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Sample records for alexander fleming discovered

  1. What if Fleming had not discovered penicillin?

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Wainwright, Milton; Alahmadi, Tahani Awad; Salleeh, Hashim Bin; Faden, Asmaa A.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    What would have happened had Alexander Fleming not discovered penicillin in 1928? Perhaps the obvious answer is that, someone else would have discovered penicillin during 1930s and the Oxford group, would still have purified it sometime in the early 1940s. Here, however, in this counterfactual account of the penicillin story, it is argued that without Fleming, penicillin might still be undiscovered and the antibiotic age would never have dawned. As a result, many of the recent developments in medicine, such as organ transplantation, might have been delayed or, at best, made more hazardous. Penicillin might have come onto the scene a few years later but, had Fleming overlooked the discovery, it seems certain that penicillin would not have saved countless Allied lives, during and after D-Day. Instead of having enjoyed fifty and more years of the antibiotic age, it is argued here, that we would have had to rely upon highly developed sulphonamides, so-called “supasulfas”, and other chemically-derived antibacterial drugs. Indeed, it might be the case that, even well into this new millennium, the antibiotic age has yet to dawn, and medicine is still waiting for someone to chance upon penicillin. Here we discuss what might have happened had Fleming not discovered penicillin and come to the conclusion that the medical armoury available today would have been far different and might have relied solely upon highly developed varieties of sulphonamides or similar, synthetic, non-antibiotic antibacterial agents. PMID:25183937

  2. Why did the Fleming strain fail in penicillin industry?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; Díez, Bruno; Barredo, José Luis

    2005-05-01

    Penicillin, discovered 75 years ago by Sir Alexander Fleming in Penicillium notatum, laid the foundations of modern antibiotic chemotherapy. Early work was carried out on the original Fleming strain, but it was later replaced by overproducing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, which became the industrial penicillin producers. We show how a C(1357)-->T (A394V) change in the gene encoding PahA in P. chrysogenum may help to explain the drawback of P. notatum. PahA is a cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the catabolism of phenylacetic acid (PA; a precursor of penicillin G). We expressed the pahA gene from P. notatum in P. chrysogenum obtaining transformants able to metabolize PA (P. chrysogenum does not), and observing penicillin production levels about fivefold lower than that of the parental strain. Our data thus show that a loss of function in P. chrysogenum PahA is directly related to penicillin overproduction, and support the historic choice of P. chrysogenum as the industrial producer of penicillin.

  3. Alexander Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... mice have been engineered to produce the same mutant forms of GFAP found in individuals with Alexander ... mice have been engineered to produce the same mutant forms of GFAP found in individuals with Alexander ...

  4. John Ambrose Fleming and the beginning of electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dylla, H. F.; Corneliussen, Steven T.

    2005-07-01

    2004 was the centenary of John Ambrose Fleming's momentous patent on the thermionic diode that can be called the birth of electronics. The ``Edison effect'' was discovered in 1882; this was later shown to be the result of thermionic emission of electrons from a heated filament into a vacuum. Edison did not make any significant devices based on this discovery, and the effect was ignored for more than 8 years. In 1890 Fleming explained the effect and showed that the thermionic diode could be used as a rectifier. Fourteen years later Fleming filed his 1904 patent on the thermionic diode. It was the first public announcement of the electron tube; this revolutionized the development of radio and led to the invention of the thermionic triode by Lee de Forest in 1906. The background to these events will be described.

  5. John Ambrose Fleming and the Beginning of Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Dylla; Steve Corneliussen

    2004-11-01

    2004 was the centenary of John Ambrose Fleming's momentous patent on the thermionic diode that can be called the birth of electronics. The ''Edison effect'' was discovered in 1882; this was later shown to be the result of thermionic emission of electrons from a heated filament into a vacuum. Edison did not make any significant devices based on this discovery, and the effect was ignored for more than 8 years. In 1890 Fleming explained the effect and showed that the thermionic diode could be used as a rectifier. Fourteen years later Fleming filed his 1904 patent on the thermionic diode. It was the first public announcement of the electron tube; this revolutionized the development of radio and led to the invention of the thermionic triode by Lee de Forest in 1906. The background to these events will be described.

  6. The Fleming Applied Projects Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spasov, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Applied Projects is a program where every technology student engages in an intensive team project full time during the final academic semester. A wide range of enterprises provide the real-world problems that form the basis of student projects. This article describes the program and how Fleming College uses this program for applied research. To…

  7. Fleming's penicillin producing strain is not Penicillium chrysogenum but P. rubens.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a commonly occurring mould in indoor environments and foods, and has gained much attention for its use in the production of the antibiotic penicillin. Phylogenetic analysis of the most important penicillin producing P. chrysogenum isolates revealed the presence of two highly supported clades, and we show here that these two clades represent two species, P. chrysogenum and P. rubens. These species are phenotypically similar, but extrolite analysis shows that P. chrysogenum produces secalonic acid D and F and/or a metabolite related to lumpidin, while P. rubens does not produce these metabolites. Fleming's original penicillin producing strain and the full genome sequenced strain of P. chrysogenum are re-identified as P. rubens. Furthermore, the well-known claim that Alexander Fleming misidentified the original penicillin producing strain as P. rubrum is discussed.

  8. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  9. Remembering Alexander Meiklejohn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tussman, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    A former student of Alexander Meiklejohn, a member of the Experimental College movement on the 1930s, describes his impressions of Meiklejohn's life, leadership qualities, and personal characteristics. (MSE)

  10. Alexander I. Ignatowski

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.; Jankovic, Gradimir M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1908, Alexander I. Ignatowski (1875–1955) published his pioneering work that first revealed a relationship between cholesterol-rich food and experimental atherosclerosis. This early experimental work paved a way to the metabolic study of the mechanism of atherosclerosis. Herein, we present a brief account of Ignatowski's work and life. PMID:23914012

  11. Alexander's Law revisited.

    PubMed

    Jeffcoat, Benjamin; Shelukhin, Alexander; Fong, Alex; Mustain, William; Zhou, Wu

    2008-07-01

    Alexander's Law states that the slow-phase velocity of the nystagmus caused by unilateral vestibular lesion increases with gaze in the beat direction. Two studies have shown that this gaze effect is generalized to the nystagmus caused by unilateral cold water irrigation. This indicates that the gaze effect is not the result of central changes associated with a peripheral lesion but rather because of unilateral vestibular peripheral inhibition. In this study, we show that there is a similar gaze effect on the nystagmus produced by unilateral warm water ear irrigation. Furthermore, we examined the two hypotheses of Alexander's Law proposed in the two studies. One hypothesis is based on the gaze-dependent modulation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) response to unbalanced canal input. The other hypothesis, however, is based on the leaky neural integrator caused by unilateral vestibular peripheral inhibition. These two hypotheses predict the same gaze effect on the nystagmus produced by cold water irrigation, but opposite gaze effects on the nystagmus produced by warm water irrigation. Our results support the first hypothesis and suggest that the second hypothesis needs to be modified.

  12. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Alexander disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... up study of 22 Chinese children with Alexander disease and analysis of parental origin of de novo GFAP mutations. J Hum Genet. 2013 Apr;58(4):183-8. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.152. Epub 2013 Jan 31. Citation on ... GS. Alexander disease: ventricular garlands and abnormalities of the medulla and ...

  14. Spiro K. Antiochos Receives 2013 John Adam Fleming Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-01-01

    Thank you, Jim Klimchuk, for this far too generous citation, and thank you very much, my AGU colleagues, for honoring me with the Fleming Medal. When I consider the list of excellent scientists who have been awarded the Fleming Medal, I am humbled that you have included me in their company. I am especially proud that this award is from AGU because only later in my career did I change my science focus and join AGU. This was the best professional decision I have ever made. As a result, I have met many wonderful colleagues. I've always loved doing research, but my colleagues in AGU have made it so much more enjoyable. Also, moving to AGU gave me the opportunity to participate in truly exciting science. My present position is that of senior scientist for space weather at NASA Goddard. It is interesting to note that the field of space weather science did not even exist when I started my career. I was very fortunate to be part of the beginning of a new field and, as a result, to be able to participate in the explosive advances of space weather science over the past 2 decades.

  15. Solidification science in cast MMCs: The influence of merton flemings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohatgi, Pradeep; Asthana, Rajiv

    2001-09-01

    The solidification science of cast metalmatrix composites (MMC) evolved as a subset of the broad field of solidification of monolithic alloys pioneered by Merton Flemings and his students. As a result of advances in solidification, the cast MMC field has evolved from its early incarnation—employing empirical research to engineer novel materials using versatile and cost-effective casting techniques—to using solidification-science-based approaches to tailor advanced materials for application-specific needs. The current and emerging applications of cast MMCs in a variety of automotive, aerospace, electronic packaging, and consumer-good industries exemplify the maturity of the field and the materials. Innovations in composite-forming techniques and efforts at wider industrial acceptance of MMCs will undoubtedly continue. However, the scientific principles underlying the solidification microstructure evolution that governs the composite properties have become well established, to a great extent, due to Flemings’ early, pioneering work on monolithic alloys and some of his more recent studies on solidification of reinforced metals. This paper reviews some aspects of solidification of discontinuously reinforced cast metals that owe their current understanding to Flemings’ contributions, in particular, the scientific understanding of macro- and microsegregation, fluidity and rheology of multiphase slurries, and stircasting, semi-solid casting, and preform infiltration. Current research to develop and test prototype components made from cast composites, including Al-flyash, Cu-graphite, Al-graphite, Al-alumina, and SiC-Al, is also presented, along with directions for future research.

  16. Obituary: Alexander Dalgarno (1928 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, Tom; Babb, James F. Babb; Loeb, Avi

    most abundant astrophysical molecule and the main constituent of the regions where stars form. Interstellar H2 was first detected directly in the following year, and data for interstellar H2 began to become abundant in 1973. Alex was well prepared and led efforts to interpret these data, from which he was able to infer the physical properties of diffuse interstellar molecular clouds. At nearly the same time he was involved in work on the ionization and energy deposition in H2 by nearly relativistic and relativistic particles called cosmic rays. The work has relevance to emission in the atmospheres of the giant planets, as well as for conditions in interstellar molecular clouds. Cosmic ray induced ionization initiates much of the basic chemistry in star forming regions, and the emissions of the product molecules control the temperatures and allow the diagnosis of the physical conditions and dynamics of the stellar nurseries. For more than four decades Alex elucidated the chemical networks governing the molecular abundances in a wide variety of astrophysical sources including star forming regions, supernova ejecta, the pregalactic universe, and extreme environments like those in the vicinities of X-ray sources powered by accretion onto black holes. The refinement of the models led to calculations predicting the existence of subsequently discovered negative ions in giant molecular clouds. One of his astrophysical interests that intrigued him late in his career was the emission of soft X-rays by comets and in the heliosphere due to charge transfer with solar wind particles, and he also worked on related processes occurring in the atmospheres of the giant planets. Alex remained very active in fundamental atomic and molecular physics, as well as for its applications to astrophysics and to terrestrial and extraterrestrial planetary atmospheres. Ultra-cold collisions and ultra-cold chemistry were major interests for Alex for much of the latest phase of his career, most

  17. Robert Alexander and His Passionate Philosophy (Profile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosseau, Remi Barclay

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the passionate philosophy of Robert Alexander, founder and director of living stage theater company and his views of art, creativity, the entire process of learning, politics, philosophy, and hope. Presents several excerpts from Alexander's presentations for artists and teachers during Living Stage residencies in cities around the…

  18. Dancers' Application of the Alexander Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Sylvie; Girard, Fernande

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the experience of professional contemporary dancers studying and applying the Alexander Technique to their dancing. This study was motivated by: 1. years of teaching both dance and somatics, 2. a strong desire to better understand how the Alexander Technique can be applied by dancers, and 3. a gap that the…

  19. The Alexander Technique: An Acting Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sarah A.

    2002-01-01

    Notes the discrepancy between students' use of the Alexander Technique in class and on stage. Discusses three fundamental self-use objectives of the Alexander Technique: the reduction of excess physical compression and muscularity; the unification of body/voice and thought; and the expansion of the field of attention. Demonstrates how each…

  20. An unusual presentation of juvenile Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Maria Joana; Risen, Sarah; Alper, Gulay

    2012-04-01

    Alexander disease is a rare leukodystrophy that most often presents in infancy but also includes neonatal, juvenile, and adult variants. Juvenile Alexander disease presents primarily with bulbar symptoms between 2 and 12 years of age. The diagnosis is often suggested by the clinical course and brain magnetic resonance image pattern and then confirmed by the presence of a mutation in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. A young girl presented with globus sensation and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed abnormalities mainly involving white matter tracts of the medulla oblongata and cerebellum. The presence of a mutation in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile Alexander disease. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for the diagnosis of late-onset presentations of Alexander disease.

  1. The Haunting Influence of Alexander Graham Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sue H.

    1971-01-01

    The article examines the significance that Alexander Graham Bell's attitude and actions had on the social and economic conditions experienced by deaf people during his lifetime and into the present. (CD)

  2. [On Alexander's pneumothorax: A critical appraisal].

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Guillermo; Villarreal-Alarcón, Miguel Ángel; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno

    According to the testimony of Ptolemy, which we know through Arrian, it has been assumed that Alexander the Great suffered a pneumothorax during his campaign against the Malli. In general, this assumption has been interpreted as a historical fact in medical literature. We consulted the same sources and concluded that it is unlikely that Alexander's arrow wound had given him a pneumothorax. In addition, we stressed the extra-historical content of classical sources.

  3. Thom, Alexander (1894-1945)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    British engineer and archaeo-astronomer, born in Scotland, became professor of engineering science at Oxford University. Accurately surveyed the megalithic sites in Britain and the megalithic lunar observatories, identifying their shapes and astronomical alignments. He claimed to have discovered in the dimensions of the circles, as apparently used by the megalithic constructors, quanta of length ...

  4. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  5. Alexander Graham Bell: Teacher of the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Robert V.

    The lecture on Alexander Graham Bell by Dr. Robert V. Bruce, the author of a biography of Bell, focuses on Bell's association with the Clarke School for the Deaf in Massachusetts. Noted are Bell's employment by the school at 25 years of age and the preceding period during which Bell taught elocution at a boys' school in Scotland and used his…

  6. The Remarkable Journey of Lloyd Alexander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnel, Michael O.; Jacobs, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This article features Lloyd Alexander, an author who has produced some of the most elegant and powerful prose in the history of modern children's literature. Lloyd began writing seriously in high school, and though he wrote and submitted many poems and short stories, his only success was being named a finalist in the "Writer's Digest" Short Story…

  7. Discovering Deserts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Discovering Deserts." Contents are organized into the following…

  8. Obituary: Walter Alexander Feibelman, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oergerle, William

    2005-12-01

    Walter Alexander Feibelman, 79, an astronomer who discovered the E-ring of Saturn, died of a heart attack 19 November 2004 at his home at Riderwood Village in Silver Spring, Maryland. Walter was born 30 October 1925 in Berlin, Germany to Bernard and Dora Feibelman. He came to the United States with his parents in 1941. They were some of the last German Jews to flee Nazi Germany. Years later, he reported his experiences in an account contributed to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. As a youth, he worked at a cleaning shop and as a soda jerk before taking a course in tool and die making. He worked at the Abbey Photo Corp. in New York and in a model-making firm, where he constructed models of aircraft for use in identification courses by the Army Air Forces. After high school, he attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology and received his BS degree in 1956. Until 1969, he was a research scientist at the University of Pittsburgh. While working as an assistant research professor in physics and astronomy at the University of Pittsburgh in 1967, he examined a photo of Saturn taken a year earlier at the university's Allegheny Observatory. The E-ring -- unlike the bright main rings, A, B, C, D and F -- is faint and not easily spotted. He paired his observation with calculations and announced his discovery, which remained unconfirmed until the Pioneer 11 flyby in 1979. Walter joined the Optical Astronomy Division of Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt in 1969, and worked there until 2002, when he became an emeritus astronomer at NASA. He became associated with the International Ultraviolet Explorer project, and worked on developing detectors for the orbiting observatory's spectrograph. The project turned out to be one of NASA's most successful observatories, operating from 1978 to 1996. In his scientific career, he published more than 200 refereed articles, mainly on hot stars and planetary nebulae. He also wrote papers in the fields of photography, spectroscopy

  9. Alexander Böhm (1971-2012).

    PubMed

    Boos, Winfried; Parkinson, John S; Jenal, Urs; Vogel, Jörg; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2013-04-01

    On November 28, 2012 Alexander (Alex) Böhm, a bacterial geneticist, died at age 41, only a few months after taking up a position as an assistant professor at the LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology in Marburg, Germany. Earlier in 2012 Alex had been diagnosed with an aggressive form of thyroid cancer that left him little time to live his scientific and personal dreams.

  10. Dr Elizabeth Alexander: First Female Radio Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    During March-April 1945, solar radio emission was detected at 200 MHz by operators of a Royal New Zealand Air Force radar unit located on Norfolk Island. Initially dubbed the `Norfolk Island Effect', this anomalous radiation was investigated throughout 1945 by British-born Elizabeth Alexander, head of the Operational Research Section of the Radio Development Laboratory in New Zealand. Alexander prepared a number of reports on this work, and in early 1946 she published a short paper in the newly-launched journal, Radio & Electronics. A geologist by training, Elizabeth Alexander happened to be in the right place at the right time, and unwittingly became the first woman in the world to work in the field that would later become known as radio astronomy. Her research also led to further solar radio astronomy projects in New Zealand in the immediate post-war year, and in part was responsible for the launch of the radio astronomy program at the Division of Radiophysics, CSIRO, in Sydney.

  11. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  12. Ice flow velocities and elevation change at Fleming Glacier, Wordie Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, A.; Wendt, J.; Bown, F.; Rivera, A.; Zamora, R.; Bravo, C.; Casassa, G.

    2009-04-01

    Glaciers in the Antarctic Peninsula have been responding to the pronounced atmospheric warming in the region (Vaughan et al. 2003) with frontal retreat (Cook et al. 2005), ice shelf collapse (Rott et al. 1996) and ice flow acceleration and thinning (Rignot et al. 2004; Shepherd et al. 2003; Pritchard & Vaughan 2007). These trends have progressively migrated southwards along the Antarctic Peninsula causing, for instance, a substantial retreat of Wilkins Ice Shelf (70.2˚ S) in 2008. At 69.3˚ S, but 300 km to the east, Wordie Ice Shelf experienced a major reduction in size in the 1980s (Doake & Vaughan 1991). Available information about this ice shelf and its feeding glaciers dates back to the 1970s when ice thickness and velocity measurements were carried out on Fleming Glacier (Doake 1975). Although initially it was thought that the post-collapse conditions of the feeding glaciers remained unchanged (Vaughan 1993), more recent evidence shows that glaciers accelerated after the ice shelf collapse and substantial glacier thinning has occurred (Rignot et al. 2005). We present data acquired during two field expeditions to Fleming Glacier. During the first season in November 2007, we installed an Automatic Weather Station (AWS) and a permanent GPS site. Additional data including a local GPS network, ground penetrating radar measurements and snow densities were collected. In December 2008, during the second field campaign, surface elevation data were acquired using an airborne laser scanner along a trajectory between Gibbs Glacier and Airy Glacier, along the ice divide between both sides of the Peninsula and on Fleming Glacier. The AWS was found protruding only 20 cm above the snow surface, demonstrating the high snow accumulation in the area, which was sufficient to cover the 4 m high tower installed in 2007 and that annual variability in the mass accumulation is significant. The station collected data for 250 days. The permanent GPS stopped collecting data after

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer, 1971 MASSACHUSETTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer, 1971 MASSACHUSETTS AVENUE FACADE, 1971 - James C. Hooe House, 2230 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 DETAIL OF BASEMENT FIREPLACE - Indian Trading Post, Second & Merchant Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  15. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 DETAIL OF STONEWORK (WEST ELEVATION) - Indian Trading Post, Second & Merchant Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  16. "Most brilliant in judgment": Alexander the Great and Aristotle.

    PubMed

    Lainas, Panagiotis; Panutsopulos, Dimitrios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Zoras, Odysseas; Skandalakis, John E

    2005-03-01

    From historical sources, it is evident that Alexander the Great was indebted to one of his teachers, Aristotle of Stagira. It was the teaching of Aristotle that evoked all the nascent talents of young Alexander and turned him into a great man. Alexander was extremely interested in the secrets of medicine and considered it an art. The medical knowledge he acquired from Aristotle may have saved his life and the lives of his troops on many occasions. If Alexander did not possess medical knowledge and if his everyday life had not been so greatly influenced by medicine, he might never have been able to create his empire.

  17. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer, 1971 VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer, 1971 VIEW FROM SITTING ROOM INTO DRAWING ROOM - Joseph Beale House, 2301 Massachusetts Avenue, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer, 1971 DETAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer, 1971 DETAIL, ENTRANCE STOOP (LION FIGURE) - Joseph Beale House, 2301 Massachusetts Avenue, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Comparative metabolic capabilities for Micrococcus luteus NCTC 2665, the "Fleming" strain, and actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rokem, J Stefan; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-11-01

    Putative gene predictions of the Gram positive actinobacteria Micrococcus luteus (NCTC 2665, "Fleming strain") was used to construct a genome scale reconstruction of the metabolic network for this organism. The metabolic network comprises 586 reactions and 551 metabolites, and accounts for 21% of the genes in the genome. The reconstruction was based on the annotated genome and available biochemical information. M. luteus has one of the smallest genomes of actinobacteria with a circular chromosome of 2,501,097 base pairs and a GC content of 73%. The metabolic pathways required for biomass production in silico were determined based on earlier models of actinobacteria. The in silico network is used for metabolic comparison of M. luteus with other actinomycetes, and hence provides useful information for possible future biotechnological exploitation of this organism, e.g., for production of biofuels.

  20. Call-fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction) and aneurysm associated with multiple recreational drug use.

    PubMed

    Drazin, Doniel; Alexander, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. Evidence suggests that recreational drug use has a direct effect on the cerebral vasculature and is of greater concern in those with undiagnosed aneurysms or vascular malformations. The authors report a case of thunderclap headache with a negative head CT and equivocal lumbar puncture after a drug-fueled weekend. The patient underwent diagnostic cerebral angiogram which demonstrated multisegmental, distal areas of focal narrowing of the middle, anterior, posterior, and posterior inferior cerebral artery and an incidental aneurysm. It is often difficult to determine the exact origin of symptoms; thus we were left with a bit of a chicken or the egg debate, trying to decipher which part came first. Either the aneurysm ruptured with associated concomitant vasospasm or it is a case of Call-Fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction) with an incidental aneurysm. The authors proposed their management and rationale of this complex case.

  1. Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2015-08-25

    The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.

  2. Recognizing the Presidents: Was Alexander Hamilton President?

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; DeSoto, K Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Studies over the past 40 years have shown that Americans can recall about half the U.S. presidents. Do people know the presidents even though they are unable to access them for recall? We investigated this question using the powerful cues of a recognition test. Specifically, we tested the ability of 326 online subjects to recognize U.S. presidents when presented with their full names among various types of lures. The hit rate for presidential recognition was .88, well above the proportion produced in free recall but far from perfect. Presidents Franklin Pierce and Chester Arthur were recognized less than 60% of the time. Interestingly, four nonpresidents were falsely recognized at relatively high rates, and Alexander Hamilton was more frequently identified as president than were several actual presidents. Even on a recognition test, knowledge of American presidents is imperfect and prone to error. The false alarm data support the theory that false fame can arise from contextual familiarity.

  3. Pellagra Pre-Goldberger: Rupert Blue, Fleming Sandwith, and The “Vitamine Hypothesis”

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Charles S.; Mull, Shane R.

    2015-01-01

    The conquest of pellagra is commonly associated with one name: Joseph Goldberger of the US Public Health Service, who in 1914 went south, concluded within 4 months that the cause was inadequate diet, spent the rest of his life researching the disease, and—before his death from cancer in 1929—found that brewer's yeast could prevent and treat it at nominal cost. It does Goldberger no discredit to emphasize that between 1907 and 1914 a patchwork coalition of asylum superintendents, practicing physicians, local health officials, and others established for the first time an English-language competence in pellagra, sifted through competing hypotheses, and narrowed the choices down to two: an insect-borne infection hypothesis, championed by the flamboyant European Louis Westerna Sambon, and the new “vitamine hypothesis,” proffered by Casimir Funk in early 1912 and articulated later that year by two members of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, Fleming Mant Sandwith and Rupert Blue. Those who resisted Goldberger's inconvenient truth that the root cause was southern poverty drew their arguments largely from the Thompson-McFadden Pellagra Commission, which traces back to Sambon's unfortunate influence on American researchers. Thousands died as a result. PMID:26330657

  4. Pellagra Pre-Goldberger: Rupert Blue, Fleming Sandwith, and The "Vitamine Hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charles S; Mull, Shane R

    2015-01-01

    The conquest of pellagra is commonly associated with one name: Joseph Goldberger of the US Public Health Service, who in 1914 went south, concluded within 4 months that the cause was inadequate diet, spent the rest of his life researching the disease, and--before his death from cancer in 1929--found that brewer's yeast could prevent and treat it at nominal cost. It does Goldberger no discredit to emphasize that between 1907 and 1914 a patchwork coalition of asylum superintendents, practicing physicians, local health officials, and others established for the first time an English-language competence in pellagra, sifted through competing hypotheses, and narrowed the choices down to two: an insect-borne infection hypothesis, championed by the flamboyant European Louis Westerna Sambon, and the new "vitamine hypothesis," proffered by Casimir Funk in early 1912 and articulated later that year by two members of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, Fleming Mant Sandwith and Rupert Blue. Those who resisted Goldberger's inconvenient truth that the root cause was southern poverty drew their arguments largely from the Thompson-McFadden Pellagra Commission, which traces back to Sambon's unfortunate influence on American researchers. Thousands died as a result.

  5. Recent Ice Loss from the Fleming and Other Glaciers, Wordie Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Casassa, G.; Gogineni, S.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Krabill, W.; Pritchard, H.; Rivera, A.; Thomas, R.; Turner, J.; Vaughan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry data from 1995 to 2004, and airborne ice thickness data from 2002, reveal that the glaciers flowing into former Wordie Ice Shelf, West Antarctic Peninsula, discharge 6.8 +/- 0.3 km(exp 3)/yr of ice, which is 84 +/- 30 percent larger than a snow accumulation of 3.7 +/- 0.8 km(exp 3)/yr over a 6,300 km(exp 2) drainage basin. Airborne and ICESat laser altimetry elevation data reveal glacier thinning at rates up to 2 m/yr. Fifty km from its ice front, Fleming Glacier flows 50 percent faster than it did in 1974 prior to the main collapse of Wordie Ice Shelf. We conclude that the glaciers accelerated following ice shelf removal, and have been thinning and losing mass to the ocean over the last decade. This and other observations suggest that the mass loss from the northern part of the Peninsula is not negligible at present.

  6. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer October 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer October 1968 FIRST FLOOR NORTH PARLOR, FIREPLACE - Smith-Morton Row House, 3034 P Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer April 1969 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer April 1969 3034 P STREET (right) AND ADJOINING ROWHOUSES, LOOKING EAST - Smith-Morton Row House, 3034 P Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer October 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer October 1968 VIEW OF SOUTH PARLOR FROM NORTH PARLOR - Smith-Morton Row House, 3034 P Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  10. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM NORTH - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  12. Alexander F. Chamberlain: a life's work.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Julia M

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the life and work of Alexander Francis Chamberlain. Though he has received little attention since the early 1900s, the importance of this scholar should not be underestimated. Chamberlain made notable contributions to the body of knowledge in anthropology-a discipline that, at the time, was a combination of anthropological and psychological inquiry. His early work began with investigations into the cultures and languages of two Indian tribes indigenous to Canada and the northern United States and, within a few decades, positioned Chamberlain as the leading scholar in this domain. Beyond his ethnographic insights, Chamberlain queried the development of the child and wrote on the subject of childhood in world folklore. He concerned himself with a scope of worthwhile subjects ranging from linguistics to women's suffrage. No topic was out of range as all forms of human study addressed the need for seeing each group as a contributing force to humanity at large. Chamberlain emphasized that no single racial, ethnic, or religious group should be singled out as inherently superior to another, a belief far ahead of his time. This article is an attempt at drawing a picture of a man whose scholarly achievements and strength of character are captured in the depth and breadth of his writing.

  13. 'Mind in general' by Sir Alexander Crichton.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    2006-12-01

    The history of the 'philosophies of psychiatry' can be defined as the contextualized study of past theoretical views on the nature, understanding and management of madness and related notions. The application of an hermeneutic apparatus to past psychiatric narratives gives rise to the history of psychiatry; its application to current narrative gives origin to the philosophy of psychiatry. If the latter employs off-the-shelf, ready-made, external philosophies, it follows a centripetal approach; if it starts from the inside of psychiatry and generates its own tools and meta-language, it follows a centrifugal approach. Psychiatry is burdened by intrinsic and extrinsic philosophical problems. The former result from its hybrid nature, i.e., from the fact that psychiatry unsteadily straddles the natural and human sciences. The latter are borrowed from the conceptual frames into which psychiatry has been inscribed since the 19th century. The philosophy of psychiatry may anticipate or follow empirical research. The ante rem mode is based on the idea that empirical research requires conceptual supervision, audit and guidance, for it is always ideology- and theory-laden. The post rem mode is based on the view that science is the only way to 'truth' and hence all that the philosophy of psychiatry can (or should) do is facilitate, interpret, justify, defend or glorify empirical findings. The Classic Text that follows was written by Sir Alexander Crichton at the end of the 18th century, and is a good example of the centripetal mode of philosophy-making.

  14. Genome sequence of the Fleming strain of Micrococcus luteus, a simple free- living actinobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Michael; Artsatbanov, Vladislav; Beller, Harry R.; Chandra, Govind; Chater, Keith F.; Dover, Lynn G.; Goh, Ee-Been; Kahan, Tamar; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lapidus, Alla; Lowry, Stephen R.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Mahillon, Jacques; Markowitz, Viktor; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Mukamolova, Galina V.; Oren, Aharon; Rokem, J. Stefan; Smith, Margaret C. M.; Young, Danielle I.; Greenblatt, Charles L.

    2009-11-01

    Micrococcus luteus (NCTC2665, Fleming strain) has one of the smallest genomes of free living actinobacteria sequenced to date, comprising a single circular chromosome of 2,501,097 bp (G+C content 73%) predicted to encode 2403 proteins. The genome shows extensive synteny with that of the closely related organism, Kocuria rhizophila, from which it was taxonomically separated relatively recently. Despite its small size, the genome harbors 73 IS elements, almost all of which are closely related to elements found in other actinobacteria. An IS element is inserted into the rrs gene of one of only two rrn operons found in M. luteus. The genome encodes only four sigma factors and fourteen response regulators, indicative of adaptation to a rather strict ecological niche (mammalian skin). The high sensitivity of M. luteus to {Beta}-lactam antibiotics may result from the presence of a reduced set of penicillin binding proteins and the absence of a wblC gene, which plays an important role in antibiotic resistance in other actinobacteria. Consistent with the restricted range of compounds it can use as a sole source of carbon for energy and growth, M. luteus has a minimal complement of genes concerned with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and its inability to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source may be due to the apparent absence of a gene encoding glucokinase. Uniquely among characterized bacteria, M. luteus appears to be able to metabolize glycogen only via trehalose, and to make trehalose only via glycogen. It has very few genes associated with secondary metabolism. In contrast to other actinobacteria, M. luteus encodes only one resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) required for emergence from dormancy and its complement of other dormancy-related proteins is also much reduced. M. luteus is capable of long-chain alkene biosynthesis, which is of interest for advanced biofuel production; a three gene cluster essential for this metabolism has been identified in the genome.

  15. Astrocytic TDP-43 pathology in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Adam K; Daniels, Christine M LaPash; Goldman, James E; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Messing, Albee

    2014-05-07

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the presence of eosinophilic inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers (RFs) within astrocytes, and is caused by dominant mutations in the coding region of the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). GFAP is the major astrocytic intermediate filament, and in AxD patient brain tissue GFAP is a major component of RFs. TAR DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is the major pathological protein in almost all cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ∼50% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), designated as FTLD-TDP. In ALS and FTLD-TDP, TDP-43 becomes insoluble, ubiquitinated, and pathologically phosphorylated and accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions in both neurons and glia of affected brain and spinal cord regions. Previously, TDP-43 was detected in RFs of human pilocytic astrocytomas; however, involvement of TDP-43 in AxD has not been determined. Here we show that TDP-43 is present in RFs in AxD patient brains, and that insoluble phosphorylated full-length and high molecular weight TDP-43 accumulates in white matter of such brains. Phosphorylated TDP-43 also accumulates in the detergent-insoluble fraction from affected brain regions of Gfap(R236H/+) knock-in mice, which harbor a GFAP mutation homologous to one that causes AxD in humans, and TDP-43 colocalizes with astrocytic RF pathology in Gfap(R236H/+) mice and transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type GFAP. These findings suggest common pathogenic mechanisms in ALS, FTLD, and AxD, and this is the first report of TDP-43 involvement in a neurological disorder primarily affecting astrocytes.

  16. Genome sequence of the Fleming strain of Micrococcus luteus, a simple free-living actinobacterium.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael; Artsatbanov, Vladislav; Beller, Harry R; Chandra, Govind; Chater, Keith F; Dover, Lynn G; Goh, Ee-Been; Kahan, Tamar; Kaprelyants, Arseny S; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lapidus, Alla; Lowry, Stephen R; Lykidis, Athanasios; Mahillon, Jacques; Markowitz, Victor; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mukamolova, Galina V; Oren, Aharon; Rokem, J Stefan; Smith, Margaret C M; Young, Danielle I; Greenblatt, Charles L

    2010-02-01

    Micrococcus luteus (NCTC2665, "Fleming strain") has one of the smallest genomes of free-living actinobacteria sequenced to date, comprising a single circular chromosome of 2,501,097 bp (G+C content, 73%) predicted to encode 2,403 proteins. The genome shows extensive synteny with that of the closely related organism, Kocuria rhizophila, from which it was taxonomically separated relatively recently. Despite its small size, the genome harbors 73 insertion sequence (IS) elements, almost all of which are closely related to elements found in other actinobacteria. An IS element is inserted into the rrs gene of one of only two rrn operons found in M. luteus. The genome encodes only four sigma factors and 14 response regulators, a finding indicative of adaptation to a rather strict ecological niche (mammalian skin). The high sensitivity of M. luteus to beta-lactam antibiotics may result from the presence of a reduced set of penicillin-binding proteins and the absence of a wblC gene, which plays an important role in the antibiotic resistance in other actinobacteria. Consistent with the restricted range of compounds it can use as a sole source of carbon for energy and growth, M. luteus has a minimal complement of genes concerned with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and its inability to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source may be due to the apparent absence of a gene encoding glucokinase. Uniquely among characterized bacteria, M. luteus appears to be able to metabolize glycogen only via trehalose and to make trehalose only via glycogen. It has very few genes associated with secondary metabolism. In contrast to most other actinobacteria, M. luteus encodes only one resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) required for emergence from dormancy, and its complement of other dormancy-related proteins is also much reduced. M. luteus is capable of long-chain alkene biosynthesis, which is of interest for advanced biofuel production; a three-gene cluster essential for this

  17. Zanvil Alexander Cohn 1926-1993

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Zanvil Alexander Cohn, an editor of this Journal since 1973, died suddenly on June 28, 1993. Cohn is best known as the father of the current era of macrophage biology. Many of his scientific accomplishments are recounted here, beginning with seminal studies on the granules of phagocytes that were performed with his close colleague and former editor of this Journal, James Hirsch. Cohn and Hirsch identified the granules as lysosomes that discharged their contents of digestive enzymes into vacuoles containing phagocytosed microbes. These findings were part of the formative era of cell biology and initiated the modern study of endocytosis and cell-mediated resistance to infection. Cohn further explored the endocytic apparatus in pioneering studies of the mouse peritoneal macrophage in culture. He described vesicular inputs from the cell surface and Golgi apparatus and documented the thoroughness of substrate digestion within lysosomal vacuoles that would only permit the egress of monosaccharides and amino acids. These discoveries created a vigorous environment for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior and visiting faculty. Some of the major findings that emerged from Cohn's collaborations included the radioiodination of the plasma membrane for studies of composition and turnover; membrane recycling during endocytosis; the origin of the mononuclear phagocyte system in situ; the discovery of the dendritic cell system of antigen-presenting cells; the macrophage as a secretory cell, including the release of proteases and large amounts of prostaglandins and leukotrienes; several defined parameters of macrophage activation, especially the ability of T cell-derived lymphokines to enhance killing of tumor cells and intracellular protozoa; the granule discharge mechanism whereby cytotoxic lymphocytes release the pore-forming protein perforin; the signaling of macrophages via myristoylated substrates of protein kinase C; and a tissue culture model in which

  18. 8. View of southwest rear and southeast side of AlexanderAlmon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of southwest rear and southeast side of Alexander-Almon House with cement block outbuilding to far left, facing north. - Alexander-Almon House, 130 Philip Almon Road, Roopville, Carroll County, GA

  19. 12. Detail view of southeast side window of AlexanderAlmon House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view of southeast side window of Alexander-Almon House with rain barrel at lower left and roof rafter tails at top, facing northwest. - Alexander-Almon House, 130 Philip Almon Road, Roopville, Carroll County, GA

  20. Obituary: Donald Alexander Macrae, 1916-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaquist, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    With the passing of Donald Alexander MacRae on 6 December 2006 at age 90, the astronomy community lost a visionary scientist and a great educator in the field. Don MacRae was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 19 February 1916, to Donald Alexander and Laura Geddes (Barnstead) MacRae. His father was originally a classics scholar and preceptor of Greek and Latin at Princeton, but at the time of Don's birth in 1916 he was Dean of the Dalhousie Law School in Halifax. The family moved to Toronto, Ontario, in 1924 when his father joined the faculty of Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto as a Professor of Law. After the family moved to Toronto, where he received most of his early education, he obtained his undergraduate degree in Mathematics and Physics in 1937 from the University of Toronto (U of T). He obtained the degree of A.M. in 1940 and of Ph.D. in 1943 from Harvard University under the mentorship of Bart Bok in the field of galactic structure. During his early career he worked briefly at the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University, and Carbide and Chemical Corporation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For Don the latter work was a brief and somewhat uneasy association with the Manhattan Project. In 1946, he obtained a position at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where he worked until 1953. In 1953, he accepted a position at the U of T, replacing Ralph Williamson, who had earlier introduced Don to the emerging field of radio astronomy while they both were at Cornell. Don's primary research field was stellar spectroscopy, but his interests were much broader than this, and he possessed an abiding ability to interest students and faculty in new and emerging ideas. In the early 1960s he developed a strong interest in the nature and origin of the lunar surface, and discussed these extensively with colleagues. Many of his ideas on this subject were later confirmed by the lunar exploration program. Don's continuing interest in radio astronomy

  1. Teaching Nuclear Radiation and the Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David R. Lapp

    2008-01-01

    The recent international story about the death of the former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko has more than just a few wondering about radiation poisoning and the sinister sounding polonium-210. I was preparing to begin a nuclear radiation unit the Monday after Thanksgiving 2006. As it turned out, Litvinenko died Thanksgiving Day after a short and…

  2. All Aboard the Engine of Reform: Lamar Alexander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1991-01-01

    Transformation of schools is the key to America 2000, an ambitious amalgam of ideas that Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander and his advisers have developed. The program's centerpiece is the creation of 535 "New American Schools" receiving a 1-time $1 million federal grant to develop exemplary programs. A sidebar describes the…

  3. The Century-Old Wisdom of Alexander Graham Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Orin

    1990-01-01

    This article reflects on Alexander Graham Bell's 1888 testimony before the Royal Commission of the United Kingdom on the Condition of the Deaf and Dumb, Etc. Excerpts are grouped by reference to (1) language education for the hearing impaired; (2) speechreading; (3) methods of teaching; (4) speech; and (5) sign language. (Author/PB)

  4. Journalism and the Educational Views of Alexander Meiklejohn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mack R.

    Alexander Meiklejohn, who died in 1964 at the age of 92, was a constitutional scholar whose major interest was education. Among Meiklejohn's beliefs were the following: the social good should take precedence over individual achievement; the liberal arts college is the institution best suited to carry out an affirmative reading of the First…

  5. The Making of the Liberal College: Alexander Meiklejohn at Amherst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Surveys the history and curricular changes of Amherst College from its founding in 1821 through the administration of Alexander Meiklejohn in 1912. Assesses Meiklejohn's impact upon the development of Amherst as a liberal arts college, and analyses the events surrounding his dismissal. (SLM)

  6. 46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's Last Street Cars, Daily Press, January 15, 1956) photographer unknown. The first streetcar (with dignitaries) to make the run from Newport News to a new housing development named Hilton Village in September 1918. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  7. A complex-network perspective on Alexander's wholeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains somehow mysterious and elusive, and therefore hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty for sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks - a classification scheme and a visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution, in order to make Alexander's profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander's thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty that exists in fine and deep structure. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their wholeness, and to better understand how the kind of structural beauty emerges from local actions guided by the 15 fundamental properties, and in particular by differentiation and adaptation processes. The wholeness goes beyond current complex network theory towards design or creation of living structures.

  8. View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and family plot among other demarcated family plots in the Female Union Band Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. The alexander surgical technique for the treatment of severe burns

    PubMed Central

    Gasperoni, M.; Neri, R.; Carboni, A.; Purpura, V.; Morselli, P.G.; Melandri, D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The extensive loss of skin in burned patients is a critical clinical condition, and the choice of an effective technique to cover and protect the damaged area has always been a challenge in the surgical field. Despite its wide clinical use, there is little data in the literature on using the Alexander technique to treat severe burns, while several studies have focused on alternative approaches. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Alexander surgical technique on 117 patients with severe burns. The characteristics of the burned patients, factors related to etiology of burns as well as adverse prognostic factors and their incidence in discharged versus deceased patients were also taken into account. Finally, a comparison is made with an alternative surgical procedure described in the literature. Our results show a satisfactory level of survival for patients with severe burns surgically treated with the Alexander technique, accounting for 63% of all clinical cases reported here. This treatment is also less expensive and more rapid than the alternative approach we compared it with. The Alexander technique is a lifesaving method for the treatment of severe burns that provides a satisfactory chance of survival at lower cost than the alternative surgical procedure examined. PMID:28289363

  10. Alexander Meiklejohn in Search of Freedom and Dignity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of the philosopher/educator Alexander Meiklejohn. Discusses the influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and the U.S. Constitution on Meiklejohn's educational theories, which stressed that human freedom and dignity can be enhanced by rigorous examination of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and the meaning of…

  11. Lamar Alexander and the Politics of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, George R.

    1992-01-01

    Although U.S. Education Secretary Lamar Alexander's forceful presence on the educational scene has compelled attention and eclipsed his predecessors, we are a long way from knowing whether this consummate politician and his espoused causes (such as America 2000) are destined to make a serous difference in U.S. education. (MLH)

  12. Obituary: Alexander (Andy) Franz Lubenow, 1956-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc William

    2006-12-01

    challenge upon which Andy thrived. After he had mastered sailing, he embarked on a new hobby: flying. He studied for and quickly earned a private pilot's license, purchasing his own Piper Cherokee in the process. One goal —a cross-country trip— was accomplished in June 2003, when he flew solo from Baltimore to Los Angeles and back. "You ought to try it," he told me. "As Lindbergh put it, flying is the perfect mix of science, engineering, and art. Only the pilots know why the birds sing....although I'm sure the geese I heard flying over[head] in formation the other night were swearing, and given the weather, I didn't blame them a bit!" When discussing his illness just days before his death, Andy was very calm about the whole thing and joked that "none of us is getting out of this life alive." It was during this conversation that he first heard the news that an asteroid was to be named in his honor. I read him the citation and asked for his comments: Lubenow 65885 Alexander Franz Lubenow Discovered 1997 Dec. 27 by M. W. Buie at the Anderson Mesa Station of the Lowell Observatory. Alexander (Andy) F. Lubenow (1956-), Program Coordinator at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Andy has provided exceptional support to the Hubble Space Telescope as an innovator and expert observation planner, especially for solar system targets, over the lifetime of HST. He had nothing to add. He responded that the citation pretty much said it all, and to say more would be to say less. Andy was a pleasure to know and work with. He was a friend, confidant, and sometimes even a guiding inspiration. When our paths diverged, I took some consolation in knowing that I would see him each year at the DPS meeting showing off the latest that the HST had done for solar system research. His visits have now come to an end but his legacy will live on. And somewhere, out in the dark of space, is a chunk of rock bearing his name.

