We found that the upward flow of sulphate- and oxygen-free mud volcano fluids restricts the availability of these electron acceptors for methane oxidation, and hence the habitat range of methanotrophs. This mechanism limits the capacity of the microbial methane filter at active marine mud volcanoes to <40% of the total flux. PMID:17051217

  3. Episodic Deep Fluid Expulsion at Mud Volcanoes in the Kumano Forearc Basin, SE Offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschmidt, S.; Kopf, A.

    2014-12-01

    Compressional forces at convergent margins govern a variety of processes, most prominently earthquakes, landslides and mud volcanoes in the forearc. Although all seem related to fluid pressure changes, mud volcanoes are not only characterized by expulsion of fluids, but also fluidized mud and clasts that got ripped-up during mud ascension. They hence provide information regarding mobilization depth, diagenetic overprint, and geodynamic pathways. At the Nankai Trough subduction zone, SE offshore Japan, mud volcanism id common and supposed to be related to seismogenic processes. During MARUM Expedition SO-222 with R/V SONNE, mud volcanoes in the Kumano forearc basin were mapped, cored and sampled. By extending the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Kumano transect landwards, 5 new mud volcanoes were identified by multibeam mapping. Cores revealed mud breccia with semi-consolidated silt- to claystone clasts and gaseous fluid escape structures, while the hemipelagic background sediments are characterized by intercalations of turbidites, ash layers and calcareous fossils. Clasts were subject to thin-section analyses, and the cores were sampled for XRD analyses and radiocarbon dating. Clasts showed prominent deformation structures, neomorphism and pores and fractures filled with polycrystalline quartz and/or calcite cement, probably formed during deep burial and early metamorphosis. Illite crystallinity based on XRD measurements varies between 0.24 and 0.38, which implies that the material originates from the Anchizone at depths ≥ 4 km. Radiocarbon dating revealed ages between 4450 and 30300 yr cal. BP, with age reversals occurring not earlier than 17000 yr cal. BP. Radiocarbon dating beneath turbidites and ash layers found at mud volcano #9 points to an episodic occurrence of these earthquake-related features in intervals of ca. 620 yr, while the mud volcano itself remained inactive. In summary, the preliminary results suggest that the mud volcanoes are nurtured

  4. Prokaryotic community structure and diversity in the sediments of an active submarine mud volcano (Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Pachiadaki, Maria G; Lykousis, Vasilios; Stefanou, Euripides G; Kormas, Konstantinos A

    2010-06-01

    We investigated 16S rRNA gene diversity at a high sediment depth resolution (every 5 cm, top 30 cm) in an active site of the Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea. A total of 242 archaeal and 374 bacterial clones were analysed, which were attributed to 38 and 205 unique phylotypes, respectively (> or = 98% similarity). Most of the archaeal phylotypes were related to ANME-1, -2 and -3 members originating from habitats where anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs, although they occurred in sediment layers with no apparent AOM (below the sulphate depletion depth). Proteobacteria were the most abundant and diverse bacterial group, with the Gammaproteobacteria dominating in most sediment layers and these were related to phylotypes involved in methane cycling. The Deltaproteobacteria included several of the sulphate-reducers related to AOM. The rest of the bacterial phylotypes belonged to 15 known phyla and three unaffiliated groups, with representatives from similar habitats. Diversity index H was in the range 0.56-1.73 and 1.47-3.82 for Archaea and Bacteria, respectively, revealing different depth patterns for the two groups. At 15 and 20 cm below the sea floor, the prokaryotic communities were highly similar, hosting AOM-specific Archaea and Bacteria. Our study revealed different dominant phyla in proximate sediment layers. PMID:20370830

  5. Morphometric, acoustic and lithofacies characterization of mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean: Toward a new approach and classification to constrain the regional distribution and activity of mud volcanoes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flore, Mary; Sébastien, Migeon; Elia, d'Acremont; Alain, Rabaute; Silvia, Ceramicola; Daniel, Praeg; Christian, Blanpied

    2015-04-01

    On continental margins, several types of seabed features recording fluid circulation within the sediment column have already been recognized, including mud volcanoes, pockmarks, carbonates pavements and/or mounds and brine lakes. They can be associated to (a) thermogenic or biogenic fluids migrating along tectonic conduits, (b) dissociation of gas hydrates, or (c) dewatering of turbidite channels and mass-transport deposits. Although fluid-escape structures have been analyzed for the last two decades using diverse and complementary data, many questions are still debated about their morphologies/architectures, origin and formation, their temporal dynamic and the impact of the geodynamical context on their location/formation. In the Eastern Mediterranean, fluid seepages and in particular mud volcanoes, were identified in three geodynamical contexts including active margins (Calabrian accretionary prism and Mediterranean ridge) and highly-sedimented passive margin (Nil deep-sea fan). In this study, we follow a new approach allowing to (1) better quantify a broad set of morphological parameters that characterize the seabed fluid-escape structures, (2) propose an advance classification of these structures, the final goal being to test whether one or several morphological types of fluid-escape structures can be characteristic of one tectonic and sedimentological setting in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. To achieve this classification based on geophysical and geological analysis (morphometry, reflectivity, seismic r and lithofacies features), we used a broad homogenous dataset at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean, including multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, 2D/3D seismic reflection, and sediment cores description and analysis. More than 500 mud volcano-like structures were identified based on one criterion or on the association of several criteria, while 40 of them were clearly proved to be mud volcanoes by coring. These structures exhibit different

  6. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  7. Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines on mud volcanoes of the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlou, J. L.; Donval, J. P.; Zitter, T.; Roy, N.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Foucher, J. P.; Woodside, J.; Medinaut Scientific Party

    2003-08-01

    As a part of the Dutch-French MEDINAUT diving expedition in 1998, cold seeps and mud volcanoes were studied and sampled in two distinctive tectonic settings in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The first setting was the Olimpi Mud Volcano field (OMV area), including Napoli, Milano, Maidstone and Moscow mud volcanoes, south of Crete on the Mediterranean ridge. The second setting was the Anaximander Mountains (AM area), southwestern Turkey, where Amsterdam, Kazan and Kula mud volcanoes were explored. Large methane concentrations (45-892 nmol/kg) were measured in the water column not only above mud volcanoes but also in seeps and vents along related fault systems, indicating intense degassing related to fluid circulation in sediments. The tracer results show that there is considerable variability in terms of gas seepage and matter flux between these mud volcanoes. Brine accumulations found as shallow pools on Napoli or associated with deep faults (Nadir Lake) outside mud volcanoes exhibit variable chlorinity, mineral and gas composition. The brines are significantly enriched in δ18O relative to ambient seawater and are consistent with evaporated seawater. In the Nadir Brine Lake, the level of methane is as high as 5.93 mmol/kg, lower than the methane saturation level of 120 mmol/kg theoretically found at the salinity (120), pressure (200 bar), and temperature (13.6°C) conditions of Nadir lake. In contrast, the shallow brine pools on Napoli mud volcano (also OMV area) have methane levels of only 4.45 μmol/kg. In all brines, helium data show a clear radiogenic isotopic ratio ( R=0.06× Ra), in excellent agreement with recently published data for the Urania basin. Methane to ethane ratios (>1000) and δ13C(CH 4) values (-65.6‰PDB) indicate that the CH 4 is microbially produced. Unlike mid-ocean ridges, where abiogenic methane and helium have a common origin in the brines, the large variation in the CH 4/He ratio indicates that CH 4 and helium sources are unrelated, a

  8. Daily Variations of Methane Flux from Submarine Mud Volcanoes in Southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Yang, Tsanyao; Chen, Naichen; Lin, Saulwood; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are features that episodically emit gases, fluids, and mud onto the seafloor. Methane is the representative gas transport by mud volcanoes efficiently from deep buried sediment to the water column, and potentially to the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. An active mud volcano, site-G96, located at the upper slope of southwest Taiwan, has plume from the top of mud volcano (360 m) direct to the sea surface. We can observe the bubbles at the sea surface. This study was conducted during cruise OR3-1693 in June 2013. To understand the activity of gas emissions of mud volcano, we utilized the 38kz echo sounder to scan back and forth over the site-G96 and obtained 53 acoustic images of plumes. Five water column samples were collected above the venting of G96 at the tidal maximum and minimum. Three gravity cores were taken at the mudflow site of G96. The results show high concentration of methane (38,522ul/l) and shallow depth of sulfate methane transition zone (~70cm) in the cored sediment profiles. The C1/(C2+C3) ratios from cored sediments are in the range of 29-392, indicating that the methane gas is mostly thermogenic in origin. Calculated areas of the plumes from echo sounder images show good correlation with the tide variations during the survey on 1st -2nd June 2013. Flux of methane from the water column to atmosphere can be estimated by diffusive exchange equation, showing that gas emission from an active mud volcano could be largely various (0.065, 3.426, 3.414, 0, 41.739umol m-2 d-1) from time to time, at least, in this study.

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation in terrestrial mud volcanoes in the Northern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrede, C.; Brady, S.; Rockstroh, S.; Dreier, A.; Kokoschka, S.; Heinzelmann, S. M.; Heller, C.; Reitner, J.; Taviani, M.; Daniel, R.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-07-01

    Methane oxidizing prokaryotes are ubiquitous in oxic and anoxic habitats wherever C1-compounds are present. Thus, methane saturated mud volcano fluids should be a preferred habitat of methane consuming prokaryotes, using the readily available electron donors. In order to understand the relevance of methane as a carbon and energy source in mud volcano communities, we investigate the diversity of prokaryotic organisms involved in oxidation of methane in fluid samples from the Salse di Nirano mud volcano field situated in the Northern Apennines. Cell counts were at approximately 0.7 × 106 microbial cells/ml. A fraction of the microbial biomass was identified as ANME (anaerobic methanotroph) archaea by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. They are associated in densely colonized flakes, of some tens of μm in diameter, embedded in a hyaline matrix. Diversity analysis based on the 16S rDNA genes, retrieved from amplified and cloned environmental DNA, revealed a high proportion of archaea, involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Aerobic methane-oxidizing proteobacteria could be highly enriched from mud volcano fluids, indicating the presence of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which may contribute to methane oxidation, whenever oxygen is readily available. The results imply that biofilms, dominated by ANME archaea, colonize parts of the mud volcano venting system.

  10. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon Mud Volcano (Nile Deep Sea Fan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile Deep Sea Fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulphate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition and microbial activities over three years, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulphide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. Furthermore, within three years, cell numbers and hydrocarbon degrading activity increased at the gas-seeping sites. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon mud volcano is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer mud volcano area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  11. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes. PMID:25935808

  12. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement.

    PubMed

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO₂ from the seafloor. PMID:25384354

  13. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor.

  14. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement

    PubMed Central

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor. PMID:25384354

  15. Prokaryotic diversity of an active mud volcano in the Usu City of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Mei; Lou, Kai; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Xiao-Long

    2012-02-01

    The Usu mud volcanoes are the largest group of terrestrial mud volcanoes in China. The volcanoes are located in a typical arid and semi-arid region, and the group consists of 36 erupting active mud volcanoes. In this study, the prokaryotic diversity and community structure in the sediment of an active mud volcano were investigated by constructing bacterial and archaeal clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 100 bacterial and 100 archaeal clones were analysed and found to comprise 11 and 7 distinct phylotypes, respectively. The bacterial phylotypes were classified into three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria). Of these, Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial group, with Deltaproteobacteria dominating the sediment community, and these were affiliated with the order Desulfuromonadales. The archaeal phylotypes were all closely related to uncultivated species, and the majority of the members were related to the orders Methanosarcinales and Halobacteriales of the Euryarchaeota originating from methane hydrate bearing or alkaline sediments. The rest of the archaeal phylotypes belonged to the phylum Crenarchaeota, with representatives from similar habitats. These results suggested that a large number of novel microbial groups and potential methanogenesis may exist in this unique ecosystem. PMID:21656823

  16. Expulsion of Barium and Methane at Mud Volcanoes in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellini, D. G.; Dickens, G. R.; Snyder, G. T.; Gilhooly, W. P.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2003-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes and cold-seeps along continental margins transfer methane from gas-charged marine sediments to the water column. Such methane venting is dynamic and may provide an important and variable supply of carbon to the ocean and atmosphere through time. Barite mounds and chimneys have been found around some modern mud volcanoes and seeps, and similar structures can be identified in the geological record (e.g., bedded barite deposits). These observations suggest that expelled methane-rich fluids are greatly enriched in dissolved barium. However, there are very few analyses of barium concentrations in these systems. Here, we examine the dissolved barium of pore fluids from a series of shallow piston cores across two submarine mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Mexico. Dissolved barium concentrations at 1.5 m below the seafloor at the Garden Bank volcano range from 18200 μ M at the center of the feature to 0.56 μ M on its flanks approximately 1 km away. Similarly, dissolved barium concentrations at the Mississippi Canyon volcano range from 15600 μ M to 0.50 μ M. Thus, the concentrations in the cores of the mud volcanoes are nominally 5 orders of magnitude greater than in mean ocean water ( ˜0.1 μ M). Anaerobic oxidation of upward flowing methane consumes sulfate, which leads to the dissolution of barite and release of barium to pore fluids. Because this mechanism alone cannot explain the extreme concentrations in the mud volcanoes, a deep source of barium may exist in the Gulf of Mexico strata. Our current work is focused on quantifying the fluxes and sedimentary fate of expelled barium at these locations. However, even if a large fraction of the barium precipitates adjacent to the sites of methane venting, fluid expulsion at mud volcanoes must significantly impact the barium cycle in the Gulf of Mexico. Conceivably, submarine mud volcanoes and cold-seeps along continental margins are a major source of barium to the deep ocean, a concept that has

  17. Underground structure of terrestrial mud volcanoes and abnormal water pressure formation in Niigata, Central JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Shinya, T.; Miyata, Y.; Tokuyasu, S.

    2005-12-01

    Activity of mud volcano is thought to be caused by an abnormal water pressure generated in deep underground and make a serious problem for underground constructions such as railway tunnel, underground facility for radwaste and so on. It is important to investigate the underground structure of a mud volcano and the mechanism of abnormal water formation for site selection and safety assessment of such facilities. Serious trouble such as tunnel wall collapse due to the rock swelling has happened 180m deep under mud volcanoes. It took more than 10 years to excavate the section of 150 m long. 4 terrestrial mud volcanoes were found in the Tertiary sedimentary basin in Niigata, central Japan All the mud volcanoes are distributed along the rim of the topographic basin that is located at the NE-SW trending crest of mountainous area and distributed along the wing of anticline. Geological structure inside basin is heavily disturbed. The extinct mud volcano is exposed in the side-slope of newly constructed road and the internal vent structure of mud volcano can be observed. The vent is 30 m in diameter and is consisted of mud breccia and scaly network clay that is thought to be generated by hydro-fracturing and the following water-rock interaction between mudstone and groundwater. Groundwater erupted from mud volcano is highly saline with electric conductivity of 15 mS/cm and high 18 O/16 O isotope ratio of 1.2 parmillage. Also, the vitrinite reflectance is 1.5 to 1.9 % that is not expected in the sedimentary rocks exposed near ground surface. As a result, it is assumed that these erupted materials were introduced from the deep underground about 4000 m deep. CSA-MT geophysical exploration was carried out to survey the underground structure and obtained the profile of electrical resistivity from the surface to 800 m in depth. It is found that the disk-shaped low resistivity zone less than 1 m due to the high salinity content is identified in underground 600 m deep, 200 m thick

  18. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    PubMed

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. PMID:24631200

  19. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz

    2014-05-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that consists in the extrusion of mud, fragments or blocks of country rocks, saline waters and gases, mostly methane. This mechanism is typically linked to in-depth hydrocarbon traps, and it builds up a variety of conical edifices with dimension and morphology similar to those of magmatic volcanoes. Interferometry by Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques have been commonly used to monitor and investigate the ground deformation connected to the eruptive phases of magmatic volcanoes. InSAR techniques have also been employed to explore the ground deformation associated with the LUSI mud volcano in Java (Indonesia). We aim to carry out a study on the paroxysmal activities of the Azerbaijan mud volcanoes, among the largest on Earth, using similar techniques. In particular the deformations of the mud volcanic systems were analyzed through the technique of satellite differential interferometry (DInSAR), thanks to the acquisition of 16 descending and 4 ascending Envisat images, spanning about 4 years (October 2003-November 2007); these data were provided by the European Space Agency. The preliminary analysis of a set of 77 interferograms and the unwrapping process elaboration of some of them selected according to the best coherence values, allowed the detection of significant deformations in correspondence of Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara Zira Island mud volcanoes. This analysis has allowed to identify relevant ground deformations of the volcanic systems in connection with the main eruptive events in 2005 and in 2006 respectively, that are recorded by the catalogue of Azerbaijan mud volcano eruptions until 2007. The preliminary analysis of the interferograms of the Ayaz-Akhtarma and the Khara Zira mud volcanoes shows that the whole volcano edifice or part of it is subject to a ground displacement before or in coincidence with the eruption. Assuming that the movement is mainly vertical, we suppose that deformation is due to bulging of the volcanic

  20. Methanogenic activity and diversity in the centre of the Amsterdam Mud Volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; John Parkes, R; Cragg, Barry A; L'Haridon, Stephane; Toffin, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    Marine mud volcanoes are geological structures emitting large amounts of methane from their active centres. The Amsterdam mud volcano (AMV), located in the Anaximander Mountains south of Turkey, is characterized by intense active methane seepage produced in part by methanogens. To date, information about the diversity or the metabolic pathways used by the methanogens in active centres of marine mud volcanoes is limited. (14)C-radiotracer measurements showed that methylamines/methanol, H(2)/CO(2) and acetate were used for methanogenesis in the AMV. Methylotrophic methanogenesis was measured all along the sediment core, Methanosarcinales affiliated sequences were detected using archaeal 16S PCR-DGGE and mcrA gene libraries, and enrichments of methanogens showed the presence of Methanococcoides in the shallow sediment layers. Overall acetoclastic methanogenesis was higher than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, which is unusual for cold seep sediments. Interestingly, acetate porewater concentrations were extremely high in the AMV sediments. This might be the result of organic matter cracking in deeper hotter sediment layers. Methane was also produced from hexadecanes. For the most part, the methanogenic community diversity was in accordance with the depth distribution of the H(2)/CO(2) and acetate methanogenesis. These results demonstrate the importance of methanogenic communities in the centres of marine mud volcanoes. PMID:22458514

  1. Tracking hydrothermal feature changes in response to seismicity and deformation at Mud Volcano thermal area, Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Hurwitz, S.; Murphy, F.; Evans, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mud Volcano thermal area in Yellowstone National Park comprises many hydrothermal features including fumaroles, mudpots, springs, and thermal pools. Observations of hydrothermal changes have been made for decades in the Mud Volcano thermal area, and include reports of significant changes (the appearance of new features, increased water levels in pools, vigor of activity, and tree mortality) following an earthquake swarm in 1978 that took place beneath the area. However, no quantitative method to map and measure surface feature changes through time has been applied. We present an analysis of aerial photographs from 1954 to present to track temporal changes in the boundaries between vegetated and thermally barren areas, as well as location, extent, color, clarity, and runoff patterns of hydrothermal features within the Mud Volcano thermal area. This study attempts to provide a detailed, long-term (>50 year) inventory of hydrothermal features and change detection at Mud Volcano thermal area that can be used to identify changes in hydrothermal activity in response to seismicity, uplift and subsidence episodes of the adjacent Sour Creek resurgent dome, or other potential causes.

  2. Rootless Cone? Pingo? or Mud Volcano? in Central Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, R.; Kurita, K.

    2011-03-01

    It is possible that Mars has experienced recent (~100 Ma) magmatism. In central Elysium Planitia, the identification of cone-like landforms are discussed: rootless cones, pingos, or mud volcanos. From their morphology, the landforms are thought to be rootless cones.

  3. Fluid Geochemistry of the Lusi Mud Volcano (east Java, Indonesia) and Implications for Eruption Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, H. E.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Clarke, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano near Sidoarjo in East Java, Indonesia, has been erupting mud and water since May 2006. It discharged as much as 180,000 cubic meters per day at the peak of its activity, destroyed thousands of homes, and displaced tens of thousands of people. The erupting fluid is a mixture of water, clays, and other minerals at near-boiling temperatures that is accompanied by venting of hot gases, primarily H2O vapor, CO2, and CH4. The LUSI mud volcano has exhibited variations in flow rate and pulsating-to-cyclic activity since the beginning of the eruption; however, there are few published geochemical studies of the system and our knowlege of the evolution of the fluid and mud composition is poor. The solids in the mud can be traced with some certainty to the blue-gray clays of the Upper Kalibeng formation, found 1600-1800 m beneath the LUSI main vent. However, the water content and chemical composition of the fluids are more difficult to interpret. An improved understanding of the fluid content and composition may provide insights that can help to constrain eruption mechanisms for this system. We have taken a multi-disciplinary approach to assess both the fluid provenance and erpution behaviour at this complex and evolving mud volcano. We present geochemical results for dissolved (major ions, trace elements, water isotopes and Sr isotopes) and solid-phased (elemental and mineralogical composition) components of not only the LUSI fluids but also of other regional fluid sources (hot springs, surface waters, sea water, and relict mud volcanoes). The LUSI fluids are compositionally distinct from all the other sources we've measured to date, including some of the older mud volcanoes, suggesting either that the underlying water source for LUSI is different, or that it has changed over time. Our major and trace element data suggest the water and solids in the LUSI fluid may not originate from the same geologic formation, providing indirect evidence in support of

  4. Mud Volcanoes in the Martian Lowlands: Potential Windows to Fluid-Rich Samples from Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2009-01-01

    The regional setting of the Chryse-Acidalia area augurs well for a fluid-rich subsurface, accumulation of diverse rock types reflecting the wide catchment area, astrobiological prospectivity, and mud volcanism. This latter provides a mechanism for transporting samples from relatively great depth to the surface. Since mud volcanoes are not associated with extreme heat or shock pressures, materials they transport to the surface are likely to be relatively unaltered; thus such materials could contain interpretable remnants of potential martian life (e.g., organic chemical biomarkers, mineral biosignatures, or structural remains) as well as unmetamorphosed rock samples. None of the previous landings on Mars was located in an area with features identified as potential mud volcanoes (Fig. 3), but some of these features may offer targets for future missions aimed at sampling deep fluid-rich strata with potential habitable zones.

  5. Simulation of fluid migration in a mud volcano offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. N.; Chiang, H. T.; Liu, C. S.; Chiao, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are usually associated with high methane flux rate, frequent gas flares, chimney structures and other biologic and chemical evidences from seepage analysis. Our study area is situated on the upper slope of the accretionary wedge offshore SW Taiwan where a large mud volcano is present. In this area, field observations indicate an unusual heat flow pattern, with high values on the top of the mud volcano and low in the trough. In this study, we simulate the heat transfer process with a 10 km deep 2D model in the vicinity of the mud volcano. We take the lowest heat flow measurement along the profile as the reference that is associated with conduction as the only heat transfer mechanism. Conduits with geometry determined from reflection seismic image are then introduced such that the studied geothermal system, equipped with both advection and conduction might fit the unique pattern of the observed heat flow measurements. Our results show that a simple heat conduction hypothesis cannot fit the measured heat flow data, and the fluid advection may play an important role in this case. We simulate both conduction and advection models using the COMSOL finite element package. The depth of advection initiation is determined based on the conduits identified from reflection seismic image. Simulation results reveal a preliminary estimate of the upward fluid flow speed which is quite consistent with previous studies in the lower slop west of our study area. We conclude that the advection of upward fluid flow is an important component for the studied geothermal system. In the future, we will focus on fine tuning the seismic data processing to get better constraints on the geometry of mud volcanoes and the fluid conduits.Mud volcanoes are usually associated with high methane flux rate, frequent gas flares, chimney structures and other biologic and chemical evidences from seepage analysis. Our study area is situated on the upper slope of the accretionary wedge offshore

  6. Near-specular acoustic scattering from a buried submarine mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Anthony L; Holland, Charles W

    2007-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are objects that form on the seafloor due to the emission of gas and fluidized sediment from the Earth's interior. They vary widely in size, can be exposed or buried, and are of interest to the underwater acoustics community as potential sources of active sonar clutter. Coincident seismic reflection data and low frequency bistatic scattering data were gathered from one such buried mud volcano located in the Straits of Sicily. The bistatic data were generated using a pulsed piston source and a 64-element horizontal array, both towed over the top of the volcano. The purpose of this work was to appropriately model low frequency scattering from the volcano using the bistatic returns, seismic bathymetry, and knowledge of the general geoacoustic properties of the area's seabed to guide understanding and model development. Ray theory, with some approximations, was used to model acoustic propagation through overlying layers. Due to the volcano's size, scattering was modeled using geometric acoustics and a simple representation of volcano shape. Modeled bistatic data compared relatively well with experimental data, although some features remain unexplained. Results of an inversion for the volcano's reflection coefficient indicate that it may be acoustically softer than expected. PMID:18247739

  7. Microbiological and Geochemical Characterization of the Deep Subsurface Environment: Kumano Mud Volcano, Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, D. H.; Ijiri, A.; Morono, Y.; Orphan, V. J.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes play an important environmental role by delivering deep-sourced fluids, elements, and hydrocarbons to the seafloor. These fluxes in turn support chemosynthetic benthic communities. However, due to difficulty in accessing the deep biosphere most mud volcano samples only represent the top one to several meters below seafloor (mbsf) obtainable by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) or gravity cores. Thus, the geochemical and microbiological conditions, as well as vertical homogeneity, deep within mud volcanoes remains poorly constrained. In 2012, using the deep-sea drilling vessel Chikyu, we drilled one of the most active submarine mud volcanoes in the Kumano forearc basin of the Nankai Trough, off the Kii Peninsula of Japan (33°67.581'N, 136°56.8085'E: 1,986.7 m in water depth). Cores were obtained down to 200 mbsf. Cell counts indicate the presence of microorganisms at relatively low abundance (less than 105 cells/cm3) throughout the cored depth. Molecular analyses reveal vertical heterogeneity in the microbial community composition, including specific depth horizons harboring putative methanogenic and methanotrophic phylotypes at >100 mbsf. Geochemical profiles indicate the potential for microbial activity and rate measurements with radiotracers revealed active homoacetogenesis rates that were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than rates of homo- and acetoclastic methanogenesis. To assess active autotrophic, methanotrophic and heterotrophic populations, 13C- and 15N-amendment experiments with sediment samples collected from 15 and 115 mbsf were established and single cell stable isotope analyses with nanoSIMS are in progress. Our samples and analyses represent a unique observation of a subseafloor setting different from previously explored stratified sediments on continental margins and will allow further understanding of how submarine mud volcanoes contribute to geochemical and microbiological fluxes into the surface biosphere.

  8. Mud volcano venting induced gas hydrate formation at the upper slope accretionary wedge, offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Saulwood; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Cheng, Wan-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Tien; Chen, NeiChen; Hsieh, I.-Chih

    2016-04-01

    TsanYao Mud Volcano (TYMV) is the largest mud volcano cone in the Hengchun Mud Volcano Group (HCMVG), located at the upper slope of the accrretionary wedge, southwest of Taiwan. The region is under active tectonic activity with the Philippine Plate, moving northwestward at a rate of ~8 cm/year. This region also receives huge quantity of suspended particle load of ~100 mT/year at present time from adjacent small rivers of the Island of Taiwan. Large loads of suspended sediments influx become a major source of organic carbon and later gas and other hydrocarbon. Gas and fluid in the mud volcano are actively venting from deep to the sea floor on the upper slope of the accretionary wedge. In order to understand venting on the HCMVG, echo sounder, towcam and coring were carried out. Pore water sulfate, chloride, potassium, calcium, stable isotope O-18, gas compositions, dissolved sulfide were analysed. The HCMVG consists of 12 volcano cones of different sizes. Large quantity of gas and fluid are venting directly from deep to the TYMV structure high, as well as 50+ other vents as appeared as flares on the echo sounder. Some flares are reaching to the atmosphere and likely a source of green house gases to the atmosphere. Venting fluids include gas bubbles, suspended particle, mud, and breccia. Breccia size could reach more than 12 cm in diameter. Circular bands in different color appeared around the cone may represent stages of vent eruptions. Compositions of vent gas include methane, ethane and propane. High proportions of ethane and propane in the vent gas demonstrated that source of gas are thermogenic in origin. Patchy authigenic carbonate, bacterial mats, bivalves, tube worms and other chemosynthesis organisms were supported by venting gas AOM process near the sea floor. Pore water chloride concentrations show distinct variation pattern from center cone to the side of the volcano, with low in the center and high away from the cone. Pore water with higher than seawater

  9. Small edifice features in Chryse Planitia, Mars: Assessment of a mud volcano hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Goro; Okubo, Chris H.; Wray, James J.; Ojha, Lujendra; Cardinale, Marco; Murana, Alessio; Orosei, Roberto; Chan, Marjorie A.; Ormö, Jens; Gallagher, Ronnie

    2016-04-01

    Small edifice features that are less than a few kilometers in diameter and up to a few hundred meters in height are widely distributed in Chryse Planitia on Mars. They exhibit a broad range of morphological properties that are here classified as Type 1 (steep-sided cones typically with a summit crater), Type 2 (nearly flat features with single or multiple central/summit craters or cones) and Type 3 (nearly circular features in plan view, characterized by steep sides and a broadly flat summit area). Their origins have not been determined with certainty, but our study utilizing the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images supports the interpretation of mud volcanism, based on the observed morphological characteristics of these small edifices and comparisons with terrestrial analogs. Additionally, hydrated minerals detected on these edifice features in data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), further support the mud volcano hypothesis. Injection features such as clastic mega-pipes and sand blow features may coexist with the mud volcanoes. Alternative mechanisms such as magmatic volcanism are not excluded, but they have less support from our remote sensing observations. Further confirmation or rejection of the mud volcano hypothesis will require in-situ investigation by landers or rovers.

  10. Origin of fluids and eruption dynamics at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Hartnett, H. E.; Clarke, A. B.; Burton, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano near Sidoarjo in East Java (Indonesia) has been erupting mud, water and gases since May 2006. It is the most recent manifestation of mud volcanism in the Sunda back-arc region, part of a larger cluster of a dozen mud volcanoes scattered across East Java and Madura. LUSI discharged as much as 180,000 cubic meters of mud per day at the peak of its activity, destroyed thousands of homes, and displaced tens of thousands of people. The erupted fluids are a mixture of water, clays, and other minerals at near-boiling temperatures, accompanied by the bursting of gas bubbles on average every 1-3 minutes, which trigger mud fountains ~20 m in height. We have taken a multi-disciplinary approach to assess both the fluid provenance and eruption behavior at this complex and evolving mud volcano, by using a combination of absorption infrared spectrometry of the gases, X-Ray diffraction of the solid fraction, major and trace element analyses of solids and dissolved ions in liquids, and isotopic analyses of separated water (D/H and 87Sr/86Sr). Similar analyses of other regional fluid sources (hot springs, surface waters, sea water, and relict mud volcanoes) were also carried out for comparison. From open path FTIR measurements, we determine that the gases released during explosions at LUSI consist of 98% water vapor, 1.5% carbon dioxide, and 0.5% methane, with corresponding fluxes of 2,300 t/yr of CH4, 30,000 t/yr of CO2 and 800,000 t/yr of water vapor. The methane flux is two orders of magnitude larger than estimates for any other single mud volcano on Earth. By comparing the mineral composition of solids present in the mud to rock outcrops of the local stratigraphy, the solids can be traced with some certainty to the blue-gray clays of the Upper Kalibeng formation, found 1600-1800 m beneath the LUSI main vent. However, the water content and chemical composition of the liquid phase are more difficult to interpret. The LUSI fluids are compositionally distinct

  11. Integrated geophysical and petrological characterization of mud volcanoes at the Morrocan Atlantic margin - linking morphology to fluid flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depreiter, D.; van Rensbergen, P.; Poort, J.; de Boever, E.; Swennen, R.; Henriet, J.

    2005-12-01

    Detailed geophysical, geochemical and petrological data over a cluster of large mud volcanoes at the Moroccan North Atlantic margin document the activity of sea floor mud volcanoes in relation to its morphology and structural setting. Mud volcanoes are often long-lived systems; their changing morphology bears witness of the evolution of fluid flow expulsion. The El Arraiche mud volcano field is a cluster of 9 mud volcanoes. It was discovered in 2002 at the Morrocan Atlantic margin in water depths from 200 m to 700 m. The largest mud volcano in the field is 255 m high and 5.4 km wide. Marine surveys between 2002 and 2005 yielded detailed geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological, and petrological data. The geophysical data include multibeam bathymetry, high-resolution seismics, deep-tow sub bottom profiles and side-scan sonar mosaics. Video imagery lines, video guided grab samples, dredge samples, gravity cores, and box cores were collected for groundtruthing purposes. Petrological and geochemical analysis of authigenic carbonates provided a record of hydrocarbon sources, fluid characteristics, processes of mixing and the mode of venting. The El Arraiche mud volcanoes cluster around two subparallel anticlines and are associated active extensional faults. Extruded rock clasts and regional seismic data locate the El Arraiche field over a Late Miocene to Pliocene extensional basin. The onset of mud volcanic activity is estimated at about 2.4 Ma and probably roots in the Cretacous to Miocene accretionary wedge. Stacked outflows are visible up to a depth of about 500 m below the sea floor. Stratigraphic correlation of the outflow lenses over the entire mud volcano field indicate that although large outflow events are not synchronized between the individual mud volcanoes, eruptions occurred more frequently during periods of active extensive tectonics. The morphology of the sea floor mud volcanoes is the result of a combination of extrusive and intrusive processes

  12. High-resolution seismic structure analysis of an active submarine mud volcano area off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    In order to better understand the subsurface structure related to an active mud volcano MV1 and to understand their relationship with gas hydrate/cold seep formation, we conducted deep-towed side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP), multibeam echo sounding (MBES), and multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) surveys off SW Taiwan from 2009 to 2011. As shown in the high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and EK500 sonar data, the detailed structures reveal more gas seeps and gas flares in the study area. In addition, the survey profiles show several submarine landslides occurred near the thrust faults. Based on the MCS results, we can find that the MV1 is located on top of a mud diapiric structure. It indicates that the MV1 has the same source as the associated mud diapir. The blanking of the seismic signal may indicate the conduit for the upward migration of the gas (methane or CO2). Therefore, we suggest that the submarine mud volcano could be due to a deep source of mud compressed by the tectonic convergence. Fluids and argillaceous materials have thus migrated upward along structural faults and reach the seafloor. The gas-charged sediments or gas seeps in sediments thus make the seafloor instable and may trigger submarine landslides.

  13. Observations and Rock Analyses in a Kumano Mud Volcano in Nankai Accretionary Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, S.; Aoike, K.; Sawada, T.; Ashi, J.; Gulick, S. P.; Flemings, P. B.; Kuramoto, S.; Saito, S.; Mikada, H.; Kinoshita, M.

    2002-12-01

    Kumano Basin is a forearc basin on the eastern Nankai Accretionary Prism off southwest Japan. Recent bathymetric survey showed existence of small knolls in the Kumano Basin. Submersible and ROV dives, sidescan sonar and deep-towed camera investigations revealed so far that at least five of the small knolls are mud volcanoes erupted on the Kumano Basin floor. In June and August, 2002, Dive 677 and 681 by submersible SHINKAI 6500 (YK02-02: R/V Yokosuka) and Dive 267 by ROV KAIKO (KR02-10: R/V Kairei) were performed in one of the mud volcanoes, Kumano Knoll No.4, which is 100 m high and 800 m in diameter at the foot of the knoll. The knoll has a plateau of about 300 m diameter on the top, which shows bumpy surface where there are waves, steps and craters of several meters in diameter. The craters imply active or dead cold seeps and are occasionally accompanied by Calyptogena colonies. The plateau is mostly covered with mud. Rock gravels and boulders were observed mainly on outer slope of the knoll. Sidescan sonar and subbottom profiler data by KAIKO system show marked contrasts in sonic reflectivity and penetration between the Kumano Knoll No.4 and the Kumano Basin floor. The high sonic reflectivity and the low penetration on the knoll indicate that main body of the knoll is composed of clastic ejecta as a mud volcano. On the Kumano Knoll No.4, the dives obtained semi-consolidated mudstone, mud breccia, and biotite arkose sandstone. Chronological analysis on nannofossil indicates the sedimentary rocks are in the late Early Miocene through the Middle Miocene. According to this age and geological information on land, it is likely that the sedimentary rocks on the knoll were originally deposited at the beginning of formation of the Kumano Basin. Porosity of these sedimentary rocks is very low (< 18 %). Some mud breccias contain calcite veins that cut the angular mud gravels. These features lead to finding processes until when the sedimentary rocks reached to the seafloor

  14. Iron speciation in bleached rocks by hydrocarbon leaching in Dushanzi Mud Volcano, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, G. D.; Fu, B. H.; Kuno, A.; Matsuo, M.

    2010-03-01

    Mud volcano is a typical petroleum leaching system, which normally result in bleaching effect to surrounding rocks. The result of Mössbauer spectroscopy of rock samples collected from the Dushanzi mud volcano system revealed clear variations in iron species. Compared to the unbleached reddish sedimentary rocks, the bleached rocks are dominated by reducing iron species such as paramagnetic ferrous iron (para-Fe2+), ferrous iron in siderite (sid-Fe2+), sulphide and pyrite (pyr-Fe2+) whereas the original reddish rock is enriched in ferric iron including iron in hematite (hem-Fe3+) and paramagnetic ferric iron (para-Fe3+). A reduction of ferric iron species and hydrolysis of iron along with oxidation of hydrocarbons should be one of the main processes along bleaching by hydrocarbons to rocks.

  15. Mud volcanoes, shale diapirs, wrench faults, and melanges in accretionary complexes, eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, A.J.; Tjokrosapoetro, S.; Charlton, T.R.

    1986-11-01

    In Timor, eastern Indonesia, where the northern margin of the Australian continent is colliding with the Banda Arc, Australian continental margin sediments are being incorporated into an imbricate wedge, which passes northward into a foreland fold and thrust belt. Field mapping in Timor has shown that scale clays, containing irregularly shaped or phacoidal blocks (up to several meters long) and composed of a wide range of lithologies derived from local stratigraphic units, occur in three environments: along wrench faults, as crosscutting shale diapirs, and associated with mud volcanoes. A model is proposed linking these phenomena. Shales become overpressured as a result of overthrusting; this overpressure is released along vertical wrench faults, which cut through the overthrust units; overpressured shales containing blocks of consolidated units rise along the fault zones as shale diapirs; and escaping water, oil, and gas construct mud volcanoes at the surface. 6 figures, 1 table.

  16. Methanogenic diversity and activity in hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Parkes, R John; Cragg, Barry A; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. The Napoli mud volcano, situated in the brine-impacted Olimpi Area of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, emits mainly biogenic methane particularly at the centre of the mud volcano. Temperature gradients support the suggestion that Napoli is a cold mud volcano with moderate fluid flow rates. Biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses were carried out to assess the methanogenic activity rates, pathways and diversity in the hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano. Methylotrophic methanogenesis was the only significant methanogenic pathway in the shallow sediments (0-40 cm) but was also measured throughout the sediment core, confirming that methylotrophic methanogens could be well adapted to hypersaline environments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway below 50 cm; however, low rates of acetoclastic methanogenesis were also present, even in sediment layers with the highest salinity, showing that these methanogens can thrive in this extreme environment. PCR-DGGE and methyl coenzyme M reductase gene libraries detected sequences affiliated with anaerobic methanotrophs (mainly ANME-1) as well as Methanococcoides methanogens. Results show that the hypersaline conditions in the centre of the Napoli mud volcano influence active biogenic methane fluxes and methanogenic/methylotrophic diversity. PMID:21382146

  17. Long- and short-term triggering and modulation of mud volcano eruptions by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Earthquakes can trigger the eruption of mud. We use eruptions in Azerbaijan, Italy, Romania, Japan, Andaman Islands, Pakistan, Taiwan, Indonesia, and California to probe the nature of stress changes that induce new eruptions and modulate ongoing eruptions. Dynamic stresses produced by earthquakes are usually inferred to be the dominant triggering mechanism; however static stress changes acting on the feeder systems of mud volcanoes may also play a role. In Azerbaijan, eruptions within 2-10 fault lengths from the epicenter are favored in the year following earthquakes where the static stress changes cause compression of the mud source and unclamp feeder dikes. In Romania, Taiwan, and some Italian sites, increased activity is also favored where the static stress changes act to unclamp feeder dikes, but responses occur within days. The eruption in the Andaman Islands, and those of the Niikappu mud volcanoes, Japan are better correlated with amplitude of dynamic stresses produced by seismic waves. Similarly, a new island that emerged off the coast of Pakistan in 2013 was likely triggered by dynamic stresses, enhanced by directivity. At the southern end of the Salton Sea, California earthquakes increase the gas flux at small mud volcanoes. Responses are best correlated with dynamic stresses. The comparison of responses in these nine settings indicates that dynamic stresses are most often correlated with triggering, although permanent stress changes as small as, and possibly smaller than, 0.1 bar may be sufficient to also influence eruptions. Unclamping stresses with magnitude similar to Earth tides (0.01 bar) persist over time and may play a role in triggering delayed responses. Unclamping stresses may be important contributors to short-term triggering only if they exceed 0.1-1 bar.

