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Sample records for alexander fleming discovered

  1. Sir Alexander Fleming: Scottish researcher who discovered penicillin.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2004-01-01

    The discovery and development of penicillin changed the entire direction of approaches to treating infectious diseases and saved the lives of millions of people. Indeed, the development of penicillin was a watershed event in the battle against infectious diseases, and the individual who discovered it, Sir Alexander Fleming, remains a prominent individual in the annals of medical history. This article focuses primarily on the personal life of Alexander Fleming, an individual who had a remarkable diversity of interests and who made many contributions to science and medicine.

  2. What if Fleming had not discovered penicillin?

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Wainwright, Milton; Alahmadi, Tahani Awad; Salleeh, Hashim Bin; Faden, Asmaa A; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam

    2014-09-01

    What would have happened had Alexander Fleming not discovered penicillin in 1928? Perhaps the obvious answer is that, someone else would have discovered penicillin during 1930s and the Oxford group, would still have purified it sometime in the early 1940s. Here, however, in this counterfactual account of the penicillin story, it is argued that without Fleming, penicillin might still be undiscovered and the antibiotic age would never have dawned. As a result, many of the recent developments in medicine, such as organ transplantation, might have been delayed or, at best, made more hazardous. Penicillin might have come onto the scene a few years later but, had Fleming overlooked the discovery, it seems certain that penicillin would not have saved countless Allied lives, during and after D-Day. Instead of having enjoyed fifty and more years of the antibiotic age, it is argued here, that we would have had to rely upon highly developed sulphonamides, so-called "supasulfas", and other chemically-derived antibacterial drugs. Indeed, it might be the case that, even well into this new millennium, the antibiotic age has yet to dawn, and medicine is still waiting for someone to chance upon penicillin. Here we discuss what might have happened had Fleming not discovered penicillin and come to the conclusion that the medical armoury available today would have been far different and might have relied solely upon highly developed varieties of sulphonamides or similar, synthetic, non-antibiotic antibacterial agents. PMID:25183937

  3. What if Fleming had not discovered penicillin?

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Wainwright, Milton; Alahmadi, Tahani Awad; Salleeh, Hashim Bin; Faden, Asmaa A.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    What would have happened had Alexander Fleming not discovered penicillin in 1928? Perhaps the obvious answer is that, someone else would have discovered penicillin during 1930s and the Oxford group, would still have purified it sometime in the early 1940s. Here, however, in this counterfactual account of the penicillin story, it is argued that without Fleming, penicillin might still be undiscovered and the antibiotic age would never have dawned. As a result, many of the recent developments in medicine, such as organ transplantation, might have been delayed or, at best, made more hazardous. Penicillin might have come onto the scene a few years later but, had Fleming overlooked the discovery, it seems certain that penicillin would not have saved countless Allied lives, during and after D-Day. Instead of having enjoyed fifty and more years of the antibiotic age, it is argued here, that we would have had to rely upon highly developed sulphonamides, so-called “supasulfas”, and other chemically-derived antibacterial drugs. Indeed, it might be the case that, even well into this new millennium, the antibiotic age has yet to dawn, and medicine is still waiting for someone to chance upon penicillin. Here we discuss what might have happened had Fleming not discovered penicillin and come to the conclusion that the medical armoury available today would have been far different and might have relied solely upon highly developed varieties of sulphonamides or similar, synthetic, non-antibiotic antibacterial agents. PMID:25183937

  4. What if Fleming had not discovered penicillin?

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Wainwright, Milton; Alahmadi, Tahani Awad; Salleeh, Hashim Bin; Faden, Asmaa A; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam

    2014-09-01

    What would have happened had Alexander Fleming not discovered penicillin in 1928? Perhaps the obvious answer is that, someone else would have discovered penicillin during 1930s and the Oxford group, would still have purified it sometime in the early 1940s. Here, however, in this counterfactual account of the penicillin story, it is argued that without Fleming, penicillin might still be undiscovered and the antibiotic age would never have dawned. As a result, many of the recent developments in medicine, such as organ transplantation, might have been delayed or, at best, made more hazardous. Penicillin might have come onto the scene a few years later but, had Fleming overlooked the discovery, it seems certain that penicillin would not have saved countless Allied lives, during and after D-Day. Instead of having enjoyed fifty and more years of the antibiotic age, it is argued here, that we would have had to rely upon highly developed sulphonamides, so-called "supasulfas", and other chemically-derived antibacterial drugs. Indeed, it might be the case that, even well into this new millennium, the antibiotic age has yet to dawn, and medicine is still waiting for someone to chance upon penicillin. Here we discuss what might have happened had Fleming not discovered penicillin and come to the conclusion that the medical armoury available today would have been far different and might have relied solely upon highly developed varieties of sulphonamides or similar, synthetic, non-antibiotic antibacterial agents.

  5. Alexander Fleming, citrated blood and penicillin: paths not pursued and applications delayed.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, P P

    2009-12-01

    Ninety years ago Alexander Fleming (later to discover penicillin) jointly wrote a description of the use of indirect transfusions of citrated blood at a World War 1 (WW1) base hospital. It was the longest series yet to be published, incorporating what was then a novel procedure for treating war casualties. Returning to civilian life Fleming, a qualified surgeon and bacteriologist, chose a different career path, and not until the wars of the late 1930s were the advances in transfusion in WW1 fully incorporated into the management of trauma and haemorrhage. Like penicillin, the benefits of indirect transfusion were only slowly realised.

  6. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming's lucky fungus.

    PubMed

    Henk, D A; Eagle, C E; Brown, K; Van Den Berg, M A; Dyer, P S; Peterson, S W; Fisher, M C

    2011-10-01

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a putatively globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been shown to be genetically diverse, and possess mating-type genes. Here, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses show that this apparently ubiquitous fungus is actually composed of at least two genetically distinct species with only slight differences detected in physiology. We found each species in air and dust samples collected in and around St Mary's Hospital where Fleming worked. Genotyping of 30 markers across the genome showed that preserved fungal material from Fleming's laboratory was nearly identical to derived strains currently in culture collections and in the same distinct species as a wild progenitor strain of current penicillin producing industrial strains rather than the type species P. chrysogenum. Global samples of the two most common species were found to possess mating-type genes in a near 1:1 ratio, and show evidence of recombination with little geographic population subdivision evident. However, no hybridization was detected between the species despite an estimated time of divergence of less than 1MYA. Growth studies showed significant interspecific inhibition by P. chrysogenum of the other common species, suggesting that competition may facilitate species maintenance despite globally overlapping distributions. Results highlight under-recognized diversity even among the best-known fungal groups and the potential for speciation despite overlapping distribution.

  7. Dalgarno receives Fleming Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, Michael B.; Dalgarno, Alexander

    The John Adam Fleming Medal, given for original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, and related sciences, was presented to Alexander Dalgarno at the AGU Spring Meeting Honor Ceremony on May 31 in Baltimore. The award citation and Dalgarno's response are given here.

  8. Dessler receives Fleming Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Thomas W.; Dessler, Alex

    Alexander J. Dessler was presented with the John Adam Fleming Medal at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore last May. The award recognizes original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, and related sciences. The citation was delivered by Thomas W. Hill.

  9. Alexander Fleming: the spectrum of penicillin.

    PubMed

    Sternbach, G; Varon, J

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of penicillin was directly linked to the inhibition by that agent of the growth of colonies of staphylococcus. However, subsequent resistance by this organism to penicillin as well as to a number of other agents has marked the history of staphylococcus in the antibiotic era. One of the most important mechanisms of this resistance has been the production of penicillinase, an enzyme that inactivates penicillin and related antibiotics. Penicillinase is currently termed beta-lactamase, and it is now recognized that there are several types of beta-lactamases produced by various organisms. The ability of staphylococci to produce this enzyme has been countered by the development of penicillinase-resistant agents and the addition of beta-lactamase inhibitors to antibiotics.

  10. Why did the Fleming strain fail in penicillin industry?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; Díez, Bruno; Barredo, José Luis

    2005-05-01

    Penicillin, discovered 75 years ago by Sir Alexander Fleming in Penicillium notatum, laid the foundations of modern antibiotic chemotherapy. Early work was carried out on the original Fleming strain, but it was later replaced by overproducing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, which became the industrial penicillin producers. We show how a C(1357)-->T (A394V) change in the gene encoding PahA in P. chrysogenum may help to explain the drawback of P. notatum. PahA is a cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the catabolism of phenylacetic acid (PA; a precursor of penicillin G). We expressed the pahA gene from P. notatum in P. chrysogenum obtaining transformants able to metabolize PA (P. chrysogenum does not), and observing penicillin production levels about fivefold lower than that of the parental strain. Our data thus show that a loss of function in P. chrysogenum PahA is directly related to penicillin overproduction, and support the historic choice of P. chrysogenum as the industrial producer of penicillin.

  11. John Ambrose Fleming and the Beginning of Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Dylla; Steve Corneliussen

    2004-11-01

    2004 was the centenary of John Ambrose Fleming's momentous patent on the thermionic diode that can be called the birth of electronics. The ''Edison effect'' was discovered in 1882; this was later shown to be the result of thermionic emission of electrons from a heated filament into a vacuum. Edison did not make any significant devices based on this discovery, and the effect was ignored for more than 8 years. In 1890 Fleming explained the effect and showed that the thermionic diode could be used as a rectifier. Fourteen years later Fleming filed his 1904 patent on the thermionic diode. It was the first public announcement of the electron tube; this revolutionized the development of radio and led to the invention of the thermionic triode by Lee de Forest in 1906. The background to these events will be described.

  12. Howard Florey, Alexander Fleming and the fairy tale of penicillin.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Peter D; McFarlane, Alexander C

    2002-02-18

    The public myth of the discovery of penicillin is an archetypal "quest story" of the type common to every human culture. But the real story of the discovery, testing and refinement of penicillin is a complex tale of accident, serendipity, oversight, conflict, the pressure of war, idiosyncratic personalities and even--the invention of history.

  13. Fleming, Williamina Paton Stevens (1857-1911)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer, born in Dundee, Scotland, emigrated to Boston with her parents and worked as a maid in the home of EDWARD PICKERING, the director of the Harvard Observatory. Unhappy with the work performed by his existing employees and declaring that his maid could do a better job, Pickering hired her for clerical work and mathematical calculations. Fleming devised a system of classifying stars accor...

  14. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  15. Luhmann Receives 2007 John Adam Fleming Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2008-02-01

    This year's John Adam Fleming medalist quickly established a reputation as an innovative and productive scientist with a broad range of interests. She made early and seminal contributions to aeronomy, cosmic rays, and magnetospheric and planetary physics. She contributed importantly to the understanding of the interaction of the solar wind with the atmosphere and magnetic fields of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. She has examined the behavior of planetary rings, the interaction of interstellar neutrals with heliospheric plasmas, as well as the interaction of planetary neutrals with the heliosphere. She has led in the study of the interaction of the moon Titan with the Saturn magnetosphere, and most recently she developed a vigorous solar physics effort, leading the implementation of the IMPACT particle and field package on the twin STEREO mission, now entering its second year of successful operation.

  16. 100. MISSILE ORDNANCE TEST FIXTURE (FLEMING UNIT) ON NORTHEAST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. MISSILE ORDNANCE TEST FIXTURE (FLEMING UNIT) ON NORTHEAST WALL OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Alexander I. Ignatowski

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.; Jankovic, Gradimir M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1908, Alexander I. Ignatowski (1875–1955) published his pioneering work that first revealed a relationship between cholesterol-rich food and experimental atherosclerosis. This early experimental work paved a way to the metabolic study of the mechanism of atherosclerosis. Herein, we present a brief account of Ignatowski's work and life. PMID:23914012

  18. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. What killed Alexander the Great?

    PubMed

    Battersby, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    The cause of the death of the Macedonian King, Alexander the Great, at Babylon in 323 BC has excited interest and conjecture throughout the ages. The information available in the surviving ancient sources, none of which is contemporaneous, has been reviewed and compared with modern knowledge as set out in several well-known recent surgical texts. The ancient sources record epic drinking by the Macedonian nobility since at least the time of Phillip II, Alexander's father. Alexander's sudden illness and death is likely to have resulted from a surgical complication of acute alcoholic excess.

  20. Alexander Lowen: An Energetic Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Glenn E.; Rabinowitz, Fredric E.

    1992-01-01

    Presents interview with Alexander Lowen, prominent psychotherapist, who discusses his personal and professional development, as well as the evolution of bioenergetic analysis. Includes a list of suggested readings by Lowen. (Author/NB)

  1. An Interview with Lloyd Alexander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnell, Michael O.

    1989-01-01

    Probes Lloyd Alexander's thoughts about his own writing habits and processes; his reflections on his various books and characters; the state of children's publishing today; and fan mail he receives. (RAE)

  2. Alexander A Friedmann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropp, Eduard A.; Frenkel, Viktor Ya.; Chernin, Artur D.

    1993-06-01

    Our universe can be described mathematically by a simple model developed in 1922 at Petrograd (St. Petersburg) by Alexander Friedmann (1888-1925). Without the benefit of observational evidence, Friedmann predicted that the whole universe would expand and evolve with time. This astonishing prediction was confirmed seven years later by Edwin Hubble. Its originator, unfortunately didn't live to savor this triumph. This vivid biography of an outstanding scientist sets his life and work against a wide backdrop of the history of cosmological studies and its major players, such as Einstein and others. The book is a window on Friedmann's school and university years, military service, and teaching and research during a seminal period of Soviet history. The authors include unique archival material, such as Friedmann's letters from the Russian Front, as well as contemporary records and reminiscences of colleagues. There is a detailed treatment of his work in theoretical cosmology (1922-1924), set in the context of the organization of Soviet science at the time.

  3. Spiro K. Antiochos Receives 2013 John Adam Fleming Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2014-01-01

    Thank you, Jim Klimchuk, for this far too generous citation, and thank you very much, my AGU colleagues, for honoring me with the Fleming Medal. When I consider the list of excellent scientists who have been awarded the Fleming Medal, I am humbled that you have included me in their company. I am especially proud that this award is from AGU because only later in my career did I change my science focus and join AGU. This was the best professional decision I have ever made. As a result, I have met many wonderful colleagues. I've always loved doing research, but my colleagues in AGU have made it so much more enjoyable. Also, moving to AGU gave me the opportunity to participate in truly exciting science. My present position is that of senior scientist for space weather at NASA Goddard. It is interesting to note that the field of space weather science did not even exist when I started my career. I was very fortunate to be part of the beginning of a new field and, as a result, to be able to participate in the explosive advances of space weather science over the past 2 decades.

  4. The modern mythology of the left-handedness of Alexander the Great.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C

    2006-11-01

    The prevalent modern suggestion that Alexander the Great was left-handed probably derives from Michael Barsley's (1966) book, Left-handed man is a right-handed word, perhaps by mutation from as earlier story cited by Wile in 1934 from a 17th century Rabbirical exegesis, which said that Alexander discovered a country where all the inhabitants were left-handed. That itself may derive in part from the medieval Hebrew Book of Jossippon, which mentions Alexander talking of the superiority of the left hand and of how "kings stemming from the tribe of kings are left-handed".

  5. Conjecture of Alexander and Orbach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Jayanta; Doiron, Curtis

    2009-03-01

    The dynamical properties of fractal networks have received wide range of attention. Works on this area by several pioneering authors^1-2 have led to the introduction of the spectral dimension that dictates the dynamic properties on a fractal lattice. Most of the studies involving spectral dimension have been performed on a type of fractal lattice known as percolation network. Alexander and Orbach^2 conjectured that the spectral dimension might be exactly 4/3 for percolation networks with Euclidean dimension de >= 2. Recent numerical simulations, however, could not decisively prove or disprove this conjecture, although there are other indirect evidences that it is true. We apply a stochastic approach^3 to determine the spectral dimension of percolation network for de >= 2 and check the validity of the Alexander-Orbach conjecture. Our preliminary results on 2- and 3-dimensional percolation networks indeed show that Alexander-Orbach conjecture is true, resolving a long-standing debate. References: 1. P. G. deGennes, La Recherche 7 (1976) 919. 2. S. Alexander and R. Orbach, J. Phys. Lett. (Paris) 43 (1982) L625. 3. J. Rudra and J. Kozak, Phys. Lett A 151 (1990) 429.

  6. Mike Fuller Receives 2012 John Adam Fleming Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Thank you, Chris and Subir, for nominating me for the Fleming Medal and for your very kind comments on my research. In looking back over the medalists since 1962, it is hard to believe that I could be lucky enough to join such distinguished company. Yet, I have been very lucky through life. First, I was lucky to go to Christ's Hospital and Cambridge University. Second, my Aunt Marjorie married a physicist, Johnnie Clegg, who was an excellent teacher and inspiration for me. Third, to be born in England in the mid-1930s was to be a member of a fortunate generation of scientists. Providing one safely negotiated World War II, one joined the academic world at a time of great excitement, of expansion, and support for science.

  7. Solidification science in cast MMCs: The influence of merton flemings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohatgi, Pradeep; Asthana, Rajiv

    2001-09-01

    The solidification science of cast metalmatrix composites (MMC) evolved as a subset of the broad field of solidification of monolithic alloys pioneered by Merton Flemings and his students. As a result of advances in solidification, the cast MMC field has evolved from its early incarnation—employing empirical research to engineer novel materials using versatile and cost-effective casting techniques—to using solidification-science-based approaches to tailor advanced materials for application-specific needs. The current and emerging applications of cast MMCs in a variety of automotive, aerospace, electronic packaging, and consumer-good industries exemplify the maturity of the field and the materials. Innovations in composite-forming techniques and efforts at wider industrial acceptance of MMCs will undoubtedly continue. However, the scientific principles underlying the solidification microstructure evolution that governs the composite properties have become well established, to a great extent, due to Flemings’ early, pioneering work on monolithic alloys and some of his more recent studies on solidification of reinforced metals. This paper reviews some aspects of solidification of discontinuously reinforced cast metals that owe their current understanding to Flemings’ contributions, in particular, the scientific understanding of macro- and microsegregation, fluidity and rheology of multiphase slurries, and stircasting, semi-solid casting, and preform infiltration. Current research to develop and test prototype components made from cast composites, including Al-flyash, Cu-graphite, Al-graphite, Al-alumina, and SiC-Al, is also presented, along with directions for future research.

  8. Commentary. The diseases of Alexander the Great.

    PubMed

    York, George K; Steinberg, David A

    2004-06-01

    The accompanying articles that speculate that Alexander the Great had a traumatic carotid dissection or congenital cervical scoliosis demonstrate the difficulties in retrospective diagnosis as a historical enterprise. The extant primary sources were written centuries after Alexander's death and are ambiguous in their original languages, and even more so in translation. Thus we cannot be certain what illness Alexander actually had. Furthermore, anachronistic diagnosis removes Alexander from the medical context of this time, telling us little of historical significance about him. Such investigations also illustrate the more general limits that the absence of context imposes on the study of ancient history.

  9. Dancers' Application of the Alexander Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Sylvie; Girard, Fernande

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the experience of professional contemporary dancers studying and applying the Alexander Technique to their dancing. This study was motivated by: 1. years of teaching both dance and somatics, 2. a strong desire to better understand how the Alexander Technique can be applied by dancers, and 3. a gap that the…

  10. Obituary: Alexander Dalgarno (1928 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, Tom; Babb, James F. Babb; Loeb, Avi

    most abundant astrophysical molecule and the main constituent of the regions where stars form. Interstellar H2 was first detected directly in the following year, and data for interstellar H2 began to become abundant in 1973. Alex was well prepared and led efforts to interpret these data, from which he was able to infer the physical properties of diffuse interstellar molecular clouds. At nearly the same time he was involved in work on the ionization and energy deposition in H2 by nearly relativistic and relativistic particles called cosmic rays. The work has relevance to emission in the atmospheres of the giant planets, as well as for conditions in interstellar molecular clouds. Cosmic ray induced ionization initiates much of the basic chemistry in star forming regions, and the emissions of the product molecules control the temperatures and allow the diagnosis of the physical conditions and dynamics of the stellar nurseries. For more than four decades Alex elucidated the chemical networks governing the molecular abundances in a wide variety of astrophysical sources including star forming regions, supernova ejecta, the pregalactic universe, and extreme environments like those in the vicinities of X-ray sources powered by accretion onto black holes. The refinement of the models led to calculations predicting the existence of subsequently discovered negative ions in giant molecular clouds. One of his astrophysical interests that intrigued him late in his career was the emission of soft X-rays by comets and in the heliosphere due to charge transfer with solar wind particles, and he also worked on related processes occurring in the atmospheres of the giant planets. Alex remained very active in fundamental atomic and molecular physics, as well as for its applications to astrophysics and to terrestrial and extraterrestrial planetary atmospheres. Ultra-cold collisions and ultra-cold chemistry were major interests for Alex for much of the latest phase of his career, most

  11. Cupola Corner 2 - Conversation With Alexander Samokutyaev

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Ron Garan speaks with fellow Expedition 28 flight engineer and Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev about using the view from the International Space Station to inspire people to make a ...

  12. The Haunting Influence of Alexander Graham Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sue H.

    1971-01-01

    The article examines the significance that Alexander Graham Bell's attitude and actions had on the social and economic conditions experienced by deaf people during his lifetime and into the present. (CD)

  13. A psychoanalytic study of Alexander the Great.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K R

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate how Freudian concepts such as the Oedipus complex, castration anxiety, fear of loss of love, the psychosexual stages of development, and the tripartite structure of personality can be used to understand the life and achievements of Alexander the Great. To accomplish this purpose, specific incidents, myths, and relationships in Alexander's life were analyzed from a Freudian psychoanalytic perspective. Green (1991), in his recent biography of Alexander, has questioned the merit of using Freudian concepts to understand Alexander's character. In fact, he stated specifically: If he (Alexander) had any kind of Oedipus complex it came in a poor second to the burning dynastic ambition which Olympias so sedulously fostered in him; those who insist on his psychological motivation would do better to take Adler as their mentor than Freud (p.56). Later, in the concluding section of his book, Green (1991, pp. 486-487) discounted Freudian interpretations of Alexander's distaste for sex, the rumors of his homosexual liaisons, his partiality for middle-aged or elderly ladies, and the systematic domination of his early years by Olympias as little more than the projected fears and desires of the interpreters. And again, an Adlerian power-complex paradigm was suggested as the preferable theoretical framework to use. Green's argument was based primarily on an exchange, reported originally by Plutarch, which took place between Alexander and Philip prior to Alexander's tutorship with Aristotle. Purportedly, Philip enjoined his son to study hard and pay close attention to all Aristotle said "so that you may not do a great many things of the sort that I am sorry I have done." At this point, Alexander "somewhat pertly" took Philip to task "because he was having children by other women besides his wife." Philip's reply was: "Well then, if you have many competitors for the kingdom, prove yourself honorable and good, so that you may obtain the

  14. Learning Resource Centres at Sir Sandford Fleming College. LRC Project Team Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markanen, Susan; And Others

    Developed by the Learning Resource Centres (LRC) Project Team at Sir Sanford Fleming College, in Ontario, Canada, this report presents a model for establishing LRCs at the college. The first section reviews the need for LRCs, including the provision of lifelong learning and expected funding decreases for traditional operations. The next sections…

  15. GFAP and its role in Alexander Disease

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Roy A; Brenner, Michael; Goldman, James E.; Messing, Albee

    2009-01-01

    Here we review how GFAP mutations cause Alexander disease. The current data suggest that a combination of events cause the disease. These include: i) the accumulation of GFAP and the formation of characteristic aggregates, called Rosenthal fibres, ii) the sequestration of the protein chaperones αB-crystallin and HSP27 into Rosenthal fibres, and iii) the activation of both Jnk and the stress response. These then set in motion events that lead to Alexander disease. We discuss parallels with other intermediate filament diseases and assess potential therapies as part of this review as well as emerging trends in disease diagnosis and other aspects concerning GFAP. PMID:17498694

  16. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  17. The Mind-Body Connection: An Introduction to Alexander Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    Explains that the Alexander Technique is a process that allows performers to improve physical-mental coordination while performing. Outlines the fundamentals of the Alexander Technique and how it can be applied for actors and drama teachers. Proposes that drama teachers can incorporate some of the Alexander Technique's fundamentals into their…

  18. Alexander Technique and Dance Technique: Applications in the Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettl-Fiol, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Integrating principles from the Alexander Technique into a dance technique class can provide tools for facilitating a more coordinated use of the self. While the methodologies of Alexander Technique and dance technique may present differences, there are ways of applying the principles of Alexander within the context of a dance technique class that…

  19. Alexander von Humboldt: a revolutionary explorer.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    After he returned from his five-year expedition to the New World, Alexander von Humboldt promoted himself as a Romantic explorer. Although this image pervades British perceptions, political movements have fashioned different heroic versions of Humboldt in Germany and South America.

  20. The Remarkable Journey of Lloyd Alexander

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnel, Michael O.; Jacobs, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This article features Lloyd Alexander, an author who has produced some of the most elegant and powerful prose in the history of modern children's literature. Lloyd began writing seriously in high school, and though he wrote and submitted many poems and short stories, his only success was being named a finalist in the "Writer's Digest" Short Story…

  1. Alexander Graham Bell: Teacher of the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Robert V.

    The lecture on Alexander Graham Bell by Dr. Robert V. Bruce, the author of a biography of Bell, focuses on Bell's association with the Clarke School for the Deaf in Massachusetts. Noted are Bell's employment by the school at 25 years of age and the preceding period during which Bell taught elocution at a boys' school in Scotland and used his…

  2. Discovering Deserts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Discovering Deserts." Contents are organized into the following sections: (1)…

  3. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  4. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1996-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-funded project for teachers of grades 5-12 who want to expand their knowledge of the Earth system, and prepare to become master teachers who promote Earth system science in their own schools, counties, and throughout their state. Participants from the following states are invited to apply: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington, DC. Teachers selected for the project participate in a two-week summer workshop conducted at the University of Maryland, College Park; develop classroom-ready materials during the workshop for broad dissemination; conduct a minimum of two peer training activities during the coming school year; and participate in other enrichment/education opportunities as available and desired. Discover Earth is a team effort that utilizes expertise from a range of contributors, and balances science content with hands-on classroom applications.

  5. Obituary: Walter Alexander Feibelman, 1930-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oergerle, William

    2005-12-01

    Walter Alexander Feibelman, 79, an astronomer who discovered the E-ring of Saturn, died of a heart attack 19 November 2004 at his home at Riderwood Village in Silver Spring, Maryland. Walter was born 30 October 1925 in Berlin, Germany to Bernard and Dora Feibelman. He came to the United States with his parents in 1941. They were some of the last German Jews to flee Nazi Germany. Years later, he reported his experiences in an account contributed to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. As a youth, he worked at a cleaning shop and as a soda jerk before taking a course in tool and die making. He worked at the Abbey Photo Corp. in New York and in a model-making firm, where he constructed models of aircraft for use in identification courses by the Army Air Forces. After high school, he attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology and received his BS degree in 1956. Until 1969, he was a research scientist at the University of Pittsburgh. While working as an assistant research professor in physics and astronomy at the University of Pittsburgh in 1967, he examined a photo of Saturn taken a year earlier at the university's Allegheny Observatory. The E-ring -- unlike the bright main rings, A, B, C, D and F -- is faint and not easily spotted. He paired his observation with calculations and announced his discovery, which remained unconfirmed until the Pioneer 11 flyby in 1979. Walter joined the Optical Astronomy Division of Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt in 1969, and worked there until 2002, when he became an emeritus astronomer at NASA. He became associated with the International Ultraviolet Explorer project, and worked on developing detectors for the orbiting observatory's spectrograph. The project turned out to be one of NASA's most successful observatories, operating from 1978 to 1996. In his scientific career, he published more than 200 refereed articles, mainly on hot stars and planetary nebulae. He also wrote papers in the fields of photography, spectroscopy

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Felix & Odile Pratt Valle House, Merchant & Second Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 DETAIL OF BASEMENT FIREPLACE - Indian Trading Post, Second & Merchant Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE (WEST ELEVATION - FRONT) - Eugene Field House, 634 South Broadway, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 DETAIL OF STONEWORK (WEST ELEVATION) - Indian Trading Post, Second & Merchant Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  10. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Felix & Odile Pratt Valle House, Merchant & Second Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM NORTHWEST - Felix & Odile Pratt Valle House, Merchant & Second Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  12. "Most brilliant in judgment": Alexander the Great and Aristotle.

    PubMed

    Lainas, Panagiotis; Panutsopulos, Dimitrios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Zoras, Odysseas; Skandalakis, John E

    2005-03-01

    From historical sources, it is evident that Alexander the Great was indebted to one of his teachers, Aristotle of Stagira. It was the teaching of Aristotle that evoked all the nascent talents of young Alexander and turned him into a great man. Alexander was extremely interested in the secrets of medicine and considered it an art. The medical knowledge he acquired from Aristotle may have saved his life and the lives of his troops on many occasions. If Alexander did not possess medical knowledge and if his everyday life had not been so greatly influenced by medicine, he might never have been able to create his empire.

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer, 1971 DETAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer, 1971 DETAIL, ENTRANCE STOOP (LION FIGURE) - Joseph Beale House, 2301 Massachusetts Avenue, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer August 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer August 1968 BEDROOM FIREPLACE, THIRD FLOOR - Andrew Ross Tenant House II, 1210 Thirtieth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer August 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer August 1968 SECOND FLOOR PARLOR FIREPLACE - Andrew Ross Tenant House II, 1210 Thirtieth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Multigram-scale synthesis of l,d-heptoside using a Fleming-Tamao oxidation promoted by mercuric trifluoroacetate.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianlei; Tikad, Abdellatif; Durka, Maxime; Pan, Weidong; Vincent, Stéphane P

    2016-09-01

    An efficient multigram-scale synthesis of methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-l-glycero-α-d-manno-heptopyranoside from methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-α-d-mannopyranoside is reported. It involves a sequence of Swern oxidation, Grignard addition and Fleming-Tamao reactions. The resulting scaffold was used as a precursor to design a small library of clickable l-heptosides. This study shows that the use of mercuric bistrifluoroacetate is required both to accelerate and to cleanly perform the Fleming-Tamao oxidation, without side-reactions. PMID:27450667

  17. Discovering Technicolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. R.; Antipin, O.; Azuelos, G.; Del Debbio, L.; Del Nobile, E.; Di Chiara, S.; Hapola, T.; Järvinen, M.; Lowdon, P. J.; Maravin, Y.; Masina, I.; Nardecchia, M.; Pica, C.; Sannino, F.

    2011-09-01

    We provide a pedagogical introduction to extensions of the Standard Model in which the Higgs is composite. These extensions are known as models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking or, in brief, Technicolor. Material covered includes: motivations for Technicolor, the construction of underlying gauge theories leading to minimal models of Technicolor, the comparison with electroweak precision data, the low-energy effective theory, the spectrum of the states common to most of the Technicolor models, the decays of the composite particles and the experimental signals at the Large Hadron Collider. The level of the presentation is aimed at readers familiar with the Standard Model but who have little or no prior exposure to Technicolor. Several extensions of the Standard Model featuring a composite Higgs can be reduced to the effective Lagrangian introduced in the text. We establish the relevant experimental benchmarks for Vanilla, Running, Walking, and Custodial Technicolor, and a natural fourth family of leptons, by laying out the framework to discover these models at the Large Hadron Collider.

  18. 2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE 2-1/1-STORY MAIN BLOCK, ERECTED IN 1855, HAS OVERTONES OF THE GREEK REVIVAL STYLE. Photographer: louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 crane flies (Diptera: Pediciidae) of Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Podeniene, Virginija; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The Korean crane fly species of the genus Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is taxonomically revised. H. gloriosus gloriosus (Alexander, 1924) is redescribed. A new species Heterangaeus koreanus n. sp., which is the first species of Pediciidae from South Korea, is described and illustrated.

  20. Call-fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction) and aneurysm associated with multiple recreational drug use.

    PubMed

    Drazin, Doniel; Alexander, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. Evidence suggests that recreational drug use has a direct effect on the cerebral vasculature and is of greater concern in those with undiagnosed aneurysms or vascular malformations. The authors report a case of thunderclap headache with a negative head CT and equivocal lumbar puncture after a drug-fueled weekend. The patient underwent diagnostic cerebral angiogram which demonstrated multisegmental, distal areas of focal narrowing of the middle, anterior, posterior, and posterior inferior cerebral artery and an incidental aneurysm. It is often difficult to determine the exact origin of symptoms; thus we were left with a bit of a chicken or the egg debate, trying to decipher which part came first. Either the aneurysm ruptured with associated concomitant vasospasm or it is a case of Call-Fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction) with an incidental aneurysm. The authors proposed their management and rationale of this complex case.

  1. Alexander's disease: clinical, pathologic, and genetic features.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anne B; Brenner, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Alexander's disease, a rare and fatal disorder of the central nervous system, most commonly affects infants and young children but can also occur in older children and sometimes adults. In infants and young children, it causes developmental delay, psychomotor retardation, paraparesis, feeding problems, usually megalencephaly, often seizures, and sometimes hydrocephalus. Juvenile cases often do not have megalencephaly and tend to have predominant pseudobulbar and bulbar signs. In both groups, characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings have been described. In adult cases, the signs are variable, can resemble multiple sclerosis, and might include palatal myoclonus. In all cases, the examination of brain tissue shows the presence of widely distributed Rosenthal fibers. Almost all cases have recently been found to have a heterozygous, missense, point mutation in the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein, which provides a new diagnostic tool. In most cases, the mutation appears to occur de novo, not being present in either parent, but some adult cases are familial.

  2. The death of Alexander the Great: malaria or typhoid fever?

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A

    2004-03-01

    Alexander the Great had a profound effect on world history. His conquests covered the entire known world at the time, and he was responsible for the spread of Greek culture throughout the ancient world. In Babylon in 323 BC, Alexander died when he was nearly 33 years old. Possible explanations for his death have included alcoholic liver disease and strychnine poisoning, but little data support either condition as the cause of his death. Alexander most likely died from malaria or typhoid fever, which were rampant in ancient Babylon. The description of his final illness from the royal diaries is consistent with typhoid fever or malaria but is most characteristic of typhoid fever.

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Second & Gabourie Streets (Old Stone House), Corner of Second & Gabourie Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 DETAIL OF STONEWORK (SOUTHWEST CORNER) - Second & Gabourie Streets (Old Stone House), Corner of Second & Gabourie Streets, Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer April 1969 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer April 1969 3034 P STREET (right) AND ADJOINING ROWHOUSES, LOOKING EAST - Smith-Morton Row House, 3034 P Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Alexander disease with mild dorsal brainstem atrophy and infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease.

  7. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING UP INTO THE DOME - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 Detail of Rotunda looking west. - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  10. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL OF ROTUNDA LOOKING NORTH - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  11. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL OF ROTUNDA - LOOKING NORTH - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 9, 1934 DETAIL OF EAST PORTICO - Old St. Louis Courthouse, Fourth to Broadway, Market to Chestnut Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alexander Piaget, Photographer, April 10, 1934 VIEW FROM NORTH - Jean Baptiste Valle House, 99 South Main Street (Northwest corner of Main & Market Streets), Sainte Genevieve, Ste. Genevieve County, MO

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer February 1969 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer February 1969 EAST ELEVATIONS OF 1208-10 30th STREET - Andrew Ross Tenant House II, 1210 Thirtieth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer August 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey J. Alexander, Photographer August 1968 SECOND FLOOR PARLOR LOOKING NORTHWEST - Andrew Ross Tenant House II, 1210 Thirtieth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Alexander F. Chamberlain: a life's work.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Julia M

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the life and work of Alexander Francis Chamberlain. Though he has received little attention since the early 1900s, the importance of this scholar should not be underestimated. Chamberlain made notable contributions to the body of knowledge in anthropology-a discipline that, at the time, was a combination of anthropological and psychological inquiry. His early work began with investigations into the cultures and languages of two Indian tribes indigenous to Canada and the northern United States and, within a few decades, positioned Chamberlain as the leading scholar in this domain. Beyond his ethnographic insights, Chamberlain queried the development of the child and wrote on the subject of childhood in world folklore. He concerned himself with a scope of worthwhile subjects ranging from linguistics to women's suffrage. No topic was out of range as all forms of human study addressed the need for seeing each group as a contributing force to humanity at large. Chamberlain emphasized that no single racial, ethnic, or religious group should be singled out as inherently superior to another, a belief far ahead of his time. This article is an attempt at drawing a picture of a man whose scholarly achievements and strength of character are captured in the depth and breadth of his writing. PMID:17549937

  19. Alexander F. Chamberlain: a life's work.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Julia M

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the life and work of Alexander Francis Chamberlain. Though he has received little attention since the early 1900s, the importance of this scholar should not be underestimated. Chamberlain made notable contributions to the body of knowledge in anthropology-a discipline that, at the time, was a combination of anthropological and psychological inquiry. His early work began with investigations into the cultures and languages of two Indian tribes indigenous to Canada and the northern United States and, within a few decades, positioned Chamberlain as the leading scholar in this domain. Beyond his ethnographic insights, Chamberlain queried the development of the child and wrote on the subject of childhood in world folklore. He concerned himself with a scope of worthwhile subjects ranging from linguistics to women's suffrage. No topic was out of range as all forms of human study addressed the need for seeing each group as a contributing force to humanity at large. Chamberlain emphasized that no single racial, ethnic, or religious group should be singled out as inherently superior to another, a belief far ahead of his time. This article is an attempt at drawing a picture of a man whose scholarly achievements and strength of character are captured in the depth and breadth of his writing.

  20. Pellagra Pre-Goldberger: Rupert Blue, Fleming Sandwith, and The “Vitamine Hypothesis”

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Charles S.; Mull, Shane R.