  13. Nitric oxide mediates glial-induced neurodegeneration in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L; Kalwa, Hermann; Michel, Thomas; Messing, Albee; Feany, Mel B

    2015-11-26

    Glia play critical roles in maintaining the structure and function of the nervous system; however, the specific contribution that astroglia make to neurodegeneration in human disease states remains largely undefined. Here we use Alexander disease, a serious degenerative neurological disorder caused by astrocyte dysfunction, to identify glial-derived NO as a signalling molecule triggering astrocyte-mediated neuronal degeneration. We further find that NO acts through cGMP signalling in neurons to promote cell death. Glial cells themselves also degenerate, via the DNA damage response and p53. Our findings thus define a specific mechanism for glial-induced non-cell autonomous neuronal cell death, and identify a potential therapeutic target for reducing cellular toxicity in Alexander disease, and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders with glial dysfunction.

  14. Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Marr, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning, assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander’s death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile encephalitis. PMID:14725285

  15. Dr Alexander Graham Bell--audiologist and speech therapist.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, R C

    1976-09-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is best known for his role in the invention of the telephone. However, he had a lifelong involvement in speech therapy and audiology besides many other medical investigations. He was also awarded an honorary MD degree from Heidelberg University. In this, the 100th anniversary of his invention of the telephone, his life and some of his medical interests are briefly reviewed.

  16. The Effectiveness of DISCOVER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Elaine Frances

    Computer assisted career guidance (CACG) systems have been around for at least the past 20 years in career guidance centers. There are two types of systems: information retrieval and guidance interaction. This study investigated the effectiveness of DISCOVER in facilitating career decisions among college students. DISCOVER is a systematic career…

  17. Sample size determination for the weighted log-rank test with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights in cancer vaccine studies.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, immunological science has evolved, and cancer vaccines are available for treating existing cancers. Because cancer vaccines require time to elicit an immune response, a delayed treatment effect is expected. Accordingly, the use of weighted log-rank tests with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights is proposed for evaluation of survival endpoints. We present a method for calculating the sample size under assumption of a piecewise exponential distribution for the cancer vaccine group and an exponential distribution for the placebo group as the survival model. The impact of delayed effect timing on both the choice of the Fleming-Harrington's weights and the increment in the required number of events is discussed.

  18. >From alexander of aphrodisias to young and airy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. D.

    1999-10-01

    A didactic discussion of the physics of rainbows is presented, with some emphasis on the history, especially the contributions of Thomas Young nearly 200 years ago. We begin with the simple geometrical optics of Descartes and Newton, including the reasons for Alexander's dark band between the main and secondary bows. We then show how dispersion produces the familiar colorful spectacle. Interference between waves emerging at the same angle, but traveling different optical paths within the water drops, accounts for the existence of distinct supernumerary rainbows under the right conditions (small drops, uniform in size). Young's and Airy's contributions are given their due.

  19. In memoriam. Alexander Hollaender 1898-1986. [Radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Alexander Hollaender gave an early clue that there might be recovery or repair mechanisms in bacteria, although at the time the target for cell target for cell killing was not known. As one of the early investigators who used action spectra for the identification of the targets in biological systems, he was able to show that the wavelengths producing mutations were just those absorbed by nucleic acids, even though in those days nucleic acids were not known to be the genetic material. This result was the first clear indication that radiation and environmental biologists should concentrate on changes in DNA and not in proteins.

  20. CSF and Blood Levels of GFAP in Alexander Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jany, Paige L.; Agosta, Guillermo E.; Benko, William S.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Keller, Stephanie R.; Köehler, Wolfgang; Mar, Soe; Naidu, Sakkubai; Marie Ness, Jayne; Renaud, Deborah L.; Salsano, Ettore; Schiffmann, Raphael; Simon, Julie; Vanderver, Adeline; Eichler, Florian; van der Knaap, Marjo S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alexander disease is a rare, progressive, and generally fatal neurological disorder that results from dominant mutations affecting the coding region of GFAP, the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein, the major intermediate filament protein of astrocytes in the CNS. A key step in pathogenesis appears to be the accumulation of GFAP within astrocytes to excessive levels. Studies using mouse models indicate that the severity of the phenotype correlates with the level of expression, and suppression of GFAP expression and/or accumulation is one strategy that is being pursued as a potential treatment. With the goal of identifying biomarkers that indirectly reflect the levels of GFAP in brain parenchyma, we have assayed GFAP levels in two body fluids in humans that are readily accessible as biopsy sites: CSF and blood. We find that GFAP levels are consistently elevated in the CSF of patients with Alexander disease, but only occasionally and modestly elevated in blood. These results provide the foundation for future studies that will explore whether GFAP levels can serve as a convenient means to monitor the progression of disease and the response to treatment. PMID:26478912

  1. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities.

  2. Kinesthetic Ventures Informed by the Work of F. M. Alexander, Stanislavski, Peirce, and Freud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Ed; Wright, Ben; Protzel, Michael, Ed.

    This book is about education harvested from self-observation. F. Matthias Alexander (1869-1955) studied the experience of self formation, working with motor habits. His method is used in performing arts training to enhance bodily and vocal expression. Like Alexander, Konstantine Stanislavski (1863-1938) and Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) studied human…

  3. 76 FR 28226 - Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander; and AIR 7 Seas... ``Complainant,'' against African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia, ALCO Logistics, LLC; Brenda Alexander; and Air 7 Seas Transport Logistics, Inc.; hereinafter ``Respondents''. Complainant asserts that she is acting agent...

  4. The death of Alexander the Great--a spinal twist of fate.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2004-06-01

    Alexander the Great died in 323 B.C. from an unknown cause. Physical depictions of this historical figure reveal the likelihood of a cervical scoliotic deformity. This is substantiated with the medical history and is correlated with his untimely death. For the first time, it is concluded that Alexander's death may have ensued from the sequelae of congenital scoliotic syndrome.

  5. Discovering the Artist Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Sam

    1999-01-01

    Describes a personal artistic struggle against heroin addiction, advising teachers of the difficulty of working to discover and express one's developing self. Considers the effect of poetry and philosophy on the developing creative process. Provides samples of the author's own poetry to demonstrate creative development, as an example to Montessori…

  6. Discovering Hidden Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Working with teachers and artists from Florida to Maine, a drama educator has discovered that creative power and insight can emerge when using drama in the language arts classroom. One seventh-grade class began with simple warm-ups to loosen inhibitions and then moved into a unit that dealt with improvising using movement. A student who had hardly…

  7. Discovering Mendeleev's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity that introduces the historical developments in science that led to the discovery of the periodic table and lets students experience scientific discovery firsthand. Enables students to learn about patterns among the elements and experience how scientists analyze data to discover patterns and build models. (JRH)

  8. DISCOVER-AQ

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

    ... DISCOVER-AQ ) is a four-year campaign to improve the use of satellites to monitor air quality for public health and environmental benefit. ... will enable more effective use of current and future satellites to diagnose ground level conditions influencing air quality. ...

  9. Teaching Nuclear Radiation and the Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-03-01

    The recent international story about the death of the former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko has more than just a few wondering about radiation poisoning and the sinister sounding polonium-210. I was preparing to begin a nuclear radiation unit the Monday after Thanksgiving 2006. As it turned out, Litvinenko died Thanksgiving Day after a short and terrible three-week illness. Having the story continue to unfold throughout the next two weeks of the new unit provided a daily opportunity for students to see the relevance of what we were doing in class. My students were able to have meaningful and informed conversations with their peers and parents over an important international event. They even began to feel a bit like authorities themselves when listening to experts respond to media questions about polonium-210 and nuclear radiation in general. This paper discusses some of the ways that the story of Litvinenko was used while presenting the topic of nuclear radiation.

  10. Alexander von Humboldt's perceptions of colonial Spanish America.

    PubMed

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis of Alexander von Humboldt's descriptions and critical comments on the colonial society of the different regions he visited during his well-known expedition through the Americas (1799-1804). The criticisms of colonialism that he expressed, reflecting his personal convictions, have already been the focal point of many studies, but Humboldt also was able to offer a more differentiated assessment through comparisons of regional and local traditions and developments. This essay focuses on his personal diaries, which offer many interesting comments on colonial societies. These considerations and impressions made during the expedition are of particular scholarly value since they were not subject to censorship of any kind.

  11. The Astronomer Alexander I. Postoiev (1900-1976)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, P. M.; Matsuura, O. T.

    This is a biographical note on the life of Dr Alexander I. Postoiev, a victim of Stalin's purge of Soviet astronomers in 1936-1937 (McCutcheon, 1985). Along with his family, he left the Soviet Union in 1943, and lived in Germany as a refugee and "displaced person" until 1952, when he moved to Brazil. Then he started the second part of his professional career. Thanks to his efforts the Astronomical and Geophysical Institute (IAG) from the University of Sao Paulo (USP) was involved, for the first time, in programme of international cooperation, thus contributing to the institutional consolidation of IAG/USP as a leading centre of astronomical research and teaching today in Brazil.

  12. Silurian Gastropoda from the Alexander terrane, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Gastropods are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. They are part of a diverse megabenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. Heceta Limestone gastropods with Uralian affinities include Kirkospira glacialis, which closely resembles "Pleurotomaria" lindstromi Oehlert of Chernyshev, 1893, Retispira cf. R. volgulica (Chernyshev, 1893), and Medfracaulus turriformis (Chernyshev, 1893). Medfracaulus and similar morphotypes such as Coelocaulus karlae are unknown from rocks that are unquestionably part of the North American continent (Laurentia) during Late Silurian time. Beraunia is previously known only from the Silurian of Bohemia. Pachystrophia has previously been reported only from western North American terranes (Eastern Klamath, York, and Farewell terranes) and Europe. Bathmopterus Kirk, 1928, is resurrected and is only known from the Silurian of southeast Alaska. Newly described taxa include Hecetastoma gehrelsi n. gen. and n. sp. and Baichtalia tongassensis n. gen. and n. sp. ??2008 The Geological Society of America.

  13. Adaptive autophagy in Alexander disease-affected astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guomei; Yue, Zhenyu; Tallóczy, Zsolt; Goldman, James E

    2008-07-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal pathways are the two main routes of protein and organelle clearance in eukaryotic cells. The proteasome system is responsible for unfolded, short-lived proteins, which precludes the clearance of oligomeric and aggregated proteins, whereas macroautophagy, a process generally referred to as autophagy, mediates mainly the bulk degradation of long-lived cytoplasmic proteins, large protein complexes or organelles.(1) Recently, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders as an important pathway for the clearance of abnormally accumulated intracellular proteins, such as huntingtin, tau, and mutant and modified α-synuclein.(1-6) Our recent study illustrated the induction of adaptive autophagy in response to mutant glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) accumulation in astrocytes, in the brains of patients with Alexander disease (AxD), and in mutant GFAP knock-in mouse brains.(7) This autophagic response is negatively regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The activation of p38 MAPK by GFAP accumulation is responsible for mTOR inactivation and the induction of autophagy. We also found that the accumulation of GFAP impairs proteasome activity.(8) In this commentary we discuss the potential compensatory relationship between an impaired proteasome and activated autophagy, and propose that the MLK-MAPK (mixed lineage kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade is a regulator of this crosstalk. Addendum to: Tang G, Yue Z, Talloczy, Z, Hagemann T, Cho W, Sulzer D, Messing A, Goldman JE. Alexander disease-mutant GFAP accumulation stimulates autophagy through p38 MAPK and mTOR signaling pathways. Hum Mol Genetics 2008; In press.

  14. Discovering the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    1999-04-01

    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  15. Genome Sequence of the Fleming Strain of Micrococcus luteus, a Simple Free-Living Actinobacterium▿ †‡

    PubMed Central

    Young, Michael; Artsatbanov, Vladislav; Beller, Harry R.; Chandra, Govind; Chater, Keith F.; Dover, Lynn G.; Goh, Ee-Been; Kahan, Tamar; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lapidus, Alla; Lowry, Stephen R.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Mahillon, Jacques; Markowitz, Victor; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mukamolova, Galina V.; Oren, Aharon; Rokem, J. Stefan; Smith, Margaret C. M.; Young, Danielle I.; Greenblatt, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Micrococcus luteus (NCTC2665, “Fleming strain”) has one of the smallest genomes of free-living actinobacteria sequenced to date, comprising a single circular chromosome of 2,501,097 bp (G+C content, 73%) predicted to encode 2,403 proteins. The genome shows extensive synteny with that of the closely related organism, Kocuria rhizophila, from which it was taxonomically separated relatively recently. Despite its small size, the genome harbors 73 insertion sequence (IS) elements, almost all of which are closely related to elements found in other actinobacteria. An IS element is inserted into the rrs gene of one of only two rrn operons found in M. luteus. The genome encodes only four sigma factors and 14 response regulators, a finding indicative of adaptation to a rather strict ecological niche (mammalian skin). The high sensitivity of M. luteus to β-lactam antibiotics may result from the presence of a reduced set of penicillin-binding proteins and the absence of a wblC gene, which plays an important role in the antibiotic resistance in other actinobacteria. Consistent with the restricted range of compounds it can use as a sole source of carbon for energy and growth, M. luteus has a minimal complement of genes concerned with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and its inability to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source may be due to the apparent absence of a gene encoding glucokinase. Uniquely among characterized bacteria, M. luteus appears to be able to metabolize glycogen only via trehalose and to make trehalose only via glycogen. It has very few genes associated with secondary metabolism. In contrast to most other actinobacteria, M. luteus encodes only one resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) required for emergence from dormancy, and its complement of other dormancy-related proteins is also much reduced. M. luteus is capable of long-chain alkene biosynthesis, which is of interest for advanced biofuel production; a three-gene cluster essential for this

  16. Students Discover Unique Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Three undergraduate students, from Leiden University in the Netherlands, have discovered an extrasolar planet. The extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is also the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 45a/08 A planet around a hot star The students were testing a method of investigating the light fluctuations of thousands of stars in the OGLE database in an automated way. The brightness of one of the stars was found to decrease for two hours every 2.5 days by about one percent. Follow-up observations, taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, confirmed that this phenomenon is caused by a planet passing in front of the star, blocking part of the starlight at regular intervals. According to Ignas Snellen, supervisor of the research project, the discovery was a complete surprise. "The project was actually meant to teach the students how to develop search algorithms. But they did so well that there was time to test their algorithm on a so far unexplored database. At some point they came into my office and showed me this light curve. I was completely taken aback!" The students, Meta de Hoon, Remco van der Burg, and Francis Vuijsje, are very enthusiastic. "It is exciting not just to find a planet, but to find one as unusual as this one; it turns out to be the first planet discovered around a fast rotating star, and it's also the hottest star found with a planet," says Meta. "The computer needed more than a thousand hours to do all the calculations," continues Remco. The planet is given the prosaic name OGLE2-TR-L9b. "But amongst ourselves we call it ReMeFra-1, after Remco, Meta, and myself," says Francis. The planet was discovered by looking at the brightness variations of about 15 700 stars, which had been observed by the OGLE survey once or twice per night for about four years between 1997 and 2000. Because the data had been made public

  17. Discovering system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B.; Dean, F.F.

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  18. Group sequential monitoring based on the weighted log-rank test statistic with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights in cancer vaccine studies.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, immunological science has evolved, and cancer vaccines are now approved and available for treating existing cancers. Because cancer vaccines require time to elicit an immune response, a delayed treatment effect is expected and is actually observed in drug approval studies. Accordingly, we propose the evaluation of survival endpoints by weighted log-rank tests with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights. We consider group sequential monitoring, which allows early efficacy stopping, and determine a semiparametric information fraction for the Fleming-Harrington family of weights, which is necessary for the error spending function. Moreover, we give a flexible survival model in cancer vaccine studies that considers not only the delayed treatment effect but also the long-term survivors. In a Monte Carlo simulation study, we illustrate that when the primary analysis is a weighted log-rank test emphasizing the late differences, the proposed information fraction can be a useful alternative to the surrogate information fraction, which is proportional to the number of events. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Berlin tradition in Chicago: Franz Alexander and the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Erika S

    2010-01-01

    Freud considered Franz Alexander, the first graduate of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute and an assistant in the Berlin Polyclinic, to be "one of our strongest hopes for the future." Alexander went on to become the first director of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis in 1932 and modeled some of the Chicago Institute's mission on his Berlin experiences. He was also a researcher in psychosomatic medicine, a prolific writer about psychoanalysis and prominent in psychoanalytic organizations. As he proposed modifications in psychoanalytic technique, he became a controversial figure, especially in the elaboration of his ideas about brief therapy and the corrective emotional experience. This paper puts Alexander's achievements in historical context, draws connections between the Berlin and Chicago Institutes and suggests that, despite his quarrels with traditional psychoanalysis, Alexander's legacy may be in his attitude towards psychoanalysis, characterized by a commitment to scientific study, a willingness to experiment, and a conviction about the role of psychoanalysis within the larger culture.

  20. Discovering the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Foreword by Allan

    2009-03-01

    Acknowledgments; Foreword; 1. Introduction; 2. Cosmological concepts at the end of the Middle Ages; 3. Nebulae as a new astronomical phenomenon; 4. On the construction of the Heavens; 5. Island universes turn into astronomical facts: a universe of galaxies; 6. The early cosmology of Einstein and de Sitter; 7. The dynamical universe of Friedmann; 8. Redshifts: how to reconcile Slipher and de Sitter?; 9. Lemaître discovers the expanding universe; 10. Hubble's contribution of 1929; 11. The breakthrough for the expanding universe; 12. Hubble's anger about de Sitter; 13. Robertson and Tolman join the game; 14. The Einstein-de Sitter universe; 15. Are Sun and Earth older than the universe?; 16. In search of alternative tracks; 17. The seed for the Big Bang; 18. Summary and Postscript; Appendix; References; Index.

  1. Student Discovers New Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    A West Virginia high-school student has discovered a new pulsar, using data from the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Shay Bloxton, 15, a participant in a project in which students analyze data from the radio telescope, spotted evidence of the pulsar on October 15. Bloxton, along with NRAO astronomers observed the object again one month later. The new observation confirmed that the object is a pulsar, a rotating, superdense neutron star. Bloxton is a sophomore at Nicholas County High School in Summersville, West Virginia. "I was very excited when I found out I had actually made a discovery," Bloxton said. She went to Green Bank in November to participate in the follow-up observation. She termed that visit "a great experience." "It also helped me learn a lot about how observations with the GBT are actually done," she added. The project in which she participated, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Pulsars are known for their lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as the neutron star rotates, creating a pulse as the beam sweeps by the Earth. First discovered in 1967, pulsars serve as valuable natural "laboratories" for physicists studying exotic states of matter, quantum mechanics and General Relativity. The GBT, dedicated in 2000, has become one of the world's leading tools for discovering and studying pulsars. The PSC, led by NRAO Education Officer Sue Ann Heatherly and Project Director Rachel Rosen, includes training for teachers and student leaders, and provides parcels of data from the GBT to student teams. The project involves teachers and students in helping astronomers analyze data from 1500 hours of observing with the GBT. The 120 terabytes of data were produced by 70,000 individual pointings of the giant, 17-million-pound telescope. Some 300 hours of the

  2. Expedition 8 Crew Interviews: Alexander Y. Kaleri - FE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Russian cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Flight Engineer on Expedition 8 to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions on this video, either himself or with the help of an interpreter. The questions cover: 1) The goal of the expedition; 2) The place in history of Mir; 3) The reaction to the loss of Columbia in Houston; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he decided to become a cosmonaut; 6) His memory of Yuri Gagarin's first flight; 7) What happens on a Soyuz capsule during launch and flight; 8) Are Soyuz maneuvers automatic or manual; 8) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 9) The responsibilities of a Flight Engineer onboard the ISS; 10) Extravehicular activity (EVA) plans at that time; 11) The Shuttle Return to Flight and his preference for a Shuttle or Soyuz landing; 12) Why the last Soyuz landing was too rough; 13) The most valueable contribution of the ISS program.

  3. Personal reflections on the life and legacy of Alexander Hollaender.

    PubMed

    Gaulden, Mary Esther; Jagger, John; White, Virginia P

    2007-01-01

    Mary Esther Gaulden presents a personal summary of the activities of Alexander Hollaender, from his days at the National Institutes of Health to his becoming Director of the Biology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1947. This appealing story deals with many of her reactions to his personality and organizational style. It reflects the atmosphere of science in those days, and her enthusiasm in this vibrant milieu. Next is a brief account by John Jagger of his first meeting with Dr. Hollaender, arrival in Oak Ridge in April 1956, and wedding to Mary Esther six months later at the house of the Hollaenders in Oak Ridge. The third section is an account by Virginia P. White of how she came to Oak Ridge in 1955 and became Dr. Hollaender's Laboratory Administrator. She gives a personal account of the many facets of his managerial style, as well as of the personality of his wife, Henrietta. She also describes one of Hollaender's many avocations, the collection of fossils on Sunday morning hikes in the Cumberland Mountains, accompanied by lab and visiting personnel, and finally comments on the annual research conferences in Gatlinburg TN, for which Hollaender and the lab became very well known, with some closing vignettes on his leadership style.

  4. Alexander Robertson (1834-1908): Glasgow's pioneer aphasiologist and epileptologist.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Alexander Robertson (1834-1908) was a Glasgow physician whose professional career was involved mainly with institutional-based practice but who published significant insights into the anatomical background to aphasia (1867) and the mechanisms of focal epileptogenesis (1869). His aphasiology ideas, including his suggestion that disconnection between cerebral centers involved in speech was responsible for the phenomenon, made him one of the earliest members of the late-nineteenth-century school of aphasia diagram makers. His view of epileptogenesis was that contralateral convulsing arose from irritation in a local area of pathology on the surface of the cerebral cortex after the irritation spread to a cortical motor center and then down the motor pathway to the striatum, while spreading within the cortex itself caused loss of consciousness. This interpretation contains much of the essence of the present-day understanding of cortical epileptogenesis. The origin of this interpretation is often attributed to John Hughlings Jackson, but Robertson published the idea in full a year or two prior to Jackson. However, Robertson's original insights were hardly noticed at the time they were published and have since almost entirely been ignored.

  5. Alexander Forbes, Walter Cannon, and science-based literature.

    PubMed

    Garson, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The Harvard physiologists Alexander Forbes (1882-1965) and Walter Bradford Cannon (1871-1945) had an enormous impact on the physiology and neuroscience of the twentieth century. In addition to their voluminous scientific output, they also used literature to reflect on the nature of science itself and its social significance. Forbes wrote a novel, The Radio Gunner, a literary memoir, Quest for a Northern Air Route, and several short stories. Cannon, in addition to several books of popular science, wrote a literary memoir in the last year of his life, The Way of an Investigator. The following will provide a brief overview of the life and work of Forbes and Cannon. It will then discuss the way that Forbes used literature to express his views about the changing role of communications technology in the military, and his evolving view of the nervous system itself as a kind of information-processing device. It will go on to discuss the way that Cannon used literature to articulate the horrors he witnessed on the battlefield, as well as to contribute to the philosophy of science, and in particular, to the logic of scientific discovery. Finally, it will consider the historical and philosophical value of deeper investigation of the literary productions of scientists.

  6. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  7. A Case Report of Thunderclap Headache with Sub-arachnoid Hemorrhage and Negative Angiography: A Review of Call-Fleming Syndrome and the use of Transcranial Dopplers in Predicting Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bittel, Brennen; Husmann, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We present a case report in a patient with severe, recurrent, thunderclap with computed tomography (CT) evidence of subarachnoid blood and negative work-up for aneurysm. This case is an example of Call-Fleming syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage in which transcranial Doppler (TCD) was used for monitoring of cerebral vasoconstriction when angiography did not evidence vasoconstriction. We will review Call-Fleming syndrome and the utility of transcranial doppler imaging to assess cerebral vasoconstriction. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding diagnostics, treatment, and morbidity in Call-Fleming (reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome) as well as a review of the data using transcranial color-coded sonography and transcranial doppler imaging to assess vasospasm in these cases. Results: The patient underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and venography (CTV), catheter angiography, lumbar puncture, and vasculitis work-up which were all negative. His magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed T2 weighted and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyper-intensities in the posterior frontal lobes as well as subarachnoid blood along bilateral occipital convexities. TCDs were obtained which showed elevated mean velocities. Conclusion: The use of bedside transcranial doppler imaging is a non-invasive means of assessing vasospasm in Call-Fleming syndrome; even in cases where angiography is negative. Determining the degree of vasospasm based on the data in subarachnoid hemorrhage, we are able to predict a patient’s risk of complications related to vasospasm including reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy and ischemic events. PMID:22518264

  8. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, TW; Gurfinkel, VS; Horak, FB; Cordo, PJ; Ames, KE

    2010-01-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo “long-term” (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of “short-term” (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (~50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21185100

  9. The life and death of Alexander Bogdanov, physician.

    PubMed

    Huestis, D W

    1996-08-01

    It was early in April in 1928 when the word went out in Moscow that Alexander Bogdanov had died. He was a controversial figure, an old Bolshevik who had left that party long before the 1917 revolution and never returned. All the same, he had had Lenin's respect as a scientist (as long as he stayed out of politics). More recently, he also had the support of the new party strong man, Stalin. Bogdanov opposed the growing despotism of the "dictatorship of the proletariat", under which slogan Communist autocracy was being developed. But he was respected as a tireless propagandist for the socialist cause, an enthusiastic teacher of the proletariat, and a writer of arcane science and philosophy. Bogdanov was held in such respect that Communist bigwigs spoke glowingly at the funeral, praising his intellect, courage, and dedication to science and humanity. They did not fail to point out that he had split with his one-time friend, Lenin, and had succumbed to ideological "errors". Indeed, he had powerful enemies in the early Soviet state. Bogdanov was a physician, economist, philosopher, natural scientist, writer of utopian science fiction, poet, teacher, politician (unsuccesful), lifelong revolutionary, forerunner of what we now call cybernetics and organizational science, and founder of the world's first institution devoted entirely to the field of blood transfusion. You could call him a Renaissance man. Although he clearly fitted the category of the late-nineteenth-century Russian intellectual revolutionary, Bogdanov differed from most of them in being no dilettante. More than just a theorist, he was an active scientist and physician. As a teacher, he firmly believed that education and indoctrination could alter people's ways of thinking and behaving, and that humanity could be perfected under socialism. Like many revolutionaries, Bogdanov tried to keep ahead of the Tsar's police by using a variety of pseudonyms, among them Riadavoy, Werner, Maximov, and Bogdanov. After

  10. Cyclicity in Silurian island-arc carbonates, Alexander terrane, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kittredge, L.E.; Soja, C.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Silurian carbonates from Alaska (Alexander terrane) record the evolution of a submarine platform during waning volcanism in an island arc. A detailed stratigraphic analysis of a 47 meter-thick sequence revealed the existence of cyclically repeated limestones: coral-stromatoporoid wackestones alternate with oncoid packstones and bioturbated, silty lime mudstones. The coral-stromatoporoid deposits are characterized by a low-diversity assemblage of dendroid corals, massive stromatoporoids, Atrypoidea brachiopods, and rare occurrences of biostromes associated with Solenopora, high-spired gastropods, and crinoids. Oncoids typically are 2-6 mm in diameter and form massive, meter-thick units. Coated grains are symmetrically developed, have a shell or algal nucleus, and are also a minor component of coral-stromatoporoid beds. These lithologic units form seven, shallowing-upwards cycles (parasequences) that range in thickness from 3-9 meters. Coral-stomatoporoid wackestones form the base of each cycle and grade upwards into oncoid packstones with silty, lime mudstones at the top. This succession of lithofacies within each cycle reflects an increase in energy levels from relatively deeper water environments to relatively shallower ones. The lack of abrasion in the corals and stromatoporoids suggests predominantly quiet-water conditions in shallow subtidal areas affected by periodic turbulence. Comparison with correlative sections in Alaska and lack of correspondence with global sea level curves suggest that the primary cause of cyclicity was tectonic perturbations with secondary eustatic effects. Cyclic deposition in peri/subtidal sites was terminated by rapid drowning of the carbonate platform during late Silurian orogenesis.

  11. Lightest exoplanet yet discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Well-known exoplanet researcher Michel Mayor today announced the discovery of the lightest exoplanet found so far. The planet, "e", in the famous system Gliese 581, is only about twice the mass of our Earth. The team also refined the orbit of the planet Gliese 581 d, first discovered in 2007, placing it well within the habitable zone, where liquid water oceans could exist. These amazing discoveries are the outcome of more than four years of observations using the most successful low-mass-exoplanet hunter in the world, the HARPS spectrograph attached to the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. ESO PR Photo 15a/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Photo 15b/09 A planet in the habitable zone ESO PR Video 15a/09 ESOcast 6 ESO PR Video 15b/09 VNR A-roll ESO PR Video 15c/09 Zoom-in on Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15d/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15e/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 d ESO PR Video 15f/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 system ESO PR Video 15g/09 The radial velocity method ESO PR Video 15h/09 Statement in English ESO PR Video 15i/09 Statement in French ESO PR Video 15j/09 La Silla Observatory "The holy grail of current exoplanet research is the detection of a rocky, Earth-like planet in the ‘habitable zone' -- a region around the host star with the right conditions for water to be liquid on a planet's surface", says Michel Mayor from the Geneva Observatory, who led the European team to this stunning breakthrough. Planet Gliese 581 e orbits its host star - located only 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra ("the Scales") -- in just 3.15 days. "With only 1.9 Earth-masses, it is the least massive exoplanet ever detected and is, very likely, a rocky planet", says co-author Xavier Bonfils from Grenoble Observatory. Being so close to its host star, the planet is not in the habitable zone. But another planet in this system appears to be. From previous observations -- also obtained with the HARPS spectrograph

  12. An adult form of Alexander disease: a novel mutation in glial fibrillary acidic protein.

    PubMed

    Ohnari, K; Yamano, M; Uozumi, T; Hashimoto, T; Tsuji, S; Nakagawa, M

    2007-10-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mutation has been reported in Alexander disease. We report a patient with the adult form of Alexander disease who shows a novel mutation in GFAP. This case presented with progressive dysarthria, dysphagia and spastic gait on the right side. Brain and spinal cord MRI showed marked atrophy of the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. Abnormal high signal intensities in the ventral medulla oblongata were detected bilaterally. There were no white matter lesions or contrast enhancing lesions. Recently, there have been reports of patients with a juvenile form of Alexander disease presenting with atrophy or signal abnormalities of the medulla or spinal cord. Atrophy of the medulla and spinal cord have specifically been described as suggestive of Alexander disease [1]. Sequence analysis of the GFAP gene of this patient showed a heterozygous c.221T>C mutation, predicting a p.M74T amino acid change. In all patients suspected of Alexander disease on the basis of MRI findings, GFAP analysis is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

  13. Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson. Wilson's disease, Queen Square and neurology.

    PubMed

    Broussolle, E; Trocello, J-M; Woimant, F; Lachaux, A; Quinn, N

    2013-12-01

    This historical article describes the life and work of the British physician Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson (1878-1937), who was one of the world's greatest neurologists of the first half of the 20th century. Early in his career, Wilson spent one year in Paris in 1903 where he learned from Pierre-Marie at Bicêtre Hospital. He subsequently retained uninterrupted links with French neurology. He also visited in Leipzig the German anatomist Paul Flechsig. In 1904, Wilson returned to London, where he worked for the rest of his life at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic (later the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, and today the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery) in Queen Square, and also at Kings' College Hospital. He wrote on 'the old motor system and the new', on disorders of motility and muscle tone, on the epilepsies, on aphasia, apraxia, tics, and pathologic laughing and crying, and most importantly on Wilson's disease. The other objective of our paper is to commemorate the centenary of Wilson's most important work published in 1912 in Brain, and also in Revue Neurologique, on an illness newly recognized and characterized by him entitled "Progressive lenticular degeneration, a familial nervous disease associated with liver cirrhosis". He analyzed 12 clinical cases, four of whom he followed himself, but also four cases previously published by others and a further two that he considered in retrospect had the same disease as he was describing. The pathological profile combined necrotic damage in the lenticular nuclei of the brain and hepatic cirrhosis. This major original work is summarized and discussed in the present paper. Wilson not only delineated what was later called hepato-lenticular degeneration and Wilson's disease, but also introduced for the first time the terms extrapyramidal syndrome and extrapyramidal system, stressing the role of the basal ganglia in motility. The present historical work emphasizes the special

  14. IN MEMORIAM: In Memoriam: Alexander A Golovin and Alexei M Oparin In Memoriam: Alexander A Golovin and Alexei M Oparin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    In Memoriam of Alexander A Golovin (1962-2008) Alexander (Sasha) Golovin passed away on 10 September 2008. Sasha's scientific heritage includes seminal works in different fields of physics, from Marangoni convection to self-assembly of quantum dots, and from combustion fronts to anomalous diffusion in flows and on a crystal surface. A graduate of the Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, he had very broad scientific interests and a unique ability to identify and solve new, intellectually challenging and technologically important problems. One of the basic fields of Sasha's research was the fluid dynamics in systems with interfaces. His favorite subject was the motion of droplets, bubbles and particles in the presence of heat and mass transfer. Sasha's early works contained the discovery of the spontaneous motion of droplets due to the Marangoni effect and the investigation of the interaction between solid particles, bubbles and droplets caused by the Marangoni effect, which is a crucial factor that determines the effect of heat/mass transfer on the rate of coalescence. In both cases, Sasha's work was the first in a long sequence of papers written by different authors. Later, Sasha returned to that field when studying such fascinating subjects as levitation of droplets above the surface of an evaporating liquid and encapsulation of particles and bubbles by an advancing solidification front. The subject of interfacial hydrodynamics overlaps with another basic field of Sasha's research, the theory of pattern formation. The contribution of Sasha's work to the modern understanding of the variety of pattern formation phenomena is significant. It includes the analysis of the interaction between long-wave and short-wave instability modes in Marangoni convection, investigation of the large-scale Marangoni convection that led to the prediction of different patterns including quasipatterns, and the description of various non-potential effects in Marangoni convection

  15. Digimarc Discover on Google Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Eliot; Rodriguez, Tony; Lord, John; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of the Digimarc® Discover platform on Google Glass, enabling the reading of a watermark embedded in a printed material or audio. The embedded watermark typically contains a unique code that identifies the containing media or object and a synchronization signal that allows the watermark to be read robustly. The Digimarc Discover smartphone application can read the watermark from a small portion of printed image presented at any orientation or reasonable distance. Likewise, Discover can read the recently introduced Digimarc Barcode to identify and manage consumer packaged goods in the retail channel. The Digimarc Barcode has several advantages over the traditional barcode and is expected to save the retail industry millions of dollars when deployed at scale. Discover can also read an audio watermark from ambient audio captured using a microphone. The Digimarc Discover platform has been widely deployed on the iPad, iPhone and many Android-based devices, but it has not yet been implemented on a head-worn wearable device, such as Google Glass. Implementing Discover on Google Glass is a challenging task due to the current hardware and software limitations of the device. This paper identifies the challenges encountered in porting Discover to the Google Glass and reports on the solutions created to deliver a prototype implementation.

  16. Old Age, the Ancient Military, and Alexander's Army: Positive Examples for a Graying America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebric, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Presents examples from ancient Greece and Rome illustrating working aged and intergenerational dependence. Describes normal active participation of elderly as officers and common soldiers in ancient military as example of their capabilities. Notes that Alexander the Great's army, in particular, depended on contributions of older men. (Author/NB)

  17. Connect the Book. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    Cell phones, video phones, voice messaging?one wonders what Alexander Graham Bell would have thought about the many venues today for electronic communication with one another. Bell's March 10, 1876 invention is now 128 years old, but there is no doubt that Bell's "talking machine" changed the world. This article presents a brief review of the…

  18. Friendly Letters on the Correspondence of Helen Keller, Anne Sullivan, and Alexander Graham Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Burton

    1985-01-01

    Excerpts from the letters between Alexander Graham Bell and Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller are given to illustrate the educational and personal growth of Helen Keller as well as the educational philosophy of Bell regarding the education of the deaf blind. (DB)

  19. Alexander Cameron Rutherford: A Gentleman and a Scholar. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodysh, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information about Alexander Cameron Rutherford, a provincial politician. Includes a letter written by Rutherford in 1912 that provides insights into his responsibilities to the general public, information about Rutherford himself, the economic conditions of Alberta, Canada in 1912, and information about the individual to whom it was…

  20. The Doors to Home and History: Post-Colonial Identities in Meena Alexander and Bharati Mukherjee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Shilpa

    1993-01-01

    Examines postcolonial inquiry and studies of identity in Asians of Indian descent, focusing on the works of Meena Alexander and Bharati Mukherjee. Their commentaries on India and immigrant cultures are constantly influenced by a history dependent on Western tradition, although both authors resist the stereotypical definitions imposed by the West.…

  1. Russia's Literary Genius Alexander Pushkin: The Great-Grandson of an African Slave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbery, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Pushkin, Russia's most celebrated literary figure, descended from an African slave. On both parents' sides, he was related to Avram Petrovich Gannibal, who was born to an African prince and abducted to become a slave to a Russian diplomat. Pushkin chose to pride himself on both his aristocratic life and his African ancestry. (SM)

  2. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. 162.250 Section 162.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.250...

  3. 76 FR 54800 - Sandy Alexander, Clifton, NJ; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sandy Alexander, Clifton, NJ; Notice of Negative Determination on... resulted in a negative determination based on the findings that the petitioning worker group did not meet... or the law. Conclusion After reconsideration, I affirm the original notice of negative...

  4. Progressive Pioneer: Alexander James Inglis (1879-1924) and American Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wraga, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Alexander James Inglis's transformation from an academic traditionalist devoted to Latin pedagogy to an influential progressive-experimentalist and advocate of the comprehensive high school during the early twentieth century has received insufficient attention from educational and curriculum historians. A reconstruction of Inglis's career leads to…

  5. Another View of Dynamic Criteria: A Critical Reanalysis of Barrett, Caldwell, and Alexander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, James T.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A critical reanalysis of Barrett, Caldwell, and Alexander's (1985) critique of dynamic criteria. Summarizes and questions Barrett, et al.'s three definitions of dynamic criteria and their conclusion that reported temporal changes in criteria could be explained by methodological artifacts. A greater focus on dynamic criteria as constructs is…

  6. The Election of 1800: Alexander Hamilton and the Death of the Federalist Party.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook-DeFeo, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Describes the significance of the election of 1800 in the development of political parties in the United States. Contends that Alexander Hamilton's view of the United States Constitution was dangerous for the new nation and led to a permanent split in the Federalist Party. Includes a resource bibliography for teachers wishing to incorporate this…

  7. Alexander Hamilton: Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. A Bicentennial Series No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Center of Military History, Washington, DC.

    Alexander Hamilton was among the most intellectually gifted of the Founding Fathers and a brilliant political theorist, but he lacked practical political experience, and his major political contributions occurred only when his specific policies were adopted and carried forward by others with broader vision. This booklet on Hamilton is one in a…

  8. What Matters to Alexander Astin? A Conversation with Higher Education's Senior Scholar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    About Campus, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, the work of Alexander Astin--Allan M. Cartter Professor of Higher Education at the University of California-Los Angeles and director of the Higher Education Research Institute--has served as both bellwether for and mirror of the American college and university system. He was there to study and shed light on the student…

  9. The effect of Alexander technique training program: A qualitative study of ordinary behavior application

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Baek, Soon Gi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to configure and apply the Alexander technique training program and assess the effect of program through physical, emotional and behavioral aspects. To achieve the research aims, qualitative research method had been conducted, subjecting 8 people, who were participating in Alexander Technique training program for this study. The study used focus group interview method for collecting date and employed for the interview method by mixing the semi-structured and unstructured questionnaire. The results were followings. First, one could develop body awareness and body consciousness through experiencing lived bodily sensation. Second, from Alexander Technique training program, people experienced psycho & physical’s equilibrium. Third, one could change not only the manner of use of body but also the attitude to the life from conscious attention to daily ordinary movement. The results provided empirical evidence of Alexander Technique training program’s functions in terms of physical, emotional and behavioral aspect through the process of consciousness control from lived body education. PMID:25610819

  10. Holocene morphogenesis of Alexander the Great's isthmus at Tyre in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Meulé, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great constructed an ≈1,000-m-long causeway to seize the offshore island of Tyre. The logistics behind this engineering feat have long troubled archaeologists. Using the Holocene sedimentary record, we demonstrate that Alexander's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow proto-tombolo, or sublittoral sand spit, to breach the offshore city's defensive impregnability. We elucidate a three-phase geomorphological model for the spit's evolution. Settled since the Bronze Age, the area's geological record manifests a long history of natural and anthropogenic forcings. (i) Leeward of the island breakwater, the maximum flooding surface (e.g., drowning of the subaerial land surfaces by seawater) is dated ≈8000 B.P. Fine-grained sediments and brackish and marine-lagoonal faunas translate shallow, low-energy water bodies at this time. Shelter was afforded by Tyre's elongated sandstone reefs, which acted as a 6-km natural breakwater. (ii) By 6000 B.P., sea-level rise had reduced the dimensions of the island from 6 to 4 km. The leeward wave shadow generated by this island, allied with high sediment supply after 3000 B.P., culminated in a natural wave-dominated proto-tombolo within 1–2 m of mean sea level by the time of Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.). (iii) After 332 B.C., construction of Alexander's causeway entrained a complete anthropogenic metamorphosis of the Tyrian coastal system. PMID:17517668

  11. Identification of metapopulation dynamics among Northern Goshawks of the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and Coastal British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, Judy R.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.

  12. The Language of Teaching Coordination: Suzuki Training Meets the Alexander Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Details an investigation of the language of Suzuki instruction and the students' interpretation of that language. Describes the Alexander Technique and Suzuki training and provides specific examples illustrating the interaction of language and coordination in this context. Proposes that teachers of movement, voice and acting can benefit from these…

  13. A Disciplinary Immigrant. Alexander Smith at the University of Chicago, 1894-1911

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The publication in 1906 of Alexander Smith's "Introduction to general inorganic chemistry" inaugurated a decisive change in chemical pedagogy in the US, the effects of which are still evident. The nature and extent of Smith's innovations are described through a comparison of his text to its source material and contemporaries. His…

  14. DISCOVER-AQ Featured Articles

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-31

    ...     Not Your Average Video Traffic Report : Earth Matters Blogs  - DISCOVER-AQ planes have been flying over roadways, ... News Roundup: Arctic Ice, Spacesuit Satellites and More : Earth Matters Blogs  - The July 5 flight was part of a summer-long air ...

  15. Large solar system planetoid discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A newly discovered planetoid, currently dubbed 2004 UN, could be confirmed as the largest such known body in the Kuiper Belt, scientists announced on 19 February.The planetoid, located about 4.4 billion miles from Earth, is estimated at about 1,400 kilometers in diameter, according to Michael Brown, associate professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  17. The Use of "Ability" Measures as Controls for Concurrent or Subsequent Achievement (Comment on Alexander et al., ASR, October 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments upon a 1981 article by Alexander, Pallas, and Cook. Discusses whether particular standardized tests measure achievement or ability and the implications of this issue for school effects research. (GC)

  18. Protein misfolding and oxidative stress promote glial-mediated neurodegeneration in an Alexander disease model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Colodner, Kenneth J.; Feany, Mel B.