  18. Geochemistry of natural gases from mud volcanoes and surface gas seeps in NW-Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Beeunas, M.A. ); Schoell, M. ); Beroiz, C. )

    1991-03-01

    Mud volcanoes and natural gas seeps are common in the southwest-northeast-trending Sinu Atlantico basin (SAB) and San Jacinto Fold Belt (SJFB) of NW-Colombia. The structural subunits are part of a highly complex active continental margin where the sediments become increasingly younger to the west from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary in the SJFB to Late Tertiary in the SAB. Some of the mud volcanoes are permanently active and form huge structures and are often aligned along major faults. Both seep and mud volcano gases are with low C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} contents. Carbon and hydrogen isotope concentrations allow the subdivision into four groups of gas. These gases can be divided into four genetic based on their carbon and hydrocarbon isotope compositions. The isotopic variability of the different groups attests to the fact that very different gas-forming processes are or have been operating in the subsurface ranging from low-temperature thermogenesis. The various groups show, with few exceptions, a distinct regional distribution: Mud volcanoes and seeps with bacterial gases are restricted to the southern part of the SAB where the greatest thickness of young sediments is observed; gases of mixed thermogenic and bacterial origin are found in the coastal areas of the northern SAB; gases of thermogenic origin are predominantly observed in the SJFB; the thermogenic gases of Group 3 are restricted to two locations in the north of the SJFB. This regional association of genetic gas types with specific geotectonic units reflects different thermal histories of the respective tectonic areas and allowed the authors to delineate prospective areas for oil in NW-Colombia.

  19. Monitoring methane emission of mud volcanoes by seismic tremor measurements: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarello, D.; Palo, M.; Martinelli, G.

    2012-12-01

    A new approach for estimating methane emission at mud volcanoes is here proposed based on measurements of the seismic tremor on their surface. Data obtained at the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan reveal the presence of energy bursts characterized by well-determined features (i.e. waveforms, spectra and polarization properties) that can be associated with bubbling at depth. Counting such events provides a possible tool for monitoring gas production in the reservoir, thus minimizing logistic troubles and representing a cheap and effective alternative to more complex approaches. Specifically, we model the energy bursts as the effect of resonant gas bubbles at depth. This modelling allows to estimate the dimension of the bubbles and, consequently, the gas outflow from the main conduit in the assumption that all emissions from depth occur by bubble uprising. The application of this model to seismic events detected at the Dashgil mud volcano during three sessions of measurements carried out in 2006 and 2007 provides gas flux estimates that are in line with those provided by independent measurements at the same structure. This encouraging result suggests that the one here proposed could be considered a new promising, cheap and easy to apply tool for gas flux measurements in bubbling gas seepage areas.

  20. Archaeal populations in hypersaline sediments underlying orange microbial mats in the Napoli mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the "active" archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano. PMID:21335391

  1. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  2. Nitrogen multitemporal monitoring through mosses in urban areas affected by mud volcanoes around Mt. Etna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen emissions were assessed by using mosses as bioindicators in a densely inhabited area affected by mud volcanoes. Such volcanoes, locally called Salinelle, are phenomena that occur around Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy), and are interpreted as the surface outflow of a hydrothermal system located below Mt. Etna, which releases sedimentary fluids (hydrocarbons and Na-Cl brines) along with magmatic gases (mainly CO2 and He). To date, N emissions from such mud volcanoes have been only quantitatively assessed, and no biomonitoring campaigns are reported about the cumulative effects of these emissions. This study analyzed N concentrations in moss, water and soil samples, collected in a 4-year monitoring campaign. The bryophyte Bryum argenteum, a species widely adopted in surveys of atmospheric pollution, was used as a biological indicator. N concentrations in biomonitors showed relatively low values in the study sites. However, the results of this study suggest that N emissions from Salinelle may have an impact on surrounding ecosystems because N values in moss and water showed a significant correlation. N oxides, in particular, contribute to acidification of ecosystems, thus multitemporal biomonitoring is recommended, especially in those areas where N emitting sources are anthropogenic and natural. PMID:23479119

  3. Mud volcano formation within the Western slope of the Nile Cone sourced from pre-salt layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, Christopher; Cartwright, Joseph; Hermanrud, Christian; Jebsen, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanos are prevalent in a variety of settings, particularly in those where rapid sedimentation, thrust loading or horizontal tectonic stresses are observed. Here we describe from a three-dimensional (3D) seismic survey located on the Western slope of the Nile Cone, a suite of mud volcanoes emplaced throughout the post-salt Pliocene-Recent succession. These mud volcanoes are highly variable in scale, some among the largest ever described. Extrusive volumes range from 100 km3. Evaporites are widely considered a world class seal which has given rise to the discovery of numerous pre-salt hydrocarbon accumulations. Pre-salt depletion features, contrasts in p-wave velocity and salt welding due to mud remobilisation, are all indicative of a pre-Messinian (sub-salt) primary mud source, predominantly Tortonian in age. This implies large scale mud remobilisation through the thick Messinian evaporite succession. It is our interpretation that the formation of mud volcanoes within this region is intimately related to the basinal hydrodynamics, which include undercompaction and subsequent fluid retention, local sea level variation and overpressure generation. These mechanisms are controlled by key events in the geological history of the basin such as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and the Zanclean flood. We argue that the formation of these mud volcanoes is a direct response to overpressure generated primarily through rapid loading of pre-salt sediments during the MSC and catastrophic re-flooding during its immediate aftermath. Ultimately the location at which they form is associated with deeper features such as underlying faults and potential hydrocarbon plays. It is feasible that similar basin-scale remobilisation and overpressure could be expected for other salt basins world-wide that have undergone similar priming processes.

  4. Pre-eruptive ground deformation of Azerbaijan mud volcanoes detected through satellite radar interferometry (DInSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper A.; Aliyev, Chingiz S.

    2014-12-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that leads to the extrusion of subsurface mud, fragments of country rocks, saline waters and gases. This mechanism is typically linked to hydrocarbon traps, and the extrusion of this material builds up a variety of conical edifices with a similar morphology to those of magmatic volcanoes, though smaller in size. The Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique has been used to investigate the ground deformation related to the activity of the mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan. The analysis of a set of wrapped and unwrapped interferograms, selected according to their coherence, allowed the detection of significant superficial deformation related to the activity of four mud volcanoes. The ground displacement patterns observed during the period spanning from October 2003 to November 2005 are dominated by uplift, which reach a cumulative value of up to 20 and 10 cm at the Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara-Zira Island mud volcanoes, respectively. However, some sectors of the mud volcano edifices are affected by subsidence, which might correspond to deflation zones that coexist with the inflation zones characterized by the dominant uplift. Important deformation events, caused by fluid pressure and volume variations, have been observed both (1) in connection with main eruptive events in the form of pre-eruptive uplift, and (2) in the form of short-lived deformation pulses that interrupt a period of quiescence. Both deformation patterns show important similarities to those identified in some magmatic systems. The pre-eruptive uplift has been observed in many magmatic volcanoes as a consequence of magma intrusion or hydrothermal fluid injection. Moreover, discrete short-duration pulses of deformation are also experienced by magmatic volcanoes and are repeated over time as multiple inflation and deflation events.

  5. Microbial community of a saline mud volcano at San Biagio-Belpasso, Mt. Etna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; Giuliano, Laura; Crisafi, Ermanno; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

    2002-05-01

    In San Biagio of Belpasso, approximately 20 km south of Mt. Etna, in the area of contact between volcanic and sedimentary formations, a number of small (3- 60 cm in diameter) active mud eruptions discharge CO2-rich gases, mud and NaCl brines. They can be described as mini-volcanoes owing to their typical conic shapes and continuously bubbling peak craters. Samples were collected from the active peak craters at a depth of 20 cm and DNA was immediately extracted and amplified with universal 16S rRNA gene-specific primers, followed by cloning procedure. A total of 140 bacterial clones obtained were screened and clustered by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The pool of 16S rRNA sequences representing each RFLP cluster was subjected to phylogenetic analysis. All of the 33 sequences analysed were affiliated with the kingdom of Eubacteria; 28 sequences (77% of all clones) affiliated with the Proteobacteria, two sequences (19% of all clones) were affiliated with Actinobacteria and three sequences (4% of all clones) were affiliated with the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides division. The data obtained suggest that the microorganisms phylogenetically affiliated to autotrophic methane oxidizers and heterotrophic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the gamma-subclass of Proteobacteria are major constituents of the microbial communities of the saline volcanic muds. Overall, the composition of the microbial community of the San Biagio mud volcano resembles the compositions of marine microbial communities, which might indicate that wind-blown seawater vapour acted as an inoculum for microbial community described in present work. PMID:12030850

  6. Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan), we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641) belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562) were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

  7. Methane Hydrate Recovered From A Mud Volcano in Santa Monica Basin, Offshore Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normark, W. R.; Hein, J. R.; Powell, C. L.; Lorenson, T. D.; Lee, H. J.; Edwards, B. D.

    2003-12-01

    In July 2003, a short (2.1 m) piston core from the summit of a mud volcano recovered methane hydrate at a water depth of 813 m in Santa Monica Basin. The discovery core penetrated into in the hydrate as evidenced by chunks of ice and violent degassing of the core section between 162 and 212 cm depth. The core consists of shell hash and carbonate clasts (to 7-cm long) in silty mud. The methanogenic carbonates are of two types: massive, recrystallized nodular masses with an outer mm-thick sugary patina and a bivalve coquina with carbonate cement. Living clams including the genus Vesicomya, commonly found at cold-seep sites elsewhere, were recovered from the top of the core. Further sampling attempts using piston, gravity, and box corers, all of which were obtained within 15 m of the discovery core, recovered olive-brown silty mud with variable amounts of whole and fragmented bivalve shells and methanogenic carbonate fragments characteristic of cold-seep environments. Gases collected in cores adjacent to the discovery core contain elevated amounts of methane and trace amounts of heavier hydrocarbon gases, indicating some component from thermogenic sources. Hydrogen sulfide was also detected in these sediment samples. Vertical channels in one core may have served as fluid pathways. The existence of hydrate at such a shallow depth in the sediment was unexpected, however, the presence of Vesicomya and hydrogen sulfide indicate that the mud volcano is a site of active methane venting. The mud volcano, which is about 24 km west-southwest of Redondo Beach, is about 300 m in diameter at the base. No internal structure is resolved on either high resolution deep-tow boomer or single-channel air-gun profiles, most likely as a result of the gas content and sediment deformation. The diapiric structure has ascended through well-bedded sediment on the lower slope of the basin, producing as much as 30 m of bathymetric relief. It is located in an area where strike-slip motion along

  8. Vertical movements of the Murono mud volcano in Japan caused by the Naganoken Kamishiro Fault Earthquake in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Hamamoto, Toshiki; Fukuda, Yoichi; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    We observed vertical movements of the Murono mud volcano, Niigata, Japan, caused by the Naganoken Kamishiro Fault Earthquake ( M = 6.7) on 22 November 2014. Precise levelling around the mud volcano was carried out on 27 November 2014, and the obtained elevation was compared with the data obtained for 11 November 2014. It was found that an elliptical uplift area, about 46 mm in magnitude and an order of magnitude smaller than that of the ones formed due to the past movements caused by the earthquakes in the same area, had been formed. It was considered that the structures of the shallow subsurface as well as the distance between the mud volcano and epicentre might play an important role in understanding the magnitude of vertical movements and distribution patterns.

  9. Deep-sea mud volcanoes - a window to alteration processes in old oceanic crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, Christian; Scholz, Florian; Nuzzo, Marianne; Valadares, Vasco; Terrinha, Pedro; Liebetrau, Volker; Kaul, Norbert; Manzoni, Sonia; Schmidt, Mark; Gràcia, Eulàlia

    2013-04-01

    A number of deep sea mud volcanoes (>4700 m water depth) were discovered during a recent expedition with the German research vessel Meteor along a prominent WSW-ENE trending strike-slip fault (SWIM 1; Zitellini et al., 2009) in the western extension of the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic). Mud volcanism was unambiguously related to tectonic activity along the fault and fluids expelled at these sites show a very distinct geochemical composition that has not been reported from any other mud volcano to date. In previous studies on deep-water mud volcanoes in the Western Gulf of Cadiz accretionary wedge it was hypothesized that the discharge fluids were affected by alteration processes occurring in the old (>140 Ma) and deeply buried (>4 km) oceanic crust (Scholz et al., 2009; Sallarès et al, 2011). This hypothesis is supported by recent findings at the mud volcanoes located to the west of the realm of tectonic deformation driven by the accretionary wedge of the Gulf of Cadiz. Pore water geochemical analyses revealed fluid sources from oceanic crust and oldest sedimentary strata. Regardless of the ultimate source, these findings suggest that large strike-slip faults may play a significant, yet unrecognized role in terms of fluid circulation and element redistribution. To date, hot vents and cold seeps occurring at active spreading centers and forearcs of subduction zones have been pinpointed as hotspots of fluid activity. However, bearing in mind that transform-type plate boundaries are equal in length compared to other types of plate boundaries, fluid exchange at this type of plate boundary may provide a similarly important pathway for water and element exchange between the lithosphere and ocean. Sallarès V., Gailler A., Gutscher M.-A., Graindorge D., Bartolomé R., Gràcia E., Díaz J., Dañobeitia J.J. and Zitellini N. (2011) Seismic evidence for the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in the central Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian margin), Earth and Planetary Science Letters

  10. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2013-11-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the Western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary depocenter containing overpressured shales. Although some of these MVs have been studied, the detailed biogeochemistry of expelled mud so far has not been examined in detail. This work provides the first results on the composition and origin of organic matter, Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) processes and general characteristics on MV dynamics using lipid biomarkers as the main tool. Lipid biomarker analysis was performed on MV expelled material (mud breccias) and interbedded hemipelagic sediments from Perejil, Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs located in the northwest margin of the Alboran Sea. The n-alkane-distributions and n-alkane-derived indices (CPI and ACL), in combination with the epimerization degree of hopanes (22S/(22S + 22R)) indicate that all studied mud breccia have a similar biomarker composition consisting of mainly thermally immature organic matter with an admixture of petroleum-derived compounds. This concordant composition indicates that common source strata must feed all three studied MVs. The past or present AOM activity was established using lipid biomarkers specific for anaerobic methanotropic archaea (irregular isoprenoids and DGDs) and the depleted carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of crocetane/phytane. The presence of these lipid biomarkers, together with the low amounts of detected GDGTs, is consistent with the dominance of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 over ANME-1, at least in mud breccia from Perejil MVs. In contrast, the scarce presence or lack of these AOM-related lipid biomarkers in sediments from Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs, suggest no recent active methane seepage has occurred at these sites. Moreover, the observed

  11. Tectonic control on the distribution of onshore mud volcanoes in parts of the Upper Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Ojochenemi K.; Kurowska, Ewa E.; Schoeneich, Krzysztof; Alagbe, Solomon A.; Ayok, Jeremiah

    2016-06-01

    Onshore mud volcanoes are rare geological phenomena, which in Nigeria were reported for the first time few years ago in the Upper Benue Trough. In this study a detail geological mapping of the area of mud volcanoes occurrence was carried out, with the primary aim of defining their relationship, if any, to the structural geology there. The systematic field reconnaissance included field observations of the structural features, as well as analysis of the location and distribution of the onshore mud volcanoes, marking their locations on the topographic and geological maps, analysis of the aerial photographs and satellite images. The study area covered the central part of the Upper Benue Trough where the onshore mud volcanoes were found. The study area is the part of a sedimentary basin comprising Cretaceous clastic rocks that have been deformed intensively by a network of faults often embedded in the underlying Precambrian basement. This network of faults underwent a rejuvenation period from the Aptian to the Palaeocene. The most prominent tectonic structure in the study area is the NE - SW trending Kaltungo Fault Zone, however, there are other minor faults with N - S and NW - SE trends. This study shows that the mud volcanoes found in the study area are usually located near or within fault zones, within the outcropping Upper Cretaceous Yolde Formation and Upper Bima Sandstone, both of which were deformed by the Kaltungo faults, as well as by other minor faults. Worldwide, incidences of onshore mud volcano formation are usually attributed to areas of tectonic activity, rapid sedimentation or hydrocarbon occurrence. In this study, the interpretation of the field observations and mapping results, combined with information on the structural evolution of the study area and seismic pattern (very scarce), have led to the conclusion that the location of onshore mud volcanoes in the Upper Benue Trough, being located along the fault zones, is structurally controlled. The close

  12. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T.; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81–3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100–300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301

  13. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301

  14. Microbial methane cycling in a terrestrial mud volcano in eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Hsin; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Lai, Wen-Jing; Tsai, Wen-Yu; Sun, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Li-Hung; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2012-04-01

    Microbial communities responsible for methane cycling in mud volcanoes onshore are poorly characterized. This study analysed bubbling fluids and cored sediments retrieved from a mud volcano in eastern Taiwan. The pore water profiles revealed that methane concentrations generally increased with depth and changed dramatically at different depth intervals at different sites. The methane concentrations were inversely correlated with Fe(2+)/Mn(2+) concentrations and δ(13)C values of methane, marking iron/manganese-methane transition zones in the sediment cores. Archaeal communities were dominated by ANME-2a members and methylotrophic methanogens, whereas bacterial communities consisted primarily of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of ANME-2a and Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter populations varied by two to three orders of magnitude along the profile and exhibited a pattern comparable with those of Fe(2+) and δ(13)C values of methane. These lines of evidence suggest a coupling between anaerobic methanotrophy and metal reduction in the metal-methane transition zones under sulfate-deficient conditions, a metabolic scheme contrasting with that observed in marine cold seeps. Anaerobic methanotrophs proliferate by removing methane produced from in situ methanogenesis and originating from the deep source. Methane finally emitted into the atmosphere is quantitatively and isotopically altered by various microbial processes compartmentalized at different depth intervals. PMID:22141749

  15. The East Java mud volcano (2006 to present): An earthquake or drilling trigger?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Richard J.; Brumm, Maria; Manga, Michael; Rubiandini, Rudi; Swarbrick, Richard; Tingay, Mark

    2008-08-01

    On May 29th 2006 a mud volcano, later to be named 'Lusi', started to form in East Java. It is still active and has displaced > 30,000 people. The trigger mechanism for this, the world's largest and best known active mud volcano, is still the subject of debate. Trigger mechanisms considered here are (a) the May 27th 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake, (b) the drilling of the nearby Banjar Panji-1 gas exploration well (150 m away), and (c) a combination of the earthquake and drilling operations. We compare the distance and magnitude of the earthquake with the relationship between the distance and magnitude of historical earthquakes that have caused sediment liquefaction, or triggered the eruption of mud volcanoes or caused other hydrological responses. Based on this comparison, an earthquake trigger is not expected. The static stress changes caused by the rupture of the fault that created the Yogyakarta earthquake are a few tens of Pascals, much smaller than changes in stress caused by tides or variations in barometric pressure. At least 22 earthquakes (and possibly hundreds) likely caused stronger ground shaking at the site of Lusi in the past 30 years without causing an eruption. The period immediately preceding the eruption was seismically quieter than average and thus there is no evidence that Lusi was "primed" by previous earthquakes. We thus rule out an earthquake-only trigger. The day before the eruption started (May 28th 2006), as a result of pulling the drill bit and drill pipe out of the hole, there was a significant influx of formation fluid and gas. The monitored pressure after the influx, in the drill pipe and annulus showed variations typical of the leakage of drilling fluid into the surrounding sedimentary rock strata. Furthermore we calculate that the pressure at a depth of 1091 m (the shallowest depth without any protective steel casing) exceeded a critical level after the influx occurred. Fractures formed due to the excess pressure, allowing a fluid-gas-mud

  16. Chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic characteristics of mud from the LUSI mud volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia: implications for the environment, public health, and eruption processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Casadevall, T. J.; Wibowo, H. T.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Breit, G. N.; Hageman, P. L.; Wolf, R. E.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting from a vent 150 meters away from a gas exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI mud volcano, has continued at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This paper will present analytical results of mud samples collected in Sept. 2007 and Nov. 2008, and interpretive findings based on the analytical results. The 2007 mud sample contains high proportions of particles that could be ingestible by hand-mouth transmission (~98 vol % <250 microns,), inhalable into the upper respiratory tract (~80 vol % <10 microns), and respirable into the lung alveoli (~ 40 vol % <2.5 microns), so the mud and dust from the dried mud could be readily taken up by exposed individuals. Our results confirm those of a previous study that the levels of potentially toxic heavy metals or metalloids in the mud are low. A complex mixture of organic compounds in the mud is likely derived from petroleum source rocks. Although the 2007 mud sample contains several percent iron sulfides, net acid production tests indicate that enough carbonate material is also present to prevent the mud from becoming acid-generating due to weathering and sulfide oxidation in the near-surface environment. Water derived from settling mud deposits may have the potential to adversely affect the quality of surface- or groundwater sources for drinking water, due to high levels of fluoride, nitrate, iron, manganese, aluminum, sulfate, chloride, and total dissolved solids. The very high nitrate levels in the waters contained within the mud may present a source of nutrients that could enhance algal blooms and resulting adverse impacts such as hypoxia in fresh-water and marine ecosystems into which some of the mud is being

  17. A seismic wave propagation study for the triggering of the Lusi mud-volcano, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, M.; Saenger, E. H.; Fuchs, F.; Miller, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    A long-standing debate began in May 2006 with the onset of the eruption of the Lusi mud volcano, near Sidoarjo, Indonesia. The controversy concerns the causes that initiated the discharge of the mud: was it triggered by the nearby drilling operations or was it caused by the occurrence of a M6.3 seismic event near Yogyakarta? To shed light on the effects induced by the Yogyakarta earthquake we performed numerical investigations on the effects induced by the propagation of the seismic waves induced by this seismic event. To perform the analysis we used a finite-differences grid, which represents the first 3000 m of crust underneath Lusi. Our geological model is based on seismic profiles, geological logs and accounts for compressional wave speed, shear wave speed, and density of the geological layers. An important feature of the geological model is the occurrence of a relatively high P-wave velocity layer (approximately 6300 m s-1 located approximately 500 m above the geological formation that originated the mud. We assumed a fundamental signal frequency of 0.5 Hz to calculate the maximum energy density distribution in the geological media and we performed seismic wave propagation analysis for three different sources: i) a plane P-wave arriving from depth, ii) a point source at the surface, iii) a point source located approximately 1000 m below the relatively high p-wave velocity layer. The first and the third case lead to similar results that indicate the occurrence of high energy density concentrations above and below the high velocity layer. The second case shows that a pure surface wave would not induce high energies below the relatively high p-wave velocity layer. Our analysis shows that the relatively high P-wave velocity layer is key to understand the whole system. In addition, the simulations indicate that a wave that may have triggered the onset of the mud volcano could only have been a body wave coming from depth. Future simulations will include other

  18. Periodic gas release from the LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E.; Smekens, J.

    2012-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano has been erupting since May 2006 in a densely populated district of the Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industries, farmlands, and 10,000 homes. Peak mud extrusion rates of 180,000 m3/d were measured in the first few months of the eruption, which have decreased to <20,000 m3/d in 2012. Mud volcanoes often release fluids in a pulsating fashion, with periodic timescales ranging from minutes to days, and LUSI is no exception. These oscillations, common in natural systems of multi-phase fluid flow, are thought to result from some combination of complex feedback mechanisms between conduit and source geometry, fluid compressibility, viscosity and density, changes in lithostatic stresses, reservoir pressure, fluid phases or vent conditions. Crisis management workers and local residents reported observations of pulsating eruptive cycles lasting a few hours during the first two years of the eruption, and possibly beyond. Since that time, activity has shifted to individual transient eruptions recurring at intervals of a few minutes. In May and October of 2011, we documented the periodic explosive release of fluids at LUSI using a combination of high-resolution time-lapse photography, continuous webcam, open path FTIR, and thermal infrared imagery. The mud, consisting of approximately 70% water, is erupted at temperatures close to boiling. Gases are periodically released by the bursting of bubbles approximately 3 m in diameter, triggering mud fountains ~20 m in height. No appreciable gas seepage was detected in the quiescent intervals between bubble bursts. Absorption spectrometry in the infrared spectrum reveals that the gas released during explosions consists of 98.5% water vapor, 1% carbon dioxide, and 0.3% methane. On rare occasions, minor amounts of ammonia were also detected. Using simplified plume geometries based on observations, we estimate that LUSI releases approximately 1,500 T

  19. Discovery of ferromanganese hydrocarbon-related nodules associated with the Meknes mud volcano (Western Moroccan margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, F. J.; Somoza, L.; Medialdea, T.; León, R.; Torres, T.; Ortiz, J. E.; Martín-Rubí, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    A suite of ferromanganese nodules were sampled during the MVSEIS-2008 cruise aboard of the R/V Hespérides in the flanks of Meknes mud volcano (Moroccan margin, NE Central Atlantic). The nodules were collected at water depths between 750-850 m within a seabed area characterized by high acoustic backscatter values. Debris of cold water corals and hydrocarbon-derived authigenic carbonate crusts were sampled at same time. The nodules show tabular morphology, up to 20 cm in maximum diameter and 2 kg of weight, brown-reddish external color and they are internally composed by a concentric to complex arrangement of laminae. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis show that these ferromanganese nodules are essentially composed of goethite and lepidocrocite, being Mn-oxides, silicates (quartz and clay minerals) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite and siderite) accessory to occasional minerals. All the samples display micritic to micro-sparitic mosaic under the petrographic microscope which forms massive, laminated or dendritic-mottled textures. The nodules show a high abundance of Fe, minor Mn and low contents of trace metals and REEs. Mature hydrocarbons, as n-alkanes derived from marine bacterial activity, and phenanthrene have been detected in all the ferromanganese nodules analyzed. These nodules display analogous characteristics (textural, mineralogical and geochemical) to the nodules studied by González et al (2009) in the carbonate mud-mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz, offshore Iberian margin. In this way, the same preliminary genetic model proposed for these nodules might be applicable to those find in the Meknes mud volcano. Therefore, the anaerobic oxidation of hydrocarbon-rich fluids within the mud-breccia sediments in the flanks of Meknes mud volcano would induce the formation of early diagenetic Fe-(Mn) carbonate nodules. Thus, the nodules were later exhumed by the erosive action of sea bottom currents generating the replacement of ferromanganese carbonates by Fe

  20. Results of study of deep underground structure of mud volcanoes in North-Western Caucasus by means of geological and geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobissevitch, A. L.; Gorbatikov, A. V.; Ovsuychenko, A. N.; Sobissevitch, L. E.; Stepanova, M. Yu.; Morev, B. A.

    2009-04-01

    Results of complementary geological and geophysical studies of mud volcanic phenomena in North-Western Caucasus (Taman mud volcanic province) are presented. New technology for passive subsurface sounding of the Earth's crust has been originally developed at the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences. Patented since 2005, this technology represents the new kind of seismic survey based on specific features of propagation of the Rayleigh waves. It uses natural background microseismic noise as a sounding signal. By using the method of low-frequency microseismic sounding in the course of field works carried out in 2006 - 2008, there have been obtained three vertical cross-sections for the two mud volcanoes down to the depth of 25 km. For the two different mud volcanoes their deep subsurface structure has been revealed and discussed. The Gora Karabetova mud volcano is one of the most active mud volcanoes in the Taman peninsula with primarily explosive behaviour while the Shugo mud volcano's activity pattern is different, explosive events are rare and both types of phenomena may be explained by the configuration of their feeding systems, tectonic position and deep pathways of migration of fluids. Complementary interpretation of raw data sets delivered form geophysical and geological surveys allows considering principal differences of origin and mechanisms of mud volcanic activity for the Shugo and the Gora Karabetova mud volcanoes.

  1. Cold seep communities in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea: composition, symbiosis and spatial distribution on mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olu-Le Roy, Karine; Sibuet, Myriam; Fiala-Médioni, Aline; Gofas, Serge; Salas, Carmen; Mariotti, André; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Woodside, John

    2004-12-01

    Two mud volcano fields were explored during the French-Dutch MEDINAUT cruise (1998) with the submersible NAUTILE, one south of Crete along the Mediteranean Ridge at about 2000 m depth (Olimpi mud field) and the other south of Turkey between 1700 and 2000 m depth (Anaximander mud field) where high methane concentrations were measured. Chemosynthetic communities were observed and sampled on six mud volcanoes and along a fault scarp. The communities were dominated by bivalves of particularly small size, belonging to families commonly found at seeps (Mytilidae, Vesicomyidae, Thyasiridae) and to Lucinidae mostly encountered in littoral sulfide-rich sediments and at the shallowest seeps. Siboglinid polychaetes including a large vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp. were also associated. At least four bivalve species and one siboglinid are associated with symbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria, as evidenced by Transmission Electronic Microscopy and isotopic ratio measurements. Among the bivalves, a mytilid harbors both methanotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Video spatial analysis of the community distribution on three volcanoes shows that dense bivalve shell accumulations (mainly lucinids) spread over large areas, from 10% to 38% of the explored areas (2500-15000 m 2) on the different volcanoes. Lamellibrachia sp. had different spatial distribution and variable density in the two mud volcano fields, apparently related with higher methane fluxes in the Anaximander volcanoes and maybe with the instability due to brines in the Olimpi area. The abundance and richness of the observed chemosynthetic fauna and the size of some of the species contrast with the poverty of the deep eastern Mediterranean. The presence of a specialized fauna, with some mollusk genera and species shared with other reduced environments of the Mediterranean, but not dominated by the large bivalves usually found at seeps, is discussed.

  2. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkluysen, Loïc; Burton, Michael R.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Smekens, Jean-François

    2014-07-01

    LUSI mud volcano has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. Mud extrusion rates of 180,000 m3 d-1 were measured in the first few months of the eruption, decreasing to a loosely documented <20,000 m3 d-1 in 2012. The last few years of activity have been characterized by periodic short-lived eruptive bursts. In May and October 2011, we documented this activity using high-resolution time-lapse photography, open-path FTIR, and thermal infrared imagery. Gases (98% water vapor, 1.5% carbon dioxide, 0.5% methane) were periodically released by the bursting of bubbles approximately 3 m in diameter which triggered mud fountains to ˜10 m and gas plumes to hundreds of meters above the vent. During periods of quiescence (1-3 min), no appreciable gas seepage occurred. We estimate that LUSI releases approximately 2300 t yr-1 of methane, 30,000 t yr-1 of CO2, and 800,000 t yr-1 of water vapor. Gas bubble nucleation depths are >4000 m for methane and approximately 600 m for carbon dioxide; however, the mass fractions of these gases are insufficient to explain the observed dynamics. Rather, the primary driver of the cyclic bubble-bursting activity is decompressional boiling of water, which initiates a few tens of meters below the surface, setting up slug flow in the upper conduit. Our measured gas flux and conceptual model lead to a corresponding upper-bound estimate for the mud-water mass flux of 105 m3 d-1.

  3. Alex's Gifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifted Child Today, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article shares the story of Alex, a gifted child. Alex is clearly gifted when observed through one lens and yet obviously lagging when viewed from a different angle. He knew his letters at 20 months, but did not learn to tie his shoes until the middle of second grade. He taught himself to read just before his third birthday, but in third…

  4. Uplift revealed by LASER scanner surveys in Murono mud volcano, Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and estimation of its source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Fukuda, Y.; Kusumoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Since mud volcanoes spew out pressurized material, such as natural gas, oil, mud including water from a deeper ground, the activities of the mud volcanoes are good indicators of the stress conditions/orientations as well as the tectonic controls. The Murono mud volcano area located in Tokamachi City, Niigata prefecture, Japan, is one of the active ground deforming areas associated with mud, natural gas, oil and water eruptions. This area is famous because rapid ground deformation events were recorded corresponding to neighboring large earthquakes. For instance, associated with Naganoken-Hokubu Earthquake (Mw. 6.7) which occurred in 2011, the area recorded a sudden large uplift of about 50 cm. In order to reveal the source mechanism of the mud volcano, Toyama University has been conducting successive leveling surveys at 61 benchmarks. They revealed that the same area of the rapid uplift of 2011 has been still uplifting, even the amount of the uplift is much smaller (20 mm/yr). However, the source of the uplift could not be well identified due to the low spatial resolutions. Therefore, in order to obtain a high resolution land deformation pattern, we have conducted laser scanning surveys two times in June and October 2013, using TOPCON Imaging Station IS-301, which can obtain 3D point cloud data by the automatic laser scanning mode without reflector. The surface deformations obtained by comparing the June and October datasets indicate clear uplifts where the sudden uplift occurred. Since the uplift area show a clear concentric pattern, we estimated the source of the uplift assuming a Mogi source model. The obtained source parameters are, depth=14[m], Volume=14[m3], assuming the Poisson's ratio of 0.25. Then the calculated uplift at the nearest benchmark also shows good agreement with the uplift obtained by the leveling survey. The current uplift is much smaller than the 2011 uplift. Nevertheless both sources could be the same, because the areas of the uplifts are

  5. 3D Subsoil Model of the San Biagio `Salinelle' Mud Volcanoes (Belpasso, Sicily) derived from Geophysical Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imposa, S.; Grassi, S.; De Guidi, G.; Battaglia, F.; Lanaia, G.; Scudero, S.

    2016-07-01

    Mud volcanoes are common in active mountain fronts. At Mt. Etna, located just between the Apennine front in Sicily and its foredeep, there are some manifestations of mud volcanism in the lower border of the volcanic edifice. The activity of these mud volcanoes is characterized by persistent emission of muddy water mixed with salts, which rises to the surface due to the gas pressure in the subsoil. The San Biagio Salinelle is one of the three mud volcano fields located around the Paternò eruptive monogenic apparatus; this old volcanic structure was one of the first subaerial volcanic manifestations that formed in the pre-Etnean phase. It is not fully clear whether and how the activity of the mud fields is connected with the volcanic activity of Mt. Etna. Noninvasive geophysical surveys were carried out in the area of the active cone of the San Biagio Salinelle, in order to identify the probable ascent path of the emitted products. Seismic ambient noise records were collected at the nodes of a specially designed grid and, subsequently, the V s values were obtained from an active seismic survey. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was obtained by a topographic survey, carried out with the GNSS technique (global navigation satellite system), in real-time kinematic mode. The DEM and the topographic benchmark installed will represent the reference surface for future periodic monitoring of the ongoing deformation in the area. Our results provide an accurate and detailed 3D subsurface model showing the shallower feeding system of the investigated mud volcano.

  6. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Turner, R.J.W.; Ware, P.L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (~200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor-hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (~100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  7. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: Modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, John F.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Ware, Paul L. G.

    1998-05-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (˜200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (˜100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  8. Microbial processes and communities in sediment samples along a transect across the Lusi mud volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Martin; Straaten, Nontje; Mazzini, Adriano

    2015-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems. This eruption started in 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake that stroke Java Island. Since then it has been spewing boiling mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Today an area of about 8 km2 is covered by locally dried mud breccia where a network of hundreds of satellite seeping pools is active. Numerous investigations focused on the study of offshore microbial colonies that commonly thrive at offshore methane seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done for onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 and CO2 as well as of heavier liquid hydrocarbons originating from several km below the surface. We conducted a sampling campaign at the Lusi site collecting samples of fresh mud close to the erupting crater using a remote controlled drone. In addition we completed a transect towards outer parts of the crater to collect older, weathered samples for comparison. In all samples active microorganisms were present. The highest activities for CO2 and CH4 production as well as for CH4 oxidation and hydrocarbon degradation were observed in medium-age mud samples collected roughly in the middle of the transect. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade hydrocarbons (oils, alkanes, BTEX tested). The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments. Currently, the microbial communities in the different sediment samples are analyzed using quantitative PCR and T-RFLP combined with MiSeq sequencing. This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage

  9. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M.

    2014-06-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary depocentre containing overpressured shales. Although some of these MVs have been studied, the detailed biogeochemistry of expelled mud so far has not been examined in detail. This work provides the first results on the composition and origin of organic matter, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) processes and general characteristics on MV dynamics using lipid biomarkers as the main tool. Lipid biomarker analysis was performed on MV expelled material (mud breccias) and interbedded hemipelagic sediments from Perejil, Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs located in the northwest margin of the Alboran Sea. The n alkane distributions and n alkane-derived indices (CPI and ACL), in combination with the epimerization degree of hopanes (22S/(22S+22R)) indicate that all studied mud breccia have a similar biomarker composition consisting of mainly thermally immature organic matter with an admixture of petroleum-derived compounds. This concordant composition indicates that common source strata must feed all three studied MVs. The past or present AOM activity was established using lipid biomarkers specific for anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (irregular isoprenoids and dialkyl glycerol diethers) and the depleted carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of crocetane/phytane. The presence of these lipid biomarkers, together with the low amounts of detected glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, is consistent with the dominance of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 over ANME-1, at least in mud breccia from Perejil MVs. In contrast, the scarce presence or lack of these AOM-related lipid biomarkers in sediments from Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs, suggests that no recent active methane seepage

  10. Multiple visions of Indonesia's mud volcano: understanding representations of disaster across discursive settings.

    PubMed

    Drake, Phillip

    2016-04-01

    The Lapindo mudflow is one of the most controversial disasters in Indonesian history. Despite its unique biophysical features, most consider the mudflow a social disaster as scientific conflicts about its main trigger have evolved into legal disputes over accountability and rights. This paper examines this 'trigger debate', the stakes of scientific contention and the broader social and natural dynamics that shape the terms of this debate. A Latourian impulse drives this analysis, which aims to improve both understandings of--and responses to--complex disasters. This paper also notes that the stakes of representation extend to constructions of its stakeholders, especially to victims. As socionatural disasters become an increasingly common feature of the contemporary world, from mud volcanoes to extreme weather events caused by global warming, it is more important than ever to understand the dynamics of representing disasters and stakeholders. PMID:26282449

  11. Active mud volcanoes on the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Melling, H.; Riedel, M.; Jin, Y. K.; Hong, J. K.; Kim, Y.-G.; Graves, D.; Sherman, A.; Lundsten, E.; Anderson, K.; Lundsten, L.; Villinger, H.; Kopf, A.; Johnson, S. B.; Hughes Clarke, J.; Blasco, S.; Conway, K.; Neelands, P.; Thomas, H.; Côté, M.

    2015-09-01

    Morphologic features, 600-1100 m across and elevated up to 30 m above the surrounding seafloor, interpreted to be mud volcanoes were investigated on the continental slope in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. Sediment cores, detailed mapping with an autonomous underwater vehicle, and exploration with a remotely operated vehicle show that these are young and actively forming features experiencing ongoing eruptions. Biogenic methane and low-chloride, sodium-bicarbonate-rich waters are extruded with warm sediment that accumulates to form cones and low-relief circular plateaus. The chemical and isotopic compositions of the ascending water indicate that a mixture of meteoric water, seawater, and water from clay dehydration has played a significant role in the evolution of these fluids. The venting methane supports extensive siboglinid tubeworms communities and forms some gas hydrates within the near seafloor. We believe that these are the first documented living chemosynthetic biological communities in the continental slope of the western Arctic Ocean.