    2015-01-01

    The conquest of pellagra is commonly associated with one name: Joseph Goldberger of the US Public Health Service, who in 1914 went south, concluded within 4 months that the cause was inadequate diet, spent the rest of his life researching the disease, and—before his death from cancer in 1929—found that brewer's yeast could prevent and treat it at nominal cost. It does Goldberger no discredit to emphasize that between 1907 and 1914 a patchwork coalition of asylum superintendents, practicing physicians, local health officials, and others established for the first time an English-language competence in pellagra, sifted through competing hypotheses, and narrowed the choices down to two: an insect-borne infection hypothesis, championed by the flamboyant European Louis Westerna Sambon, and the new “vitamine hypothesis,” proffered by Casimir Funk in early 1912 and articulated later that year by two members of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, Fleming Mant Sandwith and Rupert Blue. Those who resisted Goldberger's inconvenient truth that the root cause was southern poverty drew their arguments largely from the Thompson-McFadden Pellagra Commission, which traces back to Sambon's unfortunate influence on American researchers. Thousands died as a result. PMID:26330657

  1. Pellagra Pre-Goldberger: Rupert Blue, Fleming Sandwith, and The "Vitamine Hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charles S; Mull, Shane R

    2015-01-01

    The conquest of pellagra is commonly associated with one name: Joseph Goldberger of the US Public Health Service, who in 1914 went south, concluded within 4 months that the cause was inadequate diet, spent the rest of his life researching the disease, and--before his death from cancer in 1929--found that brewer's yeast could prevent and treat it at nominal cost. It does Goldberger no discredit to emphasize that between 1907 and 1914 a patchwork coalition of asylum superintendents, practicing physicians, local health officials, and others established for the first time an English-language competence in pellagra, sifted through competing hypotheses, and narrowed the choices down to two: an insect-borne infection hypothesis, championed by the flamboyant European Louis Westerna Sambon, and the new "vitamine hypothesis," proffered by Casimir Funk in early 1912 and articulated later that year by two members of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, Fleming Mant Sandwith and Rupert Blue. Those who resisted Goldberger's inconvenient truth that the root cause was southern poverty drew their arguments largely from the Thompson-McFadden Pellagra Commission, which traces back to Sambon's unfortunate influence on American researchers. Thousands died as a result. PMID:26330657

  2. Recent Ice Loss from the Fleming and Other Glaciers, Wordie Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Casassa, G.; Gogineni, S.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Krabill, W.; Pritchard, H.; Rivera, A.; Thomas, R.; Turner, J.; Vaughan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry data from 1995 to 2004, and airborne ice thickness data from 2002, reveal that the glaciers flowing into former Wordie Ice Shelf, West Antarctic Peninsula, discharge 6.8 +/- 0.3 km(exp 3)/yr of ice, which is 84 +/- 30 percent larger than a snow accumulation of 3.7 +/- 0.8 km(exp 3)/yr over a 6,300 km(exp 2) drainage basin. Airborne and ICESat laser altimetry elevation data reveal glacier thinning at rates up to 2 m/yr. Fifty km from its ice front, Fleming Glacier flows 50 percent faster than it did in 1974 prior to the main collapse of Wordie Ice Shelf. We conclude that the glaciers accelerated following ice shelf removal, and have been thinning and losing mass to the ocean over the last decade. This and other observations suggest that the mass loss from the northern part of the Peninsula is not negligible at present.

  3. Alexander disease: a review and the gene.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anne B

    2002-01-01

    This review presents historical and clinical information on the rare human brain disorder known as Alexander disease (ALX), and reports on the recent discovery of the gene that appears to be causative. The disease is a fatal, white matter disorder (leukodystrophy) of childhood. Adult onset cases also have been described, but it has not been clear whether they represent the same disease. Until recently the diagnosis was made by the pathological examination of brain tissue, in which abundant Rosenthal fibers were found. These abnormal structures occurred within astrocytes, but their composition was unclear. In 1985, a child underwent a diagnostic brain biopsy at this institution, which established the diagnosis of ALX. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry revealed that the Rosenthal fibers contained abundant amounts of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a normal component of astocytic intermediate filaments. Thus, the gene for this filament protein was considered a candidate gene for the cause of ALX, and DNA samples from children presumed or proven to have this disorder were banked for future study. Other work on the same brain biopsy showed that Rosenthal fibers also contained abundant alphaB-crystallin, a heat shock protein, but no defect was found in its gene. A decade after the biopsy, a transgenic mouse with an extra copy of the gene for GFAP was produced. These mice died early and their brains contained Rosenthal fibers. Although not an exact model for ALX, this also suggested that the gene for GFAP should be considered a candidate gene for ALX. Subsequent research has demonstrated that the great majority of childhood ALX cases contain mutations in the gene for GFAP. This work is now being extended as a diagnostic test, as well as to seek understanding of the pathogenesis of ALX and possible approaches for treatment.

  4. Preliminary hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehner, Harold H.

    1979-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site , Fleming County, Ky., cover an area of about 0.03 square mile, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. Although surface-water characteristics are known, little information is available regarding the ground-water hydrology of the Maxey Flats area. If transport of radionuclides from the burial site were to occur, water would probably be the principal mechanism of transport by natural means. Most base flow in streams around the burial site is from valley alluvium, and from the mantle of regolith, colluvium, and soil partially covering adjacent hills. Very little base flow is due to ground-water flow from bedrock. Most water in springs is from the mantle, rather than from bedrock. Rock units underlying the Maxey Flats area are, in descending order, the Nancy and Farmers Members of the Borden Formation, Sunbury, Bedford, and Ohio Shales, and upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation. These units are mostly shales, except for the Farmers Member, which is mostly sandstone. Total thickness of the rocks is about 320 feet. All radioactive wastes are buried in the Nancy Member. Most ground-water movement in bedrock probably occurs in fractures. The ground-water system at Maxey Flats is probably unconfined, and recharge occurs by (a) infiltration of rainfall into the mantle, and (b) vertical, unsaturated flow from the saturated regolith on hilltops to saturated zones in the Farmers Member and Ohio Shale. Data are insufficient to determine if saturated zones exist in other rock units. The upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation is probably a hydrologic boundary, with little ground-water flow through the formation. (USGS)

  5. Genome sequence of the Fleming strain of Micrococcus luteus, a simple free- living actinobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Michael; Artsatbanov, Vladislav; Beller, Harry R.; Chandra, Govind; Chater, Keith F.; Dover, Lynn G.; Goh, Ee-Been; Kahan, Tamar; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lapidus, Alla; Lowry, Stephen R.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Mahillon, Jacques; Markowitz, Viktor; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Mukamolova, Galina V.; Oren, Aharon; Rokem, J. Stefan; Smith, Margaret C. M.; Young, Danielle I.; Greenblatt, Charles L.

    2009-11-01

    Micrococcus luteus (NCTC2665, Fleming strain) has one of the smallest genomes of free living actinobacteria sequenced to date, comprising a single circular chromosome of 2,501,097 bp (G+C content 73%) predicted to encode 2403 proteins. The genome shows extensive synteny with that of the closely related organism, Kocuria rhizophila, from which it was taxonomically separated relatively recently. Despite its small size, the genome harbors 73 IS elements, almost all of which are closely related to elements found in other actinobacteria. An IS element is inserted into the rrs gene of one of only two rrn operons found in M. luteus. The genome encodes only four sigma factors and fourteen response regulators, indicative of adaptation to a rather strict ecological niche (mammalian skin). The high sensitivity of M. luteus to {Beta}-lactam antibiotics may result from the presence of a reduced set of penicillin binding proteins and the absence of a wblC gene, which plays an important role in antibiotic resistance in other actinobacteria. Consistent with the restricted range of compounds it can use as a sole source of carbon for energy and growth, M. luteus has a minimal complement of genes concerned with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and its inability to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source may be due to the apparent absence of a gene encoding glucokinase. Uniquely among characterized bacteria, M. luteus appears to be able to metabolize glycogen only via trehalose, and to make trehalose only via glycogen. It has very few genes associated with secondary metabolism. In contrast to other actinobacteria, M. luteus encodes only one resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) required for emergence from dormancy and its complement of other dormancy-related proteins is also much reduced. M. luteus is capable of long-chain alkene biosynthesis, which is of interest for advanced biofuel production; a three gene cluster essential for this metabolism has been identified in the genome.

  6. Zanvil Alexander Cohn 1926-1993

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Zanvil Alexander Cohn, an editor of this Journal since 1973, died suddenly on June 28, 1993. Cohn is best known as the father of the current era of macrophage biology. Many of his scientific accomplishments are recounted here, beginning with seminal studies on the granules of phagocytes that were performed with his close colleague and former editor of this Journal, James Hirsch. Cohn and Hirsch identified the granules as lysosomes that discharged their contents of digestive enzymes into vacuoles containing phagocytosed microbes. These findings were part of the formative era of cell biology and initiated the modern study of endocytosis and cell-mediated resistance to infection. Cohn further explored the endocytic apparatus in pioneering studies of the mouse peritoneal macrophage in culture. He described vesicular inputs from the cell surface and Golgi apparatus and documented the thoroughness of substrate digestion within lysosomal vacuoles that would only permit the egress of monosaccharides and amino acids. These discoveries created a vigorous environment for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior and visiting faculty. Some of the major findings that emerged from Cohn's collaborations included the radioiodination of the plasma membrane for studies of composition and turnover; membrane recycling during endocytosis; the origin of the mononuclear phagocyte system in situ; the discovery of the dendritic cell system of antigen-presenting cells; the macrophage as a secretory cell, including the release of proteases and large amounts of prostaglandins and leukotrienes; several defined parameters of macrophage activation, especially the ability of T cell-derived lymphokines to enhance killing of tumor cells and intracellular protozoa; the granule discharge mechanism whereby cytotoxic lymphocytes release the pore-forming protein perforin; the signaling of macrophages via myristoylated substrates of protein kinase C; and a tissue culture model in which

  7. Did Alexander the Great die of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Sbarounis, C N

    1997-06-01

    I propose that Alexander the Great died of acute pancreatitis secondary to heavy alcohol consumption and a very rich meal. The cause of death of prominent historic or artistic figures attracts considerable interest of historians and researchers. This is especially the case for Alexander the Great. More than 20,000 publications, books, or monographs on the life and work of Alexander the Great have been published. There are several theories and hypotheses regarding the cause of his death, that are based on historic descriptions, diaries, notations, and interpretations of events. It is inevitable that history and myth intermingle in any investigative approach, no matter how scholarly. In this article, on the basis of several historic sources. I have made an effort to reconstruct the final 14 days of his life and record the course of medical events that preceded his death with the formulation of a plausible diagnosis.

  8. Alexander the Great and West Nile virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Marr, John S; Calisher, Charles H

    2003-12-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning; assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander's death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile virus encephalitis.

  9. Obituary: Donald Alexander Macrae, 1916-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaquist, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    With the passing of Donald Alexander MacRae on 6 December 2006 at age 90, the astronomy community lost a visionary scientist and a great educator in the field. Don MacRae was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 19 February 1916, to Donald Alexander and Laura Geddes (Barnstead) MacRae. His father was originally a classics scholar and preceptor of Greek and Latin at Princeton, but at the time of Don's birth in 1916 he was Dean of the Dalhousie Law School in Halifax. The family moved to Toronto, Ontario, in 1924 when his father joined the faculty of Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto as a Professor of Law. After the family moved to Toronto, where he received most of his early education, he obtained his undergraduate degree in Mathematics and Physics in 1937 from the University of Toronto (U of T). He obtained the degree of A.M. in 1940 and of Ph.D. in 1943 from Harvard University under the mentorship of Bart Bok in the field of galactic structure. During his early career he worked briefly at the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University, and Carbide and Chemical Corporation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For Don the latter work was a brief and somewhat uneasy association with the Manhattan Project. In 1946, he obtained a position at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where he worked until 1953. In 1953, he accepted a position at the U of T, replacing Ralph Williamson, who had earlier introduced Don to the emerging field of radio astronomy while they both were at Cornell. Don's primary research field was stellar spectroscopy, but his interests were much broader than this, and he possessed an abiding ability to interest students and faculty in new and emerging ideas. In the early 1960s he developed a strong interest in the nature and origin of the lunar surface, and discussed these extensively with colleagues. Many of his ideas on this subject were later confirmed by the lunar exploration program. Don's continuing interest in radio astronomy

  10. 8. View of southwest rear and southeast side of AlexanderAlmon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of southwest rear and southeast side of Alexander-Almon House with cement block outbuilding to far left, facing north. - Alexander-Almon House, 130 Philip Almon Road, Roopville, Carroll County, GA

  11. 12. Detail view of southeast side window of AlexanderAlmon House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view of southeast side window of Alexander-Almon House with rain barrel at lower left and roof rafter tails at top, facing northwest. - Alexander-Almon House, 130 Philip Almon Road, Roopville, Carroll County, GA

  12. Obituary: Donald Alexander Macrae, 1916-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaquist, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    With the passing of Donald Alexander MacRae on 6 December 2006 at age 90, the astronomy community lost a visionary scientist and a great educator in the field. Don MacRae was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 19 February 1916, to Donald Alexander and Laura Geddes (Barnstead) MacRae. His father was originally a classics scholar and preceptor of Greek and Latin at Princeton, but at the time of Don's birth in 1916 he was Dean of the Dalhousie Law School in Halifax. The family moved to Toronto, Ontario, in 1924 when his father joined the faculty of Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto as a Professor of Law. After the family moved to Toronto, where he received most of his early education, he obtained his undergraduate degree in Mathematics and Physics in 1937 from the University of Toronto (U of T). He obtained the degree of A.M. in 1940 and of Ph.D. in 1943 from Harvard University under the mentorship of Bart Bok in the field of galactic structure. During his early career he worked briefly at the University of Pennsylvania, Cornell University, and Carbide and Chemical Corporation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For Don the latter work was a brief and somewhat uneasy association with the Manhattan Project. In 1946, he obtained a position at Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where he worked until 1953. In 1953, he accepted a position at the U of T, replacing Ralph Williamson, who had earlier introduced Don to the emerging field of radio astronomy while they both were at Cornell. Don's primary research field was stellar spectroscopy, but his interests were much broader than this, and he possessed an abiding ability to interest students and faculty in new and emerging ideas. In the early 1960s he developed a strong interest in the nature and origin of the lunar surface, and discussed these extensively with colleagues. Many of his ideas on this subject were later confirmed by the lunar exploration program. Don's continuing interest in radio astronomy

  13. DISCOVER-AQ

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-07

    ... of satellites to monitor air quality for public health and environmental benefit. Through targeted airborne and ground-based observations, ... Relevant Documents:  DISCOVER-AQ - Airborne Science Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth ...

  14. Alexander the Great, the dahlia, and the tortoise.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Malcolm

    2004-06-01

    Some of the problems of establishing the cause of the death of Alexander the Great are like the attempts to find causes other than hysteria for Anna O.'s symptoms. The more general problem of using plausibility as a criterion of the truth of such reconstructions are illustrated by the arguments embedded in Tom Stoppard's Arcadia.

  15. 46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's Last Street Cars, Daily Press, January 15, 1956) photographer unknown. The first streetcar (with dignitaries) to make the run from Newport News to a new housing development named Hilton Village in September 1918. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  16. Teaching Nuclear Radiation and the Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David R. Lapp

    2008-01-01

    The recent international story about the death of the former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko has more than just a few wondering about radiation poisoning and the sinister sounding polonium-210. I was preparing to begin a nuclear radiation unit the Monday after Thanksgiving 2006. As it turned out, Litvinenko died Thanksgiving Day after a short and…

  17. Alexander Meiklejohn in Search of Freedom and Dignity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of the philosopher/educator Alexander Meiklejohn. Discusses the influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and the U.S. Constitution on Meiklejohn's educational theories, which stressed that human freedom and dignity can be enhanced by rigorous examination of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and the meaning of…

  18. Alexander the Great, the dahlia, and the tortoise.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Malcolm

    2004-06-01

    Some of the problems of establishing the cause of the death of Alexander the Great are like the attempts to find causes other than hysteria for Anna O.'s symptoms. The more general problem of using plausibility as a criterion of the truth of such reconstructions are illustrated by the arguments embedded in Tom Stoppard's Arcadia. PMID:15370321

  19. The Century-Old Wisdom of Alexander Graham Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett, Orin

    1990-01-01

    This article reflects on Alexander Graham Bell's 1888 testimony before the Royal Commission of the United Kingdom on the Condition of the Deaf and Dumb, Etc. Excerpts are grouped by reference to (1) language education for the hearing impaired; (2) speechreading; (3) methods of teaching; (4) speech; and (5) sign language. (Author/PB)

  20. View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the James and Lucy Alexander gravestone and family plot among other demarcated family plots in the Female Union Band Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. A complex-network perspective on Alexander's wholeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin

    2016-12-01

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains somehow mysterious and elusive, and therefore hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty for sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks - a classification scheme and a visualization tool for data with a heavy-tailed distribution, in order to make Alexander's profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander's thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty that exists in fine and deep structure. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their wholeness, and to better understand how the kind of structural beauty emerges from local actions guided by the 15 fundamental properties, and in particular by differentiation and adaptation processes. The wholeness goes beyond current complex network theory towards design or creation of living structures.

  2. Obituary: Alexander (Andy) Franz Lubenow, 1956-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc William

    2006-12-01

    challenge upon which Andy thrived. After he had mastered sailing, he embarked on a new hobby: flying. He studied for and quickly earned a private pilot's license, purchasing his own Piper Cherokee in the process. One goal —a cross-country trip— was accomplished in June 2003, when he flew solo from Baltimore to Los Angeles and back. "You ought to try it," he told me. "As Lindbergh put it, flying is the perfect mix of science, engineering, and art. Only the pilots know why the birds sing....although I'm sure the geese I heard flying over[head] in formation the other night were swearing, and given the weather, I didn't blame them a bit!" When discussing his illness just days before his death, Andy was very calm about the whole thing and joked that "none of us is getting out of this life alive." It was during this conversation that he first heard the news that an asteroid was to be named in his honor. I read him the citation and asked for his comments: Lubenow 65885 Alexander Franz Lubenow Discovered 1997 Dec. 27 by M. W. Buie at the Anderson Mesa Station of the Lowell Observatory. Alexander (Andy) F. Lubenow (1956-), Program Coordinator at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Andy has provided exceptional support to the Hubble Space Telescope as an innovator and expert observation planner, especially for solar system targets, over the lifetime of HST. He had nothing to add. He responded that the citation pretty much said it all, and to say more would be to say less. Andy was a pleasure to know and work with. He was a friend, confidant, and sometimes even a guiding inspiration. When our paths diverged, I took some consolation in knowing that I would see him each year at the DPS meeting showing off the latest that the HST had done for solar system research. His visits have now come to an end but his legacy will live on. And somewhere, out in the dark of space, is a chunk of rock bearing his name.

  3. Alexander disease: a leukodystrophy caused by a mutation in GFAP.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anne B

    2004-05-01

    Alexander disease, a rare fatal disorder of the central nervous system, causes progressive loss of motor and mental function. Until recently it was of unknown etiology, almost all cases were sporadic, and there was no effective treatment. It was most common in an infantile form, somewhat less so in a juvenile form, and was rarely seen in an adult-onset form. A number of investigators have now shown that almost all cases of Alexander disease have a dominant mutation in one allele of the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that causes replacement of one amino acid for another. Only in very rare cases of the adult-onset form is the mutation present in either parent. Thus, in almost all cases, the mutation arises as a spontaneous event, possibly in the germ cell of one parent.

  4. Alexander the Great's Tomb at Siwa: The Astronomical Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathanassiou, M.; Souvaltzis, Em.; Souvaltzi, L.; Moussas, X.

    A preliminary report on the possible astronomical orientation of the Tomb of Alexander the Great, recently found and excavated by the greek archaeologist Liana Souvaltzi. The tomb is a greek building of doric style. Its enormous dimensions make it the largest amongst the found macedonian tombs (much bigger than the tomb of Philip II, Alexander's father). The tomb faces generally south---west and its orientation could be related either to the constellation of Centaurus or to the star Canopus. The walls of the two long sides of the building have strickingly different widhts. Moreover each wall has three doors (opposite in pairs) of slightly different sizes. We examine the possibility the openings of the doors and their assymetries to be designed and constructed according to some astronomical (solar or stellar) orientations.

  5. Nitric oxide mediates glial-induced neurodegeneration in Alexander disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L.; Kalwa, Hermann; Michel, Thomas; Messing, Albee; Feany, Mel B.

    2015-01-01

    Glia play critical roles in maintaining the structure and function of the nervous system; however, the specific contribution that astroglia make to neurodegeneration in human disease states remains largely undefined. Here we use Alexander disease, a serious degenerative neurological disorder caused by astrocyte dysfunction, to identify glial-derived NO as a signalling molecule triggering astrocyte-mediated neuronal degeneration. We further find that NO acts through cGMP signalling in neurons to promote cell death. Glial cells themselves also degenerate, via the DNA damage response and p53. Our findings thus define a specific mechanism for glial-induced non-cell autonomous neuronal cell death, and identify a potential therapeutic target for reducing cellular toxicity in Alexander disease, and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders with glial dysfunction. PMID:26608817

  6. Alexander's law during high-acceleration head rotations in humans.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Evangelos; Heimberger, Joachim; Sklavos, Sokratis; Anastasopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-03-30

    Alexander's law states that the amplitude of the spontaneous nystagmus grows with increasing gaze in the direction of the fast phase. Using the search-coil method we employed head impulses at various eye-in-orbit azimuth angles to test (i) whether the normal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in the behaviorally relevant high-frequency range has intrinsic properties that could account for Alexander's law and (ii) whether such properties can also be shown in patients with unilateral vestibulopathy. We showed that the gain of the VOR remained unaffected by eye-in-orbit position in contols and in patients, both on ipsilesional and contralesional stimuli. These findings suggest that eye-in-orbit position does not directly modulate the activity in VOR pathways, neither during unbalanced but reciprocal (in controls), nor during unbalanced and nonreciprocal natural vestibular stimulation (in patients).

  7. Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Marr, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Alexander the Great died in Babylon in 323 BC. His death at age 32 followed a 2-week febrile illness. Speculated causes of death have included poisoning, assassination, and a number of infectious diseases. One incident, mentioned by Plutarch but not considered by previous investigators, may shed light on the cause of Alexander’s death. The incident, which occurred as he entered Babylon, involved a flock of ravens exhibiting unusual behavior and subsequently dying at his feet. The inexplicable behavior of ravens is reminiscent of avian illness and death weeks before the first human cases of West Nile virus infection were identified in the United States. We posit that Alexander may have died of West Nile encephalitis. PMID:14725285

  8. Nitric oxide mediates glial-induced neurodegeneration in Alexander disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqun; Hagemann, Tracy L; Kalwa, Hermann; Michel, Thomas; Messing, Albee; Feany, Mel B

    2015-01-01

    Glia play critical roles in maintaining the structure and function of the nervous system; however, the specific contribution that astroglia make to neurodegeneration in human disease states remains largely undefined. Here we use Alexander disease, a serious degenerative neurological disorder caused by astrocyte dysfunction, to identify glial-derived NO as a signalling molecule triggering astrocyte-mediated neuronal degeneration. We further find that NO acts through cGMP signalling in neurons to promote cell death. Glial cells themselves also degenerate, via the DNA damage response and p53. Our findings thus define a specific mechanism for glial-induced non-cell autonomous neuronal cell death, and identify a potential therapeutic target for reducing cellular toxicity in Alexander disease, and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders with glial dysfunction. PMID:26608817

  9. Dr Alexander Graham Bell--audiologist and speech therapist.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, R C

    1976-09-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is best known for his role in the invention of the telephone. However, he had a lifelong involvement in speech therapy and audiology besides many other medical investigations. He was also awarded an honorary MD degree from Heidelberg University. In this, the 100th anniversary of his invention of the telephone, his life and some of his medical interests are briefly reviewed. PMID:786234

  10. Dr Alexander Graham Bell--audiologist and speech therapist.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, R C

    1976-09-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is best known for his role in the invention of the telephone. However, he had a lifelong involvement in speech therapy and audiology besides many other medical investigations. He was also awarded an honorary MD degree from Heidelberg University. In this, the 100th anniversary of his invention of the telephone, his life and some of his medical interests are briefly reviewed.

  11. Sir Howard Walter Florey--the force behind the development of penicillin.

    PubMed

    Ligon, B Lee

    2004-04-01

    The development of penicillin was a watershed in the battle against infectious diseases. The primary individuals responsible for its discovery and development were Sir Alexander Fleming, Sir Howard Walter Florey, and Ernst B. Chain, now primary figures in the annals of medical history. The individual who serendipitously "discovered" penicillin was Sir Alexander Fleming. Despite the determination displayed by Fleming, little notice was given to his discovery for more than a decade, and the active substance was not isolated. Finally, in 1939, Florey, along with Chain, led a team of British scientists who successfully manufactured the drug from the liquid broth in which penicillin grows. They, along with Fleming, were given the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their roles in the discovery and development of this agent. This biography focuses on the life and work of Sir Howard Walter Florey.

  12. The 'horns' of a medical dilemma: Alexander the Great.

    PubMed

    Russell, Gül A

    2004-06-01

    Retrospective 'diagnosis' of clinical disorders of famous historical figures has been of medical interest. In the absence of a patient's 'body', the validity of 'physical symptoms' and their interpretation by contemporary diagnostic criteria are questionable. When the symptoms have been gleaned from the patients's effigy which, as in the case of Alexander the Great, is submerged in legend, the enterprise becomes inherently hazardous. In the present paper, some of the conceptual problems underlying retrospective diagnoses will be identified. Then the use of iconographic records, such as numismatics and sculpture, to provide evidence of clinical symptoms will be shown to be highly misleading.

  13. Alexander disease - astrogliopathy considered as leukodystrophy - experience of an institution.

    PubMed

    Mierzewska, Hanna; Mierzewska-Schmidt, Magdalena; Salomons, Gajja S; Dudzińska, Magdalena; Szczepanik, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Alexander Disease (ALXDRD) is an autosomal dominant leukodystrophy caused by mutation in one allele of GFAP gene, encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Most cases occur due to de novo. There are three clinical subtypes of ALXDRD: infantile, juvenile and adult form, but congenital form is also outlined. The disease's spectrum comprises of macrocephaly, progressive pyramidal signs, and seizures in congenital and infantile subtypes. Neuropathologically are enormous number of Rosenthal fibers (RF) mainly around vessels, in subependymal and subpial regions are found. The diagnosis is based on the typical findings on MRI: diffuse white mater lesions with frontal regions preponderance and possibly on the detection of the gene mutation. Here we present six Polish children affected of Alexander disease with congenital (1), infantile (4) and juvenile (1) form. Five of them were previously misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy or unspecific developmental delay; two patients had MRI because of another suspicion, before specific diagnosis was established. Molecular analysis performed in four cases confirmed mutations of GFAP gene; all mutation were de novo. The role of astroglia in brain is shortly reviewed. PMID:27442695

  14. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities. PMID:9914755

  15. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities.

  16. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  17. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  18. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  19. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  20. 33 CFR 162.250 - Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Alexander, Alaska; speed of... Alexander, Alaska; speed of vessels. (a) Definition. The term “Port Alexander” includes the entire inlet from its head to its entrance from Chatham Strait. (b) Speed. The speed of all vessels of 5 tons...

  1. The death of Alexander the Great--a spinal twist of fate.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2004-06-01

    Alexander the Great died in 323 B.C. from an unknown cause. Physical depictions of this historical figure reveal the likelihood of a cervical scoliotic deformity. This is substantiated with the medical history and is correlated with his untimely death. For the first time, it is concluded that Alexander's death may have ensued from the sequelae of congenital scoliotic syndrome.

  2. Alexander's (356-323 BC) expeditionary Medical Corps 334-323 BC.

    PubMed

    Retsas, Spyros

    2009-08-01

    Alexander had a profound interest in medicine and healing. Original Greek texts survive mainly from the works of Plutarch and Arrian. This paper examines original sources naming the physicians who participated in Alexander's expedition in Asia, the battle injuries he sustained and his final illness in Babylon.

  3. Kinesthetic Ventures Informed by the Work of F. M. Alexander, Stanislavski, Peirce, and Freud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Ed; Wright, Ben; Protzel, Michael, Ed.

    This book is about education harvested from self-observation. F. Matthias Alexander (1869-1955) studied the experience of self formation, working with motor habits. His method is used in performing arts training to enhance bodily and vocal expression. Like Alexander, Konstantine Stanislavski (1863-1938) and Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) studied human…

  4. 76 FR 28226 - Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander; and AIR 7 Seas... ``Complainant,'' against African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia, ALCO Logistics, LLC; Brenda Alexander; and Air 7 Seas Transport Logistics, Inc.; hereinafter ``Respondents''. Complainant asserts that she is acting agent...

  5. Discovering Mendeleev's Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity that introduces the historical developments in science that led to the discovery of the periodic table and lets students experience scientific discovery firsthand. Enables students to learn about patterns among the elements and experience how scientists analyze data to discover patterns and build models. (JRH)

  6. Discovering the Artist Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Sam

    1999-01-01

    Describes a personal artistic struggle against heroin addiction, advising teachers of the difficulty of working to discover and express one's developing self. Considers the effect of poetry and philosophy on the developing creative process. Provides samples of the author's own poetry to demonstrate creative development, as an example to Montessori…

  7. Discovering the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    1999-04-01

    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  8. The Astronomer Alexander I. Postoiev (1900-1976)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, P. M.; Matsuura, O. T.

    This is a biographical note on the life of Dr Alexander I. Postoiev, a victim of Stalin's purge of Soviet astronomers in 1936-1937 (McCutcheon, 1985). Along with his family, he left the Soviet Union in 1943, and lived in Germany as a refugee and "displaced person" until 1952, when he moved to Brazil. Then he started the second part of his professional career. Thanks to his efforts the Astronomical and Geophysical Institute (IAG) from the University of Sao Paulo (USP) was involved, for the first time, in programme of international cooperation, thus contributing to the institutional consolidation of IAG/USP as a leading centre of astronomical research and teaching today in Brazil.

  9. Silurian Gastropoda from the Alexander terrane, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Gastropods are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. They are part of a diverse megabenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. Heceta Limestone gastropods with Uralian affinities include Kirkospira glacialis, which closely resembles "Pleurotomaria" lindstromi Oehlert of Chernyshev, 1893, Retispira cf. R. volgulica (Chernyshev, 1893), and Medfracaulus turriformis (Chernyshev, 1893). Medfracaulus and similar morphotypes such as Coelocaulus karlae are unknown from rocks that are unquestionably part of the North American continent (Laurentia) during Late Silurian time. Beraunia is previously known only from the Silurian of Bohemia. Pachystrophia has previously been reported only from western North American terranes (Eastern Klamath, York, and Farewell terranes) and Europe. Bathmopterus Kirk, 1928, is resurrected and is only known from the Silurian of southeast Alaska. Newly described taxa include Hecetastoma gehrelsi n. gen. and n. sp. and Baichtalia tongassensis n. gen. and n. sp. ??2008 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Alexander the Great's tombolos at Tyre and Alexandria, eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriner, N.; Goiran, J. P.; Morhange, C.

    2008-08-01

    Tyre and Alexandria's coastlines are today characterised by wave-dominated tombolos, peculiar sand isthmuses that link former islands to the adjacent continent. Paradoxically, despite a long history of inquiry into spit and barrier formation, understanding of the dynamics and sedimentary history of tombolos over the Holocene timescale is poor. At Tyre and Alexandria we demonstrate that these rare coastal features are the heritage of a long history of natural morphodynamic forcing and human impacts. In 332 BC, following a protracted seven-month siege of the city, Alexander the Great's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow sublittoral sand bank to seize the island fortress; Tyre's causeway served as a prototype for Alexandria's Heptastadium built a few months later. We report stratigraphic and geomorphological data from the two sand spits, proposing a chronostratigraphic model of tombolo evolution.

  11. Teaching Nuclear Radiation and the Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-03-01

    The recent international story about the death of the former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko has more than just a few wondering about radiation poisoning and the sinister sounding polonium-210. I was preparing to begin a nuclear radiation unit the Monday after Thanksgiving 2006. As it turned out, Litvinenko died Thanksgiving Day after a short and terrible three-week illness. Having the story continue to unfold throughout the next two weeks of the new unit provided a daily opportunity for students to see the relevance of what we were doing in class. My students were able to have meaningful and informed conversations with their peers and parents over an important international event. They even began to feel a bit like authorities themselves when listening to experts respond to media questions about polonium-210 and nuclear radiation in general. This paper discusses some of the ways that the story of Litvinenko was used while presenting the topic of nuclear radiation.

  12. Alexander von Humboldt's perceptions of colonial Spanish America.

    PubMed

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis of Alexander von Humboldt's descriptions and critical comments on the colonial society of the different regions he visited during his well-known expedition through the Americas (1799-1804). The criticisms of colonialism that he expressed, reflecting his personal convictions, have already been the focal point of many studies, but Humboldt also was able to offer a more differentiated assessment through comparisons of regional and local traditions and developments. This essay focuses on his personal diaries, which offer many interesting comments on colonial societies. These considerations and impressions made during the expedition are of particular scholarly value since they were not subject to censorship of any kind. PMID:19852391

  13. Alexander von Humboldt's perceptions of colonial Spanish America.

    PubMed

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis of Alexander von Humboldt's descriptions and critical comments on the colonial society of the different regions he visited during his well-known expedition through the Americas (1799-1804). The criticisms of colonialism that he expressed, reflecting his personal convictions, have already been the focal point of many studies, but Humboldt also was able to offer a more differentiated assessment through comparisons of regional and local traditions and developments. This essay focuses on his personal diaries, which offer many interesting comments on colonial societies. These considerations and impressions made during the expedition are of particular scholarly value since they were not subject to censorship of any kind.

  14. Effects of Alexander Technique training experience on gait behavior in older adults.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew M; Anderson, David I; Allen, Diane D; Ross, Christopher; Hamel, Kate A

    2015-07-01

    Heightened fall risk, potentially caused by aging-related changes in gait, is a serious health issue faced by older adults. The Alexander Technique is thought to improve balance and motor function; however, the technique's effect on gait has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Alexander Technique training in older adults on the temporospatial characteristics of gait and medio-lateral center of mass displacement during fast and comfortably paced over-ground walking. Six licensed Alexander Technique teachers and seven controls between the ages of 60 and 75 years of age participated in the study. Alexander Technique teachers exhibited a reduction in medio-lateral center of mass displacement during fast paced walking compared to comfortably paced walking that was not present in controls. Due to this difference Alexander Technique teachers displayed a smaller medio-lateral Center of Mass displacement compared to controls during fast paced walking. Alexander Technique teachers also demonstrated significantly smaller stride width and lower gait timing variability compared to controls. These findings, which suggest superior control of dynamic stability during gait and potentially reduced fall risk in Alexander Technique teachers, warrant further study.

  15. Discovering system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B.; Dean, F.F.

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  16. Discovering the Expanding Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Foreword by Allan

    2009-03-01

    Acknowledgments; Foreword; 1. Introduction; 2. Cosmological concepts at the end of the Middle Ages; 3. Nebulae as a new astronomical phenomenon; 4. On the construction of the Heavens; 5. Island universes turn into astronomical facts: a universe of galaxies; 6. The early cosmology of Einstein and de Sitter; 7. The dynamical universe of Friedmann; 8. Redshifts: how to reconcile Slipher and de Sitter?; 9. Lemaître discovers the expanding universe; 10. Hubble's contribution of 1929; 11. The breakthrough for the expanding universe; 12. Hubble's anger about de Sitter; 13. Robertson and Tolman join the game; 14. The Einstein-de Sitter universe; 15. Are Sun and Earth older than the universe?; 16. In search of alternative tracks; 17. The seed for the Big Bang; 18. Summary and Postscript; Appendix; References; Index.

  17. Student Discovers New Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    A West Virginia high-school student has discovered a new pulsar, using data from the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Shay Bloxton, 15, a participant in a project in which students analyze data from the radio telescope, spotted evidence of the pulsar on October 15. Bloxton, along with NRAO astronomers observed the object again one month later. The new observation confirmed that the object is a pulsar, a rotating, superdense neutron star. Bloxton is a sophomore at Nicholas County High School in Summersville, West Virginia. "I was very excited when I found out I had actually made a discovery," Bloxton said. She went to Green Bank in November to participate in the follow-up observation. She termed that visit "a great experience." "It also helped me learn a lot about how observations with the GBT are actually done," she added. The project in which she participated, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Pulsars are known for their lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as the neutron star rotates, creating a pulse as the beam sweeps by the Earth. First discovered in 1967, pulsars serve as valuable natural "laboratories" for physicists studying exotic states of matter, quantum mechanics and General Relativity. The GBT, dedicated in 2000, has become one of the world's leading tools for discovering and studying pulsars. The PSC, led by NRAO Education Officer Sue Ann Heatherly and Project Director Rachel Rosen, includes training for teachers and student leaders, and provides parcels of data from the GBT to student teams. The project involves teachers and students in helping astronomers analyze data from 1500 hours of observing with the GBT. The 120 terabytes of data were produced by 70,000 individual pointings of the giant, 17-million-pound telescope. Some 300 hours of the

  18. The efficacy of medicine during the campaigns of Alexander the Great.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, J R

    1992-09-01

    This paper examines the various factors that may have determined the efficacy of physicians during the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Such general variables as the adequacy of preparation, the nature of the medical profession, and the extent of preventative measures are all discussed at the outset of the paper, followed by a more detailed examination of the specific wounds, illnesses, and treatments of Alexander as described in the accounts of the Alexander historians Plutarch, Curtius, and Arrian. Where no remedy is given by these writers (as is usually the case), this paper speculates on the efficacy of possible treatments as advocated in the contemporary Hippocratic corpus. Casualty statistics of the campaigns are compared to a similar review of Homer's Iliad. From these examinations, this paper concludes that wound treatment efficacy was significantly greater than that of illness treatment, and that Alexander lost many more men to disease than to the wounds of war.

  19. The Berlin tradition in Chicago: Franz Alexander and the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Erika S

    2010-01-01

    Freud considered Franz Alexander, the first graduate of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute and an assistant in the Berlin Polyclinic, to be "one of our strongest hopes for the future." Alexander went on to become the first director of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis in 1932 and modeled some of the Chicago Institute's mission on his Berlin experiences. He was also a researcher in psychosomatic medicine, a prolific writer about psychoanalysis and prominent in psychoanalytic organizations. As he proposed modifications in psychoanalytic technique, he became a controversial figure, especially in the elaboration of his ideas about brief therapy and the corrective emotional experience. This paper puts Alexander's achievements in historical context, draws connections between the Berlin and Chicago Institutes and suggests that, despite his quarrels with traditional psychoanalysis, Alexander's legacy may be in his attitude towards psychoanalysis, characterized by a commitment to scientific study, a willingness to experiment, and a conviction about the role of psychoanalysis within the larger culture.

  20. Expedition 8 Crew Interviews: Alexander Y. Kaleri - FE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Russian cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Flight Engineer on Expedition 8 to the International Space Station (ISS), answers interview questions on this video, either himself or with the help of an interpreter. The questions cover: 1) The goal of the expedition; 2) The place in history of Mir; 3) The reaction to the loss of Columbia in Houston; 4) Why the rewards of spaceflight are worth the risks; 5) Why he decided to become a cosmonaut; 6) His memory of Yuri Gagarin's first flight; 7) What happens on a Soyuz capsule during launch and flight; 8) Are Soyuz maneuvers automatic or manual; 8) How the ISS science mission will be advanced during his stay; 9) The responsibilities of a Flight Engineer onboard the ISS; 10) Extravehicular activity (EVA) plans at that time; 11) The Shuttle Return to Flight and his preference for a Shuttle or Soyuz landing; 12) Why the last Soyuz landing was too rough; 13) The most valueable contribution of the ISS program.

  1. What is the alternative to the Alexander-Orbach relation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor M.

    2016-03-01

    The Alexander-Orbach (AO) relation d w = 2d f /d s connecting the fractal dimension of a random walk’s (RW) trajectory d w or the exponent of anomalous diffusion α = 2/d w on a fractal structure with the fractal and spectral dimension of the structure itself plays a key role in discussion of dynamical properties of complex systems including living cells and single biomolecules. This relation however does not hold universally and breaks down for some structures like diffusion limited aggregates and Eden trees. We show that the alternative to the AO relation is the explicit dependence of the coefficient of the anomalous diffusion on the system’s size, i.e. the absence of its thermodynamical limit. The prerequisite for its breakdown is the dependence of the local structure of possible steps of the RW on the system’s size. The discussion is illustrated by the examples of diffusion on a Koch curve (AO-conform) and on a Cantor dust (violating AO relation).