    2011-01-01

    Although alterations in glial structure and function commonly accompany death of neurons in neurodegenerative diseases, the role glia play in modulating neuronal loss is poorly understood. We have created a model of Alexander disease in Drosophila by expressing disease-linked mutant versions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in fly glia. We find aggregation of mutant human GFAP into inclusions bearing the hallmarks of authentic Rosenthal fibers. We also observe significant toxicity of mutant human GFAP to glia, which is mediated by protein aggregation and oxidative stress. Both protein aggregation and oxidative stress contribute to activation of a robust autophagic response in glia. Toxicity of mutant GFAP to glial cells induces a non-cell autonomous stress response and subsequent apoptosis in neurons, which is dependent on glial glutamate transport. Our findings thus establish a simple genetic model of Alexander disease and further identify cellular pathways critical for glial-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:21414908

  19. Paleozoic paleomagnetism and northward drift of the Alexander Terrane, southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Der Voo, Rob; Jones, Meridee; Gromme, C. Sherman; Eberlein, G. Donald; Churkin, Michael, Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Paleozoic limestone, graywacke, sandstone, milestone, red beds and volcanic rocks of the Alexander terrane, southeastern Alaska, have yielded six paleomagnetic pole positions after thermal and alternating-field demagnetization. These poles are from sample groups of late Middle Ordovician, Late Ordovician, Devonian, Late Devonian, and early and late Carboniferous age. To test various tectonic models for the structural development of this part of western North America, the paleomagnetic results are compared to those for the North American craton. It is found that the observed inclination and declination values deviate significantly from the values predicted for the present-day position of the Alexander terrane (55.5N, 133.5W). Better matching can be obtained for a paleoposition of the terrane at about 40N, 120W, in the present position of western Nevada and northeastern California. In addition, an in situ 25° clockwise rotation of the terrane is required to restore it to its original position.

  20. Pennsylvanian pluton stitching of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.C.; Bergman, S.C.; Cushing, G.W. ); Plafker, G. ); Campbell, R.B.; Dodds, C.J. ); McClelland, W.C. ); Mueller, P.A. ); MacKevett, E.M. Jr.

    1988-11-01

    A quartz monzonite-syenite-alkali granite plutonic complex in eastern Alaska crosscuts the contact of the Alexander terrane and Wrangellia and intrudes the basement rocks of both terranes. Zircon U-Pb data indicate an intrusion age of 309 {plus minus} 5 Ma (Middle Pennsylvanian) for the pluton, and {sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar age for hornblende separates indicate cooling to about 450 C during Middle Pennsylvanian-Early Permian time. The new field relations and age data demonstrate the Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane were contiguous during the Middle Pennsylvanian. This conclusion provides an important new constraint on paleogeographic reconstructions of the northwest Cordillera, and necessitates reassessment of stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data that were cited as evidence that the terranes evolved separately until the late Mesozoic.

  1. Clinical Experience in Late Antiquity: Alexander of Tralles and the Therapy of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bouras-vallianatos, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Alexander of Tralles, writing in the late sixth century, combined his wide-ranging practical knowledge with earlier medical theories. This article shows how clinical experience is used in Alexander’s works by concentrating on his therapeutic advice on epilepsy and, in particular, on pharmacology and the group of so-called natural remedies. I argue that clinical testing is used not only for the introduction of new medicines but also as an instrument for checking the therapeutic effect of popular healing practices. On another level, this article discusses Alexander’s role as the author of a medical compendium; it suggests that by marking the cases of clinical testing with a set of recurrent expressions, Alexander leads his audience to reflect on his medical authority and personal contribution. PMID:25045178

  2. [Urology and National Socialism: the fate of Alexander von Lichtenberg 1880-1949].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Krischel, M; Rathert, P; Fangerau, H

    2010-09-01

    Alexander von Lichtenberg (1880-1949) was one of the famous members of the German Urological Society (DGU) in pre-war Germany. He introduced excretion urography and a special TURP Instrument. In 1928 he was president of the 8th meeting held in the German capital Berlin. His Handbook of Urology, released by Ferdinand Springer publishing house, was a trendsetter in establishing urology as a specialty in Germany and bringing together the whole wisdom of all aspects of urology. He was the founder of the famous Maximilian Nitze Award of the DGU. As a Jew he-like many others-was forced to leave Nazi Germany after 1933. Even in Hungary, his native country, he again had to resist anti-Semitic hostility. Later on he lived in Mexico. Alexander von Lichtenberg has to be remembered with special focus on the exodus of German Jewish scientists during the Nazi time.

  3. Scaphopoda from the Alexander Terrane, Southeast Alaska-The first occurrence of Scaphopoda in the Silurian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.

    2006-01-01

    The scaphopods Dentalium hecetaensis n. sp. and Rhytiodentalium cf. kentuckyensis Pojeta et Runnegar, 1979, are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, Southeast Alaska. This is the first occurrence of Silurian scaphopods known to date. They are part of a diverse macrobenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted southern Alaskan terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  4. PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander) hepatoma cell line: further characterization and studies of infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Alexander, J J; Tully, J G; London, W T; Wong, D C; Purcell, R H

    1980-01-01

    The Alexander hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, was studied for evidence of hepatitis B virus markers and alpha-fetoprotein. Only hepatitis B surface antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were detected. Induction experiments with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and inoculation of chimpanzees with whole cells or tissue culture fluid did not reveal evidence of synthesis of additional hepatitis B virus markers or of production of infectious virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6160110

  5. Lithium Decreases Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in a Mouse Model of Alexander Disease.

    PubMed

    LaPash Daniels, Christine M; Paffenroth, Elizabeth; Austin, Elizabeth V; Glebov, Konstantin; Lewis, Diana; Walter, Jochen; Messing, Albee

    2015-01-01

    Alexander disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the astrocyte intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by elevated levels of GFAP and the formation of protein aggregates, known as Rosenthal fibers, within astrocytes. Lithium has previously been shown to decrease protein aggregates by increasing the autophagy pathway for protein degradation. In addition, lithium has also been reported to decrease activation of the transcription factor STAT3, which is a regulator of GFAP transcription and astrogliogenesis. Here we tested whether lithium treatment would decrease levels of GFAP in a mouse model of Alexander disease. Mice with the Gfap-R236H point mutation were fed lithium food pellets for 4 to 8 weeks. Four weeks of treatment with LiCl at 0.5% in food pellets decreased GFAP protein and transcripts in several brain regions, although with mild side effects and some mortality. Extending the duration of treatment to 8 weeks resulted in higher mortality, and again with a decrease in GFAP in the surviving animals. Indicators of autophagy, such as LC3, were not increased, suggesting that lithium may decrease levels of GFAP through other pathways. Lithium reduced the levels of phosphorylated STAT3, suggesting this as one pathway mediating the effects on GFAP. In conclusion, lithium has the potential to decrease GFAP levels in Alexander disease, but with a narrow therapeutic window separating efficacy and toxicity.

  6. Teachers' professional development needs and current practices at the Alexander Science Center School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargus, Gerald Vincent

    This investigation represents an in-depth understanding of teacher professional development at the Alexander Science Center School, a dependent charter museum school established through a partnership between the California Science Center and Los Angeles Unified School District. Three methods of data collection were used. A survey was distributed and collected from the school's teachers, resulting in a prioritized list of teacher professional development needs, as well as a summary of teachers' opinions about the school's existing professional development program. In addition, six key stakeholders in the school's professional development program were interviewed for the study. Finally, documents related to the school's professional development program were analyzed. Data collected from the interviews and documents were used to develop an understand various components of the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program. Teachers identified seven areas that had a high-priority for future professional development including developing skills far working with below-grade-level students, improving the analytical skills of student in mathematics, working with English Language Learners, improving students' overall reading ability levels, developing teachers' content-area knowledge for science, integrating science across the curriculum, and incorporating hands-on activity-based learning strategies to teach science. Professional development needs identified by Alexander Science Center School teachers were categorized based on their focus on content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, or curricular knowledge. Analysis of data collected through interviews and documents revealed that the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program consisted of six venues for providing professional development for teachers including weekly "banked time" sessions taking place within the standard school day, grade-level meetings, teacher support

  7. Discover an Asteroid Using SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramseyer, Elizabeth A.

    2006-12-01

    Every Fall, the Apache Point Observatory repeatedly images the skies near declination 0 degrees in a quest to see first light from distant supernovae. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) uses the data from these images to map the Universe. These data are made available on the internet for use by the public. While analyzing these images, we discovered the presence of a transient light source that subsequent analysis showed our ?mystery object? to be an asteroid. We present here the details of the analysis that allowed us to determine the identity of our ?mystery object.? Learn how you can access the SDSS database and make your own discovery!

  8. Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R - 12 -2 1 Center Directed Research Program Digital Discover of Ephemeral Ponds En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el...r.mapcalc formula : r.terraflow lidar_elev filled=elev_filled \\ accum=elev_accum memory=2000 \\ dir=elev_dir swater=elev_sink tci =elev_tci...J. D., M. Shapiro, W. D. Goran, and D. P. Gerdes. 1992. Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) Version 4.0 User’s Reference Manual . N

  9. The Scientific Work of John A. McClelland: A Recently Discovered Manuscript

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    John Alexander McClelland (1870-1920) was educated at Queen’s College Galway and the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. He was Professor of Experimental Physics at University College Dublin from 1900 to 1920. He was best known for his pioneering work on the scattering of β rays and on the conductivity of gases and the mobility of ions. He established a research school on atmospheric aerosols that was continued by his successor, John James Nolan (1887-1952), which strongly influenced physics research in Ireland up to the present. A recently discovered manuscript of a commemorative address by Nolan in 1920, which is reproduced in Appendix I, is a unique contemporary summary of McClelland’s research and character, and is an important contribution to the history of experimental physics in Ireland.

  10. Origin of Silurian reefs in the Alexander Terrane of southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Lower to Upper Silurian (upper Llandovery-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation record several episodes of reef growth in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. As the oldest carbonates of wide-spread distribution in the region, the Heceta limestones represent the earliest development of a shallow-marine platform within the Alexander arc and the oldest foundation for reef evolution. These deposits provide important insights into the dynamic processes, styles, and bathymetry associated with reef growth in tectonically active oceanic islands. Massive stromatoporoids, corals, and red algae are preserved in fragmental rudstones and represent a fringing reef that formed at the seaward edge of the incipient marine shelf. Accessory constituents in this reef include crinoids and the cyanobacterium Girvanella. Small biostromes were constructed by ramose corals and stromatoporoids on oncolitic substrates in backreef or lagoonal environments. These buildups were associated with low-diversity assemblages of brachiopods and with gastropods, amphiporids, calcareous algae and cyanobacteria. Microbial boundstones reflect the widespread encrustation of cyanobacteria and calcified microproblematica on shelly debris as stromatolitic mats that resulted in the development of a stromatactoid-bearing mud mound and a barrier reef complex. Epiphytaceans, other microbes, and aphrosalpingid sponges were the primary frame-builders of the barrier reefs. These buildups attained significant relief at the shelf margin and shed detritus as slumped blocks and debris flows into deep-water sites along the slope. The similarity of these stromatolitic-aphrosalpingid reefs to those from Siluro-Devonian strata of autochthonous southwestern Alaska suggests paleobiogeographic ties of the Alexander terrane to cratonal North America during the Silurian.

  11. The remarkable medical lineage of the Monro family: contributions of Alexander primus, secundus, and tertius.

    PubMed

    Wu, Osmond C; Manjila, Sunil; Malakooti, Nima; Cohen, Alan R

    2012-06-01

    Among the families that have influenced the development of modern medicine into what it is today, the Monro lineage stands as one of the most notable. Alexander Monro primus (1697-1767) was the first of 3 generations with the same name, a dynasty that spanned 126 years occupying the Chair of Anatomy one after the other at the University of Edinburgh. After becoming Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh in 1719, Monro primus played a principal role in the establishment of the University of Edinburgh School of Medicine and the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. In 1726, he published The Anatomy of the Humane Bones, of which 8 editions were printed during his lifetime. His son, Alexander Monro secundus (1733-1817), arguably the most notable of the 3 men, succeeded him as Professor of Anatomy. A highly regarded lecturer and anatomist, Monro secundus studied under many great physicians, including William Hunter and Johann Friedrich Meckel the Elder, and was also teacher to other well-known figures at the time, such as Joseph Black and Thomas Trotter. His most notable contributions include his work with the lymphatic system, the interventricular foramen (of Monro), and the Monro-Kellie doctrine. Alexander Monro tertius (1773-1859), the last of the dynasty, also succeeded his father as Professor of Anatomy. His work included insights into abdominal aortic aneurysms and the anatomy of the genitourinary system. The prominent association of the Monro family with the University of Edinburgh and the effects of a tenured professorship under the concept of "Ad vitam aut culpam" over successive generations are also described. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this historical review of the Monro family is among the few published in neurosurgical literature. A vivid historical overview of the medical contributions of the most famous and influential dynasty of physicians in Edinburgh at that time is provided, with relevant excerpts from original publications.

  12. Discovering Network Structure Beyond Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2011-11-01

    To understand the formation, evolution, and function of complex systems, it is crucial to understand the internal organization of their interaction networks. Partly due to the impossibility of visualizing large complex networks, resolving network structure remains a challenging problem. Here we overcome this difficulty by combining the visual pattern recognition ability of humans with the high processing speed of computers to develop an exploratory method for discovering groups of nodes characterized by common network properties, including but not limited to communities of densely connected nodes. Without any prior information about the nature of the groups, the method simultaneously identifies the number of groups, the group assignment, and the properties that define these groups. The results of applying our method to real networks suggest the possibility that most group structures lurk undiscovered in the fast-growing inventory of social, biological, and technological networks of scientific interest.

  13. Alexander the Great: A Strategy Review in the Context of the ACSC strategy Process Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    observe the development of both political and military strategies in support of a specific national objective. As ruler of Greece and later of a massive...was born in 356 B.C. in Macedonia (the northern part of modern Greece ), the son of Philip II, the king of Macedonia. At the age of 16 Alexander...left wing of his father’s army at the dec ive battle of Chaeronea in which Philip defeated the allied Greek forces 1 won control of Greece . Philip

  14. Familial Adult-onset Alexander Disease: Clinical and Neuroradiological Findings of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    ELMALI, Ayşe Deniz; ÇETİNÇELİK, Ümran; IŞLAK, Civan; UZUN ADATEPE, Nurten; KARAALİ SAVRUN, Feray; YALÇINKAYA, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The adult-onset Alexander disease (AOAD) dramatically differs from the early onset AD with respect to clinical and neuroradiological findings. Herein we report the detailed clinical and neuroradiological findings of a Turkish family with AOAD. In all three cases, magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked atrophy of the mesencephalon, bulbus, and cervical spinal cord accompanied with signal abnormalities in the same regions along with supratentorial white matter. Basal ganglia were affected in two cases. Molecular genetic analysis revealed heterozygous mutation in the 8th exon of the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene M451I (c.1245G>A), leading to the diagnosis of AOAD in all cases. PMID:28360791

  15. The ocular motor features of adult-onset alexander disease: a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Gerald; Abegg, Mathias; Vertinsky, A Talia; Ceccherini, Isabella; Caroli, Francesco; Barton, Jason J S

    2011-06-01

    A 51-year-old Chinese man presented with gaze-evoked nystagmus, impaired smooth pursuit and vestibular ocular reflex cancellation, and saccadic dysmetria, along with a family history suggestive of late-onset autosomal dominant parkinsonism. MRI revealed abnormalities of the medulla and cervical spinal cord typical of adult-onset Alexander disease, and genetic testing showed homozygosity for the p.D295N polymorphic allele in the gene encoding the glial fibrillary acidic protein. A review of the literature shows that ocular signs are frequent in adult-onset Alexander disease, most commonly gaze-evoked nystagmus, pendular nystagmus, and/or oculopalatal myoclonus, and less commonly ptosis, miosis, and saccadic dysmetria. These signs are consistent with the propensity of adult-onset Alexander disease to cause medullary abnormalities on neuroimaging.

  16. Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Katsanos, A. A.; Touratsoglou, J.

    2000-11-01

    The coinage of Alexander the Great presents a special interest because of its international character in the frame of the ancient times. At least 31 mints (from Aigai to Babylon and from Pella to Alexandreia) operated in the vast state, which was created by Alexander in just over 10 years (334-323 BC). Impressive quantities of tetradrachms were consequently minted for the economic affairs of an expanding state. The mints continued to be active and after the premature death of the Macedonian king, producing among others and tetradrachms in his name. The elemental chemical composition of silver tetradrachms minted in Amphipolis as well as in other Macedonian Greek cities was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), and 12 elements were determined. The problem of the patina (silver corrosion layer) effects on the results was examined by analysis before and after the corrosion product removal. From the results of the chemical composition, a similar numismatic policy is deduced for all the analysed coin as well as metal provenance indications for some of the coins.

  17. Possible refugia in the Alexander Archipelago of southeastern Alaska during the late Wisconsin glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, P.E.; Ager, T.A.; Baichtal, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of the extent of late Wisconsin glaciation in southeastern Alaska has varied between geologists and biologists. Maps and reports of the region prepared by geologists commonly indicated that late Wisconsin ice extended as a large uniform front west to the edge of the continental shelf. However, the distribution of plants and animals in the region has led many biologists to suggest that there may have been ice-free areas that served as refugia during the late Wisconsin. Based on analyses of aerial photographs, topographic maps, and bathymetric charts, in conjunction with a review of previous literature and reconnaissance fieldwork throughout the region, this study presents data supporting a limited ice extent in the Alexander Archipelago during the late Wisconsin and identifies possible ice-free areas that may have served as refugia. These areas include (1) the Fairweather Ground, (2) the Herbert Graves Island area, (3) the western coast of southern Baranof Island and adjacent continental shelf, (4) Coronation Island and the adjacent continental shelf, (5) the Warren Island area, (6) the continental shelf from west of Heceta Island to Forrester Island in the south, (7) parts of the west coast of southern Dall Island, and (8) lowland areas in southern Prince of Wales Island. The identification of these possible refugia has bearing on the recolonization of the Alexander Archipelago, as they could have served as centers of biotic dispersal upon regional deglaciation and as stepping stones for early humans with a maritime tradition entering the western hemisphere from Asia. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  18. Geohydrology and water-chemistry of the Alexander Valley, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    This study of the geohydrology and water chemistry of the Alexander Valley, California, was done to provide an improved scientific basis for addressing emerging water-management issues, including potential increases in water demand and changes in flows in the Russian River. The study tasks included (1) evaluation of existing geohydrological, geophysical, and geochemical data; (2) collection and analysis of new geohydrologic data, including subsurface lithologic data, ground-water levels, and streamflow records; and (3) collection and analysis of new water-chemistry data. The estimated total water use for the Alexander Valley for 1999 was approximately 15,800 acre-feet. About 13,500 acre-feet of this amount was for agricultural use, primarily vineyards, and about 2,300 acre-feet was for municipal/industrial use. Ground water is the main source of water supply for this area. The main sources of ground water in the Alexander Valley are the Quaternary alluvial deposits, the Glen Ellen Formation, and the Sonoma Volcanics. The alluvial units, where sufficiently thick and saturated, comprise the best aquifer in the study area. Average recharge to the Alexander Valley is estimated from a simple, basinwide water budget. On the basis of an estimated annual average of 298,000 acre-feet of precipitation, 160,000 acre-feet of runoff, and 113,000 to 133,000 acre-feet of evapotranspiration, about 5,000 to 25,000 acre-feet per year is available for ground-water recharge. Because this estimate is based on differences between large numbers, there is significant uncertainty in this recharge estimate. Long-term changes in ground-water levels are evident in parts of the study area, but because of the sparse network and lack of data on well construction and lithology, it is uncertain if any significant changes have occurred in the northern part of the study area since 1980. In the southern half of the study area, ground-water levels generally were lower at the end of the 2002 irrigation

  19. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a

  20. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  1. Mythorealistic Concept of "Beautiful Lady" in the Structure of the Author's Identity (Based on the Diaries of Alexander Blok)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minets, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with the diaries of Alexander Blok dated 1901-1921 reflecting the process of the writer's self-identification. During 20 years under the influence of various social and cultural situations Blok's "Self-Conception" is undergoing significant changes. The vector of these changes shows the complicated evolution of the…

  2. Growing Community: The Impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the Social and Learning Environment in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has…

  3. The Four Domains of Moral Education: The Contributions of Dewey, Alexander and Goleman to a Comprehensive Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Ronald Lee

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to place a neglected dimension of John Dewey's work into its proper context. Examines the works of Dewey, F. Matthias Alexander, and Daniel Goldman to create four domains that must be addressed by a truly comprehensive model of moral education: direct external, indirect external, direct internal, and indirect internal. (DSK)

  4. History of quantum electronics at the Moscow Lebedev and General Physics Institutes: Nikolaj Basov and Alexander Prokhorov.

    PubMed

    Karlov, N V; Krokhin, O N; Lukishova, S G

    2010-09-01

    Some moments of maser and laser history in the Soviet Union are outlined, commemorating the work of Nikolaj G. Basov and Alexander M. Prokhorov, who, together with Charles H. Townes, were awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle."

  5. Discovering Mobile Social Networks by Semantic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jason J.; Choi, Kwang Sun; Park, Sung Hyuk

    It has been important for telecommunication companies to discover social networks from mobile subscribers. They have attempted to provide a number of recommendation services, but they realized that the services were not successful. In this chapter, we present semantic technologies for discovering social networks. The process is mainly composed of two steps; (1) profile identification and (2) context understanding. Through developing a Next generation Contents dElivery (NICE) platform, we were able to generate various services based on the discovered social networks.

  6. Alexander Gordon, puerperal sepsis, and modern theories of infection control--Semmelweis in perspective.

    PubMed

    Gould, Ian M

    2010-04-01

    Ignaz Semmelweis, a Hungarian doctor who practised in 19th century Vienna, is widely believed to be the father of modern infection control. He earned this accolade when he showed that puerperal sepsis was contagious and that it could be prevented with adequate hand hygiene. In fact, such ideas had circulated in the medical world for at least a century before Semmelweis' work. Moreover, it is well documented that Alexander Gordon, an obstetrician working in Aberdeen, UK, was the first to prove the contagious nature of puerperal sepsis. He also advocated the need for good hygiene for its prevention in a thesis published in 1795. This work described an epidemic of puerperal sepsis that began in Aberdeen in 1789. Gordon's thesis was reprinted three times in Edinburgh, Philadelphia, and London over the next 55 years, suggesting that Semmelweis (1847) could well have known of his work. Like Semmelweis, Gordon was persecuted for his findings.

  7. Finding revelation in anthropology: Alexander Winchell, William Robertson Smith and the heretical imperative.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, David N

    2015-09-01

    Anthropological inquiry has often been considered an agent of intellectual secularization. Not least is this so in the sphere of religion, where anthropological accounts have often been taken to represent the triumph of naturalism. This metanarrative, however, fails to recognize that naturalistic explanations could sometimes be espoused for religious purposes and in defence of confessional creeds. This essay examines two late nineteenth-century figures--Alexander Winchell in the United States and William Robertson Smith in Britain--who found in anthropological analysis resources to bolster rather than undermine faith. In both cases these individuals found themselves on the receiving end of ecclesiastical censure and were dismissed from their positions at church-governed institutions. But their motivation was to vindicate divine revelation, in Winchell's case from the physical anthropology of human origins and in Smith's from the cultural anthropology of Semitic ritual.

  8. Neuromusicology or Musiconeurology? “Omni-art” in Alexander Scriabin as a Fount of Ideas

    PubMed Central

    Triarhou, Lazaros C.

    2016-01-01

    Science can uncover neural mechanisms by looking at the work of artists. The ingenuity of a titan of classical music, the Russian composer Alexander Scriabin (1872–1915), in combining all the sensory modalities into a polyphony of aesthetical experience, and his creation of a chord based on fourths rather than the conventional thirds are proposed as putative points of departure for insight, in future studies, into the neural processes that underlie the perception of beauty, individually or universally. Scriabin’s “Omni-art” was a new synthesis of music, philosophy and religion, and a new aesthetic language, a unification of music, vision, olfaction, drama, poetry, dance, image, and conceptualization, all governed by logic, in the quest for the integrative action of the human mind toward a “higher reality” of which music is only a component. PMID:27014167

  9. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Silurian trace fossils in carbonate turbidites from the Alexander Arc of southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Early to Late Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) body and trace fossils from the Heceta Formation are preserved in the oldest widespread carbonates in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. They represent the earliest shelly benthos to inhabit a diversity of marine environments and are important indicators of the early stages in benthic community development within this ancient island arc. The trace fossils are significant because they add to a small but growing body of knowledge about ichnofaunas in deep-water Paleozoic carbonates. Proximal to medial carbonate turbidites yield a low-diversity suite of trace fossils that comprises five distinct types of biogenic structures. Bedding planes reveal simple epichnial burrows (Planolites), cross-cutting burrows (Fucusopsis), and tiny cylindrical burrows. These and other casts, including chondrites( )-like burrow clusters, represent the feeding activities (fodinichnia) of preturbidite animals. Hypichnial burrows and rare endichnial traces reflect the activities of postturbidite animals. Broken and offset traces indicate that infaunal biota commenced burrowing before slumping and subsequent soft-sediment deformation. The abundance and density of trace fossils increases offshore in the medial turbidites associated with a decrease in the size and amount of coarse particles and with an increase in mud and preserved organic material. Although diversity levels are similar in the proximal and medial turbidite facies, they are much lower than in Paleozoic siliciclastic turbidites. This may reflect unfavorable environmental conditions for infaunal biota or paleobiogeographic isolation of the Alexander terrane during the Silurian. A greater use of trace fossils in terrane analysis will help to resolve this issue and should provide new data for reconstructing the paleogeography of circum-Pacific terranes.

  11. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  12. Dive and discover: Expeditions to the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers Lawrence, Lisa

    The Dive and Discover Web site is a virtual treasure chest of deep sea science and classroom resources. The goals of Dive and Discover are to engage students, teachers, and the general public in the excitement of ocean disco very through an interactive educational Web site. You can follow scientists on oceanographic research cruises by reading their daily cruise logs, viewing photos and video clips of the discoveries, and even e-mailing questions to the scientists and crew. WHOI has also included an "Educator's Companion" section with teaching strategies, activities, and assessments, making Dive and Discover an excellent resource for the classroom.

  13. Dive and discover: Expeditions to the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Lisa Ayers

    The Dive and Discover Web site is a virtual treasure chest of deep sea science and classroom resources. The goals of Dive and Discover are to engage students, teachers, and the general public in the excitement of ocean disco very through an interactive educational Web site. You can follow scientists on oceanographic research cruises by reading their daily cruise logs, viewing photos and video clips of the discoveries, and even e-mailing questions to the scientists and crew. WHOI has also included an “Educator's Companion” section with teaching strategies, activities, and assessments, making Dive and Discover an excellent resource for the classroom.

  14. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  15. Kepler Discovers Earth-size Planet Candidates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered its first Earth-size planet candidates and its first candidates in the habitable zone, a region where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. Five of th...

  16. Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162368.html Scientists Discover More Clues to Stuttering MRI shows involvement of brain areas controlling speech, ... speech, attention and emotion are all linked to stuttering. Stuttering is characterized by involuntarily repeating certain sounds, ...

  17. Fermi discovers giant bubbles in Milky Way

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above...

  18. Kepler Discovers Its First Rocky Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system....

  19. James Alexander Lindsay (1856–1931), and his clinical axioms and aphorisms

    PubMed Central

    Breathnach, Caoimhghin S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-01-01

    John Alexander Lindsay was born at Fintona, county Tyrone in 1856, and at the age of 23 he graduated in medicine at the Royal University of Ireland. After two years in London and Europe he returned to Belfast to join the staff at the Royal Victoria Hospital and in 1899 he was appointed to the professorship of medicine. He was valued by the students for his clarity and by his colleagues for his many extracurricular contributions to the medical profession in the positions entrusted to him. He published monographs on Diseases of the Lungs, and the Climatic Treatment of Consumption, but his later Medical Axioms show his deep appreciation of studied clinical observation. Although practice was changing in the new century Lindsay displayed an ability to change with the new requirements, as evidenced by his lecture on electrocardiography as president of the section of medicine of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland in 1915. He was impressed by the way the string galvanometer changed attention from stenosis and incompetence of the valves to the cardiac musculature, but rightly suspected that there was more to be told about the state of the myocardium than Einthoven's three leads revealed. His death occurred in Belfast in 1931. PMID:23620615

  20. James Alexander Lindsay (1856-1931), and his clinical axioms and aphorisms.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghin S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-09-01

    John Alexander Lindsay was born at Fintona, county Tyrone in 1856, and at the age of 23 he graduated in medicine at the Royal University of Ireland. After two years in London and Europe he returned to Belfast to join the staff at the Royal Victoria Hospital and in 1899 he was appointed to the professorship of medicine. He was valued by the students for his clarity and by his colleagues for his many extracurricular contributions to the medical profession in the positions entrusted to him. He published monographs on Diseases of the Lungs, and the Climatic Treatment of Consumption, but his later Medical Axioms show his deep appreciation of studied clinical observation. Although practice was changing in the new century Lindsay displayed an ability to change with the new requirements, as evidenced by his lecture on electrocardiography as president of the section of medicine of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland in 1915. He was impressed by the way the string galvanometer changed attention from stenosis and incompetence of the valves to the cardiac musculature, but rightly suspected that there was more to be told about the state of the myocardium than Einthoven's three leads revealed. His death occurred in Belfast in 1931.

  1. Bathymetric gradients within a Paleozoic Island Arc, southeastern Alaska (Alexander Terrane)

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Early to Late Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation reflect bathymetric gradients within the ancient island arc exposed in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. These rocks record the earliest occurrence of widespread carbonate deposition in the region and represent the earliest foundation for shallow-water platform development within the arc. The excellent preservation of platform, platform margin, and slope deposits contrasts with the poor preservation of many marine sediments that originated within other island arcs. Hence, these limestones provide important insights into the styles, processes, and bathymetry of carbonate deposition in island arcs. Carbonate depositional sites within the arc extended laterally from nearshore intertidal and relatively shallow subtidal zones of a marine platform, to the seaward margins of a rimmed shelf, and into deeper subtidal areas of a slope environment. Fossiliferous deposits that originated on the platform comprise a diversity of shelly benthos, including corals and stromatoporoids in growth position. Dasycladacean algae, oncoids, and Amphipora also indicate shallow-water conditions. Organic buildups and reefs were constructed by cyanobacteria, massive stromatoporoids, corals, and algae at the platform margin. Deposition beyond the seaward edge of the shelf is evident from the carbonate turbidites that consist of skeletal debris of shallow-water derivation and an absence of coarse siliciclastic detritus. Sedimentation and resedimentation along a bathymetric gradient within the arc is especially well illustrated by the carbonate breccias that are enclosed within these deep subtidal sediments. They comprise detached stromatolites and clasts of shallow-water origin that were derived from the platform and its margin during periodic slumping of the shelf edge.

  2. Death by polonium-210: lessons learned from the murder of former Soviet spy Alexander Litvinenko.

    PubMed

    McFee, Robin B; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2009-02-01

    The medical response to radiation--whether the result of radiological warfare, terrorist deployment of improvised radiation dispersal weapons, political assassination, occupational or industrial accidents or the medically radiated patient remains one of the least taught among all disciplines within medical education. In the aftermath of 9/11 among medical vulnerabilities to toxicant threats, of all the categories of weapons of mass destruction (WMD)--whether using the CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosive) or NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) acronym--radiation is the least taught in professional schools, responder cultures or civil preparedness organizations. To date, few health care professionals (HCP) possess the fundamental knowledge or skills to identify and diagnose, let alone treat a radiation victim; this vulnerability made even more obvious in the aftermath of the high profile assassination of former Russian agent Alexander Litvinenko. He was poisoned with Polonium210. Radioactive substances are ubiquitous with radiation sources being in or transported through virtually every region nationwide. It is essential to increase preparedness among community and rural health care facilities as well as urban and university hospitals. Managing radiation injuries effectively requires access to specialized equipment and expertise. Radiation sickness is progressive and may require acute, critical and long-term care throughout the course of illness. Regardless of the source, preparedness rests upon acknowledging a threat exists and dedicating the resources to address the risks including the enhancement of training and equipment. Mass or individual exposures to radiation present unique challenges to the entire response continuum from law enforcement, first responders and emergency medical care. Increased education about and practice in responding to radiological threats is essential to enhance preparedness.

  3. Neuromechanical interference of posture on movement: evidence from Alexander technique teachers rising from a chair

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Mian, Omar S.; Peters, Amy

    2014-01-01

    While Alexander technique (AT) teachers have been reported to stand up by shifting weight gradually as they incline the trunk forward, healthy untrained (HU) adults appear unable to rise in this way. This study examines the hypothesis that HU have difficulty rising smoothly, and that this difficulty relates to reported differences in postural stiffness between groups. A wide range of movement durations (1–8 s) and anteroposterior foot placements were studied under the instruction to rise at a uniform rate. Before seat-off (SO) there were clear and profound performance differences between groups, particularly for slower movements, that could not be explained by strength differences. For each movement duration, HU used approximately twice the forward center-of-mass (CoM) velocity and vertical feet-loading rate as AT. For slow movements, HU violated task instruction by abruptly speeding up and rapidly shifting weight just before SO. In contrast, AT shifted weight gradually while smoothly advancing the CoM, achieving a more anterior CoM at SO. A neuromechanical model revealed a mechanism whereby stiffness affects standing up by exacerbating a conflict between postural and balance constraints. Thus activating leg extensors to take body weight hinders forward CoM progression toward the feet. HU's abrupt weight shift can be explained by reliance on momentum to stretch stiff leg extensors. AT's smooth rises can be explained by heightened dynamic tone control that reduces leg extensor resistance and improves force transmission across the trunk. Our results suggest postural control shapes movement coordination through a dynamic “postural frame” that affects the resistive behavior of the body. PMID:25085609

  4. Project Alexander the Great: a study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education.

    PubMed

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O

    2008-01-01

    Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering is considered amongst the most reputable fields within the global arena, and will likely be the primer for any future breakthroughs in Medicine and Biology. Bioengineering/biomedical engineering education has evolved since late 1950s and is undergoing advancement in leading academic institutions worldwide. This paper delineates an original study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and bears the name 'Project Alexander the Great'. The initial step of the project was to survey all 10448 universities, recognized by the International Association of Universities, spread among the 193 member states of the United Nations within the six continents. The project aims at identifying, disseminating, and networking, through the world-wide-web, those institutions of higher learning that provide bioengineering/biomedical engineering education. The significance of this project is multifold: i) the inception of a web-based 'world-map' in bioengineering/biomedical engineering education for the potential international student desiring to pursue a career in this field; ii) the global networking of bioengineering/biomedical engineering academic/research programs; iii) the promotion of first-class bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and the catalysis of global proliferation of this field; iv) the erection of bridges among educational institutions, industry, and professional societies or organizations involved in Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering; and v) the catalysis in the establishment of framework agreements for cooperation among the identified institutions offering curricula in this field. This paper presents the results obtained from Africa and North America. The whole project is due to be completed by 2009.

  5. The origin of Rosenthal fibers and their contributions to astrocyte pathology in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Sosunov, Alexander A; McKhann, Guy M; Goldman, James E

    2017-03-31

    Rosenthal fibers (RFs) are cytoplasmic, proteinaceous aggregates. They are the pathognomonic feature of the astrocyte pathology in Alexander Disease (AxD), a neurodegenerative disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the GFAP gene, encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Although RFs have been known for many years their origin and significance remain elusive issues. We have used mouse models of AxD based on the overexpression of human GFAP (transgenic, TG) and a point mutation in mouse GFAP (knock-in, KI) to examine the formation of RFs and to find astrocyte changes that correlate with the appearance of RFs. We found RFs of various sizes and shapes. The smallest ones appear as granular depositions on intermediate filaments. These contain GFAP and the small heat shock protein, alphaB-crystallin. Their aggregation appears to give rise to large RFs. The appearance of new RFs and the growth of previously formed RFs occur over time. We determined that DAPI is a reliable marker of RFs and in parallel with Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) staining defined a high variability in the appearance of RFs, even in neighboring astrocytes. Although many astrocytes in AxD with increased levels of GFAP and with or without RFs change their phenotype, only some cells with large numbers of RFs show a profound reconstruction of cellular processes, with a loss of fine distal processes and the appearance of large, lobulated nuclei, likely due to arrested mitosis. We conclude that 1) RFs appear to originate as small, osmiophilic masses containing both GFAP and alphaB-crystallin deposited on bundles of intermediate filaments. 2) RFs continue to form within AxD astrocytes over time. 3) DAPI is a reliable marker for RFs and can be used with immunolabeling. 4) RFs appear to interfere with the successful completion of astrocyte mitosis and cell division.

  6. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  7. Television: A Medium for Discovering Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Marta; Sola, Anna

    1995-01-01

    Examines television news programs as media for discovering diversity. Discusses television as a means of information and communication, its role in the creation of public opinion, its inability to permit understanding, and the need for empirical research to assess its influence on cognitive processes. (AEF)

  8. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  9. Boron Discovered in Ancient Habitable Mars Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Gasda, Patrick

    2016-12-13

    Boron was recently discovered in calcium-sulfate veins on Mars using the ChemCam instrument on NASA’s Curiosity Mars Rover. This is the first Mars mission to detect boron on the Red Planet. Los Alamos Post-Doctoral Student Patrick Gasda explains how this discovery helps us better understand the timescale of habitability on Mars.

  10. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  11. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  12. Discovering the Sequential Structure of Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Fincham, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern recognition techniques combined with Hidden Markov models can be used to discover the mental states that people go through in performing a task. The combined method identifies both the mental states and how their durations vary with experimental conditions. We apply this method to a task where participants solve novel…

  13. Discovering English with the Sketch Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    "Discovering English with the Sketch Engine" is the title of a new book (Thomas, 2014) which introduces the use of corpora in language study, teaching, writing and translating. It focuses on using the Sketch Engine to identify patterns of normal usage in many aspects of English ranging from morphology to discourse and pragmatics. This…

  14. Discovering Community: Activities for Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Out-of-School Time, Wellesley College, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The project activities highlighted in this publication were conducted within the framework of school-based afterschool programs operated by community-based organizations. The intention of the Discovering Community initiative, created by The After-School Corporation and MetLife Foundation, is to foster greater collaborations and mutual respect…

  15. Discovering Diabetes Complications: an Ontology Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Daghistani, Tahani; Shammari, Riyad Al; Razzak, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a serious disease that spread in the world dramatically. The diabetes patient has an average of risk to experience complications. Take advantage of recorded information to build ontology as information technology solution will help to predict patients who have average of risk level with certain complication. It is helpful to search and present patient’s history regarding different risk factors. Discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Method: We designed ontology based model, using adult diabetes patients’ data, to discover the rules of diabetes with its complications in disease to disease relationship. Result: Various rules between different risk factors of diabetes Patients and certain complications generated. Furthermore, new complications (diseases) might be discovered as new finding of this study, discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Conclusion: The system can identify the patients who are suffering from certain risk factors such as high body mass index (obesity) and starting controlling and maintaining plan. PMID:26862251

  16. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  17. Discover Your Band or Orchestra's Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonder, Mark

    1990-01-01

    States that discovering the origins of one's school music group can promote interest in the school's music programs. Discusses books that provide historical information on school music programs; provides ideas for formulating teaching objectives; and tells how to locate sources and organize data. (DB)

  18. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  19. New volcanoes discovered in southeast Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    Scientists have discovered three new active volcanoes in the Newer Volcanics Province (NVP) in southeast Australia. Researchers from Monash University in Melbourne describe in the Australian Journal of Earth Sciences how they used a combination of satellite photographs, detailed topography models from NASA, the distribution of magnetic minerals in the rocks, and site visits to analyze the region.

  20. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    PubMed

    Klein, H P

    1999-12-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  1. Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Alexander terrane (southeastern Alaska): evidence for Early Jurassic rifting prior to accretion with North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Karl, Susan M.; Keppie, J. Duncan; Kontak, Daniel J.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The circular Bokan Mountain complex (BMC) on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, is a Jurassic peralkaline granitic intrusion about 3 km in diameter that crosscuts igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane. The BMC hosts significant rare metal (rare earth elements, Y, U, Th, Zr, and Nb) mineralization related to the last stage of BMC emplacement. U–Pb (zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar (amphibole and whole-rock) geochronology indicates the following sequence of intrusive activity: (i) a Paleozoic basement composed mainly of 469 ± 4 Ma granitic rocks; (ii) intrusion of the BMC at 177 ± 1 Ma followed by rapid cooling through ca. 550 °C at 176 ± 1 Ma that was synchronous with mineralization associated with vertical, WNW-trending pegmatites, felsic dikes, and aegirine–fluorite veins and late-stage, sinistral shear deformation; and (iii) intrusion of crosscutting lamprophyre dikes at >150 Ma and again at ca. 105 Ma. The peralkaline nature of the BMC and the WNW trend of associated dikes suggest intrusion during NE–SW rifting that was followed by NE–SW shortening during the waning stages of BMC emplacement. The 177 Ma BMC was synchronous with other magmatic centres in the Alexander terrane, such as (1) the Dora Bay peralkaline stock and (2) the bimodal Moffatt volcanic suite located ~30 km north and ~100 km SE of the BMC, respectively. This regional magmatism is interpreted to represent a regional extensional event that precedes deposition of the Late Jurassic – Cretaceous Gravina sequence that oversteps the Wrangellia and Alexander exotic accreted terranes and the Taku and Yukon–Tanana pericratonic terranes of the Canadian–Alaskan Cordillera.

  2. Adult-onset Alexander disease: a series of eleven unrelated cases with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pareyson, Davide; Fancellu, Roberto; Mariotti, Caterina; Romano, Silvia; Salmaggi, Andrea; Carella, Francesco; Girotti, Floriano; Gattellaro, Grazietta; Carriero, Maria Rita; Farina, Laura; Ceccherini, Isabella; Savoiardo, Mario

    2008-09-01

    Alexander disease (AD) in its typical form is an infantile lethal leucodystrophy, characterized pathologically by Rosenthal fibre accumulation. Following the identification of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene as the causative gene, cases of adult-onset AD (AOAD) are being described with increasing frequency. AOAD has a different clinical and neuroradiological presentation with respect to early-onset AD, as abnormalities are mainly concentrated in the brainstem-spinal cord junction. We report detailed clinical and genetic data of 11 cases of AOAD, observed over a 4-year period, and a review of the previously reported 25 cases of genetically confirmed AOAD. In our series, onset occurred as late as age 62, and up to 71 in an affected deceased relative. Most cases appeared sporadic, but family history may be misleading. The most frequent symptoms were related to bulbar dysfunction-with dysarthria, dysphagia, dysphonia (seven patients)-, pyramidal involvement (seven patients) and cerebellar ataxia (seven patients). Four patients had palatal myoclonus. Sleep disorders were also observed (four cases). Bulbar symptoms, however, were infrequent at onset and two symptomatic patients had an almost pure pyramidal involvement. Two subjects were asymptomatic. Misdiagnosis at presentation was frequent and MRI was instrumental in suggesting the correct diagnosis by showing, in all cases, mild to severe atrophy of the medulla oblongata extending caudally to the cervical spinal cord. In ten patients, molecular studies revealed six novel missense mutations and three previously reported changes in GFAP. The last typical patient carried no definitely pathogenic mutation, but a missense variant (p.D157N), supposedly a rare polymorphism. Revision of the literature and the present series indicate that the clinical picture is not specific, but AOAD must be considered in patients of any age with lower brainstem signs. When present, palatal myoclonus is strongly suggestive

  3. Discovering phase transitions with unsupervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Unsupervised learning is a discipline of machine learning which aims at discovering patterns in large data sets or classifying the data into several categories without being trained explicitly. We show that unsupervised learning techniques can be readily used to identify phases and phases transitions of many-body systems. Starting with raw spin configurations of a prototypical Ising model, we use principal component analysis to extract relevant low-dimensional representations of the original data and use clustering analysis to identify distinct phases in the feature space. This approach successfully finds physical concepts such as the order parameter and structure factor to be indicators of a phase transition. We discuss the future prospects of discovering more complex phases and phase transitions using unsupervised learning techniques.