  12. Microbial communities imposed by different geochemical contexts in Sicilian mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Lin, Li-Hung; Italiano, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Mud volcanoes and seeps are prominent surface manifestation of fluid channels connected to fluid/gas reservoirs in deep subsurface environments. While methane and carbon dioxide constitute the main components of exsolved gases, the discharge of these gases into the atmosphere have been estimated to exert profound effects on greenhouse over contemporary and geological time scales. How microbial processes and what community compositions imposed by different geochemical contexts near surface regulate the exact quantity of gas emission remain poorly constrained. In this study, porewater, gas and sediment geochemistry, and 16S rRNA genes for samples collected from mud volcanoes in Sicily of Italy were analyzed to investigate the changes of methane cycling and compositions of methanotrophic populations in response to different methane/CO2 ratios and other geochemical characteristics in gas bubbling environments. The analyses yielded contrast patterns of solute and gas geochemistry, and gene assemblages and abundances between sites related to different tectonic regimes. For sites located at the southern flank of Mt. Etna, methane and other hydrocarbons were low (less than tens of μM) in concentrations, whereas fluids were more saline than seawater and enriched with various solutes. No apparent methane consumption could be identified from geochemical profiles. Cell abundances were low, varying between 104 - 106 cells g‑1 with anaerobic methanotrophs being generally less than 104 cells g‑1. Communities were primarily composed of Halobacteriales, Gamma-Proteobacteria, Defferibacteres, Chloroflexi, and Delta-Proteobacteria. The dominant OTUs were related to heterotrophic halophiles, and sulfide oxidizers. While a fraction of sequences related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected, anaerobic methanotrophs and methanogens were rarely present. In contrast, methane and other hydrocarbons were high (generally more than 0.4 mM) at sites located within accretionary wedge

  13. Metabolic stratification driven by surface and subsurface interactions in a terrestrial mud volcano

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tang, Sen-Lin; Tseng, Ching-Hung; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ti; Sun, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Yue-Gau; Kuo, Hung-Chi; Wang, Chun-Ho; Chu, Pao-Hsuan; Song, Sheng-Rong; Wang, Pei-Ling; Lin, Li-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial mud volcanism represents the prominent surface geological feature, where fluids and hydrocarbons are discharged along deeply rooted structures in tectonically active regimes. Terrestrial mud volcanoes (MVs) directly emit the major gas phase, methane, into the atmosphere, making them important sources of greenhouse gases over geological time. Quantification of methane emission would require detailed insights into the capacity and efficiency of microbial metabolisms either consuming or producing methane in the subsurface, and establishment of the linkage between these methane-related metabolisms and other microbial or abiotic processes. Here we conducted geochemical, microbiological and genetic analyses of sediments, gases, and pore and surface fluids to characterize fluid processes, community assemblages, functions and activities in a methane-emitting MV of southwestern Taiwan. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that aerobic/anaerobic methane oxidation, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are active and compartmentalized into discrete, stratified niches, resembling those in marine settings. Surface evaporation and oxidation of sulfide minerals are required to account for the enhanced levels of sulfate that fuels subsurface sulfate reduction and anaerobic methanotrophy. Methane flux generated by in situ methanogenesis appears to alter the isotopic compositions and abundances of thermogenic methane migrating from deep sources, and to exceed the capacity of microbial consumption. This metabolic stratification is sustained by chemical disequilibria induced by the mixing between upward, anoxic, methane-rich fluids and downward, oxic, sulfate-rich fluids. PMID:22739492

  14. Metabolic stratification driven by surface and subsurface interactions in a terrestrial mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tang, Sen-Lin; Tseng, Ching-Hung; Chiang, Pei-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ti; Sun, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Yue-Gau; Kuo, Hung-Chi; Wang, Chun-Ho; Chu, Pao-Hsuan; Song, Sheng-Rong; Wang, Pei-Ling; Lin, Li-Hung

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial mud volcanism represents the prominent surface geological feature, where fluids and hydrocarbons are discharged along deeply rooted structures in tectonically active regimes. Terrestrial mud volcanoes (MVs) directly emit the major gas phase, methane, into the atmosphere, making them important sources of greenhouse gases over geological time. Quantification of methane emission would require detailed insights into the capacity and efficiency of microbial metabolisms either consuming or producing methane in the subsurface, and establishment of the linkage between these methane-related metabolisms and other microbial or abiotic processes. Here we conducted geochemical, microbiological and genetic analyses of sediments, gases, and pore and surface fluids to characterize fluid processes, community assemblages, functions and activities in a methane-emitting MV of southwestern Taiwan. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that aerobic/anaerobic methane oxidation, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are active and compartmentalized into discrete, stratified niches, resembling those in marine settings. Surface evaporation and oxidation of sulfide minerals are required to account for the enhanced levels of sulfate that fuels subsurface sulfate reduction and anaerobic methanotrophy. Methane flux generated by in situ methanogenesis appears to alter the isotopic compositions and abundances of thermogenic methane migrating from deep sources, and to exceed the capacity of microbial consumption. This metabolic stratification is sustained by chemical disequilibria induced by the mixing between upward, anoxic, methane-rich fluids and downward, oxic, sulfate-rich fluids. PMID:22739492

  15. Environmental impact of mud volcano inputs on the anthropogenically altered Porong River and Madura Strait coastal waters, Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennerjahn, Tim C.; Jänen, Ingo; Propp, Claudia; Adi, Seno; Nugroho, Sutopo Purwo

    2013-09-01

    Increasing human modifications of the coastal zone are endangering the integrity of coastal ecosystems. This is of particular importance in SE Asia where large parts of the population live in the coastal zone and are economically dependent on its resources. The region is also affected by a high frequency of extreme natural events like storms, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The eruption of a mud volcano, nicknamed "Lusi", near the city of Sidoarjo in eastern Java, Indonesia, on May 29, 2006 represents such an event. One of the measures to minimize the potential detrimental effects to the environment and the local population was to channelise part of the mud into the nearby Porong River, the major distributary of the Brantas River, which is affected by intensive land use and hydrological alterations in a densely populated catchment. Here we report for the first time on the effects of the mud volcano on the aquatic environment. The "Lusi" input more than doubled the suspended matter and particulate organic carbon load of the river. Moreover, we found decomposition of the additional organic matter worsening oxygen depletion in the river and adjacent coastal waters that can severely affect the well-being of aquatic organisms. We conclude that the mud volcano input adds to the adverse effects of human activities in the river catchment on the ecology and biogeochemistry of the estuary and Madura Strait coastal waters.

  16. Gas hydrates in shallow deposits of the Amsterdam mud volcano, Anaximander Mountains, Northeastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Thomas; Kasten, Sabine; Zabel, Matthias; Bahr, André; Abegg, Friedrich; Hohnberg, Hans-Jürgen; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    We investigated gas hydrate in situ inventories as well as the composition and principal transport mechanisms of fluids expelled at the Amsterdam mud volcano (AMV; 2,025 m water depth) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Pressure coring (the only technique preventing hydrates from decomposition during recovery) was used for the quantification of light hydrocarbons in near-surface deposits. The cores (up to 2.5 m in length) were retrieved with an autoclave piston corer, and served for analyses of gas quantities and compositions, and pore-water chemistry. For comparison, gravity cores from sites at the summit and beyond the AMV were analyzed. A prevalence of thermogenic light hydrocarbons was inferred from average C1/C2+ ratios <35 and δ13C-CH4 values of -50.6‰. Gas venting from the seafloor indicated methane oversaturation, and volumetric gas-sediment ratios of up to 17.0 in pressure cores taken from the center demonstrated hydrate presence at the time of sampling. Relative enrichments in ethane, propane, and iso-butane in gas released from pressure cores, and from an intact hydrate piece compared to venting gas suggest incipient crystallization of hydrate structure II (sII). Nonetheless, the co-existence of sI hydrate can not be excluded from our dataset. Hydrates fill up to 16.7% of pore volume within the sediment interval between the base of the sulfate zone and the maximum sampling depth at the summit. The concave-down shapes of pore-water concentration profiles recorded in the center indicate the influence of upward-directed advection of low-salinity fluids/fluidized mud. Furthermore, the SO{4/2-} and Ba2+ pore-water profiles in the central part of the AMV demonstrate that sulfate reduction driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane is complete at depths between 30 cm and 70 cm below seafloor. Our results indicate that methane oversaturation, high hydrostatic pressure, and elevated pore-water activity caused by low salinity promote fixing of considerable

  17. Application of terrestrial laser scanning for detection of ground surface deformation in small mud volcano (Murono, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Matta, Nobuhisa

    2016-07-01

    We perform terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to detect changes in surface morphology of a mud volcano in Murono, north-central Japan. The study site underwent significant deformation by a strong earthquake in 2011, and the surface deformation has continued in the following years. The point cloud datasets were obtained by TLS at three different times in 2011, 2013 and 2014. Those point clouds were aligned by cloud-based registration, which minimizes the closest point distance of point clouds of unchanged ground features, and the TLS-based point cloud data appear to be suitable for detecting centimeter-order deformations in the central domain of the mud volcano, as well as for measurements of topographic features including cracks of paved ground surface. The spatial patterns and accumulative amount of the vertical deformation during 2011-2014 captured by TLS correspond well with those previously reported based on point-based leveling surveys, supporting the validity of TLS survey.

  18. Black Sea mud volcanoes and their relation to the search for methane gas hydrates and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnyukov, Evgeny; Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena

    2016-04-01

    As of today, the number of known offshore mud volcanoes in the Black Sea is 68. The areas possessing the greatest abundance include the northern part of the Black Sea (Sorokin trough, Tuapsinskaya trough, Shatskiy arch) and the Kerch downfold (the area south of the Kerch peninsula). An intensive study of mud volcanoes has been performed in the course of on-shore and off-shore expeditions carried out by Ukrainian scientists since 1990. They brought to light new geological, geophysical, and geochemical data on the properties of mud volcanoes by (1) high resolution hydro-acoustic, seismic-acoustic, and gravity methods, (2) geothermal observations of the thermal regime of the water and uppermost sediments, (3) gravity core sampling of bottom deposits, (4) dredges and buckets, and (5) study of these samples by lithological, geochemical, paleontological, and biological methods. Methane gas hydrates have been recovered in about 28 localities largely associated with mud volcanoes below 600-700 m water depth, which suggests their close genetic relationships. Age of the sediments hosting methane gas hydrates as well as their lithological properties (e.g., grain-size) vary significantly. Relatively coarse-grained sediments make better hydrate reservoirs than fine-grained sediments. The area of the Black Sea suitable for gas hydrate formation is estimated at 288,100 km2, representing about 68% of the total Black Sea, or almost 91% of the deep-water basin; the volume of gas hydrates has been set at 4.8 km3 corresponding to 0.1-11012 m3 of free methane. A peculiar morphological structure of the sea bottom - conical hills (anticlinals) with low geostatic pressure and subsidence in their central part - provide a target in the search for underwater mud volcanoes. Our data show that such structures are formed by mud breccia and rock debris that are brought to the surface by methane flows, which escape along tectonic ruptures from the deep part of the lithosphere located beneath a

  19. Intermediate sulfur oxidation state compounds in the euxinic surface sediments of the Dvurechenskii mud volcano (Black Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtschlag, Anna; Kamyshny, Alexey; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; deBeer, Dirk

    2013-03-01

    The deep Black Sea is known to be depleted in electron-acceptors for sulfide oxidation. This study on depth distributions of sulfur species (S(II), S(0), Sn2-, SO32-, SO32-, SO42-) in the Dvurechenskii mud volcano, a cold seep situated in the permanently anoxic eastern Black Sea basin (Sorokin Trough, 2060 m water depth), showed remarkable concentrations of sulfide oxidation products. Sulfite concentrations of up to 11 μmol L-1, thiosulfate concentrations of up to 22 μmol L-1, zero-valent sulfur concentrations of up to 150 μmol L-1 and up to five polysulfide species were measured in the upper 20 cm of the sediment. Electron-acceptors found to be available in the Dvurechenskii mud volcano (DMV) for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfide oxidation intermediates are iron-minerals, and probably also reactive manganese phases. Up to 60 μmol g-1 of reactive iron-minerals and up to 170 μmol L-1 dissolved iron was present in the central summit with the highest fluid upflow and fresh mud outflow. Thus, the source for the oxidative power in the DMV are reactive iron phases extruded with the mud from an ancient source in the deeply buried sediments, leading to the formation of various sulfur intermediates in comparably high concentrations. Another possible source of sulfide oxidation intermediates in DMV sediments could be the formation of zero-valent sulfur by sulfate dependent anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane followed by disproportionation of zero-valent sulfur. Sulfide oxidation intermediates, which are produced by these processes, do not reach thermodynamic equilibrium with rhombic sulfur, especially close to the active center of the DMV due to a short equilibration time. Thus, mud volcano sediments, such as in the DMV, can provide oxidizing niches even in a highly reduced environment like the abyssal part of the Black Sea.

  20. Clay Mineralogy And Pore Water Geochemistry Of Mud From Baratang Mud Volcanoes From Andamans, India And Great Boiling Springs, Nevada, USA: Linking Mud Mineralogy Using XRD And XRF To Extrusion Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, S.; Socki, R. A.; Niles, P.; Rekhi, S.; Cernatescu, I.; Sutton, P.; Litteer, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Andaman mud volcanic chain on the Indian Ocean is a major outlet for released fluids, resulting in a high background temperature gradient that triggers mineralogical transformations and geochemical reactions at shallow depths. These tectonic structures have provided escape pathways for overpressured material and fluids or have favoured upward fluid movement along the sedimentary column and eventually the build up of mud volcanoes. Baratang Islands of Middle Andamans, India is one such spot currently under study. We compare the mineralogy of the Andaman mud volcano with another mud diapiric site, Great Boiling Springs (GBS), near Gerlach, NV, situated within the Great Basin of N. America. In July, 2009 frequent explosions were witnessed and samples were collected at GBS. Powder X-ray Diffraction and XRF analyses of bulk mud samples from Baratang were performed to identify the complete suite of minerals, in addition to the clay minerals in each case. The x-ray results on the clay separates from these mud samples (Baratang) has helped in understanding the consequence of the transformation of hydrated clays, the crystallochemical characterisation of lattice layered silicates, illite, chlorite illite-montmorillonite and kaolinite that can be an indicator of depth of the origin of fluid. A lower content of the fine materials in the Baratang might suggest a mixing during upward transit. Smectite-montmorillonite transformation to illite and concurrent release of intracrystalline water indicates pore water freshening in surface sediments. The pore water analysis of the Baratang mud indicate hypersaline fluids with analyses of Na with salinity, B, K and Mg. Correlation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and B enrichment in ascending fluids indicate fermentation and B desorption from clays can occur concurrently during the fluid formation and advection. The most probable mechanism in Andamans involves the re-hydration of shales by both hydrocarbons and a geochemically

  1. Authigenic barite as a proxy for past hydrocarbon outflow at the Carlos Ribeiro Mud Volcano, Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneste, Heleen; James, Rachael; Mills, Rachel; Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris; Connelly, Douglas; Haeckel, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Mud volcanoes are dynamic features characterised by the expulsion of gas-charged fluids that lack sulphate but contain elevated concentrations of dissolved barium (Ba). During the ascent of these fluids through the sediment column, barite precipitates on contact with sulphate, either in the sediment pore-waters in the shallow sub-surface or at the sediment-seawater interface. In these settings, the pore-water suphate gradient is typically regulated by the methane flux from depth via the anaerobic oxidation of methane at the Sulphate-Methane Transition Zone (SMTZ). Consequently, high concentrations (‘fronts') of authigenic barite in the sediments are found at the depth of the SMTZ, providing a record of the history of gas venting and mud volcano activity. A high resolution geochemical data set has been collected from the Carlos Ribeiro mud volcano on the Portugese margin to study methane emissions both today and in the past. Piston, gravity and mega cores were obtained from five sites located on a 380 m long transect that extends from the apex of the mud volcano to mudflow pathways to the southeast of the crater. Concentrations of Ba in both the solid- and dissolved-phase have been determined to investigate hydrocarbon and sulphate cycling at Carlos Ribeiro MV. Our results show a strong geochemical coupling between these constituents. Barite fronts are absent in the centre of the crater while a single barite front at approximately 20 cm depth is present at two sites further away from the centre. Three barite fronts occur at 45, 85 and 130 cm depth within the mudflow, containing a Ba excess of 500 ppm on average. Past and current fluxes of methane will be estimated by application of a 1-D transport-reaction model to respectively Ba and sulphate pore-water profiles.

  2. Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers at the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Lösekann, Tina; Knittel, Katrin; Nadalig, Thierry; Fuchs, Bernhard; Niemann, Helge; Boetius, Antje; Amann, Rudolf

    2007-05-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are formed by expulsions of mud, fluids, and gases from deeply buried subsurface sources. They are highly reduced benthic habitats and often associated with intensive methane seepage. In this study, the microbial diversity and community structure in methane-rich sediments of the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) were investigated by comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the active volcano center, which has a diameter of about 500 m, the main methane-consuming process was bacterial aerobic oxidation. In this zone, aerobic methanotrophs belonging to three bacterial clades closely affiliated with Methylobacter and Methylophaga species accounted for 56%+/-8% of total cells. In sediments below Beggiatoa mats encircling the center of the HMMV, methanotrophic archaea of the ANME-3 clade dominated the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation. ANME-3 archaea form cell aggregates mostly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfobulbus (DBB) branch. These ANME-3/DBB aggregates were highly abundant and accounted for up to 94%+/-2% of total microbial biomass at 2 to 3 cm below the surface. ANME-3/DBB aggregates could be further enriched by flow cytometry to identify their phylogenetic relationships. At the outer rim of the mud volcano, the seafloor was colonized by tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora). Here, both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers were found, however, in lower abundances. The level of microbial diversity at this site was higher than that at the central and Beggiatoa species-covered part of the HMMV. Analysis of methyl-coenzyme M-reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes showed a strong dominance of a novel lineage, mcrA group f, which could be assigned to ANME-3 archaea. Our results further support the hypothesis of Niemann et al. (54), that high methane availability and different fluid flow regimens at the HMMV provide distinct niches for aerobic and

  3. Origin and burial depth of Médée-Hakuho Mud Volcano in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioka, A.; Ashi, J.; Muraoka, S.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Tokuyama, H.

    2012-04-01

    Present-day geodynamic framework in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the surroundings is characterized by a complex pattern of active thick-skin crustal tectonics resulting from various plate and microplate interactions. Moreover, thick impermeable barrier of the Messinian evaporates exists below the entire Eastern Mediterranean foredeeps exceeding 3 km in thickness. These geological frameworks result in the Mediterranean Ridge differing from other accretionary complexes around the world, coupled with formation of mud diapir or mud volcano and brine lake. Ten-day PENELOPE Cruise in January/February 2007 (KH-06-4 Leg06 survey of the R/V Hakuho-Maru) made significant results in detailed mapping and piston/multicores sampling of newly-discovered Médée brine lake and its westward neighboring Médée-Hakuho Mud Volcano (MHMV) in the western branch of the Mediterranean Ridge. The MHMV has an almost circular dome structure in diameter of ~7km and reaching ~130m high, standing on the backstop boundary thrust in water depths of 2260 m. It was initially roughly-recognized during Médée Cruise conducted in 1995 on the basis of its distinct backscattering characteristics. The MHMV is interpreted to be active because of existence of many pebbles in the obtained core samples and the high backscatter intensity. Little has been clarified the relationship between undergoing collisional tectonics and mud volcanism, although these processes are strongly associated. Mud volcanism in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is known to be present on contiguous belt along the Mediterranean Ridge, which is referred to as the Mediterranean Ridge mud diapiric belt, but mud fields in the western branch of the Mediterranean Ridge remain poorly solved. In this study, we measure vitrinite reflectance of the clasts from the obtained MHMV cores in order to evaluate the temperature history and thus burial depth of MHMV. Calculation of vitrinite reflectance is followed by using the ambient temperature at

  4. Organic geochemical signatures controlling methane outgassing at active mud volcanoes in the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DongHun, Lee; YoungKeun, Jin; JungHyun, Kim; Heldge, Niemann; JongKu, Gal; BoHyung, Choi

    2016-04-01

    Based on the water column acoustic anomalies related to active methane (CH4) venting, numerous active Mud Volcanoes (MVs) were recently identified at ~282, ~420, and ~740 m water depths on the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea (Paull et al., 2015). While geophysical aspects such as the multibeam bathymetric mapping are thoroughly investigated, biogeochemical processes controlling outgassing CH4 at the active MVs are not well constrained. Here, we investigated three sediment cores from the active MVs and one sediment core from a non-methane influenced reference site recovered during the ARA-05C expedition with the R/V ARAON in 2014. We analyzed lipid biomarkers and their stable carbon isotopic values (δ13C) in order to determine key biogeochemical processes involved in CH4 cycling in the MV sediments. Downcore CH4 and sulphate (SO42-) concentration measurements revealed a distinct sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) at the shallow sections of the cores (15 - 45 cm below seafloor (cm bsf) at 282 m MV, 420 m MV, and 740 m MV). The most abundant diagnostic lipid biomarkers in the SMTZ were sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol (-94‰) and archaeol (-66‰) with the sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol: archaeol ratio of 1.1 to 5, indicating the presence of ANME-2 or -3. However, we also found substantial amounts of monocyclic biphytane-1 (BP-1, -118‰), which is rather indicative for ANME-1. Nevertheless, the concentration of sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol was 2-fold higher than any other archaeal lipids, suggesting a predominant ANME-2 or -3 rather than ANME-1 as a driving force for the anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) in these systems. We will further investigate the microbial community at the active MVs using nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) sequence analyses in near future. Our study provides first biogeochemical data set of the active MVs in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, which helps to better understand CH4 cycling mediated in these systems. Reference Paull, C.K., et al. (2015), Active mud

  5. Diversity and spatial distribution of prokaryotic communities along a sediment vertical profile of a deep-sea mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Pachiadaki, Maria G; Kallionaki, Argyri; Dählmann, Anke; De Lange, Gert J; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the top 30-cm sediment prokaryotic community structure in 5-cm spatial resolution, at an active site of the Amsterdam mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea, based on the 16S rRNA gene diversity. A total of 339 and 526 sequences were retrieved, corresponding to 25 and 213 unique (≥98% similarity) phylotypes of Archaea and Bacteria, respectively, in all depths. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index H was higher for Bacteria (1.92-4.03) than for Archaea (0.99-1.91) and varied differently between the two groups. Archaea were dominated by anaerobic methanotrophs ANME-1, -2 and -3 groups and were related to phylotypes involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane from similar habitats. The much more complex Bacteria community consisted of 20 phylogenetic groups at the phylum/candidate division level. Proteobacteria, in particular δ-Proteobacteria, was the dominant group. In most sediment layers, the dominant phylotypes of both the Archaea and Bacteria communities were found in neighbouring layers, suggesting some overlap in species richness. The similarity of certain prokaryotic communities was also depicted by using four different similarity indices. The direct comparison of the retrieved phylotypes with those from the Kazan mud volcano of the same field revealed that 40.0% of the Archaea and 16.9% of the Bacteria phylotypes are common between the two systems. The majority of these phylotypes are closely related to phylotypes originating from other mud volcanoes, implying a degree of endemicity in these systems. PMID:21538105

  6. Fluid evolution and authigenic mineral paragenesis related to salt diapirism - The Mercator mud volcano in the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffert, L.; Haeckel, M.; Liebetrau, V.; Berndt, C.; Hensen, C.; Nuzzo, M.; Reitz, A.; Scholz, F.; Schönfeld, J.; Perez-Garcia, C.; Weise, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    The formation of mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz is closely linked to diapirism in the deep subsurface. The Mercator mud volcano (MMV) is a rare example where diapiric emplacement, in addition to being key for upward fluid migration, is also an important zone for fluid and mineral diagenesis. The most intriguing findings in the near-surface muds of the MMV are extremely high salinities of up to 5.2 M of NaCl from diapiric and evaporitic halite dissolution and the occurrence of authigenic gypsum and anhydrite crystals, both of which have not been observed to date in the Gulf of Cadiz. Employing a thermodynamic model we elucidate how the interplay of temperature pulses, strong salinity gradients, and fluid flow dynamically drive mineral dissolution and re-formation. The strong increase in salinity in the pore fluids has important implications for thermodynamic equilibria by significantly lowering the activity of water, thereby raising the gypsum-anhydrite transition zone from >1 km to about 400 m sediment depth at the MMV. This transition is further shifted to immediately below the seafloor during intervals of active mud and fluid expulsion when the MV surface temperature is heated up to at least 30 °C. As a consequence, precipitation of authigenic gypsum near the sediment surface (1-2 mbsf) has been linked to the dissolution of evaporites below the MMV. More precisely, the mechanisms generating supersaturation in the ascending gypsum-saturated MMV fluids are (1) the slow and constant cooling of these fluids along the geothermal gradient during their ascent leading to formation of ubiquitous micro-crystals and (2) the more rapid cooling after a heat pulse or transport from greater and warmer depth during an active mud volcano phase leading to the precipitation of cm-scale gypsum crystals or even fist-size concretions. The MMV fluids approaching the salt diapir from farther below have experienced a genesis similar to those of other mud volcanoes in the Gulf of

  7. Microbiological investigation of methane- and hydrocarbon-discharging mud volcanoes in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania.

    PubMed

    Alain, Karine; Holler, Thomas; Musat, Florin; Elvert, Marcus; Treude, Tina; Krüger, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Paclele Mici is a terrestrial mud volcano field located in the Carpathian Mountains (Romania), where thermal alteration of sedimentary organic compounds leads to methane, higher hydrocarbons and other petroleum compounds that are continuously released into the environment. The hydrocarbons represent potential substrates for microorganisms. We studied lipid biomarkers, stable isotope ratios, the effect of substrate (methane, other organic compounds) addition and 16S rRNA genes to gain insights into the hitherto unknown microbial community at this site. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that bacteria were much more abundant than archaea. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA clone sequences indicated the presence of bacterial and archaeal lineages generally associated with the methane cycle (methanogens, aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophs), the sulfur cycle (sulfate reducers), and groups linked to the anaerobic degradation of alkanes or aromatic hydrocarbons. The presence of sulfate reducers, methanogens and methanotrophs in this habitat was also confirmed by concurrent surveys of lipid biomarkers and their isotopic signatures. Incubation experiments with several common and complex substrates revealed the potential of the indigenous microbial community for sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and aerobic methanotrophy. Additionally, consistently to the detection of methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and 13C-depleted archaeal lipids, a weak but significant activity of anaerobic methane oxidation was measured by radiotracer techniques and in vitro. This survey is the first to report the presence and activity of ANME in a terrestrial environment. PMID:16584470

  8. Salinity and Temperature Constraints on Microbial Methanogenesis in the Lei-Gong-Huo Mud Volcano of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Lin, L.; Wang, P.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial mud volcano is thought to be one of the most important natural sources of methane emission. Previous studies have shown that methane cycling in terrestrial mud volcanoes involves a complex reaction network driven by the interactions between subsurface and surface abiotic and microbial processes. In situ methanogenesis appears to produce methane at quantities exceeding those of deeply-sourced thermogenic methane and the capacities of anaerobic methanotrophy at shallow depth levels, thereby contributing significantly to the methane emission. Various degrees of evaporation at surface also lead to the enhancement of chloride concentrations in pore water, favoring the proliferation of halo-tolerant and/or halophilic methanogens. The goal of this study is to investigate the extent of methanogenesis in terrestrial mud volcanoes by incubating mud slurries with various precursors (H2/CO2, acetate, methanol, and methylamine) at different salinities (up to 2000 mM) and temperatures (up to 50 oC). Methane concentrations were monitored through time and molecular analyses were applied to investigate the changes of methanogenic communities. Methanogenesis was stimulated by any investigated precursor at room temperature. However, the methanogenic response to salinity varied. Of the investigated precursors, H2/CO2 and methyl-compounds (methanol and methylamine) stimulated methanogenesis at all investigated salinities. The rates and yields of hydrogen- and methyl-utilizing methanogenesis declined significantly at salinities greater than 1500 mM. Acetate-utilizing methanogenesis proceeded at salinities less than 700 mM. At 40 oC, methanogenesis was stimulated by all investigated precursors at the in situ salinity (~400 mM). At 50 oC, only H2-utilizing methanogenesis was stimulated. Analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) for 16S rRNA genes revealed various patterns upon different precursors and salinities. The TRFLP results combined with

  9. Quantitative Approach To Seamount Volumes And Eruption Rates For Serpentinite Mud Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedenczuk, T.; Fryer, P.

    2008-12-01

    Serpentinite mud volcanoes in the Mariana forearc are formed by the hydration of mantle peridotite with slab- derived fluids. We calculated the volumes of five seamounts (Pacman, Celestial, Conical, Turquoise, and Big Blue Seamounts) using bathymetric, and (where available) multi-channel seismic reflection data. We interpolated the underlying pre-emplacent surfaces of each seamount using three methods (kriging, harmonic, and multiquadratic radial function), and three estimation techniques to define the pre-eruption seafloor surface beneath the seamounts (perimeter outline, wide area grid, and a geologically interpreted subsurface). We compared the percent difference between each. The interpolation methods produced volume results that differ as follows: 1.9% between kriging and the multiquadratic radial function, 3.6% between kriging and the harmonic function, and 3.8% between multiquadratic radial and the harmonic function. The techniques for determining the subsurface had larger percent differences as follows: 22% between the wide area grid and the geologic interpretation, 20% between geologic interpretation and the perimeter technique, and 18% between wide area grid and the perimeter technique. Based on linear regression results with a high R2, we conclude that there is a strong correlation between the results provided by all three methods. Based on the similarity of all of the regression slopes and their proximity to 1, we can conclude that no method will consistently over- or underestimate the volumes. The geologic interpretation technique should be used when subsurface data (seismic, drill cores, etc.) is available, or when workers have a strong geologic understanding and/or experience in the area. The other two techniques (perimeter and wide area grid) may be useful for large scale comparison studies that include many tens or hundreds of seamounts (or other features), where time constraints and a need for a systematic and repeatable approach is required, or

  10. Methanoculleus sediminis sp. nov., a methanogen from sediments near a submarine mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chung; Chen, Mei-Fei; Lai, Mei-Chin; Weng, Chieh-Yin; Wu, Sue-Yao; Lin, Saulwood; Yang, Tsanyao F; Chen, Po-Chun

    2015-07-01

    A mesophilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen, strain S3Fa(T), was isolated from sediments collected by Ocean Researcher I cruise ORI-934 in 2010 near the submarine mud volcano MV4 located at the upper slope of south-west Taiwan. The methanogenic substrates utilized by strain S3Fa(T) were formate and H2/CO2 but not acetate, secondary alcohols, methylamines, methanol or ethanol. Cells of strain S3Fa(T) were non-motile, irregular cocci, 0.5-1.0 μm in diameter. The surface-layer protein showed an Mr of 128,000.The optimum growth conditions were 37 °C, pH 7.1 and 0.17 M NaCl. The DNA G+C content of the genome of strain S3Fa(T) was 62.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain S3Fa(T) was most closely related to Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Genome relatedness between strain S3Fa(T) and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1(T) was computed using both genome-to-genome distance analysis (GGDA) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) with values of 46.3-55.5% and 93.08%, respectively. Based on morphological, phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic relatedness data, it is evident that strain S3Fa(T) represents a novel species of the genus Methanoculleus, for which the name Methanoculleus sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S3Fa(T) ( = BCRC AR10044(T) = DSM 29354(T)). PMID:25855623

  11. Active sulfur cycling by diverse mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms in terrestrial mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Green-Saxena, A; Feyzullayev, A; Hubert, C R J; Kallmeyer, J; Krueger, M; Sauer, P; Schulz, H-M; Orphan, V J

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial mud volcanoes (TMVs) represent geochemically diverse habitats with varying sulfur sources and yet sulfur cycling in these environments remains largely unexplored. Here we characterized the sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and activity in four TMVs in Azerbaijan. A combination of geochemical analyses, biological rate measurements and molecular diversity surveys (targeting metabolic genes aprA and dsrA and SSU ribosomal RNA) supported the presence of active sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing guilds in all four TMVs across a range of physiochemical conditions, with diversity of these guilds being unique to each TMV. The TMVs varied in potential sulfate reduction rates (SRR) by up to four orders of magnitude with highest SRR observed in sediments where in situ sulfate concentrations were highest. Maximum temperatures at which SRR were measured was 60°C in two TMVs. Corresponding with these trends in SRR, members of the potentially thermophilic, spore-forming, Desulfotomaculum were detected in these TMVs by targeted 16S rRNA analysis. Additional sulfate-reducing bacterial lineages included members of the Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae detected by aprA and dsrA analyses and likely contributing to the mesophilic SRR measured. Phylotypes affiliated with sulfide-oxidizing Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria were abundant in aprA libraries from low sulfate TMVs, while the highest sulfate TMV harboured 16S rRNA phylotypes associated with sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria. Altogether, the biogeochemical and microbiological data indicate these unique terrestrial habitats support diverse active sulfur-cycling microorganisms reflecting the in situ geochemical environment. PMID:23116231

  12. Flux rates and sulfur isotopic composition of pore fluids from three mud volcanoes in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooly, W. P.; Ruppel, C. D.; Dickens, G. R.; Berg, P.; Macko, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Chloride and sulfate pore water analyses were performed on a total of 29 piston and gravity cores collected along center to flank transects across 3 mud volcanoes, which were located on the Louisiana continental slope in Garden Banks (GB425), Green Canyon (CG185), and Mississippi Canyon (MC852). All three sites are known areas of oil and gas discharge. In addition, seepage at GC185 and GB425 supports highly developed chemosynthetic communities, whereas no known communities have been observed at MC852. Comparison of pore water chemistry (sulfur concentrations and sulfur isotope compositions) among these 3 sites provides initial insight about fluid migration processes and advection rates and about the connection between fluid flux and the establishment of chemosynthetic communities. Pore water advection velocities were calculated from chloride profiles using a steady-state one dimensional advection-diffusion model. In general, chloride concentrations increased with depth to more than four times seawater concentrations. Incidences of pore water freshening are likely associated with hydrate dissociation. Chloride profiles show characteristic concave-up shapes at the center of each mud volcano and concave-down shapes along the flanks, a pattern that we previously interpreted and modeled (doi:10.1029/2004GL021909; doi:10.1111/j.1468-8123.2007.00191.x) in terms of seawater recharge-discharge. The depth of the sulfate-methane interface (SMI) shoals toward the center of the mud volcanoes, indicating potentially rapid anaerobic methane oxidation in these areas. Where the SMI is shallow, pore water sulfide S-isotope values are correspondingly elevated (~ +10 ‰) relative to seawater sulfate (δ34S = +21‰) and presumably represent near-quantitative reduction of pore water sulfate at GB425 and MC852. There is no such pattern at GC185. Such differences potentially reflect advection rates, the ages of the fluids, timing of fluid efflux, and differences in their chemistry.

  13. Warm Brine Lakes in Craters of Active Mud Volcanoes, Menes Caldera off NW Egypt: Evidence for Deep-Rooted Thermogenic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, S.; Mascle, J.; Foucher, J. P.; Woodside, J. M.; Pierre, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Menes caldera is a fault-controlled depression (~8 km in diameter) at ~3,000 m water depth in the western province of the Nile deep-sea fan off NW Egypt, comprising seven mud volcanoes (MVs) of which two are active. Based on multichannel and chirp seismic data, temperature profiles, and high-resolution bathymetric data collected during several oceanographic expeditions, the present study investigates factors controlling mud volcano morphology, the geometry of feeder channels, and the origin of emitted fluids (Dupré et al. 2014). The active Cheops and Chephren mud volcanoes are 1,500 m wide with subcircular craters at their summits, about 250 m in diameter, generally a few tens of metres deep, and filled with methane-rich muddy brines with temperatures reaching 42 °C and 57 °C respectively. Deployments of CTDs and corers with attached temperature sensors tracked these warm temperatures down to almost 0.5 km depth below the brine lake surface at the Cheops mud volcano, in a feeder channel probably only a few tens of metres wide. Thermogenic processes involve the dissolution of Messinian evaporites by warm fluids likely sourced even deeper, i.e. 1.7 and 2.6 km below the seabed at the Cheops and Chephren MVs respectively, and which ascend along listric faults. Seepage activity appears broadly persistent since the initiation of mud volcanism in the Early Pliocene, possibly accompanied by lateral migration of feeder channels.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Methanoculleus sediminis S3FaT, a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen Isolated from a Submarine Mud Volcano in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng-Chung; Chen, Mei-Fei; Weng, Chieh-Yin; Wu, Sue-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Here, we announce the genome sequence of Methanoculleus sediminis S3FaT (DSM 29354T), a strict anaerobic methanoarchaeon, which was isolated from sediments near the submarine mud volcano MV4 located offshore in southwestern Taiwan. The 2.49-Mb genome consists of 2,459 predicted genes, 3 rRNAs, 48 tRNAs, and 1 ncRNA. The sequence of this novel strain may provide more information for species delineation and the roles that this strain plays in the unique marine mud volcano habitat. PMID:27103730

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Methanoculleus sediminis S3FaT, a Hydrogenotrophic Methanogen Isolated from a Submarine Mud Volcano in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chung; Chen, Mei-Fei; Weng, Chieh-Yin; Lai, Mei-Chin; Wu, Sue-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Here, we announce the genome sequence of ITALIC! Methanoculleus sediminisS3Fa(T)(DSM 29354(T)), a strict anaerobic methanoarchaeon, which was isolated from sediments near the submarine mud volcano MV4 located offshore in southwestern Taiwan. The 2.49-Mb genome consists of 2,459 predicted genes, 3 rRNAs, 48 tRNAs, and 1 ncRNA. The sequence of this novel strain may provide more information for species delineation and the roles that this strain plays in the unique marine mud volcano habitat. PMID:27103730

  16. Origin and evolution of fluids from mud volcanoes in the Barbados accretionary complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godon, Arnaud; Jendrzejewski, Nathalie; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse; Dia, Aline; Pineau, Françoise; Boulègue, Jacques; Javoy, Marc

    2004-05-01

    A large collection of fluids (54 interstitial fluids and four expelled fluids) were sampled at the Manon site, at the outer edge of the Barbados accretionary complex. These warm fluids (up to 20°C) are expelled by sub-marine (5000 mbsl) mud volcanoes consisting of diapirs (unchanneled flow) and diatremes (channeled). Chlorine stable isotope ratios of these fluids were measured by IRMS with a reproducibility of ± 0.05‰ (1σ) versus SMOC (Standard Mean Ocean Chloride). A large range of δ 37Cl between -5.3‰ and +0.1‰ is observed. Data from each volcanic structure describe a mixing between seawater and a low-δ 37Cl fluid. The whole set of data is interpreted as the result of a mixing between two deep components and seawater. The two deep fluids are chemically distinct (e.g., in Ca, Mg, K, Li, Sr and Br contents and Br/Cl ratio). They display low and significantly different 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.707790 and 0.707892, respectively) and δ 37Cl values (-4.51 and -5.24‰, respectively). Physicochemical processes such as mineralogical transformation, diffusion, compaction or ion filtration are known to fractionate chlorine stable isotopes and can produce fluids with negative δ 37Cl values. Ion filtration due to sediment compaction appears to be the more likely process to explain the negative δ 37Cl values observed at the Manon site. A model for the generation of these signatures is proposed where a residual negative δ 37Cl fluid reservoir is created at the bottom of the prism or the sediment pile. Further compaction/fracturing and/or dewatering of the slab may flush out these fluids and focus them towards the décollement zone. Mixing between the fluids and ultimately with seawater and water released during gas hydrate destabilizations may explain the data set within the individual cores and between the different structures.

  17. The relationship between mud volcanoes, petroleum migration and accretionary prisms: Lessons from the Caucasus, the Australian margin and Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, P.