  2. Group sequential monitoring based on the weighted log-rank test statistic with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights in cancer vaccine studies.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, immunological science has evolved, and cancer vaccines are now approved and available for treating existing cancers. Because cancer vaccines require time to elicit an immune response, a delayed treatment effect is expected and is actually observed in drug approval studies. Accordingly, we propose the evaluation of survival endpoints by weighted log-rank tests with the Fleming-Harrington class of weights. We consider group sequential monitoring, which allows early efficacy stopping, and determine a semiparametric information fraction for the Fleming-Harrington family of weights, which is necessary for the error spending function. Moreover, we give a flexible survival model in cancer vaccine studies that considers not only the delayed treatment effect but also the long-term survivors. In a Monte Carlo simulation study, we illustrate that when the primary analysis is a weighted log-rank test emphasizing the late differences, the proposed information fraction can be a useful alternative to the surrogate information fraction, which is proportional to the number of events. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cyclicity in Silurian island-arc carbonates, Alexander terrane, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kittredge, L.E.; Soja, C.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Silurian carbonates from Alaska (Alexander terrane) record the evolution of a submarine platform during waning volcanism in an island arc. A detailed stratigraphic analysis of a 47 meter-thick sequence revealed the existence of cyclically repeated limestones: coral-stromatoporoid wackestones alternate with oncoid packstones and bioturbated, silty lime mudstones. The coral-stromatoporoid deposits are characterized by a low-diversity assemblage of dendroid corals, massive stromatoporoids, Atrypoidea brachiopods, and rare occurrences of biostromes associated with Solenopora, high-spired gastropods, and crinoids. Oncoids typically are 2-6 mm in diameter and form massive, meter-thick units. Coated grains are symmetrically developed, have a shell or algal nucleus, and are also a minor component of coral-stromatoporoid beds. These lithologic units form seven, shallowing-upwards cycles (parasequences) that range in thickness from 3-9 meters. Coral-stomatoporoid wackestones form the base of each cycle and grade upwards into oncoid packstones with silty, lime mudstones at the top. This succession of lithofacies within each cycle reflects an increase in energy levels from relatively deeper water environments to relatively shallower ones. The lack of abrasion in the corals and stromatoporoids suggests predominantly quiet-water conditions in shallow subtidal areas affected by periodic turbulence. Comparison with correlative sections in Alaska and lack of correspondence with global sea level curves suggest that the primary cause of cyclicity was tectonic perturbations with secondary eustatic effects. Cyclic deposition in peri/subtidal sites was terminated by rapid drowning of the carbonate platform during late Silurian orogenesis.

  4. The life and death of Alexander Bogdanov, physician.

    PubMed

    Huestis, D W

    1996-08-01

    It was early in April in 1928 when the word went out in Moscow that Alexander Bogdanov had died. He was a controversial figure, an old Bolshevik who had left that party long before the 1917 revolution and never returned. All the same, he had had Lenin's respect as a scientist (as long as he stayed out of politics). More recently, he also had the support of the new party strong man, Stalin. Bogdanov opposed the growing despotism of the "dictatorship of the proletariat", under which slogan Communist autocracy was being developed. But he was respected as a tireless propagandist for the socialist cause, an enthusiastic teacher of the proletariat, and a writer of arcane science and philosophy. Bogdanov was held in such respect that Communist bigwigs spoke glowingly at the funeral, praising his intellect, courage, and dedication to science and humanity. They did not fail to point out that he had split with his one-time friend, Lenin, and had succumbed to ideological "errors". Indeed, he had powerful enemies in the early Soviet state. Bogdanov was a physician, economist, philosopher, natural scientist, writer of utopian science fiction, poet, teacher, politician (unsuccesful), lifelong revolutionary, forerunner of what we now call cybernetics and organizational science, and founder of the world's first institution devoted entirely to the field of blood transfusion. You could call him a Renaissance man. Although he clearly fitted the category of the late-nineteenth-century Russian intellectual revolutionary, Bogdanov differed from most of them in being no dilettante. More than just a theorist, he was an active scientist and physician. As a teacher, he firmly believed that education and indoctrination could alter people's ways of thinking and behaving, and that humanity could be perfected under socialism. Like many revolutionaries, Bogdanov tried to keep ahead of the Tsar's police by using a variety of pseudonyms, among them Riadavoy, Werner, Maximov, and Bogdanov. After

  5. Lightest exoplanet yet discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Well-known exoplanet researcher Michel Mayor today announced the discovery of the lightest exoplanet found so far. The planet, "e", in the famous system Gliese 581, is only about twice the mass of our Earth. The team also refined the orbit of the planet Gliese 581 d, first discovered in 2007, placing it well within the habitable zone, where liquid water oceans could exist. These amazing discoveries are the outcome of more than four years of observations using the most successful low-mass-exoplanet hunter in the world, the HARPS spectrograph attached to the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. ESO PR Photo 15a/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Photo 15b/09 A planet in the habitable zone ESO PR Video 15a/09 ESOcast 6 ESO PR Video 15b/09 VNR A-roll ESO PR Video 15c/09 Zoom-in on Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15d/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 e ESO PR Video 15e/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 d ESO PR Video 15f/09 Artist's impression of Gliese 581 system ESO PR Video 15g/09 The radial velocity method ESO PR Video 15h/09 Statement in English ESO PR Video 15i/09 Statement in French ESO PR Video 15j/09 La Silla Observatory "The holy grail of current exoplanet research is the detection of a rocky, Earth-like planet in the ‘habitable zone' -- a region around the host star with the right conditions for water to be liquid on a planet's surface", says Michel Mayor from the Geneva Observatory, who led the European team to this stunning breakthrough. Planet Gliese 581 e orbits its host star - located only 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra ("the Scales") -- in just 3.15 days. "With only 1.9 Earth-masses, it is the least massive exoplanet ever detected and is, very likely, a rocky planet", says co-author Xavier Bonfils from Grenoble Observatory. Being so close to its host star, the planet is not in the habitable zone. But another planet in this system appears to be. From previous observations -- also obtained with the HARPS spectrograph

  6. Educating with the hands: working on the body/self in Alexander Technique.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Jennifer

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, forms of body work such as Alexander Technique have been excluded from mainstream biomedicine and healthcare, despite attempts by practitioners to have the work accepted within the medical community. Using data from a UK-based study of Alexander Technique which combined participant observation, interviews with 17 teachers and pupils, and analysis of historical texts, this article examines the relationship of the Alexander Technique to the field of healthcare, looking at its embodied practices, and contrasting these with the discourses in which it is framed. Applying Foucault's concept of 'techniques of the self', the article examines Alexander Technique's physical practices as a form of embodied knowledge, and goes on to look at its use of particular ideas about nature and evolution as guiding authorities, its emphasis on holism through its conception of the 'self', and how it has been positioned in relation to biomedical approaches. The article argues that while the embodied practice of Alexander Technique has much to offer to mainstream healthcare, the discourses and knowledge systems in which it is embedded make it unlikely to receive mainstream medical acceptance.

  7. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Denneau, L.; Stalder, B.; Heinze, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-04-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  8. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-03-01

    Seven bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  9. Bright Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Six bright transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  10. Two Transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-08-01

    Two transients have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  11. Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson. Wilson's disease, Queen Square and neurology.

    PubMed

    Broussolle, E; Trocello, J-M; Woimant, F; Lachaux, A; Quinn, N

    2013-12-01

    This historical article describes the life and work of the British physician Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson (1878-1937), who was one of the world's greatest neurologists of the first half of the 20th century. Early in his career, Wilson spent one year in Paris in 1903 where he learned from Pierre-Marie at Bicêtre Hospital. He subsequently retained uninterrupted links with French neurology. He also visited in Leipzig the German anatomist Paul Flechsig. In 1904, Wilson returned to London, where he worked for the rest of his life at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic (later the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, and today the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery) in Queen Square, and also at Kings' College Hospital. He wrote on 'the old motor system and the new', on disorders of motility and muscle tone, on the epilepsies, on aphasia, apraxia, tics, and pathologic laughing and crying, and most importantly on Wilson's disease. The other objective of our paper is to commemorate the centenary of Wilson's most important work published in 1912 in Brain, and also in Revue Neurologique, on an illness newly recognized and characterized by him entitled "Progressive lenticular degeneration, a familial nervous disease associated with liver cirrhosis". He analyzed 12 clinical cases, four of whom he followed himself, but also four cases previously published by others and a further two that he considered in retrospect had the same disease as he was describing. The pathological profile combined necrotic damage in the lenticular nuclei of the brain and hepatic cirrhosis. This major original work is summarized and discussed in the present paper. Wilson not only delineated what was later called hepato-lenticular degeneration and Wilson's disease, but also introduced for the first time the terms extrapyramidal syndrome and extrapyramidal system, stressing the role of the basal ganglia in motility. The present historical work emphasizes the special

  12. Alexander von Humboldt's charts of the Earth's magnetic field: an assessment based on modern models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, M.; Korte, M.; Soloviev, A.; Gvishiani, A.

    2010-11-01

    The 19th century witnessed a resurgence of interest in Earth's magnetic field. Both observational and theoretical aspects were involved, and one of the emblematic figures of this period was Alexander von Humboldt. Throughout a long life he maintained a strong interest in a broad area of subjects, however, here we are interested in his role in geomagnetism, and particularly in his pioneering contributions to charting the geomagnetic field. Alexander von Humboldt efforts in measuring and charting the Earth's magnetic field are recounted and the maps of declination, inclination and total intensity he had prepared are compared, favorably, with maps for the same epoch based on a modern model of the geomagnetic field, gufm1. This modern assessment of the accuracy of von Humboldt's geomagnetic charts illustrates the importance of his work, being also our homage to the 150th anniversary of the death of Alexander von Humboldt.

  13. The MIT/WHOI Joint Program in Oceanography and Applied Ocean Science and Engineering: An Ongoing Experiment in Graduate Education and the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming Influence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    On May 8, 1968 Paul M. Fye, President of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Howard W. Johnson, President of Massachusetts Institute of Oceanography, signed a Memorandum of Agreement of one and one-half pages in which both partner institutions "have each approved the creation of a Joint Graduate Program in Oceanography for which there will be established appropriate graduate degrees to be conferred jointly by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution." The partnership brought together the MIT experience with formal graduate education in sciences and engineering involving classroom instruction and more traditional academic advising with the less formal one to one "apprenticeship" or European tutorial style of education at WHOI. During the first year the graduate program involved only the physical sciences with the MIT home being in the Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Department. Ocean Engineering was added the following year with the MIT home being the Ocean Engineering Department. Biological Oceanography was added in 1970 with the MIT home being the Biology Department. The existing graduate curricula of the home departments at MIT, the inclusion of ocean engineering, and the fact that several of the early program instructors and advisers at WHOI entered oceanography after formal graduate training in more traditional disciplines such as chemistry, geology, physics, biology and mathematics was not conducive to an automatic adoption of the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming paradigm of core courses that predominated in other leading graduate programs in oceanography. Despite this caveat, the Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming paradigm has influenced the learning environment in the Joint Program. Taking into account lessons learned in the process, some suggestions for the future of graduate education in ocean sciences and ocean engineering will be presented.

  14. Digimarc Discover on Google Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Eliot; Rodriguez, Tony; Lord, John; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of the Digimarc® Discover platform on Google Glass, enabling the reading of a watermark embedded in a printed material or audio. The embedded watermark typically contains a unique code that identifies the containing media or object and a synchronization signal that allows the watermark to be read robustly. The Digimarc Discover smartphone application can read the watermark from a small portion of printed image presented at any orientation or reasonable distance. Likewise, Discover can read the recently introduced Digimarc Barcode to identify and manage consumer packaged goods in the retail channel. The Digimarc Barcode has several advantages over the traditional barcode and is expected to save the retail industry millions of dollars when deployed at scale. Discover can also read an audio watermark from ambient audio captured using a microphone. The Digimarc Discover platform has been widely deployed on the iPad, iPhone and many Android-based devices, but it has not yet been implemented on a head-worn wearable device, such as Google Glass. Implementing Discover on Google Glass is a challenging task due to the current hardware and software limitations of the device. This paper identifies the challenges encountered in porting Discover to the Google Glass and reports on the solutions created to deliver a prototype implementation.

  15. IN MEMORIAM: In Memoriam: Alexander A Golovin and Alexei M Oparin In Memoriam: Alexander A Golovin and Alexei M Oparin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    In Memoriam of Alexander A Golovin (1962-2008) Alexander (Sasha) Golovin passed away on 10 September 2008. Sasha's scientific heritage includes seminal works in different fields of physics, from Marangoni convection to self-assembly of quantum dots, and from combustion fronts to anomalous diffusion in flows and on a crystal surface. A graduate of the Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, he had very broad scientific interests and a unique ability to identify and solve new, intellectually challenging and technologically important problems. One of the basic fields of Sasha's research was the fluid dynamics in systems with interfaces. His favorite subject was the motion of droplets, bubbles and particles in the presence of heat and mass transfer. Sasha's early works contained the discovery of the spontaneous motion of droplets due to the Marangoni effect and the investigation of the interaction between solid particles, bubbles and droplets caused by the Marangoni effect, which is a crucial factor that determines the effect of heat/mass transfer on the rate of coalescence. In both cases, Sasha's work was the first in a long sequence of papers written by different authors. Later, Sasha returned to that field when studying such fascinating subjects as levitation of droplets above the surface of an evaporating liquid and encapsulation of particles and bubbles by an advancing solidification front. The subject of interfacial hydrodynamics overlaps with another basic field of Sasha's research, the theory of pattern formation. The contribution of Sasha's work to the modern understanding of the variety of pattern formation phenomena is significant. It includes the analysis of the interaction between long-wave and short-wave instability modes in Marangoni convection, investigation of the large-scale Marangoni convection that led to the prediction of different patterns including quasipatterns, and the description of various non-potential effects in Marangoni convection

  16. Alexander Bain's CUE in the Post-Modern World: Unity Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, Phyllis

    In 1866, Alexander Bain proposed that by evaluating unity, coherence, and emphasis (which he brought together under the acronym "CUE"), students could judge the effectiveness of their written paragraphs. One hundred twenty-five years later, the proposition is still central to composition instruction. A review of modern writing textbooks reveals…

  17. A Disciplinary Immigrant. Alexander Smith at the University of Chicago, 1894-1911

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Donald

    2008-01-01

    The publication in 1906 of Alexander Smith's "Introduction to general inorganic chemistry" inaugurated a decisive change in chemical pedagogy in the US, the effects of which are still evident. The nature and extent of Smith's innovations are described through a comparison of his text to its source material and contemporaries. His authoritative…

  18. 76 FR 54800 - Sandy Alexander, Clifton, NJ; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sandy Alexander, Clifton, NJ; Notice of Negative Determination on... (subject firm). The Department's Notice was published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2011 (76 FR... resulted in a negative determination based on the findings that the petitioning worker group did not...

  19. Holocene morphogenesis of Alexander the Great's isthmus at Tyre in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Meulé, Samuel

    2007-05-01

    In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great constructed an ≈1,000-m-long causeway to seize the offshore island of Tyre. The logistics behind this engineering feat have long troubled archaeologists. Using the Holocene sedimentary record, we demonstrate that Alexander's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow proto-tombolo, or sublittoral sand spit, to breach the offshore city's defensive impregnability. We elucidate a three-phase geomorphological model for the spit's evolution. Settled since the Bronze Age, the area's geological record manifests a long history of natural and anthropogenic forcings. (i) Leeward of the island breakwater, the maximum flooding surface (e.g., drowning of the subaerial land surfaces by seawater) is dated ≈8000 B.P. Fine-grained sediments and brackish and marine-lagoonal faunas translate shallow, low-energy water bodies at this time. Shelter was afforded by Tyre's elongated sandstone reefs, which acted as a 6-km natural breakwater. (ii) By 6000 B.P., sea-level rise had reduced the dimensions of the island from 6 to 4 km. The leeward wave shadow generated by this island, allied with high sediment supply after 3000 B.P., culminated in a natural wave-dominated proto-tombolo within 1-2 m of mean sea level by the time of Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.). (iii) After 332 B.C., construction of Alexander's causeway entrained a complete anthropogenic metamorphosis of the Tyrian coastal system.

  20. Old Age, the Ancient Military, and Alexander's Army: Positive Examples for a Graying America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebric, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Presents examples from ancient Greece and Rome illustrating working aged and intergenerational dependence. Describes normal active participation of elderly as officers and common soldiers in ancient military as example of their capabilities. Notes that Alexander the Great's army, in particular, depended on contributions of older men. (Author/NB)

  1. "In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great" PBS Series. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide correlates with the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series "In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great" hosted by historian Michael Wood. The four episodes of the series are entitled: "Son of God"; "Lord of Asia"; "Across the Hindu Kush"; and "To the Ends of the Earth." The guide consists of four core units related…

  2. Holocene morphogenesis of Alexander the Great's isthmus at Tyre in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Meulé, Samuel

    2007-05-29

    In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great constructed an approximately 1,000-m-long causeway to seize the offshore island of Tyre. The logistics behind this engineering feat have long troubled archaeologists. Using the Holocene sedimentary record, we demonstrate that Alexander's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow proto-tombolo, or sublittoral sand spit, to breach the offshore city's defensive impregnability. We elucidate a three-phase geomorphological model for the spit's evolution. Settled since the Bronze Age, the area's geological record manifests a long history of natural and anthropogenic forcings. (i) Leeward of the island breakwater, the maximum flooding surface (e.g., drowning of the subaerial land surfaces by seawater) is dated approximately 8000 B.P. Fine-grained sediments and brackish and marine-lagoonal faunas translate shallow, low-energy water bodies at this time. Shelter was afforded by Tyre's elongated sandstone reefs, which acted as a 6-km natural breakwater. (ii) By 6000 B.P., sea-level rise had reduced the dimensions of the island from 6 to 4 km. The leeward wave shadow generated by this island, allied with high sediment supply after 3000 B.P., culminated in a natural wave-dominated proto-tombolo within 1-2 m of mean sea level by the time of Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.). (iii) After 332 B.C., construction of Alexander's causeway entrained a complete anthropogenic metamorphosis of the Tyrian coastal system.

  3. The Alexander N. Charters Library of Resources for Educators of Adults at Syracuse University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Terrance

    This document describes the contents of the Alexander N. Charters Library of Resources for Educators of Adults at Syracuse University Library. The document begins with a brief history of the development of the library's collections, which occupy 900 feet of shelf space and contain more than 50 groups of personal papers and records of organizations…

  4. Alexander v. Yale: Collected Documents from the Yale Undergraduate Women's Caucus and Grievance Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT.

    Papers concerning the lawsuit charging that Yale University condones sexual harassment of women students, Alexander v. Yale, have been compiled by the Yale Undergraduate Women's Caucus. The specifics of the case are described by Caucus publications and press releases. The suit, filed in July 1977 by four female undergraduates and one male…

  5. Alexander Cameron Rutherford: A Gentleman and a Scholar. Documents in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodysh, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information about Alexander Cameron Rutherford, a provincial politician. Includes a letter written by Rutherford in 1912 that provides insights into his responsibilities to the general public, information about Rutherford himself, the economic conditions of Alberta, Canada in 1912, and information about the individual to whom it was…

  6. Holocene morphogenesis of Alexander the Great's isthmus at Tyre in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Meulé, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great constructed an ≈1,000-m-long causeway to seize the offshore island of Tyre. The logistics behind this engineering feat have long troubled archaeologists. Using the Holocene sedimentary record, we demonstrate that Alexander's engineers cleverly exploited a shallow proto-tombolo, or sublittoral sand spit, to breach the offshore city's defensive impregnability. We elucidate a three-phase geomorphological model for the spit's evolution. Settled since the Bronze Age, the area's geological record manifests a long history of natural and anthropogenic forcings. (i) Leeward of the island breakwater, the maximum flooding surface (e.g., drowning of the subaerial land surfaces by seawater) is dated ≈8000 B.P. Fine-grained sediments and brackish and marine-lagoonal faunas translate shallow, low-energy water bodies at this time. Shelter was afforded by Tyre's elongated sandstone reefs, which acted as a 6-km natural breakwater. (ii) By 6000 B.P., sea-level rise had reduced the dimensions of the island from 6 to 4 km. The leeward wave shadow generated by this island, allied with high sediment supply after 3000 B.P., culminated in a natural wave-dominated proto-tombolo within 1–2 m of mean sea level by the time of Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.). (iii) After 332 B.C., construction of Alexander's causeway entrained a complete anthropogenic metamorphosis of the Tyrian coastal system. PMID:17517668

  7. Identification of metapopulation dynamics among Northern Goshawks of the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and Coastal British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, J.R.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.

  8. Friendly Letters on the Correspondence of Helen Keller, Anne Sullivan, and Alexander Graham Bell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Burton

    1985-01-01

    Excerpts from the letters between Alexander Graham Bell and Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller are given to illustrate the educational and personal growth of Helen Keller as well as the educational philosophy of Bell regarding the education of the deaf blind. (DB)

  9. 78 FR 30791 - Airworthiness Directives; Alexander Schleicher GmbH & Co. Segelflugzeugbau Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Alexander Schleicher GmbH & Co. Segelflugzeugbau Models AS-K13, Ka2B, Ka 6, Ka 6 B, Ka 6 BR, Ka 6 C, Ka 6 CR, K7, K8, and K 8 B sailplanes that would supersede... aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as misalignment of the automatic elevator...

  10. Connect the Book. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    Cell phones, video phones, voice messaging?one wonders what Alexander Graham Bell would have thought about the many venues today for electronic communication with one another. Bell's March 10, 1876 invention is now 128 years old, but there is no doubt that Bell's "talking machine" changed the world. This article presents a brief review of the…

  11. Russia's Literary Genius Alexander Pushkin: The Great-Grandson of an African Slave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbery, Anne

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Pushkin, Russia's most celebrated literary figure, descended from an African slave. On both parents' sides, he was related to Avram Petrovich Gannibal, who was born to an African prince and abducted to become a slave to a Russian diplomat. Pushkin chose to pride himself on both his aristocratic life and his African ancestry. (SM)

  12. Obituary: Alexander (Andy) Franz Lubenow, 1956-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc William

    2006-12-01

    Alexander (Andy) Franz Lubenow, Program Coordinator at the Space Telescope Science Institute, was diagnosed with cancer of the gallbladder, pancreas, and liver in May 2005 and died on 29 September 2005. He was forty-nine. Andy was born to Bodo and Helen Lubenow in St. Paul, Minnesota on 4 January 1956. In 1964 at the age of eight, he moved with his family to Buenos Aires, Argentina, and attended the American Community School there until returning with his family in 1973 to St. Paul. Argentina had a big impact on Andy's future as an astronomer. He later recalled how he had observed and was puzzled by the "upside-down" appearance of the Moon in the southern hemisphere. In Argentina, he built his first telescope using a mirror he had ground himself. He never parted ways with that instrument. Andy did not follow a standard educational track. He spent two years at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota, before transferring to the University of Minnesota, where he earned his bachelor's degree and began work towards a master's degree in astrophysics. Later he transferred to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he remained until Dr. Peter Stockman hired him to work on the Hubble Space Telescope project. While in school, he worked as a teacher's assistant, taught night school, and gave demonstrations of stargazing. He was an excellent teacher and had a flair for writing. He later wrote articles for a sailing magazine and a pilot's magazine. Andy was a very practical, meticulous, and steady worker, attributes that he combined with an understated and dry sense of humor. He was always able to find a way through a problem, no matter how sticky. If a job required him to roll up his sleeves and get it done through hard work, he would persevere. Nevertheless, he was always on the lookout for an easier way. He had no patience for being forced to deal with stupid things for stupid reasons. At work at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), Andy was

  13. Families Discover the Outdoors Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Polly

    1980-01-01

    An idea for hands-on activities for families to use in discovering the outdoors together when visiting parks is described. Family packs contain discovery and natural history cards, thermometers, magnifiers, insect boxes, photographs of animals and plants, a pencil, and a feedback form. (SA)

  14. Discovering Your Place in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carol

    2006-01-01

    The Historica Foundation of Canada has a mandate to provide or support programs and resources for the teaching of Canadian history in Canadian schools. This paper outlines how Historica discovered what was needed and the programs and resources they developed to fulfill their mandate.

  15. Protein misfolding and oxidative stress promote glial-mediated neurodegeneration in an Alexander disease model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Colodner, Kenneth J.; Feany, Mel B.

    2011-01-01

    Although alterations in glial structure and function commonly accompany death of neurons in neurodegenerative diseases, the role glia play in modulating neuronal loss is poorly understood. We have created a model of Alexander disease in Drosophila by expressing disease-linked mutant versions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in fly glia. We find aggregation of mutant human GFAP into inclusions bearing the hallmarks of authentic Rosenthal fibers. We also observe significant toxicity of mutant human GFAP to glia, which is mediated by protein aggregation and oxidative stress. Both protein aggregation and oxidative stress contribute to activation of a robust autophagic response in glia. Toxicity of mutant GFAP to glial cells induces a non-cell autonomous stress response and subsequent apoptosis in neurons, which is dependent on glial glutamate transport. Our findings thus establish a simple genetic model of Alexander disease and further identify cellular pathways critical for glial-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:21414908

  16. Clinical Experience in Late Antiquity: Alexander of Tralles and the Therapy of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bouras-vallianatos, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Alexander of Tralles, writing in the late sixth century, combined his wide-ranging practical knowledge with earlier medical theories. This article shows how clinical experience is used in Alexander’s works by concentrating on his therapeutic advice on epilepsy and, in particular, on pharmacology and the group of so-called natural remedies. I argue that clinical testing is used not only for the introduction of new medicines but also as an instrument for checking the therapeutic effect of popular healing practices. On another level, this article discusses Alexander’s role as the author of a medical compendium; it suggests that by marking the cases of clinical testing with a set of recurrent expressions, Alexander leads his audience to reflect on his medical authority and personal contribution. PMID:25045178

  17. [Urology and National Socialism: the fate of Alexander von Lichtenberg 1880-1949].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Krischel, M; Rathert, P; Fangerau, H

    2010-09-01

    Alexander von Lichtenberg (1880-1949) was one of the famous members of the German Urological Society (DGU) in pre-war Germany. He introduced excretion urography and a special TURP Instrument. In 1928 he was president of the 8th meeting held in the German capital Berlin. His Handbook of Urology, released by Ferdinand Springer publishing house, was a trendsetter in establishing urology as a specialty in Germany and bringing together the whole wisdom of all aspects of urology. He was the founder of the famous Maximilian Nitze Award of the DGU. As a Jew he-like many others-was forced to leave Nazi Germany after 1933. Even in Hungary, his native country, he again had to resist anti-Semitic hostility. Later on he lived in Mexico. Alexander von Lichtenberg has to be remembered with special focus on the exodus of German Jewish scientists during the Nazi time.

  18. Pennsylvanian pluton stitching of Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.C.; Bergman, S.C.; Cushing, G.W. ); Plafker, G. ); Campbell, R.B.; Dodds, C.J. ); McClelland, W.C. ); Mueller, P.A. ); MacKevett, E.M. Jr.

    1988-11-01

    A quartz monzonite-syenite-alkali granite plutonic complex in eastern Alaska crosscuts the contact of the Alexander terrane and Wrangellia and intrudes the basement rocks of both terranes. Zircon U-Pb data indicate an intrusion age of 309 {plus minus} 5 Ma (Middle Pennsylvanian) for the pluton, and {sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar age for hornblende separates indicate cooling to about 450 C during Middle Pennsylvanian-Early Permian time. The new field relations and age data demonstrate the Wrangellia and the Alexander terrane were contiguous during the Middle Pennsylvanian. This conclusion provides an important new constraint on paleogeographic reconstructions of the northwest Cordillera, and necessitates reassessment of stratigraphic and paleomagnetic data that were cited as evidence that the terranes evolved separately until the late Mesozoic.

  19. Paleozoic paleomagnetism and northward drift of the Alexander Terrane, southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Der Voo, Rob; Jones, Meridee; Gromme, C. Sherman; Eberlein, G. Donald; Churkin, Michael, Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Paleozoic limestone, graywacke, sandstone, milestone, red beds and volcanic rocks of the Alexander terrane, southeastern Alaska, have yielded six paleomagnetic pole positions after thermal and alternating-field demagnetization. These poles are from sample groups of late Middle Ordovician, Late Ordovician, Devonian, Late Devonian, and early and late Carboniferous age. To test various tectonic models for the structural development of this part of western North America, the paleomagnetic results are compared to those for the North American craton. It is found that the observed inclination and declination values deviate significantly from the values predicted for the present-day position of the Alexander terrane (55.5N, 133.5W). Better matching can be obtained for a paleoposition of the terrane at about 40N, 120W, in the present position of western Nevada and northeastern California. In addition, an in situ 25° clockwise rotation of the terrane is required to restore it to its original position.

  20. Scaphopoda from the Alexander Terrane, Southeast Alaska-The first occurrence of Scaphopoda in the Silurian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.

    2006-01-01

    The scaphopods Dentalium hecetaensis n. sp. and Rhytiodentalium cf. kentuckyensis Pojeta et Runnegar, 1979, are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, Southeast Alaska. This is the first occurrence of Silurian scaphopods known to date. They are part of a diverse macrobenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted southern Alaskan terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  1. A stone at the Siege of Cyropolis and the death of Alexander the Great.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew N; Arnott, Robert

    2004-06-01

    Alexander the Great was struck by a stone at the Siege of Cyropolis in 329 BC and was rendered temporarily blind and inaudible as a result. Although other authors have written extensively about the likely pathological effects of this injury, none have suggested carotid artery dissection as a possible cause. We present evidence that this should be considered as a differential diagnosis and how it might explain an unusual symptom seen at his deathbed in Babylon six years later.

  2. Professor Robert McNeill Alexander CBE FRS (1934-2016).

    PubMed

    Ker, Robert F

    2016-07-01

    Robert McNeill Alexander, known to friends and colleagues as 'Neill', was a zoologist with an engineer's eye for how animals work. He used mathematical models to show how evolution has produced optimal designs. His skill was to choose appropriate models: realistic enough to contain the essence of a problem and yet simple enough to be tractable. He wrote fluently and easily: 23 books, 280 papers and a CD-ROM entitled How Animals Move. PMID:27385751

  3. PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander) hepatoma cell line: further characterization and studies of infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Alexander, J J; Tully, J G; London, W T; Wong, D C; Purcell, R H

    1980-01-01

    The Alexander hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, was studied for evidence of hepatitis B virus markers and alpha-fetoprotein. Only hepatitis B surface antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were detected. Induction experiments with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and inoculation of chimpanzees with whole cells or tissue culture fluid did not reveal evidence of synthesis of additional hepatitis B virus markers or of production of infectious virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6160110

  4. Alexander H. Leighton's and Jane Murphy's scientific contributions in psychiatric epidemiology: a personal appreciation.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marc-Adélard

    2006-03-01

    This article introduces the special issue of Transcultural Psychiatry in honour of Alexander Leighton. A sketch of his research career is followed by a discussion of the work of his wife, Dr. Jane Murphy, first on St. Lawrence Island, near the Bering Strait, and later as a key figure in the Stirling County project. A brief conclusion highlights the main aspects of their joint legacy to cultural psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:16671389

  5. Lithium Decreases Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in a Mouse Model of Alexander Disease.

    PubMed

    LaPash Daniels, Christine M; Paffenroth, Elizabeth; Austin, Elizabeth V; Glebov, Konstantin; Lewis, Diana; Walter, Jochen; Messing, Albee

    2015-01-01

    Alexander disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the astrocyte intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by elevated levels of GFAP and the formation of protein aggregates, known as Rosenthal fibers, within astrocytes. Lithium has previously been shown to decrease protein aggregates by increasing the autophagy pathway for protein degradation. In addition, lithium has also been reported to decrease activation of the transcription factor STAT3, which is a regulator of GFAP transcription and astrogliogenesis. Here we tested whether lithium treatment would decrease levels of GFAP in a mouse model of Alexander disease. Mice with the Gfap-R236H point mutation were fed lithium food pellets for 4 to 8 weeks. Four weeks of treatment with LiCl at 0.5% in food pellets decreased GFAP protein and transcripts in several brain regions, although with mild side effects and some mortality. Extending the duration of treatment to 8 weeks resulted in higher mortality, and again with a decrease in GFAP in the surviving animals. Indicators of autophagy, such as LC3, were not increased, suggesting that lithium may decrease levels of GFAP through other pathways. Lithium reduced the levels of phosphorylated STAT3, suggesting this as one pathway mediating the effects on GFAP. In conclusion, lithium has the potential to decrease GFAP levels in Alexander disease, but with a narrow therapeutic window separating efficacy and toxicity.

  6. Teachers' professional development needs and current practices at the Alexander Science Center School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargus, Gerald Vincent

    This investigation represents an in-depth understanding of teacher professional development at the Alexander Science Center School, a dependent charter museum school established through a partnership between the California Science Center and Los Angeles Unified School District. Three methods of data collection were used. A survey was distributed and collected from the school's teachers, resulting in a prioritized list of teacher professional development needs, as well as a summary of teachers' opinions about the school's existing professional development program. In addition, six key stakeholders in the school's professional development program were interviewed for the study. Finally, documents related to the school's professional development program were analyzed. Data collected from the interviews and documents were used to develop an understand various components of the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program. Teachers identified seven areas that had a high-priority for future professional development including developing skills far working with below-grade-level students, improving the analytical skills of student in mathematics, working with English Language Learners, improving students' overall reading ability levels, developing teachers' content-area knowledge for science, integrating science across the curriculum, and incorporating hands-on activity-based learning strategies to teach science. Professional development needs identified by Alexander Science Center School teachers were categorized based on their focus on content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, or curricular knowledge. Analysis of data collected through interviews and documents revealed that the Alexander Science Center School's professional development program consisted of six venues for providing professional development for teachers including weekly "banked time" sessions taking place within the standard school day, grade-level meetings, teacher support

  7. The Scientific Work of John A. McClelland: A Recently Discovered Manuscript

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    John Alexander McClelland (1870-1920) was educated at Queen’s College Galway and the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. He was Professor of Experimental Physics at University College Dublin from 1900 to 1920. He was best known for his pioneering work on the scattering of β rays and on the conductivity of gases and the mobility of ions. He established a research school on atmospheric aerosols that was continued by his successor, John James Nolan (1887-1952), which strongly influenced physics research in Ireland up to the present. A recently discovered manuscript of a commemorative address by Nolan in 1920, which is reproduced in Appendix I, is a unique contemporary summary of McClelland’s research and character, and is an important contribution to the history of experimental physics in Ireland.

  8. 78 FR 21411 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Dunavant Cotton Manufacturing Company, 109 E. Fleming Dr., Morganton, 13000227 Haywood County Francis Grist... River Grasslands MPS), Address Restricted, Alexander, 13000233 32MZ422, (Native American Occupation...

  9. Origin of Silurian reefs in the Alexander Terrane of southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Lower to Upper Silurian (upper Llandovery-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation record several episodes of reef growth in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. As the oldest carbonates of wide-spread distribution in the region, the Heceta limestones represent the earliest development of a shallow-marine platform within the Alexander arc and the oldest foundation for reef evolution. These deposits provide important insights into the dynamic processes, styles, and bathymetry associated with reef growth in tectonically active oceanic islands. Massive stromatoporoids, corals, and red algae are preserved in fragmental rudstones and represent a fringing reef that formed at the seaward edge of the incipient marine shelf. Accessory constituents in this reef include crinoids and the cyanobacterium Girvanella. Small biostromes were constructed by ramose corals and stromatoporoids on oncolitic substrates in backreef or lagoonal environments. These buildups were associated with low-diversity assemblages of brachiopods and with gastropods, amphiporids, calcareous algae and cyanobacteria. Microbial boundstones reflect the widespread encrustation of cyanobacteria and calcified microproblematica on shelly debris as stromatolitic mats that resulted in the development of a stromatactoid-bearing mud mound and a barrier reef complex. Epiphytaceans, other microbes, and aphrosalpingid sponges were the primary frame-builders of the barrier reefs. These buildups attained significant relief at the shelf margin and shed detritus as slumped blocks and debris flows into deep-water sites along the slope. The similarity of these stromatolitic-aphrosalpingid reefs to those from Siluro-Devonian strata of autochthonous southwestern Alaska suggests paleobiogeographic ties of the Alexander terrane to cratonal North America during the Silurian.

  10. Alexander Dalgarno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jane L.

    Alex Dalgarno saved my career. I entered the Graduate School at Harvard in the Chemistry Department in September of 1973 from the University of Michigan, where I had (unfortunately) majored in Chemistry. Chemistry is considered a "laboratory science" but I had no talent in the laboratory. I had merely fallen in love with the ideal gas law in high school, and I had stubbornly allowed this to determine my course of studies, most of which had nothing to do with the ideal gas law, and much of which was focused on laboratory studies...

  11. Alexander Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... there are no ethnic, racial, geographic, or cultural/economic differences in its distribution. Is there any treatment? ... Fax: 815-748-0844 Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  12. Improvement in Automatic Postural Coordination Following Alexander Technique Lessons in a Person With Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Timothy W; Horak, Fay B; Henry, Sharon M

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose The relationship between abnormal postural coordination and back pain is unclear. The Alexander Technique (AT) aims to improve postural coordination by using conscious processes to alter automatic postural coordination and ongoing muscular activity, and it has been reported to reduce low back pain. This case report describes the use of the AT with a client with low back pain and the observed changes in automatic postural responses and back pain. Case Description The client was a 49-year-old woman with a 25-year history of left-sided, idiopathic, lumbrosacral back pain. Automatic postural coordination was measured using a force plate during horizontal platform translations and one-legged standing. Outcomes The client was tested monthly for 4 months before AT lessons and for 3 months after lessons. Before lessons, she consistently had laterally asymmetric automatic postural responses to translations. After AT lessons, the magnitude and asymmetry of her responses and balance improved and her low back pain decreased. Discussion Further research is warranted to study whether AT lessons improve low back pain–associated abnormalities in automatic postural coordination and whether improving automatic postural coordination helps to reduce low back pain. [Cacciatore TW, Horak FB, Henry SM. Improvement in automatic postural coordination following Alexander Technique lessons in a person with low back pain. PMID:15921477

  13. Possible refugia in the Alexander Archipelago of southeastern Alaska during the late Wisconsin glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, P.E.; Ager, T.A.; Baichtal, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The interpretation of the extent of late Wisconsin glaciation in southeastern Alaska has varied between geologists and biologists. Maps and reports of the region prepared by geologists commonly indicated that late Wisconsin ice extended as a large uniform front west to the edge of the continental shelf. However, the distribution of plants and animals in the region has led many biologists to suggest that there may have been ice-free areas that served as refugia during the late Wisconsin. Based on analyses of aerial photographs, topographic maps, and bathymetric charts, in conjunction with a review of previous literature and reconnaissance fieldwork throughout the region, this study presents data supporting a limited ice extent in the Alexander Archipelago during the late Wisconsin and identifies possible ice-free areas that may have served as refugia. These areas include (1) the Fairweather Ground, (2) the Herbert Graves Island area, (3) the western coast of southern Baranof Island and adjacent continental shelf, (4) Coronation Island and the adjacent continental shelf, (5) the Warren Island area, (6) the continental shelf from west of Heceta Island to Forrester Island in the south, (7) parts of the west coast of southern Dall Island, and (8) lowland areas in southern Prince of Wales Island. The identification of these possible refugia has bearing on the recolonization of the Alexander Archipelago, as they could have served as centers of biotic dispersal upon regional deglaciation and as stepping stones for early humans with a maritime tradition entering the western hemisphere from Asia. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  14. Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Katsanos, A. A.; Touratsoglou, J.