  4. Plant Biofilm Inhibitors to Discover Biofilm Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-08

    REPORT Final Report for Plant Biofilm Inhibitors to Discover Biofilm Genes 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: To control biofilms , we have...synthesized the natural biofilm inhibitor (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene) -3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone from the red alga Delisea pulchra and determined that...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS biofilms , biofilm inhibitors Thomas K. Wood Texas Engineering

  5. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  6. Paleomagnetism and geochronology of 23 Ma gabbroic intrusions in the Keku Strait, Alaska, and implications for the Alexander Terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Coe, Robert S.; Renne, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of Tertiary gabbro from 24 sites in the Keku Strait, Alaska, help constrain the displacement history of the Alexander terrane. Step heating experiments on a plagioclase separate from these previously undated intrusions indicate a discordant 40Ar/39Ar age of 23.1 ± 1.7 Ma. The characteristic magnetization resides in magnetite, is easily isolated by thermal and alternating field demagnetization, and has both normal and reversed polarities. The mean paleomagnetic pole, with no structural correction, is latitude 87.1°N, longitude 141.6°E, A95 = 10.1°, with N = 20 sites. This pole indicates insignificant tectonic displacement (0.5° ± 8.2° southward) and rotation (0.6° ± 15.2° counterclockwise). We therefore conclude that any northward displacement or vertical axis rotation of the Alexander terrane, and/or tilting in the vicinity of the Keku Strait must have occurred before 23 Ma.

  7. Revision of Tipula (Yamatotipula) stackelbergi Alexander (Diptera, Tipulidae), and a short discussion on subspecies among crane flies

    PubMed Central

    Salmela, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract All available type material of Tipula stackelbergi Alexander, Tipula usuriensis Alexander and Tipula subpruinosa Mannheims were examined. Tipula (Yamatotipula) stackelbergi stat. rev. is elevated from a subspecies of Tipula (Yamatotipula) pruinosa Wiedemann to a valid species. Two new synonyms are proposed: Tipula usuriensis syn. n. proved to be a junior synonym of. Tipula (Yamatotipula) pruinosa and Tipula subpruinosa syn. n. a junior synonym of Tipula (Yamatotipula) freyana Lackschewitz. Tipula (Yamatotipula) stackelbergi is redescribed, male and female terminalia of Tipula (Yamatotipula) pruinosa are illustrated and discussed. Female terminalia of Tipula (Yamatotipula) freyana are described and illustrated for the first time. A key to both sexes of Tipula (Yamatotipula) stackelbergi and Tipula (Yamatotipula) pruinosa, and a key to females of Tipula (Yamatotipula) chonsaniana, Tipula (Yamatotipula) freyana and Tipula (Yamatotipula) moesta are provided. Subspecies are not uncommon among crane flies, but their ranges and traits are poorly known. An interdisciplinary approach (genetics, ecology, taxonomy) is suggested if subspecific ranks are to be used in tipuloid systematics. PMID:22303125

  8. The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, C.D.; Premo, W.R.; Meier, A.L.; Taggart, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A belt of unusual volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences is located along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane throughout southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and exhibits a range of characteristics consistent with a variety of syngenetic to epigenetic deposit types. Deposits within this belt include Greens Creek and Windy Craggy, the economically most significant VMS deposit in Alaska and the largest in North America, respectively. The occurrences are hosted by a discontinuously exposed, 800-km-long belt of rocks that consist of a 200- to 800-m-thick sequence of conglomerate, limestone, marine elastic sedimentary rocks, and tuff intercalated with and overlain by a distinctive unit of mafic pyroclastic rocks and pillowed flows. Faunal data bracket the age of the host rocks between Anisian (Middle Triassic) and late Norian (late Late Triassic). This metallogenic belt is herein referred to as the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt. The VMS occurrences show systematic differences in degree of structural control, chemistry, and stratigraphic setting along the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt that suggest important spatial or temporal changes in the tectonic environment of formation. At the southern end of the belt, felsic volcanic rocks overlain by shallow-water limestones characterize the lower part of the sequence. In the southern and middle portion of the belt, a distinctive pebble conglomerate marks the base of the section and is indicative of high-energy deposition in a near slope or basin margin setting. At the northern end of the belt the conglomerates, limestones, and felsic volcanic rocks are absent and the belt is composed of deep-water sedimentary and mafic volcanic rocks. This northward change in depositional environment and lithofacies is accompanied by a northward transition from epithermal-like structurally controlled, discontinuous, vein- and pod-shaped, Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-(Cu) occurrences with relatively simple mineralogy

  9. Discovering the Universe, 6th edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comins, Neil F.; Kaufmann, William J.

    Discovering the Universe is the best-selling brief text for descriptive one-term astronomy courses (especially those with no mathematics prerequisites). Carried along by the book's vibrant main theme--the process of scientific discovery--readers will encounter spectacular sights, landmark experiments, and recent discoveries, while learning to avoid the pitfalls created by common misconceptions about astronomy. Now enhanced with a powerful technology and image projection package, this is the most exciting and effective edition yet. The accompanying CD-ROM features a special student version of the award-winning virtual planetarium software, Starry Night? Backyard.

  10. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  11. Discovering Communicable Models from Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes how we used regression rules to improve upon results previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  12. Recently Discovered Pulsars and Unidentified Egret Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Diego F.; Butt, Yousaf M.; Camilo, Fernando

    2001-10-01

    We present a correlative study between all unidentified EGRET sources at low Galactic latitudes and the newly discovered pulsars in the released portion of the Parkes multibeam radio survey. We note 14 positional coincidences: eight of these are ``Vela-like'' pulsars with relatively small periods, small characteristic ages, and high spin-down luminosities. Three of these coincidences have been investigated by D'Amico et al. and Camilo et al. Among the others, we argue that PSR J1015-5719 may plausibly generate part of the high-energy radiation observed from 3EG J1014-5705. Three additional interesting cases are 3EG J1410-6147, either of PSRs J1412-6145 or J1413-6141 if the pulsars are at the estimated distance of the coincident SNR G312.4-0.4, and 3EG J1639-4702/PSR J1637-4642. The remaining positional coincidences between the EGRET sources and the newly discovered pulsars are almost certainly spurious.

  13. The Universe for all to discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros, F.; Espinós, H.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.; Navarro, J.

    2015-05-01

    In the title of this paper, we have changed the slogan of the International Year of Astronomy, ``The Universe yours to discover" to ``The Universe for all to discover" in order to emphasize the need to think about broader audiences when we plan astronomical activities at school or during outreach events. The strategy we propose follows what is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL allows to reach to the general public as well as to audiences which might be regarded as ``special" because they have some disability. It has been shown that everybody has a preferred style of learning (some remember better what they see, others what they hear or what they touch) and therefore, everybody is more or less able under the different styles of learning. Through this talk I am going to outline some of the principles of the UDL that can be applied in the teaching and communication of Astronomy, along with an example of its implementation in the project ``A Touch of the Universe".

  14. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  15. Alexander Graham Bell's Patent for the Telephone and Thomas Edison's Patent for the Electric Lamp. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    In 1876 Americans held a Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) to celebrate the nation's birth 100 years earlier. Machinery Hall drew the most admiration and wonder. Alexander Graham Bell exhibited the first telephone, and Thomas Alva Edison presented the automatic telegraph, one of more than 1,000 inventions he would patent in his…

  16. The Question of Sign-Language and the Utility of Signs in the Instruction of the Deaf: Two Papers by Alexander Graham Bell (1898)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, M.

    2005-01-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is often portrayed as either hero or villain of deaf individuals and the Deaf community. His writings, however, indicate that he was neither, and was not as clearly definite in his beliefs about language as is often supposed. The following two articles, reprinted from The Educator (1898), Vol. V, pp. 3?4 and pp. 38?44,…

  17. Discuss: If Essays Are Dead, Then Where Does That Leave Everything Else? A Response to: Shirley Alexander's "Buying Essays: How to Make Sure Assessment Is Authentic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Professor Shirley Alexander is the Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Vice-President (Teaching, Learning & Equity) at the University of Technology, Sydney. On 12 November 2014, an article of hers appeared in "The Conversation": "Buying essays: how to make sure assessment is authentic." That article traverses, in an abbreviated way,…

  18. Prevention and Early Intervention: Individual Differences as Risk Factors for the Mental Health of Children. A Festschrift for Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, William B., Ed.; McDevitt, Sean C., Ed.

    This collection of essays, in honor of child psychiatry pioneers Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, focuses on their idea that important life outcomes are the product of ongoing interactions between a child's behavioral style and the complimentarity or lack of fit of the parenting environment. Following an introduction, the remaining chapters are:…

  19. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

  20. Discovering New Light States at Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Harnik, Roni; Kaplan, Jared; Toro, Natalia; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-11

    Experiments designed to measure neutrino oscillations also provide major opportunities for discovering very weakly coupled states. In order to produce neutrinos, experiments such as LSND collide thousands of Coulombs of protons into fixed targets, while MINOS and MiniBooNE also focus and then dump beams of muons. The neutrino detectors beyond these beam dumps are therefore an excellent arena in which to look for long-lived pseudoscalars or for vector bosons that kinetically mix with the photon. We show that these experiments have significant sensitivity beyond previous beam dumps, and are able to partially close the gap between laboratory experiments and supernovae constraints on pseudoscalars. Future upgrades to the NuMI beamline and Project X will lead to even greater opportunities for discovery. We also discuss thin target experiments with muon beams, such as those available in COMPASS, and show that they constitute a powerful probe for leptophilic PNGBs.

  1. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Todd

    Traditional approaches for modeling chemical reaction networks such as those involved in combustion have focused on identifying individual reactions and using theoretical approaches to explore the underlying mechanisms. Recent advances involving graphical processing units (GPUs), commodity products developed for the videogaming industry, have made it possible to consider a distinct approach wherein one attempts to discover chemical reactions and mechanisms. We provide a brief summary of these developments and then discuss the concept behind the ``ab initio nanoreactor'' which explores the space of possible chemical reactions and molecular species for a given stoichiometry. The nanoreactor concept is exemplified with an example to the Urey-Miller reaction network which has been previously advanced as a potential model for prebiotic chemistry. We briefly discuss some of the future directions envisioned for the development of this nanoreactor concept.

  2. Newly discovered insect RNA viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Wang, ZhaoWei; Liu, YongXiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xiang, Xue; Xia, XiaoLing; Hu, YuanYang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-08-01

    Insects are a group of arthropods and the largest group of animals on Earth, with over one million species described to date. Like other life forms, insects suffer from viruses that cause disease and death. Viruses that are pathogenic to beneficial insects cause dramatic economic losses on agriculture. In contrast, viruses that are pathogenic to insect pests can be exploited as attractive biological control agents. All of these factors have led to an explosion in the amount of research into insect viruses in recent years, generating impressive quantities of information on the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses. Due to the wide variety of insect viruses, a better understanding of these viruses will expand our overall knowledge of their virology. Here, we review studies of several newly discovered RNA insect viruses in China.

  3. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  4. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    ScienceCinema

    Nugent, Peter

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  5. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  6. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  7. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS. PMID:26834982

  8. Discovering New Drugs on the Cellular Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the Vision for Space Exploration calling for a sustained human presence in space, astronauts will need to grow plants, while in orbit, for nourishment that they will not receive from only consuming dehydrated foods. As a potential source of food for long-duration missions, space-grown plants could also give astronauts an important psychological boost, as fresh vegetables could serve as a welcomed change from monotonous meals consisting of reconstituted foods in plastic bags. Even more, these plants could likely aid in the recycling of air and wastewater on spacecraft. With a helping hand from a company by the name of Biolog, Inc., NASA is studying the impacts of decreased gravity and spaceborne bacteria on the plants being grown for food in space. With a helping hand from NASA, this very same company is creating powerful new cell- and bacteria-analysis tools for use in discovering and developing new drugs on Earth.

  9. Discovering Rules by Meta-level Abduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Hidetomo

    This paper addresses discovery of unknown relations from incomplete network data by abduction. Given a network information such as causal relations and metabolic pathways, we want to infer missing links and nodes in the network to account for observations. To this end, we introduce a framework of meta-level abduction, which performs abduction in the meta level. This is implemented in SOLAR, an automated deduction system for consequence finding, using a first-order representation for algebraic properties of causality and the full-clausal form of network information and constraints. Meta-level abduction by SOLAR is powerful enough to infer missing rules, missing facts, and unknown causes that involve predicate invention in the form of existentially quantified hypotheses. We also show an application of rule abduction to discover certain physical techniques and related integrity constraints within the subject area of Skill Science.

  10. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881

  11. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; ...

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  12. The appearance of the artist to the people: the creativity, personality and malady of Alexander Ivanov (1806-58).

    PubMed

    Lerner, Vladimir; Witztum, Eliezer

    2005-02-01

    Alexander Ivanov was an outstanding Russian painter who lived in the middle of the nineteenth century, during the romantic period. He did not accept romanticism but instead tried to create his own original style, an ambitious combination of spiritual profundity and a manner of execution unparalleled in Western European art. Ivanov's intention and style are best reflected in his major work The Appearance of Christ to the People, a picture on which he worked for over 20 years. He painted more than 400 sketches of the picture while attempting to bring his masterpiece to perfection. At the end of his life Ivanov became disillusioned, renounced his strong religious conviction and became suspicious. This study examines the influence of his background, life story and personality on the creative process. From a diagnostic perspective, Ivanov's personality featured obsessive, narcissistic and schizoid traits. In his final years he suffered from a delusional disorder.

  13. Deficits in adult neurogenesis, contextual fear conditioning, and spatial learning in a Gfap mutant mouse model of Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Tracy L; Paylor, Richard; Messing, Albee

    2013-11-20

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament of mature astrocytes in the mammalian CNS. Dominant gain of function mutations in GFAP lead to the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Alexander disease (AxD), which is characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers along with variable degrees of leukodystrophy and intellectual disability. The mechanisms by which mutant GFAP leads to these pleiotropic effects are unknown. In addition to astrocytes, GFAP is also expressed in other cell types, particularly neural stem cells that form the reservoir supporting adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Here, we show that mouse models of AxD exhibit significant pathology in GFAP-positive radial glia-like cells in the dentate gyrus, and suffer from deficits in adult neurogenesis. In addition, they display impairments in contextual learning and spatial memory. This is the first demonstration of cognitive phenotypes in a model of primary astrocyte disease.

  14. James Sowerby: meteorites and his meteoritic sword made for the Emperor of Russia, Alexander I, in 1814

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    James Sowerby included meteorites in his publications of British and exotic natural history and so raised interest in their nature and origins at a time of much debate and involving the President of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks. The celebrations over the defeat of France in 1814 prompted Sowerby to make a sword from the Cape of Good Hope iron meteorite to present to the Russian Emperor, Alexander I, at the time of his state visit to London in June 1814 and in recognition of his achievements in bringing peace to Europe. The story of its attempted presentation, its final reception and the following response, including publications, all helped to increase interest in meteorites and their properties. The rediscovery of the sword after a lengthy disappearance probably brings an unusual saga to a fitting close.

  15. Map of glacial limits and possible refugia in the southern Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, during the late Wisconsin glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.; Ager, Thomas A.; Baichtal, James F.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2003-01-01

    During the late Wisconsin glaciation (circa 26,000-13,000 carbon-14 yr BP) the Cordilleran glacier complex formed vast ice fields and large glaciers along the crest of the Coast Mountains. As these glaciers flowed west to the Pacific Ocean, they were joined by local glaciers originating on the higher reaches of the Alexander Archipelago (Mann and Hamiltion, 1995). This extensive volume of ice was channeled into deep troughs (present-day fiords) that formed major outlet glaciers, such as the glaciers that occupied Chatham Strait and Dixon Entrance. In several places along the coast, deep glacially scoured submarine troughs indicate that glaciers reached to the edge of the continental shelf. For instance, the glacier that extended into the Dixon Entrance trough is known to have extended to the edge of the continental shelf. Its retreat began sometime after 16,000-15,000 carbon-14 yr BP (Barrie and Conway, 1999).

  16. The evolution of ultrahigh carbon steels - from the Great Pyramids, to Alexander the Great, to Y2K

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J

    1999-10-01

    Hypereutectoid steels containing between about 1 and 2.1 wt%C, and now known as ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS), have both a rich history (dating back to the time of Alexander the Great, i.e. {approximately} 300 BC) and an interesting, recent, technological period of development (from 1975 to the present). The connections between the modern UHCS and their ancient counterparts, and in particular Damascus steels, have received considerable attention. In addition to monolithic products, UHCS have also been used in both ancient and modern times in laminated composites. In the present paper, a summary of the modern development of UHCS and UHCS-containing laminates is given, and parallels are drawn with ancient materials. Also, ancient laminated composites containing other steels are described; controversial issues and a possible solution related to the age of such a laminate found in the Great Pyramid of Gizeh are discussed.

  17. Non-Euclidean Space, Movement and Astronomy in Modern Art: Alexander Calder's Mobiles and Ben Nicholson's Reliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Vanja

    2013-09-01

    John Keats once wrote that `there is no such thing as time and space' rather, believing that time and space are mental constructs that are subject to a variety of forms and as diverse as the human mind. In the 1920s through the 1930s, modern physics in many ways supported this idea through the various philosophical writings on the Theory of General Relativity to the masses by scientists such as Arthur Eddington and Albert Einstein. These new concepts of modern physics fundamentally changed our understanding of time and space and had substantial philosophical implications, which were absorbed by modern artists resulting in the 1936 Dimensionist Manifesto. Seeking to internalize the developments of modern science within modern art, this manifesto was widely endorsed by the most prominent figures of the avant-garde such as Marcel Duchamp, Jean Arp, Naum Gabo, Joan Miró, László Moholy-Nagy, Wassily Kandinsky and Alexander Calder. Of particular interest to this manifesto was the new concept of the fourth-dimension, which in many ways revolutionized the arts. Importantly, its interpretation varied widely in the artistic community, ranging from a purely physical four-dimensional space, to a kinetic concept of space in which space and time are linked, to a metaphysical interest in a space that exists beyond the material realm. The impact of modern science and astronomy on avant-garde art is currently a bourgeoning area of research with considerable implications to our rethinking of substantial artistic figures of this era. Through a case study of Alexander Calder's Mobiles and Ben Nicholson's Reliefs, this paper explores how these artworks were informed by an interest in modern science.

  18. 76 FR 4393 - Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Financial Services negotiated service agreement to the market dominant product list. This notice addresses... 3020, et seq., to add a Discover Financial Services (DFS) negotiated service agreement to the...

  19. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  20. Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning.

  1. Discover Space: an IYA program for libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2009-12-01

    Across the country, there is a growing concern regarding the number of students entering science and technology careers. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. This is particularly true when family interactions are factored in. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The nation’s more than 17,000 public libraries attract diverse audiences in almost every community. Science exhibits in libraries could potentially reach many adults and upper elementary and middle school students with STEM content. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is partnering with the American Library Association (ALA) to develop a pilot exhibit called Discover Space. The exhibit includes two areas: Space Storms and Star Quest and is currently on tour in Colorado. It is a featured IYA outreach project from SSI. This presentation will focus on the results of a national survey of libraries that SSI and ALA conducted in 2008 about interest in STEM exhibits as well as the development process that was used to design and fabricate the exhibit. Preliminary evaluation results will also be shared. The presentation will conclude with an examination of how this program could benefit underserved communities around the country.

  2. Has the Higgs boson been discovered?

    PubMed

    Renton, Peter

    2004-03-11

    The standard model of particle physics describes the strong and electroweak interactions of fermions (spin-1/2), gauge bosons (spin-1) and a final vital ingredient--the spin-0 Higgs boson, which gives masses to the other particles. But the Higgs boson has yet to be discovered, and its own mass is not specified by the theory. There is some evidence (although statistically not very significant) for its detection at a mass of about 115 GeV/c2, from electron-positron interactions at LEP (the Large Electron Positron collider). Indirect methods can also be used to constrain the mass of the Higgs boson, because it affects other observable quantities (for example, the mass of the W boson and some measurable properties of the Z boson). An indirect determination of the Higgs boson mass from the most recent measurements of such quantities yields a value compatible with 115 GeV/c2, but with some important caveats arising from inconsistencies in the present data.

  3. Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  4. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  5. HUBBLE AND KECK DISCOVER GALAXY BUILDING BLOCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a very small, faint galaxy 'building block' newly discovered by a unique collaboration between ground- and space-based telescopes. Hubble and the 10-meter Keck Telescopes in Hawaii joined forces, using a galaxy cluster which acts as gravitational lens to detect what scientists believe is one of the smallest very distant objects ever found. The galaxy cluster Abell 2218 was used by a team of European and American astronomers led by Richard Ellis (Caltech) in their systematic search for intrinsically faint distant star-forming systems. Without help from Abell 2218's exceptional magnifying power to make objects appear about 30 times brighter, the galaxy building block would have been undetectable. In the image to the right, the object is seen distorted into two nearly identical, very red 'images' by the gravitational lens. The image pair represents the magnified result of a single background object gravitationally lensed by Abell 2218 and viewed at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years. The intriguing object contains only one million stars, far fewer than a mature galaxy, and scientists believe it is very young. Such young star-forming systems of low mass at early cosmic times are likely to be the objects from which present-day galaxies have formed. In the image to the left, the full overview of the galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is seen. This image was taken by Hubble in 1999 at the completion of Hubble Servicing Mission 3A. Credit: NASA, ESA, Richard Ellis (Caltech) and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France) Acknowledgment: NASA, A. Fruchter and the ERO Team (STScI and ST-ECF)

  6. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Assef, Roberto J.; Blain, Andrew W.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T.; Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Petty, Sara M.; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  7. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  8. The Cannery Formation--Devonian to Early Permian arc-marginal deposits within the Alexander Terrane, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Layer, Paul W.; Harris, Anita G.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Murchey, Benita L.

    2011-01-01

    cherts on both Admiralty and Kupreanof Islands contain radiolarians as young as Permian, the age of the Cannery Formation is herein extended to Late Devonian through early Permian, to include the early Permian rocks exposed in its type locality. The Cannery Formation is folded and faulted, and its stratigraphic thickness is unknown but inferred to be several hundred meters. The Cannery Formation represents an extended period of marine deposition in moderately deep water, with slow rates of deposition and limited clastic input during Devonian through Pennsylvanian time and increasing argillaceous, volcaniclastic, and bioclastic input during the Permian. The Cannery Formation comprises upper Paleozoic rocks in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. In the pre-Permian upper Paleozoic, the tectonic setting of the Alexander terrane consisted of two or more evolved oceanic arcs. The lower Permian section is represented by a distinctive suite of rocks in the Alexander terrane, which includes sedimentary and volcanic rocks containing early Permian fossils, metamorphosed rocks with early Permian cooling ages, and intrusive rocks with early Permian cooling ages, that form discrete northwest-trending belts. After restoration of 180 km of dextral displacement of the Chilkat-Chichagof block on the Chatham Strait Fault, these belts consist, from northeast to southwest, of (1) bedded chert, siliceous argillite, volcaniclastic turbidites, pillow basalt, and limestone of the Cannery Formation and the Porcupine Slate of Gilbert and others (1987); (2) greenschist-facies Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that have Permian cooling ages; (3) silty limestone and calcareous argillite interbedded with pillow basalt and volcaniclastic rocks of the Halleck Formation and the William Henry Bay area; and (4) intermediate-composition and syenitic plutons. These belts correspond to components of an accretionary complex, contemporary metamorphic rocks, forearc-basin deposits,

  9. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  10. PSLQ: An Algorithm to Discover Integer Relations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J. M.

    2009-04-03

    Let x = (x{sub 1}, x{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis}, x{sub n}) be a vector of real or complex numbers. x is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a{sub i}, not all zero, such that a{sub 1}x{sub 1} + a{sub 2}x{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + a{sub n}x{sub n} = 0. By an integer relation algorithm, we mean a practical computational scheme that can recover the vector of integers ai, if it exists, or can produce bounds within which no integer relation exists. As we will see in the examples below, an integer relation algorithm can be used to recognize a computed constant in terms of a formula involving known constants, or to discover an underlying relation between quantities that can be computed to high precision. At the present time, the most effective algorithm for integer relation detection is the 'PSLQ' algorithm of mathematician-sculptor Helaman Ferguson [10, 4]. Some efficient 'multi-level' implementations of PSLQ, as well as a variant of PSLQ that is well-suited for highly parallel computer systems, are given in [4]. PSLQ constructs a sequence of integer-valued matrices B{sub n} that reduces the vector y = xB{sub n}, until either the relation is found (as one of the columns of B{sub n}), or else precision is exhausted. At the same time, PSLQ generates a steadily growing bound on the size of any possible relation. When a relation is found, the size of smallest entry of the vector y abruptly drops to roughly 'epsilon' (i.e. 10{sup -p}, where p is the number of digits of precision). The size of this drop can be viewed as a 'confidence level' that the relation is real and not merely a numerical artifact - a drop of 20 or more orders of magnitude almost always indicates a real relation. Very high precision arithmetic must be used in PSLQ. If one wishes to recover a relation of length n, with coefficients of maximum size d digits, then the input vector x must be specified to at least nd digits, and one must employ nd-digit floating-point arithmetic. Maple and

  11. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  12. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Keynote Presentation (Frederick W. Smith, FedEx Corporation), with Introduction by Senator Lamar Alexander (TN)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Frederick W.

    2012-04-24

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Following introduction by Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee, Frederick W. Smith, Chairman, President, and CEO of FedEx Corporation, gave the third keynote presentation of the day.

  13. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Keynote Presentation (Frederick W. Smith, FedEx Corporation), with Introduction by Senator Lamar Alexander (TN)

    ScienceCinema

    Smith, Frederick W. (FedEx Corporation, Chairman, President and CEO)

    2016-07-12

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Following introduction by Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee, Frederick W. Smith, Chairman, President, and CEO of FedEx Corporation, gave the third keynote presentation of the day.

  14. Using the Alexander Collection to measure the effects of climate change on the grasshoppers of the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nufio, C. R.; Bowers, D. M.; Guralnick, R. P.

    2007-12-01

    The current study utilizes the recently curated and databased Alexander Grasshopper Collection coupled with a new resurvey program to measure the effects of climate change on grasshoppers found along an elevational gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. The Alexander Collection is composed of approximately 19,000 pinned grasshoppers and a series of field data notebooks from a three year 1958-1960 survey project. During these survey years, Alexander processed over 65,000 grasshoppers from repeatedly sampled sites along an elevational gradient from Boulder (1530 m elev.) to Mt Evans (3900m elev.) in the Colorado Front Range. Data from 2006 shows that at mid-elevation sites grasshoppers are becoming adults 15-28 days earlier than they did nearly a half century ago. We found no changes in the time to reach adulthood at the high elevation sites. Preliminary data from 2007 (a year with milder spring temperatures) suggests that unlike the dramatic patterns documented in 2006, that the time to reach adulthood for grasshoppers at low and high elevation sites was not much different than it was 50 years ago. In 2007, several grasshopper species at mid-elevation did become adults earlier than they had a half century ago.

  15. Listening to the whispers of matter through Arabic hermeticism: new studies on The Book of the Treasure of Alexander.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Jubran, Safa Abou Chahla

    2008-07-01

    The Jabirian Corpus refers to the K. Thahirat Al-'Iskandar, "The Book of the Treasure of Alexander" (hereafter BTA), as one of several forgeries suggesting that alchemical secrets were hidden in inscriptions in various places. The book was neglected until 1926, when Julius Ruska discussed it in his work on the Emerald Tablet, placing the BTA within the literature related to the development of Arabic alchemy. His preliminary study became an essential reference and encouraged many scholars to work on the BTA in the following decades. Some years ago, we completed the first translation of the BTA into a Western language. The work was based on the acephalous Escorial manuscript, which we identified as a fourteenth-century copy of the BTA. This manuscript is peculiar, as part of it is encoded. After finishing our translation, we started to establish the text of the BTA. At present, the text is in process of fixation--to be followed by textual criticism--and has been the main focus of a thorough study of ours on medieval hermeticism and alchemy. A sample of the work currently in progress is presented in this paper: an analysis of the variations between different manuscripts along with a study and English translation of its alchemical chapter.

  16. Prolonged weight-shift and altered spinal coordination during sit-to-stand in practitioners of the Alexander Technique

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Timothy W; Gurfinkel, Victor S; Horak, Fay B; Day, Brian L

    2011-01-01

    The Alexander Technique (AT) is used to improve postural and movement coordination and has been reported to be clinically beneficial, however its effect on movement coordination is not well-characterized. In this study we examined the sit-to-stand (STS) movement by comparing coordination (phasing, weight-shift and spinal movement) between AT teachers (n=15) and matched control subjects (n=14). We found AT teachers had a longer weight-shift (p<0.001) and shorter momentum transfer phase (p=0.01), than control subjects. AT teachers also increased vertical foot force monotonically, rather than unweighting the feet prior to seat-off, suggesting they generate less forward momentum with hip flexors. The prolonged weight-shift of AT teachers occurred over a greater range of trunk inclination, such that their weight shifted continuously onto the feet while bringing the body mass forward. Finally, AT teachers had greatly reduced spinal bending during STS (cervical, p<0.001; thoracic, p<0.001; lumbar, p<0.05). We hypothesize that the low hip joint stiffness and adaptive axial postural tone previously reported in AT teachers underlies this novel “continuous” STS strategy by facilitating eccentric contractions during weight-shift. PMID:21782443

  17. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century.

  18. Alexander Technique Training Coupled With an Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction in Teachers With Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaei-Moghaddam, Farid; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad; Goklani, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals suffering from chronic low back pain (CLBP) experience major physical, social, and occupational disruptions. Strong evidence confirms the effectiveness of Alexander technique (AT) training for CLBP. Objectives The present study applied an integrative model (IM) of behavioral prediction for improvement of AT training. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study of female teachers with nonspecific LBP in southern Tehran in 2014. Group A contained 42 subjects and group B had 35 subjects. In group A, AT lessons were designed based on IM constructs, while in group B, AT lessons only were taught. The validity and reliability of the AT questionnaire were confirmed using content validity (CVR 0.91, CVI 0.96) and Cronbach’s α (0.80). The IM constructs of both groups were measured after the completion of training. Statistical analysis used independent and paired samples t-tests and the univariate generalized linear model (GLM). Results Significant differences were recorded before and after intervention (P < 0.001) for the model constructs of intention, perceived risk, direct attitude, behavioral beliefs, and knowledge in both groups. Direct attitude and behavioral beliefs in group A were higher than in group B after the intervention (P < 0.03). Conclusions The educational framework provided by IM for AT training improved attitude and behavioral beliefs that can facilitate the adoption of AT behavior and decreased CLBP. PMID:28144457

  19. Growing community: the impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the social and learning environment in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-08-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has a positive impact on student engagement, social connections, and confidence within and beyond the school gates. Primary evidence for the research question came from qualitative data collected from students, parents, teachers, volunteers, school principals, and specialist staff through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. This was supported by analyses of quantitative data on child quality of life, cooperative behaviors, teacher perceptions of the school environment, and school-level educational outcome and absenteeism data. Results showed that some of the program attributes valued most highly by study participants included increased student engagement and confidence, opportunities for experiential and integrated learning, teamwork, building social skills, and connections and links between schools and their communities. In this analysis, quantitative findings failed to support findings from the primary analysis. Limitations as well as benefits of a mixed-methods approach to evaluation of complex community interventions are discussed.

  20. Crossed aphasia in a dextral: a test of the Alexander-Annett theory of anomalous organization of brain function.

    PubMed

    Osmon, D C; Panos, J; Kautz, P; Gandhavadi, B

    1998-07-01

    A case of crossed aphasia is presented in a strongly right-handed 77-year-old white female without history of familial sinistrality or prior neurological illness. She developed a right middle cerebral artery infarction documented by CT and accompanied by obvious clinical signs of a conduction aphasia with some resolution but continuing obvious language defect after 9 weeks in rehabilitation. Comprehensive neuropsychological and aphasia testing suggested anomalous lateralization of phonologic-output aspects of language, emotional prosody, motor planning and body schema modules with usual lateralization of lexical-semantic aspects of language and visuo-spatial functions. Experimental validation of the uncrossed lexical-semantic aspects of language using tachistoscope methods found support for the Alexander-Annett theory that different aspects of language can be dissociated in their lateralization. The subject had difficulty identifying a semantic associate of a picture presented to the left visual field (7 errors out of 10) relative to right visual field presentation (2 errors out of 10). Bilateral free naming errors (6 and 5 errors in the left and right visual fields, respectively) occurred consistent with the aphasic presentation, suggesting phonologic-output dysfunction from the right cerebral vascular accident. Implications of the results for aphasia classification are discussed.

  1. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    . %' indicates that the numbers tell what percentage of the total weight of each rock is silica (on the horizontal scale) and what percentage is oxides of sodium and potassium (on the vertical scale). The thin lines separate volcanic rock types identified on Earth by different scientific names such as foidite and picrobasalt. Various classes of Gusev rocks (see box in upper right) all plot either on or to the left of the green lines, which define 'alkaline' and 'subalkaline' categories (subalkaline rocks have more silica than alkaline rocks).

    Members of the rover team have named different classes of rocks after specimens examined by Spirit that represent their overall character. During the rover's travels, Spirit discovered that Adirondack-class rocks littered the Gusev plains; that Backstay, Irvine, and Wishstone-class rocks occurred as loose blocks on the northwest slope of 'Husband Hill'; and that outcrops of Algonquin-class rocks protruded in several places on the southeast face.

    These rocks have less silica than all previously analyzed Mars samples, which are subalkaline. The previously analyzed Mars samples include Martian meteorites found on Earth and rocks analyzed by the Mars Pathfinder rover in 1997. Gusev is the first documented example of an alkaline igneous province on Mars.

  2. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  3. Most Powerful Eruption in the Universe Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    emission within the cavities shows that jets from the black hole erupted to create the cavities. Gas is being pushed away from the black hole at supersonic speeds over a distance of about a million light years. The mass of the displaced gas equals about a trillion Suns, more than the mass of all the stars in the Milky Way. LA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 VLA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 The rapid growth of supermassive black holes is usually detected by observing very bright radiation from the centers of galaxies in the optical and X-ray wavebands, or luminous radio jets. In MS 0735 no bright central radiation is found and the radio jets are faint. Therefore, the true nature of MS 0735 is only revealed through X-ray observations of the hot cluster gas. "Until now we had no idea that this black hole was gorging itself", said co-author Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "The discovery of this eruption shows that X-ray telescopes are necessary to understand some of the most violent events in the Universe." The astronomers estimated how much energy was needed to create the cavities by calculating the density, temperature and pressure of the hot gas. By making a standard assumption, that 10% of the gravitational energy goes into launching the jets, they estimated how much material the black hole swallowed. Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Besides generating the cavities, some of the energy from this eruption should keep the hot gas around the black hole from cooling, and some of it may also generate large-scale magnetic fields in the galaxy cluster. Chandra observers have discovered other cavities in galaxy clusters, but this one is easily the largest and the most powerful. For example, the energy content here exceeds that of the Perseus cavities by 250 times, and dwarfs the cavities in M87 by a factor of 10,000. NASA's Marshall Space Flight

  4. Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    without pulsations would require a tiny size, consistent only with exotic stars made of strange quark matter. "Our carbon veil solves one of the big questions about the neutron star in Cas A," said Craig Heinke. "People have been willing to consider some weird explanations, so it's a relief to discover a less peculiar solution." Unlike most astronomical objects, neutron stars are small enough to understand on a human scale. For example, neutron stars typically have a diameter of about 14 miles, only slightly longer than a half-marathon. The atmosphere of a neutron star is on an even smaller scale. The researchers calculate that the carbon atmosphere is only about 4 inches thick, because it has been compressed by a surface gravity that is 100 billion times stronger than on Earth. "For people who are used to hearing about immense sizes of things in space, it might be a surprise that we can study something so small," said Ho. "It's also funny to think that such a thin veil over this star played a key role in frustrating researchers." In Earth's time frame, the estimated age of the neutron star in Cas A is only several hundred years, making it about ten times younger than other neutron stars with detected surface emission. Therefore, the Cas A neutron star gives a unique window into the early life of a cooling neutron star. The carbon itself comes from a combination of material that has fallen back after the supernova, and nuclear reactions on the hot surface of the neutron star which convert hydrogen and helium into carbon. The X-ray spectrum and lack of pulsar activity suggest that the magnetic field on the surface of this neutron star is relatively weak. Similarly low magnetic fields are implied for several other young neutron stars by study of their weak X-ray pulsations. It is not known whether these neutron stars will have low magnetic fields for their entire lives, and never become radio pulsars, or whether processes in their interior will lead to the development of

  5. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  6. 33 CFR 179.05 - Manufacturer discovered defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacturer discovered defects. 179.05 Section 179.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY DEFECT NOTIFICATION § 179.05 Manufacturer discovered defects. Each...

  7. 33 CFR 179.05 - Manufacturer discovered defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manufacturer discovered defects. 179.05 Section 179.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY DEFECT NOTIFICATION § 179.05 Manufacturer discovered defects. Each...

  8. DISCOVER-AQ Aircraft insitu TraceGas Data (ICT)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-31

    ... Project Title:  N/A Platform:  NASA P-3B Spatial Coverage:  (37.84, 39.81), (-77.03, -75.18) ... Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth Science Mission DISCOVER-AQ - Program Home Page ...

  9. DISCOVER-AQ Aircraft insitu Aerosol Data (ICT)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-31

    ... Project Title:  N/A Platform:  NASA P-3B Spatial Coverage:  (37.84, 39.81), (-77.03, -75.18) ... Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth Science Mission DISCOVER-AQ - Program Home Page ...

  10. DISCOVER-AQ Aircraft Navigational Data P3B (ICT)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-31

    ... Project Title:  N/A Platform:  NASA P-3B Spatial Coverage:  (37.84, 39.81), (-77.03, -75.18) ... Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth Science Mission DISCOVER-AQ - Program Home Page ...

  11. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  12. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 2: the electric eel, animal electricity, and later years.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    After extensive experimentation during the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt remained skeptical about "animal electricity" (and metallic electricity), writing instead about an ill-defined galvanic force. With his worldview and wishing to learn more, he studied electric eels in South America just as the new century began, again using his body as a scientific instrument in many of his experiments. As had been the case in the past and for many of the same reasons, some of his findings with the electric eel (and soon after, Italian torpedoes) seemed to argue against biological electricity. But he no longer used galvanic terminology when describing his electric fish experiments. The fact that he now wrote about animal electricity rather than a different "galvanic" force owed much to Alessandro Volta, who had come forth with his "pile" (battery) for multipling the physical and perceptable effects of otherwise weak electricity in 1800, while Humboldt was deep in South America. Humboldt probably read about and saw voltaic batteries in the United States in 1804, but the time he spent with Volta in 1805 was probably more significant in his conversion from a galvanic to an electrical framework for understanding nerve and muscle physiology. Although he did not continue his animal electricity research program after this time, Humboldt retained his worldview of a unified nature and continued to believe in intrinsic animal electricity. He also served as a patron to some of the most important figures in the new field of electrophysiology (e.g., Hermann Helmholtz and Emil du Bois-Reymond), helping to take the research that he had participated in to the next level.

  13. Alexander Ya. Orolv - Well-Known Scientist and Recognized Organizer of Astronmoical Research. Little Known Facts of His Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Vavilova, I. B.; Korsun', A. A.

    Alexander Ya. Orlov is a well-known astronomer and geophysicist as well as a worldrecognized organizer of scientific research in Russia, the USSR, and Ukraine. Orlov has formulated his main scientific ideas during the Odesa's period of life. He studied a tidal deformation of the Earth and its polar motion using the gravity and latitude observations. He has proposed new defenitions of a mean pole and a mean latitude, as wel as a new method for determing the Earth pole coordinates. To the end of 1940-ties, the Orlov's scientific ideas were implemented and stimulated a development of a research field, which is now called as Astrogeodynamics or Space Geodynamics. Among the representatives of the Orlov's scientific school are about 20 Doctors of Sciences and more than 40 Candidates of Sciences, including the members of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and other countries. Among them are N.Stoyko-Radilenko (France), J.Witkowski (Poland), V.Zhardetsky (Yugoslavia-Austria-USA), D.Pyaskovsky, Z.Aksent'eva, E.Lavrentieva, N.Popov, E.Fedorov and A.Korol in Ukraine. The deserved followers of the Orlov's scientific ideas were also I.Androsov, I.Dyukov, K.Mansurova, B.Novopashennyj, N.V.Zimmerman in Russia and M.Bursa (Chesh Republic), who worked with him, as well as his sons, A.A.Orlov and B.A. Orlov. The Orlov's life and scientific activity were fully described in many articles. For that reason in this paper we will focus on the little-known facts of the Orlov's scientific-organizational activity, for example, the Orlov's appointments as a director of observatories in Odesa, Poltava, m.Pip-Ivan, Pulkovo, and Kyiv; interesesting facts related to his membership in the Academies of Sciences of the USSR and Ukrainian SSR; organization of a large-scale program on the latitude observations and gravimetric survey. We describe briefly his life and his astrogeodynamic scientific school.

  14. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Cifelli, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. These GIFT workshops represented the first workshops specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  15. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, C. E.; Cifelli, F.

    2014-12-01

    Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. In 3 cases of the 4 cases, these GIFT workshops represented the first workshop specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  16. Clinical aspects and pathology of Alexander disease, and morphological and functional alteration of astrocytes induced by GFAP mutation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2012-08-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is pathologically characterized by the presence of Rosenthal fibers (RF), which are made up of GFAP, αB-crystallin and heat shock protein 27, in the cytoplasm of perivascular and subpial astrocyte endfeet. Since GFAP mutation has been confirmed in reported cases of AxD, clinical or experimental research is being conducted on the relationship between GFAP mutation and the onset pathology as well as the clinical form. We conducted a nationwide survey and a clinical study, and classified AxD into three types: cerebral AxD (type 1), which primarily has an infantile onset with presence of seizures, psychomotor developmental retardation, macrocephaly, and abnormalities in the superior frontal cerebral white matter observed in a brain MRI; bulbospinal AxD (type 2), which primarily has an adult onset with presence of muscle weakness, hyperreflexia, bulbar or pseudobulbar symptoms, signal abnormalities, and atrophy observed in an MRI of the medulla oblongata and upper cervical spinal cord; and an intermediate form (type 3) which has the characteristics of both. A research on GFAP mutations and aggregate formation concluded that GFAP mutations decreased the solubility of GFAP. According to our cell model experiment, the formation of mutant GFAP aggravates depending on the site of the GFAP mutation. Furthermore, there is a possibility that polymorphism in the GFAP promoter gene regulates the degree to which GFAP is expressed; it may have an effect on clinical heterogeneity. Recent research using cell and animal models suggests that the pathology of AxD involves not only mere functional abnormalities in intermediate filaments but also functional abnormalities in astrocytes as well as in neurons. Clarification of the glia-neuron interactions will prove the disease to be very interesting.

  17. NASA's Kepler Discovers Its Smallest 'Habitable Zone' Planets to Date

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered two new planetary systems that include three super-Earth-size planets in the "habitable zone," the range of distance from a star where the surface temperature o...

  18. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Multiple Planets Orbiting Twin Suns

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first transiting circumbinary system -- multiple planets orbiting two suns -- 4,900 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Cygnus, proving that more t...

  19. First Multi-Planet System Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered the first confirmed planetary system with more than one planet transiting the same star. The announcement of the discovery of the two planets, Kepler 9b and 9c,...

  20. Spectroscopic Classifications with Magellan of 7 Supernovae Discovered by DES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, P. K.; Challis, P.; Drout, M.; Kirshner, R.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; D'Andrea, C.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of supernova candidates discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (425-945 nm) were obtained using IMACS on the 6.5m Baade telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory on Dec 19, 2014.

  1. The Neotropical tanyderid Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) (Diptera, Tanyderidae), with description of the egg, larva and pupa, redescription of adults, and notes on natural history.

    PubMed

    Madriz, R Isaí; Courtney, Gregory W

    2016-08-30

    Larvae, pupae and adults of Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) were collected during fieldwork in Chilean Patagonia, December 2013 and January 2014. Eggs were obtained from females that oviposited in captivity. Association of all life stages is based on co-occurrence and rearing of individual larvae to adults. A diagnosis for the genus and species is provided. Descriptions of the egg, larva and pupa and redescriptions of the male and female are completed. Eggs of A. gloriosus are the first described for Tanyderidae. Natural history characteristics for this species, including microhabitat, copulatory behavior and oviposition, are discussed.