    1996-08-01

    Mud volcanoes have been widely documented in areas of overpressure where explosive expansion of trapped methane has occurred during argillokinesis. In an area with high sedimentation rate, such as the Gulf of Mexico, there may be no time for fine-grained sediment to de-water before being covered by impermeable material. In an accretionary wedge this process is complicated by overthrusting of off-scraped material which increases the overburden pressure and provides many more avenues for the migration of fluids through the system. In some cases, such as is seen in the Caribbean, the fluids may escape directly to the surface (or seabottom) through high permeability beds. When this happens there may be no diapirism. In other cases, such as in Venezuela, the forearc may be the site of rapid, laterally-derived, sedimentation, and fluids from the overthrusted rocks may be forced to escape through several kilometers of recent deltaic sediments. Since these fluids may include petroleum, this has obvious exploration potential. If there are no suitable reservoir rocks, such as in Timor, there may be no commercial accumulations. However, many giant fields are associated, world-wide, with mud volcanoes, such as those in Azerbaijan.

  18. High diversity of frenulates (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae) in the Gulf of Cadiz mud volcanoes: A DNA taxonomy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilário, A.; Johnson, S. B.; Cunha, M. R.; Vrijenhoek, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    Frenulates are the most poorly known members of the family Siboglinidae (Polychaeta: Canalipalpata). These thread-like worms occur in reducing marine sediments worldwide, but they are often overlooked in benthic samples or too poorly preserved for adequate taxonomic evaluations. We report on a remarkable diversity of frenulates that were recently sampled from 13 mud volcanoes (350-3902 m deep) in the Gulf of Cadiz, off southern Iberia. Sampled with benthic coring devices, the bodies of these long tubiculous worms were often broken or incomplete, making them difficult to identify morphologically. Consequently, we employed DNA taxonomic methods to assess their diversity. Mitochondrial cytochrome- c-oxidase subunit 1 ( COI) sequences distinguished 15 evolutionary lineages inhabiting the Gulf of Cadiz. Only four of the lineages could be assigned to currently recognized Atlantic species; the remaining 11 may be new to science. This remarkable diversity of frenulates in a small geographical region is unprecedented and is hypothesized to result from environmental heterogeneity associated with the bathymetric and geochemical settings of these mud volcanoes.

  19. Methane-related authigenic carbonates of eastern Mediterranean Sea mud volcanoes and their possible relation to gas hydrate destabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Pierre, Catherine; Rouchy, Jean-Marie; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Woodside, John; Medinaut Scientific Party

    2000-12-01

    Nautile submersible investigations of mud volcanoes and brine seep areas of the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the MEDINAUT cruise in November 1998 discovered extensive areas of authigenic carbonate crusts associated with methane emissions. Carbonate crusts form pavements, round slabs and circular mounds on the central, most active parts of mud volcanoes and in a fault-related valley where brines have accumulated to form a submarine brine lake. Authigenic carbonate nodules have been recovered from the same areas during the MEDINETH cruise in July 1999. Large 13C depletions of authigenic calcite, aragonite and dolomite indicate methane as a major carbon source for the carbonate. Crust pavements are formed when methane from a freshly emplaced, methane-charged mud flow is oxidised at the seafloor. In this environment, where bottom waters provide the sulphate and magnesium, aragonite is favoured versus calcite and accounts for the majority of the methane-related authigenic carbonates. Calcite, when present, contains significant amounts of Mg 2+ (high-Mg calcite), and possibly other divalent ions in its crystal lattice. In areas of brine seep and accumulation, dolomitic nodules are present at shallow depth in the sediment. The 18O enrichment of the authigenic carbonates (up to 4‰ greater than calculated values for carbonates precipitating from modern eastern Mediterranean bottom waters) is interpreted as due to precipitation from 18O-rich fluids rather than as a temperature effect. The source of the 18O-rich fluids may be multiple and possibly includes the destabilisation of gas hydrates present at shallow subbottom depth, and the seepage of relic Messinian brines.

  20. Seafloor distribution and last glacial to postglacial activity of mud volcanoes on the Calabrian accretionary prism, Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceramicola, Silvia; Praeg, Daniel; Cova, Andrea; Accettella, Daniela; Zecchin, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are abundant along the eastern Mediterranean subduction zones, recording mud breccia extrusion over long timescales (106 years), but to date relatively few have been recognised in the northern Ionian Sea on the Calabrian accretionary prism (CAP). In the present study, the seafloor distribution and recent activity of MVs is investigated across a 35,600 km2 sector of the CAP using a regional acoustic dataset (multibeam bathymetric and backscatter imagery, integrated with subbottom profiles) locally ground-truthed by sediment cores. A total of 54 MVs are identified across water depths of 150-2,750 m using up to four geophysical criteria: distinctive morphology, high backscatter, unstratified subbottom facies and, in one case, a hydroacoustic flare. Fourteen MVs are identified from 3-4 criteria, of which five have been previously proven by cores containing mud breccia beneath up to 1.6 m of hemipelagic sediments (Madonna dello Ionio MVs 1-3, Pythagoras MV and the newly named Sartori MV), while nine others are identified for the first time (Athena, Catanzaro, Cerere, Diana, Giunone, Minerva, `right foot', Venere 1 and 2). Forty other as yet unnamed MVs are inferred from 1-2 geophysical criteria (three from distinctive morphology alone). All but one possible MV lie on the inner plateau of the CAP, landwards of the Calabrian Escarpment in a zone up to 120 km wide that includes the inner pre-Messinian wedge and the fore-arc basins, where they are interpreted to record the ascent from depth of overpressured fluids that interacted with tectonic structures and with evaporitic or shale seals within the fore-arc basins. The rise of fluids may have been triggered by post-Messinian out-of-sequence tectonism that affected the entire pre-Messinian prism, but Plio-Quaternary sedimentation rates and depositional styles support the inference that significant mud volcanism has taken place only on the inner plateau. Sedimentation rates across the CAP applied to a 12

  1. The effects of the Yogyakarta earthquake at LUSI mud volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, M.; Saenger, E. H.; Fuchs, F.; Miller, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The M6.3 Yogyakarta earthquake shook Central Java on May 27th, 2006. Forty seven hours later, hot mud outburst at the surface near Sidoarjo, approximately 250 km from the earthquake epicentre. The mud eruption continued and originated LUSI, the youngest mud volcanic system on earth. Since the beginning of the eruption, approximately 30,000 people lost their homes and 13 people died due to the mud flooding. The causes that initiated the eruption are still debated and are based on different geological observations. The earthquake-triggering hypothesis is supported by the evidence that at the time of the earthquake ongoing drilling operations experienced a loss of the drilling mud downhole. In addition, the eruption of the mud began only 47 hours after the Yogyakarta earthquake and the mud reached the surface at different locations aligned along the Watukosek fault, a strike-slip fault upon which LUSI resides. Moreover, the Yogyakarta earthquake also affected the volcanic activity of Mt. Semeru, located as far as Lusi from the epicentre of the earthquake. However, the drilling-triggering hypothesis points out that the earthquake was too far from LUSI for inducing relevant stress changes at depth and highlight how upwelling fluids that reached the surface first emerged only 200 m far from the drilling rig that was operative at the time. Hence, was LUSI triggered by the earthquake or by drilling operations? We conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model based on vp, vs, and density values for the different lithologies and seismic profiles of the crust beneath LUSI. Our analysis shows compelling evidence for the effects produced by the passage of seismic waves through the geological formations and highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused and reflected incoming seismic energy.

  2. Macrofaunal assemblages from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz: abundance, biodiversity and diversity partitioning across spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, M. R.; Rodrigues, C. F.; Génio, L.; Hilário, A.; Ravara, A.; Pfannkuche, O.

    2013-04-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is an extensive seepage area in the south Iberian margin (NE Atlantic) encompassing over 40 mud volcanoes (MVs) at depths ranging from 200 to 4000 m. The area has a long geologic history and a central biogeographic location with a complex circulation ensuring oceanographic connectivity with the Mediterranean Sea, equatorial and North Atlantic regions. The geodynamics of the region promotes a notorious diversity in the seep regime despite the relatively low fluxes of hydrocarbon-rich gases. We analyse quantitative samples taken during the cruises TTR14, TTR15 and MSM01-03 in seven mud volcanoes grouped into Shallow MVs (Mercator: 350 m, Kidd: 500 m, Meknès: 700 m) and Deep MVs (Captain Arutyunov: 1300 m, Carlos Ribeiro: 2200 m, Bonjardim: 3000 m, Porto: 3900 m) and two additional Reference sites (ca. 550 m). Macrofauna (retained by a 500 μm sieve) was identified to species level whenever possible. The samples yielded modest abundances (70-1567 individuals per 0.25 m2), but the local and regional number of species is among the highest ever reported for cold seeps. Among the 366 recorded species, 22 were symbiont-hosting bivalves (Thyasiridae, Vesicomyidae, Solemyidae) and tubeworms (Siboglinidae). The multivariate analyses supported the significant differences between Shallow and Deep MVs: The environmental conditions at the Shallow MVs make them highly permeable to the penetration of background fauna leading to high diversity of the attendant assemblages (H': 2.92-3.94; ES(100): 28.3-45.0; J': 0.685-0.881). The Deep MV assemblages showed, in general, contrasting features but were more heterogeneous (H': 1.41-3.06; ES(100): 10.5-30.5; J': 0.340-0.852) and often dominated by one or more siboglinid species. The rarefaction curves confirmed the differences in biodiversity of Deep and Shallow MVs as well as the convergence of the latter to the Reference sites. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity demonstrated the high β-diversity of the assemblages

  3. Macrofaunal assemblages from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz: abundance, biodiversity and diversity partitioning across spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, M. R.; Rodrigues, C. F.; Génio, L.; Hilário, A.; Ravara, A.; Pfannkuche, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is an extensive seepage area in the South Iberian Margin (NE Atlantic) encompassing over 40 mud volcanoes (MVs) at depths ranging from 200 to 4000 m. The area has a long geologic history and a central biogeographic location with a complex circulation assuring oceanographic connectivity with the Mediterranean Sea, Equatorial and Northern Atlantic regions. The geodynamics of the region promotes a notorious diversity in the seep regime despite the relatively low fluxes of hydrocarbon-rich gases. We analyse quantitative samples taken during the cruises TTR14, TTR15 and MSM01-03 in seven mud volcanoes grouped into Shallow MVs (Mercator: 350 m, Kidd: 500 m, Meknès: 700 m) and Deep MVs (Captain Arutyunov: 1300 m, Carlos Ribeiro: 2200 m, Bonjardim: 3000 m, Porto: 3900 m) and two additional reference sites (ca. 550 m). Macrofauna (retained by a 500 μm sieve) was identified to species level whenever possible. The samples yielded modest abundances (70-1567 ind. per 0.25 m2) but a number of species among the highest ever reported for cold seeps. Among the 366 recorded species, 22 were symbiont-hosting bivalves (Thyasiridae, Vesicomyidae, Solemyidae) and tubeworms (Siboglinidae). The multivariate analyses indicated significant differences between Shallow and Deep MVs: The environmental conditions at the Shallow MVs makes them highly permeable to the penetration of background fauna leading to high diversity of the attendant assemblages (H': 2.92-3.94; ES(100): 28.3-45.0; J': 0.685-0.881). The Deep MVs showed, in general, contrasting features but were more heterogeneous (H': 1.41-3.06; ES(100): 10.5-30.5; J': 0.340-0.852) and often dominated by one or more siboglinid species. The rarefaction curves confirmed the differences in biodiversity of Deep and Shallow MVs as well as the approximation of the latter to the reference sites. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity demonstrated the high β-diversity of the assemblages, especially in pairwise comparisons involving

  4. Methanogenic calcite, 13C-depleted bivalve shells, and gas hydrate from a mud volcano offshore southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Normark, W.R.; McIntyre, B.R.; Lorenson, T.D.; Powell, C.L., II

    2006-01-01

    Methane and hydrogen sulfide vent from a cold seep above a shallowly buried methane hydrate in a mud volcano located 24 km offshore southern California in?? 800 m of water. Bivalves, authigenic calcite, and methane hydrate were recovered in a 2.1 m piston core. Aragonite shells of two bivalve species are unusually depleted in 13C (to -91??? ??13C), the most 13C-depleted shells of marine macrofauna yet discovered. Carbon isotopes for both living and dead specimens indicate that they used, in part, carbon derived from anaerobically oxidized methane to construct their shells. The ??13C values are highly variable, but most are within the range -12??? to -91???. This variability may be diagnostic for identifying cold-seep-hydrate systems in the geologic record. Authigenic calcite is abundant in the cores down to ???1.5 m subbottom, the top of the methane hydrate. The calcite is depleted in 13C (??13C = -46??? to -58???), indicating that carbon produced by anaerobically oxidized methane is the main source of the calcite. Methane sources include a geologic hydrocarbon reservoir from Miocene source rocks, and biogenic and thermogenic degradation of organic matter in basin sediments. Oxygen isotopes indicate that most calcite formed out of isotopic equilibrium with ambient bottom water, under the influence of gas hydrate dissociation and strong methane flux. High metal content in the mud volcano sediment indicates leaching of basement rocks by fluid circulating along an underlying fault, which also allows for a high flux of fossil methane. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  5. Endosymbioses between bacteria and deep-sea siboglinid tubeworms from an Arctic Cold Seep (Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea).

    PubMed

    Lösekann, Tina; Robador, Alberto; Niemann, Helge; Knittel, Katrin; Boetius, Antje; Dubilier, Nicole

    2008-12-01

    Siboglinid tubeworms do not have a mouth or gut and live in obligate associations with bacterial endosymbionts. Little is currently known about the phylogeny of frenulate and moniliferan siboglinids and their symbionts. In this study, we investigated the symbioses of two co-occurring siboglinid species from a methane emitting mud volcano in the Arctic Ocean (Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, HMMV): Oligobrachia haakonmosbiensis (Frenulata) and Sclerolinum contortum (Monilifera). Comparative sequence analysis of the host-specific 18S and the symbiont-specific 16S rRNA genes of S. contortum showed that the close phylogenetic relationship of this host to vestimentiferan siboglinids was mirrored in the close relationship of its symbionts to the sulfur-oxidizing gammaproteobacterial symbionts of vestimentiferans. A similar congruence between host and symbiont phylogeny was observed in O. haakonmosbiensis: both this host and its symbionts were most closely related to the frenulate siboglinid O. mashikoi and its gammaproteobacterial symbiont. The symbiont sequences from O. haakonmosbiensis and O. mashikoi formed a clade unaffiliated with known methane- or sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the dominant bacterial phylotypes originated from endosymbionts residing inside the host trophosome. In both S. contortum and O. haakonmosbiensis, characteristic genes for autotrophy (cbbLM) and sulfur oxidation (aprA) were present, while genes diagnostic for methanotrophy were not detected. The molecular data suggest that both HMMV tubeworm species harbour chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing symbionts. In S. contortum, average stable carbon isotope values of fatty acids and cholesterol of -43 per thousand were highly negative for a sulfur oxidizing symbiosis, but can be explained by a (13)C-depleted CO(2) source at HMMV. In O. haakonmosbiensis, stable carbon isotope values of fatty acids and cholesterol of -70 per thousand are difficult to reconcile with

  6. Fluid flow in and around a mud volcano field seaward of the Barbados accretionary wedge: Results from Manon cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Pierre; Le Pichon, Xavier; Lallemant, Siegfried; Lance, Sophie; Martin, Jonathan B.; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Fiala-MéDioni, Aline; Rostek, Frauke; Guilhaumou, Nicole; Pranal, Vincent; Castrec, Maryse

    1996-09-01

    A field of mud diapirs and mud volcanoes situated in the Barbados trench at 13°50'N and extending along an old oceanic fracture zone (Mercurus) was investigated during the Manon cruise using both surface ship and Nautile submersible sampling and measurements. The entire zone from 13°50'N up to 14°20'N has an anomalously high heat flow which implies that fluids are drained into it from a segment of the accretionary wedge a few hundred kilometers wide. Two structures interpreted as diatremes, Atalante and Cyclops, expell large amounts of water and methane. We propose that they were formed from the release of a light fluid when gas hydrates were dissociated in the sediment as the result of the circulation of warm fluid in the area. However they expell only a small fraction of the incoming fluid, implying that disperse flow is the dominant mode of expulsion in this area. The chemoautotrophic communities on the surface of the structures rely mostly on sulfides. Submersible observations, temperature measurements in the sediment, and the chemistry of the pore fluid indicate that convection of seawater occurs within the first few meters of sediment through high-permeability channels, such as cemented carbonate conduits. We propose that this convection is driven by the density difference between the pore fluid and seawater, but fresh water released by the dissolution of shallow hydrates may also contribute. This shallow convection may be a frequent process in cold seep environments.

  7. Modelling the impact of Siboglinids on the biogeochemistry of the Captain Arutyunov mud volcano (Gulf of Cadiz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetaert, K.; van Oevelen, D.; Sommer, S.

    2012-12-01

    A 2-Dimensional mathematical reaction-transport model was developed to study the impact of the mud-dwelling frenulate tubeworm Siboglinum sp. on the biogeochemistry of a~sediment (MUC15) at the Captain Arutyunov mud volcano (CAMV). By explicitly describing the worm in its surrounding sediment, we are able to make budgets of processes occurring in- or outside of the worm, and to quantify how different worm densities and biomasses affect the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and sulfide reoxidation (HSox). The model shows that, at the observed densities, the presence of a thin worm body is sufficient to keep the upper 10 cm of sediment well homogenised with respect to dissolved substances, in agreement with observations. By this "bio-ventilation" activity, the worm pushes the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) zone downward to the posterior end of its body, and simultaneously physically separates the sulfide produced during the anaerobic oxidation of methane from oxygen. While there is little scope for AOM to take place in the tubeworm's body, 70% of the sulfide that is produced by sulfate reduction processes or that is advected in the sediment is preferentially shunted via the organism where it is oxidised by endosymbionts providing the energy for the worm's growth. The process of sulfide reoxidation, occurring predominantly in the worm's body is thus very distinct from the anaerobic oxidation of methane, which is a diffuse process that takes place in the sediments in the methane-sulfate transition zone. We show how the sulfide oxidation process is affected by increasing densities and length of the frenulates, and by upward advection velocity. Our biogeochemical model is one of the first to describe tubeworms explicitly. It can be used to directly link biological and biogeochemical observations at seep sites, and to study the impacts of mud-dwelling frenulates on the sediment biogeochemistry under varying environmental conditions. Also, it provides a tool to

  8. Mud volcanoes and evaporite seismites in a tidal flat of northern Kuwait—implications for fluid flow in sabkhas of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duane, Michael J.; Reinink-Smith, Linda; Eastoe, Christopher; Al-Mishwat, Ali T.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports the first interpretative field map and stable isotope geochemistry of an exhumed Miocene inlier with conical mud volcanoes in a Persian (Arabian) Gulf salt flat (sabkha). In Kuwait, the siliciclastic low-heat flow margin of the northern gulf sector produced sedimentary conditions with numerous multilayered, unstable density gradients that were highly susceptible to recording liquefaction effects. The geotechnical characteristics of the sabkhas and the effects of local seismic activity resulted in ideal conditions in marginal sediments of Kuwait Bay, well suited for the development of deformation features. Three-dimensional, pseudo-biohermal exposures exhibit ellipsoidal pillows with craters separated by fluidized channels of chaotic orientation. The size and morphology of these structures together with co-genetic mud volcanoes are strongly influenced by sedimentary factors such as density gradients and tectonic events such as localized seismic activity, which caused mixing of fluids. Diapirs emerged concurrently with syn-sedimentary deformation, and the mud injection responded to episodic seismic activity. Interpretation based on previously published reflux models such as evaporative pumping and seawater flooding of coastal sabkhas is not applicable in this case. Rather, a model of focused ascent of brine initiated by episodic seismicity is proposed. Swarms of mud volcanoes represent new abiotic sedimentary features in sabkhas, but the per-ascensum nature of the fluid offers some comparisons to siliceous hot-water vents in south-eastern Brazil.

  9. The Debris Flow of September 20, 2014, in Mud Creek, Mount Shasta Volcano, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Fuente, J. A.; Bachmann, S.; Courtney, A.; Meyers, N.; Mikulovsky, R.; Rust, B.; Coots, F.; Veich, D.

    2015-12-01

    The debris flow in Mud Creek on September 20, 2014 occurred during a warm spell at the end of an unusually long and hot summer. No precipitation was recorded during or immediately before the event, and it appears to have resulted from rapid glacial melt. It initiated on the toe of the Konwakiton Glacier, and immediately below it. The flow track was small in the upper parts (40 feet wide), but between 8,000 and 10,000 feet in elevation, it entrained a large volume of debris from the walls and bed of the deeply incised gorge and transported it down to the apex of the Mud Creek alluvial fan (4,800'). At that point, it overflowed the channel and deposited debris on top of older (1924) debris flow deposits, and the debris plugged a road culvert 24 feet wide and 12 feet high. A small fraction of the flow was diverted to a pre-existing overflow channel which parallels Mud Creek, about 1,000 feet to the west. The main debris flow traveled down Mud Creek, confined to the pre-existing channel, but locally got to within a foot or so of overflowing the banks. At elevation 3920', video was taken during the event by a private citizen and placed on YouTube. The video revealed that the flow matrix consisted of a slurry of water/clay/silt/sand/gravel, transporting boulders 1-6 feet in diameter along with the flow. Cobble-sized rock appears to be absent. Sieve analysis of the debris flow matrix material revealed a fining of particles in a downstream direction, as expected. The thickness of deposits on the fan generally decreased in a downstream direction. Deposits were 5-6 feet deep above the Mud Creek dam, which is at 4,800' elevation, and 4-5 feet deep at the dam itself. Further downstream, thicknesses decreased as follows: 3920'aqueduct crossing, 3-4 feet; 3620' Pilgrim Creek Road crossing, 2-3 feet; 3,520', 1-2 feet; 3,440' abandoned railroad grade, 1 foot. This event damaged roads, and future events could threaten life and property. There is a need to better understand local

  10. Hydrothermal activity and carbon-dioxide discharge at Shrub and upper Klawasi mud volcanoes, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Werner, Cindy; McGimsey, Robert G.; Evans, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Shrub mud volcano, one of three mud volcanoes of the Klawasi group in the Copper River Basin, Alaska, has been discharging warm mud and water and CO2?rich gas since 1996. A field visit to Shrub in June 1999 found the general level of hot-spring discharge to be similar, but somewhat more widespread, than in the previous two years. Evidence of recent animal and vegetation deaths from CO2 exposure were confined to localized areas around various gas and fluid vents. Maximum fluid temperatures in each of three main discharge areas, ranging from 48-54?C, were equal to or higher than those measured in the two previous years; such temperatures are significantly higher than those observed intermittently over the past 30 years. At Upper Klawasi mud volcano, measured temperatures of 23-26?C and estimated rates of gas and water discharge in the summit crater lake were also similar to those observed in the previous two years. Gas discharging at Shrub and Upper Klawasi is composed of over 98% CO2 and minor amounts of meteoric gases (N2, O2, Ar) and gases partly of deeper origin (CH4 and He). The rate of CO2 discharge from spring vents and pools at Shrub is estimated to be ~10 metric tonnes per day. This discharge, together with measured concentrations of bicarbonate, suggest that a total CO2 upflow from depth of 20-40 metric tonnes per day at Shrub.Measurements were made of diffuse degassing rates from soil at one ~300 m2 area near the summit of Shrub that included vegetation kill suggestive of high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. Most of measured gas flow rates in this area were significantly higher than background values, and a CO2 concentration of 26 percent was measured at a depth of 10 cm where the gas flow rate was highest. Although additional measurements of diffuse gas flow were made elsewhere at Shrub, no other areas of vegetation kill related to diffuse degassing and high soil-gas CO2 concentrations could be seen from the air.Chemical and isotopic compositions of

  11. Stable Isotope Anomalies and Low Chloride Concentrations in Pore Water of CH4-Rich Sediments at the Tanegashima Mud Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, N.; Tsunogai, U.; Ashi, J.; Gamo, T.

    2004-12-01

    Pore water from sediments collected at a Tanegashima mud volcano was analyzed for δ 13C (PDB) of dissolved CH4 together with other chemical components, Cl- and SO42-, and the δ 18O and δ D (SMOW). The Tanegashima mud volcanoes are located at the water depths from 1400 m to 1800 m, off Tanegashima island between Ryukyu trench and Ryukyu arc of Japan. It is situated at the end of south-western convergent plate boundary on Nankai-trough, which forms a part of Philippine Sea plate subducting under Eurasian plate. This cruise was conducted as a part of the JNOC (Japan National Oil Corporation) geochemical survey by R/V Hakurei-maru II. The concentrations of CH4 were generally higher than 100 micro-mol/kg. Its highest concentration (715 micro-mol/kg) was found in the crest core of a mud volcano. The δ 13C values ranged from -32 to -50 ‰ . C2H6 was detected only in the pore waters collected from the vicinity of the crest of the mud volcano. The highest δ 13C (around -22 ‰ ) and low C1/C2 concentration ratios (less than 100) were measured at the crest site, supporting the thermogenical production of methane. Other geochemical anomalies were also observed in the crest pore water. The concentrations of Cl- in the pore water at this site were extremely depleted to a minimum of 350 mmol/kg. The Cl- anomaly has not been previously reported for pore water from mud volcanoes around Japan. An endmember of isotopic composition of the fluid is estimated to be +12 ‰ for δ 18O and -40 ‰ for δ D. From these results we conclude that the most likely process to reduce pore water salinity is primarily the mixing of clay mineral dehydration water with seawater. The thermogenic methane found in the crest pore waters of the Tanegashima mud volcano may be brought from the depths of sediments due to the migration of fluid evolved by mineral the dehydration process.

  12. Evidence of episodic long-lived eruptions in the Yuma, Ginsburg, Jesús Baraza and Tasyo mud volcanoes, Gulf of Cádiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyos, María H.; Medialdea, Teresa; León, Ricardo; Somoza, Luis; González, Francisco Javier; Meléndez, Nieves

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution single channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetric and backscatter data collected during several cruises over the period 1999 to 2007 have enabled characterising not only the seabed morphology but also the subsurface structural elements of the Yuma, Ginsburg, Jesús Baraza and Tasyo mud volcanoes (MVs) in the Gulf of Cádiz at 1,050-1,250 m water depth. These MVs vary strongly in morphology and size. The data reveal elongated cone-shaped edifices, rimmed depressions, and scarps interpreted as flank failures developed by collapse, faulting, compaction and gravitational processes. MV architecture is characterised by both extrusive and intrusive complexes, comprising stacked edifices (including seabed cones and up to four buried bicones) underlain by chaotic vertical zones and downward-tapering cones suggesting feeder systems. These intrusive structures represent the upper layer of the feeder system linking the fluid mud sources with the constructional edifices. The overall architecture is interpreted to be the result of successive events of mud extrusion and outbuilding alternating with periods of dormancy. Each mud extrusion phase is connected with the development of an edifice, represented by a seabed cone or a buried bicone. In all four MVs, the stacked edifices and the intrusive complexes penetrate Late Miocene-Quaternary units and are rooted in the Gulf of Cádiz wedge emplaced during the late Tortonian. Major phases of mud extrusion and outbuilding took place since the Late Pliocene, even though in the Yuma and Jesús Baraza MVs mud volcanism started in the Late Miocene shortly after the emplacement of the Gulf of Cádiz wedge. This study shows that fluid venting in the eastern sector of the Gulf of Cádiz promoted the outbuilding of large long-lived mud volcanoes active since the Late Miocene, and which have been reactivated repeatedly until recent times.

  13. Evidence of episodic long-lived eruptions in the Yuma, Ginsburg, Jesús Baraza and Tasyo mud volcanoes, Gulf of Cádiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyos, María H.; Medialdea, Teresa; León, Ricardo; Somoza, Luis; González, Francisco Javier; Meléndez, Nieves

    2016-02-01

    High-resolution single channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetric and backscatter data collected during several cruises over the period 1999 to 2007 have enabled characterising not only the seabed morphology but also the subsurface structural elements of the Yuma, Ginsburg, Jesús Baraza and Tasyo mud volcanoes (MVs) in the Gulf of Cádiz at 1,050-1,250 m water depth. These MVs vary strongly in morphology and size. The data reveal elongated cone-shaped edifices, rimmed depressions, and scarps interpreted as flank failures developed by collapse, faulting, compaction and gravitational processes. MV architecture is characterised by both extrusive and intrusive complexes, comprising stacked edifices (including seabed cones and up to four buried bicones) underlain by chaotic vertical zones and downward-tapering cones suggesting feeder systems. These intrusive structures represent the upper layer of the feeder system linking the fluid mud sources with the constructional edifices. The overall architecture is interpreted to be the result of successive events of mud extrusion and outbuilding alternating with periods of dormancy. Each mud extrusion phase is connected with the development of an edifice, represented by a seabed cone or a buried bicone. In all four MVs, the stacked edifices and the intrusive complexes penetrate Late Miocene-Quaternary units and are rooted in the Gulf of Cádiz wedge emplaced during the late Tortonian. Major phases of mud extrusion and outbuilding took place since the Late Pliocene, even though in the Yuma and Jesús Baraza MVs mud volcanism started in the Late Miocene shortly after the emplacement of the Gulf of Cádiz wedge. This study shows that fluid venting in the eastern sector of the Gulf of Cádiz promoted the outbuilding of large long-lived mud volcanoes active since the Late Miocene, and which have been reactivated repeatedly until recent times.

  14. Mud plumbing system of an isolated phreatic eruption at Akita Yakeyama volcano, northern Honshu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, T.; Taniguchi, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Hayashi, S.; Hasenaka, T.

    2007-03-01

    A small phreatic eruption occurred on 16 August 1997 at the flank of a dacite lava dome of Akita Yakeyama, northern Honshu, Japan. Air-falls and viscous mudflows were discharged from two craters. Mudflow effusion preceded discrete explosions, followed by a fine ash discharge. The air-fall deposit consists of an upper fine ash deposit and a lower ballistic-dominated, poorly sorted tephra in which ranges in grain size from fine ash to blocks of ca. 50 cm. Both air fall and mudflow deposits were composed of fine mud and coarse lithic fragments, which contained abundant liquid water. Lithic fragments comprise fresh dacite of the host lava dome and hydrothermally altered stratocone andesite. Intensely altered andesite fragments contain quartz, cristobalite, andalusite, pyrophyllite, 7 Å-kaolin, and anhydrite. Some mineral assemblages indicate hydrothermal temperatures greater than 300 °C. Rare sandstone fragments are likely to be lacustrine from ca. 1000 m depth. The surface morphology of the mudflow deposits indicates that the mud contained ca. 30 vol.% water. The cube-root similarity rules on crater size and the cloud shape of buried explosions provided energy of 3-5 × 10 9 J at depths of 6-10 m, based on the observed crater size (20 m) and fountain-like cloud shape. The depth estimate is consistent with the abundance of coarse dacite fragments derived from shallow lava in the explosion deposit. Thermodynamic energy release of ca. 1 × 10 11 J was calculated based on the following estimated parameters: product volume of 1 × 10 3 m 3, hydrothermal temperatures of 300-350 °C, and pressures of 11-24 MPa corresponding to the estimated source depth. The thermodynamic estimation represents the total energy released during the eruption, whereas the similarity rule yields an energy value as created by discrete explosions. Mud ascended from a hot aquifer at 1000 m depth, first effused as a mudflow, and was then expelled explosively from another crater. Explosivity depends

  15. Ejected Sedimentary Rocks of Mud Volcanoes as Indicators of Depositional Environments and of Hydrocarbon Generation within the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J.; Köthe, A.; Movsumova, U.

    2009-04-01

    Mud volcanoes are prominent geological features of the South Caspian Basin of Azerbaijan, one of the oldest oil producing regions worldwide. The basin is characterized by extreme sedimentation rates, which lead to the accumulation of large volumes of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. These mostly unconsolidated strata reach thicknesses of up to 20 km and overlay a continental basement in the onshore part. Tectonic forces control the occurrences of mud volcanoes in regions with over-pressured subsurface sediments as mud volcanoes are closely linked to fault systems. The mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan are a surface expression of vertical hydrocarbon migration and offer the chance to investigate the subsurface by means of ejected rocks transported to the surface. These rocks of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary sequences are potential indicators of the regional hydrocarbon generation. The mud of nineteen volcano cones contained numerous ejected rock fragments, which we use to identify environmental and depositional parameters of the sediments of the Caspian Basin. We also intended to estimate the depth range from which the mud was transported to the surface using organic geochemical parameters. Mircopalaeontological investigations (calcareous nannoplankton) have been performed on selected samples. These analyses suggest that the investigated sediments are of Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene ages and relate to the stratigraphic interval during which the main hydrocarbon source rocks of Azerbaijan have been deposited. Organic geochemical, organic petrographical and mircopalaeontological investigations have been performed on selected samples of nineteen mud volcanoes. Analyses total organic carbon and total sulphur were performed on an elemental analyzer. These analyses suggest that the sediments can be classified as anoxic marine deposits whereas only few are sediments of a lacustrine environment. Bulk source rock information were obtained from RockEval pyrolysis. Resulting

  16. Chemosymbiotic bivalves from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic, with descriptions of new species of Solemyidae, Lucinidae and Vesicomyidae

    PubMed Central

    Olive, Graham; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Cunha, Marina R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The chemosymbiotic bivalves collected from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz are reviewed. Of the thirteen species closely associated with chemosynthetic settings two Solemyidae, Solemya (Petrasma) elarraichensis sp. n. and Acharax gadirae sp. n., one Lucinidae, Lucinoma asapheus sp. n., and one Vesicomyidae, Isorropodon megadesmus sp. n. are described and compared to close relatives of their respective families. The biodiversity and distribution of the chemosymbiotic bivalves in the Gulf of Cadiz are discussed and compared to the available information from other cold seeps in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Although there is considerable similarity at the genus level between seep/mud volcano fields in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, there is little overlap at the species level. This indicates a high degree of endemism within chemosymbiotic bivalve assemblages. PMID:21976991

  17. Stratified community responses to methane and sulfate supplies in mud volcano deposits: insights from an in vitro experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Maignien, Lois; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Boeckx, Pascal; Xiao, Xiang; Boon, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies on marine prokaryotic communities have postulated that a process of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled with sulfate reduction (SR) is the main methane sink in the world's oceans. AOM has also been reported in the deep biosphere. But the responses of the primary microbial players in eliciting changes in geochemical environments, specifically in methane and sulfate supplies, have yet to be fully elucidated. Marine mud volcanoes (MVs) expel a complex fluid mixture of which methane is the primary component, forming an environment in which AOM is a common phenomenon. In this context, we attempted to identify how the prokaryotic community would respond to changes in methane and sulfate intensities, which often occur in MV environments in the form of eruptions, diffusions or seepage. We applied an integrated approach, including (i) biochemical surveys of pore water originated from MV, (ii) in vitro incubation of mud breccia, and (iii) prokaryotic community structure analysis. Two distinct AOM regions were clearly detected. One is related to the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) at depth of 30-55 cm below the sea floor (bsf); the second is at 165-205 cm bsf with ten times higher rates of AOM and SR. This finding contrasts with the sulfide concentrations in pore waters and supports the suggestion that potential AOM activity below the SMTZ might be an important methane sink that is largely ignored or underestimated in oceanic methane budget calculations. Moreover, the incubation conditions below the SMTZ favor the growth of methanotrophic archaeal group ANME-2 compared to ANME-1, and promote the rapid growth and high diversity of bacterial communities. These incubation conditions also promote the increase of richness in bacterial communities. Our results provide direct evidence of the mechanisms by which deep AOM processes can affect carbon cycling in the deep biosphere and global methane biochemistry. PMID:25393146

  18. Stratified Community Responses to Methane and Sulfate Supplies in Mud Volcano Deposits: Insights from an In Vitro Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Maignien, Lois; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Boeckx, Pascal; Xiao, Xiang; Boon, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies on marine prokaryotic communities have postulated that a process of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled with sulfate reduction (SR) is the main methane sink in the world's oceans. AOM has also been reported in the deep biosphere. But the responses of the primary microbial players in eliciting changes in geochemical environments, specifically in methane and sulfate supplies, have yet to be fully elucidated. Marine mud volcanoes (MVs) expel a complex fluid mixture of which methane is the primary component, forming an environment in which AOM is a common phenomenon. In this context, we attempted to identify how the prokaryotic community would respond to changes in methane and sulfate intensities, which often occur in MV environments in the form of eruptions, diffusions or seepage. We applied an integrated approach, including (i) biochemical surveys of pore water originated from MV, (ii) in vitro incubation of mud breccia, and (iii) prokaryotic community structure analysis. Two distinct AOM regions were clearly detected. One is related to the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) at depth of 30–55 cm below the sea floor (bsf); the second is at 165–205 cm bsf with ten times higher rates of AOM and SR. This finding contrasts with the sulfide concentrations in pore waters and supports the suggestion that potential AOM activity below the SMTZ might be an important methane sink that is largely ignored or underestimated in oceanic methane budget calculations. Moreover, the incubation conditions below the SMTZ favor the growth of methanotrophic archaeal group ANME-2 compared to ANME-1, and promote the rapid growth and high diversity of bacterial communities. These incubation conditions also promote the increase of richness in bacterial communities. Our results provide direct evidence of the mechanisms by which deep AOM processes can affect carbon cycling in the deep biosphere and global methane biochemistry. PMID:25393146

  19. First measurements of gas output from bubbling pools in a mud volcano at the periphery of Mt Etna (Italy): methodologies and implications for monitoring purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Cinzia; Giudice, Gaetano; Liuzzo, Marco; Pedone, Maria; Cosenza, Paolo; Riccobono, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Gases and brines emitted in the southern sector of Mt Etna from mofettes, mud pools and mud volcanoes come from an hydrothermal reservoir hosted within the clayey formations of the sedimentary basement (Chiodini et al., 1996). The gas emitted consists mainly of CO2, with CH4, N2 and He as minor species. CO2 and He stable isotopes indicate a clear magmatic origin for these gases, and their compositional changes during either eruptive or rest periods closely parallel that of crater fumaroles (Paonita et al., 2012). Altough these manifestations are the most significant CO2 emitters outside the crater area, their mass output has never been measured. We present the first measurements of gas flux from several bubbling mud pools in a mud volcano located in the village of Paternò (Lon 14.89° Lat 37.57°), in the southern flank of the volcano. We performed gas measurements using a home-made apparatus, able to capture all the bubbles over an area of 0.4 m2. Over an area of about 7000 m2, we measured the flow rate of every single bubbling pool, providing that it had a minimum flux rate of 0.5 l/min. The maximum measured flow rate for a single pool was 15 l/min. A preliminary estimate of the total CO2 output over the whole mud volcano is in the order of few t/d. At the same time, we measured the chemical composition of emitted gases in various pools, characterised by different gas flow rates, to calculate the output of CO2 and verify the effect of eventual chemical fractionation processes upon gas chemistry. During the same campaign of direct measurements, we also used a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) for measurement of volcanic CO2 path-integrated concentrations along cross-sections of the atmospheric plumes in the area. The GasFinder was set as to measure CO2 concentrations at 1 Hz rate. During the field campaigns, the position of the GasFinder unit was sequentially moved so as to scan the plumes from different viewing directions and

  20. Morphologies, classification and genesis of pockmarks, mud volcanoes and associated fluid escape features in the northern Zhongjiannan Basin, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiangxin; Song, Haibin; Guan, Yongxian; Yang, Shengxiong; Pinheiro, Luis M.; Bai, Yang; Liu, Boran; Geng, Minghui

    2015-12-01

    Based on new high-resolution multi-beam bathymetry and multichannel seismic reflection data, two new groups of numerous pockmarks and mud volcanoes were discovered in the northern Zhongjiannan Basin at water depths between 600 and 1400 m. Individual pockmarks are circular, elliptical, crescent-shaped or elongated, with diameters ranging from several hundreds to thousands of meters and tens or hundreds of meters in depth, and they often form groups or strings. Crescent pockmarks, approximately 500-1500 m wide in cross-section and 50-150 m deep, occur widely in the southern study area, both as individual features and in groups or curvilinear chains, and they are more widespread and unique in this area than anywhere else in the world. Conical mud volcanoes, mostly with kilometer-wide diameters and ca. 100 m high, mainly develop in the northern study area as individual features or in groups. Seismic data show that the observed pockmarks are associated with different kinds of fluid escape structures and conduits, such as gas chimneys, diapirs, zones of acoustic blanking, acoustic turbidity and enhanced reflections, inclined faults, small fractures and polygonal faults. The mapped mud volcanoes appear to be fed from deep diapirs along two main conduit types: the conventional conduits with downward tapering cones and another other conduit type with a narrow conduit in the lower half and emanative leakage passages in the upper half. Various types of pockmarks are found and a comprehensive pockmark classification scheme is proposed, according to: (a) their shape in plan view, which includes circular, elliptical, crescent, comet-shape, elongated and irregular; (b) their magnitude, which includes small, normal, giant and mega-pockmarks; and (c) their composite pattern, which includes composite pockmarks, pockmark strings and pockmark groups. For the genesis of the crescent pockmark (strings), a 5-stage speculative formation model is proposed, implying possible controlling

  1. Ultramafic clasts from the South Chamorro serpentine mud volcano reveal a polyphase serpentinization history of the Mariana forearc mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder; Alt, Jeffrey C.