    2000-11-01

    The coinage of Alexander the Great presents a special interest because of its international character in the frame of the ancient times. At least 31 mints (from Aigai to Babylon and from Pella to Alexandreia) operated in the vast state, which was created by Alexander in just over 10 years (334-323 BC). Impressive quantities of tetradrachms were consequently minted for the economic affairs of an expanding state. The mints continued to be active and after the premature death of the Macedonian king, producing among others and tetradrachms in his name. The elemental chemical composition of silver tetradrachms minted in Amphipolis as well as in other Macedonian Greek cities was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), and 12 elements were determined. The problem of the patina (silver corrosion layer) effects on the results was examined by analysis before and after the corrosion product removal. From the results of the chemical composition, a similar numismatic policy is deduced for all the analysed coin as well as metal provenance indications for some of the coins.

  15. Alexander of Macedon, the greatest warrior of all times: did he have seizures?

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2004-10-01

    Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) was likely "the most incomparable general the world has ever seen." His name is often listed among the famous individuals in history who have had seizures. Examination of his illnesses reveals that in 333 BC he entered Tarsus, hot and exhausted, and plunged himself into the River Cydnus, ice-cold from melting mountain snows. His cramps were so severe that he was rescued half-conscious and ashen white, and quickly developed acute pneumonia. Only one doctor dared give him a medication, known for producing powerful and immediate effects. Immediately after drinking this medicine "he lost his speech and falling into a swoon, he had scarcely any sense or pulse left" (Plutarch, ad 75). His reactions were the direct effect of the medication, and this and only this phrase represents the "evidence" for epilepsy. None of his other illnesses involved seizures. Clearly, Alexander the Great did not have epilepsy and his name should be removed from the list of famous individuals who have had seizures.

  16. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a

  17. Geohydrology and water-chemistry of the Alexander Valley, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    This study of the geohydrology and water chemistry of the Alexander Valley, California, was done to provide an improved scientific basis for addressing emerging water-management issues, including potential increases in water demand and changes in flows in the Russian River. The study tasks included (1) evaluation of existing geohydrological, geophysical, and geochemical data; (2) collection and analysis of new geohydrologic data, including subsurface lithologic data, ground-water levels, and streamflow records; and (3) collection and analysis of new water-chemistry data. The estimated total water use for the Alexander Valley for 1999 was approximately 15,800 acre-feet. About 13,500 acre-feet of this amount was for agricultural use, primarily vineyards, and about 2,300 acre-feet was for municipal/industrial use. Ground water is the main source of water supply for this area. The main sources of ground water in the Alexander Valley are the Quaternary alluvial deposits, the Glen Ellen Formation, and the Sonoma Volcanics. The alluvial units, where sufficiently thick and saturated, comprise the best aquifer in the study area. Average recharge to the Alexander Valley is estimated from a simple, basinwide water budget. On the basis of an estimated annual average of 298,000 acre-feet of precipitation, 160,000 acre-feet of runoff, and 113,000 to 133,000 acre-feet of evapotranspiration, about 5,000 to 25,000 acre-feet per year is available for ground-water recharge. Because this estimate is based on differences between large numbers, there is significant uncertainty in this recharge estimate. Long-term changes in ground-water levels are evident in parts of the study area, but because of the sparse network and lack of data on well construction and lithology, it is uncertain if any significant changes have occurred in the northern part of the study area since 1980. In the southern half of the study area, ground-water levels generally were lower at the end of the 2002 irrigation

  18. Glowing Hot Transiting Exoplanet Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    VLT Spectra Indicate Shortest-Known-Period Planet Orbiting OGLE-TR-3 Summary More than 100 exoplanets in orbit around stars other than the Sun have been found so far. But while their orbital periods and distances from their central stars are well known, their true masses cannot be determined with certainty, only lower limits. This fundamental limitation is inherent in the common observational method to discover exoplanets - the measurements of small and regular changes in the central star's velocity, caused by the planet's gravitational pull as it orbits the star. However, in two cases so far, it has been found that the exoplanet's orbit happens to be positioned in such a way that the planet moves in front of the stellar disk, as seen from the Earth. This "transit" event causes a small and temporary dip in the star's brightness, as the planet covers a small part of its surface, which can be observed. The additional knowledge of the spatial orientation of the planetary orbit then permits a direct determination of the planet's true mass. Now, a group of German astronomers [1] have found a third star in which a planet, somewhat larger than Jupiter, but only half as massive, moves in front of the central star every 28.5 hours . The crucial observation of this solar-type star, designated OGLE-TR-3 [2] was made with the high-dispersion UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It is the exoplanet with the shortest period found so far and it is very close to the star, only 3.5 million km away. The hemisphere that faces the star must be extremely hot, about 2000 °C and the planet is obviously losing its atmosphere at high rate . PR Photo 10a/03 : The star OGLE-TR-3 . PR Photo 10b/03 : VLT UVES spectrum of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10c/03 : Relation between stellar brightness and velocity (diagram). PR Photo 10d/03 : Observed velocity variation of OGLE-TR-3. PR Photo 10e/03 : Observed brightness variation of OGLE-TR-3. The search

  19. Discovering Mobile Social Networks by Semantic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jason J.; Choi, Kwang Sun; Park, Sung Hyuk

    It has been important for telecommunication companies to discover social networks from mobile subscribers. They have attempted to provide a number of recommendation services, but they realized that the services were not successful. In this chapter, we present semantic technologies for discovering social networks. The process is mainly composed of two steps; (1) profile identification and (2) context understanding. Through developing a Next generation Contents dElivery (NICE) platform, we were able to generate various services based on the discovered social networks.

  20. The Four Domains of Moral Education: The Contributions of Dewey, Alexander and Goleman to a Comprehensive Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Ronald Lee

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to place a neglected dimension of John Dewey's work into its proper context. Examines the works of Dewey, F. Matthias Alexander, and Daniel Goldman to create four domains that must be addressed by a truly comprehensive model of moral education: direct external, indirect external, direct internal, and indirect internal. (DSK)

  1. Growing Community: The Impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the Social and Learning Environment in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K.; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has…

  2. Finding revelation in anthropology: Alexander Winchell, William Robertson Smith and the heretical imperative.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, David N

    2015-09-01

    Anthropological inquiry has often been considered an agent of intellectual secularization. Not least is this so in the sphere of religion, where anthropological accounts have often been taken to represent the triumph of naturalism. This metanarrative, however, fails to recognize that naturalistic explanations could sometimes be espoused for religious purposes and in defence of confessional creeds. This essay examines two late nineteenth-century figures--Alexander Winchell in the United States and William Robertson Smith in Britain--who found in anthropological analysis resources to bolster rather than undermine faith. In both cases these individuals found themselves on the receiving end of ecclesiastical censure and were dismissed from their positions at church-governed institutions. But their motivation was to vindicate divine revelation, in Winchell's case from the physical anthropology of human origins and in Smith's from the cultural anthropology of Semitic ritual.

  3. Neuromusicology or Musiconeurology? "Omni-art" in Alexander Scriabin as a Fount of Ideas.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2016-01-01

    Science can uncover neural mechanisms by looking at the work of artists. The ingenuity of a titan of classical music, the Russian composer Alexander Scriabin (1872-1915), in combining all the sensory modalities into a polyphony of aesthetical experience, and his creation of a chord based on fourths rather than the conventional thirds are proposed as putative points of departure for insight, in future studies, into the neural processes that underlie the perception of beauty, individually or universally. Scriabin's "Omni-art" was a new synthesis of music, philosophy and religion, and a new aesthetic language, a unification of music, vision, olfaction, drama, poetry, dance, image, and conceptualization, all governed by logic, in the quest for the integrative action of the human mind toward a "higher reality" of which music is only a component. PMID:27014167

  4. Investigation of the Alexander L. Kielland failure-metallurgical and fracture analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Almar-Naess, A.; Haagensen, P.J.; Lian, B.; Moan, T.; Simonsen, T.

    1984-03-01

    On March 27, 1980, the semi-submersible platform Alexander L. Kielland broke down in a storm in the North Sea, resulting in a loss of 123 lives. The investigation subsequently performed by the inquiry commission showed that one of the lower tubular bracings had failed by fatigue. As a result, the vertical leg attached to it was torn off, and the platform capsized. The fatigue fracture had started from a double fillet weld joining a 0.325-m tubular attachment to the bracing. The fillet welds were partially cracked in the early history of the platform due to lammelar tearing. Cumulative damage calculations indicated that the design fatigue life of the bracing was inadequate.

  5. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Neuromusicology or Musiconeurology? “Omni-art” in Alexander Scriabin as a Fount of Ideas

    PubMed Central

    Triarhou, Lazaros C.

    2016-01-01

    Science can uncover neural mechanisms by looking at the work of artists. The ingenuity of a titan of classical music, the Russian composer Alexander Scriabin (1872–1915), in combining all the sensory modalities into a polyphony of aesthetical experience, and his creation of a chord based on fourths rather than the conventional thirds are proposed as putative points of departure for insight, in future studies, into the neural processes that underlie the perception of beauty, individually or universally. Scriabin’s “Omni-art” was a new synthesis of music, philosophy and religion, and a new aesthetic language, a unification of music, vision, olfaction, drama, poetry, dance, image, and conceptualization, all governed by logic, in the quest for the integrative action of the human mind toward a “higher reality” of which music is only a component. PMID:27014167

  7. The name of the father: conflict between Louis and Alexander Agassiz and the Embiotoca surfperch radiation.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, G

    2009-04-01

    The surfperch genus Embiotoca currently comprises two species, Embiotoca jacksoni, the black surfperch, and Embiotoca lateralis, the striped surfperch. Originally, however, Louis Agassiz described a third species in the genus Embiotoca, the rainbow surfperch, Embiotoca caryi. This latter name was changed by Louis' son, Alexander, to Hypsurus caryi, a name that remains valid. In this study, new molecular data (3545 bp of DNA from four mitochondrial and two nuclear DNA regions) indicated that the rainbow surfperch should be retained within the genus Embiotoca, a result consistent with recent morphological data. Adaptive radiation combined with sexual selection resulting in rapid morphological changes in the rainbow surfperch may have contributed to the conflicting position of this species.

  8. Effects of traumatic brain injury on reactive astrogliosis and seizures in mouse models of Alexander disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotrina, Maria Luisa; Chen, Michael; Han, Xiaoning; Iliff, Jeffrey; Ren, Zeguang; Sun, Wei; Hagemann, Tracy; Goldman, James; Messing, Albee; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is the only known human pathology caused by mutations in an astrocyte-specific gene, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These mutations result in abnormal GFAP accumulations that promote seizures, motor delays and, ultimately, death. The exact contribution of increased, abnormal levels of astrocytic mutant GFAP in the development and progression of the epileptic phenotype is not clear, and we addressed this question using two mouse models of AxD. Comparison of brain seizure activity spontaneously and after traumatic brain injury (TBI), an effective way to trigger seizures, revealed that abnormal GFAP accumulation contributes to abnormal brain activity (increased interictal discharges) but is not a risk factor for the development of epilepsy after TBI. These data highlight the need to further explore the complex and heterogeneous response of astrocytes towards injury and the involvement of GFAP in the progression of AxD. PMID:25069089

  9. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  10. Silurian trace fossils in carbonate turbidites from the Alexander Arc of southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Early to Late Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) body and trace fossils from the Heceta Formation are preserved in the oldest widespread carbonates in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. They represent the earliest shelly benthos to inhabit a diversity of marine environments and are important indicators of the early stages in benthic community development within this ancient island arc. The trace fossils are significant because they add to a small but growing body of knowledge about ichnofaunas in deep-water Paleozoic carbonates. Proximal to medial carbonate turbidites yield a low-diversity suite of trace fossils that comprises five distinct types of biogenic structures. Bedding planes reveal simple epichnial burrows (Planolites), cross-cutting burrows (Fucusopsis), and tiny cylindrical burrows. These and other casts, including chondrites( )-like burrow clusters, represent the feeding activities (fodinichnia) of preturbidite animals. Hypichnial burrows and rare endichnial traces reflect the activities of postturbidite animals. Broken and offset traces indicate that infaunal biota commenced burrowing before slumping and subsequent soft-sediment deformation. The abundance and density of trace fossils increases offshore in the medial turbidites associated with a decrease in the size and amount of coarse particles and with an increase in mud and preserved organic material. Although diversity levels are similar in the proximal and medial turbidite facies, they are much lower than in Paleozoic siliciclastic turbidites. This may reflect unfavorable environmental conditions for infaunal biota or paleobiogeographic isolation of the Alexander terrane during the Silurian. A greater use of trace fossils in terrane analysis will help to resolve this issue and should provide new data for reconstructing the paleogeography of circum-Pacific terranes.

  11. Probable Bright Supernovae discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-01-01

    Three bright transients, which are probable supernovae, have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  12. Possible Nearby Transient discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-01-01

    A transient, which is a possible nearby supernova, has been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  13. Probable Bright Supernova discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Young, D. R.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-09-01

    A bright transient, which is a probable supernova, has been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). Information on all objects discovered by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  14. Kepler Discovers Its First Rocky Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system....

  15. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  16. Kepler Discovers Earth-size Planet Candidates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered its first Earth-size planet candidates and its first candidates in the habitable zone, a region where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. Five of th...

  17. Fermi discovers giant bubbles in Milky Way

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above...

  18. Discover Mathematics in the Physical World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan

    2011-04-01

    Playing with perspective windows generated an initial idea related to mathematics; an extended experiment with paper cards along the desk helped me to discover the geometry; reading Galileo's Sidereal Messenger allowed me to apply the geometry that I discovered to understand the magnitude of Galileo's telescope. Galileo's study of motion, like pendulum and inclined plane, deepened my (and my classmates') curiosity and fascination with his ingenious use of mathematics.

  19. "Outstanding Services to Negro Health": Dr. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, Dr. Virginia M. Alexander, and Black Women Physicians' Public Health Activism.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2016-08-01

    An examination of the lives and careers of physician-activists Dorothy Boulding Ferebee (1898-1972) and Virginia M. Alexander (1899-1949) demonstrates how Black physicians in the first half of the 20th century used public health to improve the health of Black Americans and provides insights into the experiences of Black women physicians. I discuss their professional and personal backgrounds and analyze their divergent strategies to address health inequities. Ferebee used her leadership in Black women's organizations to develop public health programs and become a national advocate for Black health. Alexander, a Quaker, used her religious connections to urge Whites to combat racism in medicine. She also conducted public health research and connected it to health activism. Both were passionate advocates of health equity long before it gained prominence as a major public health issue. An analysis of their work illuminates past efforts to improve the health of Black Americans.

  20. "Outstanding Services to Negro Health": Dr. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, Dr. Virginia M. Alexander, and Black Women Physicians' Public Health Activism.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2016-08-01

    An examination of the lives and careers of physician-activists Dorothy Boulding Ferebee (1898-1972) and Virginia M. Alexander (1899-1949) demonstrates how Black physicians in the first half of the 20th century used public health to improve the health of Black Americans and provides insights into the experiences of Black women physicians. I discuss their professional and personal backgrounds and analyze their divergent strategies to address health inequities. Ferebee used her leadership in Black women's organizations to develop public health programs and become a national advocate for Black health. Alexander, a Quaker, used her religious connections to urge Whites to combat racism in medicine. She also conducted public health research and connected it to health activism. Both were passionate advocates of health equity long before it gained prominence as a major public health issue. An analysis of their work illuminates past efforts to improve the health of Black Americans. PMID:27310348

  1. Putting evo-devo into focus. An interview with Scott F. Gilbert. Interview by Alexander T. Mikhailov.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Scott F

    2005-01-01

    This article announces Dr. Scott F. Gilbert as the winner of the Alexander Kowavelsky international prize (2004) and briefly reviews his achievements in developmental biology and evo-devo. Dr. Gilbert replies to the interviewer's questions concerning his personal interest in evo-devo and current controversies within the field. His thoughts and comments represent a unique blend of research talents and skills, curiosity and creativity.

  2. James Alexander Lindsay (1856-1931), and his clinical axioms and aphorisms.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghin S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-09-01

    John Alexander Lindsay was born at Fintona, county Tyrone in 1856, and at the age of 23 he graduated in medicine at the Royal University of Ireland. After two years in London and Europe he returned to Belfast to join the staff at the Royal Victoria Hospital and in 1899 he was appointed to the professorship of medicine. He was valued by the students for his clarity and by his colleagues for his many extracurricular contributions to the medical profession in the positions entrusted to him. He published monographs on Diseases of the Lungs, and the Climatic Treatment of Consumption, but his later Medical Axioms show his deep appreciation of studied clinical observation. Although practice was changing in the new century Lindsay displayed an ability to change with the new requirements, as evidenced by his lecture on electrocardiography as president of the section of medicine of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland in 1915. He was impressed by the way the string galvanometer changed attention from stenosis and incompetence of the valves to the cardiac musculature, but rightly suspected that there was more to be told about the state of the myocardium than Einthoven's three leads revealed. His death occurred in Belfast in 1931.

  3. Alexander Scriabin: his chronic right-hand pain and Its impact on his piano compositions.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Alexander Scriabin was an outstanding pianist and an avant-garde composer who influenced later generations with his innovative "multimedia" conceptions of aesthetic experience. As an adolescent, he was systematically trained as a concert pianist and received lessons from Vassily Safonoff, one of the founders of the legendary Russian Piano School. At age 20, Scriabin suffered an overuse injury of his right hand when attempting to improve the sound quality of his piano touch. This injury caused a deep crisis and influenced his later composition style in his piano works. From this time on, his works were frequently dominated by unusual virtuosic use and wide spans of his left hand. Rest, restricted repertoire, and an increased focus on composition contributed to recovery; however, he always remained anxious concerning the stamina of his right hand. The case report impressively demonstrates the stressors an aspiring young pianist had to cope with at the end of the nineteenth century. Furthermore, it is a convincing example of how resource-oriented behavior and intuition lead to the improvement of health status. Differential diagnoses and the modern concept of multimodal pain therapy in chronic overuse injury will be discussed from a historical perspective. PMID:25684291

  4. James Alexander Lindsay (1856-1931), and his clinical axioms and aphorisms.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghin S; Moynihan, John B

    2012-09-01

    John Alexander Lindsay was born at Fintona, county Tyrone in 1856, and at the age of 23 he graduated in medicine at the Royal University of Ireland. After two years in London and Europe he returned to Belfast to join the staff at the Royal Victoria Hospital and in 1899 he was appointed to the professorship of medicine. He was valued by the students for his clarity and by his colleagues for his many extracurricular contributions to the medical profession in the positions entrusted to him. He published monographs on Diseases of the Lungs, and the Climatic Treatment of Consumption, but his later Medical Axioms show his deep appreciation of studied clinical observation. Although practice was changing in the new century Lindsay displayed an ability to change with the new requirements, as evidenced by his lecture on electrocardiography as president of the section of medicine of the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland in 1915. He was impressed by the way the string galvanometer changed attention from stenosis and incompetence of the valves to the cardiac musculature, but rightly suspected that there was more to be told about the state of the myocardium than Einthoven's three leads revealed. His death occurred in Belfast in 1931. PMID:23620615

  5. Testing the equality of students' performance using Alexander-Govern test with adaptive trimmed means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Suhaida; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Yusof, Zahayu Md

    2014-06-01

    Analyzing the equality of independent group has to be done with caution. The classical approaches such as ttest for two groups and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for more than two groups always are favorable selection by researchers. However, sometime these methods were abused by the presence of nonnormality or variance heterogeneity or both. It is known that ANOVA is restricted to the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance. In real life data, sometimes these requirements are hard to attain. The Alexander-Govern test with adaptive trimmed mean (AG_atm) is one approach that can be chosen as alternative to the classical tests when their assumptions are violated. In this paper, the performances of AG_atm were compared to the original AG test and ANOVA using simulated and real life data. The simulation study proved that the AG_atm performs better than the original AG test and the classical test. For real life data, student's performance in decision analysis course, measured by final examination score was chosen. Based on the exploratory data analysis, this data found to have problem of nonnormality.

  6. Alexander Scriabin: his chronic right-hand pain and Its impact on his piano compositions.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Alexander Scriabin was an outstanding pianist and an avant-garde composer who influenced later generations with his innovative "multimedia" conceptions of aesthetic experience. As an adolescent, he was systematically trained as a concert pianist and received lessons from Vassily Safonoff, one of the founders of the legendary Russian Piano School. At age 20, Scriabin suffered an overuse injury of his right hand when attempting to improve the sound quality of his piano touch. This injury caused a deep crisis and influenced his later composition style in his piano works. From this time on, his works were frequently dominated by unusual virtuosic use and wide spans of his left hand. Rest, restricted repertoire, and an increased focus on composition contributed to recovery; however, he always remained anxious concerning the stamina of his right hand. The case report impressively demonstrates the stressors an aspiring young pianist had to cope with at the end of the nineteenth century. Furthermore, it is a convincing example of how resource-oriented behavior and intuition lead to the improvement of health status. Differential diagnoses and the modern concept of multimodal pain therapy in chronic overuse injury will be discussed from a historical perspective.

  7. Regulatory RNAs discovered in unexpected places.

    PubMed

    Pek, Jun Wei; Okamura, Katsutomo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have discovered both small and long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) encoded in unexpected places. These ncRNA genes were surprises at the time of their discovery, but many quickly became well-accepted families of functional regulatory RNA species. Even after years of extensive gene annotation studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies, new types of ncRNA genes continue to be discovered in unexpected places. We highlight ncRNAs that have atypical structures and that are encoded in what are generally considered 'junk' sequences, such as spacers and introns. We also discuss current bottlenecks in the approaches for identifying novel ncRNAs and the possibility that many remain to be discovered. PMID:26424536

  8. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    PubMed

    Klein, H P

    1999-12-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  9. Discovering Community: Activities for Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Out-of-School Time, Wellesley College, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The project activities highlighted in this publication were conducted within the framework of school-based afterschool programs operated by community-based organizations. The intention of the Discovering Community initiative, created by The After-School Corporation and MetLife Foundation, is to foster greater collaborations and mutual respect…

  10. PSN in PGC938372 discovered by MASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Porosheva, T.; Podesta, R. C.; Levato, O. H.; Lopez, C.; Podestan, F.; Saffe, C.; Potter, S.

    2016-09-01

    MASTER-IAC auto-detection system( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 05h 07m 27.73s -13d 24m 16.1s on 2016-09-06.23199 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 17.2m (limit 19.4m).

  11. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  12. Discovering Diabetes Complications: an Ontology Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Daghistani, Tahani; Shammari, Riyad Al; Razzak, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a serious disease that spread in the world dramatically. The diabetes patient has an average of risk to experience complications. Take advantage of recorded information to build ontology as information technology solution will help to predict patients who have average of risk level with certain complication. It is helpful to search and present patient’s history regarding different risk factors. Discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Method: We designed ontology based model, using adult diabetes patients’ data, to discover the rules of diabetes with its complications in disease to disease relationship. Result: Various rules between different risk factors of diabetes Patients and certain complications generated. Furthermore, new complications (diseases) might be discovered as new finding of this study, discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Conclusion: The system can identify the patients who are suffering from certain risk factors such as high body mass index (obesity) and starting controlling and maintaining plan. PMID:26862251

  13. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  14. Discovering English with the Sketch Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    "Discovering English with the Sketch Engine" is the title of a new book (Thomas, 2014) which introduces the use of corpora in language study, teaching, writing and translating. It focuses on using the Sketch Engine to identify patterns of normal usage in many aspects of English ranging from morphology to discourse and pragmatics. This…

  15. Discover the U.S.A.!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Michele

    2000-01-01

    Describes Discover the USA, an interdisciplinary unit for middle school students that uses trip-planning software and World Wide Web-based resources to teach organizational, research, writing, computer, and practical math and geography skills. Students plan a 1-month road trip in the United States, then take the trip, keeping records of routes,…

  16. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  17. Absence of the appendix discovered during childhood.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Michelle V; Doyle, Alex; Bernstein, Sean; Jackman, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Absence of the appendix is rare. Isolated cases are usually discovered in adult patients or cadavers. We report the case of a 14 year old boy who was found to have no appendix on laparotomy for assumed acute appendicitis and use this opportunity to highlight the growing surgical uses of this vestigial structure.

  18. Discovering Integration through a Physical Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Derek; Magnes, Jenny; Schwarz, Gregory; Hartke, John

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines a method of conducting a laboratory designed to discover mathematical integration with students. The results are produced and verified in the laboratory by students. Understanding that an integral is defined by the area bounded by a function of x and the x-axis from a point a to a point b is challenging. Students often have…

  19. Discovering the Sequential Structure of Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; Fincham, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern recognition techniques combined with Hidden Markov models can be used to discover the mental states that people go through in performing a task. The combined method identifies both the mental states and how their durations vary with experimental conditions. We apply this method to a task where participants solve novel…

  20. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  1. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  2. Discovering Science through Art-Based Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberts, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Art and science are intrinsically linked; the essence of art and science is discovery. Both artists and scientists work in a systematic but creative way--knowledge and understanding are built up through pieces of art or a series of labs. In the classroom, integrating science and visual art can provide students with the latitude to think, discover,…

  3. Television: A Medium for Discovering Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Marta; Sola, Anna

    1995-01-01

    Examines television news programs as media for discovering diversity. Discusses television as a means of information and communication, its role in the creation of public opinion, its inability to permit understanding, and the need for empirical research to assess its influence on cognitive processes. (AEF)

  4. Did Viking discover life on Mars?

    PubMed

    Klein, H P

    1999-12-01

    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible. PMID:10666745

  5. Death by polonium-210: lessons learned from the murder of former Soviet spy Alexander Litvinenko.

    PubMed

    McFee, Robin B; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2009-02-01

    The medical response to radiation--whether the result of radiological warfare, terrorist deployment of improvised radiation dispersal weapons, political assassination, occupational or industrial accidents or the medically radiated patient remains one of the least taught among all disciplines within medical education. In the aftermath of 9/11 among medical vulnerabilities to toxicant threats, of all the categories of weapons of mass destruction (WMD)--whether using the CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, explosive) or NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) acronym--radiation is the least taught in professional schools, responder cultures or civil preparedness organizations. To date, few health care professionals (HCP) possess the fundamental knowledge or skills to identify and diagnose, let alone treat a radiation victim; this vulnerability made even more obvious in the aftermath of the high profile assassination of former Russian agent Alexander Litvinenko. He was poisoned with Polonium210. Radioactive substances are ubiquitous with radiation sources being in or transported through virtually every region nationwide. It is essential to increase preparedness among community and rural health care facilities as well as urban and university hospitals. Managing radiation injuries effectively requires access to specialized equipment and expertise. Radiation sickness is progressive and may require acute, critical and long-term care throughout the course of illness. Regardless of the source, preparedness rests upon acknowledging a threat exists and dedicating the resources to address the risks including the enhancement of training and equipment. Mass or individual exposures to radiation present unique challenges to the entire response continuum from law enforcement, first responders and emergency medical care. Increased education about and practice in responding to radiological threats is essential to enhance preparedness.

  6. Bathymetric gradients within a Paleozoic Island Arc, southeastern Alaska (Alexander Terrane)

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Early to Late Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation reflect bathymetric gradients within the ancient island arc exposed in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. These rocks record the earliest occurrence of widespread carbonate deposition in the region and represent the earliest foundation for shallow-water platform development within the arc. The excellent preservation of platform, platform margin, and slope deposits contrasts with the poor preservation of many marine sediments that originated within other island arcs. Hence, these limestones provide important insights into the styles, processes, and bathymetry of carbonate deposition in island arcs. Carbonate depositional sites within the arc extended laterally from nearshore intertidal and relatively shallow subtidal zones of a marine platform, to the seaward margins of a rimmed shelf, and into deeper subtidal areas of a slope environment. Fossiliferous deposits that originated on the platform comprise a diversity of shelly benthos, including corals and stromatoporoids in growth position. Dasycladacean algae, oncoids, and Amphipora also indicate shallow-water conditions. Organic buildups and reefs were constructed by cyanobacteria, massive stromatoporoids, corals, and algae at the platform margin. Deposition beyond the seaward edge of the shelf is evident from the carbonate turbidites that consist of skeletal debris of shallow-water derivation and an absence of coarse siliciclastic detritus. Sedimentation and resedimentation along a bathymetric gradient within the arc is especially well illustrated by the carbonate breccias that are enclosed within these deep subtidal sediments. They comprise detached stromatolites and clasts of shallow-water origin that were derived from the platform and its margin during periodic slumping of the shelf edge.

  7. Project Alexander the Great: a study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education.

    PubMed

    Abu-Faraj, Ziad O

    2008-01-01

    Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering is considered amongst the most reputable fields within the global arena, and will likely be the primer for any future breakthroughs in Medicine and Biology. Bioengineering/biomedical engineering education has evolved since late 1950s and is undergoing advancement in leading academic institutions worldwide. This paper delineates an original study on the world proliferation of bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and bears the name 'Project Alexander the Great'. The initial step of the project was to survey all 10448 universities, recognized by the International Association of Universities, spread among the 193 member states of the United Nations within the six continents. The project aims at identifying, disseminating, and networking, through the world-wide-web, those institutions of higher learning that provide bioengineering/biomedical engineering education. The significance of this project is multifold: i) the inception of a web-based 'world-map' in bioengineering/biomedical engineering education for the potential international student desiring to pursue a career in this field; ii) the global networking of bioengineering/biomedical engineering academic/research programs; iii) the promotion of first-class bioengineering/biomedical engineering education and the catalysis of global proliferation of this field; iv) the erection of bridges among educational institutions, industry, and professional societies or organizations involved in Bioengineering/Biomedical Engineering; and v) the catalysis in the establishment of framework agreements for cooperation among the identified institutions offering curricula in this field. This paper presents the results obtained from Africa and North America. The whole project is due to be completed by 2009.

  8. Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Alexander terrane (southeastern Alaska): evidence for Early Jurassic rifting prior to accretion with North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Karl, Susan M.; Keppie, J. Duncan; Kontak, Daniel J.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The circular Bokan Mountain complex (BMC) on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, is a Jurassic peralkaline granitic intrusion about 3 km in diameter that crosscuts igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane. The BMC hosts significant rare metal (rare earth elements, Y, U, Th, Zr, and Nb) mineralization related to the last stage of BMC emplacement. U–Pb (zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar (amphibole and whole-rock) geochronology indicates the following sequence of intrusive activity: (i) a Paleozoic basement composed mainly of 469 ± 4 Ma granitic rocks; (ii) intrusion of the BMC at 177 ± 1 Ma followed by rapid cooling through ca. 550 °C at 176 ± 1 Ma that was synchronous with mineralization associated with vertical, WNW-trending pegmatites, felsic dikes, and aegirine–fluorite veins and late-stage, sinistral shear deformation; and (iii) intrusion of crosscutting lamprophyre dikes at >150 Ma and again at ca. 105 Ma. The peralkaline nature of the BMC and the WNW trend of associated dikes suggest intrusion during NE–SW rifting that was followed by NE–SW shortening during the waning stages of BMC emplacement. The 177 Ma BMC was synchronous with other magmatic centres in the Alexander terrane, such as (1) the Dora Bay peralkaline stock and (2) the bimodal Moffatt volcanic suite located ~30 km north and ~100 km SE of the BMC, respectively. This regional magmatism is interpreted to represent a regional extensional event that precedes deposition of the Late Jurassic – Cretaceous Gravina sequence that oversteps the Wrangellia and Alexander exotic accreted terranes and the Taku and Yukon–Tanana pericratonic terranes of the Canadian–Alaskan Cordillera.

  9. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  10. [Dawn of the antibiotic era and some consequences for the present].

    PubMed

    Beneš, Jiří

    2012-10-01

    The beginning of antibiotic era is traditionally ascribed to Fleming's discovery of penicillin in 1928. From the modern view, however, the term "antibiotic" includes all antibacterial drugs for oral or parenteral administration, regardless of their origin (microbial products or chemical compounds). Thus, sulphonamides belong to antibiotics, with the beginning of antibiotic era dating back to the year 1910 when Paul Ehrlich and Sahachiro Hata demonstrated the therapeutic potential of arsphenamine (Salvarsan) against syphilis. The discovery of penicillin was preceded by studies from several countries that documented antagonism between various microorganisms. Some of them resulted in the introduction of new antibacterial drugs. Nevertheless, these drugs could be used only for local treatment of superficial infections. Alexander Fleming did discover penicillin but the medical use of this substance was the result of an effort of Howard Florey's Oxford team. The enthusiasm for penicillin led to several recommendations that were incorrectly ascribed to all antibiotics. Examples of such misinterpretations are provided in the article. PMID:23208868

  11. The grand experiment, a historical account of a museum/school partnership: The Alexander Science Center School of Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heughins, Andrew R.

    This study tells the history of The Alexander Science Center School, a museum/school partnership between the Los Angeles Unified School District and the California Science Center created with the goal of becoming a national model in elementary science education. To provide a background to the development of the school, this study explores the definition of what constitutes a museum school, including the existence of a formal partnership between a school district and a museum and systemic change in the partner institutions leading to a marriage of formal and informal learning styles. In addition, the literature review explores the unique models of museum/school partnerships developed in the United States. The history of the Alexander Science Center School is told in a narrative style using documentation from the schools development and through interviews with individuals who played key roles, from the schools inception through its opening. The study covers the initiation of concept, architectural design, formation of the partnership, and development of the curriculum. The study also identifies the roadblocks encountered in the schools development and makes recommendations for school districts and institutions seeking to create future museum school projects. In addition, a comparison is made other recently studied museum schools to provide a context for the school's historical and programmatic development.

  12. Discovering Functional Units in Continuous Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Lacerda, Francisco; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Language learning requires that listeners discover acoustically variable functional units like phonetic categories and words from an unfamiliar, continuous acoustic stream. Although many category learning studies have examined how listeners learn to generalize across the acoustic variability inherent in the signals that convey the functional units of language, these studies have tended to focus upon category learning across isolated sound exemplars. However, continuous input presents many additional learning challenges that may impact category learning. Listeners may not know the timescale of the functional unit, its relative position in the continuous input, or its relationship to other evolving input regularities. Moving laboratory-based studies of isolated category exemplars toward more natural input is important to modeling language learning, but very little is known about how listeners discover categories embedded in continuous sound. In 3 experiments, adult participants heard acoustically variable sound category instances embedded in acoustically variable and unfamiliar sound streams within a video game task. This task was inherently rich in multisensory regularities with the to-be-learned categories and likely to engage procedural learning without requiring explicit categorization, segmentation, or even attention to the sounds. After 100 min of game play, participants categorized familiar sound streams in which target words were embedded and generalized this learning to novel streams as well as isolated instances of the target words. The findings demonstrate that even without a priori knowledge, listeners can discover input regularities that have the best predictive control over the environment for both non-native speech and nonspeech signals, emphasizing the generality of the learning. PMID:26010592

  13. Discovering functional units in continuous speech.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Lacerda, Francisco; Holt, Lori L

    2015-08-01

    Language learning requires that listeners discover acoustically variable functional units like phonetic categories and words from an unfamiliar, continuous acoustic stream. Although many category learning studies have examined how listeners learn to generalize across the acoustic variability inherent in the signals that convey the functional units of language, these studies have tended to focus upon category learning across isolated sound exemplars. However, continuous input presents many additional learning challenges that may impact category learning. Listeners may not know the timescale of the functional unit, its relative position in the continuous input, or its relationship to other evolving input regularities. Moving laboratory-based studies of isolated category exemplars toward more natural input is important to modeling language learning, but very little is known about how listeners discover categories embedded in continuous sound. In 3 experiments, adult participants heard acoustically variable sound category instances embedded in acoustically variable and unfamiliar sound streams within a video game task. This task was inherently rich in multisensory regularities with the to-be-learned categories and likely to engage procedural learning without requiring explicit categorization, segmentation, or even attention to the sounds. After 100 min of game play, participants categorized familiar sound streams in which target words were embedded and generalized this learning to novel streams as well as isolated instances of the target words. The findings demonstrate that even without a priori knowledge, listeners can discover input regularities that have the best predictive control over the environment for both non-native speech and nonspeech signals, emphasizing the generality of the learning. PMID:26010592

  14. Discovering social groups without having relational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, John; Zhang, Zhongfei; Lewin, Ronny; Decker, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Who is associated with whom? Who communicates with whom? When two or more individuals get together is there an intended purpose? Who are the leaders/important individuals of the group? What is the organizational structure of the group? These are just a few of the questions that are covered under the topic of social network analysis. Data mining, specifically community generation, attempts to automatically discover and learn these social models. In this paper we present one class of problems which we have called the uni-party data community generation paradigm. We discuss various applications, a methodology and results from two problem domains.

  15. Discovering Communicable Models from Earth Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes how we used regression rules to improve upon results previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  16. Discovering viroids--a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Diener, Theodor O

    2003-10-01

    During 1970 and 1971, I discovered that a devastating disease of potato plants is not caused by a virus, as had been assumed, but by a new type of subviral pathogen, the viroid. Viroids are so small--one fiftieth of the size of the smallest viruses--that many scientists initially doubted their existence. We now know that viroids cause many damaging diseases of crop plants. Fortunately, new methods that are based on the unique properties of viroids now promise effective control. PMID:15040183

  17. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  18. The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, C.D.; Premo, W.R.; Meier, A.L.; Taggart, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A belt of unusual volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences is located along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane throughout southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and exhibits a range of characteristics consistent with a variety of syngenetic to epigenetic deposit types. Deposits within this belt include Greens Creek and Windy Craggy, the economically most significant VMS deposit in Alaska and the largest in North America, respectively. The occurrences are hosted by a discontinuously exposed, 800-km-long belt of rocks that consist of a 200- to 800-m-thick sequence of conglomerate, limestone, marine elastic sedimentary rocks, and tuff intercalated with and overlain by a distinctive unit of mafic pyroclastic rocks and pillowed flows. Faunal data bracket the age of the host rocks between Anisian (Middle Triassic) and late Norian (late Late Triassic). This metallogenic belt is herein referred to as the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt. The VMS occurrences show systematic differences in degree of structural control, chemistry, and stratigraphic setting along the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt that suggest important spatial or temporal changes in the tectonic environment of formation. At the southern end of the belt, felsic volcanic rocks overlain by shallow-water limestones characterize the lower part of the sequence. In the southern and middle portion of the belt, a distinctive pebble conglomerate marks the base of the section and is indicative of high-energy deposition in a near slope or basin margin setting. At the northern end of the belt the conglomerates, limestones, and felsic volcanic rocks are absent and the belt is composed of deep-water sedimentary and mafic volcanic rocks. This northward change in depositional environment and lithofacies is accompanied by a northward transition from epithermal-like structurally controlled, discontinuous, vein- and pod-shaped, Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-(Cu) occurrences with relatively simple mineralogy

  19. Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Mark; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut; Guibas, Leonidas J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a computational framework for discovering regular or repeated geometric structures in 3D shapes. We describe and classify possible regular structures and present an effective algorithm for detecting such repeated geometric patterns in point- or mesh-based models. Our method assumes no prior knowledge of the geometry or spatial location of the individual elements that define the pattern. Structure discovery is made possible by a careful analysis of pairwise similarity transformations that reveals prominent lattice structures in a suitable model of transformation space. We introduce an optimization method for detecting such uniform grids specifically designed to deal with outliers and missing elements. This yields a robust algorithm that successfully discovers complex regular structures amidst clutter, noise, and missing geometry. The accuracy of the extracted generating transformations is further improved using a novel simultaneous registration method in the spatial domain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on a variety of examples and show applications to compression, model repair, and geometry synthesis. PMID:21170292

  20. The Universe for all to discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros, F.; Espinós, H.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.; Navarro, J.