  2. Alexander Technique Lessons, Acupuncture Sessions or usual care for patients with chronic neck pain (ATLAS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic neck pain is a common condition in the adult population. More research is needed to evaluate interventions aiming to facilitate beneficial long-term change. We propose to evaluate the effect of Alexander Technique lessons and acupuncture in a rigorously conducted pragmatic trial with an embedded qualitative study. Methods/Design We will recruit 500 patients who have been diagnosed with neck pain in primary care, who have continued to experience neck pain for at least three months with 28% minimum cut-off score on the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). We will exclude patients with serious underlying pathology, prior cervical spine surgery, history of psychosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoporosis, haemophilia, cancer, HIV or hepatitis, or with alcohol or drug dependency currently or in the last 12 months, or actively pursuing compensation or with pending litigation. The York Trials Unit will randomly allocate participants using a secure computer-based system. We will use block randomisation with allocation to each intervention arm being unambiguously concealed from anyone who might subvert the randomisation process. Participants will be randomised in equal proportions to Alexander Technique lessons, acupuncture or usual care alone. Twenty 30-minute Alexander Technique lessons will be provided by teachers registered with the Society of Teachers of the Alexander Technique and twelve 50-minute sessions of acupuncture will be provided by acupuncturists registered with the British Acupuncture Council. All participants will continue to receive usual GP care. The primary outcome will be the NPQ at 12 months, with the secondary time point at 6 months, and an area-under-curve analysis will include 3, 6 and 12 month time-points. Adverse events will be documented. Potential intervention effect modifiers and mediators to be explored include: self-efficacy, stress management, and the incorporation of practitioner advice about

  3. Synergistic effects of the SAPK/JNK and the proteasome pathway on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) accumulation in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guomei; Xu, Zhiheng; Goldman, James E

    2006-12-15

    Protein aggregates in astrocytes that contain glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), small heat shock proteins, and ubiquitinated proteins are termed Rosenthal fibers and characterize Alexander disease, a leukodystrophy caused by heterozygous mutations in GFAP. The mechanisms responsible for the massive accumulation of GFAP in Alexander disease remain unclear. In this study, we show that overexpression of both wild type and R239C mutant human GFAP led to cytoplasmic inclusions. GFAP accumulation also led to a decrease of proteasome activity and an activation of the MLK2-JNK pathway. In turn, the expression of activated mixed lineage kinases (MLKs) induced JNK activation and increased GFAP accumulation, whereas blocking the JNK pathway decreased GFAP accumulation. Activated MLK also inhibited proteasome function. A direct inhibition of proteasome function pharmacologically further activated JNK. Our data suggest a synergistic interplay between the proteasome and the SAPK/JNK pathway in the context of GFAP accumulation. Feedback interactions among GFAP accumulation, SAPK/JNK activation, and proteasomal hypofunction cooperate to produce further protein accumulation and cellular stress responses.

  4. Correlation of Emkuckfaw Group metagraywackes with the Wedowee Group, Northern Piedmont, Alabama: Implications for the interpretation of the Alexander City fault

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, D.B. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Recent field studies to clarify stratigraphic relationships between the Elkahatchee Quartz Diorite Gneiss and the Brevard zone lead to the interpretation that part of the Emuckfaw Group is correlative with, and probably structurally continuous with, part of the Wedowee Group. The Josie Leg formation of Bieler and Deininger (1987) is a sequence of metagraywackes and interbedded metapelites; it is here interpreted as a coarse submarine fan facies. The northwestern contact of the unit, frequently mapped as the Alexander City fault, maps into the Wadley Line in the New Site and Daviston quadrangles. The southeastern contact is a sheared contact with structurally overlying migmatitic rocks that include quartzites and calcsilicates. The Josie Leg and Wedowee rocks form a southwesterly plunging synform in which the Elkahatchee lies. Where the contact between the units is gently dipping it is mapped as the Wadley line. Where the contact has been folded and dips steeply, it is highly sheared and is mapped as the Alexander City fault. It is impossible to determine at this time how much the section has been attenuated during the shearing. Although the contact has been interpreted as structural, the data are not unambiguous. The Josie Leg/Wedowee contact may be a stratigraphic contact with the apparent structural discordance reflecting the different mechanical behavior of the contrasting lithologies.

  5. Will cosmic strings be discovered using the Space Telescope?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacynski, B.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic strings are topologically stable defects in the vacuum of space which may be produced by a phase transition in the early universe. Here, it is suggested that observations of very distant galaxies are a more useful means of discovering strings than quasar observations. It is argued that if there is only one string out to redshift z - about 1 the probability that it crosses a random image obtained using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) of the Space Telescope is about 0.0001. In order to discover a cosmic string the Space Telescope WFC will be required to operate almost continuously in primary and serendipity modes, and a cosmic string, if it exists, may be discovered within the first few years of operation.

  6. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AIR PARITY: RE-DISCOVERING CONTESTED AIR OPERATIONS BY CHRISTOPHER LAZIDIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF...THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR ...UNIVERSITY MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA JUNE 2016 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited ii APPROVAL The

  7. Antarcticite: A New Mineral, Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate, Discovered in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Torii, T; Ossaka, J

    1965-08-27

    A new mineral, calcium chloride hexahydrate, was discovered in the Don Juan Pond in Victoria Land, Antarctica. The optical properties, chemical analysis, and powder patterns obtained by x-ray diffraction agree with those of artificial calcium chloride hexahydrate. The name Antarcticite is proposed for the new mineral.

  8. Fast bright OT in PGC2697102 discovered by MASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Tlatov, A.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Chazov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Kuvshinov, D.; Senik, V.; Dormidontov, D.; Parkhomenko, A.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-Kislovodsk auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 16h 15m 32.60s +67d 14m 45.8s on 2016-11-10.73375 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=18.7m).

  9. Re-Discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of…

  10. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gash, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  11. Discovering Hidden Analogies in an Online Humanities Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing upon an efficacious method for discovering previously unknown causes of medical syndromes and searching in the Humanities Index, an illuminating new humanities analogy between the epistemological ideas of Robert Frost and the ancient Greek philosopher Carneades was found by constructing a search statement in which proper names were coupled…

  12. Discover 4-H Clubs: The Essential Resource for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacArthur, Stacey; Nelson, Cindy; Brower, Naomi; Memmott, Margie; Peterson, Gaelynn

    2016-01-01

    Obstacles facing new 4-H volunteers include time constraints and difficulty finding project-specific information, resources, and opportunities available for club members. As a solution to these obstacles and an aid for assisting volunteers in becoming confident in delivering information to youth, content experts produced Discover 4-H Clubs, a…

  13. [Researchers training in the context of the collaborative projects: experiences of Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humbolt", Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia].

    PubMed

    Gotuzzo, Eduardo; González, Elsa; Verdonck, Kristien

    2010-09-01

    Research is a main element for human and social development. Under this point of view, it involves particular challenges and opportunities for the so-called "developing countries". An approach for those challenges and opportunities comes from the analysis of two interrelated activities; the training of new researchers and the research development with institutions or researchers which are external to the institution ("collaborative research"). Both activities are essential for the consolidation, widening and updating of the institutional capabilities for scientific production. We present here the experiences of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt" of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, in relation to the training of new researchers, we discuss the four elements we consider key for this process; the promotion of stimulating environments for research, the proactive identification of fellows, the complementary advice and networks consolidation; and we analyze three successful models of international collaboration for the training of new researchers under different institutional approaches.

  14. Discovering characteristic landmarks on ancient coins using convolutional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongpil; Pavlovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method to find characteristic landmarks and recognize ancient Roman imperial coins using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) combined with expert-designed domain hierarchies. We first propose a framework to recognize Roman coins that exploits the hierarchical knowledge structure embedded in the coin domain, which we combine with the CNN-based category classifiers. We next formulate an optimization problem to discover class-specific salient coin regions. Analysis of discovered salient regions confirms that they are largely consistent with human expert annotations. Experimental results show that the proposed framework is able to effectively recognize ancient Roman coins as well as successfully identify landmarks on the coins. For this research, we have collected a Roman coin dataset where all coins are annotated and consist of obverse (head) and reverse (tail) images.

  15. Cataclysmic Variables discovered in the ChaMPlane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hong, JaeSub; Servillat, Mathieu; Van Den Berg, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    We present the Cataclysmic Variables discovered in the Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane Survey (ChaMPlane). ChaMPlane is designed to survey the point X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in the galactic plane in order to constrain the X-ray binary population in the Galaxy. The survey includes the data from the Chandra achieve, as well as the optical and infrared images and spectroscopes. CV candidates are first identified from the Chandra and optical imaging in the deep V, I, R, H-alpha bands. Then optical spectroscopic follow-ups are conducted to confirm their status. CVs are identified by their hydrogen Balmer and helium emission lines, often broadened and double peaked due to the accretion disk rotation around the primary. We present the spectra of 25 CVs obtained from the Magellan, CTIO-4m and WIYN telescopes.

  16. In Silico Models for Designing and Discovering Novel Anticancer Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Atul; Kapoor, Pallavi; Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, G. P. S.

    2013-10-01

    Use of therapeutic peptides in cancer therapy has been receiving considerable attention in the recent years. Present study describes the development of computational models for predicting and discovering novel anticancer peptides. Preliminary analysis revealed that Cys, Gly, Ile, Lys, and Trp are dominated at various positions in anticancer peptides. Support vector machine models were developed using amino acid composition and binary profiles as input features on main dataset that contains experimentally validated anticancer peptides and random peptides derived from SwissProt database. In addition, models were developed on alternate dataset that contains antimicrobial peptides instead of random peptides. Binary profiles-based model achieved maximum accuracy 91.44% with MCC 0.83. We have developed a webserver, which would be helpful in: (i) predicting minimum mutations required for improving anticancer potency; (ii) virtual screening of peptides for discovering novel anticancer peptides, and (iii) scanning natural proteins for identification of anticancer peptides (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/anticp/).

  17. Updating strategies for isolating and discovering giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Jacques Yaacoub Bou; Andreani, Julien; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    Almost fifteen years ago, the discovery of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, the first giant virus, changed how we define a virus. It was discovered incidentally in a process of isolating Legionella sp. from environmental samples in the context of pneumonia epidemics using a co-culture system with Acanthamoeba. Since then, much effort and improvement has been put into the original technique. In addition to the known families of Mimiviridae and Marseilleviridae, four new proposed families of giant viruses have been isolated: Pandoravirus, Pithovirus, Faustovirus and Mollivirus. Major improvements were based on enrichment systems, targeted use of antibiotics and high-throughput methods. The most recent development, using flow cytometry for isolation and presumptive identification systems, opens a path to large environmental surveys that may discover new giant virus families in new protozoa supports used for culture support.

  18. Why Ampère did not discover electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, L. Pearce

    1986-04-01

    In 1832, after Michael Faraday had announced his discovery of electromagnetic induction, Andre-Marie Ampère claimed that he had actually discovered the induction of one current by another in 1822. In fact, he had, but did not really publish the fact at that time. This article explores the reasons for Ampère's failure to lay claim to a discovery that would have guaranteed him scientific immortality.

  19. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  20. MASTER: OT discovered during inspection of HESE 58537957 trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurina, N.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Shumkov, V.; Potter, S.

    2016-08-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 08m 45.02s -32d 32m 54.9s on 2016-08-24.73811 UT during inspection of HESE alert ( 58537957 trigger number ) http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/notices_amon/58537957_128340.amon . The OT unfiltered magnitude is 19.6m (limit 20.5m).

  1. 2 new OT, discovered by MASTER-OAFA (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Gress, O.; Chazov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-11-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 09h 23m 26.72s -76d 28m 17.7s on 2016-11-13 06:19:38UT The OT magnitude in unfiltered is (mlim=18.0m).

  2. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  3. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  4. Discovering System Health Anomalies Using Data Mining Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sriastava, Ashok, N.

    2005-01-01

    We present a data mining framework for the analysis and discovery of anomalies in high-dimensional time series of sensor measurements that would be found in an Integrated System Health Monitoring system. We specifically treat the problem of discovering anomalous features in the time series that may be indicative of a system anomaly, or in the case of a manned system, an anomaly due to the human. Identification of these anomalies is crucial to building stable, reusable, and cost-efficient systems. The framework consists of an analysis platform and new algorithms that can scale to thousands of sensor streams to discovers temporal anomalies. We discuss the mathematical framework that underlies the system and also describe in detail how this framework is general enough to encompass both discrete and continuous sensor measurements. We also describe a new set of data mining algorithms based on kernel methods and hidden Markov models that allow for the rapid assimilation, analysis, and discovery of system anomalies. We then describe the performance of the system on a real-world problem in the aircraft domain where we analyze the cockpit data from aircraft as well as data from the aircraft propulsion, control, and guidance systems. These data are discrete and continuous sensor measurements and are dealt with seamlessly in order to discover anomalous flights. We conclude with recommendations that describe the tradeoffs in building an integrated scalable platform for robust anomaly detection in ISHM applications.

  5. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534) and obesity (r =  -.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  6. Era of Galaxy and Black Hole Growth Spurt Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Distant galaxies undergoing intense bursts of star formation have been shown by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to be fertile growing grounds for the largest black holes in the Universe. Collisions between galaxies in the early Universe may be the ultimate cause for both the accelerated star formation and black hole growth. By combining the deepest X-ray image ever obtained with submillimeter and optical observations, an international team of scientists has found evidence that some extremely luminous adolescent galaxies and their central black holes underwent a phenomenal spurt of growth more than 10 billion years ago. This concurrent black hole and galaxy growth spurt is only seen in these galaxies and may have set the stage for the birth of quasars - distant galaxies that contain the largest and most active black holes in the Universe. Simulation of a Galaxy Collision Simulation of a Galaxy Collision "The extreme distances of these galaxies allow us to look back in time, and take a snapshot of how today's largest galaxies looked when they were producing most of their stars and growing black holes," said David Alexander of the University of Cambridge, UK, and lead author of a paper in the April 7, 2005 issue of Nature that describes this work. The galaxies studied by Alexander and his colleagues are known as submillimeter galaxies, so-called because they were originally identified by the James Clerk Maxwell submillimeter telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The submillimeter observations along with optical data from Keck indicate these galaxies had an unusually large amount of gas. The gas in each galaxy was forming into stars at a rate of about one per day, or 100 times the present rate in the Milky Way galaxy. The Chandra X-ray data show that the supermassive black holes in the galaxies were also growing at the same time. Chandra X-ray Image of CDFN Chandra X-ray Image of CDFN These galaxies are very faint and it is only with the deepest observations of the

  7. Vingt ans après (Twenty years after). Comment on "Disentangling DNA molecules" by Alexander Vologodskii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of DNA topology simplification by type II topoisomerase enzymes was discovered experimentally by Rybenkov et al. [1] 20 years ago - which motivates me to borrow the title for this comment from Alexandre Dumas [2]. Ever since the original discovery, the effect keeps entertaining theorists - but the most surprising fact is that the original experiment was never repeated, let alone improved. I do not understand why it is so. In my opinion, there is an acute need of new experiments, not only repeating the original measurements, but also examining numerous other aspects of the phenomenon. In this sense, the review [3] by Vologodskii, one of the original discoverers, is both timely and important. In his review, Vologodskii concentrates on what I would call mechanical aspect of the problem - how bent are T- and G-segments, what kinds of juxtaposition are relevant, etc. The importance of these issues notwithstanding, I want to complement this approach, and to consider in greater detail the thermodynamics of the process. My main points are as follows: action of topo II enzyme violates detailed balance for DNA, leading to circular currents and dissipation (which is indeed quite a common occurrence in many living systems). These currents are potentially observable, and dissipation measurable, which should challenge experimenters. The main goal of this comment is to show how general phenomenological point of view allows to formulate theoretical prediction for the energy dissipation rate.

  8. Discovering Astronomy: An Astro 101 e-book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, Stephen J.; Byrd, Gene; Deustua, Susana E.; LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Discovering Astronomy, now available in its 6th edition as an eText, has many advantages and features for your students. We have partnered with etextink.com and WebAssign.net to produce an affordable set of cost-saving options for your students. Also available is the Discovering Astronomy Activity Manual, which provides students with an active-learning experience.Our etext is device independent and thus accessible through any web browser. Americans with Disabilities Act compatibility provides access for all students. Hotlinks to outside sites provide further information for interested students. Lecture demonstration videos of important concepts, made specifically for this new edition, are embedded within the text as appropriate. Students can highlight text, take notes, and bookmark locations within the text. Important terms are linked to the glossary. Search capabilities allow students to easily find what they want.Instructors can interact with their students directly through the etext once the class roster has been provided. For example, instructors can embed assignments into their students' etext and add their own notes and updates, which are immediately visible to their students.Updates can be quickly made by us as new findings become available. For example, updates from New Horizons were added at the time of the closest approach to Pluto, and an update on the recent announcement of current water on Mars was added the day of the announcement.We will present results of our own experience with college and high school students' use of Discovering Astronomy in online courses.Details of the book, a sample chapter, and other information are available at discoveringastronomy.weebly.com.

  9. Marquette Island: A Distinct Mafic Lithology Discovered by Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Fleischer, I.; Jolliff, B. L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Yingst, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    While rolling over the Meridiani Planum sedimentary terrane, the rover Opportunity has occasionally discovered large, > 10 cm erratics. Most of these have proven to be meteorites [1], but one - Bounce Rock - is a martian basaltic rock similar in composition to the meteorite EETA79001 lithology B [2]. Presently, Opportunity is intensively investigating an --30 cm tall rock named Marquette Island that may be a distinct type of martian mafic lithology. We report the results of its continuing investigation using the Microscopic Imager (MI); Mossbauer Spectrometer (MB) and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). A companion abstract discusses the results of Panoramic Camera (Pancam) imaging of the rock [3].

  10. E2000 + 223 - A newly discovered old nova?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takalo, L. O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1985-06-01

    The X-ray source, E2000 + 223, serendipitously discovered by the Einstein Observatory, has been tentatively identified with an old nova shell. Spectroscopic observations of the diffuse optical counterpart show a heavily reddened continuum with bright forbidden S II emission lines at double lambda 6716, 6732. Radio observations at the VLA show a weak (about 1.2 mJy) extended radio source, with a nonthermal spectrum, concident with the optical emission. The observations can be best explained by assuming the object is an old nova which erupted sometime in the eighteenth or nineteenth century, similar to GK Per (Nova 1901) but at a distance of 1.4 kpc.

  11. E2000 + 223 - A newly discovered old nova?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takalo, L. O.; Nousek, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray source, E2000 + 223, serendipitously discovered by the Einstein Observatory, has been tentatively identified with an old nova shell. Spectroscopic observations of the diffuse optical counterpart show a heavily reddened continuum with bright forbidden S II emission lines at double lambda 6716, 6732. Radio observations at the VLA show a weak (about 1.2 mJy) extended radio source, with a nonthermal spectrum, concident with the optical emission. The observations can be best explained by assuming the object is an old nova which erupted sometime in the eighteenth or nineteenth century, similar to GK Per (Nova 1901) but at a distance of 1.4 kpc.

  12. Discovering Communicable Scientific Knowledge from Spatio-Temporal Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how we used regression rules to improve upon a result previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  13. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  14. Interpretation of the newly discovered submillimeter water maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The 10(29)-9(36)321 GHz water maser discovered recently by Menten et al. (1990) may be pumped collisionally under a wide range of physical conditions. This range of conditions is similar but not identical to that required to excite the well-studied 22 GHz water maser. The ratio of the observed 22 GHz and 321 GHz intersteller maser luminosities can be explained by collisional excitation within the same warm, dense gas. Collisional pumping in a circumstellar envelope can account for the observed 321 GHz maser emission in the supergiant star VY CMa.

  15. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars.

    PubMed

    Titus, Timothy N; Kieffer, Hugh H; Christensen, Phillip R

    2003-02-14

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  16. Critical perspective: named reactions discovered and developed by women.

    PubMed

    Olson, Julie A; Shea, Kevin M

    2011-05-17

    Named organic reactions. As chemists, we're all familiar with them: who can forget the Diels-Alder reaction? But how much do we know about the people behind the names? For example, can you identify a reaction named for a woman? How about a reaction discovered or developed by a woman but named for her male adviser? Our attempts to answer these simple questions started us on the journey that led to this Account. We introduce you to four reactions named for women and nine reactions discovered or developed by women. Using information obtained from the literature and, whenever possible, through interviews with the chemists themselves, their associates, and their advisers, we paint a more detailed picture of these remarkable women and their outstanding accomplishments. Some of the women you meet in this Account include Irma Goldberg, the only woman unambiguously recognized with her own named reaction. Gertrude Maud Robinson, the wife of Robert Robinson, who collaborated with him on several projects including the Piloty-Robinson pyrrole synthesis. Elizabeth Hardy, the Bryn Mawr graduate student who discovered the Cope rearrangement. Dorothee Felix, a critical member of Albert Eschenmoser's research lab for over forty years who helped develop both the Eschenmoser-Claisen rearrangement and the Eschenmoser-Tanabe fragmentation. Jennifer Loebach, the University of Illinois undergraduate who was part of the team in Eric Jacobsen's lab that discovered the Jacobsen-Katsuki epoxidation. Keiko Noda, a graduate student in Tsutomu Katsuki's lab who also played a key role in the development of the Jacobsen-Katsuki epoxidation. Lydia McKinstry, a postdoc in Andrew Myers's lab who helped develop the Myers asymmetric alkylation. Rosa Lockwood, a graduate student at Boston College whose sole publication is the discovery of the Nicholas reaction. Kaori Ando, a successful professor in Japan who helped develop the Roush asymmetric alkylation as a postdoc at MIT. Bianka Tchoubar, a

  17. Novel Virophages Discovered in a Freshwater Lake in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Xuewen; Wang, Hongming; Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs) that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL): an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae), respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage) and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages), especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties.

  18. Novel Virophages Discovered in a Freshwater Lake in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Xuewen; Wang, Hongming; Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs) that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL): an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae), respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage) and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages), especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties. PMID:26834726

  19. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (~105 cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1–3 d (9–12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952

  20. Evolutionary approach for discovering changing patterns in historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Wai-Ho; Chan, Keith C. C.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new data mining approach, called dAR, for discovering interesting association rules and their changes by evolutionary computation. dAR searches through huge rule spaces effectively using a genetic algorithm. It has the following characteristics: (i) it encodes a complete set of rules in one single chromosome; (ii) each allele encodes one rule and each rule is represented by some non-binary symbolic values; (iii) the evolutionary process begins with the generation of an initial set of first-order rules (i.e., rules with one condition) using a probabilistic induction technique and based on these rules, rules of higher order (two or more conditions) are obtained iteratively; (iv) it adopts a steady-state reproduction scheme in which only two chromosomes are replaced every time; (v) when identifying interesting rules, an objective interestingness measure is used; and (vi) the fitness of a chromosome is defined in terms of the probability that the attribute values of a tuple can be correctly determined using the rules it encodes. Furthermore, dAR can also be used to mine the changes in discovered rules over time. This allows the accurate prediction of the future based on the historical data in the past. The experimental results on a synthetic database have shown that dAR is very effective at mining interesting association rules and their changes over time.

  1. Discovering loose group movement patterns from animal trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Yuwei; Luo, Ze; Xiong, Yan; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    The technical advances of positioning technologies enable us to track animal movements at finer spatial and temporal scales, and further help to discover a variety of complex interactive relationships. In this paper, considering the loose gathering characteristics of the real-life groups' members during the movements, we propose two kinds of loose group movement patterns and corresponding discovery algorithms. Firstly, we propose the weakly consistent group movement pattern which allows the gathering of a part of the members and individual temporary leave from the whole during the movements. To tolerate the high dispersion of the group at some moments (i.e. to adapt the discontinuity of the group's gatherings), we further scheme the weakly consistent and continuous group movement pattern. The extensive experimental analysis and comparison with the real and synthetic data shows that the group pattern discovery algorithms proposed in this paper are similar to the the real-life frequent divergences of the members during the movements, can discover more complete memberships, and have considerable performance.

  2. Discovering Influential Nodes for SIS Models in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazumi; Kimura, Masahiro; Motoda, Hiroshi

    We address the problem of efficiently discovering the influential nodes in a social network under the susceptible/infected/susceptible (SIS) model, a diffusion model where nodes are allowed to be activated multiple times. The computational complexity drastically increases because of this multiple activation property. We solve this problem by constructing a layered graph from the original social network with each layer added on top as the time proceeds, and applying the bond percolation with pruning and burnout strategies. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method gives much better solutions than the conventional methods that are solely based on the notion of centrality for social network analysis using two large-scale real-world networks (a blog network and a wikipedia network). We further show that the computational complexity of the proposed method is much smaller than the conventional naive probabilistic simulation method by a theoretical analysis and confirm this by experimentation. The properties of the influential nodes discovered are substantially different from those identified by the centrality-based heuristic methods.

  3. Robust PCA based method for discovering differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Xing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Sha, Wen; Mi, Jian-Xun; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    How to identify a set of genes that are relevant to a key biological process is an important issue in current molecular biology. In this paper, we propose a novel method to discover differentially expressed genes based on robust principal component analysis (RPCA). In our method, we treat the differentially and non-differentially expressed genes as perturbation signals S and low-rank matrix A, respectively. Perturbation signals S can be recovered from the gene expression data by using RPCA. To discover the differentially expressed genes associated with special biological progresses or functions, the scheme is given as follows. Firstly, the matrix D of expression data is decomposed into two adding matrices A and S by using RPCA. Secondly, the differentially expressed genes are identified based on matrix S. Finally, the differentially expressed genes are evaluated by the tools based on Gene Ontology. A larger number of experiments on hypothetical and real gene expression data are also provided and the experimental results show that our method is efficient and effective.

  4. Discovering fragile X syndrome: family experiences and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald B; Skinner, Debra; Sparkman, Karen L

    2003-02-01

    We used surveys from 274 families who had at least 1 child with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to determine their experiences in discovering FXS, factors associated with the timeliness of discovery, and the perceived consequences of obtaining this information. For families of male children who were born in the last decade, someone first became concerned about the child's development at an average age of 13 months. Professional confirmation of a developmental delay did not occur until an average age of 21 months, and a FXS diagnosis occurred at an average age of nearly 32 months. Families reported several barriers to discovering FXS and frustration with the process. Many families had additional children with FXS without knowing reproductive risk. A range of perceived benefits and challenges associated with the discovery were reported. We conclude that selected pediatric practices could promote earlier identification but in only a limited way and predict that disorders such as FXS will continue to challenge current criteria for determining viable candidate disorders for newborn screening.

  5. Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V

    2008-12-01

    Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures.

  6. Discovering of execution patterns of subprograms in execution traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorowski, Michał

    2015-09-01

    This article describes an approach to the analysis of historical debuggers logs (execution traces). Historical debuggers are tools that provide insight into the history of programs execution. The author focuses on finding execution patterns of subprograms in these logs in an efficient way and proposes a method of visualising them. Execution patterns are a form of automatically generated specification/documentation of software which show usage of subprograms. In order to discover them in execution traces an existing algorithm was adapted. This algorithm is based on suffix arrays and it finds patterns in text application logs in the linear time with the respect to the length of logs. Additionally, Extended Call Graphs were introduced to visualise the execution patterns. They contain more information in comparison with standard call graphs.

  7. Los Alamos Discovers Super Efficient Solar Using Perovskite Crystals

    ScienceCinema

    Mohite, Aditya; Nie, Wanyi

    2016-07-12

    State-of-the-art photovoltaics using high-purity, large-area, wafer-scale single-crystalline semiconductors grown by sophisticated, high temperature crystal-growth processes offer promising routes for developing low-cost, solar-based clean global energy solutions for the future. Solar cells composed of the recently discovered material organic-inorganic perovskites offer the efficiency of silicon, yet suffer from a variety of deficiencies limiting the commercial viability of perovskite photovoltaic technology. In research to appear in Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that eliminates these limitations, one that allows for the growth of high-quality, large-area, millimeter-scale perovskite crystals and demonstrates that highly efficient and reproducible solar cells with reduced trap assisted recombination can be realized.

  8. SOLAR SYSTEM ANALOGS AROUND IRAS-DISCOVERED DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Christine H.; Sheehan, Patrick; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Najita, Joan R.

    2009-08-20

    We have rereduced Spitzer IRS spectra and reanalyzed the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three nearby debris disks: {lambda} Boo, HD 139664, and HR 8799. We find that the thermal emission from these objects is well modeled using two single temperature black body components. For HR 8799 - with no silicate emission features despite a relatively hot inner dust component (T{sub gr} = 150 K) - we infer the presence of an asteroid belt interior to and a Kuiper Belt exterior to the recently discovered orbiting planets. For HD 139664, which has been imaged in scattered light, we infer the presence of strongly forward scattering grains, consistent with porous grains, if the cold, outer disk component generates both the observed scattered light and thermal emission. Finally, careful analysis of the {lambda} Boo SED suggests that this system possesses a central clearing, indicating that selective accretion of solids onto the central star does not occur from a dusty disk.

  9. Re-discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) results. Between 1900 and 1910, he explored the complications of these laws, including the coupling of factors due to their chromosomal location and the inheritance of sex, in a great number of plant species. In later years Correns became interested in and experimented on phenomena of extra-nuclear inheritance.

  10. A Systematic Approach to Discover and Characterize Natural Plant Biostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Povero, Giovanni; Mejia, Juan F.; Di Tommaso, Donata; Piaggesi, Alberto; Warrior, Prem

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural plant biostimulants is proposed as an innovative solution to address the challenges to sustainable agriculture, to ensure optimal nutrient uptake, crop yield, quality, and tolerance to abiotic stress. However, the process of selection and characterization of plant biostimulant matrices is complex and involves a series of rigorous evaluations customized to the needs of the plant. Here, we propose a highly differentiated plant biostimulant development and production platform, which involves a combination of technology, processes, and know-how. Chemistry, biology and omic concepts are combined/integrated to investigate and understand the specific mode(s) of action of bioactive ingredients. The proposed approach allows to predict and characterize the function of natural compounds as biostimulants. By managing and analyzing massive amounts of complex data, it is therefore possible to discover, evaluate and validate new product candidates, thus expanding the uses of existing products to meet the emerging needs of agriculture. PMID:27092156

  11. How did Archimedes discover the law of buoyancy by experiment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    After Archimedes and Vitruvius era, for more than 2000 years, it has been believed that the displaced water measurement of golden crown is impossible, and at his Eureka moment, Archimedes discovered the law of buoyancy (Proposition 7 of his principles) and proved the theft of a goldsmith by weighing the golden crown in water. A previous study showed that a small amount of displaced water was able to be measured with enough accuracy by the introduced method. Archimedes measured the weight of displaced water. He did not find the law of buoyancy but rather specific gravity of things at the moment. After which, Archimedes continued to measure the specific gravity of various solids and fluids. Through these measurements, he reached the discovery of the law of buoyancy directly by experiment. In this paper, the process to the discovery of Archimedes' principle (Proposition 5) is presented.

  12. Internal contamination of an irradiator discovered during security enhancement.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R P

    2014-08-01

    High-risk radioactive sources regulated under Increased Controls Regulations have been protected by licensed facilities, but the federal government has placed significant emphasis on these sources and has developed initiatives to assist radioactive material licensees. The Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Domestic Threat Reduction Program is a voluntary federally funded program for security enhancements of high-risk radiological material. During the hardening or security enhancement process by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) contractors, a small amount of radioactive contamination was discovered in a Cesium irradiator. Ultimately, it was decided to pursue disposal with U.S. DOE's Off-Site Recovery Program (OSRP). Radiological devices may have a leaking source or known internal contamination that may cause difficulty during security enhancement. If the licensee understands this, it may provide facilities the opportunity to plan and prepare for unusual circumstances.

  13. Los Alamos Discovers Super Efficient Solar Using Perovskite Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mohite, Aditya; Nie, Wanyi

    2015-01-29

    State-of-the-art photovoltaics using high-purity, large-area, wafer-scale single-crystalline semiconductors grown by sophisticated, high temperature crystal-growth processes offer promising routes for developing low-cost, solar-based clean global energy solutions for the future. Solar cells composed of the recently discovered material organic-inorganic perovskites offer the efficiency of silicon, yet suffer from a variety of deficiencies limiting the commercial viability of perovskite photovoltaic technology. In research to appear in Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that eliminates these limitations, one that allows for the growth of high-quality, large-area, millimeter-scale perovskite crystals and demonstrates that highly efficient and reproducible solar cells with reduced trap assisted recombination can be realized.

  14. New tools for discovering and characterizing microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Erick; Tiedje, James M

    2008-12-01

    To discover and characterize microbial diversity, approaches based on new sequencing technologies, novel isolation techniques, microfluidics, and metagenomics among others are being used. These approaches have contributed to discovery of novel genes from environmental samples, to massive characterization of functional and phylogenetic genes and to isolation of members of formerly uncultured yet ubiquitous groups like Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, OP10, and methanogenic Archaea. Cheaper sequencing is key in this process by making available applications that were previously restricted to big research centers, complementing previously available methodologies and potentially replacing some of them. The new tools are reshaping the way we study the environment, increasing the resolution at which microbial communities, their complexities and dynamics, can be studied to reveal their genetic potential and their functional diversity.

  15. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases. PMID:27656096

  16. Discovering Mira Ceti: Celestial Change and Cosmic Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Robert Alan

    In the short narrative that follows I introduce two new heroes. Although we begin with Fabricius's first sighting in 1596, the new pivot point in the drama is the collaboration between Hevelius and Boulliau that began around 1660. As it happens, Learned Europe paid little attention to Mira in the generation after the first scattered sightings of 1596, indeed, nearly 70 years passed before the New Star was given a working identity. Like Columbus discovering America, Fabricius and Holwarda saw different things - for convenience, I call them Fabricius's Star and Holwarda's Star. Hevelius's Historiola (Danzig, 1662) and Boulliau's Ad astronomos (Paris, 1667) presented a different vision. It made Mira famous. As I shall argue, if Hevelius gave Mira a history, Boulliau gave Mira a future.5 In the end, the New Star not only challenged the ancient cosmos, it became an enduring icon for the New Science, a returning reminder of celestial continuity and cosmic order.

  17. NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA).

    PubMed

    Meissner, Torsten B; Li, Amy; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2012-06-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II are crucial for the function of the human adaptive immune system. An NLR protein, CIITA (MHC class II transactivator), is a master regulator of MHC class II gene expression as well as of some of the genes involved in MHC class II antigen presentation. It has recently been discovered that another member of the NLR protein family, NLRC5, transcriptionally activates MHC class I genes, and thus acts as "CITA" (MHC class I transactivator), a counterpart to CIITA. In addition to MHC class I genes, NLRC5 can induce the expression of β2M, TAP1 and LMP2, essential components of MHC class I antigen presentation. These findings indicate that NLRC5 and CIITA are transcriptional regulators that orchestrate the concerted expression of critical components in the MHC class I and MHC class II pathways, respectively.

  18. Transcriptomics as a tool to discover new antibacterial targets.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ángel; Muñoz, Elisa; López, M Carmen; Cordero, Miguel; Martínez, José Pedro; Viñas, Miguel

    2017-03-13

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, multiple drug-resistance, and extremely drug-resistant strains demonstrates the need for improved strategies to discover new drug-based compounds. The development of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has provided new tools for global studies of living organisms. However, the compendium of expression profiles produced by these methods has introduced new scientific challenges into antimicrobial research. In this review, we discuss the practical value of transcriptomic techniques as well as their difficulties and pitfalls. We advocate the construction of new databases of transcriptomic data, using standardized formats in addition to standardized models of bacterial and yeast similar to those used in systems biology. The inclusion of proteomic and metabolomic data is also essential, as the resulting networks can provide a landscape to rationally predict and exploit new drug targets and to understand drug synergies.

  19. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. Methods We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector) are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. Results We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. Conclusion The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further, opinion leaders missed in

  20. Discovering Tradeoffs, Vulnerabilities, and Dependencies within Water Resources Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition and interest in using emerging computational tools for discovering the tradeoffs that emerge across complex combinations infrastructure options, adaptive operations, and sign posts. As a field concerned with "deep uncertainties", it is logically consistent to include a more direct acknowledgement that our choices for dealing with computationally demanding simulations, advanced search algorithms, and sensitivity analysis tools are themselves subject to failures that could adversely bias our understanding of how systems' vulnerabilities change with proposed actions. Balancing simplicity versus complexity in our computational frameworks is nontrivial given that we are often exploring high impact irreversible decisions. It is not always clear that accepted models even encompass important failure modes. Moreover as they become more complex and computationally demanding the benefits and consequences of simplifications are often untested. This presentation discusses our efforts to address these challenges through our "many-objective robust decision making" (MORDM) framework for the design and management water resources systems. The MORDM framework has four core components: (1) elicited problem conception and formulation, (2) parallel many-objective search, (3) interactive visual analytics, and (4) negotiated selection of robust alternatives. Problem conception and formulation is the process of abstracting a practical design problem into a mathematical representation. We build on the emerging work in visual analytics to exploit interactive visualization of both the design space and the objective space in multiple heterogeneous linked views that permit exploration and discovery. Many-objective search produces tradeoff solutions from potentially competing problem formulations that can each consider up to ten conflicting objectives based on current computational search capabilities. Negotiated design selection uses interactive visualization

  1. Combined mining: discovering informative knowledge in complex data.

    PubMed

    Cao, Longbing; Zhang, Huaifeng; Zhao, Yanchang; Luo, Dan; Zhang, Chengqi

    2011-06-01

    Enterprise data mining applications often involve complex data such as multiple large heterogeneous data sources, user preferences, and business impact. In such situations, a single method or one-step mining is often limited in discovering informative knowledge. It would also be very time and space consuming, if not impossible, to join relevant large data sources for mining patterns consisting of multiple aspects of information. It is crucial to develop effective approaches for mining patterns combining necessary information from multiple relevant business lines, catering for real business settings and decision-making actions rather than just providing a single line of patterns. The recent years have seen increasing efforts on mining more informative patterns, e.g., integrating frequent pattern mining with classifications to generate frequent pattern-based classifiers. Rather than presenting a specific algorithm, this paper builds on our existing works and proposes combined mining as a general approach to mining for informative patterns combining components from either multiple data sets or multiple features or by multiple methods on demand. We summarize general frameworks, paradigms, and basic processes for multifeature combined mining, multisource combined mining, and multimethod combined mining. Novel types of combined patterns, such as incremental cluster patterns, can result from such frameworks, which cannot be directly produced by the existing methods. A set of real-world case studies has been conducted to test the frameworks, with some of them briefed in this paper. They identify combined patterns for informing government debt prevention and improving government service objectives, which show the flexibility and instantiation capability of combined mining in discovering informative knowledge in complex data.

  2. The question of sign-language and the utility of signs in the instruction of the deaf: two papers by Alexander Graham Bell (1898).

    PubMed

    Bell, Alexander Graham

    2005-01-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is often portrayed as either hero or villain of deaf individuals and the Deaf community. His writings, however, indicate that he was neither, and was not as clearly definite in his beliefs about language as is often supposed. The following two articles, reprinted from The Educator (1898), Vol. V, pp. 3-4 and pp. 38-44, capture Bell's thinking about sign language and its use in the classroom. Contrary to frequent claims, Bell does not demand "oral" training for all deaf children--even if he thinks it is the superior alternative--but does advocate for it for "the semi-deaf" and "the semi-mute." "In regard to the others," he writes, "I am not so sure." Although he clearly voices his support for oral methods and fingerspelling (the Rochester method) over sign language, Bell acknowledges the use and utility of signing in a carefully-crafted discussion that includes both linguistics and educational philosophy. In separating the language used at home from that in school and on the playground, Bell reveals a far more complex view of language learning by deaf children than he is often granted. (M. Marschark).

  3. An autopsied case of adult-onset bulbospinalform Alexander disease with a novel S393R mutation in the GFAP gene.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Saito, Yufuko; Mori, Keiko; Ito, Masumi; Mimuro, Maya; Aiba, Ikuko; Saito, Kozo; Mizuta, Ikuko; Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Nakagawa, Masanori; Yoshida, Mari

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese man with no apparent family history noticed diplopia. He gradually showed gait disturbance and dysuria. Abducens disorder of eye movement with nystagmus, tongue atrophy with fasciculation, spastic tetraparesis, and sensory disturbance were also observed. MRI showed severe atrophy of the medulla oblongata to the cervical cord ("tadpole appearance"). Tracheotomy and gastrostomy were performed 7 years after onset due to the development of bulbar palsy. Death occurred following respiratory failure after 11 years total disease duration. The brain weighed 1,380 g. The cerebrum, cerebellum, midbrain, and upper pons were preserved from atrophy, but the medulla oblongata to the cervical cord showed severe atrophy. A few Rosenthal fibers were observed in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, whereas numerous Rosenthal fibers were observed in the medulla oblongata to the cervical cord. Myelin loss with relatively preserved axons was extensively observed from the middle of the pons to the spinal cord. The clinicopathological diagnosis was adult-onset bulbospinal-form Alexander disease. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene analysis revealed a novel mutation of S393R. Expression patterns of S393R mutant GFAP using adrenal carcinoma-derived cells (SW13 cells) showed a decreased number of filamentous structures and abnormal aggregates.

  4. Discovering asteroids temporarily captured by the Earth with LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Jones, Lynne; Jedicke, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Granvik et al. (2012, Icarus 218) predict that there is a population of small asteroids orbiting the Earth at any given time. These asteroids have been temporarily captured by the Earth from the much larger population of near-Earth asteroids. Temporarily-captured asteroids have elliptic geocentric orbits and come to within 0.03 au from the Earth. We divide the population into temporarily-captured orbiters (TCOs, or minimoons) that make at least one full revolution around the Earth, and into temporarily-captured flybys (TCFs) which make less than one revolution around the Earth. Recent results suggest that at any given time there is one 2--3-meter-diameter asteroid captured on a geocentric orbit within 0.03 au from the Earth (Fedorets et al., in preparation). At any given time, there is a dozen 1-meter-diameter captured asteroids, 2--3 of which are TCFs.The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will become operational in early 2020's. LSST is expected cover the available sky from its location in Chile every 4 nights for the duration of a 10 years. The observational cadence combined with the expected limited magnitude, r=24.5, suggest that LSST will detect a new minimoon once a month (Bolin et al. 2014, Icarus 241). Only one minimoon, asteroid 2006 RH120, has so far been discovered (Kwiatkowski et al. 2009, A&A 495).Whereas Bolin et al. (2014, Icarus 241) investigated possibilities for detecting minimoons by current and upcoming survey telescopes we extend the analysis to include the linking of minimoon detections, that is, aiming at extracting minimoon trajectories and, further, minimoon orbits from LSST data. We will test the performance of the current LSST pipeline with simulated TCO and TCF data assuming a realistic magnitude distribution derived from a novel NEO model by Granvik et al. (in preparation).Proving that minimoons can be discovered using LSST data will increase the scientific interest towards them, perhaps primarily as a population of asteroids in

  5. Earth's Largest Meteorite Impact Craters discovered in South America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Schmidt-Falkenberg, H.