    2015-06-01

    Serpentine seamounts located on the outer half of the pervasively fractured Mariana forearc provide an excellent window into the forearc devolatilization processes, which can strongly influence the cycling of volatiles and trace elements in subduction zones. Serpentinized ultramafic clasts recovered from an active mud volcano in the Mariana forearc reveal microstructures, mineral assemblages and compositions that are indicative of a complex polyphase alteration history. Petrologic phase relations and oxygen isotopes suggest that ultramafic clasts were serpentinized at temperatures below 200 °C. Several successive serpentinization events represented by different vein generations with distinct trace element contents can be recognized. Measured in situ Rb/Cs ratios are fairly uniform ranging between 1 and 10, which is consistent with Cs mobilization from sediments at lower temperatures and lends further credence to the low-temperature conditions proposed in models of the thermal structure in forearc settings. Late veins show lower fluid mobile element (FME) concentrations than early veins, suggesting a decreasing influence of fluid discharge from the subducting slab on the composition of the serpentinizing fluids. The continuous microfabric and mineral chemical evolution observed in the ultramafic clasts may have implications as to the origin and nature of the serpentinizing fluids. We hypothesize that opal and smectite dehydration produce quartz-saturated fluids with high FME contents and Rb/Cs between 1 and 4 that cause the early pervasive serpentinization. The partially serpentinized material may then be eroded from the basal plane of the suprasubduction mantle wedge. Serpentinization continued but the interacting fluids did not carry a pronounced sedimentary signature, either because FMEs were no longer released from the slab, or due to an en route loss of FMEs. Late chrysotile veins that document the increased access of fluids in a now fluid-dominated regime are

  2. Highly plastic behavior and fluidization of gouge; implications for fault and landslide mechanics and for the generation of mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Seshimo, Kazuyoshi; Hu, Wei; Ma, Shengli; Yao, Lu; Xiong, Ran; Xiao, Yinke

    2016-04-01

    minimum of 0.02 when the initial pore water was greater than about 30 wt%. The landslide is moving slowly at velocities to ca. 1 cm/day on a very gentle slope with a dip angle of 1 to 3 degrees, corresponding to friction coefficients of 0.02 to 0.05. Our drained tests still could not fully reproduce this landslide and we plan to conduct undrained tests as the other extreme case. Highly plastic behavior of gouge with very low friction may lead to extreme weakening of faults with dehydration, and mud volcanoes may also be caused by dramatic weakening of granular materials with abundant water. Fluidization of gouge can be an important mechanism for ultra-low friction of faults and landslide slip zones with degassing reactions or with vaporization of dehydrated water at low normal stresses. We have just made a gouge sample cell with O-rings and a pore-pressure gauge to refine those preliminary experiment, by conducting undrained tests with controlled amount of pore water while monitoring pore pressure. Additional data will be reported on those materials and on fine sandstone from a mud volcano in the Nankai Trough.

  3. Distribution and geological control of mud volcanoes and other fluid/free gas seepage features in the Mediterranean Sea and nearby Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascle, Jean; Mary, Flore; Praeg, Daniel; Brosolo, Laetitia; Camera, Laurent; Ceramicola, Silvia; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2014-06-01

    Existing knowledge on the distribution of mud volcanoes (MVs) and other significant fluid/free gas-venting features (mud cones, mud pies, mud-brine pools, mud carbonate cones, gas chimneys and, in some cases, pockmark fields) discovered on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea and in the nearby Gulf of Cadiz has been compiled using regional geophysical information (including multibeam coverage of most deepwater areas). The resulting dataset comprises both features proven from geological sampling, or in situ observations, and many previously unrecognized MVs inferred from geophysical evidence. The synthesis reveals that MVs clearly have non-random distributions that correspond to two main geodynamic settings: (1) the vast majority occur along the various tectono-sedimentary accretionary wedges of the Africa-Eurasia subduction zone, particularly in the central and eastern Mediterranean basins (external Calabrian Arc, Mediterranean Ridge, Florence Rise) but also along its westernmost boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz; (2) other MVs characterize thick depocentres along parts of the Mesozoic passive continental margins that border Africa from eastern Tunisia to the Levantine coasts, particularly off Egypt and, locally, within some areas of the western Mediterranean back-arc basins. Meaningfully accounting for MV distribution necessitates evidence of overpressured fluids and mud-rich layers. In addition, cross-correlations between MVs and other GIS-based data, such as maps of the Messinian evaporite basins and/or active (or recently active) tectonic trends, stress the importance of assessing geological control in terms of the presence, or not, of thick seals and potential conduits. It is contended that new MV discoveries may be expected in the study region, particularly along the southern Ionian Sea continental margins.

  4. Geochemistry, isotopic composition and origin of fluids emanating from mud volcanoes in the Copper River Basin, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Hawkins, D.B.; Poreda, R.J.; Jeffries, A.

    1986-05-01

    Two compositionally different groups of mud volcanoes exist in the Copper River Basin: the Tolsona group which discharges Na-Ca rich, HCO/sub 3/-SO/sub 4/ poor saline waters accompanied by small amounts of gas, composed predominately of CH/sub 4/ and N/sub 2/; and the Klawasi group which discharges Ca poor, Na-HCO/sub 3/ rich saline waters accompanied by enormous amounts of CO/sub 2/. The Tolsona-type water chemistry and isotopic composition could have been produced through the following processes: dilution of original interstitial seawaters with paleo-meteoric waters, possibly during a period of uplift in the mid-Cretaceous; loss of HCO/sub 3/ and SO/sub 4/ and modification of other constituent concentrations by shale-membrane filtration; further depletion of Mg, K, HCO/sub 3/, and SO/sub 4/, and enrichment in Ca and Sr through dolomitization, hydrolysis, and clay-forming processes; and leaching of B, I, Li, and SiO/sub 2/ from marine sediments. Compared to the Tolsona waters, the Klawasi waters are strongly enriched in Li, Na, K, Mg, HCO/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, B, SiO/sub 2/ and delta/sup 18/O and strongly depleted in Ca, Sr and D. The Klawasi wates also contain high concentrations of arsenic (10 to 48 ppM). The differences in fluid chemistry between Klawasi and Tolsona can be explained as the result of the interaction of fluids derived from a magmatic intrusion and contact decarbonation of limestone beds underlying the Klawasi area with overlying Tolsona-type formation waters.

  5. Hydrocarbon seepage and its sources at mud volcanoes of the Kumano forearc basin, Nankai Trough subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, Thomas; Geprägs, Patrizia; Hammerschmidt, Sebastian; Wintersteller, Paul; Wei, Jiangong; Fleischmann, Timo; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Kopf, Achim J.

    2014-06-01

    submarine mud volcanoes (MV) in the Kumano forearc basin within the Nankai Trough subduction zone were investigated for hydrocarbon origins and fluid dynamics. Gas hydrates diagnostic for methane concentrations exceeding solubilities were recovered from MVs 2, 4, 5, and 10. Molecular ratios (C1/C2 < 250) and stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C-CH4 >-40‰ V-PDB) indicate that hydrate-bound hydrocarbons (HCs) at MVs 2, 4, and 10 are derived from thermal cracking of organic matter. Considering thermal gradients at the nearby IODP Sites C0009 and C0002, the likely formation depth of such HCs ranges between 2300 and 4300 m below seafloor (mbsf). With respect to basin sediment thickness and the minimum distance to the top of the plate boundary thrust we propose that the majority of HCs fueling the MVs is derived from sediments of the Cretaceous to Tertiary Shimanto belt below Pliocene/Pleistocene to recent basin sediments. Considering their sizes and appearances hydrates are suggested to be relicts of higher MV activity in the past, although the sporadic presence of vesicomyid clams at MV 2 showed that fluid migration is sufficient to nourish chemosynthesis-based organisms in places. Distributions of dissolved methane at MVs 3, 4, 5, and 8 pointed at fluid supply through one or few MV conduits and effective methane oxidation in the immediate subsurface. The aged nature of the hydrates suggests that the major portion of methane immediately below the top of the methane-containing sediment interval is fueled by current hydrate dissolution rather than active migration from greater depth.

  6. Methane flux from miniseepage in mud volcanoes of SW Taiwan: Comparison with the data from Italy, Romania, and Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei-Li; Etiope, Giuseppe; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chang, Ping-Yu

    2013-03-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are considered important methane (CH4) sources for the atmosphere; gas is not only released from macro-seepage, i.e., from craters and visible gas bubbling manifestations, but also from invisible and pervasive exhalation from the ground, named miniseepage. CH4 flux related to miniseepage was measured only in a few MVs, in Azerbaijan, Italy, Japan, Romania and Taiwan. This study examines in detail the flux data acquired in 5 MVs and 1 "dry" seep in SW Taiwan, and further compares with other 23 MVs in Italy, Romania and Azerbaijan. Miniseepage from the six manifestations in SW Taiwan MVs and seeps annually contribute at least 110 tons of methane directly to the atmosphere, and represents about ˜80% of total degassing during a quiescent period. Combining miniseepage flux and geo-electrical data from the Wu-shan-ding MV revealed a possible link between gas flux and electrical resistivity of the vadose zone. This suggests that unsaturated subsoil is a preferential zone for shallow gas accumulation and seepage to the atmosphere. Besides, miniseepage flux in Chu-huo everlasting fire decreases by increasing the distance from the main gas channeling zone and molecular fractionation (methane/ethane ratio) is higher for lower flux seepage, consistently with what observed in other MVs worldwide. Measurements from Azerbaijan, Italy, Romania, and Taiwan converge to indicate that miniseepage is directly proportional to the vent output and it is a significant component of the total methane budget of a MV. A miniseepage vs. macro-seepage flux equation has been statistically assessed and it can be used to estimate theoretically at least the order of magnitude of the flux of miniseepage for MVs of which only the flux from vents was evaluated, or will be evaluated in future. This will allow a more complete and objective quantification of gas emission in MVs, thus also refining the estimate of the global methane emission from geological sources.

  7. In-situ inventory of gas and gas hydrates in deposits of the Hâkon Mosby mud volcano, SW Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, T.; Feseker, T.; Kasten, S.; Fischer, D.; Abegg, F.; Hohnberg, H.-J.; Bohrmann, G.

    2009-04-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are an important source and reservoir of methane and other low-molecular weight hydrocarbons (LMWHC). Consequently, mud volcanoes located within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) are known to host shallow buried gas hydrates in high density. However, gas hydrate inventories in shallow mud volcano deposits are strongly affected by changes in local physico-chemical conditions due to episodic volcanic activity and response by fixation or release of abundant portions of LMWHC. We determined the in situ gas inventories in shallow deposits of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV, SW Barents Sea) in approx. 1,250 m water depth by quantitative degassing of pressure cores recovered with our Dynamic Autoclave Piston Corer. As recognized during previous studies of the HMMV, a concentric arrangement of geochemical parameters and topographic features allow for the distinction of three geomorphological units (I, II, III). During our cruise in summer 2008 we recovered pressure cores (up to 2.65 m below seafloor, b.s.f.) from all the three units and volumetric gas-sediment (wet) ratios ranged between 2.6 in a core taken at the northwestern outer rim (Unit III), and 25.2 obtained for a core in the northeastern section (Unit II). Gas sub-samples collected during degassing of pressure cores belonging to the three units showed C1/C2+ ratios >1,000 suggestive of a predominantly microbial LMWHC origin. Hydrate stability calculations based on LMWHC distributions, pore water salinities and bottom water temperatures suggest that structure I hydrates are the most stable crystallographic hydrate structure at the HMMV. Pore water chloride and sulfate profiles combined with in situ temperature data were used to delineate local boundaries of hydrate accumulations in each of the three geomorphologic units. Subsequently, gas volumes in pressure cores were referred to core segments comprising gas hydrates, and hydrate concentrations were calculated. Low gas hydrate

  8. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes. PMID

  9. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes. PMID

  10. Hydrocarbon Potential of the Offshore Akçakoca Region: Mud Volcano, Gas Hydrate and Shallow Gas Indications on Acoustic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Özkan; Mert Küçük, Hilmi; Atgin, Orhan; Dondurur, Derman; Çifçi, Günay

    2015-04-01

    The Black Sea is a large marginal sea located within complex folded chains of the Alpine system, represented by the Balkanides-Pontides belt to the south, and by the Caucasus and Crimea Mountains to the north and northwest. The Black Sea sediments are rich in calcite and organic carbon, the latter showing a high degree of preservation due to anoxia in the waters below 100-150 m. The Black Sea is one of the richest waters having immense gas and gas hydrate accumulations. Shelf and slopes with high sedimentation rates is considered as methane sources and gas seeps are observed around the basin. The study area is located offshore Akçakoca gas well which produces dry gas of 570.000 m3/day from reverse-fault anticline reservoir of Eocene age. The area also has the Kozlu structure far offshore, which has gas accumulations, gas chimneys and possible mud volcanoes. In 2012, a total of 1150 km high resolution multichannel seismic reflection (MCS), very high resolution Chirp sub-bottom profiler and multibeam bathymetry datasets were collected offshore of Akçakoca and Zonguldak in the Western Black Sea continental slope. The dataset were combined with the acoustic data from R/V Poseidon cruise in 2004 which included multibeam bathymetry, deep-towed side scan sonar and gravity coring on the Kozlu High. Bathymetric data shows that the shelf break is located at approx. 120 m water depths and continental slope extends between 120 to 1800 m water depths including 30 degree of maximum dip. In addtion, continental slope is dissected by several canyons and canyon systems with smaller scale gullies. Preliminary analysis of the seismic data shows the shallow gas anomalies of the continental rise area and a mud volcano offshore of Akçakoca has been discovered at approx. 1490 m water depth. Diameter of the new discovered mud volcano is approx. 250 m. The southern part of the mud volcano has several gas chimneys reaching to the seabed, which are possibly actively degassing. Gas plumes

  11. Volcanoes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunar, L. N. S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the forces responsible for the eruptions of volcanoes and gives the physical and chemical parameters governing the type of eruption. Explains the structure of the earth in relation to volcanoes and explains the location of volcanic regions. (GS)

  12. Volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, R.W.; Decker, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes volcanoes although the authors say they are more to be experienced than described. This book poses more question than answers. The public has developed interest and awareness in volcanism since the first edition eight years ago, maybe because since the time 120 volcanoes have erupted. Of those, the more lethal eruptions were from volcanoes not included in the first edition's World's 101 Most Notorious Volcanoes.

  13. Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilling, Robert I.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, this booklet provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of volcanoes. Separate sections examine the nature and workings of volcanoes, types of volcanoes, volcanic geological structures such as plugs and maars, types of eruptions, volcanic-related activity such as geysers…

  14. Formation of mud volcanoes, giant polygons and chaotic terrains on Mars as the result of compaction and convection of altered pyroclastic deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Teodolina; Baratoux, David; Antoine, Raphaël; Rabinowicz, Michel; Le Deit, Laëtitia; Kurita, Key; D'Uston, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Rheology of crustal material is a key parameter to understand surface morphology on solid planets. Detections of phyllosilicate-rich units on Mars, made by OMEGA and CRISM instruments, over a major part of the Southern Plains [1] and in some specific regions as ejectas and craters central peaks in the Northern Plains [2], suggest a widespread extend of phyllosicate-rich deposits. Analysis of recent experimental characterization of the rheology of phyllosilicates leads us to propose a link between several types of surface features on Mars and the hydrodynamic instabilities that may develop in such material. More precisely, we propose and argue that the formation of mud volcanoes, giant polygons and chaotic terrains results from the interplay of compaction, hydrothermal convection and plastic convection in thick phyllosilicate-rich units. Indeed, the compaction and hydrothermal convection that may develop in the 4° tilted sedimentary layers in Firsoff crater [3] would lead to the formation of a top light-layered deposit intruded by mud volcanoes. In the same way, compaction coupled with hydrothermal and plastic convection in the 2.5 km thick sediment cover of Utopia [4] and Acidalia Planitiae can explain the formation of the giant polygons and their associated set of mud volcanoes. Besides, strong plastic and hydrothermal convection coupled with compaction acting in the 5 km thick cover of Hydraotes Chaos would explain the formation of (i) the kilometre deep troughs separating the polygonal mesas recorded there, and (ii) the km large pitted mud cones paving these troughs. Finally, we obtain new insights into the sub-surface structure prevailing to the formation of outflow channels. Indeed, we propose the formation of a network of connected deconsolidated clays tubes would provide the necessary hydrological connectivity that eventually led to the major outflow events. [1] e.g. Ehlmann et al., 2013, Spa. Sci. Rev., 174 (1-4); [2] Carter et al., 2010, Science, 328

  15. Formation of Mud Volcanoes, Giant Polygons and Chaotic Terrains on Mars as the Result of Compaction and Convection of Thick Altered Pyroclastic Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, T.; Baratoux, D.; Antoine, R.; Rabinowicz, M.; Le Deit, L.; Kurita, K.; D'Uston, L.

    2013-12-01

    Rheology of crustal material is a key parameter to understand surface morphology on solid planets. Detections of phyllosilicate-rich units on Mars, made by OMEGA and CRISM instruments, over a major part of the Southern Plains [1] and in some specific regions as ejectas and craters central peaks in the Northern Plains [2], suggest a widespread extend of phyllosicate-rich deposits. Analysis of recent experimental characterization of the rheology of phyllosilicates leads us to propose a link between several types of surface features on Mars and the hydrodynamic instabilities that may develop in such material. More precisely, we propose and argue that the formation of mud volcanoes, giant polygons and chaotic terrains results from the interplay of compaction, hydrothermal convection and plastic convection in thick phyllosilicate-rich units. Indeed, the compaction and hydrothermal convection that may develop in the 4° tilted sedimentary layers in Firsoff crater [3] would lead to the formation of a top light-layered deposit intruded by mud volcanoes. In the same way, compaction coupled with hydrothermal and plastic convection in the 2.5 km thick sediment cover of Utopia [4] and Acidalia Planitiae can explain the formation of the giant polygons and their associated set of mud volcanoes. Besides, strong plastic and hydrothermal convection coupled with compaction acting in the 5 km thick cover of Hydraotes Chaos would explain the formation of (i) the kilometre deep troughs separating the polygonal mesas recorded there, and (ii) the km large pitted mud cones paving these troughs. Finally, we obtain new insights into the sub-surface structure prevailing to the formation of outflow channels. Indeed, we propose the formation of a network of connected deconsolidated clays tubes would provide the necessary hydrological connectivity that eventually led to the major outflow events. [1] e.g. Ehlmann et al., 2013, Spa. Sci. Rev., 174 (1-4); [2] Carter et al., 2010, Science, 328

  16. Hydrological regulations, land use and a mud volcano affecting the sediment and carbon load of the tropical Brantas River, Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennerjahn, Tim; Jänen, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Intensive human uses of the coastal zone and increasing extreme events are more and more endangering the integrity of coastal ecosystems during the Anthropocene. This is of particular importance in SE Asia where large parts of the population live in the coastal zone and economically depend on its resources. Intensive tectonic activity in the circum-Pacific 'Ring of fire' exposes the region to extreme natural events like volcano eruptions, earthquakes and occasionally following tsunamis. The Indonesian island of Java is a prime example in this respect because of its location on an active continental margin and a population density >1,000 inhabitants km-2. Its second largest river, the Brantas, empties into the shallow Madura Strait through two major branches, the Wonokromo and the Porong, the latter being responsible for 80 % of the discharge. Major land use in the catchment is agriculture (61 %) and the hydrology and sediment load of the river is regulated by 8 large dams and numerous weirs. The estuarine lowlands in the prograding delta were once covered by mangroves which were to a large extent replaced by aquaculture ponds. The eruption of a mud volcano near the Porong in 2006 added another factor affecting the amount and composition of the dissolved and particulate river loads. Concentrations of total suspended sediments (TSM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) displayed large seasonal variations in the Brantas before its diversion into the Porong and the Wonokromo as well as in the latter two with maxima during the wet season (Nov-April). High concentrations in the Porong during both seasons were mainly due to the constantly high input from the mud volcano. Favourable weathering conditions and agriculture as the predominant land use are responsible for high erosion rates of 4-14 mm yr-1 in the catchment. The 8 major dams and numerous weirs built between the 1970s and the 1990s retain a large amount of that sediment leading to an overall low sediment yield of

  17. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  18. Character of seismic motion at a location of a gas hydrate-bearing mud volcano on the SW Barents Sea margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franek, Peter; Mienert, Jürgen; Buenz, Stefan; Géli, Louis

    2014-08-01

    The Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV) at 1270 m water depth on the SW Barents Sea slope has been intensively studied since its discovery in 1989. A variety of sensors monitored morphological, hydrological, geochemical, and biological parameters in the HMMV area. An ocean bottom seismometer deployment allowed us to register seismic motion for 2 years, from October 2008 to October 2010. The analysis of seismic records documents two types of seismic signals. The first type are harmonic tremors with frequency peaks around 4-5 and 8-10 Hz that occur in swarms. Their origin could be from fluid flow circulation or resonant vibrations of gas bubbles or from delayed movement of fluid-rich sediments in the conduit or in a deeper pseudo-mud chamber of the HMMV. Because swarms occur with a periodicity of ~ 6 h, tide-related effects are suspected to influence the mechanism originating the tremors. The second type of signals are regional earthquakes that were in 15 cases recognized in seismic records. The activity of harmonic tremors was not significantly affected by earthquakes.

  19. Warm brine lakes in craters of active mud volcanoes, Menes caldera off NW Egypt: evidence for deep-rooted thermogenic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Stéphanie; Mascle, Jean; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Harmegnies, François; Woodside, John; Pierre, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    The Menes caldera is a fault-controlled depression (~8 km in diameter) at ~3,000 m water depth in the western province of the Nile deep-sea fan off NW Egypt, comprising seven mud volcanoes (MVs) of which two are active. Based on multichannel and chirp seismic data, temperature profiles, and high-resolution bathymetric data collected during the 2000 Fanil, 2004 Mimes and 2007 Medeco2 expeditions, the present study investigates factors controlling MV morphology, the geometry of feeder channels, and the origin of emitted fluids. The active Cheops and Chephren MVs are 1,500 m wide with subcircular craters at their summits, about 250 m in diameter, generally a few tens of metres deep, and filled with methane-rich muddy brines with temperatures reaching 42 °C and 57 °C respectively. Deployments of CTDs and corers with attached temperature sensors tracked these warm temperatures down to almost 0.5 km depth below the brine lake surface at the Cheops MV, in a feeder channel probably only a few tens of metres wide. Thermogenic processes involve the dissolution of Messinian evaporites by warm fluids likely sourced even deeper, i.e. 1.7 and 2.6 km below the seabed at the Cheops and Chephren MVs respectively, and which ascend along listric faults. Seepage activity appears broadly persistent since the initiation of mud volcanism in the Early Pliocene, possibly accompanied by lateral migration of feeder channels.

  20. Spatial variation in fluid flow and geochemical fluxes across the sediment-seawater interface at the Carlos Ribeiro mud volcano (Gulf of Cadiz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanneste, Heleen; Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; James, Rachael H.; Haeckel, Matthias; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Heeschen, Katja; Mills, Rachel A.

    2011-02-01

    Submarine mud volcanism is an important pathway for transfer of deep-sourced fluids enriched in hydrocarbons and other elements into the ocean. Numerous mud volcanoes (MVs) have been discovered along oceanic plate margins, and integrated elemental fluxes are potentially significant for oceanic chemical budgets. Here, we present the first detailed study of the spatial variation in fluid and chemical fluxes at the Carlos Ribeiro MV in the Gulf of Cadiz. To this end, we combine analyses of the chemical composition of pore fluids with a 1-D transport-reaction model to quantify fluid fluxes, and fluxes of boron, lithium and methane, across the sediment-seawater interface. The pore fluids are significantly depleted in chloride, but enriched in lithium, boron and hydrocarbons, relative to seawater. Pore water profiles of sulphate, hydrogen sulphide and total alkalinity indicate that anaerobic oxidation of methane occurs at 34-180 cm depth below seafloor. Clay mineral dehydration, and in particular the transformation of smectite to illite, produces pore fluids that are depleted in chloride and potassium. Profiles of boron, lithium and potassium are closely related, which suggests that lithium and boron are released from the sediments during this transformation. Pore fluids are expelled into the water column by advection; fluid flow velocities are 4 cm yr -1 at the apex of the MV but they rapidly decrease to 0.4 cm yr -1 at the periphery. The associated fluxes of boron, lithium and methane vary between 7-301, 0.5-6 and 0-806 mmol m -2 yr -1, respectively. We demonstrate that fluxes of Li and B due to mud volcanism may be important on a global scale, however, release of methane into the overlying water column is suppressed by microbial methanotrophy.

  1. Mentoring Alex Bick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieterle, Ed

    2005-01-01

    On February 10, 2004, Alex Bick contacted Chris Dede, the Timothy E. Wirth Professor of Learning Technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, seeking a mentor for his work to determine whether handheld computers regularly carried by high school students generally affect academic achievement. At the time, Bick was a 10th grader…

  2. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    PubMed Central

    Venkadesaperumal, Gopu; Amaresan, Natrajan; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans) and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp.) of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato) inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system. PMID:25763031

  3. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    PubMed

    Venkadesaperumal, Gopu; Amaresan, Natrajan; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans) and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp.) of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato) inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system. PMID:25763031

  4. Novel archaeal macrocyclic diether core membrane lipids in a methane-derived carbonate crust from a mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Stadnitskaia, Alina; Baas, Marianne; Ivanov, Michael K.; Van Weering, Tjeerd C.E.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2003-01-01

    A methane-derived carbonate crust was collected from the recently discovered NIOZ mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea during the 11th Training-through-Research cruise of the R/V Professor Logachev. Among several specific bacterial and archaeal membrane lipids present in this crust, two novel macrocyclic diphytanyl glycerol diethers, containing one or two cyclopentane rings, were detected. Their structures were tentatively identified based on the interpretation of mass spectra, comparison with previously reported mass spectral data, and a hydrogenation experiment. This macrocyclic type of archaeal core membrane diether lipid has so far been identified only in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent methanogen Methanococcus jannaschii. Here, we provide the first evidence that these macrocyclic diethers can also contain internal cyclopentane rings. The molecular structure of the novel diethers resembles that of dibiphytanyl tetraethers in which biphytane chains, containing one and two pentacyclic rings, also occur. Such tetraethers were abundant in the crust. Compound-specific isotope measurements revealed δ13C values of –104 to –111‰ for these new archaeal lipids, indicating that they are derived from methanotrophic archaea acting within anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia, which subsequently induce authigenic carbonate formation. PMID:15803662

  5. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in subsurface sediments of gas hydrate-bearing mud volcanoes, Lake Baikal: implications for methane and carbonate origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Alexey A.; Khlystov, Oleg M.; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Minami, Hirotsugu; Nunokawa, Yutaka; Shoji, Hitoshi; Zemskaya, Tamara I.; Naudts, Lieven; Pogodaeva, Tatyana V.; Kida, Masato; Kalmychkov, Gennady V.; Poort, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    We report on the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in pore-water samples recovered by gravity coring from near-bottom sediments at gas hydrate-bearing mud volcanoes/gas flares (Malenky, Peschanka, Peschanka 2, Goloustnoe, and Irkutsk) in the Southern Basin of Lake Baikal. The δ13C values of DIC become heavier with increasing subbottom depth, and vary between -9.5 and +21.4‰ PDB. Enrichment of DIC in 13C indicates active methane generation in anaerobic environments near the lake bottom. These data confirm our previous assumption that crystallization of carbonates (siderites) in subsurface sediments is a result of methane generation. Types of methanogenesis (microbial methyl-type fermentation versus CO2-reduction) were revealed by determining the offset of δ13C between dissolved CH4 and CO2, and also by using δ13C and δD values of dissolved methane present in the pore waters. Results show that both mechanisms are most likely responsible for methane generation at the investigated locations.

  6. Novel archaeal macrocyclic diether core membrane lipids in a methane-derived carbonate crust from a mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Stadnitskaia, Alina; Baas, Marianne; Ivanov, Michael K; van Weering, Tjeerd C E; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2003-10-01

    A methane-derived carbonate crust was collected from the recently discovered NIOZ mud volcano in the Sorokin Trough, NE Black Sea during the 11th Training-through-Research cruise of the R/V Professor Logachev. Among several specific bacterial and archaeal membrane lipids present in this crust, two novel macrocyclic diphytanyl glycerol diethers, containing one or two cyclopentane rings, were detected. Their structures were tentatively identified based on the interpretation of mass spectra, comparison with previously reported mass spectral data, and a hydrogenation experiment. This macrocyclic type of archaeal core membrane diether lipid has so far been identified only in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent methanogen Methanococcus jannaschii. Here, we provide the first evidence that these macrocyclic diethers can also contain internal cyclopentane rings. The molecular structure of the novel diethers resembles that of dibiphytanyl tetraethers in which biphytane chains, containing one and two pentacyclic rings, also occur. Such tetraethers were abundant in the crust. Compound-specific isotope measurements revealed delta13C values of -104 to -111/1000 for these new archaeal lipids, indicating that they are derived from methanotrophic archaea acting within anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia, which subsequently induce authigenic carbonate formation. PMID:15803662

  7. Characterization of a deep-sea microbial mat from an active cold seep at the Milano mud volcano in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Heijs, Sander K; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Forney, Larry J

    2005-09-01

    A white, filamentous microbial mat at the Milano mud volcano in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was sampled during the Medinaut cruise of the R/V Nadir in 1998. The composition of the mat community was characterized using a combination of phylogenetic and lipid biomarker methods. The mat sample was filtered through 0.2 and 5-microm filters to coarsely separate unicellular and filamentous bacteria. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from the total community DNA from these fractions showed that similar archaeal populations were present in both fractions. However, the bacterial populations in the fractions differed from one another, and were more diverse than the archaeal ones. Lipid analysis showed that bacteria were the dominant members of the mat microbial community and the relatively low delta(13)C carbon isotope values of bulk bacterial lipids suggested the occurrence of methane- and sulfide-based chemo(auto)trophy. Consistent with this, the bacterial populations in the fractions were related to Alpha-, Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria, most of which were chemoautotrophic bacteria that utilize hydrogen sulfide (or reduced sulfur compounds) and/or methane. The most common archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were related to those of previously identified Archaea capable of anaerobic methane oxidation. Although the filamentous organisms observed in the mat were not conclusively identified, our results indicated that the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea microbial mat community might be sustained on a combination of methane- and sulfide-driven chemotrophy. PMID:16329971

  8. Biogeochemistry and community composition of iron- and sulfur-precipitating microbial mats at the Chefren mud volcano (Nile Deep Sea Fan, Eastern Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Omoregie, Enoma O; Mastalerz, Vincent; de Lange, Gert; Straub, Kristina L; Kappler, Andreas; Røy, Hans; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Boetius, Antje

    2008-05-01

    In this study we determined the composition and biogeochemistry of novel, brightly colored, white and orange microbial mats at the surface of a brine seep at the outer rim of the Chefren mud volcano. These mats were interspersed with one another, but their underlying sediment biogeochemistries differed considerably. Microscopy revealed that the white mats were granules composed of elemental S filaments, similar to those produced by the sulfide-oxidizing epsilonproteobacterium "Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus." Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that microorganisms targeted by a "Ca. Arcobacter sulfidicus"-specific oligonucleotide probe constituted up to 24% of the total the cells within these mats. Several 16S rRNA gene sequences from organisms closely related to "Ca. Arcobacter sulfidicus" were identified. In contrast, the orange mat consisted mostly of bright orange flakes composed of empty Fe(III) (hydr)oxide-coated microbial sheaths, similar to those produced by the neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing betaproteobacterium Leptothrix ochracea. None of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from these samples were closely related to sequences of known neutrophilic aerobic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria. The sediments below both types of mats showed relatively high sulfate reduction rates (300 nmol x cm(-3) x day(-1)) partially fueled by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (10 to 20 nmol x cm(-3) x day(-1)). Free sulfide produced below the white mat was depleted by sulfide oxidation within the mat itself. Below the orange mat free Fe(II) reached the surface layer and was depleted in part by microbial Fe(II) oxidation. Both mats and the sediments underneath them hosted very diverse microbial communities and contained mineral precipitates, most likely due to differences in fluid flow patterns. PMID:18378658

  9. Characterization of methanogenic and prokaryotic assemblages based on mcrA and 16S rRNA gene diversity in sediments of the Kazan mud volcano (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Kormas, K A; Meziti, A; Dählmann, A; DE Lange, G J; Lykousis, V

    2008-12-01

    The diversity of the methyl-coenzyme reductase A (mcrA) and 16S rRNA genes was investigated in gas hydrate containing sediment from the Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea. mcrA was detected only at 15 and 20 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) from a 40-cm long push core, while based on chemical profiles of methane, sulfate, and sulfide, possible anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) depth was inferred at 12-15 cmbsf. The phylogenetic relationships of the obtained mcrA, archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes, showed that all the found sequences were found in both depths and at similar relative abundances. mcrA diversity was low. All sequences were related to the Methanosarcinales, with the most dominant (77.2%) sequences falling in group mcrA-e. The 16S rRNA-based archaeal diversity also revealed low diversity and clear dominance (72.8% of all archaeal phylotypes) of the Methanosarcinales and, in particular, ANME-2c. Bacteria showed higher diversity but 83.2% of the retrieved phylotypes from both sediment layers belonged to the delta-Proteobacteria. These phylotypes fell in the SEEP-SRB1 putative AOM group. In addition, the rest of the less abundant phylotypes were related to yet-uncultivated representatives of the Actinobacteria, Spirochaetales, and candidate divisions OP11 and WS3 from gas hydrate-bearing habitats. These phylotype patterns indicate that AOM is occurring in the 15 and 20 cmbsf sediment layers. PMID:19076636

  10. GPM Flyby of Hurricane Alex

    NASA Video Gallery

    Most of the rainfall measured by GPM on Jan.15 was measured at less than 20 mm (.8 inches) per hour. GPM found that maximum storm top heights northwest of Alex's cloudy eye were found to reach alti...

  11. Authigenic carbonates related to active seepage of methane-rich hot brines at the Cheops mud volcano, Menes caldera (Nile deep-sea fan, eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Catherine; Bayon, Germain; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Mascle, Jean; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2014-06-01

    On the passive margin of the Nile deep-sea fan, the active Cheops mud volcano (MV; ca. 1,500 m diameter, ~20-30 m above seafloor, 3,010-3,020 m water depth) comprises a crater lake with hot (up to ca. 42 °C) methane-rich muddy brines in places overflowing down the MV flanks. During the Medeco2 cruise in fall 2007, ROV dives enabled detailed sampling of the brine fluid, bottom lake sediments at ca. 450 m lake depth, sub-surface sediments from the MV flanks, and carbonate crusts at the MV foot. Based on mineralogical, elemental and stable isotope analyses, this study aims at exploring the origin of the brine fluid and the key biogeochemical processes controlling the formation of these deep-sea authigenic carbonates. In addition to their patchy occurrence in crusts outcropping at the seafloor, authigenic carbonates occur as small concretions disseminated within sub-seafloor sediments, as well as in the bottom sediments and muddy brine of the crater lake. Aragonite and Mg-calcite dominate in the carbonate crusts and in sub-seafloor concretions at the MV foot, whereas Mg-calcite, dolomite and ankerite dominate in the muddy brine lake and in sub-seafloor concretions near the crater rim. The carbonate crusts and sub-seafloor concretions at the MV foot precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with bottom seawater temperature; their low δ13C values (-42.6 to -24.5‰) indicate that anaerobic oxidation of methane was the main driver of carbonate precipitation. By contrast, carbonates from the muddy lake brine, bottom lake concretions and crater rim concretions display much higher δ13C (up to -5.2‰) and low δ18O values (down to -2.8‰); this is consistent with their formation in warm fluids of deep origin characterized by 13C-rich CO2 and, as confirmed by independent evidence, slightly higher heavy rare earth element signatures, the main driver of carbonate precipitation being methanogenesis. Moreover, the benthic activity within the seafloor sediment enhances aerobic

  12. Tropical Depression Alex hits Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Depression Alex on June 27, 2010 at 2214 UTC (6:14 PM EST). Tropical depression Alex was near the western coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. ...

  13. Aligning the μs-ALEX Setup.

    PubMed

    Kapanidis, Achillefs; Majumdar, Devdoot; Heilemann, Mike; Nir, Eyal; Weiss, Shimon

    2015-11-01

    To achieve single-molecule sensitivity and thus have the ability to detect single diffusing fluorophores, careful alignment of the microsecond-alternating laser excitation (μs-Alex) setup is crucial. The following protocol describes routine alignment for 2c-ALEX (532 nm/635 nm) with spectral windows G(550-620)R(650-750). PMID:26527766

  14. Geochemical and microbiological characteristics of sediments near the Malenky mud volcano (Lake Baikal, Russia), with evidence of Archaea intermediate between the marine anaerobic methanotrophs ANME-2 and ANME-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskaya, Tamara I.; Pogodaeva, Tatiayna V.; Shubenkova, Olga V.; Сhernitsina, Svetlana M.; Dagurova, Olga P.; Buryukhaev, Savelii P.; Namsaraev, Bair B.; Khlystov, Oleg M.; Egorov, Aleksandr V.; Krylov, Aleksei A.; Kalmychkov, Gennadii V.

    2010-06-01

    Detailed lithological, biogeochemical and molecular biological analyses of core sediments collected in 2002-2006 from the vicinity of the Malenky mud volcano, Lake Baikal, reveal considerable spatial variations in pore water chemical composition, with total concentrations of dissolved salts varying from 0.1 to 1.8‰. Values of methane δ13С in the sediments suggest a biogenic origin (δ13Сmin. -61.3‰, δ13Сmax. -72.9‰). Rates of sulphate reduction varied from 0.001 to 0.7 nmol cm-3 day-1, of autotrophic methanogenesis from 0.01 to 2.98 nmol CH4 cm-3 day-1, and of anaerobic oxidation of methane from 0 to 12.3 nmol cm-3 day-1. These results indicate that methanogenic processes dominate in gas hydrate-bearing sediments of Lake Baikal. Based on clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes amplified with Bacteria- and Archaea-specific primers, investigation of microbial diversity in gas hydrate-bearing sediments revealed bacterial 16S rRNA clones classified as Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi and OP11. Archaeal clone sequences are related to the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Baikal sequences of Archaea form a distinct cluster occupying an intermediate position between the marine groups ANME-2 and ANME-3 of anaerobic methanotrophs.