    2015-05-01

    In the title of this paper, we have changed the slogan of the International Year of Astronomy, ``The Universe yours to discover" to ``The Universe for all to discover" in order to emphasize the need to think about broader audiences when we plan astronomical activities at school or during outreach events. The strategy we propose follows what is known as the Universal Design for Learning (UDL). UDL allows to reach to the general public as well as to audiences which might be regarded as ``special" because they have some disability. It has been shown that everybody has a preferred style of learning (some remember better what they see, others what they hear or what they touch) and therefore, everybody is more or less able under the different styles of learning. Through this talk I am going to outline some of the principles of the UDL that can be applied in the teaching and communication of Astronomy, along with an example of its implementation in the project ``A Touch of the Universe".

  1. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  2. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony. PMID:25241502

  3. Discovering New Light States at Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Rouven; Harnik, Roni; Kaplan, Jared; Toro, Natalia; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-11

    Experiments designed to measure neutrino oscillations also provide major opportunities for discovering very weakly coupled states. In order to produce neutrinos, experiments such as LSND collide thousands of Coulombs of protons into fixed targets, while MINOS and MiniBooNE also focus and then dump beams of muons. The neutrino detectors beyond these beam dumps are therefore an excellent arena in which to look for long-lived pseudoscalars or for vector bosons that kinetically mix with the photon. We show that these experiments have significant sensitivity beyond previous beam dumps, and are able to partially close the gap between laboratory experiments and supernovae constraints on pseudoscalars. Future upgrades to the NuMI beamline and Project X will lead to even greater opportunities for discovery. We also discuss thin target experiments with muon beams, such as those available in COMPASS, and show that they constitute a powerful probe for leptophilic PNGBs.

  4. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings. PMID:25411881

  5. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources.

    PubMed

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS. PMID:26834982

  6. Discovering Complex Ordered Phases of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, An-Chang

    2012-02-01

    Block copolymers with their rich phase behavior and ordering transitions have become a paradigm for the study of structured soft materials. Understanding the structures and phase transitions in block copolymers has been one of the most active research areas in polymer science in the past two decades. One of the achievements is the self-consistent field theory (SCFT), which provides a powerful framework for the study of ordered phase of block copolymers. I will present a generic strategy to discover complex ordered phases of block copolymers within the SCFT framework. Specifically, a combination of real-space and reciprocal-space techniques is used to explore possible ordered phases in multiblock copolymer melts. These candidate phases can then be used to construct phase diagrams. Application of this strategy to linear and star ABC triblock copolymers has led to the discovery of a rich array of ordered phases.

  7. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  8. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS. PMID:26834982

  9. Flupirtine, a re-discovered drug, revisited.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, Istvan

    2013-03-01

    Flupirtine was developed long before K(V)7 (KCNQ) channels were known. However, it was clear from the beginning that flupirtine is neither an opioid nor a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic. Its unique muscle relaxing activity was discovered by serendipity. In the meantime, broad and intensive research has resulted in a partial clarification of its mode of action. Flupirtine is the first therapeutically used K(V)7 channel activator with additional GABA(A)ergic mechanisms and thus the first representative of a novel class of analgesics. The presently accepted main mode of its action, potassium K(V)7 (KCNQ) channel activation, opens a series of further therapeutic possibilities. One of them has now been realized: its back-up compound, the bioisostere retigabine, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:23322112

  10. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.

  11. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-11-02

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerated, first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor we show new pathways for glycine synthesis frommore » primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, providing new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. Ultimately, these results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.« less

  12. Discovering Rules by Meta-level Abduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Hidetomo

    This paper addresses discovery of unknown relations from incomplete network data by abduction. Given a network information such as causal relations and metabolic pathways, we want to infer missing links and nodes in the network to account for observations. To this end, we introduce a framework of meta-level abduction, which performs abduction in the meta level. This is implemented in SOLAR, an automated deduction system for consequence finding, using a first-order representation for algebraic properties of causality and the full-clausal form of network information and constraints. Meta-level abduction by SOLAR is powerful enough to infer missing rules, missing facts, and unknown causes that involve predicate invention in the form of existentially quantified hypotheses. We also show an application of rule abduction to discover certain physical techniques and related integrity constraints within the subject area of Skill Science.

  13. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    ScienceCinema

    Nugent, Peter

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  14. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  15. Discovering New Drugs on the Cellular Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the Vision for Space Exploration calling for a sustained human presence in space, astronauts will need to grow plants, while in orbit, for nourishment that they will not receive from only consuming dehydrated foods. As a potential source of food for long-duration missions, space-grown plants could also give astronauts an important psychological boost, as fresh vegetables could serve as a welcomed change from monotonous meals consisting of reconstituted foods in plastic bags. Even more, these plants could likely aid in the recycling of air and wastewater on spacecraft. With a helping hand from a company by the name of Biolog, Inc., NASA is studying the impacts of decreased gravity and spaceborne bacteria on the plants being grown for food in space. With a helping hand from NASA, this very same company is creating powerful new cell- and bacteria-analysis tools for use in discovering and developing new drugs on Earth.

  16. Discovering, Indexing and Interlinking Information Resources.

    PubMed

    Celli, Fabrizio; Keizer, Johannes; Jaques, Yves; Konstantopoulos, Stasinos; Vudragović, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    The social media revolution is having a dramatic effect on the world of scientific publication. Scientists now publish their research interests, theories and outcomes across numerous channels, including personal blogs and other thematic web spaces where ideas, activities and partial results are discussed. Accordingly, information systems that facilitate access to scientific literature must learn to cope with this valuable and varied data, evolving to make this research easily discoverable and available to end users. In this paper we describe the incremental process of discovering web resources in the domain of agricultural science and technology. Making use of Linked Open Data methodologies, we interlink a wide array of custom-crawled resources with the AGRIS bibliographic database in order to enrich the user experience of the AGRIS website. We also discuss the SemaGrow Stack, a query federation and data integration infrastructure used to estimate the semantic distance between crawled web resources and AGRIS.

  17. Functional characterization of a GFAP variant of uncertain significance in an Alexander disease case within the setting of an individualized medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Boczek, Nicole J; Sigafoos, Ashley N; Zimmermann, Michael T; Maus, Rachel L; Cousin, Margot A; Blackburn, Patrick R; Urrutia, Raul; Clark, Karl J; Patterson, Marc C; Wick, Myra J; Klee, Eric W

    2016-09-01

    A de novo GFAP variant, p.R376W, was identified in a child presenting with hypotonia, developmental delay, and abnormal brain MRI. Following the 2015 ACMG variant classification guidelines and the functional studies showing protein aggregate formation in vitro, p.R376W should be classified as a pathogenic variant, causative for Alexander disease.

  18. Prevention and Early Intervention: Individual Differences as Risk Factors for the Mental Health of Children. A Festschrift for Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, William B., Ed.; McDevitt, Sean C., Ed.

    This collection of essays, in honor of child psychiatry pioneers Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas, focuses on their idea that important life outcomes are the product of ongoing interactions between a child's behavioral style and the complimentarity or lack of fit of the parenting environment. Following an introduction, the remaining chapters are:…

  19. Functional characterization of a GFAP variant of uncertain significance in an Alexander disease case within the setting of an individualized medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Boczek, Nicole J; Sigafoos, Ashley N; Zimmermann, Michael T; Maus, Rachel L; Cousin, Margot A; Blackburn, Patrick R; Urrutia, Raul; Clark, Karl J; Patterson, Marc C; Wick, Myra J; Klee, Eric W

    2016-09-01

    A de novo GFAP variant, p.R376W, was identified in a child presenting with hypotonia, developmental delay, and abnormal brain MRI. Following the 2015 ACMG variant classification guidelines and the functional studies showing protein aggregate formation in vitro, p.R376W should be classified as a pathogenic variant, causative for Alexander disease. PMID:27648269

  20. Alexander Graham Bell's Patent for the Telephone and Thomas Edison's Patent for the Electric Lamp. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    In 1876 Americans held a Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) to celebrate the nation's birth 100 years earlier. Machinery Hall drew the most admiration and wonder. Alexander Graham Bell exhibited the first telephone, and Thomas Alva Edison presented the automatic telegraph, one of more than 1,000 inventions he would patent in his…

  1. The Question of Sign-Language and the Utility of Signs in the Instruction of the Deaf: Two Papers by Alexander Graham Bell (1898)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, M.

    2005-01-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is often portrayed as either hero or villain of deaf individuals and the Deaf community. His writings, however, indicate that he was neither, and was not as clearly definite in his beliefs about language as is often supposed. The following two articles, reprinted from The Educator (1898), Vol. V, pp. 3?4 and pp. 38?44,…

  2. Improving Learning Outcomes, Persistence, and Graduation Rates of Academically Underprepared Students: a Case Study of Alexander Community College and Its Developmental Education Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchione, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes how Alexander Community College (ACC), a two-year State University of New York (SUNY) institution is addressing challenges associated with its developmental education effort--primarily high costs for repeated developmental (assumed by the institution and students) and low persistence and graduation rates for developmental…

  3. Discuss: If Essays Are Dead, Then Where Does That Leave Everything Else? A Response to: Shirley Alexander's "Buying Essays: How to Make Sure Assessment Is Authentic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Professor Shirley Alexander is the Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Vice-President (Teaching, Learning & Equity) at the University of Technology, Sydney. On 12 November 2014, an article of hers appeared in "The Conversation": "Buying essays: how to make sure assessment is authentic." That article traverses, in an abbreviated way,…

  4. The evolution of ultrahigh carbon steels - from the Great Pyramids, to Alexander the Great, to Y2K

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J

    1999-10-01

    Hypereutectoid steels containing between about 1 and 2.1 wt%C, and now known as ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCS), have both a rich history (dating back to the time of Alexander the Great, i.e. {approximately} 300 BC) and an interesting, recent, technological period of development (from 1975 to the present). The connections between the modern UHCS and their ancient counterparts, and in particular Damascus steels, have received considerable attention. In addition to monolithic products, UHCS have also been used in both ancient and modern times in laminated composites. In the present paper, a summary of the modern development of UHCS and UHCS-containing laminates is given, and parallels are drawn with ancient materials. Also, ancient laminated composites containing other steels are described; controversial issues and a possible solution related to the age of such a laminate found in the Great Pyramid of Gizeh are discussed.

  5. The appearance of the artist to the people: the creativity, personality and malady of Alexander Ivanov (1806-58).

    PubMed

    Lerner, Vladimir; Witztum, Eliezer

    2005-02-01

    Alexander Ivanov was an outstanding Russian painter who lived in the middle of the nineteenth century, during the romantic period. He did not accept romanticism but instead tried to create his own original style, an ambitious combination of spiritual profundity and a manner of execution unparalleled in Western European art. Ivanov's intention and style are best reflected in his major work The Appearance of Christ to the People, a picture on which he worked for over 20 years. He painted more than 400 sketches of the picture while attempting to bring his masterpiece to perfection. At the end of his life Ivanov became disillusioned, renounced his strong religious conviction and became suspicious. This study examines the influence of his background, life story and personality on the creative process. From a diagnostic perspective, Ivanov's personality featured obsessive, narcissistic and schizoid traits. In his final years he suffered from a delusional disorder. PMID:15682233

  6. Map of glacial limits and possible refugia in the southern Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, during the late Wisconsin glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.; Ager, Thomas A.; Baichtal, James F.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2003-01-01

    During the late Wisconsin glaciation (circa 26,000-13,000 carbon-14 yr BP) the Cordilleran glacier complex formed vast ice fields and large glaciers along the crest of the Coast Mountains. As these glaciers flowed west to the Pacific Ocean, they were joined by local glaciers originating on the higher reaches of the Alexander Archipelago (Mann and Hamiltion, 1995). This extensive volume of ice was channeled into deep troughs (present-day fiords) that formed major outlet glaciers, such as the glaciers that occupied Chatham Strait and Dixon Entrance. In several places along the coast, deep glacially scoured submarine troughs indicate that glaciers reached to the edge of the continental shelf. For instance, the glacier that extended into the Dixon Entrance trough is known to have extended to the edge of the continental shelf. Its retreat began sometime after 16,000-15,000 carbon-14 yr BP (Barrie and Conway, 1999).

  7. James Sowerby: meteorites and his meteoritic sword made for the Emperor of Russia, Alexander I, in 1814

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    James Sowerby included meteorites in his publications of British and exotic natural history and so raised interest in their nature and origins at a time of much debate and involving the President of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks. The celebrations over the defeat of France in 1814 prompted Sowerby to make a sword from the Cape of Good Hope iron meteorite to present to the Russian Emperor, Alexander I, at the time of his state visit to London in June 1814 and in recognition of his achievements in bringing peace to Europe. The story of its attempted presentation, its final reception and the following response, including publications, all helped to increase interest in meteorites and their properties. The rediscovery of the sword after a lengthy disappearance probably brings an unusual saga to a fitting close.

  8. Scientists discover massive jet streams flowing inside the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    These new findings will help them understand the famous sunspot cycle and associated increases in solar activity that can affect the Earth with power and communications disruptions. The observations are the latest made by the Solar Oscillations Investigation (SOI) group at Stanford University, CA, and they build on discoveries by the SOHO science team over the past year. "We have detected motion similar to the weather patterns in the Earth's atmosphere", said Dr. Jesper Schou of Stanford. "Moreover, in what is a completely new discovery, we have found a jet-like flow near the poles. This flow is totally inside the Sun. It is completely unexpected, and cannot be seen at the surface." "These polar streams are on a small scale, compared to the whole Sun, but they are still immense compared to atmospheric jet streams on the Earth", added Dr. Philip Scherrer, the SOI principal investigator at Stanford. "Ringing the Sun at about 75 degrees latitude, they consist of flattened oval regions about 30,000 kilometres across where material moves about ten percent (about 130 km/h) faster than its surroundings. Although these are the smallest structures yet observed inside the Sun, each is still large enough to engulf two Earths." Additionally, there are features similar to the Earth's trade winds on the surface of the Sun. The Sun rotates much faster at the equator than at the poles. However, Stanford researchers Schou and Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev have found that there are belts in the northern and southern hemispheres where currents flow at different speeds relative to each other. Six of these gaseous bands move slightly faster than the material surrounding them. The solar belts are more than 65 thousand km across and they contain "winds" that move about 15 kilometres per hour relative to their surroundings. The first evidence of these belts was found more than a decade ago by Dr. Robert Howard of the Mount Wilson Observatory. The Stanford researchers have now shown that

  9. Scientists discover massive jet streams flowing inside the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    These new findings will help them understand the famous sunspot cycle and associated increases in solar activity that can affect the Earth with power and communications disruptions. The observations are the latest made by the Solar Oscillations Investigation (SOI) group at Stanford University, CA, and they build on discoveries by the SOHO science team over the past year. "We have detected motion similar to the weather patterns in the Earth's atmosphere", said Dr. Jesper Schou of Stanford. "Moreover, in what is a completely new discovery, we have found a jet-like flow near the poles. This flow is totally inside the Sun. It is completely unexpected, and cannot be seen at the surface." "These polar streams are on a small scale, compared to the whole Sun, but they are still immense compared to atmospheric jet streams on the Earth", added Dr. Philip Scherrer, the SOI principal investigator at Stanford. "Ringing the Sun at about 75 degrees latitude, they consist of flattened oval regions about 30,000 kilometres across where material moves about ten percent (about 130 km/h) faster than its surroundings. Although these are the smallest structures yet observed inside the Sun, each is still large enough to engulf two Earths." Additionally, there are features similar to the Earth's trade winds on the surface of the Sun. The Sun rotates much faster at the equator than at the poles. However, Stanford researchers Schou and Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev have found that there are belts in the northern and southern hemispheres where currents flow at different speeds relative to each other. Six of these gaseous bands move slightly faster than the material surrounding them. The solar belts are more than 65 thousand km across and they contain "winds" that move about 15 kilometres per hour relative to their surroundings. The first evidence of these belts was found more than a decade ago by Dr. Robert Howard of the Mount Wilson Observatory. The Stanford researchers have now shown that

  10. A Newly Discovered Highly Variable IDV Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabanyi, K. E.; Marchili, N.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Fuhrmann, L.; Britzen, S.; Witzel, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Liu, X.; Huagang, S.; Han, J. L.

    Short time scale radio variations of compact extragalactic radio quasars and blazars known as IntraDay Variability (IDV) can be explained in at least some sources as a propagation effect; the variations are interpreted as scintillation of radio waves in the turbulent interstellar medium of the Milky Way. One of the most convincing observational arguments in favour of a propagationinduced variability scenario is the observed annual modulation in the characteristic variability time scale due to the Earth's orbital motion. So far there are only two sources known with a well-constrained seasonal cycle. J1128+592 is a recently discovered, highly variable IDV source. Previous, densely time-sampled flux-density measurements with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope (Germany) and the Urumqi 25-m radio telescope (China), strongly indicate an annual modulation of the time scale. Here, we summarise the annual modulation model derived using all the measurements, carried out in the last 2.5 years. Bursts, Pulses and Flickering:Wide-field monitoring of the dynamic radio sky June 12-15 2007 Kerastari, Tripolis, Greece

  11. Discover Space: an IYA program for libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2009-12-01

    Across the country, there is a growing concern regarding the number of students entering science and technology careers. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. This is particularly true when family interactions are factored in. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The nation’s more than 17,000 public libraries attract diverse audiences in almost every community. Science exhibits in libraries could potentially reach many adults and upper elementary and middle school students with STEM content. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is partnering with the American Library Association (ALA) to develop a pilot exhibit called Discover Space. The exhibit includes two areas: Space Storms and Star Quest and is currently on tour in Colorado. It is a featured IYA outreach project from SSI. This presentation will focus on the results of a national survey of libraries that SSI and ALA conducted in 2008 about interest in STEM exhibits as well as the development process that was used to design and fabricate the exhibit. Preliminary evaluation results will also be shared. The presentation will conclude with an examination of how this program could benefit underserved communities around the country.

  12. How the antihypertensive losartan was discovered.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Gaurab

    2006-11-01

    Based on interviews and publications, this case study is a history of how DuPont scientists discovered losartan, the first angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Essential aspects of the story include: i) the discovery occurred at a young and inexperienced pharmaceutical business; ii) three bench scientists had recently graduated from PhD programmes and only the fourth had any industrial research experience; iii) pivotal to its success was the support and risk-taking of the highly experienced and recently hired head of pharmaceutical research; iv) a timely patent issued to Takeda Chemical Industries suggested a new line of research; v) a mistake made by an inexperienced pharmacologist yielded pivotal information; vi) the bench scientists were given the freedom to explore while being supported by research managers; vii) luck favoured the scientists in losartan's subreceptor-binding and metabolite; and viii) the marketing group insisted that losartan not be developed until Merck expressed an interest in the drug candidate. Today, losartan is a multibillion dollar drug. PMID:23506070

  13. Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning. PMID:24746954

  14. Discovering Alzheimer Genetic Biomarkers Using Bayesian Networks.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Fayroz F; Zayed, Nourhan; Fakhr, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute most of the genetic variation to the human genome. SNPs associate with many complex and common diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering SNP biomarkers at different loci can improve early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Bayesian network provides a comprehensible and modular framework for representing interactions between genes or single SNPs. Here, different Bayesian network structure learning algorithms have been applied in whole genome sequencing (WGS) data for detecting the causal AD SNPs and gene-SNP interactions. We focused on polymorphisms in the top ten genes associated with AD and identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. New SNP biomarkers were observed to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease. These SNPs are rs7530069, rs113464261, rs114506298, rs73504429, rs7929589, rs76306710, and rs668134. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of using BN for identifying AD causal SNPs with acceptable accuracy. The results guarantee that the SNP set detected by Markov blanket based methods has a strong association with AD disease and achieves better performance than both naïve Bayes and tree augmented naïve Bayes. Minimal augmented Markov blanket reaches accuracy of 66.13% and sensitivity of 88.87% versus 61.58% and 59.43% in naïve Bayes, respectively. PMID:26366461

  15. Discovering Alzheimer Genetic Biomarkers Using Bayesian Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Fayroz F.; Zayed, Nourhan; Fakhr, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute most of the genetic variation to the human genome. SNPs associate with many complex and common diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering SNP biomarkers at different loci can improve early diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Bayesian network provides a comprehensible and modular framework for representing interactions between genes or single SNPs. Here, different Bayesian network structure learning algorithms have been applied in whole genome sequencing (WGS) data for detecting the causal AD SNPs and gene-SNP interactions. We focused on polymorphisms in the top ten genes associated with AD and identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. New SNP biomarkers were observed to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease. These SNPs are rs7530069, rs113464261, rs114506298, rs73504429, rs7929589, rs76306710, and rs668134. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of using BN for identifying AD causal SNPs with acceptable accuracy. The results guarantee that the SNP set detected by Markov blanket based methods has a strong association with AD disease and achieves better performance than both naïve Bayes and tree augmented naïve Bayes. Minimal augmented Markov blanket reaches accuracy of 66.13% and sensitivity of 88.87% versus 61.58% and 59.43% in naïve Bayes, respectively. PMID:26366461

  16. Astronomers Discover Fastest-Spinning Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope have discovered the fastest-spinning neutron star ever found, a 20-mile-diameter superdense pulsar whirling faster than the blades of a kitchen blender. Their work yields important new information about the nature of one of the most exotic forms of matter known in the Universe. Pulsar Graphic Pulsars Are Spinning Neutron Stars CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) "We believe that the matter in neutron stars is denser than an atomic nucleus, but it is unclear by how much. Our observations of such a rapidly rotating star set a hard upper limit on its size, and hence on how dense the star can be.," said Jason Hessels, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal. Hessels and his colleagues presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. Pulsars are spinning neutron stars that sling "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is left after a massive star explodes at the end of its "normal" life. With no nuclear fuel left to produce energy to offset the stellar remnant's weight, its material is compressed to extreme densities. The pressure squeezes together most of its protons and electrons to form neutrons; hence, the name "neutron star." "Neutron stars are incredible laboratories for learning about the physics of the fundamental particles of nature, and this pulsar has given us an important new limit," explained Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and one of Hessels' collaborators on this work. The scientists discovered the pulsar, named PSR J1748-2446ad, in a globular cluster of stars called Terzan 5, located some 28,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius. The newly-discovered pulsar is spinning 716 times per second, or at 716 Hertz (Hz), readily beating the previous record of 642 Hz from a pulsar

  17. Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  18. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  19. Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning.

  20. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  1. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Assef, Roberto J.; Blain, Andrew W.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T.; Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Petty, Sara M.; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  2. Discovering New R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tisserand, Patrick; Welch, Douglas L.; LeBleu, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are rare hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich supergiants. Two evolutionary scenarios have been suggested, a double degenerate merger of two white dwarfs, or a final helium shell flash in a PN central star. The evidence pointing toward a white-dwarf merger or a final-flash origin for RCB stars is contradictory. The distribution on the sky and radial velocities of the RCB stars tend toward those of the bulge population but a much larger sample of stars is needed to determine the true population. We need to discover RCB stars much more efficiently. In order to do this, we have used a series of IR color-color cuts, using the recent release of the WISE All-Sky Catalog, to produce a sample of 2200 candidates that may yield over 200 new RCB star identifications. Most of these candidates do not have lightcurves, the traditional technique of identifying RCB stars from their characteristic large and irregular light variations. We have obtained optical spectra of several hundred candidates and have confirmed over 40 new RCB stars in the Galaxy. We are attempting to develop a quantitative spectral classification system for the RCB stars so that they can be identified without an accompanying light curve. The cooler RCB stars look like carbon stars with strong C2 bands, but they can be differentiated from carbon stars by their extreme hydrogen deficiency and very low 13C/12C ratio. Also, the red CN bands are much weaker in RCB stars than in carbon stars. The number of RCB stars in the Galaxy may be consistent with the predicted number of He/CO white-dwarf mergers. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve would be a watershed event in the study of stellar evolution that will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

  3. HUBBLE AND KECK DISCOVER GALAXY BUILDING BLOCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a very small, faint galaxy 'building block' newly discovered by a unique collaboration between ground- and space-based telescopes. Hubble and the 10-meter Keck Telescopes in Hawaii joined forces, using a galaxy cluster which acts as gravitational lens to detect what scientists believe is one of the smallest very distant objects ever found. The galaxy cluster Abell 2218 was used by a team of European and American astronomers led by Richard Ellis (Caltech) in their systematic search for intrinsically faint distant star-forming systems. Without help from Abell 2218's exceptional magnifying power to make objects appear about 30 times brighter, the galaxy building block would have been undetectable. In the image to the right, the object is seen distorted into two nearly identical, very red 'images' by the gravitational lens. The image pair represents the magnified result of a single background object gravitationally lensed by Abell 2218 and viewed at a distance of 13.4 billion light-years. The intriguing object contains only one million stars, far fewer than a mature galaxy, and scientists believe it is very young. Such young star-forming systems of low mass at early cosmic times are likely to be the objects from which present-day galaxies have formed. In the image to the left, the full overview of the galaxy cluster Abell 2218 is seen. This image was taken by Hubble in 1999 at the completion of Hubble Servicing Mission 3A. Credit: NASA, ESA, Richard Ellis (Caltech) and Jean-Paul Kneib (Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees, France) Acknowledgment: NASA, A. Fruchter and the ERO Team (STScI and ST-ECF)

  4. Collaborating with Alexander Scriabine and the Miles Institute for Preclinical Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Janis, Ronald A

    2015-11-15

    This article represents a timely opportunity to express my affection, admiration and gratitude to Professor David Triggle. David was my Ph.D. advisor as well as a key consultant in the 1980s and early 1990s for research programs at Miles Institute for Preclinical Pharmacology in West Haven, CT, the U.S. research operation of Bayer AG, in the areas of Ca(2+) and K(+) channel ligands. The binding methodology developed in his laboratory was used to search for an endogenous ligand for L-type Ca(2+) channels. We did not find the substance that we were searching for, a genetically-determined, competitive inhibitor for the 1,4-dihydropyridine binding site, but instead isolated the endogenous ligand for the brain's own marijuana, anandamide. Devane, Mechoulam and coworkers first discovered that this compound was the endogenous ligand for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the active substance in cannabis. The endogenous endocannabinoid system is now the target of many exciting new approaches to drug discovery. PMID:26119821

  5. VLA Discovers Giant Rings Around Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have discovered giant, ring-like structures around a cluster of galaxies. The discovery provides tantalizing new information about how such galaxy clusters are assembled, about magnetic fields in the vast spaces between galaxy clusters, and possibly about the origin of cosmic rays. Radio-Optical Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (Radio/Optical) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, NRAO/AUI/NSF Above, a combined radio/optical image shows the galaxy cluster Abell 3376 in visible light (blue) and radio (red) images. The giant radio arcs surrounding the cluster were discovered using the Very Large Array. The visible-light image is from the Digitized Sky survey. Below, an X-ray image of Abell 3376 made using the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton telescope shows a spectacular, bullet-shaped region of X-rays coming from gas heated to 60 million degrees Kelvin. The bullet shape results from the supersonic collision of a smaller smaller galaxy subcluster with the main body of the larger cluster. Click on images for larger version. X-Ray Image of Cluster Galaxy Cluster Abell 3376 (X-Ray) CREDIT: Joydeep Bagchi, IUCAA, ESA "These giant, radio-emitting rings probably are the result of shock waves caused by violent collisions of smaller groups of galaxies within the cluster," said Joydeep Bagchi, of the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, who led an international research team. The scientists reported their findings in the November 3 edition of the journal Science. The newly-discovered ring segments, some 6 million light-years across, surround a galaxy cluster called Abell 3376, more than 600 million light-years from Earth. They were revealed because fast-moving electrons emitted radio waves as they spiraled around magnetic field lines in intergalactic space. "Even from this large distance, the feeble radio waves were easily picked up by the VLA

  6. New Galactic supernova remnants discovered with IPHAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin, L.; Parker, Q. A.; Contreras, M. E.; Olguín, L.; Frew, D. J.; Stupar, M.; Vázquez, R.; Wright, N. J.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Morris, R. A. H.

    2013-05-01

    As part of a systematic search programme of a 10° wide strip of the northern Galactic plane, we present preliminary evidence for the discovery of four (and possibly five) new supernova remnants (SNRs). The pilot search area covered the 19-20 h right ascension zone sampling from +20° to +55° in declination using binned mosaic images from the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric Hα Survey (IPHAS). The optical identification of the candidate SNRs was based mainly on their filamentary and arc-like emission morphologies, their apparently coherent, even if fractured, structure and clear disconnection from any diffuse neighbouring H II region type nebulosity. Follow-up optical spectroscopy was undertaken, sampling carefully across prominent features of these faint sources. The resulting spectra revealed typical emission-line ratios for shock-excited nebulae which are characteristic of SNRs, which, along with the latest diagnostic diagrams, strongly support the likely SNR nature of these sources: G038.7-1.3 (IPHASX J190640.5+042819), G067.6+0.9 (IPHASX J195744.9+305306), G066.0-0.0 (IPHASX J195749.2+290259) and G065.8-0.5 (IPHASX J195920.4+283740). A fifth possible younger, higher density nebula SNR candidate, G067.8+0.5 (IPHASX J200002.4+305035), was discovered ˜5 arcmin to the west of IPHASX J195744.9+305306, and it warrants further study. A multiwavelength cross-check from available archived data in the regions of these candidates was also performed with a focus on possible radio counterparts. A close positional match between previously unrecognized radio structures at several frequencies and across various components of the Hα optical image data was found for all SNR candidates. This lends further direct support for the SNR nature of these objects. Evolved SNRs may have very weak and/or highly fragmented radio emission which could explain why they had not been previously recognized, but the association becomes clear in combination with the optical emission.

  7. Discovering Extrasolar Planets with Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambsganss, J.

    2016-06-01

    An astronomical survey is commonly understood as a mapping of a large region of the sky, either photometrically (possibly in various filters/wavelength ranges) or spectroscopically. Often, catalogs of objects are produced/provided as the main product or a by-product. However, with the advent of large CCD cameras and dedicated telescopes with wide-field imaging capabilities, it became possible in the early 1990s, to map the same region of the sky over and over again. In principle, such data sets could be combined to get very deep stacked images of the regions of interest. However, I will report on a completely different use of such repeated maps: Exploring the time domain for particular kinds of stellar variability, namely microlens-induced magnifications in search of exoplanets. Such a time-domain microlensing survey was originally proposed by Bohdan Paczynski in 1986 in order to search for dark matter objects in the Galactic halo. Only a few years later three teams started this endeavour. I will report on the history and current state of gravitational microlensing surveys. By now, routinely 100 million stars in the Galactic Bulge are monitored a few times per week by so-called survey teams. All stars with constant apparent brightness and those following known variability patterns are filtered out in order to detect the roughly 2000 microlensing events per year which are produced by stellar lenses. These microlensing events are identified "online" while still in their early phases and then monitored with much higher cadence by so-called follow-up teams. The most interesting of such events are those produced by a star-plus-planet lens. By now of order 30 exoplanets have been discovered by these combined microlensing surveys. Microlensing searches for extrasolar planets are complementary to other exoplanet search techniques. There are two particular advantages: The microlensing method is sensitive down to Earth-mass planets even with ground-based telecopes, and it

  8. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2015-10-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  9. PSLQ: An Algorithm to Discover Integer Relations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J. M.

    2009-04-03

    Let x = (x{sub 1}, x{sub 2} {hor_ellipsis}, x{sub n}) be a vector of real or complex numbers. x is said to possess an integer relation if there exist integers a{sub i}, not all zero, such that a{sub 1}x{sub 1} + a{sub 2}x{sub 2} + {hor_ellipsis} + a{sub n}x{sub n} = 0. By an integer relation algorithm, we mean a practical computational scheme that can recover the vector of integers ai, if it exists, or can produce bounds within which no integer relation exists. As we will see in the examples below, an integer relation algorithm can be used to recognize a computed constant in terms of a formula involving known constants, or to discover an underlying relation between quantities that can be computed to high precision. At the present time, the most effective algorithm for integer relation detection is the 'PSLQ' algorithm of mathematician-sculptor Helaman Ferguson [10, 4]. Some efficient 'multi-level' implementations of PSLQ, as well as a variant of PSLQ that is well-suited for highly parallel computer systems, are given in [4]. PSLQ constructs a sequence of integer-valued matrices B{sub n} that reduces the vector y = xB{sub n}, until either the relation is found (as one of the columns of B{sub n}), or else precision is exhausted. At the same time, PSLQ generates a steadily growing bound on the size of any possible relation. When a relation is found, the size of smallest entry of the vector y abruptly drops to roughly 'epsilon' (i.e. 10{sup -p}, where p is the number of digits of precision). The size of this drop can be viewed as a 'confidence level' that the relation is real and not merely a numerical artifact - a drop of 20 or more orders of magnitude almost always indicates a real relation. Very high precision arithmetic must be used in PSLQ. If one wishes to recover a relation of length n, with coefficients of maximum size d digits, then the input vector x must be specified to at least nd digits, and one must employ nd-digit floating-point arithmetic. Maple and

  10. The Cannery Formation--Devonian to Early Permian arc-marginal deposits within the Alexander Terrane, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Layer, Paul W.; Harris, Anita G.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Murchey, Benita L.

    2011-01-01

    cherts on both Admiralty and Kupreanof Islands contain radiolarians as young as Permian, the age of the Cannery Formation is herein extended to Late Devonian through early Permian, to include the early Permian rocks exposed in its type locality. The Cannery Formation is folded and faulted, and its stratigraphic thickness is unknown but inferred to be several hundred meters. The Cannery Formation represents an extended period of marine deposition in moderately deep water, with slow rates of deposition and limited clastic input during Devonian through Pennsylvanian time and increasing argillaceous, volcaniclastic, and bioclastic input during the Permian. The Cannery Formation comprises upper Paleozoic rocks in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. In the pre-Permian upper Paleozoic, the tectonic setting of the Alexander terrane consisted of two or more evolved oceanic arcs. The lower Permian section is represented by a distinctive suite of rocks in the Alexander terrane, which includes sedimentary and volcanic rocks containing early Permian fossils, metamorphosed rocks with early Permian cooling ages, and intrusive rocks with early Permian cooling ages, that form discrete northwest-trending belts. After restoration of 180 km of dextral displacement of the Chilkat-Chichagof block on the Chatham Strait Fault, these belts consist, from northeast to southwest, of (1) bedded chert, siliceous argillite, volcaniclastic turbidites, pillow basalt, and limestone of the Cannery Formation and the Porcupine Slate of Gilbert and others (1987); (2) greenschist-facies Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that have Permian cooling ages; (3) silty limestone and calcareous argillite interbedded with pillow basalt and volcaniclastic rocks of the Halleck Formation and the William Henry Bay area; and (4) intermediate-composition and syenitic plutons. These belts correspond to components of an accretionary complex, contemporary metamorphic rocks, forearc-basin deposits,

  11. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  12. ESA's Integral discovers hidden black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    discovered so far? Astronomers, who have been observing the object regularly, guess that it had remained invisible because there must be a very thick shell of obscuring material surrounding it. If that was the case, only the most energetic radiation from the object could get through the shell; less-energetic radiation would be blocked. That could explain why space telescopes that are sensitive only to low-energy radiation had overlooked the object, while Integral, specialised in detecting very energetic emissions, did see it. To test their theory, astronomers turned to ESA's XMM-Newton space observatory, which observes the sky in the X-ray wavelengths. As well as being sensitive to high-energy radiation, XMM-Newton is also able to check for the presence of obscuring material. Indeed, XMM-Newton detected this object last February, as well as the existence of a dense 'cocoon' of cold gas with a diameter of similar size to that of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This obscuring material forming the cocoon is probably 'stellar wind', namely gas ejected by the supermassive companion star. Astronomers think that this gas may be accreted by the compact black hole, forming a dense shell around it. This obscuring cloud traps most of the energy produced inside it. The main author of these results, Roland Walter of the Integral Science Data Centre, Switzerland, explained: "Only photons with the highest energies [above 10 keV] could escape from that cocoon. IGR J16318-4848 has therefore not been detected by surveys performed at lower energies, nor by previous gamma-ray missions that were much less sensitive than Integral." The question now is to find out how many of these objects lurk in the Galaxy. XMM-Newton and Integral together are the perfect tools to do the job. They have already discovered two more new sources embedded in obscuring material. Future observations are planned. Christoph Winkler, ESA Project Scientist for Integral, said: "These early examples of using two

  13. Spirit Discovers New Class of Igneous Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    . %' indicates that the numbers tell what percentage of the total weight of each rock is silica (on the horizontal scale) and what percentage is oxides of sodium and potassium (on the vertical scale). The thin lines separate volcanic rock types identified on Earth by different scientific names such as foidite and picrobasalt. Various classes of Gusev rocks (see box in upper right) all plot either on or to the left of the green lines, which define 'alkaline' and 'subalkaline' categories (subalkaline rocks have more silica than alkaline rocks).

    Members of the rover team have named different classes of rocks after specimens examined by Spirit that represent their overall character. During the rover's travels, Spirit discovered that Adirondack-class rocks littered the Gusev plains; that Backstay, Irvine, and Wishstone-class rocks occurred as loose blocks on the northwest slope of 'Husband Hill'; and that outcrops of Algonquin-class rocks protruded in several places on the southeast face.

    These rocks have less silica than all previously analyzed Mars samples, which are subalkaline. The previously analyzed Mars samples include Martian meteorites found on Earth and rocks analyzed by the Mars Pathfinder rover in 1997. Gusev is the first documented example of an alkaline igneous province on Mars.

  14. Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard

  15. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Keynote Presentation (Frederick W. Smith, FedEx Corporation), with Introduction by Senator Lamar Alexander (TN)

    ScienceCinema

    Smith, Frederick W. (FedEx Corporation, Chairman, President and CEO)

    2016-07-12

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Following introduction by Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee, Frederick W. Smith, Chairman, President, and CEO of FedEx Corporation, gave the third keynote presentation of the day.