    2014-12-01

    Novel analysis of high resolution InSAR-based digital elevation data from the year 2001 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission combined with a recently produced dataset of pan-tropical vegetation height from ALOS-1 SAR and IceSAT/GLAS Lidar estimates led to the quasi-bald-Earth discovery of four sizable near-perfect circle arcs in South America under dense tropical forests ranging in length from 216 km to 441 km. Terrain elevation profiles of cross-sections across the arcs show a distinct vertical rising and falling in elevations of hundreds of meters over a horizontal distance of tens of kilometers. It is hypothesized that these sizable arcs and associated rim-like topographic terrain features are remnants of huge meteorite impact craters with diameters ranging from 770 km to 1,310 km, thus forming potentially the largest known impact carter structures discovered on Earth today. The potential impact crater rim structures are located north of the eastern Amazon River, in the coastal region of Recife and Natal, and in the Brazilian, Bolivian and Paraguayan border region encompassing the Pantanal. Elevation profiles, hillshades and gray-shaded elevation maps were produced to support the geomorphologic analysis. It is also speculated whether in three of the four potential impact craters, central uplift domes or peaks, which are typical for complex impact crater structures can be identified. The worlds largest iron ore mining area of Carajás in Para, Brazil, falls exactly in the center of the largest hypothesized circular impact crater showing topographic elevations similar to the rim structure discovered 655 km to the north-north-west. Based on the topographic/geomorphologic driven hypothesis, geologic exploration of these topographic features is needed to test whether indeed meteorite impact craters could be verified, what the more exact ellipsoidal shapes of the potential impact craters might be, and to determine when during geologic times the impacts would have taken

  6. Unified Photo Enhancement by Discovering Aesthetic Communities From Flickr.

    PubMed

    Hong, Richang; Zhang, Luming; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-03-01

    Photo enhancement refers to the process of increasing the aesthetic appeal of a photo, such as changing the photo aspect ratio and spatial recomposition. It is a widely used technique in the printing industry, graphic design, and cinematography. In this paper, we propose a unified and socially aware photo enhancement framework which can leverage the experience of photographers with various aesthetic topics (e.g., portrait and landscape). We focus on photos from the image hosting site Flickr, which has 87 million users and to which more than 3.5 million photos are uploaded daily. First, a tagwise regularized topic model is proposed to describe the aesthetic topic of each Flickr user, and coherent and interpretable topics are discovered by leveraging both the visual features and tags of photos. Next, a graph is constructed to describe the similarities in aesthetic topics between the users. Noticeably, densely connected users have similar aesthetic topics, which are categorized into different communities by a dense subgraph mining algorithm. Finally, a probabilistic model is exploited to enhance the aesthetic attractiveness of a test photo by leveraging the photographic experiences of Flickr users from the corresponding communities of that photo. Paired-comparison-based user studies show that our method performs competitively on photo retargeting and recomposition. Moreover, our approach accurately detects aesthetic communities in a photo set crawled from nearly 100000 Flickr users.

  7. Discovering DNA encodes heredity and prions are infectious proteins.

    PubMed

    Prusiner, Stanley B; McCarty, Maclyn

    2006-01-01

    The resemblance between the discoveries that DNA is the basis of heredity and that prions are infectious proteins is remarkable. Though four decades separated these two discoveries, the biochemical methodologies and scientific philosophies that were employed are surprisingly similar. In both cases, bioassays available at the time that the projects were initiated proved to be inadequate to support purification studies. Improved bioassays allowed the transforming principle (TP) to be purified from pneumococci and prions from scrapie-infected hamster brains. Publications describing TP as composed of DNA prompted some scientists to contend that undetected proteins must contaminate TP enriched fractions. The simplicity of DNA was thought to prevent it from encoding genetic information. By the time prions were discovered, the genomes of all infectious pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites had been shown to be comprised of nucleic acids and so an antithetical refrain became widely echoed: DNA or RNA molecules must be hiding among the proteins of prions. Finding the unexpected and being asked to demonstrate unequivocally the absence of a possible contaminant represent uncanny parallels between the discoveries that DNA encodes the genotype and that prions are infectious proteins.

  8. Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud.

    PubMed

    Meech, Karen J; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud.

  9. Discovering novel ligands for understanding molecular mechanism of bacteria chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Luhua

    2015-03-01

    In order to understand the molecular mechanism of bacteria chemotaxis, we used a combined experimental and computational approach to discover novel chemoeffector molecules and compare their binding features, as well as the conformational changes they produce. We first used molecular docking to computationally screen a large chemical library and tested binding strengths of the top-ranking molecules for the E. coli chemoreceptor Tar. Chemotactic properties of the binding molecules were then studied using a specially designed microfluidic device. Novel attractant and antagonist molecules were identified that bind directly with the E. coli chemoreceptor Tar. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that attractant and antagonist binding result in distinct conformational changes in Tar. Differences of antagonist and attractant binding suggest that molecules lacking triggering interaction with the receptor behave as antagonist. For Tar, the triggering interaction is mediated by the hydrogen bonds formed between a donor group in the attractant and the main-chain carbonyls in the fourth helix of Tar. This ?bind-and-trigger? mechanism of receptor signaling is verified experimentally by converting an antagonist into an attractant when introducing an NH group into the antagonist compound. Similar conformational changes were also observed in the E. coli Tsr system.

  10. New Star Clusters Discovered in the GLIMPSE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, E. P.; Clemens, D. P.; Meade, M. R.; Babler, B. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Whitney, B. A.; Watson, C.; Wolfire, M. G.; Wolff, M. J.; Bania, T. M.; Benjamin, R. A.; Cohen, M.; Dickey, J. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Mathis, J. S.; Stauffer, J. R.; Stolovy, S. R.; Uzpen, B.; Churchwell, E. B.

    2005-12-01

    A systematic and automated search of the extensive GLIMPSE mid-infrared survey data of the inner Galaxy was carried out to uncover new star clusters. This search has yielded 59 new clusters. Using our automated search algorithm, these clusters were identified as significant localized overdensities in the GLIMPSE point-source catalog (GLMC) and archive (GLMA). Subsequent visual inspection of the GLIMPSE image mosaics confirmed the existence of these clusters plus an additional 33 heavily embedded clusters missed by our detection algorithm, for a total of 92 newly discovered clusters. These previously uncataloged clusters range in type from heavily embedded to fully exposed clusters. More than half of the clusters have memberships exceeding 35 stars, and nearly all the clusters have diameters of 3' or less. The Galactic latitude distribution of the clusters reveals that the majority are concentrated toward the Galactic midplane. There is an asymmetry in the number of clusters located above and below the midplane, with more clusters detected below the midplane. We also observe an asymmetry in the number of clusters detected in the northern and southern halves of the Galaxy, with more than twice as many clusters detected in the south.

  11. Substantial overnight reaeration by convective cooling discovered in pond ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-08-01

    Trends in freshwater dissolved oxygen (DO) reflect whole-ecosystem properties and influence organismal survival and behavior. Here we show that small ponds have unique oxygen dynamics that differ from larger lakes. We discovered that ponds undersaturated in DO experienced substantial increases in oxygen concentration overnight. Nighttime increases in DO occurred on 45% of the nights sampled and resulted in DO saturation increasing 12-fold (22% saturation) on average. Oxygen spikes were likely to occur when ponds became at least 1.8°C warmer than the air and later in the season when oxygen levels were low (<31% saturation) and the air was warm (≥5.8°C). We demonstrate that overnight increases in surface water DO resulted from atmospheric oxygen invasion as opposed to internal production. Convective cooling enhanced turbulence and air-water gas exchange, leading to intense bursts of oxygen invasion during nighttime hours. This mechanism has not been demonstrated before and has important implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems, as well as understanding how organisms survive in hypoxic small ponds.

  12. [Expedition glycocalyx. A newly discovered "Great Barrier Reef"].

    PubMed

    Chappell, D; Jacob, M; Becker, B F; Hofmann-Kiefer, K; Conzen, P; Rehm, M

    2008-10-01

    Healthy vascular endothelium is luminally coated by an endothelial glycocalyx, which interacts with the bloodstream and assumes a filter function on the vascular wall. Although this structure was discovered nearly 70 years ago, its physiological importance has been underestimated for a long time. Recent findings indicate that the glycocalyx is, in addition to the endothelial cells themselves, a main constituent part of the vascular barrier. The existence of different colloid osmotic gradients within and beneath this structure has now led to a modification of the Starling equation. In many vascular beds the interstitial space features a protein concentration similar to that of the plasma. The inwardly directed gradient, which retains water and proteins in the vascular system, is generated beneath the glycocalyx by selective protein filtration over this structure. The endothelial glycocalyx, as an additional competent vascular permeability barrier has, therefore, not only a key role for perioperative fluid and protein shifts into the interstitial space, but it seems to be intimately involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, arteriosclerosis, sepsis and ischemia/reperfusion, especially with respect to associated vascular dysfunctions. The fragile glycocalyx can be destroyed in the course of surgery, trauma, ischemia/reperfusion and sepsis and by inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, causing leukocyte adhesion, platelet aggregation and edema formation. Recent studies have shown that protecting this structure not only maintains the vascular barrier, but constitutes an important component of a rational perioperative fluid therapy.

  13. More Far-Side Deep Moonquake Nests Discovered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Jackson, John A.; Jackson, Katherine G.

    2004-01-01

    As reported last year, we started to reanalyze the seismic data acquired from 1969 to 1977 with a network of stations established on the Moon during the Apollo mission. The reason for the reanalysis was because recent advances in computer technology make it possible to employ much more sophisticated analysis techniques than was possible previously. The primary objective of the reanalysis was to search for deep moonquakes on the far side of the Moon and, if found, to use them to infer the structure of the Moon's deep interior, including a possible central core. The first step was to identify any new deep moonquakes that escaped our earlier search by applying a combination of waveform cross-correlation and single-link cluster analysis, and then to see if any of them are from previously unknown nests of deep moonquakes. We positively identified 7245 deep moonquakes, more than a five-fold increase from the previous 1360. We also found at least 88 previously unknown deep-moonquake nests. The question was whether any of these newly discovered nets were on the far side of the Moon, and we now report that our analysis of the data indicates that some of them are indeed on the far side.

  14. Discovering Patterns in Brain Signals Using Decision Trees

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Even with emerging technologies, such as Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) systems, understanding how our brains work is a very difficult challenge. So we propose to use a data mining technique to help us in this task. As a case of study, we analyzed the brain's behaviour of blind people and sighted people in a spatial activity. There is a common belief that blind people compensate their lack of vision using the other senses. If an object is given to sighted people and we asked them to identify this object, probably the sense of vision will be the most determinant one. If the same experiment was repeated with blind people, they will have to use other senses to identify the object. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses decision trees (DT) to investigate the difference of how the brains of blind people and people with vision react against a spatial problem. We choose the DT algorithm because it can discover patterns in the brain signal, and its presentation is human interpretable. Our results show that using DT to analyze brain signals can help us to understand the brain's behaviour. PMID:27688746

  15. Discovering Numerical Differences between Animal and Plant microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenbang; Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that there are many differences between animal and plant microRNAs (miRNAs), and that numerical features based on sequence and structure can be used to predict the function of individual miRNAs. However, there is little research regarding numerical differences between animal and plant miRNAs, and whether a single numerical feature or combination of features could be used to distinguish animal and plant miRNAs or not. Therefore, in current study we aimed to discover numerical features that could be used to accomplish this. We performed a large-scale analysis of 132 miRNA numerical features, and identified 17 highly significant distinguishing features. However, none of the features independently could clearly differentiate animal and plant miRNAs. By further analysis, we found a four-feature subset that included helix number, stack number, length of pre-miRNA, and minimum free energy, and developed a logistic classifier that could distinguish animal and plant miRNAs effectively. The precision of the classifier was greater than 80%. Using this tool, we confirmed that there were universal differences between animal and plant miRNAs, and that a single feature was unable to adequately distinguish the difference. This feature set and classifier represent a valuable tool for identifying differences between animal and plant miRNAs at a molecular level. PMID:27768749

  16. Discovering interacting domains and motifs in protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Willy; Sung, Wing-Kin; Ng, See-Kiong

    2013-01-01

    Many important biological processes, such as the signaling pathways, require protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that are designed for fast response to stimuli. These interactions are usually transient, easily formed, and disrupted, yet specific. Many of these transient interactions involve the binding of a protein domain to a short stretch (3-10) of amino acid residues, which can be characterized by a sequence pattern, i.e., a short linear motif (SLiM). We call these interacting domains and motifs domain-SLiM interactions. Existing methods have focused on discovering SLiMs in the interacting proteins' sequence data. With the recent increase in protein structures, we have a new opportunity to detect SLiMs directly from the proteins' 3D structures instead of their linear sequences. In this chapter, we describe a computational method called SLiMDIet to directly detect SLiMs on domain interfaces extracted from 3D structures of PPIs. SLiMDIet comprises two steps: (1) interaction interfaces belonging to the same domain are extracted and grouped together using structural clustering and (2) the extracted interaction interfaces in each cluster are structurally aligned to extract the corresponding SLiM. Using SLiMDIet, de novo SLiMs interacting with protein domains can be computationally detected from structurally clustered domain-SLiM interactions for PFAM domains which have available 3D structures in the PDB database.

  17. Structural characterization of a serendipitously discovered bioactive macromolecule, lignin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, Arjun; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Thakkar, Jay N; Gunnarsson, Gunnar T; Shukla, Deepak; Hindle, Michael; Desai, Umesh R

    2005-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) utilizes cell-surface glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate, to gain entry into cells and cause infection. In a search for synthetic mimics of heparan sulfate to prevent HSV infection, we discovered potent inhibitory activity arising from sulfation of a monomeric flavonoid. Yet, detailed screening indicated that the sulfated flavonoid was completely inactive and the potent inhibitory activity arose from a macromolecular substance present in the parent flavonoid. The active principle was identified through a battery of biophysical and chemical analyses as a sulfated form of lignin, a three-dimensional network polymer composed of substituted phenylpropanoid monomers. Mass spectral analysis of the parent lignin and its sulfated derivative indicates the presence of p-coumaryl monomers interconnected through uncondensed beta-O-4-linkages. Elemental analysis of lignin sulfate correlates primarily with a polymer of p-coumaryl alcohol containing one sulfate group. High-performance size exclusion chromatography shows a wide molecular weight distribution from 1.5 to 40 kDa suggesting significant polydispersity. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis indicates a highly networked polymer that differs significantly from linear charged polymers with respect to its electrophoretic mobility. Overall, macromolecular lignin sulfate presents a multitude of substructures that can interact with biomolecules, including viral glycoproteins, using hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and ionic forces. Thus, lignin sulfate represents a large number of interesting structures with potential medicinal benefits.

  18. Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere `blow-off'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere ‘blow-off’ hi-res Size hi-res: 1096 kb Credits: ESA/Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere ‘blow-off’ This artist’s impression shows an extended ellipsoidal envelope - the shape of a rugby-ball - of oxygen and carbon discovered around the well-known extrasolar planet HD 209458b. An international team of astronomers led by Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) observed the first signs of oxygen and carbon in the atmosphere of a planet beyond our Solar System for the first time using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The atoms of carbon and oxygen are swept up from the lower atmosphere with the flow of escaping atmospheric atomic hydrogen - like dust in a supersonic whirlwind - in a process called atmospheric ‘blow off’. Oxygen and carbon have been detected in the atmosphere of a planet beyond our Solar System for the first time. Scientists using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have observed the famous extrasolar planet HD 209458b passing in front of its parent star, and found oxygen and carbon surrounding the planet in an extended ellipsoidal envelope - the shape of a rugby-ball. These atoms are swept up from the lower atmosphere with the flow of the escaping atmospheric atomic hydrogen, like dust in a supersonic whirlwind. The team led by Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) reports this discovery in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. The planet, called HD 209458b, may sound familiar. It is already an extrasolar planet with an astounding list of firsts: the first extrasolar planet discovered transiting its sun, the first with an atmosphere, the first observed to have an evaporating hydrogen atmosphere (in 2003 by the same team of scientists) and now the first to have an atmosphere containing oxygen and carbon. Furthermore

  19. Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud

    PubMed Central

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud. PMID:27386512

  20. A Preliminary Look at Hungarias and Phocaeas Discovered by NEAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. J.; Helin, E. F.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Pravdo, S. H.

    1997-07-01

    With over 10,000 asteroid detections, the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) project is beginning to develop a sufficient quantity of data such that asteroid families and orbital distributions can be examined. One area of particular interest is the Hungaria and Phocaea region of phase space. Their numbers have increased dramatically over the past decade primarily due to systematic asteroid search programs. Early review of the orbital elements, determined by the Minor Planet Center (MPC), show a substantial number of Hungarias and Phocaeas (12 and 13, respectively) discovered by NEAT. Of particular interest is the 1:1 ratio of Phocaeas to Hungarias within this data. This is consistent with the photographic PCAS data reported by Helin and Roman (1989). However, as of December 1996, the Bigelow Sky Survey (BSS) has reported a 2:1 discovery ratio during their dedicated search for high inclination objects. Although, the BSS is concentrated on higher ecliptic latitudes perhaps a more suitable comparison can be made with the Palomar-Leiden (P-L) Survey which concentrated their observations on the ecliptic as NEAT does. It is somewhat curious that the P-L Survey found 9 Hungarias and no Phocaeas. Details of these results, along with the size and magnitude distributions, will be discussed. Related abstract: Helin, E., et al.,.1997 DPS

  1. Discovering thematic objects in image collections and videos.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Junsong; Zhao, Gangqiang; Fu, Yun; Li, Zhu; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K; Wu, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Given a collection of images or a short video sequence, we define a thematic object as the key object that frequently appears and is the representative of the visual contents. Successful discovery of the thematic object is helpful for object search and tagging, video summarization and understanding, etc. However, this task is challenging because 1) there lacks a priori knowledge of the thematic objects, such as their shapes, scales, locations, and times of re-occurrences, and 2) the thematic object of interest can be under severe variations in appearances due to viewpoint and lighting condition changes, scale variations, etc. Instead of using a top-down generative model to discover thematic visual patterns, we propose a novel bottom-up approach to gradually prune uncommon local visual primitives and recover the thematic objects. A multilayer candidate pruning procedure is designed to accelerate the image data mining process. Our solution can efficiently locate thematic objects of various sizes and can tolerate large appearance variations of the same thematic object. Experiments on challenging image and video data sets and comparisons with existing methods validate the effectiveness of our method.

  2. Timing of Five PALFA-discovered Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, K.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Cardoso, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Ferdman, R.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F.; Kaplan, D. L.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Kotulla, R.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A. G.; Madsen, E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Swiggum, J.; Zhu, W. W.; Venkataraman, A.

    2016-12-01

    We report the discovery and timing results for five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from the Arecibo PALFA survey: PSRs J1906+0055, J1914+0659, J1933+1726, J1938+2516, and J1957+2516. Timing observations of the five pulsars were conducted with the Arecibo and Lovell telescopes for time spans ranging from 1.5 to 3.3 years. All of the MSPs except one (PSR J1914+0659) are in binary systems with low eccentricities. PSR J1957+2516 is likely a redback pulsar, with a ˜ 0.1 {M}⊙ companion and possible eclipses that last ˜10% of the orbit. The position of PSR J1957+2516 is also coincident with a near-infrared source. All five MSPs are distant (\\gt 3.1 kpc) as determined from their dispersion measures, and none of them show evidence of γ-ray pulsations in a fold of Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope data. These five MSPs bring the total number of MSPs discovered by the PALFA survey to 26 and further demonstrate the power of this survey in finding distant, highly dispersed MSPs deep in the Galactic plane.

  3. HELIO - Discovering solar effects in all the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Suárez, D.; Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Brooke, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Jacquey, C.; Messerotti, M.; Pierantoni, G.

    2013-09-01

    HELIO, the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory, consists of a set of integrated software tools developed by an international consortium under the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). HELIO is designed to help scientists easily search heliophysical data and discover any possible connections. This is achieved by merging information from feature and event catalogues and services that know about the locations and capabilities of instruments to find all the data available that contain information on a certain event by propagating it through the whole solar system. There are then tools to access data archives and processing tools that allow the users to create their own workflows. HELIO is definitely making the research in heliophysics more accessible to different scientists [1] but it capabilities goes further than this. It can be adapted to other fields in science, where multiple observations in different observatories are used to study a particular event. The interfaces of the HELIO services are based onWeb services and, as far as possible, are compliant with IVOA standards. This simplifies access to the capabilities via different tools like Web browsers, scripting languages (IDL, Python, etc.), and workflow tools (Taverna, Kepler, etc.). The overall capabilities of the system can greatly increased when the services are combined using workflows or scripting languages. While we try to hide the use of these tools for most users, those who choose to gain familiarity with such tools can address more complex problems. A brief introduction to HELIO services and a use case demonstration will be presented.

  4. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods.

  5. Binary star database: binaries discovered in non-optical bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, Oleg Yu.; Tessema, Solomon B.; Kniazev, Alexei Yu.

    The Binary star Database (BDB) is the world's principal database of binary and multiple systems of all observational types. In particular, it should contain data on binaries discovered in non-optical bands, X-ray binaries (XRBs) and radio pulsars in binaries. The goal of the present study was to compile complete lists of such objects. Due to the lack of a unified identification system for XRBs, we had to select them from five principal catalogues of X-ray sources. After cross-identification and positional cross-matching, a general catalogue of 373 XRBs was constructed for the first time. It contains coordinates, indication of photometric and spectroscopic binarity, and extensive cross-identification. In the preparation of the catalogue, a number of XRB classification disagreements were resolved, some catalogued identifiers and coordinates were corrected, and duplicated entries in the original catalogues were found. We have also compiled a general list of 239 radio pulsars in binary systems. The list is supplied with indication of photometric, spectroscopic or X-ray binarity, and with cross-identification data.

  6. Discovering side-chain correlation in {alpha}-Helices

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, T.M.; Brutlag, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Using a new representation for interactions in protein sequences based on correlations between pairs of amino acids, we have examined {alpha}-helical segments from known protein structures for important interactions. Traditional techniques for representing protein sequences usually make an explicit assumption of conditional independence of residues in the sequences. Protein structure analyses, however, have repeatedly demonstrated the importance of amino acid interactions for structural stability. We have developed an automated program for discovering sequence correlations in sets of aligned protein sequences using standard statistical tests and for representing them with Bayesian networks. In this paper, we demonstrate the power of our discovery program and representation by analyzing pairs of residues from {alpha}-helices. The sequence correlations we find represent physical and chemical interactions among amino-acid side chains in helical structures. Furthermore, these local interactions are likely to be important for stabilizing and packing {alpha}-helices. Lastly, we have also detect correlations in side-chain conformations that indicate important structural interactions but which don`t appear as sequence correlations.

  7. Public information needs after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in London: cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Page, Lisa; Morgan, Oliver; Pinder, Richard J; Riley, Paul; Hatch, Stephani; Maguire, Helen; Catchpole, Mike; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify public perceptions of the risk to health after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 (210Po) in London and to assess the impact of public health communications. Design Cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative interviews. Setting London, United Kingdom. Participants 1000 people completed the cross sectional survey and 86 potentially exposed people completed the qualitative interviews. Main outcome measures Perception of risk to personal health after the 210Po incident. Qualitative interviews were analysed with an emphasis on information needs. Results 11.7% of the survey sample (n=117) perceived their health to be at risk. Aside from personal variables the main predictors of perceived risk to health were believing that the incident was related to terrorism (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 4.6) rather than to espionage, that it was targeted at the wider public rather than one person (5.9, 3.2 to 10.9), and that it could affect people who had not been in the contaminated area (3.2, 2.1 to 5.1). Participants in the qualitative interviews were generally satisfied with the information they had received, although they would have preferred more information about their individual risk of exposure, the results of their urine tests, and the health implications of the incident. Conclusions Perceptions of the public that the 210Po incident in London in 2006 was related to espionage helped to reassure them that the risks to personal health were low. In the event of future incidents it is important to ensure that detailed, comprehensible information about the risks of any exposure is available. PMID:17975252

  8. Discovering Exoplanets with Microlensing: Transition to the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    We propose to continue our successful program of planet discovery using the gravitaional microlensing technique. Our work will specifically focus on so-called "high- magnification events", which are exceptionally sensitive to planets, and which allow us to extract exceptionally detailed information about each planetary system. These results will be of high scientific interest in their own right, but will also play a key role in the transition to "next-generation" surveys that will discover many times more planets in "low-magnification events". We will continue to operate and build our network of approximately 30 amateur+professional astronomers (about half each) on 6 continents plus Oceania, which enables the 24 hour coverage that is crucial to extracting planetary science from microlensing events. In particular, by engaging the amateurs at a high scientific level, we will both improve the quantity and quality of amateur data and utilize their role as a "transmission belt" to the broader public. Over the past few years, high-mag events have enabled the first detection of a Jupiter- Saturn analog system, the first census of ice and gas giants beyond the snow line, the recognition that "cold Neptunes" are extremely common, and the detection of 3 very massive, super-Jupiter planets orbiting M dwarfs (which may challenge the standard "core-accretion" paradigm). Analysis of these events has also led to key theoretical insights, including the fact that planet orbital motion can be detected in microlensing events and that careful effort is required to disentangle this from "parallax effects" (due to the Earth's own orbital motion). The direct impact of our proposed work will be to increase the still small statistics of high-mag planet detections (due to the intrinsic rarity of high-mag events) and to exploit the sensitivity of these events to higher-order effects (including parallax, planet orbital motion, and multiple planets) to gain deeper knowledge of detected systems

  9. Talkoot Portals: Discover, Tag, Share, and Reuse Collaborative Science Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Ramachandran, R.; Lynnes, C.

    2009-05-01

    A small but growing number of scientists are beginning to harness Web 2.0 technologies, such as wikis, blogs, and social tagging, as a transformative way of doing science. These technologies provide researchers easy mechanisms to critique, suggest and share ideas, data and algorithms. At the same time, large suites of algorithms for science analysis are being made available as remotely-invokable Web Services, which can be chained together to create analysis workflows. This provides the research community an unprecedented opportunity to collaborate by sharing their workflows with one another, reproducing and analyzing research results, and leveraging colleagues' expertise to expedite the process of scientific discovery. However, wikis and similar technologies are limited to text, static images and hyperlinks, providing little support for collaborative data analysis. A team of information technology and Earth science researchers from multiple institutions have come together to improve community collaboration in science analysis by developing a customizable "software appliance" to build collaborative portals for Earth Science services and analysis workflows. The critical requirement is that researchers (not just information technologists) be able to build collaborative sites around service workflows within a few hours. We envision online communities coming together, much like Finnish "talkoot" (a barn raising), to build a shared research space. Talkoot extends a freely available, open source content management framework with a series of modules specific to Earth Science for registering, creating, managing, discovering, tagging and sharing Earth Science web services and workflows for science data processing, analysis and visualization. Users will be able to author a "science story" in shareable web notebooks, including plots or animations, backed up by an executable workflow that directly reproduces the science analysis. New services and workflows of interest will be

  10. Discovering the Role of Grain Boundary Complexions in Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Harmer, Martin P.

    2015-03-19

    in a range of materials systems, and to characterize their structures, range of stability and selected physical properties. First, an Au-based bilayer interfacial phase was discovered at a bicrystal boundary in the Si-Au system. This bilayer transitioned abruptly to an intrinsic (“clean”) grain boundary phase, suggesting first-order phase behavior. This study represents the discovery of grain boundary complexions in a completely new system, i.e., a semiconductor-metal system, giving further support to the expectation that grain boundary complexions are a general phenomenon not limited to any particular class of materials. The TiO2-CuO system exhibited four grain boundary interfacial phases: a monolayer, disordered bilayer, disordered trilayer, and non-wetting nanoscale amorphous drop (which likely resulted from dewetting of a nanoscale IGF). SiO2 contamination was discovered in the TiO2-CuO samples, and we hypothesize that this impurity may have caused an “order-disorder” transition to occur. In other words, we expect that pure TiO2-CuO may have a higher tendency to exhibit ordered bilayer and trilayer complexions, which may also exhibit a well-defined order-disorder transition temperature. In this effort we have also identified unique complexion transitions in yttria and strontium titanate.

  11. Discovering superconductors: A path to new science and higher Tc's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. H.; Koster, Gertjan

    2005-08-01

    The search for superconductivity in new and unexpected structures has been ongoing since the initial discovery in Leiden over 9 decades ago. Though the successes are few the rewards are great. Our meeting here today is a direct result of Bednorz and Mueller's discovery of cuprate superconductivity [1]. The questions which have arisen as a result of this single discovery have uncovered inadequacies of theory and stimulated new ways of thinking. Understanding the mechanism(s) of high temperature superconductivity is among the foremost challenges of theoretical and experimental research today [2]. Searching for new superconductors has always been a fruitful research enterprise, and as we see, there are new opportunities for doing so today. For more than 4 decades after the initial discovery there was no microscopic theory (the most outstanding theorists from Heisenberg down tried and failed to come up with a satisfactory theory) and the experimental basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms was inadequate. It must have been a surprise for Kamerlingh Onnes, after taking care to use the purest Hg he could obtain in the investigation that led to the discovery of superconductivity, to find that ordinary solder was also superconducting. In 1932 Meissner discovered barely metallic copper sulfide was superconducting, while high conductivity copper itself was not superconducting. These puzzles and others like it suggested that a comprehensive search for new superconductors might reveal a pattern of occurrence that would reveal clues, and prompted John Hulm and Bernd Matthias, with encouragement from Enrico Fermi [3] in 1951 to undertake a full-scale effort to find new superconductors. This was a propitious time for such an undertaking for a number of reasons. Today parallel reasons exist.

  12. Discovering discovery patterns with Predication-based Semantic Indexing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic; Schvaneveldt, Roger W; Davies, Peter; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we utilize methods of hyperdimensional computing to mediate the identification of therapeutically useful connections for the purpose of literature-based discovery. Our approach, named Predication-based Semantic Indexing, is utilized to identify empirically sequences of relationships known as "discovery patterns", such as "drug x INHIBITS substance y, substance y CAUSES disease z" that link pharmaceutical substances to diseases they are known to treat. These sequences are derived from semantic predications extracted from the biomedical literature by the SemRep system, and subsequently utilized to direct the search for known treatments for a held out set of diseases. Rapid and efficient inference is accomplished through the application of geometric operators in PSI space, allowing for both the derivation of discovery patterns from a large set of known TREATS relationships, and the application of these discovered patterns to constrain search for therapeutic relationships at scale. Our results include the rediscovery of discovery patterns that have been constructed manually by other authors in previous research, as well as the discovery of a set of previously unrecognized patterns. The application of these patterns to direct search through PSI space results in better recovery of therapeutic relationships than is accomplished with models based on distributional statistics alone. These results demonstrate the utility of efficient approximate inference in geometric space as a means to identify therapeutic relationships, suggesting a role of these methods in drug repurposing efforts. In addition, the results provide strong support for the utility of the discovery pattern approach pioneered by Hristovski and his colleagues.

  13. Serum irisin levels and thyroid function--newly discovered association.

    PubMed

    Ruchala, Marek; Zybek, Ariadna; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina

    2014-10-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered adipo-myokin, which is reported to have a significant influence on the body metabolism and thermogenesis. Other influencing factors on metabolic state are thyroid hormones, which increase heat production and control the energy balance. Due to numerous similarities in action it seems imperative to explore these substances' potential mutual influence on the body. The aim of the study is to provide the first ever, according to our knowledge, evaluation of serum irisin concentrations in patients with thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with creatine kinase (CK) levels - a serum marker of muscle damage. The studied group consisted of 20 patients with newly diagnosed thyroid disorder - hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Venous blood samples were analyzed for irisin, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and CK serum concentrations. Patients' body mass index (BMI), body weight and muscle mass were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Median serum irisin levels were lower in hypothyroid (117.30ng/ml) than hyperthyroid (161.95ng/ml) patients with a borderline statistical significance (p=0.0726). The negative correlation between irisin and TSH levels was demonstrated (r=-0.4924, p=0.0230), as well as the positive correlation between irisin and FT4 levels (r=0.4833, p=0.0360). The CK level was negatively correlated with irisin, FT4 and FT3 concentrations (r=-0.7272, p=0.0140; r=-0.9636, p=<0.0001; r=-0.8838, p=0.0007, respectively). The study demonstrates that irisin concentrations may vary according to the thyrometabolic state, which potentially could be related to the degree of muscle damage.

  14. A new population of protostars discovered by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, A. M.; Tobin, J.; Fischer, W.; S. T. Megeath; Stanke, T.; Ali, B.; Henning, T.

    2012-03-01

    We present a newly discovered Herschel--detected class of very red protostars found in the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). In contrast to the known Orion protostars targeted with HOPS, the new sources are undetected or very faint in the Spitzer 24 μm imaging. A subset of these sources is redder than any of the known Orion Class 0 protostars, and appear similar in their 70 μm to 24 μm colors to the most extreme Class 0 objects known. These new Orion protostars are likely to be in a very early and short lived stage of protostellar evolution. As a sample of extremely red sources at a common distance, they represent an important new population of protostars. The majority of these reddest sources exhibit associated IRAC 4.5, and 5.8 μm extended emission that suggests the presence of an outflow, confirming their protostellar nature. In addition, many of these sources are located within classical filaments as traced by Spitzer absorption features and APEX 870 μm dust emission maps. Fits of the broad--band SEDs to radiative transfer models of protostars suggest that the extremely red 70 μm to 24 μm colors result from a combination of nearly edge--on viewing angles and high envelope infall rates. We analyze the properties of the filaments from which these sources form using sub--mm and IRAM 30 m N_2H^+ measurements. Finally, we present the initial results of a search for outflows using IRAM 30 m CO maps. As a population of cold protostars detected by Herschel but not Spitzer, the PBRS extend the Spitzer--identified sample to earlier stages of envelope evolution, allowing the most complete census yet of the Orion protostellar population.

  15. The Ring System Discovered Around the Centaur Object (10199) Chariklo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga-Ribas, F.; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Vieira Martins, R.; Colas, F.; Duffard, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Desmars, J.; Gulbis, A.; Assafin, M.; Maquet, L.; Beisker, W.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Vachier, F.; Dumas, C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Renner, S.; Bath, K. L.; Klotz, A.; Pollock, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of a stellar occultation on 03 June 2013 led to the discovery of the first ring system around a small Solar System object, the Centaur (10199) Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al. 2014, Nature, 508, 72). The object has a radius of about 125 km and moves on an unstable orbit between Saturn and Uranus, with lifetime of about 10 Myr. The fifth ring system ever discovered (after those around the four giant planets) is made of two dense and narrow rings with respective widths of 7 and 3 kilometers, normal optical depths of 0.4 and 0.06, and orbital radii of 391 and 405 kilometers, respectively (see figure). They are separated by an empty gap of about 9 km (see Figure 1). Their current configuration may be explained by the presence of putative kilometric-sized satellites. By means of the shepherd mechanism, satellites can confine and open the gap between the rings, otherwise they would spread out in few thousand years. From 1997 to 2008, the Chariklo system exhibited an unexplained behavior. It dimmed by 0.6 in absolute magnitude and the water-ice band in its spectrum, formerly observed, could not be detected in 2008. All this is simply explained by the rings' pole orientation, which implies that they were seen edge-on in 2007-2008. We can also calculate their reflectivity I/F ~ 0.1. Spectroscopic and photometric observations of the system allowed us to calculate the amount of water ice and silicate elements in the rings as well as on the main body. No water ice is detectable on the surface of Chariklo. New stellar occultations by the Chariklo system were observed in 2014, and they show the fine structure of the rings as well confirm the preferred pole position from the 2013 event. These findings will be presented and possible formation scenarios will be discussed.

  16. Discovering significant evolution patterns from satellite image time series.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, François; Masseglia, Florent; Gançarski, Pierre; Forestier, Germain

    2011-12-01

    Satellite Image Time Series (SITS) provide us with precious information on land cover evolution. By studying these series of images we can both understand the changes of specific areas and discover global phenomena that spread over larger areas. Changes that can occur throughout the sensing time can spread over very long periods and may have different start time and end time depending on the location, which complicates the mining and the analysis of series of images. This work focuses on frequent sequential pattern mining (FSPM) methods, since this family of methods fits the above-mentioned issues. This family of methods consists of finding the most frequent evolution behaviors, and is actually able to extract long-term changes as well as short term ones, whenever the change may start and end. However, applying FSPM methods to SITS implies confronting two main challenges, related to the characteristics of SITS and the domain's constraints. First, satellite images associate multiple measures with a single pixel (the radiometric levels of different wavelengths corresponding to infra-red, red, etc.), which makes the search space multi-dimensional and thus requires specific mining algorithms. Furthermore, the non evolving regions, which are the vast majority and overwhelm the evolving ones, challenge the discovery of these patterns. We propose a SITS mining framework that enables discovery of these patterns despite these constraints and characteristics. Our proposal is inspired from FSPM and provides a relevant visualization principle. Experiments carried out on 35 images sensed over 20 years show the proposed approach makes it possible to extract relevant evolution behaviors.

  17. High-School Student Discovers Strange Astronomical Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    A West Virginia high-school student analyzing data from a giant radio telescope has discovered a new astronomical object -- a strange type of neutron star called a rotating radio transient. Lucas Bolyard, a sophomore at South Harrison High School in Clarksburg, WV, made the discovery while participating in a project in which students are trained to scrutinize data from the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green The project, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University (WVU), funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Bolyard made the discovery in March, after he already had studied more than 2,000 data plots from the GBT and found nothing. "I was home on a weekend and had nothing to do, so I decided to look at some more plots from the GBT," he said. "I saw a plot with a pulse, but there was a lot of radio interference, too. The pulse almost got dismissed as interference," he added. Nonetheless, he reported it, and it went on a list of candidates for West Virginia University astronomers Maura McLaughlin and Duncan Lorimer to re-examine, scheduling new observations of the region of sky from which the pulse came. Disappointingly, the follow-up observations showed nothing, indicating that the object was not a normal pulsar. However, the astronomers explained to Bolyard that his pulse still might have come from a rotating radio transient. Confirmation didn't come until July. Bolyard was at the NRAO's Green Bank Observatory with fellow PSC students. The night before, the group had been observing with the GBT in the wee hours, and all were very tired. Then Lorimer showed Bolyard a new plot of his pulse, reprocessed from raw data, indicating that it is real, not interference, and that Bolyard is likely the discoverer of one of only about 30 rotating radio transients known. Suddenly, Bolyard said, he wasn't tired anymore. "That news made me full

  18. Three Novel Virophage Genomes Discovered from Yellowstone Lake Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinglie; Sun, Dawei; Childers, Alyson; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Virophages are a unique group of circular double-stranded DNA viruses that are considered parasites of giant DNA viruses, which in turn are known to infect eukaryotic hosts. In this study, the genomes of three novel Yellowstone Lake virophages (YSLVs)—YSLV5, YSLV6, and YSLV7—were identified from Yellowstone Lake through metagenomic analyses. The relative abundance of these three novel virophages and previously identified Yellowstone Lake virophages YSLV1 to -4 were determined in different locations of the lake, revealing that most of the sampled locations in the lake, including both mesophilic and thermophilic habitats, had multiple virophage genotypes. This likely reflects the diverse habitats or diversity of the eukaryotic hosts and their associated giant viruses that serve as putative hosts for these virophages. YSLV5 has a 29,767-bp genome with 32 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), YSLV6 has a 24,837-bp genome with 29 predicted ORFs, and YSLV7 has a 23,193-bp genome with 26 predicted ORFs. Based on multilocus phylogenetic analysis, YSLV6 shows a close evolutionary relationship with YSLV1 to -4, whereas YSLV5 and YSLV7 are distantly related to the others, and YSLV7 represents the fourth novel virophage lineage. In addition, the genome of YSLV5 has a G+C content of 51.1% that is much higher than all other known virophages, indicating a unique host range for YSLV5. These results suggest that virophages are abundant and have diverse genotypes that likely mirror diverse giant viral and eukaryotic hosts within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem. IMPORTANCE This study discovered novel virophages present within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem using a conserved major capsid protein as a phylogenetic anchor for assembly of sequence reads from Yellowstone Lake metagenomic samples. The three novel virophage genomes (YSLV5 to -7) were completed by identifying specific environmental samples containing these respective virophages, and closing gaps by targeted PCR

  19. Astronomers Discover New Star-Forming Regions in Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Astronomers studying the Milky Way have discovered a large number of previously-unknown regions where massive stars are being formed. Their discovery provides important new information about the structure of our home Galaxy and promises to yield new clues about the chemical composition of the Galaxy. "We can clearly relate the locations of these star-forming sites to the overall structure of the Galaxy. Further studies will allow us to better understand the process of star formation and to compare the chemical composition of such sites at widely different distances from the Galaxy's center," said Thomas Bania, of Boston University. Bania worked with Loren Anderson of the Astrophysical Laboratory of Marseille in France, Dana Balser of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Robert Rood of the University of Virginia. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Miami, Florida. The star-forming regions the astronomers sought, called H II regions, are sites where hydrogen atoms are ionized, or stripped of their electrons, by the intense radiation of the massive, young stars. To find these regions hidden from visible-light detection by the Milky Way's gas and dust, the researchers used infrared and radio telescopes. "We found our targets by using the results of infrared surveys done with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and of surveys done with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope," Anderson said. "Objects that appear bright in both the Spitzer and VLA images we studied are good candidates for H II regions," he explained. The astronomers then used the NSF's giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, an extremely sensitive radio telescope. With the GBT, they were able to detect specific radio frequencies emitted by electrons as they recombined with protons to form hydrogen. This evidence of recombination confirmed that the regions contained ionized

  20. Data mining algorithm for discovering matrix association regions (MARs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gautam B.; Krawetz, Shephan A.

    2000-04-01

    Lately, there has been considerable interest in applying Data Mining techniques to scientific and data analysis problems in bioinformatics. Data mining research is being fueled by novel application areas that are helping the development of newer applied algorithms in the field of bioinformatics, an emerging discipline representing the integration of biological and information sciences. This is a shift in paradigm from the earlier and the continuing data mining efforts in marketing research and support for business intelligence. The problem described in this paper is along a new dimension in DNA sequence analysis research and supplements the previously studied stochastic models for evolution and variability. The discovery of novel patterns from genetic databases as described is quite significant because biological patterns play an important role in a large variety of cellular processes and constitute the basis for gene therapy. Biological databases containing the genetic codes from a wide variety of organisms, including humans, have continued their exponential growth over the last decade. At the time of this writing, the GenBank database contains over 300 million sequences and over 2.5 billion characters of sequenced nucleotides. The focus of this paper is on developing a general data mining algorithm for discovering regions of locus control, i.e. those regions that are instrumental for determining cell type. One such type of element of locus control are the MARs or the Matrix Association Regions. Our limited knowledge about MARs has hampered their detection using classical pattern recognition techniques. Consequently, their detection is formulated by utilizing a statistical interestingness measure derived from a set of empirical features that are known to be associated with MARs. This paper presents a systematic approach for finding associations between such empirical features in genomic sequences, and for utilizing this knowledge to detect biologically interesting

  1. Despite Appearances, Cosmic Explosions Have Common Origin, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    A Fourth of July fireworks display features bright explosions that light the sky with different colors, yet all have the same cause. They just put their explosive energy into different colors of light. Similarly, astronomers have discovered, a variety of bright cosmic explosions all have the same origin and the same amount of total energy. This is the conclusion of an international team of astronomers that used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the closest known gamma-ray burst earlier this year. Artist's conception of burst Artist's Conception of Twin Jets in Energetic Cosmic Explosion CREDIT: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital (Click on Image for Larger Version) "For some reason we don't yet understand, these explosions put greatly varying percentages of their explosive energy into the gamma-ray portion of their output," said Dale Frail, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. That means, he said, that both strong and weak gamma-ray bursts, along with X-ray flashes, which emit almost no gamma rays, are just different forms of the same cosmic beast. The research team reported their results in the November 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The scientists trained the VLA on a gamma-ray burst discovered using NASA's HETE-2 satellite last March 29. This burst, dubbed GRB 030329, was the closest such burst yet seen, about 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. Because of this relative proximity, the burst was bright, with visible light from its explosion reaching a level that could be seen in amateur telescopes. As the burst faded, astronomers noted an underlying distinctive signature of a supernova explosion, confirming that the event was associated with the death of a massive star. Since 1999, astronomers have known that the strong outbursts of gamma rays, X-rays, visible light and radio waves from these bursts form beams, like those from a flashlight, rather than spreading in all directions

  2. Observatoriya imeni russkogo astronoma v dalekoj Brazilii. K 100-letiyu so diya rozhdeniya Aleksandra Ivanovicha Postoeva (1900 - 1976) %t An observatory in distant Brazil named after a Russian astronomer (dedicated to Alexander Postoyev (1900 - 1976) centennial anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Dos Santos, P.; Matsuura, O. T.

    This is a biographical note on the life of Dr. Alexander Postoyev, a victim of Stalin's purge of Soviet astronomers in 1936 - 1937. Together with his family, he left the Soviet Union in 1943 and lived in Germany as a refugee and a "displaced person" until 1952, when he moved to Brazil. There, he started the second part of his professional career. Thanks to his efforts, the Astronomical and Geophysical Institute (IAG) of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) was for the first time included in programs of international cooperation, thus contributing to the institutional consolidation of IAG/USP as a leading center of astronomical research and teaching in Brazil now.