  15. Marvelous Mud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2011-01-01

    The author visited the Open Spaces Preschool in Whangarei, New Zealand and was surprised to see the most amazing natural preschool play. There were six preschoolers stripped down to tee shirts and underpants slipping, slopping, and sliding in the dirt spot which had now become the most lovely, silky-smooth deep-brown mud ever. Studies have…

  16. Gravity anomalies of the active mud diapirs off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lo, Chung-Liang; Chen, Song-Chuen; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Jing-Yi; Huang, Yuan-Ping; Huang, Yin-Sheng; Chiu, Shye-Donq; Ma, Yu-Fang

    2015-12-01

    Overpressure and buoyant effect of underlying sediments are generally used to account for the upward motion or formation of submarine mud volcanoes and mud diapirs. In this study, we process and interpret the gravity anomalies associated with the active mud diapirs off SW Taiwan. Geologically, the mud diapirs are just formed and are still very active, thus we can better understand the initial process of the mud diapirs formation through the gravity analysis. Our results show that the density contrasts of the submarine mud diapirs with respect to the surroundings are generally positive. Because the study area is in a tectonically compressive regime and the gas plume venting from the submarine mud volcanoes is very active, we thus infer that mechanically the mud diapirs off SW Taiwan have been formed mainly due to the tectonic compression on the underlying sediments of high pore-fluid pressure, instead of the buoyancy of the buried sediments. The overpressured sediments and fluid are compressed and pushed upwards to pierce the overlying sediments and form the more compacted mud diapirs. The relatively denser material of the mud diapirs probably constrains the flowing courses of the submarine canyons off SW Taiwan, especially for the upper reaches of the Kaoping and Fangliao submarine canyons.

  17. Ascent velocity and dynamics of the Fiumicino mud eruption, Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vona, A.; Giordano, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; D'Ambrosio, R.; Romano, C.; Manga, M.

    2015-08-01

    In August 2013 drilling triggered the eruption of mud near the international airport of Fiumicino (Rome, Italy). We monitored the evolution of the eruption and collected samples for laboratory characterization of physicochemical and rheological properties. Over time, muds show a progressive dilution with water; the rheology is typical of pseudoplastic fluids, with a small yield stress that decreases as mud density decreases. The eruption, while not naturally triggered, shares several similarities with natural mud volcanoes, including mud componentry, grain-size distribution, gas discharge, and mud rheology. We use the size of large ballistic fragments ejected from the vent along with mud rheology to compute a minimum ascent velocity of the mud. Computed values are consistent with in situ measurements of gas phase velocities, confirming that the stratigraphic record of mud eruptions can be quantitatively used to infer eruption history and ascent rates and hence to assess (or reassess) mud eruption hazards.

  18. The Black Scholar Interviews: Alex Haley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Robert L.

    1976-01-01

    A native of Henning, Tennessee, Alex Haley taught himself to write during a twenty year career in the U.S. Coast Guard. After retiring from that service, in 1959, he became a magazine writer and interviewer, and has spent 12 years researching and writing "Roots" (Doubleday, 1976), the epic drama of his family from the abduction of his ancestor…

  19. Alex Bloom, Pioneer of Radical State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Alex Bloom is one of the greatest figures of radical state education in England. His approach to "personalised learning" and the development of a negotiated curriculum was immeasurably more profound and more inspiring than anything to emerge thus far from the current DfES. His approach to student voice was much more radical than anything presently…

  20. Alex Sanchez's Fiction: A Resource for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, G. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The young adult novels of Alex Sanchez belong in every high school English classroom and media center. With compelling plots and significant themes, Sanchez's six novels create numerous rich learning opportunities for students. In this article, the author describes how Sanchez's novels on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender themes can be…

  1. Martian mud volcanism: Terrestrial analogs and implications for formational scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Mazzini, A.

    2009-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the stratigraphic characteristics of its uppermost crust (mega-regolith) suggest that some of the pervasively-occurring pitted cones, mounds, and flows may have formed through processes akin to terrestrial mud volcanism. A comparison of terrestrial mud volcanism suggests that equivalent Martian processes likely required discrete sedimentary depocenters, volatile-enriched strata, buried rheological instabilities, and a mechanism of destabilization to initiate subsurface flow. We outline five formational scenarios whereby Martian mud volcanism might have occurred: (A) rapid deposition of sediments, (B) volcano-induced destabilization, (C) tectonic shortening, (D) long-term, load-induced subsidence, and (E) seismic shaking. We describe locations within and around the Martian northern plains that broadly fit the geological context of these scenarios and which contain mud volcano-like landforms. We compare terrestrial and Martian satellite images and examine the geological settings of mud volcano provinces on Earth in order to describe potential target areas for piercement structures on Mars. Our comparisons help to evaluate not only the role of water as a functional component of geological processes on Mars but also how Martian mud volcanoes could provide samples of otherwise inaccessible strata, some of which could contain astrobiological evidence.

  2. Extreme efficiency of mud volcanism in dewatering accretionary prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, Achim; Klaeschen, Dirk; Mascle, Jean

    2001-07-01

    Drilling results from two mud volcanoes on the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary complex as well as bottom sampling and the wealth of geophysical data acquired recently have provided fundamental knowledge of the 3D geometry of mud extrusions. Mud volcanism is generally related to buoyancy (density inversion), and is triggered by the collision of the African and Eurasian blocks, forcing undercompacted clayey sediments to extrude along faults in the central and hinterlandward parts of the prism. Volumetric estimates of extruded mud in several well-studied areas were based on pre-stack depth-migrated seismic profiles across the entire, up to >150 km wide, prism. The resulting volumes of mud were combined with ages from mud dome drilling, so that rates of mud extrusion were obtained. Subtracting the solid rock mass from the bulk mud volume using physical property data, fluid flux as a function of mud volcanism alone has been quantified for the first time. The volume of fluid extruding with the mud is found to be variable, but reaches up to 15 km 3 fluid per km trench length and Ma along cross sections with abundant mud volcanoes. Such large fluid quantities in a region some 50-150 km behind the deformation front exceed estimates from those elsewhere (where undoubtedly the majority of the interstitial fluid is lost due to compaction). Such fluids near the backstop are likely to result predominantly from mineral dehydration and diagenetic reactions at depth, and consequently provide a window to understand deeper processes along the deep décollement. More importantly, the enormous rates with which such fluids and liquified mud escape along the out-of-sequence faults alter fluid budget calculations in subduction zones drastically.

  3. 45. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 DOOR DETAILS ON GROUND FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  4. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 OLD SLAVE QUARTERS AND KITCHEN - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  5. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 VIEW ON INTERMEDIATE STAIRWAY - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  6. 31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 FRONT VIEW OF BUILDING, FACES NORTH - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1936 DENNY'S TOWER, COMPANY F IN BACKGROUND - University of Alabama, Denny's Tower, University Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, 1935 VIEW SHOWING PLOT - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  9. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, 1934 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. CLOSE-UP OF VAULTS - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. SECTION OF FENCE AROUND LOT - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  11. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, 1934 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. FRONT (WEST), NORTH SIDE - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  12. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 SMOKE HOUSE - Colonel John Young Kilpatrick House & Outbuildings, Bridgeport Road (County Road 37), Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  13. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1937 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SMOKE HOUSE. - Dr. William Hughes House & Outbuildings, Hughes Creek vicinity, Aliceville, Pickens County, AL

  14. 39. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 21, 1935 CLOSE- UP OF FRONT DOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  15. Sequentially sampled gas hydrate water, coupled with pore water and bottom water isotopic and ionic signatures at the Kukuy mud volcano, Lake Baikal: ambiguous deep-rooted source of hydrate-forming water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Hirotsugu; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Sakagami, Hirotoshi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Soramoto, Yusuke; Kotake, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Shoji, Hitoshi; Pogodaeva, Tatyana; Khlystov, Oleg; Khabuev, Andrey; Naudts, Lieven; De Batist, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic and ionic composition of pure gas hydrate (GH) water was examined for GHs recovered in three gravity cores (165-193 cm length) from the Kukuy K-9 mud volcano (MV) in Lake Baikal. A massive GH sample from core St6GC4 (143-165 cm core depth interval) was dissociated progressively over 6 h in a closed glass chamber, and 11 sequentially collected fractions of dissociated GH water analyzed. Their hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions, and the concentrations of Cl- and HCO3 - remained essentially constant over time, except that the fraction collected during the first 50 minutes deviated partly from this pattern. Fraction #1 had a substantially higher Cl- concentration, similar to that of pore water sampled immediately above (135-142 cm core depth) the main GH-bearing interval in that core. Like the subsequent fractions, however, the HCO3 - concentration was markedly lower than that of pore water. For the GH water fractions #2 to #11, an essentially constant HCO3 -/Cl- ratio of 305 differed markedly from downcore pore water HCO3 -/Cl- ratios of 63-99. Evidently, contamination of the extracted GH water by ambient pore water probably adhered to the massive GH sample was satisfactorily restricted to the initial phase of GH dissociation. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of hydrate-forming water was estimated using the measured isotopic composition of extracted GH water combined with known isotopic fractionation factors between GH and GH-forming water. Estimated δD of -126 to -133‰ and δ18O of -15.7 to -16.7‰ differed partly from the corresponding signatures of ambient pore water (δD of -123‰, δ18O of -15.6‰) and of lake bottom water (δD of -121‰, δ18O of -15.8‰) at the St6GC4 coring site, suggesting that the GH was not formed from those waters. Observations of breccias in that core point to a possible deep-rooted water source, consistent with published thermal measurements for the neighboring Kukuy K-2 MV. By contrast, the pore

  16. ASK Talks with Alex McCool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As a charter member at Marshall, McCool was instrumental in the design of the propulsion systems for the Saturn launch vehicles that propelled Apollo to the Moon and directed project engineering for Skylab, the first space science laboratory. Alex McCool's 48-year career includes exceptional contributions to the vehicles that launched America into orbit and carried human beings to the moon. Presently, he is the manager of the Space Shuttle Projects Office at Marshall. Among his many honors he recently received the National Space Club's 2002 Astronautics Engineer Award. The award recognizes those who have made outstanding contributions in engineering management to the national space program.

  17. The Onset of Channelling in a Fluidized Mud Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, T.; Tsakiris, A. G.; Billing, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Fluidization of a soil occurs when the drag force exerted on the soil grains by upwelling water equals the submerged weight of the soil grains, hence reducing the effective (or contact) stress between the soil grains to zero. In nature, fluidization is commonly encountered in localized portions of highly saturated mud layers found in tidal flats, estuaries and lakes, where upward flow is initiated by significant pore water pressure gradients triggered by wave or tidal action. The water propagates through the fluidized mud layer by forming channels (or vents), carrying the fluidized mud to the surface and forming mud volcano structures. The presence of these fluidization channels alters the mud layer structure with implications on its hydraulic and geotechnical properties, such as the hydraulic conductivity. Despite the importance of these channels, the conditions that lead to their formation and their effects on the mud layer structure still remain poorly documented. The present study couples experimental and theoretical methods aimed at quantifying the conditions, under which fluidization of a saturated mud layer is accompanied by the formation of channels, and assessing the effects of channeling on the mud layer structure. Fluidization and channel formation in a mud layer were reproduced in the laboratory using a carefully designed fluidization column attached to a pressurized vessel (plenum). To eliminate any effects of the material, the mud was produced from pure kaolin clay and deionized water. Local porosity measurements along the mud layer prior, during and after fluidization were conducted using an Americium-241 gamma source placed on a fully automated carriage. Different water inflow rates, q, were applied to the base of the mud layer and the plenum pressure was monitored throughout the experiment. These experiments revealed that for high q values, a single vertical channel formed and erupted at the center of the fluidization column. Instead for low q

  18. 27. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 WINDOW DETAIL IN SIDE ON GROUND FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  19. 26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 MANTEL IN S. E. ROOM, GROUND FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  20. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 DETAIL OF REAR S. E. GROUND FLOOR WINDOW - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, 1935 VIEW FROM FRONT DOOR TOWARDS LONG T AT REAR, SHOWING PART OF LIVING ROOM & DINING ROOM - Lee Haven, County Road 21, Livingston, Sumter County, AL

  2. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, 1937 CLOSE-UP DETAIL OF NORTH EAST CORNER - Doctor Wilkins House, State Highways 14 & 86 vicinity, Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 MANTEL ON WEST WALL IN LIVING ROOM - Sellers-Henderson House & Smokehouse, State Route 28, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, 1936 NORTH WEST CORNER OF ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR SHOWING WINDOW AND MANTEL - Strawberry Hill Plantation, U.S. Route 43, Forkland, Greene County, AL

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 REAR (SOUTH) AND WEST SIDE, SHOWING OLD VAULT AT REAR OF COURT HOUSE - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  6. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 VIEW ON MAIN FLOOR, TOWARD N. W. - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  7. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 VIEW ON SECOND FLOOR, TOWARD S.E. - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 CLOSE UP OF FRONT, (NORTH) AND EAST SIDE OF BLDG. - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  9. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 FRONT, NORTH WEST, ROOM ON BASEMENT FLOOR - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 VIEW ON BASEMENT FLOOR AT FRONT OF BUILDING - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  11. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 27, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF CEILING TREATMENT S.E. CORNER OF PARLOR - Montgomery-Jones-Whitaker House, County Road 4 (Reynolds Mill Road), Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  12. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 2, 1937 LOOKING EAST IN GIRL'S DORMITORY, FOURTH FLOOR - East Alabama Masonic Female Institute, 205 East South Street, Talladega, Talladega County, AL

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT) OF OLD MUSIC BUILDING - Eutaw Female Academy, Main Street & Wilson Avenue (moved from original site), Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  14. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, 1935 CORNICE IN CORNER OF REAR PARLOR - MUSIC ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  15. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, 1935 CLOSE UP OF CORNICE IN REAR PARLOR (MUSIC ROOM), N. E. ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  16. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, 1935 LOOKING UP AT CORNICE IN REAR PARLOR - MUSIC ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 SOUTH WALL OF DINING ROOM SHOWING MANTEL AND DOORS - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  18. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL IN EAST WALL OF NORTH EAST FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  19. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL AND WINDOW IN EAST WALL OF NORTH EAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  20. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL ON WEST WALL OF NORTH WEST BEDROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  1. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1936 FRONT (SOUTH), AND EAST SIDE OF SECOND HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (second), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  2. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 CEILING CENTER IN PARLOR, N.E. ROOM - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  3. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 GENERAL VIEW OF STAIR TREATMENT IN HALL - WEST SIDE - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF STAIR BASE AND DOOR, FIRST FLOOR FRONT HALL - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  5. 26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 HORSE STILE BLOCK + HITCHING POSTS IN FRONT OF HOUSE - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1935 FRONT (SOUTH) AND EAST SIDE, SHOWING OLD SLAVE KITCHEN IN REAR OF 1ST HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (first), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  7. 31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 STONE CHIMNEY ON W. END OF OUTHOUSES - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  8. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 FIREPLACE IN KITCHEN, WEST SIDE OF SLAVE HOUSE - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  9. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 DOOR DETAIL IN S. WALL OF S. W. ROOM (BEDROOM), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  10. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE (NORTH) - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  11. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1935 REAR (NORTH) AND WEST SIDE OF 1ST HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (first), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  12. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 VIEW OF STAIRS ON W. SIDE OF HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  13. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 DOOR IN W. WALL OF N. E. FRONT ROOM (PARLOR) LEADING INTO HALL. - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  14. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 FIREPLACE IN PARLOR, N. E. ROOM - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  15. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 STAIR BASE AND DOOR TO LIVING ROOM IN W. WALL OF HALL (FRONT) - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  16. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 SLIDING DOORS IN S. WALL BETWEEN N. E. AND S. E. PARLORS, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1936 WEST SIDE OF SECOND HOUSE, KITCHEN AT REAR - Taylor-Cunningham House (second), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  18. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 BASE OF MAIN STAIR ON W. SIDE OF FRONT HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  19. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE - NORTH - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  20. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 WINDOW IN N. WALL OF N. W. FRONT ROOM (LIVING ROOM), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  1. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1936 MANTEL IN S. E. ROOM. DOWN STAIRS OF SECOND HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (second), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  2. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 WINDOW IN N. WALL OF N. E. FRONT ROOM (PARLOR), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  3. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 FIREPLACE IN UPPER BED ROOM (N.E.) - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1936 MANTEL IN S. W. DOWN STAIRS ROOM OF 2nd HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (second), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  5. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 MAIN STAIRS ON W. WALL OF REAR HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) FRONT AND SIDE VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) FRONT VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) SIDE VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 WALL AROUND REAR YARD OF BANK (SERPENTINE WALL) - State Bank of Alabama, Decatur Branch, Bank Street & Wilson Avenue, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  10. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, 1937 ENTRANCE FROM SUN PARLOR IN CROSS HALL, ALSO STAIRWAY - Governor Robert Lindsay House, U.S. Highway 72, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  11. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, 1935 VIEW FROM HALL ON 2nd FLOOR SHOWING SUN PARLOR - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  12. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 12, 1936 PLAQUE (IN CHURCH) TO MEMORY OF WILLIAM C. THOMPSON AND WIFE - Methodist Church, State Highway 25, Dayton, Marengo County, AL

  13. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 30, 1936 SOUTH END OF BACK PORCH SHOWING BLINDS AND STAIR RAIL, SECOND FLOOR - Burford House, County Road 33 vicinity, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  14. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 9, 1936 EAST ELEVATION (GENERAL VIEW) VIEW FROM GATE - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 DOOR IN N. WALL OF HALL, ALSO STAIR BASE - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 MANTEL IN S. WALL OF E. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 DETAIL OF DOOR AND MANTEL IN N. WALL OF E. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  18. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, 1936 STAIR IN SOUTH END OF CROSS-HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Alfred Battle Home, Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 12, 1936 DETAIL OF COLUMN CAP, S. W. CORNER PORTICO - Dearing-Bagby House, 421 Queen City Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, 1936 CORNICE IN N. W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Dr. John H. Drish House, 2300 Seventeenth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, 1934. BRICK WALL, WAS ONCE USED AS A COW LOT - Jemison-van de Graaf-Burchfield House, 1305 Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  2. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, 1936 NORTH AND EAST WALL IN PARLOR SHOWING MANTEL, DOOR AND WINDOW - McDowell House, State Road 221, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  3. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, 1936 SOUTH WEST CORNER OF HALL SHOWING STAIR BASE, DOORS AND CORNICE - McDowell House, State Road 221, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  4. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 MANTEL IN N. W. ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge William Harrison Walker House, 309 East Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  5. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 27, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF COLUMNS AT N. E. CORNER OF PORTICO - Stone-Young-Baggett House, County Road 54 (Old Selma Road), Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  6. 47. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 SLAVE CABIN #1 (WESTERNMOST) IN SHEETS, CABIN AT WEST SIDE OF PLOT, FACES EAST, GIRL'S DORMITORY IN REAR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. GOES-13 Satellite Catches Alex as a Tropical Storm

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video of satellite imagery from the GOES-13 satellite shows Hurricane Alex's track from the Western Gulf of Mexico through landfall in northeastern Mexico in the early morning hours of July 1 ...

  8. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 A LARGE SYRUP TROUGH IN S. W. ROOM OF BASEMENT - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 9, 1935 OLD SLAVE QUARTERS, KITCHEN AND DRIVERS ROOM, FACES S. - Shackelford-McCrary-Otts House, 901 Centreville Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  10. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, 1935 OLD- TIME KITCHEN, WEST SIDE (NOW GARAGE), SLAVES CABIN No. 3 IN SHEETS, E SIDE OF YARD - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  11. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, 1937 OLD TIME TOOLS USED IN ANTI-BELLUM TIMES, TUSCUMBIA VICINITY. - Carl Rand House, 501 East Third Street, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  12. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 REAR VIEW, SHOWING SMALL OLD-TIME WINDOW OF SLAVE HOUSE - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  13. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. CLOSE-UP OF N. W. SIDE - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  14. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. VIEW OF N. SIDE LOOKING W. - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  15. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. VIEW OF RIVER FROM LOT (W) - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, 1934 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. EAST ENTRANCE GATE TO BURIAL LOT - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 CLOSE-UP VIEW OF GATE TO ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  18. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. CLOSE-UP OF VAULTS AT N. END - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  19. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 INTERIOR VIEW OF N. W. CORNER SMOKE HOUSE - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  20. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 SMOKE HOUSE. WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE - Sellers-Henderson House & Smokehouse, State Route 28, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 LOOKING SOUTH AT PART OF OLD KITCHEN. SERVANT'S HOUSE ON LEFT, SMOKE HOUSE ON RIGHT - C. W. Dunlap House, 237 Wilson Avenue, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  2. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 25, 1935 FRONT (WEST) AND NORTH SIDE OF SMOKE HOUSE - J. O. Banks House & Smokehouse, Springfield Avenue & Pickens Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  3. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 12, 1935 OLD SLAVE HOUSE, SMOKE HOUSE IN REAR - Greenlawn, U.S. Highway 431 (Memorial Parkway), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1937 LOOKING EAST AT SMOKE HOUSE AND COOK'S HOME. - Ingleside, House & Outbuildings, Second Street (State Highway 14), Aliceville, Pickens County, AL

  5. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE AND WELL AT REAR OF HOME - Samuel M. Peck House, Eighteenth Street & Thirtieth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 CLOSE-UP SHOWING DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE FROM BALCONY - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. 34. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 21, 1935 CLOSE- UP OF WINDOW-JAM TREATMENT - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF NORTH ELEVATION (FRONT) - Dr. John H. Drish House, 2300 Seventeenth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  9. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF EXTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL PORTICO WINDOW - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  10. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 TREATMENT OF WALL CORNICE IN BOTH S. W. AND N. W. ROOMS, 1ST FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  11. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 TREATMENT OF CEILING AT TOP IN BOTH S. W. AND N. W. ROOMS - 1ST FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  12. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 SLIDING DOORS ON 1ST FLOOR IN N. W. & S. W. ROOMS - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW INTO LIVING ROOM SHOWING MANTEL - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  14. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW THROUGH DOUBLE SLIDING DOORS INTO DINING ROOM - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  15. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON NORTH WALL OF DINING ROOM - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  16. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF MAIN ENTRANCE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON SOUTH WALL OF PARLOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  18. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 SERVANT'S HOUSE AND GARAGE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  19. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ELEVATION FROM SOUTH SIDE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  20. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING SOUTH WEST AT OLD STABLE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  1. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 REAR (WEST) AND NORTH SIDE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH ELEVATION - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  3. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING NORTH IN CROSS HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  4. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 GENERAL VIEW OF REAR OF MAIN HALL - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  5. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT OF ENTRANCE HALL (GENERAL VIEW) - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  6. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW IN FRONT OF MAIN HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  7. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 EAST END OF HALL, SECOND FLOOR (GENERAL VIEW) - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE PORTICO - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 FRONT (WEST) ELEVATION FROM SOUTH WEST - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  10. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 PILASTER AND COLUMNS ON NORTH END BALCONY - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  11. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 MANTEL ON SOUTH WALL OF PARLOR - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  12. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 STAIR ON SOUTH WALL OF HALL - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  13. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 DOORWAY BETWEEN LIVING ROOM AND DINING ROOM (WEST SIDE OF HOUSE) - Thomas W. White House, 461 Eustis Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 HALL AND STAIRS, EAST SIDE OF HALL, SHOWING REAR DOOR - Thomas W. White House, 461 Eustis Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH SIDE SLAVE QUARTERS AND OLD KITCHEN - Thomas W. White House, 461 Eustis Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 MANTEL IN NORTH END OF HALL OR LIVING ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - David Wade House, Bob Wade Lane, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 MANTEL IN LIVING ROOM, N. W. ROOM ON FIRST FLOOR - Thomas W. White House, 461 Eustis Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON WEST WALL N.W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  19. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL AND WINDOWS ON EAST WALL OF N.E. FRONT ROOM - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  20. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING SOUTH EAST AT OLD STORE - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  1. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ELEVATION - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT AND WEST ELEVATION FROM N. W. - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  3. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 SOUTH END OF HALL (GENERAL VIEW) - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  4. Fluid flow and mud volcanism in the Eastern Mediterranean incipient collision zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitter, T. A. C.; Woodside, J. M.; Mascle, J.

    2003-04-01

    Fluid venting activity, either coupled with mud volcanism or along deep active faults or both, has been investigated in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, mainly in two areas associated with the incipient collision process between Africa and Eurasia. Mud volcanoes are abundant on the crestal part of the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary prism, in association with thrusts, back-thrusts and transcurrent features. They are also found in the Anaximander Mountains/Florence Rise area, to the west of Cyprus, where a wrench system accommodates the pre-collisional deformation. Combined swath multibeam bathymetry and imagery, seismic profiling (ANAXIPROBE survey, 1995 and PRISMED II survey, 1998) and O.R.E.Tech sidescan sonar data (MEDINETH survey, 1999) indicate the genetic relationship between mud volcanoes and tectonics, particularly potential influence of strike-slip faulting. The in situ observations of mud volcanoes (MEDINAUT survey, 1998) have revealed common characteristics at cold seeps, such as carbonate crust constructions and specific chemosynthetic-based fauna. Ground-truth of the sonar data shows that the geophysical signature of mud volcanoes may be related to spatial and temporal evolution of mud volcanism activity, because the seafloor characteristics (surface of the mud flows, distribution and nature of the crusts) and the degree of colonization by benthic fauna vary with the intensity and age of the fluid seepage. Moreover, clay mineralogy studies on the mud matrix samples give insights into the depositional environment, age, and depth of the lithological unit from which the mud breccia is extruded. The shallow signature of the mud reservoir tends to indicate that the overpressured fluids originate from deeper strata than the solid phase of the expelled material.

  5. Predicting mud toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bleler, R. )

    1991-10-01

    Acute toxicity of drilling muds is measured in the U.S. by the mysid shrimp test. Drilling muds that fail the test cannot be discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, and such muds and their cuttings must be brought onshore for disposal. Discharge of water-based muds that pass the test is permitted in most instances. Because of the economic implications associated with hauling cuttings and fluids, a model that predicts test results on the basis of mud composition is clearly desirable. This paper focuses on the modeling of mysid shrimp test data. European laboratories use different test species and procedures. It seems plausible to expect, however, that the line of reasoning used here could apply to the modeling of aquatic data on other test species once a sufficient quantity of such data becomes available.

  6. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  7. Throttling mud choke apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Claycomb, J.R.

    1983-03-22

    Mud choke apparatus is disclosed, and the preferred embodiment has the form of a hollow, tubular body receiving a mud flow introduced from a lateral port, the flow being directed through an axial passage and past a valve seat. The valve seat is a replaceable, hardened metal liner and is formed with a gradual taper so that the mud flows from the large end through the tapered, smaller end. Thereafter, it flows out of the body through an axial opening. The flow of mud is throttled by a tapered, hardened plug serving as a valve element which is received into the valve seat. A hydraulic cylinder and piston with a connecting rod move the plug. The plug has a surrounding, perpendicular shoulder which seals and seats against a shoulder on the insert to fully close the throttling valve apparatus. Flow is choked by inserting the tapered plug with controlled clearance into the tapered valve seat.

  8. Nicaraguan Volcanoes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Nicaraguan Volcanoes     View Larger Image Nicaraguan volcanoes, February 26, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... February 26, 2000 - Plumes from the San Cristobal and Masaya volcanoes. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  9. Mud volcanism at the Manihiki-Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorf, H. )

    1990-06-01

    In February 1987 a complex of mud volcanoes was discovered on the northeastern edge of the Manihiki-Plateau during a cruise of R/V MOANA WAVE. Forty out of about 100 cones coalesce to form an edifice about 25 km in diameter, 1,900 m high, rising from a plateau depth of 3,200 m. SeaMARC II side-scan images suggest radial fluid sediment flow from the center of this feature. Recent foraminiferal ooze was cored from a satellite cone. One dredge haul from the summit of the edifice recovered burrowed limestone with embedded Middle Eocene foraminifera. It suggests that parts of the sedimentary basement cover of the Manihiki Plateau have been mobilized together with pore fluids and moved upward. The causes of the movement as well as its mechanism, however, remain unknown because of the lack of direct measurements. There is a likelihood that overpressured methane, generated from organic carbon-rich sediments, acts as driving force. Therefore, BGR submitted a proposal to the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) to investigate the mud volcano complex and reference area with the most relevant outcropping sedimentary sequence of the northeastern Manihiki Plateau in detail. The preliminary results from these investigations carried out with R/V SONNE in spring of 1990 are presented.

  10. Mud Volcanism and Fluid Venting In The Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Observations From Sidescan Sonar and Submersible Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitter, T. A. C.; Huguen, C.; Woodside, J. M.; Mascle, J.; Scientific Party, Medineth/Medinaut

    Mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea have been identified by their distinctive acoustic signature as well as their morphology and sedimentology. They appear as circular regions of high backscatter believed to be caused principally by the clast content of the mud flows forming the mud volcano. Both the MEDINAUT and MEDINETH expeditions, conducted in 1998 and 1999 over two mud fields, the Olimpi field and the Anaximander Mountains area, in Eastern Mediterranean Sea, studied mud volcanism using a multidisciplinary approach in order to determine the relationships between the activity of the mud volcanoes (importance of degassing, associated fauna) and their geophysical signature. Mud volcanoes in Eastern Mediterranean Sea vary from conical and dome-shaped reliefs from 500m to 2km wide and 100 to 200m high to large "mud pie" types up to 6km wide. Sidescan sonar records give a very high resolution of the acoustic response, enabling to distinguish several mud flows, often flowing along tectonic lineations. A clear relationship between the occurrence of mud volcanism and cold seeps and both thrust and transcurrent faulting has been observed in both mud fields, although the tectonic settings vary from purely compressional to a more transpressional stress field. The faults are inferred to provide pathways for over- pressured fluids, and secondary faulting (transcurrent and extensional faults) may facilitate mud ascension. On the basis of sidescan sonar interpretation, other typical features have been inferred such as main feeder channels, eruptive cone centers, or brine pools. The in situ observations have been used to characterize the seafloor over numerous mud volcanoes and ground-truth the sonar data. They reveal an abundance of fluid seeps, mainly methane and methane-rich brines, as well as associated specific fauna such as tube worms, clams and chemosynthetic bacteria, and specific diagenetic phenomenon i.e. carbonate crusts. Video observations proved that

  11. Subsurface fluid distribution and possible seismic precursory signal at the Salse di Nirano mud volcanic field, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Matteo; Ricci, Barbara Suski; Kenkel, Johannes; Ricci, Tullio; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Stephen A.; Kemna, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological systems often characterized by elevated fluid pressures at depth deviating from hydrostatic conditions. This near-critical state makes mud volcanoes particularly sensitive to external forcing induced by natural or man-made perturbations. We used the Nirano mud volcanic field as a natural laboratory to test pre- and post-seismic effects generated by distant earthquakes. We first characterized the subsurface structure of the Nirano mud volcanic field with a geoelectrical study. Next, we deployed a broad-band seismic station in the area to understand the typical seismic signal generated by the mud volcano. Seismic records show a background noise below 2 s, sometimes interrupted by pulses of drumbeat-like high-frequency signals lasting from several minutes to hours. To date this is the first observation of drumbeat signal observed in mud volcanoes. In 2013 June we recorded a M4.7 earthquake, that occurred approximately 60 km far from our seismic station. According to empirical estimations the Nirano mud volcanic field should not have been affected by the M4.7 earthquake. Yet, before the seismic event we recorded an increasing amplitude of the signal in the 10-20 Hz frequency band. The signal emerged approximately two hours before the earthquake and lasted for about three hours. Our statistical analysis suggests the presence of a possible precursory signal about 10 min before the earthquake.

  12. Mud Volcanism in the South East Caspian, Gorgon Plane, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Poludetkina, E. N.; Mehrabi, B.; Krueger, M.; Inguaggiato, S.; Etiope, G.

    2014-12-01

    Although numerous studies have been completed on the Western Caspian side (e.g. mainly Azerbaijan), very little is known about the hydrocarbon plumbing system of the deepest and southernmost basin. This region has great potentials for hydrocarbon exploration and the study of mud volcanoes located here represents the opportunity to access to an open window to better understand the stratigraphy and the mechanisms ongoing at great depth as well as the origin and signature of the seeping fluids. Three so far unexplored mud volcano structures (Sofikam, Gharniarigh, and Naftliche) have been mapped and sampled in the Golestan region in the south eastern Caspian Sea. All the structures have negative morphology (i.e. "pockmark like") with caldera collapse. A multidisciplinary workflow of analyses is being conducted including gas and water geochemistry, incubation of microbial colonies, petrography of the seeping mud and erupted mud breccia clasts. Sofikam consists of 5 distinct pools up to 4-5 m in diameter that forms an E-W oriented alignment. All of the pools display vigorous seepage of fluids and are either water- or denser mud-dominated. Gharniarigh is a large mud volcano up to ~600 m in diameter with a bulging island in the internal part of the crater where eroded gryphons ridges witness a palaeo vigorous activity. The outskirts of the "island" are almost entirely flooded with water and/or covered with salt crusts in the summer. Here are distributed several small water and gas seeps. Naftliche (~400 m wide) is filled with water with a main seep in the centre of the lake. Preliminary gas geochemistry indicates the seepage of methane-dominated gas in all structures with additional small portions of ethane and propane as well as iC4 in Gharniarigh and Naftliche. All samples collected for microbial colonies incubation reveal strong activity with CO2 production under aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as production of biogenic methane. In particular, samples from

  13. Evidence for Basinwide Mud Volcanism in Acidalia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2010-01-01

    High-albedo mounds in Acidalia Planitia occur in enormous numbers. They have been variously interpreted as pseudocraters, cinder cones, tuff cones, pingos, ice disintegration features, or mud volcanoes. Our work uses regional mapping, basin analysis, and new data from the Context Camera (CTX), High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), and Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to re-assess the origin and significance of these structures.

  14. OD-ing on Reality: An Interview with Alex Flinn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri S.

    2005-01-01

    Alex Flinn discusses her debut novel, Breathing Underwater, which received much critical acclaim. She absolutely felt like her second book was being compared to Breathing Underwater at first. Breaking Point (which was completed before Breathing Underwater was published) was very different in tone. It was darker. The voice was different. The ending…

  15. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 30, 1936 (WEST SIDE) VIEW LOOKING S.E. SHOWING 'DOG RUN' WALL EXPOSED AFTER REMOVAL OF WEST HALF OF HOUSE - Adam Weaver Log House, U.S. Highway 72, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  16. The Revolutionary Vision in Alex La Guma's Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asein, Samuel Omo

    1978-01-01

    The pervasive note in Alex La Guma's novels is that of hope in the eventual overthrow of the oppressive regime in South Africa. La Guma's position is characterized by a strong belief in the close correspondence which should be maintained between literature and life, and by the pursuit of social justice. (Author/GC)

  17. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, 1935 LOOKING SOUTH IN CROSS HALL AT REAR OF MAIN HALL, SHOWING STONE ALTAR AND DOOR TORN OPEN BY THE FED. TROOPS DURING THE WAR - Colonel Goodloe House, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  18. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 27, 1935 OLD SLAVE KITCHEN N & W SIDE, (ICE HOUSE IN REAR LEFT, OLD WELL HOUSE IN FRONT OF KITCHEN, FACES N.) - Pitts' Folly, House & Outbuildings, State Highway 21, Uniontown, Perry County, AL

  19. Alex Haley: At Home in the Hills of East Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Ann

    1992-01-01

    An interview with Alex Haley six months before his death in February 1992 discusses his impressions of life in Appalachia; the media image of Appalachia; reminiscences of his hometown, Henning, Tennessee; race relations in Appalachia; and his plans for future books. Included are photographs and a eulogy from his funeral. (SV)

  20. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 SMOKE HOUSE AND DAIRY, W SIDE AND S END (SLAVE CABIN No. 2 IN SHEETS, W SIDE OF YARD) - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  1. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  2. MUD and Self Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kwan Min

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

  3. Chikurachki Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... plume from the April 22, 2003, eruption of the Chikurachki volcano is portrayed in these views from the Multi-angle Imaging ... the volcanically active Kuril Island group, the Chikurachki volcano is an active stratovolcano on Russia's Paramushir Island (just south of ...

  4. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  5. Lahar hazards at Mombacho Volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.

    2001-01-01

    Mombacho volcano, at 1,350 meters, is situated on the shores of Lake Nicaragua and about 12 kilometers south of Granada, a city of about 90,000 inhabitants. Many more people live a few kilometers southeast of Granada in 'las Isletas de Granada and the nearby 'Peninsula de Aseses. These areas are formed of deposits of a large debris avalanche (a fast moving avalanche of rock and debris) from Mombacho. Several smaller towns with population, in the range of 5,000 to 12,000 inhabitants are to the northwest and the southwest of Mombacho volcano. Though the volcano has apparently not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce landslides and debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris -- also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. -- Vallance, et.al., 2001

  6. On the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene in volcano exhausts.

    PubMed

    Ilnitsky, A P; Belitsky, G A; Shabad, L M

    1976-05-01

    The content of benzo(a)pyrene in the juvenile ashes of the volcano Tyatya (Kunashir Island, Kuriles) and in the soil, vegetation and volcanic mud collected near volcanos in Kamchatka was studied. It was concluded that volcanic activity does not play a large role in forming the background level of this carcinogen in the human environment. PMID:1016954

  7. Drilling mud dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P. A.; Brase, I. E.

    1985-05-21

    Dispersants useful in aqueous drilling mud formulations employed in the drilling of subterranean wells where high temperature and high pressure environments are encountered are disclosed. The dispersants, when used in amounts of about 0.1 to 25 ppb provide muds containing colloidal material suspended in an aqueous medium with improved high temperature and high pressure stability. The dispersants are water soluble sulfonated vinyl toluene-maleic anhydride copolymers which have a molar ratio of vinyl toluene to maleic anhydride of about 1:1 to less than about 2:1, a molecular weight of 1,000 to 25,000 and at least about 0.7 sulfonic acid groups per vinyl toluene unit.

  8. Dante's volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  9. Dante's Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

  10. Serpentinite mud volcanism: observations, processes, and implications.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Large serpentinite mud volcanoes form on the overriding plate of the Mariana subduction zone. Fluids from the descending plate hydrate (serpentinize) the forearc mantle and enable serpentinite muds to rise along faults to the seafloor. The seamounts are direct windows into subduction processes at depths far too deep to be accessed by any known technology. Fluid compositions vary with distance from the trench, signaling changes in chemical reactions as temperature and pressure increase. The parageneses of rocks in the mudflows permits us to constrain the physical conditions of the decollement region. If eruptive episodes are related to seismicity, seafloor observatories at these seamounts hold the potential to capture a subduction event and trace the effects of eruption on the biological communities that the slab fluids support, such as extremophile Archaea. The microorganisms that inhabit this high-pH, extreme environment support their growth by utilizing chemical constituents present in the slab fluids. Some researchers now contend that the serpentinization process itself may hold the key to the origin of life on Earth. PMID:22457979

  11. Serpentinite Mud Volcanism: Observations, Processes, and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Large serpentinite mud volcanoes form on the overriding plate of the Mariana subduction zone. Fluids from the descending plate hydrate (serpentinize) the forearc mantle and enable serpentinite muds to rise along faults to the seafloor. The seamounts are direct windows into subduction processes at depths far too deep to be accessed by any known technology. Fluid compositions vary with distance from the trench, signaling changes in chemical reactions as temperature and pressure increase. The parageneses of rocks in the mudflows permits us to constrain the physical conditions of the decollement region. If eruptive episodes are related to seismicity, seafloor observatories at these seamounts hold the potential to capture a subduction event and trace the effects of eruption on the biological communities that the slab fluids support, such as extremophile Archaea. The microorganisms that inhabit this high-pH, extreme environment support their growth by utilizing chemical constituents present in the slab fluids. Some researchers now contend that the serpentinization process itself may hold the key to the origin of life on Earth.