  16. Using the Alexander Collection to measure the effects of climate change on the grasshoppers of the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nufio, C. R.; Bowers, D. M.; Guralnick, R. P.

    2007-12-01

    The current study utilizes the recently curated and databased Alexander Grasshopper Collection coupled with a new resurvey program to measure the effects of climate change on grasshoppers found along an elevational gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. The Alexander Collection is composed of approximately 19,000 pinned grasshoppers and a series of field data notebooks from a three year 1958-1960 survey project. During these survey years, Alexander processed over 65,000 grasshoppers from repeatedly sampled sites along an elevational gradient from Boulder (1530 m elev.) to Mt Evans (3900m elev.) in the Colorado Front Range. Data from 2006 shows that at mid-elevation sites grasshoppers are becoming adults 15-28 days earlier than they did nearly a half century ago. We found no changes in the time to reach adulthood at the high elevation sites. Preliminary data from 2007 (a year with milder spring temperatures) suggests that unlike the dramatic patterns documented in 2006, that the time to reach adulthood for grasshoppers at low and high elevation sites was not much different than it was 50 years ago. In 2007, several grasshopper species at mid-elevation did become adults earlier than they had a half century ago.

  17. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century.

  18. Deficits in Adult Neurogenesis, Contextual Fear Conditioning, and Spatial Learning in a Gfap Mutant Mouse Model of Alexander Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paylor, Richard; Messing, Albee

    2013-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament of mature astrocytes in the mammalian CNS. Dominant gain of function mutations in GFAP lead to the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Alexander disease (AxD), which is characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers along with variable degrees of leukodystrophy and intellectual disability. The mechanisms by which mutant GFAP leads to these pleiotropic effects are unknown. In addition to astrocytes, GFAP is also expressed in other cell types, particularly neural stem cells that form the reservoir supporting adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Here, we show that mouse models of AxD exhibit significant pathology in GFAP-positive radial glia-like cells in the dentate gyrus, and suffer from deficits in adult neurogenesis. In addition, they display impairments in contextual learning and spatial memory. This is the first demonstration of cognitive phenotypes in a model of primary astrocyte disease. PMID:24259590

  19. Growing community: the impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the social and learning environment in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie

    2012-08-01

    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has a positive impact on student engagement, social connections, and confidence within and beyond the school gates. Primary evidence for the research question came from qualitative data collected from students, parents, teachers, volunteers, school principals, and specialist staff through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. This was supported by analyses of quantitative data on child quality of life, cooperative behaviors, teacher perceptions of the school environment, and school-level educational outcome and absenteeism data. Results showed that some of the program attributes valued most highly by study participants included increased student engagement and confidence, opportunities for experiential and integrated learning, teamwork, building social skills, and connections and links between schools and their communities. In this analysis, quantitative findings failed to support findings from the primary analysis. Limitations as well as benefits of a mixed-methods approach to evaluation of complex community interventions are discussed.

  20. Listening to the whispers of matter through Arabic hermeticism: new studies on The Book of the Treasure of Alexander.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Jubran, Safa Abou Chahla

    2008-07-01

    The Jabirian Corpus refers to the K. Thahirat Al-'Iskandar, "The Book of the Treasure of Alexander" (hereafter BTA), as one of several forgeries suggesting that alchemical secrets were hidden in inscriptions in various places. The book was neglected until 1926, when Julius Ruska discussed it in his work on the Emerald Tablet, placing the BTA within the literature related to the development of Arabic alchemy. His preliminary study became an essential reference and encouraged many scholars to work on the BTA in the following decades. Some years ago, we completed the first translation of the BTA into a Western language. The work was based on the acephalous Escorial manuscript, which we identified as a fourteenth-century copy of the BTA. This manuscript is peculiar, as part of it is encoded. After finishing our translation, we started to establish the text of the BTA. At present, the text is in process of fixation--to be followed by textual criticism--and has been the main focus of a thorough study of ours on medieval hermeticism and alchemy. A sample of the work currently in progress is presented in this paper: an analysis of the variations between different manuscripts along with a study and English translation of its alchemical chapter. PMID:19048971

  1. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 1: formative years, naturphilosophie, and galvanism.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    During the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who showed an early interest in many facets of natural philosophy and natural history, delved into the controversial subject of galvanism and animal electricity, hoping to shed light on the basic nature of the nerve force. He was motivated by his broad worldview, the experiments of Luigi Galvani, who favored animal electricity in more than a few specialized fishes, and the thinking of Alessandro Volta, who accepted specialized fish electricity but was not willing to generalize to other animals, thinking Galvani's frog experiments flawed by his use of metals. Differing from many German Naturphilosophen, who shunned "violent" experiments, the newest instruments, and detailed measurement, Humboldt conducted thousands of galvanic experiments on animals and animal parts, as well as many on his own body, some of which caused him great pain. He interpreted his results as supporting some but not all of the claims made by both Galvani and Volta. Notably, because of certain negative findings and phenomenological differences, he remained skeptical about the intrinsic animal force being qualitatively identical to true electricity. Hence, he referred to a "galvanic force," not animal electricity, in his letters and publications, a theoretical position he would abandon with Volta's help early in the new century. PMID:23581538

  2. Most Powerful Eruption in the Universe Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    emission within the cavities shows that jets from the black hole erupted to create the cavities. Gas is being pushed away from the black hole at supersonic speeds over a distance of about a million light years. The mass of the displaced gas equals about a trillion Suns, more than the mass of all the stars in the Milky Way. LA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 VLA Radio & Chandra X-ray Composite of MS 0735.6+7421 The rapid growth of supermassive black holes is usually detected by observing very bright radiation from the centers of galaxies in the optical and X-ray wavebands, or luminous radio jets. In MS 0735 no bright central radiation is found and the radio jets are faint. Therefore, the true nature of MS 0735 is only revealed through X-ray observations of the hot cluster gas. "Until now we had no idea that this black hole was gorging itself", said co-author Michael Wise of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "The discovery of this eruption shows that X-ray telescopes are necessary to understand some of the most violent events in the Universe." The astronomers estimated how much energy was needed to create the cavities by calculating the density, temperature and pressure of the hot gas. By making a standard assumption, that 10% of the gravitational energy goes into launching the jets, they estimated how much material the black hole swallowed. Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Size Comparison of MS 0735.6+7421 & Perseus Cluster Besides generating the cavities, some of the energy from this eruption should keep the hot gas around the black hole from cooling, and some of it may also generate large-scale magnetic fields in the galaxy cluster. Chandra observers have discovered other cavities in galaxy clusters, but this one is easily the largest and the most powerful. For example, the energy content here exceeds that of the Perseus cavities by 250 times, and dwarfs the cavities in M87 by a factor of 10,000. NASA's Marshall Space Flight

  3. Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    without pulsations would require a tiny size, consistent only with exotic stars made of strange quark matter. "Our carbon veil solves one of the big questions about the neutron star in Cas A," said Craig Heinke. "People have been willing to consider some weird explanations, so it's a relief to discover a less peculiar solution." Unlike most astronomical objects, neutron stars are small enough to understand on a human scale. For example, neutron stars typically have a diameter of about 14 miles, only slightly longer than a half-marathon. The atmosphere of a neutron star is on an even smaller scale. The researchers calculate that the carbon atmosphere is only about 4 inches thick, because it has been compressed by a surface gravity that is 100 billion times stronger than on Earth. "For people who are used to hearing about immense sizes of things in space, it might be a surprise that we can study something so small," said Ho. "It's also funny to think that such a thin veil over this star played a key role in frustrating researchers." In Earth's time frame, the estimated age of the neutron star in Cas A is only several hundred years, making it about ten times younger than other neutron stars with detected surface emission. Therefore, the Cas A neutron star gives a unique window into the early life of a cooling neutron star. The carbon itself comes from a combination of material that has fallen back after the supernova, and nuclear reactions on the hot surface of the neutron star which convert hydrogen and helium into carbon. The X-ray spectrum and lack of pulsar activity suggest that the magnetic field on the surface of this neutron star is relatively weak. Similarly low magnetic fields are implied for several other young neutron stars by study of their weak X-ray pulsations. It is not known whether these neutron stars will have low magnetic fields for their entire lives, and never become radio pulsars, or whether processes in their interior will lead to the development of

  4. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  5. DISCOVER: Concurrent Validity, Gender Differences, and Identification of Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 257 Navajo Indians and Mexican American elementary students, used the Raven Progressive Matrices to examined the concurrent validity of the DISCOVER assessment. Results provided some evidence for concurrent validity and showed that, through the use of the DISCOVER assessment, 22.9 percent were identified as gifted. (Contains…

  6. 76 FR 4393 - Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Financial Services negotiated service agreement to the market dominant product list. This notice addresses... 3020, et seq., to add a Discover Financial Services (DFS) negotiated service agreement to the market... Data and Request to Add Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement to the...

  7. Biological Activity of Recently Discovered Halogenated Marine Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the biological activity—antibacterial, antifungal, anti-parasitic, antiviral, antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and enzymatic activity—of halogenated marine natural products discovered in the past five years. Newly discovered examples that do not report biological activity are not included. PMID:26133553

  8. Youngest Stellar Explosion in Our Galaxy Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers have found the remains of the youngest supernova, or exploded star, in our Galaxy. The supernova remnant, hidden behind a thick veil of gas and dust, was revealed by the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which could see through the murk. The object is the first example of a "missing population" of young supernova remnants. 1985 and 2008 VLA Images Move cursor over image to blink. VLA Images of G1.9+0.3 in 1985 and 2008: Circle for size comparison. CREDIT: Green, et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF From observing supernovae in other galaxies, astronomers have estimated that about three such stellar explosions should occur in our Milky Way every century. However, the most recent one known until now occurred around 1680, creating the remnant called Cassiopeia A. The newly-discovered object is the remnant of an explosion only about 140 years ago. "If the supernova rate estimates are correct, there should be the remnants of about 10 supernova explosions in the Milky Way that are younger than Cassiopeia A," said David Green of the University of Cambridge in the UK, who led the VLA study. "It's great to finally track one of them down." Supernova explosions, which mark the violent death of a star, release tremendous amounts of energy and spew heavy elements such as calcium and iron into interstellar space. They thus seed the clouds of gas and dust from which new stars and planets are formed and, through their blast shocks, can even trigger such formation. The lack of evidence for young supernova remnants in the Milky Way had caused astronomers to wonder if our Galaxy, which appears otherwise normal, differed in some unknown way from others. Alternatively, scientists thought that the "missing" Milky Way supernovae perhaps indicated that their understanding of the relationship between supernovae and other galactic processes was in error. The astronomers made their discovery by measuring the expansion of the debris from

  9. Alexander von Humboldt: galvanism, animal electricity, and self-experimentation part 2: the electric eel, animal electricity, and later years.

    PubMed

    Finger, Stanley; Piccolino, Marco; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    After extensive experimentation during the 1790s, Alexander von Humboldt remained skeptical about "animal electricity" (and metallic electricity), writing instead about an ill-defined galvanic force. With his worldview and wishing to learn more, he studied electric eels in South America just as the new century began, again using his body as a scientific instrument in many of his experiments. As had been the case in the past and for many of the same reasons, some of his findings with the electric eel (and soon after, Italian torpedoes) seemed to argue against biological electricity. But he no longer used galvanic terminology when describing his electric fish experiments. The fact that he now wrote about animal electricity rather than a different "galvanic" force owed much to Alessandro Volta, who had come forth with his "pile" (battery) for multipling the physical and perceptable effects of otherwise weak electricity in 1800, while Humboldt was deep in South America. Humboldt probably read about and saw voltaic batteries in the United States in 1804, but the time he spent with Volta in 1805 was probably more significant in his conversion from a galvanic to an electrical framework for understanding nerve and muscle physiology. Although he did not continue his animal electricity research program after this time, Humboldt retained his worldview of a unified nature and continued to believe in intrinsic animal electricity. He also served as a patron to some of the most important figures in the new field of electrophysiology (e.g., Hermann Helmholtz and Emil du Bois-Reymond), helping to take the research that he had participated in to the next level.

  10. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Cifelli, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. These GIFT workshops represented the first workshops specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  11. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, C. E.; Cifelli, F.

    2014-12-01

    Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. In 3 cases of the 4 cases, these GIFT workshops represented the first workshop specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  12. Strontium-90 Error Discovered in Subcontract Laboratory Spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Brown A. S. Nagel

    1999-07-31

    West Valley Demonstration Project health physicists and environment scientists discovered a series of errors in a subcontractor's spreadsheet being used to reduce data as part of their strontium-90 analytical process.

  13. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Multiple Planets Orbiting Twin Suns

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first transiting circumbinary system -- multiple planets orbiting two suns -- 4,900 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Cygnus, proving that more t...

  14. First Multi-Planet System Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered the first confirmed planetary system with more than one planet transiting the same star. The announcement of the discovery of the two planets, Kepler 9b and 9c,...

  15. Cochlear Implants Keep Twin Sisters Learning, Discovering Together

    MedlinePlus

    ... University. Photo: Johns Hopkins University Keep Twin Sisters Learning, Discovering Together Mia and Isabelle Jeppsen, 10, share ... her mother, gratefully, "There's the obvious benefit of learning to read, write and communicate with facility and ...

  16. NASA's Kepler Discovers Its Smallest 'Habitable Zone' Planets to Date

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered two new planetary systems that include three super-Earth-size planets in the "habitable zone," the range of distance from a star where the surface temperature o...

  17. The wounding of Alexander the Great in Cyropolis (329 BC): the first reported case of the syndrome of transient cortical blindness?

    PubMed

    Lascaratos, J

    1997-01-01

    I believe that the transient blindness which presented Alexander the Great after his being wounded on his head and/or his neck by a stone from a catapult during the siege of Cyropolis (329 BC) was in all probability a case of transient cortical blindness that was recognized as a special entity in the 1960s. I reached this conclusion after the comparative study of the Emperor's clinical picture provided by ancient texts, especially those of Plutarch and Quintus Curtius Rufus, with that of a modern medical bibliography.

  18. The Neotropical tanyderid Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) (Diptera, Tanyderidae), with description of the egg, larva and pupa, redescription of adults, and notes on natural history.

    PubMed

    Madriz, R Isaí; Courtney, Gregory W

    2016-08-30

    Larvae, pupae and adults of Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) were collected during fieldwork in Chilean Patagonia, December 2013 and January 2014. Eggs were obtained from females that oviposited in captivity. Association of all life stages is based on co-occurrence and rearing of individual larvae to adults. A diagnosis for the genus and species is provided. Descriptions of the egg, larva and pupa and redescriptions of the male and female are completed. Eggs of A. gloriosus are the first described for Tanyderidae. Natural history characteristics for this species, including microhabitat, copulatory behavior and oviposition, are discussed.

  19. The Neotropical tanyderid Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) (Diptera, Tanyderidae), with description of the egg, larva and pupa, redescription of adults, and notes on natural history.

    PubMed

    Madriz, R Isaí; Courtney, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Larvae, pupae and adults of Araucoderus gloriosus (Alexander) were collected during fieldwork in Chilean Patagonia, December 2013 and January 2014. Eggs were obtained from females that oviposited in captivity. Association of all life stages is based on co-occurrence and rearing of individual larvae to adults. A diagnosis for the genus and species is provided. Descriptions of the egg, larva and pupa and redescriptions of the male and female are completed. Eggs of A. gloriosus are the first described for Tanyderidae. Natural history characteristics for this species, including microhabitat, copulatory behavior and oviposition, are discussed. PMID:27615889

  20. Discovering communities in complex networks by edge label propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Xingpeng; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of the community structure of real-world networks is still an open problem. Many methods have been proposed to shed light on this problem, and most of these have focused on discovering node community. However, link community is also a powerful framework for discovering overlapping communities. Here we present a novel edge label propagation algorithm (ELPA), which combines the natural advantage of link communities with the efficiency of the label propagation algorithm (LPA). ELPA can discover both link communities and node communities. We evaluated ELPA on both synthetic and real-world networks, and compared it with five state-of-the-art methods. The results demonstrate that ELPA performs competitively with other algorithms.

  1. Discovering communities in complex networks by edge label propagation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Xingpeng; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the community structure of real-world networks is still an open problem. Many methods have been proposed to shed light on this problem, and most of these have focused on discovering node community. However, link community is also a powerful framework for discovering overlapping communities. Here we present a novel edge label propagation algorithm (ELPA), which combines the natural advantage of link communities with the efficiency of the label propagation algorithm (LPA). ELPA can discover both link communities and node communities. We evaluated ELPA on both synthetic and real-world networks, and compared it with five state-of-the-art methods. The results demonstrate that ELPA performs competitively with other algorithms. PMID:26926830

  2. Discovering communities in complex networks by edge label propagation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Xingpeng; Pellegrini, Matteo; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the community structure of real-world networks is still an open problem. Many methods have been proposed to shed light on this problem, and most of these have focused on discovering node community. However, link community is also a powerful framework for discovering overlapping communities. Here we present a novel edge label propagation algorithm (ELPA), which combines the natural advantage of link communities with the efficiency of the label propagation algorithm (LPA). ELPA can discover both link communities and node communities. We evaluated ELPA on both synthetic and real-world networks, and compared it with five state-of-the-art methods. The results demonstrate that ELPA performs competitively with other algorithms. PMID:26926830

  3. Will cosmic strings be discovered using the Space Telescope?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacynski, B.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic strings are topologically stable defects in the vacuum of space which may be produced by a phase transition in the early universe. Here, it is suggested that observations of very distant galaxies are a more useful means of discovering strings than quasar observations. It is argued that if there is only one string out to redshift z - about 1 the probability that it crosses a random image obtained using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) of the Space Telescope is about 0.0001. In order to discover a cosmic string the Space Telescope WFC will be required to operate almost continuously in primary and serendipity modes, and a cosmic string, if it exists, may be discovered within the first few years of operation.

  4. Correlation of Emkuckfaw Group metagraywackes with the Wedowee Group, Northern Piedmont, Alabama: Implications for the interpretation of the Alexander City fault

    SciTech Connect

    Bieler, D.B. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Recent field studies to clarify stratigraphic relationships between the Elkahatchee Quartz Diorite Gneiss and the Brevard zone lead to the interpretation that part of the Emuckfaw Group is correlative with, and probably structurally continuous with, part of the Wedowee Group. The Josie Leg formation of Bieler and Deininger (1987) is a sequence of metagraywackes and interbedded metapelites; it is here interpreted as a coarse submarine fan facies. The northwestern contact of the unit, frequently mapped as the Alexander City fault, maps into the Wadley Line in the New Site and Daviston quadrangles. The southeastern contact is a sheared contact with structurally overlying migmatitic rocks that include quartzites and calcsilicates. The Josie Leg and Wedowee rocks form a southwesterly plunging synform in which the Elkahatchee lies. Where the contact between the units is gently dipping it is mapped as the Wadley line. Where the contact has been folded and dips steeply, it is highly sheared and is mapped as the Alexander City fault. It is impossible to determine at this time how much the section has been attenuated during the shearing. Although the contact has been interpreted as structural, the data are not unambiguous. The Josie Leg/Wedowee contact may be a stratigraphic contact with the apparent structural discordance reflecting the different mechanical behavior of the contrasting lithologies.

  5. Discovering robust knowledge from dynamic closed-world data

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chun-Nan; Knoblock, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Many applications of knowledge discovery require the knowledge to be consistent with data. Examples include discovering rules for query optimization, database integration, decision support, etc. However, databases usually change over time and make machine-discovered knowledge inconsistent with data. Useful knowledge should be robust against database changes so that it is unlikely to become inconsistent after database changes. This paper defines this notion of robustness, describes how to estimate the robustness of Horn-clause rules in closed-world databases, and describes how the robustness estimation can be applied in rule discovery systems.

  6. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gash, Philip

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  7. Two new Galactic novae discovered in the VVV disk images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, C. Contreras; Lucas, P. W.; Saito, R. K.; Minniti, D.; Kurtev, R.

    2016-04-01

    We report two novae in the Galactic plane discovered serendipitously during a search for high amplitude variable young stellar objects (Contreras Pena et al. 2016, arXiv:1602.06267) in the VVV Survey data (vvvsurvey.org; Minniti et al. 2010, New Astronomy, 15, 433).

  8. Words, Words, Words: Helping Students Discover the Power of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Robert Perrin emphasizes the active and playful power that can be discovered from specificity of language. Students observe the impact carefully chosen words have in their daily lives by examining names of products and colors used for particular contexts and audiences, as well as names given to inventions, highlighting the vibrancy of…

  9. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gash, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  10. Discovering Theorems in Abstract Algebra Using the Software "GAP"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Russell D.; Rainbolt, Julianne G.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional abstract algebra course typically consists of the professor stating and then proving a sequence of theorems. As an alternative to this classical structure, the students could be expected to discover some of the theorems even before they are motivated by classroom examples. This can be done by using a software system to explore a…

  11. The Regression Trunk Approach to Discover Treatment Covariate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusseldorp, Elise; Meulman, Jacqueline J.

    2004-01-01

    The regression trunk approach (RTA) is an integration of regression trees and multiple linear regression analysis. In this paper RTA is used to discover treatment covariate interactions, in the regression of one continuous variable on a treatment variable with "multiple" covariates. The performance of RTA is compared to the classical method of…

  12. Discovering Hidden Analogies in an Online Humanities Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cory, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing upon an efficacious method for discovering previously unknown causes of medical syndromes and searching in the Humanities Index, an illuminating new humanities analogy between the epistemological ideas of Robert Frost and the ancient Greek philosopher Carneades was found by constructing a search statement in which proper names were coupled…

  13. [History of antibiotics and sulphonamides discoveries].

    PubMed

    Jeśman, Czesław; Młudzik, Agnieszka; Cybulska, Magdalena

    2011-05-01

    In the 19th century, the effect of mould on bacterial colonies was investigated. In 1921, Alexander Fleming examined systemic fluids and observed some substances called lyzosomes which were capable of dissolving bacteria. In 1928, he discovered that a specific mould species inhibited the development of Staphylococcus bacteria. The species was known as Pencillium notatum and the filtrate was called penicillin. In 1940, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain worked out the industrial production of penicillin. All three researchers were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945, and since then the era of antibiotics has been initiated. In 1935, Gerhard Domagk discovered the first sulphonamide--prontosil rubrum. Four years later he received the Noble Prize. PMID:21675132

  14. [History of antibiotics and sulphonamides discoveries].

    PubMed

    Jeśman, Czesław; Młudzik, Agnieszka; Cybulska, Magdalena

    2011-05-01

    In the 19th century, the effect of mould on bacterial colonies was investigated. In 1921, Alexander Fleming examined systemic fluids and observed some substances called lyzosomes which were capable of dissolving bacteria. In 1928, he discovered that a specific mould species inhibited the development of Staphylococcus bacteria. The species was known as Pencillium notatum and the filtrate was called penicillin. In 1940, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain worked out the industrial production of penicillin. All three researchers were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945, and since then the era of antibiotics has been initiated. In 1935, Gerhard Domagk discovered the first sulphonamide--prontosil rubrum. Four years later he received the Noble Prize.

  15. Updating strategies for isolating and discovering giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Jacques Yaacoub Bou; Andreani, Julien; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    Almost fifteen years ago, the discovery of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, the first giant virus, changed how we define a virus. It was discovered incidentally in a process of isolating Legionella sp. from environmental samples in the context of pneumonia epidemics using a co-culture system with Acanthamoeba. Since then, much effort and improvement has been put into the original technique. In addition to the known families of Mimiviridae and Marseilleviridae, four new proposed families of giant viruses have been isolated: Pandoravirus, Pithovirus, Faustovirus and Mollivirus. Major improvements were based on enrichment systems, targeted use of antibiotics and high-throughput methods. The most recent development, using flow cytometry for isolation and presumptive identification systems, opens a path to large environmental surveys that may discover new giant virus families in new protozoa supports used for culture support. PMID:27039269

  16. Discovering the Higgs boson with low mass muon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Wacker, Jay G.

    2009-06-01

    Many models of electroweak symmetry breaking have an additional light pseudoscalar. If the Higgs boson can decay to a new pseudoscalar, LEP searches for the Higgs can be significantly altered and the Higgs can be as light as 86 GeV. Discovering the Higgs boson in these models is challenging when the pseudoscalar is lighter than 10 GeV because it decays dominantly into tau leptons. In this paper, we discuss discovering the Higgs in a subdominant decay mode where one of the pseudoscalars decays to a pair of muons. This search allows for potential discovery of a cascade-decaying Higgs boson with the complete Tevatron data set or early data at the LHC.

  17. Line drawing of anomaly discovered in redesigned shuttle motor nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Line drawing titled 'DM-9 Case-to-Nozzle Joint' shows anomaly discovered in redesigned shuttle motor nozzle. The second full-duration test firing of NASA's redesigned Space Shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM), designated DM-9, was conducted 12-23-87 at Morton Thiokol's Wasatch facility in Utah. A post-test examination of the motor has revealed an anomaly in one nozzle component. Material was discovered missing from the nozzle outer boot ring, a large carbon phenolic composite ring used to anchor one end of the flexible boot that allows the nozzle to move and 'steer' the vehicle. About one-third of the missing 160 degrees of missing ring material was found adjacent to the forward nozzle section inside the motor. This diagram shows the location of the nozzle joint on an assembled SRM, and points out the shaded location of the outer boot ring that circles the motor within the nozzle joint.

  18. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  19. MASTER: OT discovered during inspection of HESE 58537957 trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurina, N.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Vlasenko, D.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Shumkov, V.; Potter, S.

    2016-08-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 349171 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 13h 08m 45.02s -32d 32m 54.9s on 2016-08-24.73811 UT during inspection of HESE alert ( 58537957 trigger number ) http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/notices_amon/58537957_128340.amon . The OT unfiltered magnitude is 19.6m (limit 20.5m).

  20. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  1. Why Ampère did not discover electromagnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, L. Pearce

    1986-04-01

    In 1832, after Michael Faraday had announced his discovery of electromagnetic induction, Andre-Marie Ampère claimed that he had actually discovered the induction of one current by another in 1822. In fact, he had, but did not really publish the fact at that time. This article explores the reasons for Ampère's failure to lay claim to a discovery that would have guaranteed him scientific immortality.

  2. Re-Discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of…

  3. What are karrikins and how were they 'discovered' by plants?

    PubMed

    Flematti, Gavin R; Dixon, Kingsley W; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Karrikins are a family of compounds produced by wildfires that can stimulate the germination of dormant seeds of plants from numerous families. Seed plants could have 'discovered' karrikins during fire-prone times in the Cretaceous period when flowering plants were evolving rapidly. Recent research suggests that karrikins mimic an unidentified endogenous compound that has roles in seed germination and early plant development. The endogenous signalling compound is presumably not only similar to karrikins, but also to the related strigolactone hormones. PMID:26689715

  4. [Researchers training in the context of the collaborative projects: experiences of Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humbolt", Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia].

    PubMed

    Gotuzzo, Eduardo; González, Elsa; Verdonck, Kristien

    2010-09-01

    Research is a main element for human and social development. Under this point of view, it involves particular challenges and opportunities for the so-called "developing countries". An approach for those challenges and opportunities comes from the analysis of two interrelated activities; the training of new researchers and the research development with institutions or researchers which are external to the institution ("collaborative research"). Both activities are essential for the consolidation, widening and updating of the institutional capabilities for scientific production. We present here the experiences of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt" of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, in relation to the training of new researchers, we discuss the four elements we consider key for this process; the promotion of stimulating environments for research, the proactive identification of fellows, the complementary advice and networks consolidation; and we analyze three successful models of international collaboration for the training of new researchers under different institutional approaches.

  5. Discovering graphical Granger causality using the truncating lasso penalty

    PubMed Central

    Shojaie, Ali; Michailidis, George

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Components of biological systems interact with each other in order to carry out vital cell functions. Such information can be used to improve estimation and inference, and to obtain better insights into the underlying cellular mechanisms. Discovering regulatory interactions among genes is therefore an important problem in systems biology. Whole-genome expression data over time provides an opportunity to determine how the expression levels of genes are affected by changes in transcription levels of other genes, and can therefore be used to discover regulatory interactions among genes. Results: In this article, we propose a novel penalization method, called truncating lasso, for estimation of causal relationships from time-course gene expression data. The proposed penalty can correctly determine the order of the underlying time series, and improves the performance of the lasso-type estimators. Moreover, the resulting estimate provides information on the time lag between activation of transcription factors and their effects on regulated genes. We provide an efficient algorithm for estimation of model parameters, and show that the proposed method can consistently discover causal relationships in the large p, small n setting. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated favorably in simulated, as well as real, data examples. Availability: The proposed truncating lasso method is implemented in the R-package ‘grangerTlasso’ and is freely available at http://www.stat.lsa.umich.edu/∼shojaie/ Contact: shojaie@umich.edu PMID:20823316

  6. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  7. Discovering Pair-wise Synergies in Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Cao, Dan; Gao, Jun; Yuan, Zheming

    2016-01-01

    Informative gene selection can have important implications for the improvement of cancer diagnosis and the identification of new drug targets. Individual-gene-ranking methods ignore interactions between genes. Furthermore, popular pair-wise gene evaluation methods, e.g. TSP and TSG, are helpless for discovering pair-wise interactions. Several efforts to discover pair-wise synergy have been made based on the information approach, such as EMBP and FeatKNN. However, the methods which are employed to estimate mutual information, e.g. binarization, histogram-based and KNN estimators, depend on known data or domain characteristics. Recently, Reshef et al. proposed a novel maximal information coefficient (MIC) measure to capture a wide range of associations between two variables that has the property of generality. An extension from MIC(X; Y) to MIC(X1; X2; Y) is therefore desired. We developed an approximation algorithm for estimating MIC(X1; X2; Y) where Y is a discrete variable. MIC(X1; X2; Y) is employed to detect pair-wise synergy in simulation and cancer microarray data. The results indicate that MIC(X1; X2; Y) also has the property of generality. It can discover synergic genes that are undetectable by reference feature selection methods such as MIC(X; Y) and TSG. Synergic genes can distinguish different phenotypes. Finally, the biological relevance of these synergic genes is validated with GO annotation and OUgene database. PMID:27470995

  8. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = .534) and obesity (r = −.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

  9. DISCOVERING PATIENT PHENOTYPES USING GENERALIZED LOW RANK MODELS

    PubMed Central

    SCHULER, ALEJANDRO; LIU, VINCENT; WAN, JOE; CALLAHAN, ALISON; UDELL, MADELEINE; STARK, DAVID E.; SHAH, NIGAM H.

    2016-01-01

    The practice of medicine is predicated on discovering commonalities or distinguishing characteristics among patients to inform corresponding treatment. Given a patient grouping (hereafter referred to as a phenotype), clinicians can implement a treatment pathway accounting for the underlying cause of disease in that phenotype. Traditionally, phenotypes have been discovered by intuition, experience in practice, and advancements in basic science, but these approaches are often heuristic, labor intensive, and can take decades to produce actionable knowledge. Although our understanding of disease has progressed substantially in the past century, there are still important domains in which our phenotypes are murky, such as in behavioral health or in hospital settings. To accelerate phenotype discovery, researchers have used machine learning to find patterns in electronic health records, but have often been thwarted by missing data, sparsity, and data heterogeneity. In this study, we use a flexible framework called Generalized Low Rank Modeling (GLRM) to overcome these barriers and discover phenotypes in two sources of patient data. First, we analyze data from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (NIS), which contains upwards of 8 million hospitalization records consisting of administrative codes and demographic information. Second, we analyze a small (N=1746), local dataset documenting the clinical progression of autism spectrum disorder patients using granular features from the electronic health record, including text from physician notes. We demonstrate that low rank modeling successfully captures known and putative phenotypes in these vastly different datasets. PMID:26776181

  10. Discovering System Health Anomalies Using Data Mining Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sriastava, Ashok, N.

    2005-01-01

    We present a data mining framework for the analysis and discovery of anomalies in high-dimensional time series of sensor measurements that would be found in an Integrated System Health Monitoring system. We specifically treat the problem of discovering anomalous features in the time series that may be indicative of a system anomaly, or in the case of a manned system, an anomaly due to the human. Identification of these anomalies is crucial to building stable, reusable, and cost-efficient systems. The framework consists of an analysis platform and new algorithms that can scale to thousands of sensor streams to discovers temporal anomalies. We discuss the mathematical framework that underlies the system and also describe in detail how this framework is general enough to encompass both discrete and continuous sensor measurements. We also describe a new set of data mining algorithms based on kernel methods and hidden Markov models that allow for the rapid assimilation, analysis, and discovery of system anomalies. We then describe the performance of the system on a real-world problem in the aircraft domain where we analyze the cockpit data from aircraft as well as data from the aircraft propulsion, control, and guidance systems. These data are discrete and continuous sensor measurements and are dealt with seamlessly in order to discover anomalous flights. We conclude with recommendations that describe the tradeoffs in building an integrated scalable platform for robust anomaly detection in ISHM applications.

  11. Era of Galaxy and Black Hole Growth Spurt Discovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Distant galaxies undergoing intense bursts of star formation have been shown by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to be fertile growing grounds for the largest black holes in the Universe. Collisions between galaxies in the early Universe may be the ultimate cause for both the accelerated star formation and black hole growth. By combining the deepest X-ray image ever obtained with submillimeter and optical observations, an international team of scientists has found evidence that some extremely luminous adolescent galaxies and their central black holes underwent a phenomenal spurt of growth more than 10 billion years ago. This concurrent black hole and galaxy growth spurt is only seen in these galaxies and may have set the stage for the birth of quasars - distant galaxies that contain the largest and most active black holes in the Universe. Simulation of a Galaxy Collision Simulation of a Galaxy Collision "The extreme distances of these galaxies allow us to look back in time, and take a snapshot of how today's largest galaxies looked when they were producing most of their stars and growing black holes," said David Alexander of the University of Cambridge, UK, and lead author of a paper in the April 7, 2005 issue of Nature that describes this work. The galaxies studied by Alexander and his colleagues are known as submillimeter galaxies, so-called because they were originally identified by the James Clerk Maxwell submillimeter telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The submillimeter observations along with optical data from Keck indicate these galaxies had an unusually large amount of gas. The gas in each galaxy was forming into stars at a rate of about one per day, or 100 times the present rate in the Milky Way galaxy. The Chandra X-ray data show that the supermassive black holes in the galaxies were also growing at the same time. Chandra X-ray Image of CDFN Chandra X-ray Image of CDFN These galaxies are very faint and it is only with the deepest observations of the

  12. Discovering Astronomy: An Astro 101 e-book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, Stephen J.; Byrd, Gene; Deustua, Susana E.; LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Discovering Astronomy, now available in its 6th edition as an eText, has many advantages and features for your students. We have partnered with etextink.com and WebAssign.net to produce an affordable set of cost-saving options for your students. Also available is the Discovering Astronomy Activity Manual, which provides students with an active-learning experience.Our etext is device independent and thus accessible through any web browser. Americans with Disabilities Act compatibility provides access for all students. Hotlinks to outside sites provide further information for interested students. Lecture demonstration videos of important concepts, made specifically for this new edition, are embedded within the text as appropriate. Students can highlight text, take notes, and bookmark locations within the text. Important terms are linked to the glossary. Search capabilities allow students to easily find what they want.Instructors can interact with their students directly through the etext once the class roster has been provided. For example, instructors can embed assignments into their students' etext and add their own notes and updates, which are immediately visible to their students.Updates can be quickly made by us as new findings become available. For example, updates from New Horizons were added at the time of the closest approach to Pluto, and an update on the recent announcement of current water on Mars was added the day of the announcement.We will present results of our own experience with college and high school students' use of Discovering Astronomy in online courses.Details of the book, a sample chapter, and other information are available at discoveringastronomy.weebly.com.

  13. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars.

    PubMed

    Titus, Timothy N; Kieffer, Hugh H; Christensen, Phillip R

    2003-02-14

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  14. Discovering Communicable Scientific Knowledge from Spatio-Temporal Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Langley, Pat; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how we used regression rules to improve upon a result previously published in the Earth science literature. In such a scientific application of machine learning, it is crucially important for the learned models to be understandable and communicable. We recount how we selected a learning algorithm to maximize communicability, and then describe two visualization techniques that we developed to aid in understanding the model by exploiting the spatial nature of the data. We also report how evaluating the learned models across time let us discover an error in the data.

  15. An Incidentally Discovered Pedunculated Degenerative Cyst on the Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajasubramanian, Ashwin K; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Afonso, Luis C

    2015-11-01

    We report the case of a pedunculated cystic mass on the aortic valve discovered in a patient presenting for a routine echocardiogram. The highly mobile nature of the mass warranted prompt surgical removal to prevent cardioembolic complications. The mass was preoperatively thought to be a papillary fibroelastoma. However, the patient's history, mass morphology, and histopathology pointed toward a simple degenerative cyst--previously unreported on the aortic valve. This report describes this rare finding, discusses relevant differential diagnoses, and underscores the importance of surgical intervention in such cases. PMID:26522574

  16. Marquette Island: A Distinct Mafic Lithology Discovered by Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Fleischer, I.; Jolliff, B. L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Yingst, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    While rolling over the Meridiani Planum sedimentary terrane, the rover Opportunity has occasionally discovered large, > 10 cm erratics. Most of these have proven to be meteorites [1], but one - Bounce Rock - is a martian basaltic rock similar in composition to the meteorite EETA79001 lithology B [2]. Presently, Opportunity is intensively investigating an --30 cm tall rock named Marquette Island that may be a distinct type of martian mafic lithology. We report the results of its continuing investigation using the Microscopic Imager (MI); Mossbauer Spectrometer (MB) and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). A companion abstract discusses the results of Panoramic Camera (Pancam) imaging of the rock [3].

  17. Insights into newly discovered marks and readers of epigenetic information.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Forest H; Strahl, Brian D; Kutateladze, Tatiana G

    2016-08-18

    The field of chromatin biology has been advancing at an accelerated pace. Recent discoveries of previously uncharacterized sites and types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) and the identification of new sets of proteins responsible for the deposition, removal, and reading of these marks continue raising the complexity of an already exceedingly complicated biological phenomenon. In this Perspective article we examine the biological importance of new types and sites of histone PTMs and summarize the molecular mechanisms of chromatin engagement by newly discovered epigenetic readers. We also highlight the imperative role of structural insights in understanding PTM-reader interactions and discuss future directions to enhance the knowledge of PTM readout. PMID:27538025

  18. Exposed water ice discovered near the south pole of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, T.N.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars' southern perennial polar cap. The surface H2O ice was first observed by THEMIS as a region that was cooler than expected for dry soil at that latitude during the summer season. Diurnal and seasonal temperature trends derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations indicate that there is H2O ice at the surface. Viking observations, and the few other relevant THEMIS observations, indicate that surface H2O ice may be widespread around and under the perennial CO2 cap.