  3. Photographs and Committees: Activities That Help Students Discover Permutations and Combinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles

    2000-01-01

    Presents problem situations that support students when discovering the multiplication principle, permutations, combinations, Pascal's triangle, and relationships among those objects in a concrete context. (ASK)

  4. Astronomers Discover Rotating Disk Around Young, Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using radio telescopes in New Mexico and California have discovered a giant, rotating disk of material around a young, massive star, indicating that very massive stars as well as those closer to the size of the Sun may be circled by disks from which planets are thought to form. This is the most massive young star for which such a disk has yet been found. Debra Shepherd of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and Stan Kurtz of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope and telescopes of Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) to make a detailed study of an object called G192.16-3.82, in the constellation Orion. They announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX, today. What astronomers call Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) -- stars still in the process of formation -- are enigmatic objects, both drawing in material from their surroundings and expelling material outward at the same time. "The details of the interaction between these two processes are poorly understood," Shepherd said. "In addition, most theories are based on observing low-mass stars, and we don't know if things work the same way with higher-mass stars." "We now have the first unambiguous evidence for a rotating disk around a high-mass star that also is powering an outflow," Shepherd said. "We need to make more observations to confirm the finding, but this information will help test theories of how such young stellar objects operate." It has been difficult to study massive star formation, because massive stars are rarer than smaller ones, they tend to form in clusters, making observations more difficult, and there are few of them forming relatively nearby. The object that Shepherd and Kurtz chose is reasonably isolated. "We think it provides us with a good laboratory for studying the process," Kurtz said. The young star at the core of G192.16-3.82 is

  5. Planetary dreams : the quest to discover life beyond earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Robert

    1999-03-01

    The Quest To Discover Life Beyond Earth. "The 'dreams' that I write of are not the usual ones, the images that come up in our minds involuntarily during certain stages of sleep, but rather the hopes and expectations that we have lavished upon other worlds around us."-from the Preface. The surprisingly long history of debate over extraterrestrial life is full of marvelous visions of what life "out there" might be like, as well as remarkable stories of alleged sightings and heated disputes about the probability that life might actually have arisen more than once. In Planetary Dreams, acclaimed author Robert Shapiro explores this rich history of dreams and debates in search of the best current answers to the most elusive and compelling of all questions: Are we alone? In his pursuit, he presents three contrasting views regarding how life might have started: through Divine Creation, by a highly unlikely stroke of luck, or by the inevitable process of a natural law that he terms the Life Principle. We are treated to a lively fictional dinner debate among the leading proponents of these schools of thought-with the last named group arguing that life has almost surely formed in many places throughout the universe, and the others that life may well be entirely unique to our own blue planet. To set the stage for a deep exploration of the question, the author then leads us on a fantastic journey through the museum of the cosmos, an imagined building that holds models of the universe at different degrees of magnification. We then journey deep into inner space to view the astonishingly intricate life of a single cell, and learn why the origin of such a complex object from simple chemical mixtures poses one of the most profound enigmas known to science. Writing in a wonderfully entertaining style, Shapiro then reviews the competing theories about the start of life on Earth, and suggests the debate may best be settled by finding signs of life on the other worlds of our solar

  6. Evaluating return on investment in a school based health promotion and prevention program: the investment multiplier for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total

  7. Isolated Star-Forming Cloud Discovered in Intracluster Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Subaru and VLT Join Forces in New Study of Virgo Galaxy Cluster [1] Summary At a distance of some 50 million light-years, the Virgo Cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster. It is located in the zodiacal constellation of the same name (The Virgin) and is a large and dense assembly of hundreds of galaxies. The "intracluster" space between the Virgo galaxies is permeated by hot X-ray emitting gas and, as has become clear recently, by a sparse "intracluster population of stars". So far, stars have been observed to form in the luminous parts of galaxies. The most massive young stars are often visible indirectly by the strong emission from surrounding cocoons of hot gas, which is heated by the intense radiation from the embedded stars. These "HII regions" (pronounced "Eitch-Two" and so named because of their content of ionized hydrogen) may be very bright and they often trace the beautiful spiral arms seen in disk galaxies like our own Milky Way. New observations by the Japanese 8-m Subaru telescope and the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) have now shown that massive stars can also form in isolation, far from the luminous parts of galaxies. During a most productive co-operation between astronomers working at these two world-class telescopes, a compact HII region has been discovered at the very boundary between the outer halo of a Virgo cluster galaxy and Virgo intracluster space. This cloud is illuminated and heated by a few hot and massive young stars. The estimated total mass of the stars in the cloud is only a few hundred times that of the Sun. Such an object is rare at the present epoch. However, there may have been more in the past, at which time they were perhaps responsible for the formation of a fraction of the intracluster stellar population in clusters of galaxies. Massive stars in such isolated HII regions will explode as supernovae at the end of their short lives, and enrich the intracluster medium with heavy elements. Observations of two other Virgo cluster

  8. Extrasolar Planet in Double Star System Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    Early Success With New Swiss Telescope During the past three years, about fifteen planetary companions have been discovered in orbits around dwarf stars. They have revealed to astrophysicists a broad diversity of planetary systems at other stars. Giant planets with masses ranging from half to several times the mass of Jupiter, the largest planet in our own solar system, have been detected with various telescopes. The orbital periods range from 3.1 to 1650 days; while some of the orbits are of circular shape, others are very elongated. The observed diversity naturally raises questions about how these exoplanets are formed. Now, following only a few months of observations, a Swiss team of astronomers [1], working with a new Swiss astronomical facility at the ESO La Silla Observatory mainly dedicated to the search for exoplanets, has made its first planetary detection. It is a massive planet moving in an almost circular orbit around a nearby star that is itself the primary component of a double star system. The Geneva southern extrasolar planet search programme ESO PR Photo 45a/98 ESO PR Photo 45a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 456k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2400 pix - 2.7Mb] ESO PR Photo 45b/98 ESO PR Photo 45b/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 953 pix - 296k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3572 pix - 2.3Mb] PR Photo 45a/98 (left) is a view of the dome with the 1.2-m Swiss Leonard Euler Telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. The telescope itself is shown in Photo 45b/98 (right). In June 1998, the CORALIE echelle spectrograph was mounted at the 1.2-m Swiss telescope at La Silla and the commissioning phase was begun, during which the telescope and the spectrograph would be trimmed to perfection. This facility is specifically designed for high-precision radial-velocity measurements and it will mostly be used for an ambitious search for large extrasolar planets around stars in the southern celestial hemisphere. Over 1000 stars will be investigated. Such a vast observational

  9. Evaluating DISCOVER's Effectiveness in Enhancing College Students' Social Cognitive Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Michael R.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

    2005-01-01

    College students (20 women, 14 men) seeking career counseling services at a university career center participated in this exploratory investigation. A 2 (DISCOVER treatment) x 2 (counseling treatment) research design was used to evaluate the individual and combined effects of DISCOVER (ACT, 1998) and counseling on participants' career…

  10. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  11. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  12. Distant World in Peril Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant Exoplanet Orbits Giant Star Summary When, in a distant future, the Sun begins to expand and evolves into a "giant" star, the surface temperature on the Earth will rise dramatically and our home planet will eventually be incinerated by that central body. Fortunately for us, this dramatic event is several billion years away. However, that sad fate will befall another planet, just discovered in orbit about the giant star HD 47536, already within a few tens of millions of years. At a distance of nearly 400 light-years from us, it is the second-remotest planetary system discovered to date [1]. This is an interesting side-result of a major research project, now carried out by a European-Brazilian team of astronomers [2]. In the course of a three-year spectroscopic survey, they have observed about 80 giant stars in the southern sky with the advanced FEROS spectrograph on the 1.52-m telescope installed at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It is one of these stars that has just been found to host a giant planet. This is only the fourth such case known and with a diameter of about 33 million km (or 23.5 times that of our Sun), HD 47536 is by far the largest of those giant stars [1]. The distance of the planet from the star is still of the order of 300 million km (or twice the distance of the Earth from the Sun), a safe margin now, but this will not always be so. The orbital period is 712 days, i.e., somewhat less than two Earth years, and the planet's mass is 5 - 10 times that of Jupiter. The presence of exoplanets in orbit around giant stars, some of which will eventually perish into their central star (be "cannibalized"), provides a possible explanation of the anomalous abundance of certain chemical elements that is observed in the atmospheres of some stars, cf. ESO PR 10/01. This interesting discovery bodes well for coming observations of exoplanetary systems with new, more powerful instruments, like HARPS to be installed next year at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on

  13. LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    is: how do binary black holes form? Two primary mechanisms have been proposed:A binary star system contains two stars that are each massive enough to individually collapse into a black hole. If the binary isnt disrupted during the two collapse events, this forms an isolated black-hole binary.Single black holes form in dense cluster environments and then because they are the most massive objects sink to the center of the cluster. There they form pairs through dynamical interactions.Now that were able to observe black-hole binaries through gravitational-wave detections, one way we could distinguish between the two formation mechanisms is from spin measurements. If we discover a clear preference for the misalignment of the two black holes spins, this would favor formation in clusters, where theres no reason for the original spins to be aligned.The current, single detection is not enough to provide constraints, but if we can compile a large enough sample of events, we can start to present a statistical case favoring one channel over the other.What does GW150914 mean for the future of gravitational-wave detection?The fact that Advanced LIGO detected an event even before the start of its first official observing run is certainly promising! The LIGO team estimates that the volume the detectors can probe will still increase by at least a factor of ~10 as the observing runs become more sensitive and of longer duration.Aerial view of the Virgo interferometer near Pisa, Italy. [Virgo Collaboration]In addition, LIGO is not alone in the gravitational-wave game. LIGOs counterpart in Europe, Virgo, is also undergoing design upgrades to increase its sensitivity. Within this year, Virgo should be able to take data simultaneously with LIGO, allowing for better localization of sources. And the launch of (e)LISA, ESAs planned space-based interferometer, will grant us access to a new frequency range, opening a further window to the gravitational-wave sky.The detection of GW150914 marks

  14. Discovering Your Radiant Self: A Transpersonal Approach to Expressing Your Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimek, Paula; Canfield, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Presents a process combining a drawing experience with exercises learned in psychosynthesis training to help people discover what transpersonal qualities are attempting to manifest themselves through their personalities. (Author/BEF)

  15. Webinar Presentation: Using Metabolomics with Neonatal Blood Spots to Discover Causes of Childhood Leukemia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Using Metabolomics with Neonatal Blood Spots to Discover Causes of Childhood Leukemia, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome held on May 11, 2016.

  16. Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. Discovering Sustainable Solutions to Power and Secure America’s Future

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy’s research mission and operations as reflected in the Department’s Strategic Plan. Our overarching mission is to discover the solutions to power and secure America’s future.

  17. Discover Earth: Earth's Energy Budget or Can You Spare a Sun?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Tom; Peters, Dale E.; Steeley, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction, and provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

  18. The journey of discovering skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt and the special influence of Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Elhadi, Ali M; Kalb, Samuel; Perez-Orribo, Luis; Little, Andrew S; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2012-08-01

    The field of anatomy, one of the most ancient sciences, first evolved in Egypt. From the Early Dynastic Period (3100 BC) until the time of Galen at the end of the 2nd century ad, Egypt was the center of anatomical knowledge, including neuroanatomy. Knowledge of neuroanatomy first became important so that sacred rituals could be performed by ancient Egyptian embalmers during mummification procedures. Later, neuroanatomy became a science to be studied by wise men at the ancient temple of Memphis. As religious conflicts developed, the study of the human body became restricted. Myths started to replace scientific research, squelching further exploration of the human body until Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria. This period witnessed a revolution in the study of anatomy and functional anatomy. Herophilus of Chalcedon, Erasistratus of Chios, Rufus of Ephesus, and Galen of Pergamon were prominent physicians who studied at the medical school of Alexandria and contributed greatly to knowledge about the anatomy of the skull base. After the Royal Library of Alexandria was burned and laws were passed prohibiting human dissections based on religious and cultural factors, knowledge of human skull base anatomy plateaued for almost 1500 years. In this article the authors consider the beginning of this journey, from the earliest descriptions of skull base anatomy to the establishment of basic skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt.

  19. Discovering astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

  20. Discovering Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

  1. Discover CHP

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Access information about how CHP systems work; their efficiency, environmental, economic, and reliability benefits; the cost and performance characteristics of CHP technologies; and how to calculate CHP efficiency emissions savings.

  2. Discovering Greatness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    People are confronting the most pressing challenge facing every family, school, and community--raising respectful children in a toxic world. In simpler societies, raising children was a shared task of the whole community, as adults and youth worked in harmony and mutual respect. Today, humans are the only species in creation living out of balance.…

  3. 25 CFR 224.87 - What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach? 224.87 Section 224.87 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach? As soon as practicable after discovering...

  4. Discovering Habitable Earths, Hot Jupiters, and Other Close Planets with Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.

    2012-06-01

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, RE . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of "repeating" lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  5. DISCOVERING HABITABLE EARTHS, HOT JUPITERS, AND OTHER CLOSE PLANETS WITH MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R.

    2012-06-20

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, R{sub E} . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of 'repeating' lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  6. Extragalactic Transients Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Warren-Son Holoien, Thomas; ASAS-SN

    2016-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes can scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. The primary goal of ASAS-SN is to discover bright, nearby supernovae (SNe), we are discovering more than 60% of supernovae with V<17. Since June 2013, we have discovered 224 supernovae, 133 in 2015 alone (as of September 30, 2015). ASAS-SN has also discovered many other interesting extragalactic transients, including the three closest tidal disruption events (TDEs) ever discovered at optical wavelengths. The nearby nature of ASASSN discoveries allows detailed follow-up across a wide wavelength coverage; here we present some of these data on recent ASAS-SN extragalactic transients.

  7. DISCOVER Near Real-Time Ocean Data Products: Examples of Uses and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.; Gentemann, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    Scientists at Remote Sensing Systems produce satellite microwave ocean data products for DISCOVER, a NASA MEaSUREs project. These ocean products include ocean surface winds, sea surface temperatures, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water and rain rates created from passive microwave instrument data including that from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, SSMIS and WindSat. Many users download DISCOVER data products in near real-time and use them within their specific applications. For example, some of the applications include ocean weather assessment for military sortie determination, sea surface temperature front identification for use by fishermen, and whale and turtle habitat monitoring. We will present the processing steps used to create the near real-time DISCOVER data, show several examples of user applications and discuss the benefits and limitations users find in applying our data products to their needs.

  8. A strategy to discover new organizers identifies a putative heart organizer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Claire; Khan, Mohsin A. F.; Wong, Frances; Solovieva, Tatiana; Oliveira, Nidia M. M.; Baldock, Richard A.; Tickle, Cheryll; Burt, Dave W.; Stern, Claudio D.

    2016-01-01

    Organizers are regions of the embryo that can both induce new fates and impart pattern on other regions. So far, surprisingly few organizers have been discovered, considering the number of patterned tissue types generated during development. This may be because their discovery has relied on transplantation and ablation experiments. Here we describe a new approach, using chick embryos, to discover organizers based on a common gene expression signature, and use it to uncover the anterior intestinal portal (AIP) endoderm as a putative heart organizer. We show that the AIP can induce cardiac identity from non-cardiac mesoderm and that it can pattern this by specifying ventricular and suppressing atrial regional identity. We also uncover some of the signals responsible. The method holds promise as a tool to discover other novel organizers acting during development. PMID:27557800

  9. Anomalous right coronary artery from pulmonary artery discovered incidentally in an asymptomatic young infant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Seon; Jo, Eun Young; Yu, Jae Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    Isolated anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary anomaly that is asymptomatic and discovered incidentally in most cases. ARCAPA is generally not considered a fatal defect in infancy or childhood, although cases of sudden death have been reported. Here, we report a 2-month-old female infant who presented with a prolonged fever that was determined to be caused by rhinovirus infection. Myocardial ischemia of the left ventricular posterior wall was already seen on echocardiography, and ARCAPA was discovered incidentally. The patient underwent successful surgical reimplantation of the right coronary artery to the aortic root to re-establish dual ostial circulation. PMID:28018453

  10. IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DISCover: First results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) is co-ordinating the development of global land data sets from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first is a 1 km spatial resolution land cover product `DISCover', based on monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composites from 1992 and 1993. DISCover is a 17 class land cover dataset based on the science requirements of IGBP elements. Mapping uses unsupervised classification with post-classification refinement using ancillary data. Draft Africa, North America and South America products are now available for peer review.

  11. Examining Pre-K Professional Development Programs: Discovering the Road to Exceptional Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sheila D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to discover and interpret the experiences of pre-k teachers in an urban school district located in a Northeastern region of the United States. Using a basic qualitative research design, fifteen participants were recruited by a purposeful sampling method to be interviewed after the implementation…

  12. Separation Anxiety: An in-Class Game Designed to Help Students Discover Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samide, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An in-class activity has been developed to assist students in discovering chromatographic separations. Designed on the basis of plate theory, the game has students use instructor-provided partition coefficients to establish equilibrium for two different items between a stationary and mobile phase. As students work through equilibration and mobile…

  13. Protocols for Teaching Students How to Search for, Discover, and Evaluate Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, William I., Jr.; Hale, Dena H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors introduce and develop protocols to guide aspiring entrepreneurs' behaviors in searching for and discovering innovative ideas that may have commercial potential. Systematic search has emerged as a theory-based, prescriptive framework to guide innovative behavior. Grounded in Fiet's theory of search and discovery, this article provides…

  14. Evaluation of the Discover Drug Education Curriculum for Grades K-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ronald D.; Butler, Joan M.

    A major purpose of this study was to establish and test a procedure for evaluating drug education curricula that allows for a more objective view of the effectiveness of drug education materials and the instructional delivery system. A major focus of the study was to determine the extent to which the Discover Curriculum affected student outcomes.…

  15. Preliminary study of microtektites first discovered in the central Pacific by China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanchang, P.; Shong, Y.; Xi, M.; Shijie, S.

    1984-01-01

    Electron probe analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of microtektites discovered in the Central Pacific. An X-ray energy spectrum analysis was made, and the surface microstructure was investigated. The found microtektites appear to be younger than the microtektites reported in the Asia Australia Strewn Field.

  16. Using Appreciative Inquiry to Discover and Deliver Change for Surgical Technology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabai, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine efficacious teaching-learning strategies that community college stakeholders employ that enhance surgical technology student outcomes. Knowles's adult learning theory, constructivist theory, and appreciative inquiry served as the theoretical foundation for this study. Discovering effective aspects and…

  17. A new magnetic white dwarf discovered during the Large Bright Quasar Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, C.B.; Latter, W.B.; Hewett, P.C.; Weymann, R.J.; Morris, S.L.; Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Cambridge Univ.; Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA )

    1989-08-01

    A previously unknown magnetic white dwarf has been discovered as part of the Large, Bright Quasar Survey (Foltz et al., 1988). The absorption features are identified with transitions of hydrogen and are analyzed in the context of high-field Zeeman models to derive a polar dipole field strength of 24 x 10 to the 6th G at the stellar surface. 11 refs.

  18. Discovering frequently recurring movement sequences in team-sport athlete spatiotemporal data.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Alice J; Aughey, Robert J; Cormack, Stuart J; Morgan, Stuart

    2017-02-09

    Athlete external load is typically analysed from predetermined movement thresholds. The combination of movement sequences and differences in these movements between playing positions is also currently unknown. This study developed a method to discover the frequently recurring movement sequences across playing position during matches. The external load of 12 international female netball athletes was collected by a local positioning system during four national-level matches. Velocity, acceleration and angular velocity were calculated from positional (X, Y) data, clustered via one-dimensional k-means and assigned a unique alphabetic label. Combinations of velocity, acceleration and angular velocity movement were compared using the Levenshtein distance and similarities computed by the longest common substring problem. The contribution of each movement sequence, according to playing position and relative to the wider data set, was then calculated via the Minkowski distance. A total of 10 frequently recurring combinations of movement were discovered, regardless of playing position. Only the wing attack, goal attack and goal defence playing positions are closely related. We developed a technique to discover the movement sequences, according to playing position, performed by elite netballers. This methodology can be extended to discover the frequently recurring movements within other team sports and across levels of competition.

  19. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  20. The international geosphere biosphere programme data and information system global land cover data set (DIScover)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS), through the mapping expertise of the U.S. Geological Survey and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, recently guided the completion of a 1-km resolution global land cover data set from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. The 1-km resolution land cover product, 'DISCover,' was based on monthly normalized difference vegetation index composites from 1992 and 1993. The development of DISCover was coordinated by the IGBP-DIS Land Cover Working Group as part of the IGBP-DIS Focus 1 activity. DISCover is a 17-class land cover data set based on the scientific requirements of IGBP elements. The mapping used unsupervised classification and postclassification refinement using ancillary data. The development of this data set was motivated by the need for global land cover data with higher spatial resolution, improved temporal specificity, and known classification accuracy. The completed DISCover data set will soon be validated to determine the accuracy of the global classification.

  1. First records of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from West Virginia discovered in museum voucher specimens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Cincotta, Daniel A.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from South Fork Hughes River (Little Kanawha River drainage, WV) were discovered in two museum lots at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. These accessions, collected in 1960 and 1966, represent an addition to the state fauna and are the first distribution records for this species from the Appalachian Plateau, WV

  2. A Novel Method for Discovering Fuzzy Sequential Patterns Using the Simple Fuzzy Partition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ruey-Shun; Hu, Yi-Chung

    2003-01-01

    Discusses sequential patterns, data mining, knowledge acquisition, and fuzzy sequential patterns described by natural language. Proposes a fuzzy data mining technique to discover fuzzy sequential patterns by using the simple partition method which allows the linguistic interpretation of each fuzzy set to be easily obtained. (Author/LRW)

  3. How Many Colors in Your Computer? Discovering the Rules for Making Colors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Describes a student activity that focuses on color and the production of images on computer monitors. Students discover the rules for making colors through the use of a magnifying glass and a computer monitor. Includes some tips for integrating the activity into the curriculum. (DDR)

  4. "Discovering the Cell": An Educational Game about Cell and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Carolina N.; Alves, Gutemberg G.; Cardona, Tania da S.; Melim, Leandra M. C.; Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; Araujo-Jorge, Tania C.; Henriques-Pons, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The role of games within education becomes clearer as students become more active and are able to take decisions, solve problems and react to the results of those decisions. The educational board game "Discovering the Cell" ("Celula Adentro"), is based on problem-solving learning. This investigative game attempts to stimulate…

  5. Exploring National Parks & Monuments: Students Can Discover National Monuments, National Parks & Natural Wonders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Cynthia Light Brown, author of "Discover National Monuments, National Parks: Natural Wonders," a book that introduces readers ages 8-12 to the history and science behind some of the amazing natural sites in the United States. In this interview, Cynthia Light Brown describes how she became interested in…

  6. Readership Assessment of Missouri's "Discover&Enlighten": Implications for Publications and Teaching Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood-Turley, Sharon; Tucker, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Results of study to measure the effectiveness of Discover&Enlighten, a newsletter of the University of Missouri's College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, indicate that respondents (n=150) desire a mix of stories, have a positive perception of the newsletter, and consider it to be truthful. (Contains 17 references.) (JOW)

  7. Discovering, Supporting, and Promoting Young Children's Passions and Interests: One Teacher's Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes the journey of one kindergarten teacher as she discovered, supported, and promoted the passions and interests of an at-risk kindergarten student, and shared in his joys of learning. Details an inquiry project about snakes, initiated by the student's knowledge about snakes, involving field trips, class discussion, learning centers, and…

  8. PS17and : a nearby, intrinsically faint transient discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Kilpatrick, C.

    2017-02-01

    We report the discovery of the following nearby transient as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Chambers et al. arXiv:1612.05560, Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  9. Discovering the Thermodynamics of Simultaneous Equilibria: An Entropy Analysis Activity Involving Consecutive Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    An activity is presented in which the thermodynamics of simultaneous, consecutive equilibria are explored. The activity is appropriate for second-year high school or AP chemistry. Students discover that a reactant-favored (entropy-diminishing or endergonic) reaction can be caused to happen if it is coupled with a product-favored reaction of…

  10. Discovering Socialization Priorities in Turkish Society Based on What the Value of Success Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discover socialization priorities based on what the value of success means in Turkish society. For this purpose, two related scales have been developed to identify the beliefs of adults in Turkish society towards defining the value of success and the areas in which adults perceive themselves as successful based on…

  11. "Discover Diversities": A Trans-Inter-Disciplinary (SEMEP) Project for Different School Levels and Teachers' Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilo, Miranda; Gavio, Brigitte; Scaldarella, Elda; Di Carlo, Caterina; Martorano, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    "Discover Diversities" is a wide thematic developed within the SEMEP (South-Eastern Mediterranean Environmental Project) project, supported by UNESCO (United Nation Education, Science and Culture Organization). SEMEP is essentially a project for science education, focusing on Mediterranean environment. As the Mediterranean has been the…

  12. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  13. Discovering the Art of Mathematics: Using String Art to Investigate Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Renesse, Christine; Ecke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    One goal of our Discovering the Art of Mathematics project is to empower students in the liberal arts to become confident creators of art and imaginative creators of mathematics. In this paper, we describe our experience with using string art to guide liberal arts students in exploring ideas of calculus. We provide excerpts from our inquiry-based…

  14. DISCOVER-AQ SJV Surface Measurements and Initial Comparisons with Photochemical Model Simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    NASA’s DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaign studied the air quality throughout California’s San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during January and February of 2013. The SJV is a...

  15. Final Technical Report: Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Saurabh W. Jha

    2012-10-03

    The final technical report from the project "Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae" led at Rutgers the State University of New Jersey by Prof. Saurabh W. Jha is presented, including all publications resulting from this award.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: newly discovered planets from WASP-South (Turner+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, O. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Cameron, A. Collier; Delrez, L.; Evans, D. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-02-01

    Lightcurves and radial velocity data of three newly discovered planets from the WASP-South survey. Discovery data come from the WASP-South telescope (SAAO, South Africa) with follow-up lightcurves from the TRAPPIST telescope and EulerCam on the Swiss telescope (La Silla, Chile). Radial velocity data are from the CORALIE spectrograph on the Swiss telescope. (6 data files).

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Picobirnavirus, Otarine Picobirnavirus, Discovered in California Sea Lions

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ru; Teng, Jade L. L.; Lee, Paul; Martelli, Paolo; Hui, Suk-Wai; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    We discovered a novel otarine picobirnavirus in fecal samples of California sea lions. Its genome contains a large segment with two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 encoding a putative protein of 163 amino acids with unknown function and ORF2 encoding capsid protein, and a small segment with one ORF encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PMID:22570247

  18. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings,…

  19. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  20. Who Can Be a Hero?: Helen Keller, Annie Sullivan, and Discovering Strength of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Kathleen Dunlevy; Bernheim, Rachel Oestreicher

    2005-01-01

    "A Study of Heroes: Making a Difference Using Your Heart, Intellect, and Talents" is a program originally developed in diverse school communities. Students learn to distinguish between the concepts of hero and celebrity and to discover the real heroes in their own families, schools, communities, and most importantly--within themselves. This…

  1. A comparison of the IGBP DISCover and University of Maryland 1 km global land cover products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, M.C.; Reed, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two global 1 km land cover data sets derived from 1992-1993 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data are currently available, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) DISCover and the University of Maryland (UMd) 1 km land cover maps. This paper makes a preliminary comparison of the methodologies and results of the two products. The DISCover methodology employed an unsupervised clustering classification scheme on a per-continent basis using 12 monthly maximum NDVI composites as inputs. The UMd approach employed a supervised classification tree method in which temporal metrics derived from all AVHRR bands and the NDVI were used to predict class membership across the entire globe. The DISCover map uses the IGBP classification scheme, while the UMd map employs a modified IGBP scheme minus the classes of permanent wetlands, cropland/natural vegetation mosaic and ice and snow. Global area totals of aggregated vegetation types are very similar and have a per-pixel agreement of 74%. For tall versus short/no vegetation, the per-pixel agreement is 84%. For broad vegetation types, core areas map similarly, while transition zones around core areas differ significantly. This results in high regional variability between the maps. Individual class agreement between the two 1 km maps is 49%. Comparison of the maps at a nominal 0.5 resolution with two global ground-based maps shows an improvement of thematic concurrency of 46% when viewing average class agreement. The absence of the cropland mosaic class creates a difficulty in comparing the maps, due to its significant extent in the DISCover map. The DISCover map, in general, has more forest, while the UMd map has considerably more area in the intermediate tree cover classes of woody savanna/ woodland and savanna/wooded grassland.

  2. [Improvement of hygiene and the combat of epidemics as Russian state concerns during World War I: Prince Alexander von Oldenburg and the POWs of the Central Powers in Russia].

    PubMed

    Nachtigal, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    When Russia joined the war against the Central Powers in 1914, she immediately faced problems of public health care among the masses of people who were forced to move across far distances in the country: soldiers, refugees, and prisoners of war. Because of poor organisation and the unexpectedly long duration of the war, the POWs fared worst of all war victims in Russia. Subjected to an overstrained military organisation in the rear, the fate of this broadly neglected group illustrates how and with what success Russia strove to meet its deficiencies in administrative structure during wartime. The "Evacuation and Sanitation Section" was put under the command of a member of the Imperial family, Prince Alexander of Oldenburg, a high ranking official of German origin. This amateur scientist and initiator of medical institutions was an energetic and courageous personality who became vital for the fate of millions of POWs in epidemic-stricken Russia. The role of this "silent" ally of the German and Austro-Hungarian governments has hitherto been unknown. Newly found sources in Russian archives now shed an interesting light on a weak spot of Russia's administration and a generally neglected chapter of the history of medicine, the handling of epidemics and of deficits in hygiene.

  3. A Trip to the Cataclysmic Binary Zoo: Detailed Follow-up of 35 Recently Discovered Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, John R.; Alper, Erek H.; Weil, Kathryn E.

    2016-12-01

    We report follow-up studies of 35 recently discovered cataclysmic variables (CVs), 32 of which were found in large, automated synoptic sky surveys. The objects were selected for observational tractability. For 34 of the objects, we present mean spectra and spectroscopic orbital periods, and for one more we give an eclipse-based period. Thirty-two of the period determinations are new, and three of these refine published estimates based on superhump periods. The remaining three of our determinations confirm previously published periods. Twenty of the stars are confirmed or suspected dwarf novae with periods shorter than 3 hr, but we also find three apparent polars (AM Her stars) and six systems with P\\gt 5 {hr}. Five of these systems have secondary stars visible in their spectra, from which we estimate distances when possible. The orbital period distribution of this sample is very similar to that of previously discovered CVs.

  4. Fitting a mixture model by expectation maximization to discover motifs in biopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T.L.; Elkan, C.

    1994-12-31

    The algorithm described in this paper discovers one or more motifs in a collection of DNA or protein sequences by using the technique of expectation maximization to fit a two-component finite mixture model to the set of sequences. Multiple motifs are found by fitting a mixture model to the data, probabilistically erasing the occurrences of the motif thus found, and repeating the process to find successive motifs. The algorithm requires only a set of unaligned sequences and a number specifying the width of the motifs as input. It returns a model of each motif and a threshold which together can be used as a Bayes-optimal classifier for searching for occurrences of the motif in other databases. The algorithm estimates how many times each motif occurs in each sequence in the dataset and outputs an alignment of the occurrences of the motif. The algorithm is capable of discovering several different motifs with differing numbers of occurrences in a single dataset.

  5. Albert Szent-Györgyi (1893-1986): the scientist who discovered vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Pietrzak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Albert Szent-Györgyi, a Hungarian biochemist, discovered vitamin C and rutin (vitamin P). The role of these vitamins in the body and their application to dermatology is vast. For the discovery of vitamin C and the description of oxidation, Albert Szent-Györgyi received a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1937. He discovered the role of adenosine triphosphate, actin-myosin, and many phases of the Krebs cycle, and also initiated studies on the influence of free radicals in the formation of tumors. Between 1918 and 1946, he worked in many European research centers and between 1947 and 1986, in the United States. His achievements were made possible due to his perseverance, which allowed him to overcome many maelstroms that plagued his scientific career.

  6. Discovering New Minerals at Micron to Nanoscales: A SEM-EBSD-EPMA Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.

    2014-12-01

    With high-resolution analytical field emission scanning electron microscope and electron probe microanalyzer, we are now capable to characterize Earth and planetary materials easier and faster down to nanoscales. Nanofeatures (such as inclusions, exsolution, zonation, coatings, pores) in minerals and rocks are being discovered. Nanominerals and nanoparticles are being revealed. New minerals and new materials are being identified. During our ongoing nanomineralogy investigation since 2006, more than twenty five new minerals have been discovered at micron to nanoscales. Fifteen of them are from the Allende meteorite, including new refractory minerals like allendeite, hexamolybdenum, tistarite, panguite and kangite, which are among the first solids formed in our solar system. Each of the new extraterrestrial minerals reveals distinctive forming environments, providing insights into nebula or parent-body processes. Presented here are a few nanomineralogy projects demonstrating how to find and characterize new minerals with an integrated SEM-EBSD-EPMA approach.

  7. An early sophisticated East Polynesian voyaging canoe discovered on New Zealand's coast

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Dilys A.; Irwin, Geoffrey J.; Sung, Yun K.

    2014-01-01

    The colonization of the islands of East Polynesia was a remarkable episode in the history of human migration and seafaring. We report on an ocean-sailing canoe dating from close to that time. A large section of a complex composite canoe was discovered recently at Anaweka on the New Zealand coast. The canoe dates to approximately A.D. 1400 and was contemporary with continuing interisland voyaging. It was built in New Zealand as an early adaptation to a new environment, and a sea turtle carved on its hull makes symbolic connections with wider Polynesian culture and art. We describe the find and identify and radiocarbon date the construction materials. We present a reconstruction of the whole canoe and compare it to another early canoe previously discovered in the Society Islands. PMID:25267657

  8. An early sophisticated East Polynesian voyaging canoe discovered on New Zealand's coast.

    PubMed

    Johns, Dilys A; Irwin, Geoffrey J; Sung, Yun K

    2014-10-14

    The colonization of the islands of East Polynesia was a remarkable episode in the history of human migration and seafaring. We report on an ocean-sailing canoe dating from close to that time. A large section of a complex composite canoe was discovered recently at Anaweka on the New Zealand coast. The canoe dates to approximately A.D. 1400 and was contemporary with continuing interisland voyaging. It was built in New Zealand as an early adaptation to a new environment, and a sea turtle carved on its hull makes symbolic connections with wider Polynesian culture and art. We describe the find and identify and radiocarbon date the construction materials. We present a reconstruction of the whole canoe and compare it to another early canoe previously discovered in the Society Islands.

  9. HATS-1b: THE FIRST TRANSITING PLANET DISCOVERED BY THE HATSouth SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Penev, K.; Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J. D.; Csubry, Z.; Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Conroy, P.; Jordan, A.; Suc, V.; Rabus, M.; Brahm, R.; Espinoza, N.; Mohler, M.; Mancini, L.; Henning, T.; Nikolov, N.; Csak, B.; Beky, B.; Noyes, R. W.; Buchhave, L.; and others

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of HATS-1b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V = 12.05 G dwarf star GSC 6652-00186, and the first planet discovered by HATSouth, a global network of autonomous wide-field telescopes. HATS-1b has a period of P Almost-Equal-To 3.4465 days, mass of M{sub p} Almost-Equal-To 1.86 M{sub J}, and radius of R{sub p} Almost-Equal-To 1.30 R{sub J}. The host star has a mass of 0.99 M{sub Sun} and radius of 1.04 R{sub Sun }. The discovery light curve of HATS-1b has near-continuous coverage over several multi-day timespans, demonstrating the power of using a global network of telescopes to discover transiting planets.

  10. The Discovered Exoplanets Have The Same Orbital Elements As Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-05-01

    The Discovered Exoplanets Have the Same Orbital Elements as Stellar Systems Helmut A. Abt Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726; abt@noao.edu There are two ways in which planetary masses are formed. One is in debris disks like that that produced the solar system. The other is as separate condensations in stars clusters. We now know that the luminosity function extends from stars through brown dwarfs to planetary masses. In the case of separate condensations, many planetary masses will be captured to become companions of stars. The exoplanet eccentricities are the same as those of stellar companions, and are six times larger than those of solar system planets. The exoplanet semi-major axes are like those of stellar companions and are six times smaller than solar system planets. We conclude that most of the exoplanets discovered to date were produced as separate condensations like stars and not in disks.

  11. MASTER: bright OT discovered during Fermi trigger 512353690/GRB170328A inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbovskoy, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Gress, O.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kornilov, V.; Vladimirov, V.

    2017-03-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 18h 45m 46.55s -35d 28m 47.6s on 2017-03-28.06645 UT during Fermi trigger 512353690(GRB170328A) inspection https://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/other/512353690.fermi (trigger time is 17/03/28 00:28:05.53UT).

  12. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental-to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  13. Discover Earth: an earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public's understanding of Earth's physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. STAR-Net includes two exhibitions: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. The Discover Earth exhibition will focus on local earth science topics-such as weather, water cycle, and ecosystem changes-as well as a global view of our changing planet. The main take-away message (or Big Idea) for this exhibition is that the global environment changes - and is changed by - the host community's local environment. The project team is testing whether this approach will be a good strategy for engaging the public, especially in rural America. This presentation will provide an overview of the Discover Earth project and how it is integrating climate change ideas into the exhibit

  14. Decision-Support Infosphere Services for Collaborative Operations and Virtual Environment Requirements (DISCOVER)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    fuselets produce lead to increased process and decision-making effeciency ? If you agree that the information JBI and fuselets produce leads to...TBMCS’s information effectiveness] Does the information JBI and fuselets produce lead to increased process and decision-making effeciency ? What...percent would you rate TBMCS’s process and decision- making effeciency ? What percent would you rate DISCOVER’s process and decision-making

  15. Discovering Multimodal Behavior in Ms. Pac-Man through Evolution of Modular Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Schrum, Jacob; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Ms. Pac-Man is a challenging video game in which multiple modes of behavior are required: Ms. Pac-Man must escape ghosts when they are threats and catch them when they are edible, in addition to eating all pills in each level. Past approaches to learning behavior in Ms. Pac-Man have treated the game as a single task to be learned using monolithic policy representations. In contrast, this paper uses a framework called Modular Multi-objective NEAT (MM-NEAT) to evolve modular neural networks. Each module defines a separate behavior. The modules are used at different times according to a policy that can be human-designed (i.e. Multitask) or discovered automatically by evolution. The appropriate number of modules can be fixed or discovered using a genetic operator called Module Mutation. Several versions of Module Mutation are evaluated in this paper. Both fixed modular networks and Module Mutation networks outperform monolithic networks and Multitask networks. Interestingly, the best networks dedicate modules to critical behaviors (such as escaping when surrounded after luring ghosts near a power pill) that do not follow the customary division of the game into chasing edible and escaping threat ghosts. The results demonstrate that MM-NEAT can discover interesting and effective behavior for agents in challenging games. PMID:27030803

  16. Transients Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Warren-Son Holoien, Thomas; ASAS-SN Team

    2017-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes are able to scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the night sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. The primary goal of ASAS-SN is to discover bright, nearby supernovae (SNe); we currently discover more than 50% of SNe with V<17. Since June 2013 our SNe discovery rate has averaged one every three days, resulting in approximately 400 discoveries in total. ASAS-SN has also discovered many other interesting transients, including tidal disruption events, superluminous SNe, and Galactic novae. The nearby nature of ASASSN discoveries allows detailed follow-up across a wide wavelength coverage; here we present some of these data on recent ASAS-SN transients.

  17. SPIRITS15c: An Unusual Transient Discovered in the Mid-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jencson, Jacob; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; SPIRITS Team

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic infrared (IR) sky is only now beginning to be explored. SPIRITS, the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey, is a systematic search of 194 nearby galaxies (< 20 Mpc), on timescales ranging from one week to few years, for mid-IR transients in the Spitzer/IRAC bands at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The SPIRITS team is discovering over 40 transients and 1200 strong variables annually, some of which lie in the luminosity gap between novae and supernovae. Here, we highlight an especially interesting transient discovered by SPIRITS in IC 2163 in February 2015. SPIRITS15c is one of our most luminous and reddest transients discovered thus far. Its spectrum shows a broad ~ 8000 km s-1 He I emission line, but almost no other strong spectral features. We explore a number of possible physical phenomena to explain this event including a massive stellar merger, an electron-capture supernova, and even a more exotic scenario similar to the unusual, He-rich, nova-like outburst of V445 Puppis in 2000.

  18. Challenges and opportunities for remote sensing of air quality: Insights from DISCOVER-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Clark, R. D.; Cohen, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fried, A.; Holben, B. N.; Herman, J. R.; Hoff, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Janz, S. J.; Szykman, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Yang, M. M.; Chen, G.; Kleb, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Improving the remote sensing of air quality has been the primary focus of a series of four field studies conducted by a project called DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality). Operating as an integrated observing system, DISCOVER-AQ has employed multiple aircraft and ground instrumentation to conduct multi-perspective observations of the distribution of gaseous and particulate pollution in the lower atmosphere over contrasting regions of the U.S. that are currently in violation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The four study areas include Maryland (Baltimore-Washington corridor), California (southern San Joaquin Valley), Texas (Greater Houston area), and Colorado (Denver/Northern Front Range). The DISCOVER-AQ observations are actively being used to promote improvements in remote sensing in the following ways: Characterizing vertical structure in the atmosphere and its diurnal patterns to develop improved a priori information for satellite retrievals; Examining horizontal variability to assess the spatial scales needed to resolve emissions and photochemistry; Determining correlative relationships between remotely sensed and in situ observations; Assessing the value of ground-based remote sensing to provide information on impact of boundary layer dynamics and mixing on air pollution. Examples of the ongoing analysis of these datasets and their relevance to future geostationary satellite observations as well as augmentation of air quality monitoring networks with ground-based remote sensing will be discussed.

  19. Ongoing analysis of DISCOVER-AQ observations and their implications for remote sensing of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J. H.; Pickering, K. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Chen, G.; Clark, R. D.; Cohen, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Ferrare, R. A.; Fried, A.; Herman, J. R.; Hoff, R. M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Janz, S. J.; Kleb, M. M.; Szykman, J.; Thompson, A. M.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wisthaler, A.; Yang, M. M.; Holben, B. N.

    2015-12-01

    Improving the remote sensing of air quality has been the primary focus of a series of four field studies conducted by a project called DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to AirQuality). Operating as an integrated observing system, DISCOVER-AQ has employed multiple aircraft and ground instrumentation to conduct multi-perspective observations of the distribution of gaseous and particulate pollution in the lower atmosphere over contrasting regions of the U.S. that are currently in violation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The four study areas include Maryland (Baltimore-Washington corridor), California (southern San Joaquin Valley), Texas (Greater Houston area), and Colorado (Denver/Northern Front Range). The DISCOVER-AQ observations are actively being used to promote improvements in remote sensing in the following ways: Characterizing vertical structure in the atmosphere and its diurnal patterns to develop improved a priori information for satellite retrievals; Examining horizontal variability to assess the spatial scales needed to resolve emissions and photochemistry; Determining correlative relationships between remotely sensed and in situ observations; Assessing the value of ground-based remote sensing to provide information on impact of boundary layer dynamics and mixing on air pollution. Current progress on analysis of these datasets and their relevance to future geostationary satellite observations as well as augmentation of air quality monitoring networks with ground-based remote sensing will be discussed.

  20. Discovering Multimodal Behavior in Ms. Pac-Man through Evolution of Modular Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Schrum, Jacob; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2016-03-12

    Ms. Pac-Man is a challenging video game in which multiple modes of behavior are required: Ms. Pac-Man must escape ghosts when they are threats and catch them when they are edible, in addition to eating all pills in each level. Past approaches to learning behavior in Ms. Pac-Man have treated the game as a single task to be learned using monolithic policy representations. In contrast, this paper uses a framework called Modular Multi-objective NEAT (MM-NEAT) to evolve modular neural networks. Each module defines a separate behavior. The modules are used at different times according to a policy that can be human-designed (i.e. Multitask) or discovered automatically by evolution. The appropriate number of modules can be fixed or discovered using a genetic operator called Module Mutation. Several versions of Module Mutation are evaluated in this paper. Both fixed modular networks and Module Mutation networks outperform monolithic networks and Multitask networks. Interestingly, the best networks dedicate modules to critical behaviors (such as escaping when surrounded after luring ghosts near a power pill) that do not follow the customary division of the game into chasing edible and escaping threat ghosts. The results demonstrate that MM-NEAT can discover interesting and effective behavior for agents in challenging games.