  12. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  13. Possible earthquake precursor and drumbeat signal detected at the Nirano Mud Volcanic Field, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Matteo; Suski Ricci, Barbara; Kenkel, Johannes; Ricci, Tullio; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Stephen A.; Kemna, Andreas; Conventi, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    We used the Nirano mud volcanic field as a natural laboratory to test pre- and post-seismic effects generated by distant earthquakes. Mud volcanoes are geological systems often characterized by elevated fluid pressures at depth deviating from hydrostatic conditions. This near-critical state makes mud volcanoes particularly sensitive to external forcing induced by natural or man-made perturbations. We first characterized the subsurface structure of the Nirano mud volcanic field with a geoelectrical study. Next, we deployed a broad-band seismic station to understand the typical seismic signal generated at depth. Seismic records show a background noise below 2 s, sometimes interrupted by pulses of drumbeat-like high-frequency signals lasting from several minutes to hours. Drumbeat signal was previously discovered in geysers and at magmatic volcanoes. To date this is the first observation of drumbeat signal observed in mud volcanoes. In 2013 June we recorded a M4.7 earthquake, that occurred approximately 60 km far from our seismic station. According to empirical estimations the Nirano mud volcanic field should not have been affected by the M4.7 earthquake. Yet, before the seismic event we recorded an increasing amplitude of the signal in the 10-20 Hz frequency band. The signal emerged approximately two hours before the earthquake and lasted for about three hours. We performed an analysis of the 95th percentile of the root mean square amplitude of the waveforms for the day of the earthquake. This statistical analysis suggests the presence of a possible precursory signal about 10 minutes before the earthquake indicating the occurrence of enhanced fluid flow in the subsurface that may be related to pressure build up in the preparation zone of the earthquake.

  14. Spreading Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, Andrea; Delaney, Paul T.; Denlinger, Roger P.

    As volcanoes grow, they become ever heavier. Unlike mountains exhumed by erosion of rocks that generally were lithified at depth, volcanoes typically are built of poorly consolidated rocks that may be further weakened by hydrothermal alteration. The substrates upon which volcanoes rest, moreover, are often sediments lithified by no more than the weight of the volcanic overburden. It is not surprising, therefore, that volcanic deformation includes-and in the long term is often dominated by-spreading motions that translate subsidence near volcanic summits to outward horizontal displacements around the flanks and peripheries. We review examples of volcanic spreading and go on to derive approximate expressions for the time volcanoes require to deform by spreading on weak substrates. We also demonstrate that shear stresses that drive low-angle thrust faulting from beneath volcanic constructs have maxima at volcanic peripheries, just where such faults are seen to emerge. Finally, we establish a theoretical basis for experimentally derived scalings that delineate volcanoes that spread from those that do not.

  15. Spreading volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borgia, A.; Delaney, P.T.; Denlinger, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    As volcanoes grow, they become ever heavier. Unlike mountains exhumed by erosion of rocks that generally were lithified at depth, volcanoes typically are built of poorly consolidated rocks that may be further weakened by hydrothermal alteration. The substrates upon which volcanoes rest, moreover, are often sediments lithified by no more than the weight of the volcanic overburden. It is not surprising, therefore, that volcanic deformation includes-and in the long term is often dominated by-spreading motions that translate subsidence near volcanic summits to outward horizontal displacements around the flanks and peripheries. We review examples of volcanic spreading and go on to derive approximate expressions for the time volcanoes require to deform by spreading on weak substrates. We also demonstrate that shear stresses that drive low-angle thrust faulting from beneath volcanic constructs have maxima at volcanic peripheries, just where such faults are seen to emerge. Finally, we establish a theoretical basis for experimentally derived scalings that delineate volcanoes that spread from those that do not.

  16. Source evolution and longevity of the Lusi mud eruption, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Shirzaei, M.; Manga, M.; Fukushima, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The ongoing eruption of the Lusi mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia), which began on May 29, 2006, has displaced more than 60,000 people and cost billions of US dollars in economic losses. We measured ground deformation near Lusi using interferometric processing of 46 L-band synthetic aperture radar images acquired by the ALOS satellite between 2006 and 2011. We analyzed the ground deformation using principal component analysis (PCA) and found that the dominant spatial mode of ground deformation is decreasing exponentially in amplitude with a timescale of 2.1+0.5-0.3 years, implying that the eruption rate will decrease by an order of magnitude, to less than 1000 m3/day, by 2016±1 year, much sooner than previously anticipated (Istadi et al. 2009, Davies et al. 2011, Rudolph et al. 2011). We also modeled the observed ground deformation to determine the mud chamber radius and pressure time history subject to geologic constraints on depth and thickness. The co-evolution of the mud chamber geometry and pressure suggest progressive mobilization of mud during the eruption, a process analogous to one that may occur in large explosive silicic volcanic eruptions.

  17. The Mud Center: Recapturing Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Becky J.; Bullard, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Montana child development center's creation of an area in which children could enjoy messy, creative, sensory experiences playing with mud and a wide variety of outdoor props. Discusses how mud play contributed to young children's emerging interests and provided opportunities for expressing creativity, enhancing fine motor skills, and…

  18. Influence of seismicity on the Lusi mud eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael; Tingay, Mark; Davies, Richard J.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes trigger the eruption of mud and magmatic volcanoes and influence ongoing eruptive activity. One mechanism that could trigger an eruption is clay liquefaction. Here we model the propagation of seismic waves beneath the Lusi mud eruption (East Java, Indonesia) using available seismic velocity and density models to assess the effect of subsurface structure on the amplification of incident seismic waves. We find that using an updated subsurface density and velocity structure, there is no significant amplification of incident seismic energy in the Upper Kalibeng Formation, the source of the erupting solids. Hence, the hypothesis that the Lusi eruption was triggered by clay liquefaction appears unlikely to be correct. Independent constraints from gas chemistry as well as analyses of drilling activities at the nearby Banjar-Panji 1 gas exploration well and an analysis of the effects of other earthquakes all favor a drilling trigger.

  19. Chilean Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On the border between Chile and the Catamarca province of Argentina lies a vast field of currently dormant volcanoes. Over time, these volcanoes have laid down a crust of magma roughly 2 miles (3.5 km) thick. It is tinged with a patina of various colors that can indicate both the age and mineral content of the original lava flows. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 15, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  20. Iceland Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-23

    ... of which are so thick that they block the penetration of light from CALIPSO's lidar to the surface. The yellow layer near the surface over France is believed to be primarily air pollution, but could also contain ash from the volcano. Highlighting its ...

  1. Smart mud and sensitive enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1993-04-19

    Environmental legislation is increasingly preventing use of oil base mud. Most recently, Marathon Oil U.K. Ltd. won a U.K. production license that specified oil base mud cannot be used on the license blocks. The goal is to protect sea-birds. Unfortunately, water base mud, the green' alternative, does not have a performance to match oil base mud. But an Aberdeen chemist thinks he has found the answer with Smart Mud, an emulsion drilling mud that becomes water soluble as soon as it hits the sea. Smart Mud passed the laboratory test stage and is ready for field trials this year. Another researcher is using enzymes and organisms to detect gases that are hard to monitor and cause problems for the oil and gas industry: phenol vapors, methane, and sulfur and nitrous oxides. The methane sensor, for example, uses methanotrophic organisms. They metabolize methane, producing chemicals that can be detected by electrochemical sensors, which relay signals to instruments. Enzymes perform a similar task for phenol and oxide detection. The main problem is to keep the biosensors alive and detect their by-products, while maintaining contact with the toxic gases. To do this, the team invented a polymer matrix in which the biosensors can live.

  2. A Dance Class, a Drag King, & the Pedagogical Possibilities of Performative Hip-Hop: An Interview with Carmen Morrison & Alex U. Inn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schönfeldt-Aultman, Scott M.; Morrison, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Alex U. Inn is the co-founder and one of the two MCs of the hip-hop drag king group, Momma's Boyz. Momma's Boyz celebrated their tenth anniversary in 2014. Carmen Morrison is the offstage name of Alex U. Inn, though "Carmen" now goes by Alex offstage, as well. Within this interview, the names "Carmen" and "Alex" are…

  3. Santorini Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druitt, T.H.; Edwards, L.; Mellors, R.M.; Pyle, D.M.; Sparks, R.S.J.; Lanphere, M.; Davies, M.; Barreirio, B.

    1999-01-01

    Santorini is one of the most spectacular caldera volcanoes in the world. It has been the focus of significant scientific and scholastic interest because of the great Bronze Age explosive eruption that buried the Minoan town of Akrotiri. Santorini is still active. It has been dormant since 1950, but there have been several substantial historic eruptions. Because of this potential risk to life, both for the indigenous population and for the large number of tourists who visit it, Santorini has been designated one of five European Laboratory Volcanoes by the European Commission. Santorini has long fascinated geologists, with some important early work on volcanoes being conducted there. Since 1980, research groups at Cambridge University, and later at the University of Bristol and Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, have collected a large amount of data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, geochronology and petrology of the volcanics. The volcanic field has been remapped at a scale of 1:10 000. A remarkable picture of cyclic volcanic activity and magmatic evolution has emerged from this work. Much of this work has remained unpublished until now. This Memoir synthesizes for the first time all the data from the Cambridge/Bristol/Clermont groups, and integrates published data from other research groups. It provides the latest interpretation of the tectonic and magmatic evolution of Santorini. It is accompanied by the new 1:10 000 full-colour geological map of the island.

  4. Geochemical surveys in the Lusi mud eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Etiope, Giuseppe; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Hussein, Alwi; Hadi J., Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake striking the Java Island. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we carried out geochemical surveys in the Sidoarjo district (Eastern Java Island, Indonesia) to investigate the gas bearing properties of the Watukosek fault system that crosses the Lusi mud eruption area. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, CH4) concentration and flux measurements were performed 1) along two detailed profiles (~ 1km long), trending almost W-E direction, and 2) inside the Lusi embankment (about 7 km2) built to contain the erupted mud. Higher gas concentrations and fluxes were detected at the intersection with the Watukosek fault and the antithetic fault system. These zones characterized by the association of higher soil gas values constitute preferential migration pathways for fluids towards surface. The fractures release mainly CO2 (with peaks up to 400 g/m2day) and display higher temperatures (up to 41°C). The main shear zones are populated by numerous seeps that expel mostly CH4. Flux measurements in the seeping pools reveal that φCO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that measured in the fractures, and two orders of magnitude higher for φCH4. An additional geochemical profile was completed perpendicularly to the Watukosek fault escarpement (W-E direction) at the foots of the Penanngungang volcano. Results reveal CO2 and CH4 flux values significantly lower than those measured in the embankment, however an increase of radon and flux measurements is observed approaching the foots of the escarpment. These measurements are complemented with a database of ~350 CH4 and CO2 flux measurements and some soil gas concentrations (He, H2, CO2, CH4 and C2H6) and their isotopic analyses (δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 and δ13C-CO2). Results show that the whole area is characterized by diffused gas release through seeps, fractures, microfractures and soil degassing. The collected results shed light on the origin of the

  5. About Interaction Of Mud Volcanism, Seismicity And Oil-Gas-Content Of The Interior Of The Earth (Following The Example Of The South Caspian Depression)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadov, M. A.

    2003-04-01

    Complex study of mud volcanoes study, seismicity and oil-gas content being different problems in separate, represent inestimable scientific and practical significance. Though mud volcanoes earthquakes and oil-gas-content in the space-deep distribution in the earth crust is of sporadic nature, but between them there exist certain interrelation. It is established that mud volcanoes are spread around globe irregular, most of which are located in regions, confined mainly to the geographic latitude 25-45^o, i.e. intensively developed processes of tectogenesis of areas in particular, Alpine fold zone and Central Asian mobile belt; among 700 known mud volcanoes established in 20 oil-gas bearing areas of the world most part of them (52%) are located in the South Caspian Depression (SCD), at the same time most of them are confined to the onshore Shamakha-Gobystan region and south-west of Absheron where depression zone are mainly composed of clayey, molasses formations. In the eastward off Shamakha-Gobystan area toward the central part of SCD where there increases thickness and depths of occurrence of Cenozoic deposits (to 15 km) and decreases the number of acting and extinct mud volcanoes, there is suggested an increase of a number of buried volcanoes and oil-gas bearing structures associated with them. It had been revealed, that in space-deep change of mud volcanism and seismicity of SCD there exist direct association; to zones with a most number of volcanoes there correspond zones with a most number of earthquakes that is clearly seen from the nature of areas change related to each one of these manifestations. It is observed, that within areas of all various mud volcanoes (acting, extinct buried) in particular SCD, mud volcanism, seismicity and oil-gas-content are interrelated; oil-gas-content is located on anticlinal tectonic zones, and mud volcanoes caused by earthquake are confined to them. Their manifestation is accounted for local elastic geology-tectonic stresses

  6. Nyiragonga Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the Nyiragonga volcano eruption in the Congo was acquired on January 28, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: A river of molten rock poured from the Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo on January 18, 2002, a day after it erupted, killing dozens, swallowing buildings and forcing hundreds of thousands to flee the town of Goma. The flow continued into Lake Kivu. The lave flows are depicted in red on the image indicating they are still hot. Two of them flowed south form the volcano's summit and went through the town of Goma. Another flow can be seen at the top of the image, flowing towards the northwest. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 killed 50 to 100 people, and several villages were destroyed. The image covers an area of 21 x 24 km and combines a thermal band in red, and two infrared bands in green and blue.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the

  7. Salt tectonics and mud volcanism in the Latakia and Cyprus Basins, eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübscher, C.; Tahchi, E.; Klaucke, I.; Maillard, A.; Sahling, H.

    2009-05-01

    Salt tectonics and mud volcanism in the Latakia and Cyprus Basin, eastern Mediterranean, is investigated by means of swath sounding, reflection seismics and side-scan data as well as by camera and video sledge observations. Both basins are located east of Cyprus and are associated with the collision front between the African and Anatolian plate. The Pliocene-Quaternary sediment succession is underlain by up to 1 km thick Messinian evaporites. Both thick-skinned plate tectonic and thin-skinned salt tectonic control fluid dynamics and associated mud volcanism in the Latakia and Cyprus Basin as well as at the Troodos Latacia Culmination, which separates both basins. An end-member model is proposed which explains the presence of elongated topographic highs and trenches along the Troodos Larnaca Culmination and south of it by gravity gliding of the Messinian evaporites and associated fluid migration. Thin-skinned extension in the Troodos Larnaca Culmination and boudinage, respectively, facilitate fluid flow through and out of the evaporites. The fluid or mud flow dissolutes the salt layer and creates elongated trenches. Mud intrudes into the Pliocene-Quaternary sediments above the trenches. Consequently, the overburden is thickened and forms morphological ridges. South of the culmination the evaporites and overburden are folded due to thin-skinned shortening of the evaporites. In one instance fluid extrusion out of the evaporites is inferred from seismic data interpretation. The outflow caused a volume reduction and collapse of the evaporites. Mud volcanoes and fold anticlines align above deep-rooted transpressional fault systems which are associated with the African-Anatolian collision zone. The faults may act as conduits for rising fluids. In the western part of the survey area, where the Cyprus Arc strikes almost West-East and the collision occurred more frontal and stress was highest, mud volcanoes emerged. Further to the east, where the Cyprus Arc runs SW-NE and

  8. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud...

  9. Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Drilling Muds

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Takeyoshi; Yoshii, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Kohzo

    2007-02-02

    Drilling muds are made of bentonite and other clays, and/or polymers, mixed with water to the desired viscosity. Without the drilling muds, corporations could not drill for oil and gas and we would have hardly any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. There are hundreds of drilling muds used and some kinds of drilling muds contain chromium. The chemical states of chromium in muds have been studied carefully due to concerns about the environmental influence. However it is difficult to determine the chemical state of chromium in drilling muds directly by conventional analytical methods. We have studied the chemical form of chromium in drilling muds by using a laboratory XAFS system and a synchrotron facility.

  10. A Behavioral Look at the Training of Alex: A Review of Pepperberg's "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Bruce E.; Potter, Bill

    2004-01-01

    "The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots" by Irene Pepperberg is reviewed from a behavior analytic orientation. The results of the majority of her experiments are discussed in terms drawn from the general literature of behavior analysis and Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior. We conclude that she has provided…

  11. A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Henry, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

  12. Focus: alien volcanos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly

    2007-03-01

    Part 1: Volcanoes on Earth - blowing their top; Part 2: Volcanoes of the inner Solar System - dead or alive: the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus; Part 3: Volcanoes of the outer Solar System - fire and ice: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Miranda, Titan, Triton, Enceladus.

  13. Lahar Hazards at Concepción volcano, Nicaragua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Concepción is one of Nicaragua’s highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical cone occupies the northeastern half of a dumbbell shaped island called Isla Ometepa. The dormant volcano, Maderas, occupies the southwest half of the island. A narrow isthmus connects Concepción and Maderas volcanoes. Concepción volcano towers more than 1600 m above Lake Nicaragua and is within 5 to 10 km of several small towns situated on its aprons at or near the shoreline. These towns have a combined population of nearly 5,000. The volcano has frequently produced debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. Concepción volcano has erupted more than 25 times in the last 120 years. Its first recorded activity was in AD 1883. Eruptions in the past century, most of which have originated from a small summit crater, comprise moderate explosions, ash that falls out of eruption plumes (called tephra), and occasional lava flows. Near the summit area, there are accumulations of rock that were emplaced hot (pyroclastic deposits), most of which were hot enough to stick together during deposition (a process called welding). These pyroclastic rocks are rather weak, and tend to break apart easily. The loose volcanic rock remobilizes during heavy rain to form lahars. Volcanic explosions have produced blankets of tephra that are distributed downwind, which on Isla Ometepe is mostly to the west. Older deposits at the west end of the island that are up to 1 m thick indicate larger explosive events have happened at Concepción volcano in prehistoric time. Like pyroclastic-flow deposits, loose tephra on the steep slopes of the volcano provides source material that heavy rainstorms and earthquakes can mobilize to trigger debris flow.

  14. Volcano seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  15. Electrodewatering of Bayer muds - Laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, E.G.; McIntosh, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Research was conducted by the Bureau of Mines to determine the feasibility of using electrokinetic densification to dewater Bayer process red mud, magnetic black and prepared by pressure digestion of red mud in the presence of ferrous sulfate, and magnetic black mud formed by simulated Bayer digestion of Jamaican bauxite with added ferrours sulfate. Tests showed that the solids content of presettled muds could be increased from 25 pct to approximately 40 to 48 pct by gravity draining followed by electrodewatering for approximately 48 h. Electrodewatering may not be practical because of increased reagent and processing costs and because the muds must be thoroughly wasted prior to electrodwatering to remove dissolved ions and decrease mud conductivities.

  16. Saltwater and hard water bentonite mud

    SciTech Connect

    Pabley, A. S.

    1985-02-19

    A seawater/saltwater or hard water bentonite mud for use in drilling, and process for preparing same, comprising sequentially adding to seawater, to saltwater of a chloride concentration up to saturation, or hard water: a caustic agent; a filtration control agent; and bentonite. The resultant drilling mud meets API standards for viscosity and water loss, and is stable after aging and at tempertures in excess of 100/sup 0/ c. In another embodiment, the additives are premixed as dry ingredients and hydrated with seawater, saltwater or hard water. Unlike other bentonite drilling muds, the muds of this invention require no fresh water in their preparation, which makes them particularly useful at off-shore and remote on-shore drilling locations. The muds of this invention using bentonite further require less clay than known saltwater muds made with attapulgite, and provides superior filtration control, viscosity and stability.

  17. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  18. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  19. High temperature drilling mud composition

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, W.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a composition having improved rheological properties and improved stability at high temperatures and pressure for use in a water-based drilling mud comprising a high-yield bentonite, a low-yield bentonite and leonardite, wherein the weight ratio of the high-yield bentonite to the low-yield bentonites in the range of about 10:1 to about 1:1, and the leonardite is present in the amount of about 0.1% to 1.0% by total dry weight of the composition.

  20. Field applications of PHPA muds

    SciTech Connect

    Kadaster, A.G. ); Guild, G.J. Exploration Co., London ); Hanni, G.L. ); Schmidt, D.D. )

    1992-09-01

    Mud systems with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer (PHPA) are used worldwide and have proved effective and versatile for inhibiting troublesome shale formations. This paper reports that the authors made significant changes in the generally recommended compositions for these systems and developed a systematic approach to applying them. The most significant changes are the constant maintenance of 1.0 lbm/bbl (2.9 kg/m{sup 3}) PHPA (active) on the basis of materials balance and the supplemental addition of PHPA to account for its loss and degradation, tightly controlled fluid loss, and selective use of seawater and NaCl for inhibition.

  1. Volcanoes: Nature's Caldrons Challenge Geochemists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurer, Pamela S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews various topics and research studies on the geology of volcanoes. Areas examined include volcanoes and weather, plate margins, origins of magma, magma evolution, United States Geological Survey (USGS) volcano hazards program, USGS volcano observatories, volcanic gases, potassium-argon dating activities, and volcano monitoring strategies.…

  2. Galactic Super Volcano Similar to Iceland Volcano

    NASA Video Gallery

    This composite image from NASAs Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio data from the Very Large Array shows a cosmic volcano being driven by a black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. This eruptio...

  3. Mud volcanism as an indicator of late to neopleistocene-holocene activity of the Chilik-Kemin fault, Yli depression, Northern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deev, E. V.; Kokh, S. N.; Sokol, E. V.; Zol'nikov, I. D.; Panov, V. S.

    2014-11-01

    It is revealed that the Altyn-Emel mud volcanic field (43°52'56″ N, 79°06'31″ E) in the Yli depression (Dzharkent trough) is structurally linked to the northeastern end of the Chilik-Kemin deep fault. The mud volcano is related to hydrocarbon-rich gases (including methane) and pressure artesian mineralized thermal waters, which uplifted to the surface along the fault zone. It is suggested that the earthquakes with M≤ 5 related both to the Chilik-Kemin fault and other seismic generating structures intensified the mud volcanic activity. In some cases, the eruptions were accompanied by the short-lived ignition of hydrocarbon gases and formation of the Na-rich paralavas. The mud volcanism of the Altyn-Emel field has been manifested during the last 15-20 k.a., and, consequently, the northeastern part of the Chilik-Kemin fault is an active structure.

  4. Numerical simulation of mud erosion rate in sand-mud alternate layer and comparison with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Oyama, H.; Sato, T.

    2015-12-01

    For gas production from methane hydrates in sand-mud alternate layers, depressurization method is expected as feasible. After methane hydrate is dissociated, gas and water flow in pore space. There is a concern about the erosion of mud surface and it may result in flow blockage that disturbs the gas production. As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we developed a numerical simulation of water-induced mud erosion in pore-scale sand-mud domains to model such mud erosion. The size of which is of the order of 100 micro meter. Water flow is simulated using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and mud surface is treated as solid boundary with arbitrary shape, which changes with time. Periodic boundary condition is adopted at the domain boundaries, except for the surface of mud layers and the upper side. Shear stress acting on the mud surface is calculated using a momentum-exchange method. Mud layer is eroded when the shear stress exceeds a threshold coined a critical shear stress. In this study, we compared the simulated mud erosion rate with experimental data acquired from an experiment using artificial sand-mud core. As a result, the simulated erosion rate agrees well with that of the experiment.

  5. Kelly mud saver valve sub

    SciTech Connect

    Reddoch, J.A.

    1986-12-02

    A mud saver valve is described for preventing drilling mud from escaping from a kelly when a drill string is broken below the kelly, the valve comprising: a tubular valve body having first and second ends, the first end being provided with means for attachment in fluid communicating relationship with the kelly, the second end being provided with means for attachment to the drill string; an annular seat fixed in the interior of the valve body adjacent its first end; a tubular closure member within the valve body. The closure member is provided with a selectively closed seating end for seating in valve closing engagement with the annular seat, an open non-seating end in fluid communicating relationship with the drill string, and an annular expansion in the outer diameter of the closure member adjacent the seating end; a top and bottom spacer ring disposed in sliding relationship around the tubular closure member intermediate the annular expansion and the non-seating end of the closure member. The spacer ring and annular expansion cooperatively define an annular chamber around the closure member; and a helical spring disposed around the closure member towards the annular seat.

  6. Teaching Ecological Interactions with Mud Dauber Nests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mud dauber wasp nests in laboratory activities in ecology and behavior and life science classes. Provides students with an opportunity to develop and practice basic skills including dissection, identification, observation, measurement, and communication. Discusses the life of mud daubers, obtaining and storing nests,…

  7. Translating English Compound Verbs into German. An Investigation Based on Alex Haley's "Roots/Wurzeln."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hullen, Werner

    Compound verbs such as "stage-manage" and "curry-comb," taken from Alex Haley's novel "Roots," are compared to their equivalents in the German version of the book. In most cases, one of three strategies is used for translation: (1) using a non-compound semantic equivalent, (2) constructing an expression that coincides with the syntagma underlying…

  8. The Volcano Adventure Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser

    2005-05-01

    Adventure travels to volcanoes offer chance encounters with danger, excitement, and romance, plus opportunities to experience scientific enlightenment and culture. To witness a violently erupting volcano and its resulting impacts on landscape, climate, and humanity is a powerful personal encounter with gigantic planetary forces. To study volcano processes and products during eruptions is to walk in the footsteps of Pliny himself. To tour the splendors and horrors of 25 preeminent volcanoes might be the experience of a lifetime, for scientists and nonscientists alike. In The Volcano Adventure Guide, we now have the ultimate tourist volume to lead us safely to many of the world's famous volcanoes and to ensure that we will see the important sites at each one.

  9. Factors controlling mud accumulation in the Heuksan mud belt off southwestern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Ha, Hun Jun; Chun, Seung Soo

    2015-12-01

    The Heuksan mud belt (hereafter HMB) is 20~50 km wide, ~200 km long, and ~50 m thick, having accumulated in the course of the Holocene transgression on the tide-dominated epicontinental shelf southwest of Korea. The internal architecture of the HMB is characterized by offshore prograding clinoforms. Of particular interest are the depositional processes responsible for this anomalously thick mud accumulation within a relatively short period of time. Tidal currents are important in the dispersal of mud in the HMB, although these alone cannot explain such an enormous mud deposit. In order to understand the formative processes of the HMB, a detailed sedimentary facies analysis, including high-resolution grain-size measurements, has been conducted on more than 30 short cores and three long drill cores recovered from the mud belt. Five major mud facies were identified. Of these, mud sequences showing a thickening-thinning trend of alternating silt and clay laminae suggestive of a tidal origin occur dominantly at inner to mid shelf locations. By contrast, internally structureless muds with sharp bases and no bioturbation, which are interpreted of representing fluid-mud deposits, are widespread at mid to outer shelf locations. Wave-generated mud ripples and storm beds on the inner shelf suggest that storm waves in winter resuspend previously deposited mud to form near-bed fluid-mud suspensions with resulting gravity-driven mud transport across the low-gradient outer shelf. This previously not recognized process is probably a major factor controlling depositional processes on the giant mud belt, enabling rapid accumulation and offshore progradation even during transgression, i.e., at times of sea-level rise.

  10. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

  11. A facial mask comprising Dead Sea mud.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A

    2006-01-01

    Many investigators have proved that Dead Sea salt and mud are useful in treating skin disorders and skin diseases. Therefore, the black mud has been extensively used as a base for the preparation of soaps, creams, and unguents for skin care. This study concerns a facial mask made mainly of Dead Sea mud. The effects of temperature and shearing conditions on the rheological behavior of the facial mask were investigated. The mud facial mask exhibited a shear thinning behavior with a yield stress. It was found that the apparent viscosity of the mask has a strong dependence on the shear rate as well as on the temperature. The facial mask exhibited a maximum yield stress and very shear thinning behavior at 40 degrees C, which is attributed to the gelatinization of the polysaccharide used to stabilize the mud particles. On the other hand, the mud mask exhibited a time-independent behavior at low temperatures and shear rates and changed to a thixotropic behavior upon increasing both the temperature and the shear rate. The shear thinning and thixotropic behaviors have a significant importance in the ability of the facial mask to spread on the skin: the Dead Sea mud mask can break down for easy spreading, and the applied film can gain viscosity instantaneously to resist running. Moreover, particle sedimentation, which in this case would negatively affect consumer acceptance of the product, occurs slowly due to high viscosity at rest conditions. PMID:17256074

  12. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mud Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, N. A.; Testik, F. Y.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid mud bottom gravity currents are simulated numerically using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, ANSYS-Fluent. In this study, Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid method is selected since this method treats all phases in a multiphase system as interpenetrated continua. There are three different phases in the computational model constructed for this study: water, fluid mud, and air. Water and fluid mud are defined as two miscible fluids and the mass and momentum transfers between these two phases are taken into account. Fluid mud, which is a dense suspension of clay particles and water, is defined as a single-phase non-Newtonian fluid via user-defined-functions. These functions define the physical characteristics (density, viscosity, etc.) of the fluid mud and these characteristics vary with changing suspension concentration due to mass transfer between the fluid mud and the water phase. Results of this two-dimensional numerical model are verified with data obtained from experiments conducted in a laboratory flume with a lock-release set-up. Numerical simulations are currently being conducted to elucidate turbulent entrainment of ambient water into fluid mud gravity currents. This study is motivated by coastal dredge disposal operations.

  13. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  14. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  15. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  16. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  17. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  18. Suitability of the ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) for assessing invasion of macroalgae across different Mediterranean habitats.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Luigi; Gennaro, Paola; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2015-08-15

    The ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) has been recently proposed to evaluate biological invasions in soft-bottom macro-invertebrate assemblages. The present paper proposes the use of ALEX in sessile assemblages of Mediterranean hard bottom habitats and tests it along gradients of invasion. For five invasive macroalgae a variable number of case studies per each of four habitats were examined from the available data sets. For each case study samples were attributed to four levels of invasion depending on the abundance of the invading macroalgae. Results showed that the application of ALEX to sessile assemblages of hard bottoms allows to qualify the level of invasion along the considered gradients. Moreover, the decline of index values matched the impact of invasion on species number of the assemblages. Results also suggest that the concurrent use of ALEX and indices of benthic quality status can be a valuable tool to assess biopollution in hard bottom habitats. PMID:26073799

  19. Geochemistry and mineralogy of REY-rich mud in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Kazutaka; Liu, Hanjie; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Machida, Shiki; Haraguchi, Satoru; Ishii, Teruaki; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kato, Yasuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Deep-sea sediments in parts of the Pacific Ocean were recently found to contain remarkably high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium (REY) of possible economic significance. Here we report similar REY-rich mud in a core section from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 213 in the eastern Indian Ocean. The sediments consist mainly of siliceous ooze, with subordinate zeolitic clay that contains relatively high REY concentrations. The maximum and average total REY (ΣREY) contents of this material are 1113 and 629 ppm, respectively, which are comparable to those reported from the Pacific Ocean. The REY-rich mud at Site 213 shows enrichment in heavy rare-earth elements, negative Ce anomalies, and relatively low Fe2O3/ΣREY ratios, similar to those in the Pacific Ocean. In addition, the major-element composition of the Indian Ocean REY-rich mud indicates slight enrichment in lithogenic components, which probably reflects a contribution from southern African eolian dust. A volcaniclastic component from neighboring mid-ocean ridges or intraplate volcanoes is also apparent. Elemental compositions and X-ray diffraction patterns for bulk sediment, and microscopic observation and elemental mapping of a polished thin section, demonstrate the presence of phillipsite and biogenic apatite, such as fish debris, in the REY-rich mud. The strong correlation between total REY content and apatite abundance implies that apatite plays an important role as a host phase of REY in the present deep-sea sediment column. However, positive correlations between ΣREY and elements not present in apatite (e.g., Fe2O3, MnO, and TiO2) imply that the REY-rich mud is not formed by a simple mixture of REY-enriched apatite and other components.

  20. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  1. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. PMID:27354013

  2. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    PubMed

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation. PMID:26675542

  3. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate. The substrate of mud flats contains organic material and particles smaller in size than sand. They...

  4. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  5. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  6. Dynamic filtration of invert-emulsion muds

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, D.; Sharma, M.M. )

    1993-09-01

    Dynamic-filtration experiments conducted on oil-based muds show that the dynamic-filtration rate is much higher than API filtration rates. The use of water-wet solids results in very poor-quality external mudcakes and high fluid-loss rates. Better external mudcakes are formed by mixing equal parts organophilic clay and mud. Filtration-loss-control additives (asphalt mineral pitches) do not reduce the equilibrium filtration rate, but do reduce spurt loss and limit solids invasion. In brine-saturated rocks, the invasion rate for oil-based muds is significantly smaller than for water-based muds because capillary pressure prevents the oil phase from entering the core in oil-based muds. Oil-based mudcakes are softer and more shear-sensitive than water-based mudcakes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs indicate that oil-based mudcakes consist of individual water droplets coated with clay particles. This cake structure gives rise to the low permeability and shear sensitivity of oil-based muds.

  7. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Felice, Fabio; Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions. Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater. In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts. Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared absorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone. Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important information about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be

  9. Fluidization of mud in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; Chappell, John; Ridd, Peter; Vertessy, Rob

    1988-03-01

    The South Alligator River, located in the Northern Territory, Australia, is a macrotidal estuary with suspended sediment concentration values reaching 10 g 1-1 In September 1986, in the dry season, the estuary was well mixed in temperature and salinity. While the vertical gradients in suspended sediment concentration were small at flood tides, for most of the ebb tide duration a lutocline separated a clear upper layer from an extremely turbid bottom layer, both layers being of comparable thickness. The tidal evolution of the suspended sediment concentration is consistent with that computed by a numerical model based on the equation of conservation of mass of suspended sediment. In this model, sediment is entrained from the bottom and mixed vertically upward by eddy diffusion, but through a Richardson number dependence, sediment-induced buoyancy effects inhibit vertical mixing. The final depth of the turbid layer can be readily estimated analytically as a result of a balance between the rate of kinetic energy input and the buoyancy flux determined by the particle fall velocity. The presence of a lutocline helps form mud banks on the inner side of a meander.

  10. Shaking up volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Most volcanic eruptions that occur shortly after a large distant earthquake do so by random chance. A few compelling cases for earthquake-triggered eruptions exist, particularly within 200 km of the earthquake, but this phenomenon is rare in part because volcanoes must be poised to erupt in order to be triggered by an earthquake (1). Large earthquakes often perturb volcanoes in more subtle ways by triggering small earthquakes and changes in spring discharge and groundwater levels (1, 2). On page 80 of this issue, Brenguier et al. (3) provide fresh insight into the interaction of large earthquakes and volcanoes by documenting a temporary change in seismic velocity beneath volcanoes in Honshu, Japan, after the devastating Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011.

  11. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (volcano size might be expected. Martian small-scale volcanoes were not intensely studied for a long time due to a lack of high-resolution data enabling their proper identification; however their existence and basic characteristics were predicted on theoretical grounds. Streams of new high-resolution images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size volcanoes with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale volcanoes in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large volcanoes (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three locations (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade

  12. Flocculation settling characteristics of mud: sand mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew J.; Baugh, John V.; Spearman, Jeremy R.; Whitehouse, Richard J. S.

    2010-04-01

    When natural muds become mixed with sandy sediments in estuaries, it has a direct effect on the flocculation process and resultant sediment transport regime. Much research has been completed on the erosion and consolidation of mud/sand mixtures, but very little is known quantitatively about how mixed sediments interact whilst in suspension, particularly in terms of flocculation. This paper presents the settling velocity findings from a recent laboratory study which examined the flocculation dynamics for three different mud/sand mixtures at different concentrations (0.2-5 g.l-1) and turbulent shear stresses (0.06-0.9 Pa) in a mini-annular flume. The low intrusive video-based Laboratory Spectral Flocculation Characteristics instrument was used to determine floc/aggregate properties (e.g., size, settling velocity, density and mass) for each population. Settling data was assessed in terms of macrofloc (>160 μm) and microfloc (<160 μm) settling parameters: Wsmacro and Wsmicro, respectively. For pure muds, the macroflocs are regarded as the most dominant contributors to the total depositional flux. The parameterised settling data indicates that by adding more sand to a mud/sand mixture, the fall velocity of the macrofloc fraction slows and the settling velocity of microflocs quickens. Generally, a mainly sandy suspension comprising 25% mud and 75% sand (25M:75S), will produce resultant Wsmacro which are slower than Wsmicro. The quickest Wsmicro appears to consistently occur at a higher level of turbulent shear stress (τ ˜ 0.6 Pa) than both the macrofloc and microfloc fractions from suspensions of pure natural muds. Flocculation within a more cohesively dominant muddy-sand suspension (i.e., 75M:25S) produced macroflocs which fell at similar speeds (±10%) to pure mud suspensions at both low (200 mg l-1) and intermediate (1 g l-1) concentrations at all shear stress increments. Also, low sand content suspensions produced Wsmacro values that were faster than the Wsmicro

  13. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-07-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  14. How new biopolymers can improve muds

    SciTech Connect

    Dino, D.; Lindblad, D.E.; Moorhouse, R. )

    1993-11-01

    Xantham gum was introduced as a drilling-fluid component in the mid-1960s, but its use has risen noticeably since 1970, as prevalence of inhibitive polymeric drilling fluids has increased. Xanthan is known for its ability to build viscosity in both fresh water and salt solutions, its exceptional shear-thinning properties, and its tolerance to pH, all without environmental problems. Although biopolymers like xanthan typically represent only 0.25--1.5 lb/bbl of a drilling fluid, they are critical in building rheology, from spudding to the special demands of angled drilling and well completion. They add properties to muds which expand their use across a variety of formations and over a wide temperature range. Beyond xanthan, another useful class of biopolymers are the guar gums. Just as muds incorporating xanthan have been in the mainstay in rheology building over the years for many muds, fluids incorporating guar have long been the backbone of fracturing fluids. Guar and its derivatives are extremely versatile as rheology modifiers, particularly when used in conjunction with xanthans. In fact, xanthan/guar combinations have already been enhancing the effectiveness of muds at drill sites in the US. This paper reviews the performance of mixed xantham/guar additives to obtain an even better mud control system.

  15. Morphologic evidence of subsurface sediment mobilization and mud volcanism in Candor and Coprates Chasmata, Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Chris H.

    2016-05-01

    Populations of distinctive knobs, rings and lobate structures are observed in the Candor and Coprates Chasmata regions of Mars. To interpret the formation mechanisms of these landforms, I investigate their morphologies, facies, superposition and crosscutting relationships using data from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). The knobs and rings have quasi-circular to elliptical shapes in map view, with basal diameters between several hundred meters and three kilometers. The knobs rise ∼10 to 350 m above the surrounding terrain, while the rings are ∼10 to 70 m tall. In three dimensions the knobs have a rounded cone shape, and some knobs exhibit a summit depression, which in some examples contains a subordinate mound. The rings have rounded to sharp crests and in some instances contain subordinate rings and mounds. The lobate structures are commonly ∼1 to 2 km wide, ∼3 to 5 km long and rise up to 50 m above the surrounding terrain. The lobate structures partially or completely encircle some knobs, rings and irregularly shaped rock masses. The knobs, rings and lobate structures exhibit massive and stratified facies, with some structures exhibiting both, such as a massive central rock mass surrounded by outwardly dipping layers. I interpret these landforms as mud volcanoes, injectites and mud flows based on superposition and cross-cutting relationships as well as similarities between the morphologies and facies of these landforms with terrestrial products of mud volcanism. I infer the source of sediment for this mud volcanism to be the Hesperian eolian deposits that occur within these chasmata. Further, I suggest that groundwater upwelling during the Hesperian to possibly the Early Amazonian facilitated the mobilization of these sediments within the subsurface and thereby contributed to the ensuing mud volcanism. Based on these results, I propose that the Candor Chaos formed through subsurface

  16. Volcano seismicity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Helena

    I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc

  17. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath. PMID:15860002

  18. Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

  19. Erupting Volcano Mount Etna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

  20. Volcano Near Pavonis Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-549, 19 November 2003

    The volcanic plains to the east, southeast, and south of the giant Tharsis volcano, Pavonis Mons, are dotted by dozens of small volcanoes. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example located near 2.1oS, 109.1oW. The elongate depression in the lower left (southwest) quarter of the image is the collapsed vent area for this small, unnamed volcano. A slightly sinuous, leveed channel runs from the depression toward the upper right (north-northeast); this is the trace of a collapsed lava tube. The entire scene has been mantled by dust, such that none of the original volcanic rocks are exposed--except minor occurrences on the steepest slopes in the vent area. The scene is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  1. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  2. Volcano-electromagnetic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Malcolm J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Volcano-electromagnetic effects—electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by volcanic activity—derive from a variety of physical processes. These include piezomagnetic effects, electrokinetic effects, fluid vaporization, thermal demagnetization/remagnetization, resistivity changes, thermochemical effects, magnetohydrodynamic effects, and blast-excited traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Identification of different physical processes and their interdependence is often possible with multiparameter monitoring, now common on volcanoes, since many of these processes occur with different timescales and some are simultaneously identified in other geophysical data (deformation, seismic, gas, ionospheric disturbances, etc.). EM monitoring plays an important part in understanding these processes.