  19. Novel Virophages Discovered in a Freshwater Lake in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Xuewen; Wang, Hongming; Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs) that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL): an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae), respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage) and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages), especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties. PMID:26834726

  20. Discovering loose group movement patterns from animal trajectories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Yuwei; Luo, Ze; Xiong, Yan; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping

    2015-01-01

    The technical advances of positioning technologies enable us to track animal movements at finer spatial and temporal scales, and further help to discover a variety of complex interactive relationships. In this paper, considering the loose gathering characteristics of the real-life groups' members during the movements, we propose two kinds of loose group movement patterns and corresponding discovery algorithms. Firstly, we propose the weakly consistent group movement pattern which allows the gathering of a part of the members and individual temporary leave from the whole during the movements. To tolerate the high dispersion of the group at some moments (i.e. to adapt the discontinuity of the group's gatherings), we further scheme the weakly consistent and continuous group movement pattern. The extensive experimental analysis and comparison with the real and synthetic data shows that the group pattern discovery algorithms proposed in this paper are similar to the the real-life frequent divergences of the members during the movements, can discover more complete memberships, and have considerable performance.

  1. Novel Virophages Discovered in a Freshwater Lake in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Xuewen; Wang, Hongming; Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs) that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL): an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae), respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage) and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages), especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties. PMID:26834726

  2. Visual analytics for discovering node groups in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Given the abundance of relational data from a variety of sources, it is becoming increasingly more important to be able to discover hidden structures in the topology of real-world complex networks. In this talk, I will extend the usual definition of groups as densely connected sets of nodes and show that many real networks have groups distinguished by a diverse combinations of node properties, but not by the density of links alone. To overcome the virtually unlimited ways to potentially distinguish groups, we have developed an exploratory analysis tool that exploit human visual ability. In this visual analytical approach, the user input from visual interaction is integrated into the analysis to discover unknown group structures, rather than simply detecting a known type of structure. I will also address the problem of determining an appropriate number of groups, when it is not known a priori. I will demonstrate that our method can effectively find and characterize a variety of group structures in model and real-world networks, including community and k -partite structures defined by link density, as well as groups distinguished by combinations of other node properties. Funded by FODAVA NSF-DMS-0808860.

  3. Novel Virophages Discovered in a Freshwater Lake in China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhang, Weijia; Zhou, Xuewen; Wang, Hongming; Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Virophages are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are parasites of giant DNA viruses that infect unicellular eukaryotes. Here we identify a novel group of virophages, named Dishui Lake virophages (DSLVs) that were discovered in Dishui Lake (DSL): an artificial freshwater lake in Shanghai, China. Based on PCR and metagenomic analysis, the complete genome of DSLV1 was found to be circular and 28,788 base pairs in length, with a G+C content 43.2%, and 28 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the DSLV1 ORFs have sequence similarity to known virophages. Two DSLV1 ORFs exhibited sequence similarity to that of prasinoviruses (Phycodnaviridae) and chloroviruses (Phycodnaviridae), respectively, suggesting horizontal gene transfer occurred between these large algal DNA viruses and DSLV1. 46 other virophages-related contigs were also obtained, including six homologous major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of these MCPs showed that DSLVs are closely related to OLV (Organic Lake virophage) and YSLVs (Yellowstone Lake virophages), especially to YSLV3, except for YSLV7. These results indicate that freshwater ecotopes are the hotbed for discovering novel virophages as well as understanding their diversity and properties.

  4. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (~105 cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1–3 d (9–12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952

  5. Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of tai chi.

    PubMed

    Ng, R K

    1992-08-01

    Every piece of literature or book about tai chi claims it to be the supreme martial art (soft style) and a therapeutic exercise. Nevertheless, none of the authors can describe scientifically how and why it works. Many people did not gain any health benefit in practicing tai chi and only very few people were able to apply its legendary secret power. During the last 10 years, the author thought he had discovered the secret in Hong Kong and brought it to Los Angeles. The secret lies in the fundamental movements of the body, called tai chi basic exercise routines. The entry level of the exercise has many similarities with medical treatments for respiratory illness and with walking exercise--the most recommended aerobic exercise for coronary artery disease. PMID:1399544

  6. A Systematic Approach to Discover and Characterize Natural Plant Biostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Povero, Giovanni; Mejia, Juan F.; Di Tommaso, Donata; Piaggesi, Alberto; Warrior, Prem

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural plant biostimulants is proposed as an innovative solution to address the challenges to sustainable agriculture, to ensure optimal nutrient uptake, crop yield, quality, and tolerance to abiotic stress. However, the process of selection and characterization of plant biostimulant matrices is complex and involves a series of rigorous evaluations customized to the needs of the plant. Here, we propose a highly differentiated plant biostimulant development and production platform, which involves a combination of technology, processes, and know-how. Chemistry, biology and omic concepts are combined/integrated to investigate and understand the specific mode(s) of action of bioactive ingredients. The proposed approach allows to predict and characterize the function of natural compounds as biostimulants. By managing and analyzing massive amounts of complex data, it is therefore possible to discover, evaluate and validate new product candidates, thus expanding the uses of existing products to meet the emerging needs of agriculture. PMID:27092156

  7. Aerial exposure tolerance of a newly discovered galaxiid.

    PubMed

    Chakona, A; Swartz, E R; Magellan, K

    2011-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate tolerance and physiological responses of Galaxias'nebula', a newly discovered and widespread African galaxiid, to aerial exposure. This species can tolerate emersion for at least 36 h. Changes in water level and dewatering did not induce the fish to burrow into the substratum or find refugia, nor was there detectable mucus production following aerial exposure. Opercular movement, a proxy for gill ventilation rate, however, did vary with changes in water level. The initial steady ventilation rate increased significantly when the fish were partially emersed and ventilation ceased immediately upon total air exposure. When fish were re-immersed, there was first a period of hyperactivity with a corresponding inflated gill ventilation rate which was restored to pretreatment levels within 2 h. This is the first documented case of amphibious capabilities in an African galaxiid, which has implications for the interpretation of its widespread distribution pattern.

  8. Libre: A Framework for Sharing and Discovering Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, J.; Duerr, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    To enable peer review and re-use, data must be publicly shareable and discoverable. The Libre project within the NSIDC, in conjunction with other members of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners and the Polar Information Commons, provides a framework for collaborative publishing of open science data. This talk describes the Libre framework as a model for “freeing” science data. Libre uses technologies such as Atom feeds to enable syndication of data sets and services. Open Search services allow the feeds to be discovered. An aggregator, like a news reader, provides notice for new or changed data sets and services. With these technologies, the Libre project provides both open-source tooling and a road map for similar efforts in other fields.

  9. Los Alamos Discovers Super Efficient Solar Using Perovskite Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mohite, Aditya; Nie, Wanyi

    2015-01-29

    State-of-the-art photovoltaics using high-purity, large-area, wafer-scale single-crystalline semiconductors grown by sophisticated, high temperature crystal-growth processes offer promising routes for developing low-cost, solar-based clean global energy solutions for the future. Solar cells composed of the recently discovered material organic-inorganic perovskites offer the efficiency of silicon, yet suffer from a variety of deficiencies limiting the commercial viability of perovskite photovoltaic technology. In research to appear in Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that eliminates these limitations, one that allows for the growth of high-quality, large-area, millimeter-scale perovskite crystals and demonstrates that highly efficient and reproducible solar cells with reduced trap assisted recombination can be realized.

  10. Cassini discovers a kinematic spiral ring around Saturn.

    PubMed

    Charnoz, S; Porco, C C; Déau, E; Brahic, A; Spitale, J N; Bacques, G; Baillie, K

    2005-11-25

    Since the time of the Voyager flybys of Saturn in 1980-1981, Saturn's eccentric F ring has been known to be accompanied on either side by faint strands of material. New Cassini observations show that these strands, initially interpreted as concentric ring segments, are in fact connected and form a single one-arm trailing spiral winding at least three times around Saturn. The spiral rotates around Saturn with the orbital motion of its constituent particles. This structure is likely the result of differential orbital motion stretching an initial cloud of particles scattered from the dense core of the F ring. Different scenarios of formation, implying ringlet-satellite interactions, are explored. A recently discovered moon candidate, S/2004 S6, is on an orbit that crosses the F-ring core at the intersection of the spiral with the ring, which suggests a dynamical connection between S/2004 S6 and the spiral.

  11. Adrenal Pheochromocytoma Incidentally Discovered in a Patient With Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Petramala, Luigi; Concistrè, Antonio; Marinelli, Cristiano; Zinnamosca, Laura; Iannucci, Gino; Lucia, Piernatale; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Letizia, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the diagnostic route of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in a patient under dopaminergic treatment. A 70-year-old man with Parkinsonism and under treatment with levodopa and carbidopa came to our observation for evaluation of arterial hypertension and right adrenal mass discovered incidentally. To evaluate adrenal hormone levels we performed a dexamethasone suppression test, plasma aldosterone levels and 24-hr urinary metanephrine, which revealed elevated levels of catecholamines metabolities. 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine SPECT scintiscan revealed raised activity within the right adrenal gland concordant with the mass. The diagnosis of PHEO was posed and an elective laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed; histopathological examination confirmed the PHEO diagnosis. Recently the coexistence of PHEO and Parkinsonism is a very rare association of diseases, with only 3 cases reported in literature. In this article, another case is reported and diagnostic procedures are discussed. PMID:26496334

  12. Gastrointestinal parasitoses discovered in agricultural workers in South Bohemia, Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Stĕrba, J; Ditrich, O; Prokopic, J; Kadlcík, K

    1988-01-01

    In the years from 1975 to 1982 1,750 persons, mostly employed by agricultural enterprises in the South Bohemian Region in Czechoslovakia, were examined. We discovered seven species of parasites: Taenia saginata in 0.3%, Enterobius vermicularis in 10.1%, Giardia lamblia in 1.0%, Endolimax nana in 0.8%, Entamoeba coli in 0.7%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 0.2%, and Chilomastix mesnili in 0.5%. The greatest number of parasites was found in students of the Secondary agricultural and technical school. Only two species of parasites were diagnosed in children of the employees. The incidence of E. vermicularis was 75% in children, in adult employees of agricultural enterprises, however, only 9.8%. PMID:3169645

  13. How did Archimedes discover the law of buoyancy by experiment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    After Archimedes and Vitruvius era, for more than 2000 years, it has been believed that the displaced water measurement of golden crown is impossible, and at his Eureka moment, Archimedes discovered the law of buoyancy (Proposition 7 of his principles) and proved the theft of a goldsmith by weighing the golden crown in water. A previous study showed that a small amount of displaced water was able to be measured with enough accuracy by the introduced method. Archimedes measured the weight of displaced water. He did not find the law of buoyancy but rather specific gravity of things at the moment. After which, Archimedes continued to measure the specific gravity of various solids and fluids. Through these measurements, he reached the discovery of the law of buoyancy directly by experiment. In this paper, the process to the discovery of Archimedes' principle (Proposition 5) is presented.

  14. Drifting sub-pulses in two newly discovered pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ord, S. M.; Edwards, R.; Bailes, M.

    2001-12-01

    We have detected the rare phenomenon of stable, drifting sub-pulse behaviour in two pulsars discovered in the recent Swinburne intermediate latitude pulsar survey. The pulsars, PSR J1231-47 and PSR J1919+0134, have approximate periods (P) of 1.873 and 1.6039s respectively. Both pulsars have multicomponent profiles, and distinct drifting is observed across them. We have identified a single drift mode in both pulsars: the drift rate for PSR J1231-47 being 5.4(1) ms P-1 and 5.8(2) ms P-1 for PSR 1919+0134. The drifting is linear across the profile with no departure from linearity at the edges within the sensitivity of our observations.

  15. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases. PMID:27656096

  16. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases. PMID:27656096

  17. Detailed Abundances of Stars with Small Planets Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A.; Katime Santrich, Orlando J.; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Smith, Verne V.; King, Jeremy R.; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B.; Teske, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star save one has at least one planet with a radius less than 2 REarth, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10-m Keck I telescope and HIRES spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. We compare the abundances to those of a general Galactic disk population and investigate possible abundance trends with condensation temperature of the elements.S.C.S. acknowledges support provided by grant NNX12AD19G to S.C.S. from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Kepler Participating Scientist Program.

  18. Re-discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) results. Between 1900 and 1910, he explored the complications of these laws, including the coupling of factors due to their chromosomal location and the inheritance of sex, in a great number of plant species. In later years Correns became interested in and experimented on phenomena of extra-nuclear inheritance.

  19. Discovering Mira Ceti: Celestial Change and Cosmic Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Robert Alan

    In the short narrative that follows I introduce two new heroes. Although we begin with Fabricius's first sighting in 1596, the new pivot point in the drama is the collaboration between Hevelius and Boulliau that began around 1660. As it happens, Learned Europe paid little attention to Mira in the generation after the first scattered sightings of 1596, indeed, nearly 70 years passed before the New Star was given a working identity. Like Columbus discovering America, Fabricius and Holwarda saw different things - for convenience, I call them Fabricius's Star and Holwarda's Star. Hevelius's Historiola (Danzig, 1662) and Boulliau's Ad astronomos (Paris, 1667) presented a different vision. It made Mira famous. As I shall argue, if Hevelius gave Mira a history, Boulliau gave Mira a future.5 In the end, the New Star not only challenged the ancient cosmos, it became an enduring icon for the New Science, a returning reminder of celestial continuity and cosmic order.

  20. Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of tai chi.

    PubMed

    Ng, R K

    1992-08-01

    Every piece of literature or book about tai chi claims it to be the supreme martial art (soft style) and a therapeutic exercise. Nevertheless, none of the authors can describe scientifically how and why it works. Many people did not gain any health benefit in practicing tai chi and only very few people were able to apply its legendary secret power. During the last 10 years, the author thought he had discovered the secret in Hong Kong and brought it to Los Angeles. The secret lies in the fundamental movements of the body, called tai chi basic exercise routines. The entry level of the exercise has many similarities with medical treatments for respiratory illness and with walking exercise--the most recommended aerobic exercise for coronary artery disease.

  1. Quantify spatial relations to discover handwritten graphical symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinpeng; Mouchère, Harold; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To model a handwritten graphical language, spatial relations describe how the strokes are positioned in the 2-dimensional space. Most of existing handwriting recognition systems make use of some predefined spatial relations. However, considering a complex graphical language, it is hard to express manually all the spatial relations. Another possibility would be to use a clustering technique to discover the spatial relations. In this paper, we discuss how to create a relational graph between strokes (nodes) labeled with graphemes in a graphical language. Then we vectorize spatial relations (edges) for clustering and quantization. As the targeted application, we extract the repetitive sub-graphs (graphical symbols) composed of graphemes and learned spatial relations. On two handwriting databases, a simple mathematical expression database and a complex flowchart database, the unsupervised spatial relations outperform the predefined spatial relations. In addition, we visualize the frequent patterns on two text-lines containing Chinese characters.

  2. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  3. A Systematic Approach to Discover and Characterize Natural Plant Biostimulants.

    PubMed

    Povero, Giovanni; Mejia, Juan F; Di Tommaso, Donata; Piaggesi, Alberto; Warrior, Prem

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural plant biostimulants is proposed as an innovative solution to address the challenges to sustainable agriculture, to ensure optimal nutrient uptake, crop yield, quality, and tolerance to abiotic stress. However, the process of selection and characterization of plant biostimulant matrices is complex and involves a series of rigorous evaluations customized to the needs of the plant. Here, we propose a highly differentiated plant biostimulant development and production platform, which involves a combination of technology, processes, and know-how. Chemistry, biology and omic concepts are combined/integrated to investigate and understand the specific mode(s) of action of bioactive ingredients. The proposed approach allows to predict and characterize the function of natural compounds as biostimulants. By managing and analyzing massive amounts of complex data, it is therefore possible to discover, evaluate and validate new product candidates, thus expanding the uses of existing products to meet the emerging needs of agriculture. PMID:27092156

  4. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  5. Discovering cancer biomarkers from clinical samples by protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Niu, Xin; Cheng, Li; Yang, Li-Na; Li, Qing; Wang, Yang; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Zhou, Shu-Min

    2015-02-01

    Cancer biomarkers are of potential use in early cancer diagnosis, anticancer therapy development, and monitoring the responses to treatments. Protein-based cancer biomarkers are major forms in use, as they are much easier to be monitored in body fluids or tissues. For cancer biomarker discovery, high-throughput techniques such as protein microarrays hold great promises, because they are capable of global unbiased monitoring but with a miniaturized format. In doing so, novel and cancer type specific biomarkers can be systematically discovered at an affordable cost. In this review, we give a relatively complete picture on protein microarrays applied to clinical samples for cancer biomarker discovery, and conclude this review with the future perspectives. PMID:25523829

  6. [Recently discovered hormones with a role in energy homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Krykorková, I; Nedvídková, J

    2003-02-01

    Adipocytal hormones resistin and adiponectin and gastric peptide ghrelin are recently discovered hormones, which are considered to take part in energy metabolism regulation. Resistin is expressed in adipose tissue only and its increased levels could cause insulin resistance and thus link obesity with type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin, as well as resistin, are products of genes, expressed in adipose tissue. Adiponectin could prevent development of aterosclerosis and it could play a role in anti-inflammatory reactions. Ghrelin is produced mainly in the stomach. Beside its role in long-term regulation of energy metabolism, it is involved in the short-term regulation of feeding. Main roles of resistin, adiponectin and ghrelin are summarised in the presented overview.

  7. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. Methods We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector) are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. Results We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. Conclusion The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further, opinion leaders missed in

  8. Discovering Tradeoffs, Vulnerabilities, and Dependencies within Water Resources Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition and interest in using emerging computational tools for discovering the tradeoffs that emerge across complex combinations infrastructure options, adaptive operations, and sign posts. As a field concerned with "deep uncertainties", it is logically consistent to include a more direct acknowledgement that our choices for dealing with computationally demanding simulations, advanced search algorithms, and sensitivity analysis tools are themselves subject to failures that could adversely bias our understanding of how systems' vulnerabilities change with proposed actions. Balancing simplicity versus complexity in our computational frameworks is nontrivial given that we are often exploring high impact irreversible decisions. It is not always clear that accepted models even encompass important failure modes. Moreover as they become more complex and computationally demanding the benefits and consequences of simplifications are often untested. This presentation discusses our efforts to address these challenges through our "many-objective robust decision making" (MORDM) framework for the design and management water resources systems. The MORDM framework has four core components: (1) elicited problem conception and formulation, (2) parallel many-objective search, (3) interactive visual analytics, and (4) negotiated selection of robust alternatives. Problem conception and formulation is the process of abstracting a practical design problem into a mathematical representation. We build on the emerging work in visual analytics to exploit interactive visualization of both the design space and the objective space in multiple heterogeneous linked views that permit exploration and discovery. Many-objective search produces tradeoff solutions from potentially competing problem formulations that can each consider up to ten conflicting objectives based on current computational search capabilities. Negotiated design selection uses interactive visualization

  9. Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V

    2008-12-01

    Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures.

  10. Post-traumatic stress reactions before the advent of post-traumatic stress disorder: potential effects on the lives and legacies of Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, Philip A; Batten, Sonja V

    2008-12-01

    Evidence is presented that Alexander the Great, Captain James Cook, Emily Dickinson, and Florence Nightingale each developed symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of repeated potentially traumatizing events of differing character. Their case histories also varied with respect to background, premorbid personality style, risk factors, clinical presentation, and course of the illness, illustrating the pleomorphic character of the disorder, as well as the special problems in diagnosing it in historical figures. PMID:19149331

  11. [Antimicrobial resistance forever? Judicious and appropriate use of antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Cagliano, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This article takes its cue from the original work of sir Alexander Fleming on penicillin, published in the first issue of Recenti Progressi in Medicina in 1946 and reproduced here on the occasion of the approaching 70-year anniversary of the journal. In 1928, at the time when penicillin was discovered, it could not be imagined that bacterial resistance to antibiotics would develop so rapidly: the introduction of every new class of antibiotics has been shortly followed by the emergence of new strains of bacteria resistant to that class. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment is a huge concern. In this respect, an action plan against antimicrobial resistance has been devised in the United States that is targeted for a 50% reduction over the next five years.

  12. [Antimicrobial resistance forever? Judicious and appropriate use of antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Cagliano, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This article takes its cue from the original work of sir Alexander Fleming on penicillin, published in the first issue of Recenti Progressi in Medicina in 1946 and reproduced here on the occasion of the approaching 70-year anniversary of the journal. In 1928, at the time when penicillin was discovered, it could not be imagined that bacterial resistance to antibiotics would develop so rapidly: the introduction of every new class of antibiotics has been shortly followed by the emergence of new strains of bacteria resistant to that class. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment is a huge concern. In this respect, an action plan against antimicrobial resistance has been devised in the United States that is targeted for a 50% reduction over the next five years. PMID:26076416

  13. The question of sign-language and the utility of signs in the instruction of the deaf: two papers by Alexander Graham Bell (1898).

    PubMed

    Bell, Alexander Graham

    2005-01-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is often portrayed as either hero or villain of deaf individuals and the Deaf community. His writings, however, indicate that he was neither, and was not as clearly definite in his beliefs about language as is often supposed. The following two articles, reprinted from The Educator (1898), Vol. V, pp. 3-4 and pp. 38-44, capture Bell's thinking about sign language and its use in the classroom. Contrary to frequent claims, Bell does not demand "oral" training for all deaf children--even if he thinks it is the superior alternative--but does advocate for it for "the semi-deaf" and "the semi-mute." "In regard to the others," he writes, "I am not so sure." Although he clearly voices his support for oral methods and fingerspelling (the Rochester method) over sign language, Bell acknowledges the use and utility of signing in a carefully-crafted discussion that includes both linguistics and educational philosophy. In separating the language used at home from that in school and on the playground, Bell reveals a far more complex view of language learning by deaf children than he is often granted. (M. Marschark). PMID:15778208

  14. The question of sign-language and the utility of signs in the instruction of the deaf: two papers by Alexander Graham Bell (1898).

    PubMed

    Bell, Alexander Graham

    2005-01-01

    Alexander Graham Bell is often portrayed as either hero or villain of deaf individuals and the Deaf community. His writings, however, indicate that he was neither, and was not as clearly definite in his beliefs about language as is often supposed. The following two articles, reprinted from The Educator (1898), Vol. V, pp. 3-4 and pp. 38-44, capture Bell's thinking about sign language and its use in the classroom. Contrary to frequent claims, Bell does not demand "oral" training for all deaf children--even if he thinks it is the superior alternative--but does advocate for it for "the semi-deaf" and "the semi-mute." "In regard to the others," he writes, "I am not so sure." Although he clearly voices his support for oral methods and fingerspelling (the Rochester method) over sign language, Bell acknowledges the use and utility of signing in a carefully-crafted discussion that includes both linguistics and educational philosophy. In separating the language used at home from that in school and on the playground, Bell reveals a far more complex view of language learning by deaf children than he is often granted. (M. Marschark).

  15. Generalized rainbows and unfolded glories of oblate drops: organization for multiple internal reflections and extension of cusps into Alexander's dark band.

    PubMed

    Marston, P L; Kaduchak, G

    1994-07-20

    Oblate drops of water can produce caustics where, unlike a simple Airy caustic, more than two rays merge. We extend previous treatments of generalized primary rainbows based on catastrophe optics [Opt. Lett. 10, 588 (1985); Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 438, 397 (1992)] to rays having (p - 1) = 2 to 5 internal reflections. The analysis is for a horizontally illuminated ellipsoid with a vertical symmetry axis. Aspect ratios causing a vanishing of the vertical curvature at the equator for the outgoing wave front are found from generalized ray tracing. In response to infinitesimal deformation, the axial caustic of real glory rays unfolds producing cusps. Laboratory observations with laser illumination demonstrate that cusps resulting from rays with five internal reflections extend into Alexander's dark band when the drop's aspect ratio is near 1.08. The evolution of this p = 6 scattering pattern as cusps meet the quinary rainbow is suggestive of an E(6) catastrophe. For ellipsoids of varying aspect ratio and refractive index N, there is an organizing singularity associated with an exceptionally flat outgoing wave front from spheres with N = p. PMID:20935841

  16. Newly Discovered Clouds Found Floating High Above Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    GREEN BANK, WV -- New studies with the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have revealed a previously unknown population of discrete hydrogen clouds in the gaseous halo that surrounds the Milky Way Galaxy. These clouds were discovered in the transition zone between the Milky Way and intergalactic space, and provide tantalizing evidence that supernova-powered "galactic fountains" continually blast superheated hydrogen gas into our Galactic suburbs. Hydrogen Clouds Graphic Artist's Rendering of the Milky Way (background) with insert showing GBT image of newly-discovered clouds of Hydrogen gas above the plane of the Galaxy. Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation. Extending far above the star-filled disk of the Milky Way is an atmosphere, or halo, of hydrogen gas. "By studying this halo, we can learn a great deal about the processes that are going on inside our Galaxy as well as beyond its borders," said Jay Lockman, an astronomer with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. "It has remained a mystery, however, how this halo formed and what has prevented gravitational forces from collapsing the gas into a thin layer long ago." Some astronomers have speculated that this gas is distributed as a diffuse mist held up by either magnetic fields or cosmic rays streaming out of the plane of the Milky Way. Others believed that it is made of innumerable long-lived hydrogen clouds bobbing up and down like balls tossed by a juggler. Early observations with other telescopes discovered that there was some neutral hydrogen gas floating far above the Galaxy's plane, but these instruments were not sensitive enough to reveal any structure or resolve questions about its origin. Lockman's studies for the first time show a clear picture of the structure of the gas. Rather than a mist, the halo is in fact full of discrete clouds, each containing 50-to-100 solar masses of hydrogen and averaging about 100

  17. Earth's Largest Meteorite Impact Craters discovered in South America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Schmidt-Falkenberg, H.

    2014-12-01

    Novel analysis of high resolution InSAR-based digital elevation data from the year 2001 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission combined with a recently produced dataset of pan-tropical vegetation height from ALOS-1 SAR and IceSAT/GLAS Lidar estimates led to the quasi-bald-Earth discovery of four sizable near-perfect circle arcs in South America under dense tropical forests ranging in length from 216 km to 441 km. Terrain elevation profiles of cross-sections across the arcs show a distinct vertical rising and falling in elevations of hundreds of meters over a horizontal distance of tens of kilometers. It is hypothesized that these sizable arcs and associated rim-like topographic terrain features are remnants of huge meteorite impact craters with diameters ranging from 770 km to 1,310 km, thus forming potentially the largest known impact carter structures discovered on Earth today. The potential impact crater rim structures are located north of the eastern Amazon River, in the coastal region of Recife and Natal, and in the Brazilian, Bolivian and Paraguayan border region encompassing the Pantanal. Elevation profiles, hillshades and gray-shaded elevation maps were produced to support the geomorphologic analysis. It is also speculated whether in three of the four potential impact craters, central uplift domes or peaks, which are typical for complex impact crater structures can be identified. The worlds largest iron ore mining area of Carajás in Para, Brazil, falls exactly in the center of the largest hypothesized circular impact crater showing topographic elevations similar to the rim structure discovered 655 km to the north-north-west. Based on the topographic/geomorphologic driven hypothesis, geologic exploration of these topographic features is needed to test whether indeed meteorite impact craters could be verified, what the more exact ellipsoidal shapes of the potential impact craters might be, and to determine when during geologic times the impacts would have taken

  18. Discovering asteroids temporarily captured by the Earth with LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Jones, Lynne; Jedicke, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Granvik et al. (2012, Icarus 218) predict that there is a population of small asteroids orbiting the Earth at any given time. These asteroids have been temporarily captured by the Earth from the much larger population of near-Earth asteroids. Temporarily-captured asteroids have elliptic geocentric orbits and come to within 0.03 au from the Earth. We divide the population into temporarily-captured orbiters (TCOs, or minimoons) that make at least one full revolution around the Earth, and into temporarily-captured flybys (TCFs) which make less than one revolution around the Earth. Recent results suggest that at any given time there is one 2--3-meter-diameter asteroid captured on a geocentric orbit within 0.03 au from the Earth (Fedorets et al., in preparation). At any given time, there is a dozen 1-meter-diameter captured asteroids, 2--3 of which are TCFs.The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will become operational in early 2020's. LSST is expected cover the available sky from its location in Chile every 4 nights for the duration of a 10 years. The observational cadence combined with the expected limited magnitude, r=24.5, suggest that LSST will detect a new minimoon once a month (Bolin et al. 2014, Icarus 241). Only one minimoon, asteroid 2006 RH120, has so far been discovered (Kwiatkowski et al. 2009, A&A 495).Whereas Bolin et al. (2014, Icarus 241) investigated possibilities for detecting minimoons by current and upcoming survey telescopes we extend the analysis to include the linking of minimoon detections, that is, aiming at extracting minimoon trajectories and, further, minimoon orbits from LSST data. We will test the performance of the current LSST pipeline with simulated TCO and TCF data assuming a realistic magnitude distribution derived from a novel NEO model by Granvik et al. (in preparation).Proving that minimoons can be discovered using LSST data will increase the scientific interest towards them, perhaps primarily as a population of asteroids in

  19. Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud

    PubMed Central

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud. PMID:27386512

  20. Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere `blow-off'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere ‘blow-off’ hi-res Size hi-res: 1096 kb Credits: ESA/Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere ‘blow-off’ This artist’s impression shows an extended ellipsoidal envelope - the shape of a rugby-ball - of oxygen and carbon discovered around the well-known extrasolar planet HD 209458b. An international team of astronomers led by Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) observed the first signs of oxygen and carbon in the atmosphere of a planet beyond our Solar System for the first time using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The atoms of carbon and oxygen are swept up from the lower atmosphere with the flow of escaping atmospheric atomic hydrogen - like dust in a supersonic whirlwind - in a process called atmospheric ‘blow off’. Oxygen and carbon have been detected in the atmosphere of a planet beyond our Solar System for the first time. Scientists using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have observed the famous extrasolar planet HD 209458b passing in front of its parent star, and found oxygen and carbon surrounding the planet in an extended ellipsoidal envelope - the shape of a rugby-ball. These atoms are swept up from the lower atmosphere with the flow of the escaping atmospheric atomic hydrogen, like dust in a supersonic whirlwind. The team led by Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) reports this discovery in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. The planet, called HD 209458b, may sound familiar. It is already an extrasolar planet with an astounding list of firsts: the first extrasolar planet discovered transiting its sun, the first with an atmosphere, the first observed to have an evaporating hydrogen atmosphere (in 2003 by the same team of scientists) and now the first to have an atmosphere containing oxygen and carbon. Furthermore

  1. Discovering Numerical Differences between Animal and Plant microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenbang; Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that there are many differences between animal and plant microRNAs (miRNAs), and that numerical features based on sequence and structure can be used to predict the function of individual miRNAs. However, there is little research regarding numerical differences between animal and plant miRNAs, and whether a single numerical feature or combination of features could be used to distinguish animal and plant miRNAs or not. Therefore, in current study we aimed to discover numerical features that could be used to accomplish this. We performed a large-scale analysis of 132 miRNA numerical features, and identified 17 highly significant distinguishing features. However, none of the features independently could clearly differentiate animal and plant miRNAs. By further analysis, we found a four-feature subset that included helix number, stack number, length of pre-miRNA, and minimum free energy, and developed a logistic classifier that could distinguish animal and plant miRNAs effectively. The precision of the classifier was greater than 80%. Using this tool, we confirmed that there were universal differences between animal and plant miRNAs, and that a single feature was unable to adequately distinguish the difference. This feature set and classifier represent a valuable tool for identifying differences between animal and plant miRNAs at a molecular level. PMID:27768749

  2. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods. PMID:27404718

  3. Children's strategies for discovering cause-effect relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnitsky, Alan N.; Hunt, Charles R.

    This study describes strategies children use to solve a complex problem. The problem asked children to figure out how to control a vehicle that they drove by pressing particular keys on a computer. The problem can be viewed as scientific in that variables must be identified and hypotheses formulated and tested to discover cause-effect relationships. Subjects were fifth and sixth graders sampled from public and private schools. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the transition between implicit, immature problem-solving strategies and explicit, mature theorizing characteristic of scientific problem solving. The study manipulated the problem perspective subjects were given and the number of cause-effect relationships in the problem. The study's description of children's problem solving highlights focusing, problem-solving behavior that is aimed at forming a mental representation, model, or theory about the problem, as a key link between mature and immature reasoning. Subject's school and school X perspective interaction was found to affect problem-solving performance.

  4. Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud.

    PubMed

    Meech, Karen J; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud. PMID:27386512

  5. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods.

  6. Commentary: discovering a different model of medical student education.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Traditional medical schools in modern academic health centers make discoveries, create new knowledge and technology, provide innovative care to the sickest patients, and educate future academic and practicing physicians. Unfortunately, the growth of the research and clinical care missions has sometimes resulted in a loss of emphasis on the general professional education of medical students. The author concludes that it may not be practical for many established medical schools to functionally return to the reason they were created: for the education of medical students.He had the opportunity to discover a different model of medical student education at the first new MD-granting medical school created in the United States in 25 years (in 2000), the Florida State University College of Medicine. He was initially skeptical about how its distributed regional campuses model, using practicing primary care physicians to help medical students learn in mainly ambulatory settings, could be effective. But his experience as a faculty member at the school convinced him that the model works very well.He proposes a better alignment of form and function for many established medical schools and an extension of the regional community-based model to the formation of community-based primary care graduate medical education programs determined by physician workforce needs and available resources.

  7. Discovering discriminative graphlets for aerial image categories recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Han, Yahong; Yang, Yi; Song, Mingli; Yan, Shuicheng; Tian, Qi

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing aerial image categories is useful for scene annotation and surveillance. Local features have been demonstrated to be robust to image transformations, including occlusions and clutters. However, the geometric property of an aerial image (i.e., the topology and relative displacement of local features), which is key to discriminating aerial image categories, cannot be effectively represented by state-of-the-art generic visual descriptors. To solve this problem, we propose a recognition model that mines graphlets from aerial images, where graphlets are small connected subgraphs reflecting both the geometric property and color/texture distribution of an aerial image. More specifically, each aerial image is decomposed into a set of basic components (e.g., road and playground) and a region adjacency graph (RAG) is accordingly constructed to model their spatial interactions. Aerial image categories recognition can subsequently be casted as RAG-to-RAG matching. Based on graph theory, RAG-to-RAG matching is conducted by comparing all their respective graphlets. Because the number of graphlets is huge, we derive a manifold embedding algorithm to measure different-sized graphlets, after which we select graphlets that have highly discriminative and low redundancy topologies. Through quantizing the selected graphlets from each aerial image into a feature vector, we use support vector machine to discriminate aerial image categories. Experimental results indicate that our method outperforms several state-of-the-art object/scene recognition models, and the visualized graphlets indicate that the discriminative patterns are discovered by our proposed approach. PMID:23955764

  8. Unified Photo Enhancement by Discovering Aesthetic Communities From Flickr.

    PubMed

    Hong, Richang; Zhang, Luming; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-03-01

    Photo enhancement refers to the process of increasing the aesthetic appeal of a photo, such as changing the photo aspect ratio and spatial recomposition. It is a widely used technique in the printing industry, graphic design, and cinematography. In this paper, we propose a unified and socially aware photo enhancement framework which can leverage the experience of photographers with various aesthetic topics (e.g., portrait and landscape). We focus on photos from the image hosting site Flickr, which has 87 million users and to which more than 3.5 million photos are uploaded daily. First, a tagwise regularized topic model is proposed to describe the aesthetic topic of each Flickr user, and coherent and interpretable topics are discovered by leveraging both the visual features and tags of photos. Next, a graph is constructed to describe the similarities in aesthetic topics between the users. Noticeably, densely connected users have similar aesthetic topics, which are categorized into different communities by a dense subgraph mining algorithm. Finally, a probabilistic model is exploited to enhance the aesthetic attractiveness of a test photo by leveraging the photographic experiences of Flickr users from the corresponding communities of that photo. Paired-comparison-based user studies show that our method performs competitively on photo retargeting and recomposition. Moreover, our approach accurately detects aesthetic communities in a photo set crawled from nearly 100000 Flickr users.

  9. Discovering modes of an image population through mixture modeling.

    PubMed

    Sabuncu, Mert R; Balci, Serdar K; Golland, Polina

    2008-01-01

    We present iCluster, a fast and efficient algorithm that clusters a set of images while co-registering them using a parameterized, nonlinear transformation model. The output is a small number of template images that represent different modes in a population. This is in contrast with traditional approaches that assume a single template to construct atlases. We validate and explore the algorithm in two experiments. First, we employ iCluster to partition a data set of 416 whole brain MR volumes of subjects aged 18-96 years into three sub-groups, which mainly correspond to age groups. The templates reveal significant structural differences across these age groups that confirm previous findings in aging research. In the second experiment, we run iCluster on a group of 30 patients with dementia and 30 age-matched healthy controls. The algorithm produced three modes that mainly corresponded to a sub-population of healthy controls, a sub-population of patients with dementia and a mixture group that contained both types. These results suggest that the algorithm can be used to discover sub-populations that correspond to interesting structural or functional "modes".

  10. Discovering Patterns in Brain Signals Using Decision Trees

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Even with emerging technologies, such as Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) systems, understanding how our brains work is a very difficult challenge. So we propose to use a data mining technique to help us in this task. As a case of study, we analyzed the brain's behaviour of blind people and sighted people in a spatial activity. There is a common belief that blind people compensate their lack of vision using the other senses. If an object is given to sighted people and we asked them to identify this object, probably the sense of vision will be the most determinant one. If the same experiment was repeated with blind people, they will have to use other senses to identify the object. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses decision trees (DT) to investigate the difference of how the brains of blind people and people with vision react against a spatial problem. We choose the DT algorithm because it can discover patterns in the brain signal, and its presentation is human interpretable. Our results show that using DT to analyze brain signals can help us to understand the brain's behaviour. PMID:27688746

  11. Newly Discovered Alpha-poor Stars in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Q. F.; Zhao, G.

    2015-06-01

    We present an abundance analysis for two newly discovered α-poor stars based on high-resolution spectroscopy. These stars were previously identified in the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Data Release 1 as candidate α-poor stars. We observed these candidate α-poor stars with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph on the 6.5 m Magellan-Clay Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory. This high-resolution analysis confirms the low [α/Fe] abundance ratios for these stars compared to those of the majority of Galactic stars with comparable metallicities ([Fe/H] ∼ -0.5). The large deficiencies of α-elements suggest that these stars possess an anomalous chemical enrichment history. To have found such α-poor stars in our sample indicates that large scatters of the α-element abundance ratios may exist near solar metallicity. These results also demonstrate that our method is capable of selecting α-poor stars from low-resolution stellar spectra.