  1. Extragalactic Transients Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren-Son Holoien, Thomas; ASAS-SN Team

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes in the northern and southern hemispheres, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. The primary goal of ASAS-SN is a complete survey of bright, nearby supernovae (SNe), and since April 2013 ASAS-SN has discovered over 40 new Type-Ia SNe and over 15 new core collapse SNe, including roughly half of all the SNe currently visible with V<17 mag. ASAS-SN also discovers many other interesting extragalactic transients, the most exciting of which was the recent tidal disruption event (TDE) ASASSN-14ae at ~200 Mpc, the closest TDE ever discovered at optical wavelengths. The brightness of these nearby events allows detailed follow-up at many wavelengths. Here we present some of these data on recent ASAS-SN extragalactic transients.

  2. 25 CFR 224.87 - What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... violation or breach? 224.87 Section 224.87 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... DETERMINATION ACT Implementation of Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Violation Or Breach § 224.87 What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach? As soon as practicable after discovering...

  3. A Virtual Screen Discovers Novel, Fragment-Sized Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA

    PubMed Central

    Perryman, Alexander L.; Yu, Weixuan; Wang, Xin; Ekins, Sean; Forli, Stefano; Li, Shao-Gang; Freundlich, Joel S.; Tonge, Peter J.; Olson, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is usually administered to treat latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections, and is used in combination therapy to treat active tuberculosis disease (TB). Unfortunately, resistance to this drug is hampering its clinical effectiveness. INH is a prodrug that must be activated by Mtb catalase peroxidase (KatG) before it can inhibit InhA (Mtb enoyl-acyl-carrier-protein reductase). Isoniazid-resistant cases of TB found in clinical settings usually involve mutations in or deletion of katG, which abrogate INH activation. Compounds that inhibit InhA without requiring prior activation by KatG would not be affected by this resistance mechanism and hence would display continued potency against these drug-resistant isolates of Mtb. Virtual screening experiments versus InhA in the GO Fight Against Malaria project (GO FAM) were designed to discover new scaffolds that display base stacking interactions with the NAD cofactor. GO FAM experiments included targets from other pathogens, including Mtb, when they had structural similarity to a malaria target. Eight of the sixteen soluble compounds identified by docking against InhA plus visual inspection were modest inhibitors and did not require prior activation by KatG. The best two inhibitors discovered are both fragment-sized compounds and displayed Ki values of 54 and 59 μM, respectively. Importantly, the novel inhibitors discovered have low structural similarity to known InhA inhibitors and, thus, help expand the number of chemotypes on which future medicinal chemistry efforts can be focused. These new fragment hits could eventually help advance the fight against INH-resistant Mtb strains, which pose a significant global health threat. PMID:25636146

  4. Discovering functional modules by topic modeling RNA-Seq based toxicogenomic data.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke; Gong, Binsheng; Lee, Mikyung; Liu, Zhichao; Xu, Joshua; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida

    2014-09-15

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) endeavors to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms through exploring gene expression profiles in response to toxic substances. Recently, RNA-Seq is increasingly regarded as a more powerful alternative to microarrays in TGx studies. However, realizing RNA-Seq's full potential requires novel approaches to extracting information from the complex TGx data. Considering read counts as the number of times a word occurs in a document, gene expression profiles from RNA-Seq are analogous to a word by document matrix used in text mining. Topic modeling aiming at to discover the latent structures in text corpora would be helpful to explore RNA-Seq based TGx data. In this study, topic modeling was applied on a typical RNA-Seq based TGx data set to discover hidden functional modules. The RNA-Seq based gene expression profiles were transformed into "documents", on which latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) was used to build a topic model. We found samples treated by the compounds with the same modes of actions (MoAs) could be clustered based on topic similarities. The topic most relevant to each cluster was identified as a "marker" topic, which was interpreted by gene enrichment analysis with MoAs then confirmed by compound and pathways associations mined from literature. To further validate the "marker" topics, we tested topic transferability from RNA-Seq to microarrays. The RNA-Seq based gene expression profile of a topic specifically associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway was used to query samples with similar expression profiles in two different microarray data sets, yielding accuracy of about 85%. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the applicability of topic modeling to discover functional modules in RNA-Seq data and suggests a valuable computational tool for leveraging information within TGx data in RNA-Seq era.

  5. Genome-wide scan of healthy human connectome discovers SPON1 gene variant influencing dementia severity.

    PubMed

    Jahanshad, Neda; Rajagopalan, Priya; Hua, Xue; Hibar, Derrek P; Nir, Talia M; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Saykin, Andrew J; Green, Robert C; Weiner, Michael W; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Hansell, Narelle K; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-03-19

    Aberrant connectivity is implicated in many neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. However, other than a few disease-associated candidate genes, we know little about the degree to which genetics play a role in the brain networks; we know even less about specific genes that influence brain connections. Twin and family-based studies can generate estimates of overall genetic influences on a trait, but genome-wide association scans (GWASs) can screen the genome for specific variants influencing the brain or risk for disease. To identify the heritability of various brain connections, we scanned healthy young adult twins with high-field, high-angular resolution diffusion MRI. We adapted GWASs to screen the brain's connectivity pattern, allowing us to discover genetic variants that affect the human brain's wiring. The association of connectivity with the SPON1 variant at rs2618516 on chromosome 11 (11p15.2) reached connectome-wide, genome-wide significance after stringent statistical corrections were enforced, and it was replicated in an independent subsample. rs2618516 was shown to affect brain structure in an elderly population with varying degrees of dementia. Older people who carried the connectivity variant had significantly milder clinical dementia scores and lower risk of Alzheimer's disease. As a posthoc analysis, we conducted GWASs on several organizational and topological network measures derived from the matrices to discover variants in and around genes associated with autism (MACROD2), development (NEDD4), and mental retardation (UBE2A) significantly associated with connectivity. Connectome-wide, genome-wide screening offers substantial promise to discover genes affecting brain connectivity and risk for brain diseases.

  6. Mutations, associated with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease, discovered in Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    Bagyinszky, Eva; Youn, Young Chul; An, Seong Soo A; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of senile dementia, is a genetically complex disorder. In most Asian countries, the population and the number of AD patients are growing rapidly, and the genetics of AD has been extensively studied, except in Japan. However, recent studies have been started to investigate the genes and mutations associated with AD in Korea, the People’s Republic of China, and Malaysia. This review describes all of the known mutations in three early-onset AD (EOAD) causative genes (APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2) that were discovered in Asian countries. Most of the EOAD-associated mutations have been detected in PSEN1, and several novel PSEN1 mutations were recently identified in patients from various parts of the world, including Asia. Until 2014, no PSEN2 mutations were found in Asian patients; however, emerging studies from Korea and the People’s Republic of China discovered probably pathogenic PSEN2 mutations. Since several novel mutations were discovered in these three genes, we also discuss the predictions on their pathogenic nature. This review briefly summarizes genome-wide association studies of late-onset AD and the genes that might be associated with AD in Asian countries. Standard sequencing is a widely used method, but it has limitations in terms of time, cost, and efficacy. Next-generation sequencing strategies could facilitate genetic analysis and association studies. Genetic testing is important for the accurate diagnosis and for understanding disease-associated pathways and might also improve disease therapy and prevention. PMID:27799753

  7. Heavy-light decay topologies as a new strategy to discover a heavy gluon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Cesare; Contino, Roberto; Vignaroli, Natascia

    2012-01-01

    We study the collider phenomenology of the lightest Kaluza-Klein excitation of the gluon, G*, in theories with a warped extra dimension. We do so by means of a two-site effective lagrangian which includes only the lowest-lying spin-1 and spin-1/2 resonances. We point out the importance of the decays of G* to one SM plus one heavy fermion, that were overlooked in the previous literature. It turns out that, when kinematically allowed, such heavy-light decays are powerful channels for discovering the G*. In particular, we present a parton-level Montecarlo analysis of the final state W tb that follows from the decay of G* to one SM top or bottom quark plus its heavy partner. We find that at sqrt {s} = 7{text{TeV}} and with 10fb-1 of integrated luminosity, the LHC can discover a KK gluon with mass in the range M G* = (1 .8 - 2 .2) TeV if its coupling to a pair of light quarks is {g_{{G*qoverline q }}} = left( {0.2 - 0.5} right){g_3} . The same process is also competitive for the discovery of the top and bottom partners as well. We find, for example, that the LHC at sqrt {s} = {7}{text{TeV}} can discover a 1 TeV KK bottom quark with an integrated luminosity of (5 .3 - 0 .61) fb-1 for {g_{{G*qoverline q }}} = left( {0.2 - 0.5} right){g_3}.

  8. Genome-wide scan of healthy human connectome discovers SPON1 gene variant influencing dementia severity

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshad, Neda; Rajagopalan, Priya; Hua, Xue; Hibar, Derrek P.; Nir, Talia M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Green, Robert C.; Weiner, Michael W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Hansell, Narelle K.; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowski, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Liu, Enchi; Green, Robert C.; Montine, Tom; Petersen, Ronald; Aisen, Paul; Gamst, Anthony; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Beckett, Laurel; Harvey, Danielle; Gamst, Anthony; Donohue, Michael; Kornak, John; Jack, Clifford R.; Dale, Anders; Bernstein, Matthew; Felmlee, Joel; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene; DeCarli, Charles; Jagust, William; Bandy, Dan; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Morris, John; Cairns, Nigel J.; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Trojanowki, J.Q.; Shaw, Les; Lee, Virginia M.Y.; Korecka, Magdalena; Toga, Arthur W.; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Saykin, Andrew J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Khachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J.; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Petersen, Ronald; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Morris, John C.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; Romirowsky, Aliza; deToledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; Kielb, Stephanie; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Coleman, R. Edward; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Parfitt, Francine; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Hake, Ann Marie; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Lipowski, Kristina; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Raymond Scott; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Yesavage, Jerome; Taylor, Joy L.; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan; Belden, Christine; Jacobson, Sandra; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Johnson, Patricia Lynn; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Wolday, Saba; Bwayo, Salome K.; Lerner, Alan; Hudson, Leon; Ogrocki, Paula; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; DeCarli, Charles; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T.-Y.; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Fleisher, Adam; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Saykin, Andrew J.; Santulli, Robert B.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Longmire, Crystal Flynn; Spicer, Kenneth; Finger, Elizabeth; Rachinsky, Irina; Rogers, John; Kertesz, Andrew; Drost, Dick

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant connectivity is implicated in many neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and schizophrenia. However, other than a few disease-associated candidate genes, we know little about the degree to which genetics play a role in the brain networks; we know even less about specific genes that influence brain connections. Twin and family-based studies can generate estimates of overall genetic influences on a trait, but genome-wide association scans (GWASs) can screen the genome for specific variants influencing the brain or risk for disease. To identify the heritability of various brain connections, we scanned healthy young adult twins with high-field, high-angular resolution diffusion MRI. We adapted GWASs to screen the brain’s connectivity pattern, allowing us to discover genetic variants that affect the human brain’s wiring. The association of connectivity with the SPON1 variant at rs2618516 on chromosome 11 (11p15.2) reached connectome-wide, genome-wide significance after stringent statistical corrections were enforced, and it was replicated in an independent subsample. rs2618516 was shown to affect brain structure in an elderly population with varying degrees of dementia. Older people who carried the connectivity variant had significantly milder clinical dementia scores and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease. As a posthoc analysis, we conducted GWASs on several organizational and topological network measures derived from the matrices to discover variants in and around genes associated with autism (MACROD2), development (NEDD4), and mental retardation (UBE2A) significantly associated with connectivity. Connectome-wide, genome-wide screening offers substantial promise to discover genes affecting brain connectivity and risk for brain diseases. PMID:23471985

  9. Why are membrane targets discovered by phenotypic screens and genome sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Goldman, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    High through put screening (HTS) was extensively used in attempts to discover new TB drugs from libraries of pure small molecule compounds many of which complied with the rule of five. Coupled with new methods for determining the target of lead compounds by resistance selection followed by genome sequencing, screening for growth inhibitors led to several recent reports of compounds linked to specific antitubercular targets. This systematic approach to drug discovery appears at present to select for small, hydrophobic molecules affecting the function of essential membrane proteins, for example DprE, MmpL3, AtpE, QcrB, and Pks13. All of these molecules possessed bactericidal activity in vitro. Mutations in GlpK were also selected with hydrophobic compounds identified by screening for growth inhibitors. The chemical properties of the compounds reported are considered in the context of uptake and possible mechanisms of inhibition of membrane bound targets based on other model systems (e.g. cardiovascular drugs affecting voltage-gated L-type calcium channels, daptomycin, telavancin, gramicidin S, and role of boundary lipids). The relationship between hydrophobicity, compound uptake, and mode of action are addressed. Compared to the average calculated logP for approved TB drugs of -1.0, the average for these hydrophobic compounds is 4.0 representing a major shift in hydrophobicity of 5 orders of magnitude. Furthermore several hydrophobic compounds in the Prestwick Chemical Library (FDA approved drugs) inhibit growth of M. tuberculosis at 10 μg/ml or less and have an average calculated logP of 5.7 signaling caution with respect to specificity. Key recommendations are made regarding follow-up of the hydrophobic leads recently discovered using phenotypic screening and target elucidation by genome sequencing. Consideration is also given to the properties of small molecule screening libraries, the types of molecules and targets recently discovered as antitubercular leads

  10. New variable stars discovered in the fields of three Galactic open clusters using the VVV survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, T.; Minniti, D.; Dékány, I.; Clariá, J. J.; Alonso-García, J.; Gramajo, L. V.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Bonatto, C.

    2016-11-01

    This project is a massive near-infrared (NIR) search for variable stars in highly reddened and obscured open cluster (OC) fields projected on regions of the Galactic bulge and disk. The search is performed using photometric NIR data in the J-, H- and Ks- bands obtained from the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey. We performed in each cluster field a variability search using Stetson's variability statistics to select the variable candidates. Later, those candidates were subjected to a frequency analysis using the Generalized Lomb-Scargle and the Phase Dispersion Minimization algorithms. The number of independent observations range between 63 and 73. The newly discovered variables in this study, 157 in total in three different known OCs, are classified based on their light curve shapes, periods, amplitudes and their location in the corresponding color-magnitude (J -Ks ,Ks) and color-color (H -Ks , J - H) diagrams. We found 5 possible Cepheid stars which, based on the period-luminosity relation, are very likely type II Cepheids located behind the bulge. Among the newly discovered variables, there are eclipsing binaries, δ Scuti, as well as background RR Lyrae stars. Using the new version of the Wilson & Devinney code as well as the "Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries" (PHOEBE) code, we analyzed some of the best eclipsing binaries we discovered. Our results show that these studied systems turn out to be ranging from detached to double-contact binaries, with low eccentricities and high inclinations of approximately 80°. Their surface temperatures range between 3500 K and 8000 K.

  11. Fine-scale WRF-CMAQ Modeling for the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ Campaign in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, R. C.; Pleim, J. E.; Appel, W.

    2014-12-01

    Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) is an ongoing four year NASA campaign to improve remote sensing in order to better resolve the distribution of pollutants in the lower atmosphere for public health reasons. These observational campaigns are a prime opportunity to evaluate and improve weather and air quality models, in particular the finer scales, since the collected observations are not only unique (boundary layer profiles, planetary boundary layer height and LIDAR), but of high spatial density. For the first campaign in the Washington DC-Baltimore region, a number of meteorological model improvements were crucial for quality results at the finer grid scales. The main techniques tested in the DISCOVER-AQ Washington DC-Baltimore experiment were iterative indirect soil nudging, a simple urban parameterization based on highly resolved impervious surface data, and the use of a high resolution 1 km sea surface temperature dataset. A fourth technique, first tested in a separate cold season application in the US Rocky Mountains, was the assimilation of high resolution 1 km SNOw Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) data for better snow cover representation in retrospective modeling. These methods will be leveraged using a nested 12-4-2 km WRF-CMAQ modeling platform for the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ California campaign where the 2 km domain covers the entire San Joaquin Valley (SJV), coastal areas and all of Los Angeles. The purpose is to demonstrate methods to derive high quality meteorology for retrospective air quality modeling over geographically complex areas of the Western US where current coarser resolution modeling may not be sufficient. Accurate air quality modeling is particularly important for California, which has some of the most polluted areas in the US, within the SJV. Furthermore, this work may inform modeling in other areas of the Intermountain West that are experiencing air

  12. An Overview of Ozone and Precursor Temporal and Spatial Variability in DISCOVER-AQ Study Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, K. E.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Loughner, C.; Flynn, C.; Crawford, J. H.; Clark, R. D.; Fried, A.; Herman, J. R.; Janz, S. J.; Lamsal, L. N.; Silverman, M. L.; Stein Zweers, D. C.; Szykman, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the major goals of the NASA Earth Venture - 1 DISCOVER-AQ project is to better quantify the spatial and temporal variability of pollutant gases in the lower troposphere, as this information is required for the design of new atmospheric chemistry satellite instruments. This objective has been addressed through a series of four field experiments (Baltimore-Washington, San Joaquin Valley, Houston, and Denver). DISCOVER-AQ observations that lend themselves to this analysis include in-situ measurements of trace gases by the NASA P-3B aircraft (spiral profiles and constant altitude flight legs), trace gas columns from the surface-based network of Pandora UV/Vis spectrometers, trace gas columns from the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) on board the NASA King Air, and in-situ tethered balloon observations. We make use of the P-3B observations to assess spatial variability and evaluate regional model simulations through the use of structure functions, which yield the mean difference in column abundance or mixing ratio between observation points at specified distances apart over a designated length of time. Agreement between the observations and model output indicates that the model can be used to derive more comprehensive variability analyses than are possible with the aircraft data. Subsequently, the structure function approach can be used to compute the mean difference over various time intervals to yield temporal variability estimates. The continuous Pandora data also allow for comprehensive temporal variability estimates for the tropospheric column, as does the frequent tethered balloon profiling at fixed sites for the lower portion of the boundary layer. Additionally, the fine-resolution pixels of the ACAM data allow further detailed spatial analysis. A second DISCOVER-AQ objective is to assess the relationship between column observations and surface air quality. We examine the temporal variability of these measurements over the daytime hours, and the

  13. Advanced high-performance liquid chromatography method development. Discovering unexpected choices in chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rieger, H J; Molnar, I

    2002-03-01

    The influence of some important experimental parameters on the resolution of compounds as well as the validity of widely used rules of thumb and of common expectations about how to improve resolution is discussed. It will be shown, on the basis of selected examples, that the general expectations about how the experimental parameters have to be adjusted for better resolution does not cover all chances for resolution improvement. The tool for understanding the method and to discover all chances for increasing selectivity is the resolution map of a method.

  14. Observations of candidate oscillating eclipsing binaries and two newly discovered pulsating variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakos, A.; Niarchos, P.

    2009-03-01

    CCD observations of 24 eclipsing binary systems with spectral types ranging between A0-F0, candidate for containing pulsating components, were obtained. Appropriate exposure times in one or more photometric filters were used so that short-periodic pulsations could be detected. Their light curves were analyzed using the Period04 software in order to search for pulsational behaviour. Two new variable stars, namely GSC 2673-1583 and GSC 3641-0359, were discov- ered as by-product during the observations of eclipsing variables. The Fourier analysis of the observations of each star, the dominant pulsation frequencies and the derived frequency spectra are also presented.

  15. Swarm intelligence in bioinformatics: methods and implementations for discovering patterns of multiple sequences.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhihua; Zhang, Yi

    2014-02-01

    As a promising and innovative research field, bioinformatics has attracted increasing attention recently. Beneath the enormous number of open problems in this field, one fundamental issue is about the accurate and efficient computational methodology that can deal with tremendous amounts of data. In this paper, we survey some applications of swarm intelligence to discover patterns of multiple sequences. To provide a deep insight, ant colony optimization, particle swarm optimization, artificial bee colony and artificial fish swarm algorithm are selected, and their applications to multiple sequence alignment and motif detecting problem are discussed.

  16. The newly discovered eclipsing cataclysmic star 2MASS J16211735 + 4412541 and its peculiarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana P.; Popov, Velimir A.; Vasileva, Doroteya L.; Petrov, Nikola I.

    2017-04-01

    We present our observations of the newly discovered, eclipsing cataclysmic star 2MASS J16211735 + 4412541 carried out two weeks after its outburst at the beginning of June 2016. Its main peculiarity is the big increasing of eclipse depth during outburst. We qualitatively modelled the folded light curves at quiescence and outburst in order to explain the reason for increase of the primary luminosity about two hundred times. The light curve fits revealed that such an effect can be reproduced by a flat disc whose radius and temperature are several times bigger than those of the primary at quiescence.

  17. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  18. Using machine learning to predict gene expression and discover sequence motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuejing

    Recently, large amounts of experimental data for complex biological systems have become available. We use tools and algorithms from machine learning to build data-driven predictive models. We first present a novel algorithm to discover gene sequence motifs associated with temporal expression patterns of genes. Our algorithm, which is based on partial least squares (PLS) regression, is able to directly model the flow of information, from gene sequence to gene expression, to learn cis regulatory motifs and characterize associated gene expression patterns. Our algorithm outperforms traditional computational methods e.g. clustering in motif discovery. We then present a study of extending a machine learning model for transcriptional regulation predictive of genetic regulatory response to Caenorhabditis elegans. We show meaningful results both in terms of prediction accuracy on the test experiments and biological information extracted from the regulatory program. The model discovers DNA binding sites ab initio. We also present a case study where we detect a signal of lineage-specific regulation. Finally we present a comparative study on learning predictive models for motif discovery, based on different boosting algorithms: Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost), Linear Programming Boosting (LPBoost) and Totally Corrective Boosting (TotalBoost). We evaluate and compare the performance of the three boosting algorithms via both statistical and biological validation, for hypoxia response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  19. Discovered triethylamine as impurity in synthetic DNAs for and by electrochemiluminescence techniques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanhong; Liu, Yaqing; Zhu, Jinbo; Wang, Erkang

    2013-11-15

    The purity of the synthetic oligonucleotides is very important because it is crucial for the accuracy of the established biological assays. Herein, it was discovered that one impurity in synthetic DNAs might affect the experiment results of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection techniques, which was never reported before. According to a series of experiments using ECL detection methods combined with capillary electrophoresis (CE) (CE-ECL), the impurity was identified as triethylamine (TEA), which came from incomplete removal after HPLC purification of synthetic DNAs. Moreover, CE-ECL technique was for the first time to be proposed for discovering, identifying and sensitive determining the possible impurity such as TEA in various DNA samples, which was usually neglected by other detection techniques for purification quality control of synthetic oligonucleotides. A detection range from 5.00×10(-10) to 2.00×10(-5) M with a detection limit as low as 50 nM (S/N=3) was reached for TEA. Through further designed ECL methods and data analysis, situations which would be really affected by the impurity of TEA were studied. To avoid or eliminate the impact of the TEA impurity on ECL applications, judgment basis for choosing purification ways was discussed according to individual requirements.

  20. Real-time aerosol data assimilation experiments during the 2014 FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ field mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) and Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field missions were conducted over the Front Range of Colorado during July and August, 2014. Prior to, and during this period, much of the continental US were impacted by smoke from Canadian and Pacific Northwest wildfires, including the Front Range. This study assesses the impact of real-time assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals from the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites within the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) through comparisons of aerosol predictions with observations for two parallel forecasts that were conducted during FRAPPE/DISCOVER-AQ, one with and one without MODIS AOD assimilation. Results of these real-time assimilation experiments demonstrate that assimilation of MODIS AOD improves the prediction of large-scale smoke events such as those that occurred during July and August, 2014. These assimilation experiments help to guide the development of future operational aerosol forecasting systems within the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) Global Forecasting System (GFS) Aerosol Component (NGAC) under development at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).

  1. Discovering a First-Order Phase Transition in the Li-CeO2 System.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaikai; Zhou, Xiaoye; Nie, Anmin; Sun, Sheng; He, Yan-Bing; Ren, Wei; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Kim, Jang-Kyo; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2017-02-08

    An in-depth understanding of (de)lithiation induced phase transition in electrode materials is crucial to grasp their structure-property relationships and provide guidance to the design of more desirable electrodes. By operando synchrotron XRD (SXRD) measurement and Density Functional Theory (DFT) based calculations, we discover a reversible first-order phase transition for the first time during (de)lithiation of CeO2 nanoparticles. The LixCeO2 compound phase is identified to possess the same fluorite crystal structure with FM3M space group as that of the pristine CeO2 nanoparticles. The SXRD determined lattice constant of the LixCeO2 compound phase is 0.551 nm, larger than that of 0.541 nm of the pristine CeO2 phase. The DFT calculations further reveal that the Li induced redistribution of electrons causes the increase in the Ce-O covalent bonding, the shuffling of Ce and O atoms, and the jump expansion of lattice constant, thereby resulting in the first-order phase transition. Discovering the new phase transition throws light upon the reaction between lithium and CeO2, and provides opportunities to the further investigation of properties and potential applications of LixCeO2.

  2. Computer optimization of a minimal biped model discovers walking and running.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Manoj; Ruina, Andy

    2006-01-05

    Although people's legs are capable of a broad range of muscle-use and gait patterns, they generally prefer just two. They walk, swinging their body over a relatively straight leg with each step, or run, bouncing up off a bent leg between aerial phases. Walking feels easiest when going slowly, and running feels easiest when going faster. More unusual gaits seem more tiring. Perhaps this is because walking and running use the least energy. Addressing this classic conjecture with experiments requires comparing walking and running with many other strange and unpractised gaits. As an alternative, a basic understanding of gait choice might be obtained by calculating energy cost by using mechanics-based models. Here we use a minimal model that can describe walking and running as well as an infinite variety of other gaits. We use computer optimization to find which gaits are indeed energetically optimal for this model. At low speeds the optimization discovers the classic inverted-pendulum walk, at high speeds it discovers a bouncing run, even without springs, and at intermediate speeds it finds a new pendular-running gait that includes walking and running as extreme cases.

  3. Bioturbo similarity searching: combining chemical and biological similarity to discover structurally diverse bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lounkine, Eugen; Glick, Meir

    2013-03-25

    Virtual screening using bioactivity profiles has become an integral part of currently applied hit finding methods in pharmaceutical industry. However, a significant drawback of this approach is that it is only applicable to compounds that have been biologically tested in the past and have sufficient activity annotations for meaningful profile comparisons. Although bioactivity data generated in pharmaceutical institutions are growing on an unprecedented scale, the number of biologically annotated compounds still covers only a minuscule fraction of chemical space. For a newly synthesized compound or an isolated natural product to be biologically characterized across multiple assays, it may take a considerable amount of time. Consequently, this chemical matter will not be included in virtual screening campaigns based on bioactivity profiles. To overcome this problem, we herein introduce bioturbo similarity searching that uses chemical similarity to map molecules without biological annotations into bioactivity space and then searches for biologically similar compounds in this reference system. In benchmark calculations on primary screening data, we demonstrate that our approach generally achieves higher hit rates and identifies structurally more diverse compounds than approaches using chemical information only. Furthermore, our method is able to discover hits with novel modes of inhibition that traditional 2D and 3D similarity approaches are unlikely to discover. Test calculations on a set of natural products reveal the practical utility of the approach for identifying novel and synthetically more accessible chemical matter.

  4. Comparison of IGBP DISCover land cover dataset with a land cover dataset in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Zhuang, Dafang

    2004-09-01

    Land cover information is important for the study of physical, chemical, biological and anthropological process on the surface of earth. Remote sensing data has been used to produce the land cover map by visual interpretation or automatic classification method in the past years. IGBP DISCover land cover dataset is a global land cover dataset based on remote sensing method in recent years. Firstly, we present a method to compare different land cover dataset based on invariant reliable land unit. Secondly, we compare IGBP Discover land cover dataset with Chinese land cover dataset. Finally, we analyze the possible reasons impacting the differences among the land cover classifications. The comparison results show that most of the land surface in China was identified as different types in those two datasets. For example, 63.7% of the deciduous needleleaf forest units in CLCD are mapped to the mixed forest by IDLCD. The different classification scheme and method used in these datasets are most likely the reasons to explain the differences between them.

  5. Experimental study on the physical mechanism of coupling oscillation: a newly discovered oscillation in Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Da-ren; Wei, Li-qiu; Ding, Yong-jie; Han, Ke; Yan, Guo-jun; Qi, Feng-yan

    2007-11-01

    In order to study the physical mechanism of an oscillation newly discovered by the Harbin Institute of Technology Plasma Propulsion Lab (HPPL) in the range of hundreds of kHz to several MHz, Hall thrusters with different magnetic coils are studied by changing one of the following three parameters: discharge voltage, anode flow and coil current, directly measuring the coil current and measuring plasma oscillations related to coil current oscillation with the Langmuir probe. Experimental results indicated that in the discharge process of a Hall thruster the broadband turbulence of the Hall current causes an unstable spatial magnetic field and this field causes the magnetic circuit to resonate as an equivalent high level resistance-inductance-capacitance (RLC) network. As the response of the network, the oscillation of the coil current has a large oscillating component at the natural frequencies of the network. Also, the oscillation of coil current has an effect on the discharge process at the same time, so that they reach a self-consistent equilibrium state. As a result of such a coupling, both coil current and the discharge current exhibit their oscillating component at the natural frequencies of the magnetic circuit. It is therefore concluded that the newly discovered oscillation is caused by the coupling between the magnetic circuit and the discharge circuit.

  6. Discovering Free Energy Basins for Macromolecular Systems via Guided Multiscale Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Singharoy, Abhishek B.; Jarrold, Martin F.; Ortoleva, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    An approach for the automated discovery of low free energy states of macromolecular systems is presented. The method does not involve delineating the entire free energy landscape but proceeds in a sequential free energy minimizing state discovery, i.e., it first discovers one low free energy state and then automatically seeks a distinct neighboring one. These states and the associated ensembles of atomistic configurations are characterized by coarse-grained variables capturing the large-scale structure of the system. A key facet of our approach is the identification of such coarse-grained variables. Evolution of these variables is governed by Langevin dynamics driven by thermal-average forces and mediated by diffusivities, both of which are constructed by an ensemble of short molecular dynamics runs. In the present approach, the thermal-average forces are modified to account for the entropy changes following from our knowledge of the free energy basins already discovered. Such forces guide the system away from the known free energy minima, over free energy barriers, and to a new one. The theory is demonstrated for lactoferrin, known to have multiple energy-minimizing structures. The approach is validated using experimental structures and traditional molecular dynamics. The method can be generalized to enable the interpretation of nanocharacterization data (e.g., ion mobility – mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical labeling, and nanopore measurements). PMID:22423635

  7. Discovering Recurrent Copy Number Aberrations in Complex Patterns via Non-Negative Sparse Singular Value Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Xi, Jianing; Li, Ao

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent copy number aberrations (RCNAs) in multiple cancer samples are strongly associated with tumorigenesis, and RCNA discovery is helpful to cancer research and treatment. Despite the emergence of numerous RCNA discovering methods, most of them are unable to detect RCNAs in complex patterns that are influenced by complicating factors including aberration in partial samples, co-existing of gains and losses and normal-like tumor samples. Here, we propose a novel computational method, called non-negative sparse singular value decomposition (NN-SSVD), to address the RCNA discovering problem in complex patterns. In NN-SSVD, the measurement of RCNA is based on the aberration frequency in a part of samples rather than all samples, which can circumvent the complexity of different RCNA patterns. We evaluate NN-SSVD on synthetic dataset by comparison on detection scores and Receiver Operating Characteristics curves, and the results show that NN-SSVD outperforms existing methods in RCNA discovery and demonstrate more robustness to RCNA complicating factors. Applying our approach on a breast cancer dataset, we successfully identify a number of genomic regions that are strongly correlated with previous studies, which harbor a bunch of known breast cancer associated genes.

  8. Conserved biosynthetic pathways for phosalacine, bialaphos and newly discovered phosphonic acid natural products

    PubMed Central

    Blodgett, Joshua A. V; Zhang, Jun Kai; Yu, Xiaomin; Metcalf, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products containing phosphonic or phosphinic acid functionalities often display potent biological activities with applications in medicine and agriculture. The herbicide phosphinothricin-tripeptide (PTT) was the first phosphinate natural product discovered, yet despite numerous studies, questions remain surrounding key transformations required for its biosynthesis. In particular, the enzymology required to convert phosphonoformate to carboxyphosphonoenolpyruvate and the mechanisms underlying phosphorus-methylation remain poorly understood. In addition, the model for NRPS assembly of the intact tripeptide product has undergone numerous revisions that have yet to be experimentally tested. To further investigate the biosynthesis of this unusual natural product, we completely sequenced the PTT biosynthetic locus from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and compared it to the orthologous cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. We also sequenced and analysed the closely related phosalacine (PAL) biosynthetic locus from Kitasatospora phosalacinea. Using data drawn from the comparative analysis of the PTT and PAL pathways, we also evaluate three related recently discovered phosphonate biosynthetic loci from Streptomyces sviceus, Streptomyces sp. WM6386 and Frankia alni. Our observations address long-standing biosynthetic questions related to PTT and PAL production and suggest that additional members of this pharmacologically important class await discovery. PMID:26328935

  9. Conserved biosynthetic pathways for phosalacine, bialaphos and newly discovered phosphonic acid natural products.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Joshua A V; Zhang, Jun Kai; Yu, Xiaomin; Metcalf, William W

    2016-01-01

    Natural products containing phosphonic or phosphinic acid functionalities often display potent biological activities with applications in medicine and agriculture. The herbicide phosphinothricin-tripeptide (PTT) was the first phosphinate natural product discovered, yet despite numerous studies, questions remain surrounding key transformations required for its biosynthesis. In particular, the enzymology required to convert phosphonoformate to carboxyphosphonoenolpyruvate and the mechanisms underlying phosphorus methylation remain poorly understood. In addition, the model for non-ribosomal peptide synthetase assembly of the intact tripeptide product has undergone numerous revisions that have yet to be experimentally tested. To further investigate the biosynthesis of this unusual natural product, we completely sequenced the PTT biosynthetic locus from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and compared it with the orthologous cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. We also sequenced and analyzed the closely related phosalacine (PAL) biosynthetic locus from Kitasatospora phosalacinea. Using data drawn from the comparative analysis of the PTT and PAL pathways, we also evaluate three related recently discovered phosphonate biosynthetic loci from Streptomyces sviceus, Streptomyces sp. WM6386 and Frankia alni. Our observations address long-standing biosynthetic questions related to PTT and PAL production and suggest that additional members of this pharmacologically important class await discovery.

  10. Discovering governing equations from data by sparse identification of nonlinear dynamical systems

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, Steven L.; Proctor, Joshua L.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Extracting governing equations from data is a central challenge in many diverse areas of science and engineering. Data are abundant whereas models often remain elusive, as in climate science, neuroscience, ecology, finance, and epidemiology, to name only a few examples. In this work, we combine sparsity-promoting techniques and machine learning with nonlinear dynamical systems to discover governing equations from noisy measurement data. The only assumption about the structure of the model is that there are only a few important terms that govern the dynamics, so that the equations are sparse in the space of possible functions; this assumption holds for many physical systems in an appropriate basis. In particular, we use sparse regression to determine the fewest terms in the dynamic governing equations required to accurately represent the data. This results in parsimonious models that balance accuracy with model complexity to avoid overfitting. We demonstrate the algorithm on a wide range of problems, from simple canonical systems, including linear and nonlinear oscillators and the chaotic Lorenz system, to the fluid vortex shedding behind an obstacle. The fluid example illustrates the ability of this method to discover the underlying dynamics of a system that took experts in the community nearly 30 years to resolve. We also show that this method generalizes to parameterized systems and systems that are time-varying or have external forcing. PMID:27035946

  11. Observational data and orbits of the asteroids discovered at the Baldone Observatory in 2008--2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černis, K.; Wlodarczyk, I.; Eglitis, I.

    The paper presents statistics of the asteroids observed and discovered at the Baldone Observatory, Latvia, in 2008--2013 within the project for astrometric observations of the near-Earth objects (NEOs), the main belt asteroids and comets. CCD observations of the asteroids were obtained with the 0.80/1.20 m, f/3 Schmidt telescope and a ST-10XME 15 × 10 mm CCD camera. In the Minor Planet Circulars and the Minor Planet Electronic Circulars (2008--2013) we published 3511 astrometric positions of 826 asteroids. Among them, 43 asteroids were newly discovered at Baldone. For 36 of these asteroids the precise orbits are calculated. Because of short observational arc and small number of observations, a few asteroids have low-precision orbits and their tracks have been lost. For seven objects with poorly known orbits we present their ephemerides for 2015--2016. The orbits and the evolution of orbital elements of two asteroids, (428694) 2008 OS9 from the Apollo group and the Centaur (330836) Orius (2009 HW77), are recalculated including new observations obtained after 2011.

  12. Host specificity and the probability of discovering species of helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Poulin, R; Mouillot, D

    2005-06-01

    Different animal species have different probabilities of being discovered and described by scientists, and these probabilities are determined to a large extent by the biological characteristics of these species. For instance, species with broader geographical ranges are more likely to be encountered by collectors than species with restricted distributions; indeed, the size of the geographical range is often the best predictor of a species' date of description. For parasitic organisms, host specificity may be similarly linked to the probability of a species being found. Here, using data on 170 helminth species parasitic in freshwater fishes, we show that host specificity is associated with the year in which the helminths were described. Helminths that exploit more host species, and to a lesser degree those that exploit a broader taxonomic range of host species, tend to be discovered earlier than the more host-specific helminths. This pattern was observed across all helminth species, as well as within the different helminth taxa (trematodes, cestodes, nematodes and acanthocephalans). Our results demonstrate that the parasite species known at any given point in time are not a random subset of existing species, but rather a biased subset with respect to the parasites' biological properties.

  13. Phenomena Discovered During Immersion of Steel Parts into Liquid Quenchants (Overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobasko, Nikolai I.

    2014-12-01

    In the paper, new phenomena are discussed which were discovered during investigation of the intensive quenching processes. It is shown that in many cases film boiling is prevented completely during quenching of steel parts in cold liquids, especially in water salt solutions. In this case, the part surface temperature drops almost immediately to the liquid boiling point at the beginning of the quench and then maintains at this level for a relatively long time, i.e., the so-called self-regulated thermal process is established. A simple equation for determining the duration of the self-regulated thermal process is proposed. Thermal waves are generated during an immersion of steel parts into a cold liquid and after the self-regulated thermal process is completed. The thermal waves move in opposite direction from where the cooling process starts. The self-regulated thermal process was used to develop an original intensive quenching technology (IQ-2 process). It can be a basis for developing other new technologies such as an austempering and a martempering in cold liquids under pressure. Discovered effects of thermal waves can be used for determining a duration of the self-regulated thermal process and for reconstructing an existing theory on the double electrical layer. Practical examples of calculations of the duration of the self-regulated thermal process are provided in the paper.

  14. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human.

  15. Discovering free energy basins for macromolecular systems via guided multiscale simulation.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Yuriy V; Singharoy, Abhishek B; Jarrold, Martin F; Ortoleva, Peter J

    2012-07-26

    An approach for the automated discovery of low free energy states of macromolecular systems is presented. The method does not involve delineating the entire free energy landscape but proceeds in a sequential free energy minimizing state discovery; i.e., it first discovers one low free energy state and then automatically seeks a distinct neighboring one. These states and the associated ensembles of atomistic configurations are characterized by coarse-grained variables capturing the large-scale structure of the system. A key facet of our approach is the identification of such coarse-grained variables. Evolution of these variables is governed by Langevin dynamics driven by thermal-average forces and mediated by diffusivities, both of which are constructed by an ensemble of short molecular dynamics runs. In the present approach, the thermal-average forces are modified to account for the entropy changes following from our knowledge of the free energy basins already discovered. Such forces guide the system away from the known free energy minima, over free energy barriers, and to a new one. The theory is demonstrated for lactoferrin, known to have multiple energy-minimizing structures. The approach is validated using experimental structures and traditional molecular dynamics. The method can be generalized to enable the interpretation of nanocharacterization data (e.g., ion mobility-mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical labeling, and nanopore measurements).

  16. A Network Biology Approach to Discover the Molecular Biomarker Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Liwei; Wu, Yun; Han, Jiwu; Ling, Xiaohua; Wang, Liguo; Zhu, Chengyan; Fu, Yili

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput technologies such as microarray platform have provided a new avenue for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) investigation. Traditionally, gene sets enrichment analysis of survival related genes is commonly used to reveal the underlying functional mechanisms. However, this approach usually produces too many candidate genes and cannot discover detailed signaling transduction cascades, which greatly limits their clinical application such as biomarker development. In this study, we have proposed a network biology approach to discover novel biomarkers from multidimensional omics data. This approach effectively combines clinical survival data with topological characteristics of human protein interaction networks and patients expression profiling data. It can produce novel network based biomarkers together with biological understanding of molecular mechanism. We have analyzed eighty HCC expression profiling arrays and identified that extracellular matrix and programmed cell death are the main themes related to HCC progression. Compared with traditional enrichment analysis, this approach can provide concrete and testable hypothesis on functional mechanism. Furthermore, the identified subnetworks can potentially be used as suitable targets for therapeutic intervention in HCC. PMID:24949431

  17. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  18. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1–20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country. PMID:26934699

  19. Discovering hotspots in functional genomic data superposed on 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Capurso, Daniel; Bengtsson, Henrik; Segal, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial organization of the genome influences cellular function, notably gene regulation. Recent studies have assessed the three-dimensional (3D) co-localization of functional annotations (e.g. centromeres, long terminal repeats) using 3D genome reconstructions from Hi-C (genome-wide chromosome conformation capture) data; however, corresponding assessments for continuous functional genomic data (e.g. chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) peak height) are lacking. Here, we demonstrate that applying bump hunting via the patient rule induction method (PRIM) to ChIP-seq data superposed on a Saccharomyces cerevisiae 3D genome reconstruction can discover ‘functional 3D hotspots’, regions in 3-space for which the mean ChIP-seq peak height is significantly elevated. For the transcription factor Swi6, the top hotspot by P-value contains MSB2 and ERG11 – known Swi6 target genes on different chromosomes. We verify this finding in a number of ways. First, this top hotspot is relatively stable under PRIM across parameter settings. Second, this hotspot is among the top hotspots by mean outcome identified by an alternative algorithm, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) regression. Third, the distance between MSB2 and ERG11 is smaller than expected (by resampling) in two other 3D reconstructions generated via different normalization and reconstruction algorithms. This analytic approach can discover functional 3D hotspots and potentially reveal novel regulatory interactions. PMID:26869583

  20. BIRI: a new approach for automatically discovering and indexing available public bioinformatics resources from the literature

    PubMed Central

    de la Calle, Guillermo; García-Remesal, Miguel; Chiesa, Stefano; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Background The rapid evolution of Internet technologies and the collaborative approaches that dominate the field have stimulated the development of numerous bioinformatics resources. To address this new framework, several initiatives have tried to organize these services and resources. In this paper, we present the BioInformatics Resource Inventory (BIRI), a new approach for automatically discovering and indexing available public bioinformatics resources using information extracted from the scientific literature. The index generated can be automatically updated by adding additional manuscripts describing new resources. We have developed web services and applications to test and validate our approach. It has not been designed to replace current indexes but to extend their capabilities with richer functionalities. Results We developed a web service to provide a set of high-level query primitives to access the index. The web service can be used by third-party web services or web-based applications. To test the web service, we created a pilot web application to access a preliminary knowledge base of resources. We tested our tool using an initial set of 400 abstracts. Almost 90% of the resources described in the abstracts were correctly classified. More than 500 descriptions of functionalities were extracted. Conclusion These experiments suggest the feasibility of our approach for automatically discovering and indexing current and future bioinformatics resources. Given the domain-independent characteristics of this tool, it is currently being applied by the authors in other areas, such as medical nanoinformatics. BIRI is available at . PMID:19811635