  3. Teaching Ecological Concepts with Mud Dauber Nests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; Matthews, Janice R.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that mud dauber nests--which are widely available, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use--offer a novel and highly motivating way to teach ecological concepts to life science students at many grade levels. Presents background information for teachers, details classroom-tested methods for nest dissection, provides keys to nest contents, and…

  4. "Mud" + "Blood"--A Very Colorful Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which a bloodred-colored solution of hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, and phenolphthalein indicator is added to a mud-colored solution of potassium permanganate, hydrated manganous chloride, and sulfuric acid. The mixture turns clear when added together. Draws parallels between the demonstration and the Old…

  5. DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

  6. Biogeochemistry of aragonite mud and oolites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitterer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Amino acids were determined on an analyzer similar to that described by Hare (1969) in carbonate mud samples from locations in the Bahamas, Bermuda, Persian Gulf, and Florida Bay, and in oolites from the Gulf of Suez, the Abu Dhabi coast, the Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas. A histogram, tables, and chromatograms of the results are given.

  7. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  8. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on...

  9. Liability issues surrounding oil drilling mud sumps

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    This presentation examines liability issues surrounding oil drilling mud sumps and discusses them in relation to two recent cases that arose in Ventura County, California. Following a brief history of regulatory interest in oil drilling mud and its common hazardous substances, various cause of action arising from oil drilling mud deposits are enumerated, followed by defenses to these causes of action. Section 8002 (m) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is mentioned, as are constituents of oil and gas waste not inherent in petroleum and therefore not exempt from regulation under the petroleum exclusion in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act. Key legal words such as hazardous substance, release, public and private nuisance, trespass, responsible parties, joint and several liability, negligence, and strict liability are explained. The effects on liability of knowledge of the deposits, duty to restore land to its original condition, consent to the deposit of oil drilling mud, and noncompliance and compliance with permit conditions are analyzed. The state-of-the-art defense and research to establish this defense are mentioned. The newly created cause of action for fear of increased risk of cancer is discussed. Issues on transfer of property where oil drilling mud has been deposited are explored, such as knowledge of prior owners being imputed to later owners, claims of fraudulent concealment, and as is' clauses. The effects on the oil and gas industry of the California Court of Appeals for the Second District rulings in Dolan v. Humacid-MacLeod and Stevens v. McQueen are speculated.

  10. Volcanoes and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Edited By Joan; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2005-10-01

    Volcanoes and the Environment is a comprehensive and accessible text incorporating contributions from some of the world's authorities in volcanology. This book is an indispensable guide for those interested in how volcanism affects our planet's environment. It spans a wide variety of topics from geology to climatology and ecology; it also considers the economic and social impacts of volcanic activity on humans. Topics covered include how volcanoes shape the environment, their effect on the geological cycle, atmosphere and climate, impacts on health of living on active volcanoes, volcanism and early life, effects of eruptions on plant and animal life, large eruptions and mass extinctions, and the impact of volcanic disasters on the economy. This book is intended for students and researchers interested in environmental change from the fields of earth and environmental science, geography, ecology and social science. It will also interest policy makers and professionals working on natural hazards. An all-inclusive text that goes beyond the geological working of volcanoes to consider their environmental and sociological impacts Each chapter is written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject Accessible to students and researchers from a wide variety of backgrounds

  11. Monitoring active volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most spectacular, awesomely beautiful, and at times, most destructive displays of natural energy is an erupting volcano, belching fume and ash thousands of feet into the atmoshpehere and pouring out red-hot molten lava in fountains and streams. 

  12. The Volcano Adventure Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly

    2005-02-01

    This guide contains vital information for anyone wishing to visit, explore, and photograph active volcanoes safely and enjoyably. Following an introduction that discusses eruption styles of different types of volcanoes and how to prepare for an exploratory trip that avoids volcanic dangers, the book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different volcanoes around the world. It is filled with practical information that includes tour itineraries, maps, transportation details, and warnings of possible non-volcanic dangers. Three appendices direct the reader to a wealth of further volcano resources in a volume that will fascinate amateur enthusiasts and professional volcanologists alike. Rosaly Lopes is a planetary geology and volcanology specialist at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. In addition to her curatorial and research work, she has lectured extensively in England and Brazil and written numerous popular science articles. She received a Latinas in Science Award from the Comision Feminil Mexicana Nacional in 1991 and since 1992, has been a co-organizer of the United Nations/European Space Agency/The Planetary Society yearly conferences on Basic Science for the Benefit of Developing Countries.

  13. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This pair of images was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 26. The image on the left shows the scene in true color. The small purple box in the upper righthand corner marks the location of Nyamuragira's hot summit. The false-color image on the right shows the plume from the volcano streaming southwestward. This image was made using MODIS' channels sensitive at wavelengths from 8.5 to 11 microns. Red pixels indicate high concentrations of sulphur dioxide. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

  15. Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 28, 2002. Nyamuragira is situated roughly in the center of this scene, roughly 100 km south of Lake Edward and just north of Lake Kivu (which is mostly obscured by the haze from the erupting volcano and the numerous fires burning in the surrounding countryside). Due south of Lake Kivu is the long, narrow Lake Tanganyika running south and off the bottom center of this scene.

  16. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  17. Modelling normal and impaired letter recognition: Implications for understanding pure alexic reading

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Letter recognition is the foundation of the human reading system. Despite this, it tends to receive little attention in computational modelling of single word reading. Here we present a model that can be trained to recognise letters in various spatial transformations. When presented with degraded stimuli the model makes letter confusion errors that correlate with human confusability data. Analyses of the internal representations of the model suggest that a small set of learned visual feature detectors support the recognition of both upper case and lower case letters in various fonts and transformations. We postulated that a damaged version of the model might be expected to act in a similar manner to patients suffering from pure alexia. Summed error score generated from the model was found to be a very good predictor of the reading times of pure alexic patients, outperforming simple word length, and accounting for 47% of the variance. These findings are consistent with a hypothesis suggesting that impaired visual processing is a key to understanding the strong word-length effects found in pure alexic patients. PMID:22841988

  18. Modelling normal and impaired letter recognition: implications for understanding pure alexic reading.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Letter recognition is the foundation of the human reading system. Despite this, it tends to receive little attention in computational modelling of single word reading. Here we present a model that can be trained to recognise letters in various spatial transformations. When presented with degraded stimuli the model makes letter confusion errors that correlate with human confusability data. Analyses of the internal representations of the model suggest that a small set of learned visual feature detectors support the recognition of both upper case and lower case letters in various fonts and transformations. We postulated that a damaged version of the model might be expected to act in a similar manner to patients suffering from pure alexia. Summed error score generated from the model was found to be a very good predictor of the reading times of pure alexic patients, outperforming simple word length, and accounting for 47% of the variance. These findings are consistent with a hypothesis suggesting that impaired visual processing is a key to understanding the strong word-length effects found in pure alexic patients. PMID:22841988

  19. Utilization of red mud in cement production: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na

    2011-10-01

    Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. One of the economic ways is using red mud in cement production, which is also an efficient method for large-scale recycling of red mud. This paper provides a review on the utilization of red mud in cement production, and it clearly points out three directions for the use of red mud in cement production, namely the preparation of cement clinkers, production of composite cements as well as alkali-activated cements. In the present paper, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized, and the current progresses on these three directions are reviewed in detail. PMID:21930526

  20. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the

  1. The Geothermal Systems along the Watukosek fault system (East Java, Indonesia):The Arjuno-Welirang Volcanic Complex and the Lusi Mud-Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Mazzini, Adriano; Vita, Fabio; Sciarra, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    The Java Island is characterized by an intense volcanic activity with more then 100 active volcanoes. Moreover, this island is also known by the presence of many mud volcanoes and hydrothermal springs. In particular, in the 2006 several sudden hot mud eruptions, with fluids around 100° C, occurred in the NE side of the island resulting in a prominent eruption named Lusi (contraction of Lumpur Sidoarjo) located along the major Watukosek strike-slip fault zone. The Watukosek fault system, strikes from the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex, intersects Lusi and extends towards the NE of the Java island. Conversely of the normal mud eruptions (cold fluids emitted in a short time period of few days), the Lusi eruption was characterized by a persistent effusive hot fluids emissions for a long-time period of, so far, nearly a decade. Moreover, the isotopic composition of emitted gases like Helium showed a clear magmatic origin. For this reasons we decided to investigate the near Arjuno-Welirang complex located on the same strike-slip fault. Arjuno-Welirang is a twin strato-volcano system located in the East of Java along the Watukosek fault, at about 25 km SW respect to the Lusi volcano system. It features two main peaks: Arjuno (3339 masl) and Welirang (3156 masl). The last recorded eruptive activity took place in August 1950 from the flanks of Kawah Plupuh and in October 1950 from the NW part of the Gunung Welirang. This strato-volcano is characterized by a S-rich area, with high T-vent fumarole at least up to 220° C (and likely higher), located mainly in the Welirang crater. In addition, several hot springs vent from the flanks of the volcano, indicate the presence of a large hydrothermal system. During July 2015, in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), we carried out a geochemical field campaign on the Arjuno-Welirang volcano hydrothermal system area, sampling water and dissolved gases from the thermal and cold springs located on the flanks of

  2. Triggering of the Lusi mud eruption: Earthquake versus drilling initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, Mark; Heidbach, Oliver; Davies, Richard; Swarbrick, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The Lusi mud volcano in East Java has erupted unabated for almost2 yr, flooding an area of 7 km2 and displacing more than 25,000people. Despite its disastrous impact, the mechanism for triggeringthe Lusi eruption remains highly controversial; two distinctmechanisms have been proposed. One hypothesis suggests thatthe eruption was triggered by the Mw 6.3 earth-quake that struckYogyakarta (250 km from Lusi) two days before the eruption.However, an examination of static and dynamic stress changesand stress transfer mechanisms indicates that the Yogyakartaearthquake was at least an order of magnitude too small to reactivatefaults and open fluid flow pathways under Lusi. An alternatetheory suggests that Lusi was triggered by a blowout followingdrilling problems in the nearby Banjar Panji-1 well. Blowoutsresult from an inability to control pore fluid intakes intothe borehole and typically occur when the drilling window (fracturepressure minus pore pressure) is approximately zero and whenthere is insufficient protective casing of the well bore. Poreand fracture pressure data from Banjar Panji-1 indicate thatthe well had a narrow drilling window of only 0-2.3 MPa.Furthermore, two planned casing points were skipped during drilling,resulting in 1742 m of unprotected borehole. The combinationof hazardously narrow drilling window and long uncased boreholewould have made drilling problems in Banjar Panji-1 difficultto control, placing the well at high risk of blowing out. Furthermore,well-bore pressures following drilling problems in Banjar Panji-1reached magnitudes in excess of the fracture pressure and thuswere sufficient to create fluid flow pathways in the subsurface.Therefore, we suggest that no viable method is known by whichthe Yogyakarta earthquake could have triggered the mudflow andthat a blowout in the Banjar Panji-1 well was the most likelymechanism for triggering the Lusi eruption.

  3. Alex Lord's British Columbia: Recollections of a Rural School Inspector, 1915-36. The Pioneers of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calam, John, Ed.

    Alex Lord, a pioneer inspector of rural British Columbia (Canada) schools, shares in these recollections of his experiences in a province barely out of the stagecoach era. Traveling through vast northern territory, using unreliable transportation, and enduring climate extremes, Lord became familiar with the aspirations of remote communities and…

  4. Catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnus; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene. In the last 100 years, over 30 eruptions have occurred displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and their distribution. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland (commenced in 2012), and the EU FP7 project FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016), establishing an Icelandic volcano Supersite. The Catalogue is a collaborative effort between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Icelandic Civil Protection, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The catalogue is scheduled for opening in the first half of 2015 and once completed, it will be an official publication intended to serve as an accurate and up to date source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue is an open web resource in English and is composed of individual chapters on each of the volcanic systems. The chapters include information on the geology and structure of the volcano; the eruption history, pattern and products; the known precursory signals

  5. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  6. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud. PMID:25269817

  7. Hurricane Alex

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... halted cleanup efforts associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The two panels show a nadir (vertical-viewing) camera image of ... cleanup efforts associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  8. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. 4D volcano gravimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, Maurizio; Gottsmann, J.; Carbone, D.; Fernandez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent gravimetric measurements can detect subsurface processes long before magma flow leads to earthquakes or other eruption precursors. The ability of gravity measurements to detect subsurface mass flow is greatly enhanced if gravity measurements are analyzed and modeled with ground-deformation data. Obtaining the maximum information from microgravity studies requires careful evaluation of the layout of network benchmarks, the gravity environmental signal, and the coupling between gravity changes and crustal deformation. When changes in the system under study are fast (hours to weeks), as in hydrothermal systems and restless volcanoes, continuous gravity observations at selected sites can help to capture many details of the dynamics of the intrusive sources. Despite the instrumental effects, mainly caused by atmospheric temperature, results from monitoring at Mt. Etna volcano show that continuous measurements are a powerful tool for monitoring and studying volcanoes.Several analytical and numerical mathematical models can beused to fit gravity and deformation data. Analytical models offer a closed-form description of the volcanic source. In principle, this allows one to readily infer the relative importance of the source parameters. In active volcanic sites such as Long Valley caldera (California, U.S.A.) and Campi Flegrei (Italy), careful use of analytical models and high-quality data sets has produced good results. However, the simplifications that make analytical models tractable might result in misleading volcanological inter-pretations, particularly when the real crust surrounding the source is far from the homogeneous/ isotropic assumption. Using numerical models allows consideration of more realistic descriptions of the sources and of the crust where they are located (e.g., vertical and lateral mechanical discontinuities, complex source geometries, and topography). Applications at Teide volcano (Tenerife) and Campi Flegrei demonstrate the

  10. Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.

  11. Volcanoes and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The evidence that volcanic eruptions affect climate is reviewed. Single explosive volcanic eruptions cool the surface by about 0.3 C and warm the stratosphere by several degrees. Although these changes are of small magnitude, there have been several years in which these hemispheric average temperature changes were accompanied by severely abnormal weather. An example is 1816, the "year without summer" which followed the 1815 eruption of Tambora. In addition to statistical correlations between volcanoes and climate, a good theoretical understanding exists. The magnitude of the climatic changes anticipated following volcanic explosions agrees well with the observations. Volcanoes affect climate because volcanic particles in the atmosphere upset the balance between solar energy absorbed by the Earth and infrared energy emitted by the Earth. These interactions can be observed. The most important ejecta from volcanoes is not volcanic ash but sulfur dioxide which converts into sulfuric acid droplets in the stratosphere. For an eruption with its explosive magnitude, Mount St. Helens injected surprisingly little sulfur into the stratosphere. The amount of sulfuric acid formed is much smaller than that observed following significant eruptions and is too small to create major climatic shifts. However, the Mount St. Helens eruption has provided an opportunity to measure many properties of volcanic debris not previously measured and has therefore been of significant value in improving our knowledge of the relations between volcanic activity and climate.

  12. Volcanoes generate devastating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lockridge, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. National Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, location, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the locations along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.

  13. GPS-based crustal deformations in Azerbaijan and their influence on seismicity and mud volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirov, F. A.; Guliyev, I. S.; Feyzullayev, A. A.; Safarov, R. T.; Mammadov, S. K.; Babayev, G. R.; Rashidov, T. M.

    2014-11-01

    Using Shen's method (Shen et al., 1996), deformations of the Earth's crust in Azerbaijan were studied based on GPS measurements. For estimating the rate of deformation, we used the field of velocity vectors for Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, and Armenia that were derived from GPS measurements during 1998-2012. It is established that compression is observable along the Greater Caucasus, in Gobustan, the Kura depression, Nakhchyvan Autonomous Republic, and adjacent areas of Iran. The axes of compression/contraction of the crust in the Greater Caucasus region are oriented in the S-NE direction. The maximum strain rate (approximately 200 × 10-9 per annum) is documented in the zone of mud volcanism at the SHIK site (Shykhlar), which is marked by a sharp change in the direction of the compression axes (SW-NE). It is revealed that the deformation field also includes the zones where strain rates are very low approximating 5 × 10-9 per annum. These zones include the Caspian-Guba and northern Gobustan areas, characterized by extensive development of mud volcanism. The extension zones are confined to the Lesser Caucasus and are revealed in the Gedabek (GEDA) and Shusha (SHOU) areas, as well as in the zone located between the DAMO and PIRM sites (Iran), where the deformation rate amounts to 100 × 10-9 per annum. It is concluded that the predominant factor responsible for the eruption of mud volcanoes is the intensity of gas-generation processes in the earth's interior, while deformation processes play the role of a trigger. The zone of the epicenters of strong earthquakes is correlated to the gradient zone in the crustal strain rates.

  14. Mud handling improved with a constant-volume riser

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.J. )

    1990-09-24

    Marine risers currently deployed by floating drilling units incorporate a telescopic joint to accommodate vessel movement, primarily heave. This vertical telescopic movement changes the internal volume of the riser and causes fluctuations in the return-mud flow rate. Flow fluctuations make accurate measurement of the return mud difficult. The significance is that these measurements are vital for the early detection of well bore influx or downhole mud losses. Erratic mud flow also adversely affects the efficiency of the solids-removal equipment and potentially increases the risk of discharging whole mud to the environment. To overcome these adverse effects, a design for a telescopic joint is proposed (constant volume riser or CVR) in which the internal riser volume remains constant, irrespective of movement, thus permitting a uniform flow rate of mud returns.

  15. Modifying alumina red mud to support a revegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xenidis, A.; Harokopou, A. D.; Mylona, E.; Brofas, G.

    2005-02-01

    Alumina red mud, a fine-textured, iron-rich, alkaline residue, is the major waste product of bauxite digestion with caustic soda to remove alumina. The high alkalinity and salinity as well as the poor nutrient status are considered to be the major constraints of red mud revegetation. This research was conducted to evaluate the ameliorating effect of gypsum, sewage sludge, ferrous sulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium phosphate on alumina red mud. The effectiveness of the mixtures was evaluated by applying extraction tests and performing experiments using six plant species. Gypsum amendment significantly reduced the pH, electrical conductivity, and sodium and aluminum content of red mud. Sewage sludge application had an extended effect in improving both the soil structure and the nutrient status of the gypsum-amended red mud. Together with the gypsum and sewage sludge, calcium phosphate application into red mud enhanced plant growth and gave the most promising results.

  16. Calcification-carbonation method for red mud processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibing; Zhang, Tingan; Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun

    2016-10-01

    Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification-carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO2 carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with <0.3% alkali can be used in cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized. PMID:27214002

  17. New water-based muds for tertiary shale control

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, P.I. ); Minton, R.C. )

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field assessments of a series of inhibitive water muds developed by BP. RCS 1 contains cationic starch to control fluid loss and to inhibit shale expansion further. RCS 2 is a highly inhibitive version of RCS 1 containing polyglycerol. RCS 3, the most inhibitive mud of the series, contains a phosphate salt and polyglycerol. Levels of inhibition appear close to those of oil-based mud.

  18. Petrogenesis of Na-rich paralava formed by methane flares associated with mud volcanism, Altyn-Emel National Park, Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapes, Rodney; Sokol, Ella; Kokh, Svetlana; Kozmenko, Olga; Fishman, Ilia

    2013-04-01

    High-Na slag-like rocks (paralava) with 4.5-11 % Na2O from the Altyn-Emel mud volcanic field, Kazakhstan, are the products of melting of sediment + salt mixtures by methane flares associated with mud extrusion. The main minerals of the paralavas are diopside and wollastonite which have quench morphologies. Other high-temperature phases (crystallizing from melt and vapour phase) are tridymite, cristobalite, chlorapatite, alkali feldspar, pyrrhotite, native iron and silicon, iron phosphides, titanite, rutile, and carbon. The paralavas lack the Na-Ca silicates devitrite and combeite, but have high-Na and Na-K glasses that have not been homogenized despite low viscosities of <10-3.5 Pa s. The large number of ignition foci in the Altyn-Emel mud volcano field indicates gas venting from small, shallow reservoirs. The methane flares are inferred to have been small and the fire events short-lived. Fires were extinguished once overpressure released during eruption, methane venting stopped and melted rocks rapidly quenched. The periodicity of eruptions and methane flaring most likely depends on the recurrence of earthquakes ( M < 5) which are frequent in this tectonically active area.

  19. Mud volcanism and authigenic carbonates related to methane-rich fluids migration in the late Neogene marls of S.E. Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, C.; Blanc-Valleron, M. M.; Rouchy, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Methane-rich fluids that are generated at depth in organic-rich deposits migrate within the sediments to the seafloor where they are expelled to form mud volcanoes or pockmarks. Moreover, these migrating fluids are involved in diagenetic processes as authigenic carbonate formation and they may participate to gas hydrate formation. These features are well-known in the present-day continental margins but their fossil records are relatively scarce. The outcropping Tortonian and Messinian marls in S.E. Spain basins (Lorca, Fortuna, Columbares, Huercal Overa) contain abundant authigenic dolomite nodules. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of these dolomites exhibit wide ranges (-1.4 < δ18O < +5.6 ; -25.6 < δ13C < +9.3) indicating that carbonate precipitation occurred within the marly sediments due to circulation of fluids modified by gas hydrates formation/dissociation, where anaerobic oxidation of methane and methanogenesis were active. In the Huercal Overa basin, there is a well-preserved mud volcano intruding vertically the Messinian marls. These two features, methane derived authigenic dolomites and mud volcanism, are testifying of the intense methane-rich fluid migration in the marly deposits of the western Mediterranean basins during the late Neogene, which was the time of major paleoenvironmental changes in the Mediterranean sea climaxing during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  20. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry volcano is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry volcano becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry Volcano that were used to estimate the probability

  1. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  2. Volcanoes, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The island of Java (8.0S, 112.0E), perhaps better than any other, illustrates the volcanic origin of Pacific Island groups. Seen in this single view are at least a dozen once active volcano craters. Alignment of the craters even defines the linear fault line of Java as well as the other some 1500 islands of the Indonesian Archipelago. Deep blue water of the Indian Ocean to the south contrasts to the sediment laden waters of the Java Sea to the north.

  3. Using Ultrasound to Measure Mud Rheological Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maa, P. Y. P. Y.; Kwon, J. I.; Park, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to predict the dynamic responses of newly consolidated cohesive sediment beds, a better understanding of the material rheological properties (bulk density, ρ, kinematic viscosity, ν, and shear modulus, G, assuming mud is a simple Voigt viscoelastic model) of these sediment beds is needed. An acoustic approach that uses a commercially available 250 kHz shear wave transducer and tone-burst waves has been developed to measure those properties. This approach uses a 86.3 mm long delay-line (DL) to separate the generated pressure and shear waves, and measures the reflected shear waves as well as the reflected pressure waves caused at the interface between the delay line and the mud to interpret these properties. By using materials (i.e., air, water, olive oil, and honey) with available rheological properties to establish a calibration relationship between the information carried by the measured reflected waves and those given material properties, the mud properties as well as thνe change of these properties during consolidation can be interpreted. Using jelly pudding as a check, a value of G ≈ 12310 N/m2 and ν ≈ 5 x 10-5 m2/s were estimated. For the consolidating kaolinite bed (with zero salinity and initial suspended sediment concentration about 420 g/cm3), the measurements show that the shear modulus developed after about 40 hours and approached a value on the order of 15000 N/m2 after about 100 hours. The initial kinematic viscosity was about 5 x 10-4 m2/s, and it decreased slowly with time and approached a low plateau between 10-6 and 10-7 m2/s after 300 hours. The measured bulk density showed a small increasing rate during the entire consolidation period, except at a short period between 80 and 90 hours after consolidation. Results from this study suggest a promising approach for developing an in-situ instrument to measure mud properties, as well as many other materials in other industries.

  4. Flume studies of mud deposition: Implications for shallow marine mud deposition and the stratigraphic record (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, J.

    2010-12-01

    Racetrack flumes with paddle-belt drives, designed to avoid destruction of floccules, were used to examine mud deposition from swift moving suspensions. At flow velocities that transport and deposit sand (20-35 cm/s, 5 cm flow depth) muddy suspensions produce deposition-prone floccules that form migrating floccule ripples. Mud beds that form as a consequence of floccule ripple accretion appear parallel laminated at first glance, but reveal internal low angle cross-lamination on closer inspection. In plan view, the observed pattern of ripple foresets is identical to rib and furrow structure in sandstones. In experiments at marine salinity, where clays were mixed with quartz silt, uniform as well as gradually decelerating currents produce deposits that show low relief coarser silt ripples at the base, followed by low angle inclined silty laminae and an increasing clay component upwards. Once examined with proper care, the clay-rich upper portion of the deposits shows internal laminae and cross-laminae. We also observed comparable sedimentary features in various ancient shallow marine mudstone successions. When examined at the hand specimen or drill core scale, above experimental deposits show the same features that have been widely reported from fluid-mud event layers in modern shelf settings. The latter have been attributed to gravity flows that are triggered by wave re-suspension of surficial muds. Whereas that model is consistent with the features attributed to the purported process, our experiments point to a potential alternative scenario. In addition to fluid muds, meaning high concentration sediment suspensions with mass concentrations > 10 g/l, the low concentration sediment suspensions (<10 g/l) from our experiments appear to be able to create equivalent deposits when given sufficient time for advective sediment transport. Graded muddy deposits on modern shelves and in ancient shelf successions thus may be of multiple origins. In addition to being the result

  5. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards in the Mount Jefferson Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Walder, J.S.; Gardner, C.A.; Conrey, R.M.; Fisher, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Mount Jefferson has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with its last eruptive episode during the last major glaciation which culminated about 15,000 years ago. Geologic evidence shows that Mount Jefferson is capable of large explosive eruptions. The largest such eruption occurred between 35,000 and 100,000 years ago. If Mount Jefferson erupts again, areas close to the eruptive vent will be severely affected, and even areas tens of kilometers (tens of miles) downstream along river valleys or hundreds of kilometers (hundreds of miles) downwind may be at risk. Numerous small volcanoes occupy the area between Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood to the north, and between Mount Jefferson and the Three Sisters region to the south. These small volcanoes tend not to pose the far-reaching hazards associated with Mount Jefferson, but are nonetheless locally important. A concern at Mount Jefferson, but not at the smaller volcanoes, is the possibility that small-to-moderate sized landslides could occur even during periods of no volcanic activity. Such landslides may transform as they move into lahars (watery flows of rock, mud, and debris) that can inundate areas far downstream. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layer used to produce the Mount Jefferson volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 99-24 (Walder and others, 1999) is included in this data set. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain.

  6. Volcanoes of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Charles

    1996-09-01

    Nothing can be more breathtaking than the spectacle of a volcano erupting. Space-age lunar and planetary missions offer us an unprecedented perspective on volcanism. Starting with the Earth, Volcanoes of the Solar System takes the reader on a guided tour of the terrestrial planets and moons and their volcanic features. We see lunar lava fields through the eyes of the Apollo astronauts, and take an imaginary hike up the Martian slopes of Olympus Mons--the tallest volcano in the solar system. Complemented by over 150 photographs, this comprehensive and lucid account of volcanoes describes the most recent data on the unique and varied volcanic features of Venus and updates our knowledge on the prodigiously active volcanoes of Io. A member of the Association of European Volcanologists, Charles Frankel has directed documentary films on geology, astronomy and space exploration and has authored a number of articles on the earth sciences.

  7. Elysium Mons Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On July 4, 1998--the first anniversary of the Mars Pathfinder landing--Mars Global Surveyor's latest images were radioed to Earth with little fanfare. The images received on July 4, 1998, however, were very exciting because they included a rare crossing of the summit caldera of a major martian volcano. Elysium Mons is located at 25oN, 213oW, in the martian eastern hemisphere. Elysium Mons is one of three large volcanoes that occur on the Elysium Rise-- the others are Hecates Tholus (northeast of Elysium Mons) and Albor Tholus (southeast of Elysium Mons). The volcano rises about 12.5 kilometers (7.8 miles) above the surrounding plain, or about 16 kilometers (9.9 miles) above the martian datum-- the 'zero' elevation defined by average martian atmospheric pressure and the planet's radius.

    Elysium Mons was discovered by Mariner 9 in 1972. It differs in a number of ways from the familiar Olympus Mons and other large volcanoes in the Tharsis region. In particular, there are no obvious lava flows visible on the volcano's flanks. The lack of lava flows was apparent from the Mariner 9 images, but the new MOC high resolution image--obtained at 5.24 meters (17.2 feet) per pixel--illustrates that this is true even when viewed at higher spatial resolution.

    Elysium Mons has many craters on its surface. Some of these probably formed by meteor impact, but many show no ejecta pattern characteristic of meteor impact. Some of the craters are aligned in linear patterns that are radial to the summit caldera--these most likely formed by collapse as lava was withdrawn from beneath the surface, rather than by meteor impact. Other craters may have formed by explosive volcanism. Evidence for explosive volcanism on Mars has been very difficult to identify from previous Mars spacecraft images. This and other MOC data are being examined closely to better understand the nature and origin of volcanic features on Mars.

    The three MOC images, 40301 (red wide angle), 40302 (blue wide angle

  8. Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

    2015-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns. PMID:25335452

  9. Paleoenvironmental setting of Paleozoic mud mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wanless, H.R. . Dept. Geological Sciences); Tedesco, L.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Paleozoic carbonate mud mounds formed above storm wave base, which in many settings was in moderate to extremely shallow water. This is concluded by a comparative analysis of sedimentary structures, fabrics and small scale sequences occurring in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian mounds and in modern mud mounds and Halimeda bioherms. Most small mounds studied contain a shallowing sequence that represents shallowing into the zone of daily agitation. The bulk of each mound sequence is detrital deposition of layered mudstones to wackestones in the mound core and packstones to grainstones on the flanks and shoal cap. If macroskeletal fauna and flora are present, an autochthonous skeletal packstone may occur in the upper portion of the shallowing sequence beneath the detrital grainstone cap. Burrow excavations and grainy tubular tempestite infillings partially to completely modify the primary depositional fabric of all of these facies. Larger mounds studied are a composite of several to numerous smaller mound depositional sequences. High vertical relief of some larger mounds may be more the result of continued accommodation space provided by subsidence/downfaulting than be deposition in extremely deep water. Although the biotic components of carbonate mounds vary greatly through the Paleozoic, the contained sedimentary structures, fabrics and fundamental depositional sequences remain very similar. This suggests a general similarity in the mechanism and depositional setting of mound formation.

  10. Evidence for and implications of sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism in the southern Utopia highland lowland boundary plain, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, James A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    Several types of spatially associated landforms in the southern Utopia Planitia highland-lowland boundary (HLB) plain appear to have resulted from localized geologic activity, including (1) fractured rises, (2) elliptical mounds, (3) pitted cones with emanating lobate materials, and (4) isolated and coalesced cavi (depressions). Stratigraphic analysis indicates these features are Hesperian or younger and may be associated with resurfacing that preferentially destroyed smaller ( <8 km diameter) impact craters. Based on landform geomorphologies and spatial distributions, the documented features do not appear to be specifically related to igneous or periglacial processes or the back-wasting and erosion of the HLB scarp. We propose that these features are genetically related to and formed by sedimentary (mud) diapirs that ascended from zones of regionally confined, poorly consolidated, and mechanically weak material. We note morphologic similarities between the mounds and pitted cones of the southern Utopia boundary plain and terrestrial mud volcanoes in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan. These analogs provide a context for understanding the geological environments and processes that supported mud diapir-related modification of the HLB. In southern Utopia, mud diapirs near the Elysium volcanic edifice may have resulted in laccolith-like intrusions that produced the fractured rises, while in the central boundary plain mud diapirs could have extruded to form pitted cones, mounds, and lobate flows, perhaps related to compressional stresses that account for wrinkle ridges. The removal of material a few kilometers deep by diapiric processes may have resulted in subsidence and deformation of surface materials to form widespread cavi. Collectively, these inferences suggest that sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism as well as related surface deformations could have been the dominant Hesperian mechanisms that altered the regional boundary plain. We discuss a model in which

  11. Microbial Community of a Hydrothermal Mud Vent Underneath the Deep-Sea Anoxic Brine Lake Urania (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Michail M.; Giuliano, Laura; Cappello, Simone; Denaro, Renata; Golyshin, Peter N.

    2007-04-01

    The composition of a metabolically active prokaryotic community thriving in hydrothermal mud fluids of the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic Western Urania Basin was characterized using rRNA-based phylogenetic analysis of a clone library. The physiologically active prokaryotic assemblage in this extreme environment showed a great genetic diversity. Most members of the microbial community appeared to be affiliated to yet uncultured organisms from similar ecosystems, i.e., deep-sea hypersaline basins and hydrothermal vents. The bacterial clone library was dominated by phylotypes affiliated with the epsilon- Proteobacteria subdivision recognized as an ecologically significant group of bacteria inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal environments. Almost 18% of all bacterial clones were related to delta- Proteobacteria, suggesting that sulfate reduction is one of the dominant metabolic processes occurring in warm mud fluids. The remaining bacterial phylotypes were related to alpha- and beta- Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, Deinococcus-Thermus, KB1 and OP-11 candidate divisions. Moreover, a novel monophyletic clade, deeply branched with unaffiliated 16S rDNA clones was also retrieved from deep-sea sediments and halocline of Urania Basin. Archaeal diversity was much lower and detected phylotypes included organisms affiliated exclusively with the Euryarchaeota. More than 96% of the archaeal clones belonged to the MSBL-1 candidate order recently found in hypersaline anoxic environments, such as endoevaporitic microbial mats, Mediterranean deep-sea mud volcanoes and anoxic basins. Two phylotypes, represented by single clones were related to uncultured groups DHVE-1 and ANME-1. Thus, the hydrothermal mud of hypersaline Urania Basin seems to contain new microbial diversity. The prokaryotic community was significantly different from that occurring in the upper layers of the Urania Basin since 60% of all bacterial and 40% of all archaeal phylotypes were obtained only from mud

  12. Evidence for and implications of sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism in the southern Utopia highland-lowland boundary plain, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Several types of spatially associated landforms in the southern Utopia Planitia highland-lowland boundary (HLB) plain appear to have resulted from localized geologic activity, including (1) fractured rises, (2) elliptical mounds, (3) pitted cones with emanating lobate materials, and (4) isolated and coalesced cavi (depressions). Stratigraphic analysis indicates these features are Hesperian or younger and may be associated with resurfacing that preferentially destroyed smaller (< 8 ?? km diameter) impact craters. Based on landform geomorphologies and spatial distributions, the documented features do not appear to be specifically related to igneous or periglacial processes or the back-wasting and erosion of the HLB scarp. We propose that these features are genetically related to and formed by sedimentary (mud) diapirs that ascended from zones of regionally confined, poorly consolidated, and mechanically weak material. We note morphologic similarities between the mounds and pitted cones of the southern Utopia boundary plain and terrestrial mud volcanoes in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan. These analogs provide a context for understanding the geological environments and processes that supported mud diapir-related modification of the HLB. In southern Utopia, mud diapirs near the Elysium volcanic edifice may have resulted in laccolith-like intrusions that produced the fractured rises, while in the central boundary plain mud diapirs could have extruded to form pitted cones, mounds, and lobate flows, perhaps related to compressional stresses that account for wrinkle ridges. The removal of material a few kilometers deep by diapiric processes may have resulted in subsidence and deformation of surface materials to form widespread cavi. Collectively, these inferences suggest that sedimentary diapirism and mud volcanism as well as related surface deformations could have been the dominant Hesperian mechanisms that altered the regional boundary plain. We discuss a model in

  13. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  14. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik, J.

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  15. Peloid Mud: a multi-step maturation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redolfi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is understanding the process involved in the maturation of artificial peloid mud commonly use in thermal spa. I prepare a standard protocol for analysis: XRD, chemical, heat capacity and heavy metal sequential extraction . I also prepare 12 artificial peloid mud following the procedure describe in Veniale et al. (2004) mixing natural thermal waters form the Lazio region with a common clay also collected in Lazio Region with a ration of 1:1 in weight and put this mud in a sealed box at 40 °C for all the maturation process without remixing. Each peloid mud was sampled at one, three and six month of maturation, dried at 60 °C degree and milled for analysis. Each mud was compared with the result at one, three and six month to identify the major different of parameters at different time of maturation.

  16. Eddy covariance flux measurements over a man made lake during the ALEX 2014 field campaign in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, R.; Potes, M.; Albino, A.; Rodrigues, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, vapor, CO2 and momentum exchanges between water and air were measured using the new IRGASON eddy covariance system, an integrated open-path CO2 /H2O Gas Analyser and 3D Sonic Anemometer, installed on a instrumented floating platform (Figure 1) in the Alqueva reservoir, a large man made lake (area of 250 km2) in South Portugal. Radiation sensors were also mounted on the raft in order to measure near surface up and down radiative fluxes, while the water temperature profile below the platform were continuously archived. An accelerometer was mounted on the support bar near the sonic anemometer in order to correct the vertical component of the wind due to the the raft swing. The measurements were performed during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment, ALEX 2014, between June and September 2014. ALEX 2014 ( http://www.alex2014.cge.uevora.pt) was an integrated field campaign with measurements of chemical, physical and biological parameters at different experimental sites in the reservoir and in its surrounding area. Worldwide, there are few reported flux measurements over lakes. This set of observations contribute to improve the characterization of the exchanges between a lake and the atmosphere in a semi-arid climate. The eddy covariance estimates of lake evaporation are compared against other methods.

  17. Mount Rainier active cascade volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

  18. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posin, Seth B.; Greeley, Ronald

    1988-01-01

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology.

  19. Volcano spacing and plate rigidity

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, U. )

    1991-04-01

    In-plane stresses, which accompany the flexural deformation of the lithosphere under the load adjacent volcanoes, may govern the spacing of volcanoes in hotspot provinces. Specifically, compressive stresses in the vicinity of a volcano prevent new upwelling in this area, forcing a new volcano to develop at a minimum distance that is equal to the distance in which the radial stresses change from compressional to tensile (the inflection point). If a volcano is modeled as a point load on a thin elastic plate, then the distance to the inflection point is proportional to the thickness of the plate to the power of 3/4. Compilation of volcano spacing in seven volcanic groups in East Africa and seven volcanic groups of oceanic hotspots shows significant correlation with the elastic thickness of the plate and matches the calculated distance to the inflection point. In contrast, volcano spacing in island arcs and over subduction zones is fairly uniform and is much larger than predicted by the distance to the inflection point, reflecting differences in the geometry of the source and the upwelling areas.

  20. Engineered solutions to the hazards of oil based muds

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetsur, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the drilling process, mud performs a number of functions requiring different physical and chemical properties and it is useful to consider how these are affected by the use of an oil based fluid. The first function of the mud is to transport cuttings to the surface, which in general requires a velocity of around 100-200 ft/min and a viscosity of 30-50 secs/qt. The mud should have sufficient viscosity and gel strength to ensure that the cuttings are transported from the cutting surface and that they do no sink back to the bottom should circulation be interrupted. Secondly, the mud also works as a cutting fluid to lubricate and cool the bit and to ensure the at it is working on a clean formation, and to assist cutting via the energy of the fluid jets from the bit nozzles. The third essential function of the mud is as a primary means of pressure control. The hydrostatic head of the column of mud serves to counter-balance the formation pressure at any depth and must be amenable to adjust to compensate for variations in pressure. Also, by measuring flow rates in and out of the hole, the volume of mud in the tanks and by monitoring whether the mud contains gas, fluids or hydrocarbons, a large amount of information about what is happening at the bit can be obtained. The fourth property of mud is to provide a filter-cake that lines the bore of the well, helping to support is and preventing the loss of mud to the formation or the ingress of fluids form the formation into the hold.