  12. Discovering Transcription and Splicing Networks in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyan; Wen, Jianguo; Chang, Chung-che; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    More and more transcription factors and their motifs have been reported and linked to specific gene expression levels. However, focusing only on transcription is not sufficient for mechanism research. Most genes, especially in eukaryotes, are alternatively spliced to different isoforms. Some of these isoforms increase the biodiversity of proteins. From this viewpoint, transcription and splicing are two of important mechanisms to modulate expression levels of isoforms. To integrate these two kinds of regulation, we built a linear regression model to select a subset of transcription factors and splicing factors for each co-expressed isoforms using least-angle regression approach. Then, we applied this method to investigate the mechanism of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a precursor lesion of acute myeloid leukemia. Results suggested that expression levels of most isoforms were regulated by a set of selected regulatory factors. Some of the detected factors, such as EGR1 and STAT family, are highly correlated with progression of MDS. We discovered that the splicing factor SRSF11 experienced alternative splicing switch, and in turn induced different amino acid sequences between MDS and controls. This splicing switch causes two different splicing mechanisms. Polymerase Chain Reaction experiments also confirmed that one of its isoforms was over-expressed in MDS. We analyzed the regulatory networks constructed from the co-expressed isoforms and their regulatory factors in MDS. Many of these networks were enriched in the herpes simplex infection pathway which involves many splicing factors, and pathways in cancers and acute or chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:24244432

  13. Discovering interacting domains and motifs in protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Willy; Sung, Wing-Kin; Ng, See-Kiong

    2013-01-01

    Many important biological processes, such as the signaling pathways, require protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that are designed for fast response to stimuli. These interactions are usually transient, easily formed, and disrupted, yet specific. Many of these transient interactions involve the binding of a protein domain to a short stretch (3-10) of amino acid residues, which can be characterized by a sequence pattern, i.e., a short linear motif (SLiM). We call these interacting domains and motifs domain-SLiM interactions. Existing methods have focused on discovering SLiMs in the interacting proteins' sequence data. With the recent increase in protein structures, we have a new opportunity to detect SLiMs directly from the proteins' 3D structures instead of their linear sequences. In this chapter, we describe a computational method called SLiMDIet to directly detect SLiMs on domain interfaces extracted from 3D structures of PPIs. SLiMDIet comprises two steps: (1) interaction interfaces belonging to the same domain are extracted and grouped together using structural clustering and (2) the extracted interaction interfaces in each cluster are structurally aligned to extract the corresponding SLiM. Using SLiMDIet, de novo SLiMs interacting with protein domains can be computationally detected from structurally clustered domain-SLiM interactions for PFAM domains which have available 3D structures in the PDB database.

  14. Unified Photo Enhancement by Discovering Aesthetic Communities From Flickr.

    PubMed

    Hong, Richang; Zhang, Luming; Tao, Dacheng

    2016-03-01

    Photo enhancement refers to the process of increasing the aesthetic appeal of a photo, such as changing the photo aspect ratio and spatial recomposition. It is a widely used technique in the printing industry, graphic design, and cinematography. In this paper, we propose a unified and socially aware photo enhancement framework which can leverage the experience of photographers with various aesthetic topics (e.g., portrait and landscape). We focus on photos from the image hosting site Flickr, which has 87 million users and to which more than 3.5 million photos are uploaded daily. First, a tagwise regularized topic model is proposed to describe the aesthetic topic of each Flickr user, and coherent and interpretable topics are discovered by leveraging both the visual features and tags of photos. Next, a graph is constructed to describe the similarities in aesthetic topics between the users. Noticeably, densely connected users have similar aesthetic topics, which are categorized into different communities by a dense subgraph mining algorithm. Finally, a probabilistic model is exploited to enhance the aesthetic attractiveness of a test photo by leveraging the photographic experiences of Flickr users from the corresponding communities of that photo. Paired-comparison-based user studies show that our method performs competitively on photo retargeting and recomposition. Moreover, our approach accurately detects aesthetic communities in a photo set crawled from nearly 100000 Flickr users. PMID:26742134

  15. Discovering Patterns in Brain Signals Using Decision Trees

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Even with emerging technologies, such as Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) systems, understanding how our brains work is a very difficult challenge. So we propose to use a data mining technique to help us in this task. As a case of study, we analyzed the brain's behaviour of blind people and sighted people in a spatial activity. There is a common belief that blind people compensate their lack of vision using the other senses. If an object is given to sighted people and we asked them to identify this object, probably the sense of vision will be the most determinant one. If the same experiment was repeated with blind people, they will have to use other senses to identify the object. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses decision trees (DT) to investigate the difference of how the brains of blind people and people with vision react against a spatial problem. We choose the DT algorithm because it can discover patterns in the brain signal, and its presentation is human interpretable. Our results show that using DT to analyze brain signals can help us to understand the brain's behaviour.

  16. More Far-Side Deep Moonquake Nests Discovered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Jackson, John A.; Jackson, Katherine G.

    2004-01-01

    As reported last year, we started to reanalyze the seismic data acquired from 1969 to 1977 with a network of stations established on the Moon during the Apollo mission. The reason for the reanalysis was because recent advances in computer technology make it possible to employ much more sophisticated analysis techniques than was possible previously. The primary objective of the reanalysis was to search for deep moonquakes on the far side of the Moon and, if found, to use them to infer the structure of the Moon's deep interior, including a possible central core. The first step was to identify any new deep moonquakes that escaped our earlier search by applying a combination of waveform cross-correlation and single-link cluster analysis, and then to see if any of them are from previously unknown nests of deep moonquakes. We positively identified 7245 deep moonquakes, more than a five-fold increase from the previous 1360. We also found at least 88 previously unknown deep-moonquake nests. The question was whether any of these newly discovered nets were on the far side of the Moon, and we now report that our analysis of the data indicates that some of them are indeed on the far side.

  17. Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud.

    PubMed

    Meech, Karen J; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud.

  18. Discovering DNA encodes heredity and prions are infectious proteins.

    PubMed

    Prusiner, Stanley B; McCarty, Maclyn

    2006-01-01

    The resemblance between the discoveries that DNA is the basis of heredity and that prions are infectious proteins is remarkable. Though four decades separated these two discoveries, the biochemical methodologies and scientific philosophies that were employed are surprisingly similar. In both cases, bioassays available at the time that the projects were initiated proved to be inadequate to support purification studies. Improved bioassays allowed the transforming principle (TP) to be purified from pneumococci and prions from scrapie-infected hamster brains. Publications describing TP as composed of DNA prompted some scientists to contend that undetected proteins must contaminate TP enriched fractions. The simplicity of DNA was thought to prevent it from encoding genetic information. By the time prions were discovered, the genomes of all infectious pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites had been shown to be comprised of nucleic acids and so an antithetical refrain became widely echoed: DNA or RNA molecules must be hiding among the proteins of prions. Finding the unexpected and being asked to demonstrate unequivocally the absence of a possible contaminant represent uncanny parallels between the discoveries that DNA encodes the genotype and that prions are infectious proteins.

  19. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units. PMID:26353344

  20. Talkoot Portals: Discover, Tag, Share, and Reuse Collaborative Science Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Ramachandran, R.; Lynnes, C.

    2009-05-01

    A small but growing number of scientists are beginning to harness Web 2.0 technologies, such as wikis, blogs, and social tagging, as a transformative way of doing science. These technologies provide researchers easy mechanisms to critique, suggest and share ideas, data and algorithms. At the same time, large suites of algorithms for science analysis are being made available as remotely-invokable Web Services, which can be chained together to create analysis workflows. This provides the research community an unprecedented opportunity to collaborate by sharing their workflows with one another, reproducing and analyzing research results, and leveraging colleagues' expertise to expedite the process of scientific discovery. However, wikis and similar technologies are limited to text, static images and hyperlinks, providing little support for collaborative data analysis. A team of information technology and Earth science researchers from multiple institutions have come together to improve community collaboration in science analysis by developing a customizable "software appliance" to build collaborative portals for Earth Science services and analysis workflows. The critical requirement is that researchers (not just information technologists) be able to build collaborative sites around service workflows within a few hours. We envision online communities coming together, much like Finnish "talkoot" (a barn raising), to build a shared research space. Talkoot extends a freely available, open source content management framework with a series of modules specific to Earth Science for registering, creating, managing, discovering, tagging and sharing Earth Science web services and workflows for science data processing, analysis and visualization. Users will be able to author a "science story" in shareable web notebooks, including plots or animations, backed up by an executable workflow that directly reproduces the science analysis. New services and workflows of interest will be

  1. Discovering the Role of Grain Boundary Complexions in Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Harmer, Martin P.

    2015-03-19

    in a range of materials systems, and to characterize their structures, range of stability and selected physical properties. First, an Au-based bilayer interfacial phase was discovered at a bicrystal boundary in the Si-Au system. This bilayer transitioned abruptly to an intrinsic (“clean”) grain boundary phase, suggesting first-order phase behavior. This study represents the discovery of grain boundary complexions in a completely new system, i.e., a semiconductor-metal system, giving further support to the expectation that grain boundary complexions are a general phenomenon not limited to any particular class of materials. The TiO2-CuO system exhibited four grain boundary interfacial phases: a monolayer, disordered bilayer, disordered trilayer, and non-wetting nanoscale amorphous drop (which likely resulted from dewetting of a nanoscale IGF). SiO2 contamination was discovered in the TiO2-CuO samples, and we hypothesize that this impurity may have caused an “order-disorder” transition to occur. In other words, we expect that pure TiO2-CuO may have a higher tendency to exhibit ordered bilayer and trilayer complexions, which may also exhibit a well-defined order-disorder transition temperature. In this effort we have also identified unique complexion transitions in yttria and strontium titanate.

  2. Multiwavelength diagnostics for newly discovered PNe in the outer LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, W.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-04-01

    We have extended our PNe survey to the outer ~64deg^2 of the LMC using maps from the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey (MCELS) and the UKST H-alpha and red surveys. Although the MCELS survey has poorer ~5 arcsecond resolution than the UKST survey, it has the advantage of additional narrow-band filters at H-alpha, [OIII] and [SII], providing improved diagnostic capabilities. The UKST survey has a similar angular resolution (~2 arcsec from 0.67 arcsec pixels) to our original median stacked map of the central 25deg^2 of the central LMC, but lacks the depth advantages provided by median stacking. Using these data to uncover new emission line candidates we have so far spectroscopically confirmed an extra 63 LMC PNe which we present here. We have also independently recovered and spectroscopically confirmed 107 of the 109 (98%) PNe that were previously known to exist in the outer LMC. The majority of our newly discovered and previously known PNe were confirmed using the AAOmega, multi-object fibre spectroscopy system on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) and the 6dF multi-object spectrograph on the UK Schmidt Telescope (UKST). These newly identified PNe were cross-checked using extant multi-wavelength imaging surveys in the near and mid-infrared in particular and against the latest emission-line ratio diagnostic plots for improved confidence in PNe identification. These new identifications raise the number of known PNe in the LMC to 715, approaching the number of 900 predicted by stellar evolutionary theory. We present accurate positions, diagnostic plots based on de-reddened emission lines, multi-wavelength SEDs and mid-infrared plots based on SAGE spitzer data.

  3. Encoded expansion: an efficient algorithm to discover identical string motifs.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Aqil M; Al-Ssulami, Abdulrakeeb

    2014-01-01

    A major task in computational biology is the discovery of short recurring string patterns known as motifs. Most of the schemes to discover motifs are either stochastic or combinatorial in nature. Stochastic approaches do not guarantee finding the correct motifs, while the combinatorial schemes tend to have an exponential time complexity with respect to motif length. To alleviate the cost, the combinatorial approach exploits dynamic data structures such as trees or graphs. Recently (Karci (2009) Efficient automatic exact motif discovery algorithms for biological sequences, Expert Systems with Applications 36:7952-7963) devised a deterministic algorithm that finds all the identical copies of string motifs of all sizes [Formula: see text] in theoretical time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the length of the input sequence and [Formula: see text] is the length of the longest possible string motif. In this paper, we present a significant improvement on Karci's original algorithm. The algorithm that we propose reports all identical string motifs of sizes [Formula: see text] that occur at least [Formula: see text] times. Our algorithm starts with string motifs of size 2, and at each iteration it expands the candidate string motifs by one symbol throwing out those that occur less than [Formula: see text] times in the entire input sequence. We use a simple array and data encoding to achieve theoretical worst-case time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] Encoding of the substrings can speed up the process of comparison between string motifs. Experimental results on random and real biological sequences confirm that our algorithm has indeed a linear time complexity and it is more scalable in terms of sequence length than the existing algorithms. PMID:24871320

  4. Discovering discovery patterns with predication-based Semantic Indexing

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic; Schvaneveldt, Roger W.; Davies, Peter; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we utilize methods of hyperdimensional computing to mediate the identification of therapeutically useful connections for the purpose of literature-based discovery. Our approach, named Predication-based Semantic Indexing, is utilized to identify empirically sequences of relationships known as “discovery patterns”, such as “drug x INHIBITS substance y, substance y CAUSES disease z” that link pharmaceutical substances to diseases they are known to treat. These sequences are derived from semantic predications extracted from the biomedical literature by the SemRep system, and subsequently utilized to direct the search for known treatments for a held out set of diseases. Rapid and efficient inference is accomplished through the application of geometric operators in PSI space, allowing for both the derivation of discovery patterns from a large set of known TREATS relationships, and the application of these discovered patterns to constrain search for therapeutic relationships at scale. Our results include the rediscovery of discovery patterns that have been constructed manually by other authors in previous research, as well as the discovery of a set of previously unrecognized patterns. The application of these patterns to direct search through PSI space results in better recovery of therapeutic relationships than is accomplished with models based on distributional statistics alone. These results demonstrate the utility of efficient approximate inference in geometric space as a means to identify therapeutic relationships, suggesting a role of these methods in drug repurposing efforts. In addition, the results provide strong support for the utility of the discovery pattern approach pioneered by Hristovski and his colleagues. PMID:22841748

  5. Discovering Higgs Bosons of the MSSM using Jet Substructure

    SciTech Connect

    Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Roy, Tuhin S.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2010-06-01

    We present a qualitatively new approach to discover Higgs bosons of the MSSM at the LHC using jet substructure techniques applied to boosted Higgs decays. These techniques are ideally suited to the MSSM, since the lightest Higgs boson overwhelmingly decays to b{bar b} throughout the entire parameter space, while the heavier neutral Higgs bosons, if light enough to be produced in a cascade, also predominantly decay to b{bar b}. The Higgs production we consider arises from superpartner production where superpartners cascade decay into Higgs bosons. We study this mode of Higgs production for several superpartner hierarchies: m{sub {tilde q}},m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde W}},{sub {tilde B}} > m{sub h} + {mu}; m{tilde q};m{sub {tilde q}},m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde W}},{sub {tilde B}} > m {sub h,H,A} + {mu}; and m{sub {tilde q}},m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde W}} > m{sub h} + {mu} with m{sub {tilde B}} {approx} {mu}. In these cascades, the Higgs bosons are boosted, with pT > 200 GeV a large fraction of the time. Since Higgs bosons appear in cascades originating from squarks and/or gluinos, the cross section for events with at least one Higgs boson can be the same order as squark/gluino production. Given 10 fb{sup -1} of 14 TeV LHC data, with m{sub {tilde q}} {approx}< 1 TeV, and one of the above superpartner mass hierarchies, our estimate of S{radical} B of the Higgs signal is sufficiently high that the b{bar b} mode can become the discovery mode of the lightest Higgs boson of the MSSM.

  6. Discovering discovery patterns with Predication-based Semantic Indexing.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic; Schvaneveldt, Roger W; Davies, Peter; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we utilize methods of hyperdimensional computing to mediate the identification of therapeutically useful connections for the purpose of literature-based discovery. Our approach, named Predication-based Semantic Indexing, is utilized to identify empirically sequences of relationships known as "discovery patterns", such as "drug x INHIBITS substance y, substance y CAUSES disease z" that link pharmaceutical substances to diseases they are known to treat. These sequences are derived from semantic predications extracted from the biomedical literature by the SemRep system, and subsequently utilized to direct the search for known treatments for a held out set of diseases. Rapid and efficient inference is accomplished through the application of geometric operators in PSI space, allowing for both the derivation of discovery patterns from a large set of known TREATS relationships, and the application of these discovered patterns to constrain search for therapeutic relationships at scale. Our results include the rediscovery of discovery patterns that have been constructed manually by other authors in previous research, as well as the discovery of a set of previously unrecognized patterns. The application of these patterns to direct search through PSI space results in better recovery of therapeutic relationships than is accomplished with models based on distributional statistics alone. These results demonstrate the utility of efficient approximate inference in geometric space as a means to identify therapeutic relationships, suggesting a role of these methods in drug repurposing efforts. In addition, the results provide strong support for the utility of the discovery pattern approach pioneered by Hristovski and his colleagues.

  7. The Spy VI child: a newly discovered Neandertal infant.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Rougier, Hélène; Maureille, Bruno; Higham, Thomas; van der Plicht, Johannes; De Clerck, Nora; Semal, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Spy cave (Jemeppe-sur-Sambre, Belgium) is reputed for the two adult Neandertal individuals discovered in situ in 1886. Recent reassessment of the Spy collections has allowed direct radiocarbon dating of these individuals. The sorting of all of the faunal collections has also led to the discovery of the remains of a Neandertal child, Spy VI. This individual is represented by two mandibular corpus fragments. The left fragment is the most complete and both sides preserve the mental foramen. Four deciduous teeth are associated with these mandibular remains: three incisors and one canine. The lower left canine (Spy 645a) conjoins with the corresponding alveolar socket in the left part of the mandible. Following extant standards, the developmental stage of the preserved teeth indicate an age at death of about one and a half years. In addition to performing a classical morphometric comparative study of the mandible and teeth, we have evaluated the dental tissue proportions using high-resolution microtomographic techniques. Our results show that Spy VI generally falls within the Neandertal range of variation. However, this specimen also exhibits particular traits, notably in the dental internal structural organization, which reveals that variation in the immature Neandertal variation is larger than what was variation currently represented by the available fossil record. These observations demonstrate the need for investigating the frequency and expression of immature Neandertal traits in fossil anterior teeth, as well as their temporal and geographic variation. Direct radiocarbon dating of the Spy VI specimen has been conducted in two different laboratories. The results of Spy VI confirm the age previously determined for the two adults, making the Spy Neandertal remains the youngest ever directly dated in northwest Europe.

  8. Encoded Expansion: An Efficient Algorithm to Discover Identical String Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Aqil M.; Al-Ssulami, Abdulrakeeb

    2014-01-01

    A major task in computational biology is the discovery of short recurring string patterns known as motifs. Most of the schemes to discover motifs are either stochastic or combinatorial in nature. Stochastic approaches do not guarantee finding the correct motifs, while the combinatorial schemes tend to have an exponential time complexity with respect to motif length. To alleviate the cost, the combinatorial approach exploits dynamic data structures such as trees or graphs. Recently (Karci (2009) Efficient automatic exact motif discovery algorithms for biological sequences, Expert Systems with Applications 36:7952–7963) devised a deterministic algorithm that finds all the identical copies of string motifs of all sizes in theoretical time complexity of and a space complexity of where is the length of the input sequence and is the length of the longest possible string motif. In this paper, we present a significant improvement on Karci's original algorithm. The algorithm that we propose reports all identical string motifs of sizes that occur at least times. Our algorithm starts with string motifs of size 2, and at each iteration it expands the candidate string motifs by one symbol throwing out those that occur less than times in the entire input sequence. We use a simple array and data encoding to achieve theoretical worst-case time complexity of and a space complexity of Encoding of the substrings can speed up the process of comparison between string motifs. Experimental results on random and real biological sequences confirm that our algorithm has indeed a linear time complexity and it is more scalable in terms of sequence length than the existing algorithms. PMID:24871320

  9. Encoded expansion: an efficient algorithm to discover identical string motifs.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Aqil M; Al-Ssulami, Abdulrakeeb

    2014-01-01

    A major task in computational biology is the discovery of short recurring string patterns known as motifs. Most of the schemes to discover motifs are either stochastic or combinatorial in nature. Stochastic approaches do not guarantee finding the correct motifs, while the combinatorial schemes tend to have an exponential time complexity with respect to motif length. To alleviate the cost, the combinatorial approach exploits dynamic data structures such as trees or graphs. Recently (Karci (2009) Efficient automatic exact motif discovery algorithms for biological sequences, Expert Systems with Applications 36:7952-7963) devised a deterministic algorithm that finds all the identical copies of string motifs of all sizes [Formula: see text] in theoretical time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the length of the input sequence and [Formula: see text] is the length of the longest possible string motif. In this paper, we present a significant improvement on Karci's original algorithm. The algorithm that we propose reports all identical string motifs of sizes [Formula: see text] that occur at least [Formula: see text] times. Our algorithm starts with string motifs of size 2, and at each iteration it expands the candidate string motifs by one symbol throwing out those that occur less than [Formula: see text] times in the entire input sequence. We use a simple array and data encoding to achieve theoretical worst-case time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] Encoding of the substrings can speed up the process of comparison between string motifs. Experimental results on random and real biological sequences confirm that our algorithm has indeed a linear time complexity and it is more scalable in terms of sequence length than the existing algorithms.

  10. Discovering superconductors: A path to new science and higher Tc's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geballe, T. H.; Koster, Gertjan

    2005-08-01

    The search for superconductivity in new and unexpected structures has been ongoing since the initial discovery in Leiden over 9 decades ago. Though the successes are few the rewards are great. Our meeting here today is a direct result of Bednorz and Mueller's discovery of cuprate superconductivity [1]. The questions which have arisen as a result of this single discovery have uncovered inadequacies of theory and stimulated new ways of thinking. Understanding the mechanism(s) of high temperature superconductivity is among the foremost challenges of theoretical and experimental research today [2]. Searching for new superconductors has always been a fruitful research enterprise, and as we see, there are new opportunities for doing so today. For more than 4 decades after the initial discovery there was no microscopic theory (the most outstanding theorists from Heisenberg down tried and failed to come up with a satisfactory theory) and the experimental basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms was inadequate. It must have been a surprise for Kamerlingh Onnes, after taking care to use the purest Hg he could obtain in the investigation that led to the discovery of superconductivity, to find that ordinary solder was also superconducting. In 1932 Meissner discovered barely metallic copper sulfide was superconducting, while high conductivity copper itself was not superconducting. These puzzles and others like it suggested that a comprehensive search for new superconductors might reveal a pattern of occurrence that would reveal clues, and prompted John Hulm and Bernd Matthias, with encouragement from Enrico Fermi [3] in 1951 to undertake a full-scale effort to find new superconductors. This was a propitious time for such an undertaking for a number of reasons. Today parallel reasons exist.

  11. High-School Student Discovers Strange Astronomical Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    A West Virginia high-school student analyzing data from a giant radio telescope has discovered a new astronomical object -- a strange type of neutron star called a rotating radio transient. Lucas Bolyard, a sophomore at South Harrison High School in Clarksburg, WV, made the discovery while participating in a project in which students are trained to scrutinize data from the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green The project, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University (WVU), funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Bolyard made the discovery in March, after he already had studied more than 2,000 data plots from the GBT and found nothing. "I was home on a weekend and had nothing to do, so I decided to look at some more plots from the GBT," he said. "I saw a plot with a pulse, but there was a lot of radio interference, too. The pulse almost got dismissed as interference," he added. Nonetheless, he reported it, and it went on a list of candidates for West Virginia University astronomers Maura McLaughlin and Duncan Lorimer to re-examine, scheduling new observations of the region of sky from which the pulse came. Disappointingly, the follow-up observations showed nothing, indicating that the object was not a normal pulsar. However, the astronomers explained to Bolyard that his pulse still might have come from a rotating radio transient. Confirmation didn't come until July. Bolyard was at the NRAO's Green Bank Observatory with fellow PSC students. The night before, the group had been observing with the GBT in the wee hours, and all were very tired. Then Lorimer showed Bolyard a new plot of his pulse, reprocessed from raw data, indicating that it is real, not interference, and that Bolyard is likely the discoverer of one of only about 30 rotating radio transients known. Suddenly, Bolyard said, he wasn't tired anymore. "That news made me full

  12. Public information needs after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in London: cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Page, Lisa; Morgan, Oliver; Pinder, Richard J; Riley, Paul; Hatch, Stephani; Maguire, Helen; Catchpole, Mike; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify public perceptions of the risk to health after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 (210Po) in London and to assess the impact of public health communications. Design Cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative interviews. Setting London, United Kingdom. Participants 1000 people completed the cross sectional survey and 86 potentially exposed people completed the qualitative interviews. Main outcome measures Perception of risk to personal health after the 210Po incident. Qualitative interviews were analysed with an emphasis on information needs. Results 11.7% of the survey sample (n=117) perceived their health to be at risk. Aside from personal variables the main predictors of perceived risk to health were believing that the incident was related to terrorism (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 4.6) rather than to espionage, that it was targeted at the wider public rather than one person (5.9, 3.2 to 10.9), and that it could affect people who had not been in the contaminated area (3.2, 2.1 to 5.1). Participants in the qualitative interviews were generally satisfied with the information they had received, although they would have preferred more information about their individual risk of exposure, the results of their urine tests, and the health implications of the incident. Conclusions Perceptions of the public that the 210Po incident in London in 2006 was related to espionage helped to reassure them that the risks to personal health were low. In the event of future incidents it is important to ensure that detailed, comprehensible information about the risks of any exposure is available. PMID:17975252

  13. Discovering motifs in ranked lists of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Eden, Eran; Lipson, Doron; Yogev, Sivan; Yakhini, Zohar

    2007-03-23

    Computational methods for discovery of sequence elements that are enriched in a target set compared with a background set are fundamental in molecular biology research. One example is the discovery of transcription factor binding motifs that are inferred from ChIP-chip (chromatin immuno-precipitation on a microarray) measurements. Several major challenges in sequence motif discovery still require consideration: (i) the need for a principled approach to partitioning the data into target and background sets; (ii) the lack of rigorous models and of an exact p-value for measuring motif enrichment; (iii) the need for an appropriate framework for accounting for motif multiplicity; (iv) the tendency, in many of the existing methods, to report presumably significant motifs even when applied to randomly generated data. In this paper we present a statistical framework for discovering enriched sequence elements in ranked lists that resolves these four issues. We demonstrate the implementation of this framework in a software application, termed DRIM (discovery of rank imbalanced motifs), which identifies sequence motifs in lists of ranked DNA sequences. We applied DRIM to ChIP-chip and CpG methylation data and obtained the following results. (i) Identification of 50 novel putative transcription factor (TF) binding sites in yeast ChIP-chip data. The biological function of some of them was further investigated to gain new insights on transcription regulation networks in yeast. For example, our discoveries enable the elucidation of the network of the TF ARO80. Another finding concerns a systematic TF binding enhancement to sequences containing CA repeats. (ii) Discovery of novel motifs in human cancer CpG methylation data. Remarkably, most of these motifs are similar to DNA sequence elements bound by the Polycomb complex that promotes histone methylation. Our findings thus support a model in which histone methylation and CpG methylation are mechanistically linked. Overall, we

  14. Data mining algorithm for discovering matrix association regions (MARs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gautam B.; Krawetz, Shephan A.

    2000-04-01

    Lately, there has been considerable interest in applying Data Mining techniques to scientific and data analysis problems in bioinformatics. Data mining research is being fueled by novel application areas that are helping the development of newer applied algorithms in the field of bioinformatics, an emerging discipline representing the integration of biological and information sciences. This is a shift in paradigm from the earlier and the continuing data mining efforts in marketing research and support for business intelligence. The problem described in this paper is along a new dimension in DNA sequence analysis research and supplements the previously studied stochastic models for evolution and variability. The discovery of novel patterns from genetic databases as described is quite significant because biological patterns play an important role in a large variety of cellular processes and constitute the basis for gene therapy. Biological databases containing the genetic codes from a wide variety of organisms, including humans, have continued their exponential growth over the last decade. At the time of this writing, the GenBank database contains over 300 million sequences and over 2.5 billion characters of sequenced nucleotides. The focus of this paper is on developing a general data mining algorithm for discovering regions of locus control, i.e. those regions that are instrumental for determining cell type. One such type of element of locus control are the MARs or the Matrix Association Regions. Our limited knowledge about MARs has hampered their detection using classical pattern recognition techniques. Consequently, their detection is formulated by utilizing a statistical interestingness measure derived from a set of empirical features that are known to be associated with MARs. This paper presents a systematic approach for finding associations between such empirical features in genomic sequences, and for utilizing this knowledge to detect biologically interesting

  15. Astronomers Discover New Star-Forming Regions in Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    Astronomers studying the Milky Way have discovered a large number of previously-unknown regions where massive stars are being formed. Their discovery provides important new information about the structure of our home Galaxy and promises to yield new clues about the chemical composition of the Galaxy. "We can clearly relate the locations of these star-forming sites to the overall structure of the Galaxy. Further studies will allow us to better understand the process of star formation and to compare the chemical composition of such sites at widely different distances from the Galaxy's center," said Thomas Bania, of Boston University. Bania worked with Loren Anderson of the Astrophysical Laboratory of Marseille in France, Dana Balser of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Robert Rood of the University of Virginia. The scientists presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Miami, Florida. The star-forming regions the astronomers sought, called H II regions, are sites where hydrogen atoms are ionized, or stripped of their electrons, by the intense radiation of the massive, young stars. To find these regions hidden from visible-light detection by the Milky Way's gas and dust, the researchers used infrared and radio telescopes. "We found our targets by using the results of infrared surveys done with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and of surveys done with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope," Anderson said. "Objects that appear bright in both the Spitzer and VLA images we studied are good candidates for H II regions," he explained. The astronomers then used the NSF's giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia, an extremely sensitive radio telescope. With the GBT, they were able to detect specific radio frequencies emitted by electrons as they recombined with protons to form hydrogen. This evidence of recombination confirmed that the regions contained ionized

  16. Chandra Observations of Eight Sources Discovered by INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Wang, Qinan; Bodaghee, Arash; Chaty, Sylvain; Rahoui, Farid; Rodriguez, Jerome; Fornasini, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on 0.3-10 keV observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of eight hard X-ray sources discovered within 8° of the Galactic plane by the International Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory satellite. The short (˜5 ks) Chandra observations of the IGR source fields have yielded very likely identifications of X-ray counterparts for three of the IGR sources: IGR J14091-6108, IGR J18088-2741, and IGR J18381-0924. The first two have very hard spectra in the Chandra band that can be described by a power law with photon indices of Γ = 0.6 ± 0.4 and -{0.7}-0.3+0.4, respectively (90% confidence errors are given), and both have a unique near-IR counterpart consistent with the Chandra position. IGR J14091-6108 also displays a strong iron line and a relatively low X-ray luminosity, and we argue that the most likely source type is a cataclysmic variable (CV), although we do not completely rule out the possibility of a high mass X-ray binary. IGR J18088-2741 has an optical counterpart with a previously measured 6.84 hr periodicity, which may be the binary orbital period. We also detect five cycles of a possible 800-950 s period in the Chandra light curve, which may be the compact object spin period. We suggest that IGR J18088-2741 is also most likely a CV. For IGR J18381-0924, the spectrum is intrinsically softer with {{Γ }}={1.5}-0.4+0.5, and it is moderately absorbed, NH = (4 ± 1) × 1022 cm-2. There are two near-IR sources consistent with the Chandra position, and they are both classified as galaxies, making it likely that IGR J18381-0924 is an active galactic nucleus. For the other five IGR sources, we provide lists of nearby Chandra sources, which may be used along with further observations to identify the correct counterparts, and we discuss the implications of the low inferred Chandra count rates for these five sources.

  17. Three Novel Virophage Genomes Discovered from Yellowstone Lake Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinglie; Sun, Dawei; Childers, Alyson; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Virophages are a unique group of circular double-stranded DNA viruses that are considered parasites of giant DNA viruses, which in turn are known to infect eukaryotic hosts. In this study, the genomes of three novel Yellowstone Lake virophages (YSLVs)—YSLV5, YSLV6, and YSLV7—were identified from Yellowstone Lake through metagenomic analyses. The relative abundance of these three novel virophages and previously identified Yellowstone Lake virophages YSLV1 to -4 were determined in different locations of the lake, revealing that most of the sampled locations in the lake, including both mesophilic and thermophilic habitats, had multiple virophage genotypes. This likely reflects the diverse habitats or diversity of the eukaryotic hosts and their associated giant viruses that serve as putative hosts for these virophages. YSLV5 has a 29,767-bp genome with 32 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), YSLV6 has a 24,837-bp genome with 29 predicted ORFs, and YSLV7 has a 23,193-bp genome with 26 predicted ORFs. Based on multilocus phylogenetic analysis, YSLV6 shows a close evolutionary relationship with YSLV1 to -4, whereas YSLV5 and YSLV7 are distantly related to the others, and YSLV7 represents the fourth novel virophage lineage. In addition, the genome of YSLV5 has a G+C content of 51.1% that is much higher than all other known virophages, indicating a unique host range for YSLV5. These results suggest that virophages are abundant and have diverse genotypes that likely mirror diverse giant viral and eukaryotic hosts within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem. IMPORTANCE This study discovered novel virophages present within the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem using a conserved major capsid protein as a phylogenetic anchor for assembly of sequence reads from Yellowstone Lake metagenomic samples. The three novel virophage genomes (YSLV5 to -7) were completed by identifying specific environmental samples containing these respective virophages, and closing gaps by targeted PCR

  18. The Most Distant Object Yet Discovered in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    ESO's Very Large Telescope has shown that a faint gamma-ray burst detected last Thursday is the signature of the explosion of the earliest, most distant known object in the Universe (a redshift of 8.2). The explosion apparently took place more than 13 billion years ago, only about 600 million years after the Big Bang. ESO PR Photo 17a/09 Artist's impression of a gamma-ray burst Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful flashes of energetic gamma-rays lasting from less than a second to several minutes. They release a tremendous amount of energy in this short time making them the most powerful events in the Universe. They are thought to be mostly associated with the explosion of stars that collapse into black holes. The gamma-ray burst GRB 090423 was detected by the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift satellite during the morning (CEST) of Thursday 23 April 2009. The 10 second burst was located in the constellation of Leo (the Lion). It was soon being followed by a whole range of telescopes on the ground, including the 2.2-metre ESO/MPG telescope at La Silla and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal, both in Chile. VLT infrared observations, made 17 hours after the burst detection, allowed astronomers to establish the distance to the explosion. "We find that the light coming from the explosion has been stretched, or redshifted, considerably by the expansion of the Universe", says Nial Tanvir, the leader of the team who made the VLT observations. "With a redshift of 8.2 this is the most remote gamma-ray burst ever detected, and also the most distant object ever discovered -- by some way." Because light moves at a finite speed, looking farther into the Universe means looking back in time. The explosion occurred when the Universe was about 600 million years old, less than 5 percent of its current age. It is believed that the very first stars only formed when the Universe was between 200 and 400 million years old. "This discovery proves the importance of gamma-ray bursts in probing the

  19. Despite Appearances, Cosmic Explosions Have Common Origin, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    A Fourth of July fireworks display features bright explosions that light the sky with different colors, yet all have the same cause. They just put their explosive energy into different colors of light. Similarly, astronomers have discovered, a variety of bright cosmic explosions all have the same origin and the same amount of total energy. This is the conclusion of an international team of astronomers that used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the closest known gamma-ray burst earlier this year. Artist's conception of burst Artist's Conception of Twin Jets in Energetic Cosmic Explosion CREDIT: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital (Click on Image for Larger Version) "For some reason we don't yet understand, these explosions put greatly varying percentages of their explosive energy into the gamma-ray portion of their output," said Dale Frail, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. That means, he said, that both strong and weak gamma-ray bursts, along with X-ray flashes, which emit almost no gamma rays, are just different forms of the same cosmic beast. The research team reported their results in the November 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The scientists trained the VLA on a gamma-ray burst discovered using NASA's HETE-2 satellite last March 29. This burst, dubbed GRB 030329, was the closest such burst yet seen, about 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. Because of this relative proximity, the burst was bright, with visible light from its explosion reaching a level that could be seen in amateur telescopes. As the burst faded, astronomers noted an underlying distinctive signature of a supernova explosion, confirming that the event was associated with the death of a massive star. Since 1999, astronomers have known that the strong outbursts of gamma rays, X-rays, visible light and radio waves from these bursts form beams, like those from a flashlight, rather than spreading in all directions

  20. Despite Appearances, Cosmic Explosions Have Common Origin, Astronomers Discover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    A Fourth of July fireworks display features bright explosions that light the sky with different colors, yet all have the same cause. They just put their explosive energy into different colors of light. Similarly, astronomers have discovered, a variety of bright cosmic explosions all have the same origin and the same amount of total energy. This is the conclusion of an international team of astronomers that used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to study the closest known gamma-ray burst earlier this year. Artist's conception of burst Artist's Conception of Twin Jets in Energetic Cosmic Explosion CREDIT: Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital (Click on Image for Larger Version) "For some reason we don't yet understand, these explosions put greatly varying percentages of their explosive energy into the gamma-ray portion of their output," said Dale Frail, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. That means, he said, that both strong and weak gamma-ray bursts, along with X-ray flashes, which emit almost no gamma rays, are just different forms of the same cosmic beast. The research team reported their results in the November 13 issue of the scientific journal Nature. The scientists trained the VLA on a gamma-ray burst discovered using NASA's HETE-2 satellite last March 29. This burst, dubbed GRB 030329, was the closest such burst yet seen, about 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. Because of this relative proximity, the burst was bright, with visible light from its explosion reaching a level that could be seen in amateur telescopes. As the burst faded, astronomers noted an underlying distinctive signature of a supernova explosion, confirming that the event was associated with the death of a massive star. Since 1999, astronomers have known that the strong outbursts of gamma rays, X-rays, visible light and radio waves from these bursts form beams, like those from a flashlight, rather than spreading in all directions

  1. Distant World in Peril Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant Exoplanet Orbits Giant Star Summary When, in a distant future, the Sun begins to expand and evolves into a "giant" star, the surface temperature on the Earth will rise dramatically and our home planet will eventually be incinerated by that central body. Fortunately for us, this dramatic event is several billion years away. However, that sad fate will befall another planet, just discovered in orbit about the giant star HD 47536, already within a few tens of millions of years. At a distance of nearly 400 light-years from us, it is the second-remotest planetary system discovered to date [1]. This is an interesting side-result of a major research project, now carried out by a European-Brazilian team of astronomers [2]. In the course of a three-year spectroscopic survey, they have observed about 80 giant stars in the southern sky with the advanced FEROS spectrograph on the 1.52-m telescope installed at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It is one of these stars that has just been found to host a giant planet. This is only the fourth such case known and with a diameter of about 33 million km (or 23.5 times that of our Sun), HD 47536 is by far the largest of those giant stars [1]. The distance of the planet from the star is still of the order of 300 million km (or twice the distance of the Earth from the Sun), a safe margin now, but this will not always be so. The orbital period is 712 days, i.e., somewhat less than two Earth years, and the planet's mass is 5 - 10 times that of Jupiter. The presence of exoplanets in orbit around giant stars, some of which will eventually perish into their central star (be "cannibalized"), provides a possible explanation of the anomalous abundance of certain chemical elements that is observed in the atmospheres of some stars, cf. ESO PR 10/01. This interesting discovery bodes well for coming observations of exoplanetary systems with new, more powerful instruments, like HARPS to be installed next year at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on

  2. Photographs and Committees: Activities That Help Students Discover Permutations and Combinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles

    2000-01-01

    Presents problem situations that support students when discovering the multiplication principle, permutations, combinations, Pascal's triangle, and relationships among those objects in a concrete context. (ASK)

  3. Planetary dreams : the quest to discover life beyond earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Robert

    1999-03-01

    The Quest To Discover Life Beyond Earth. "The 'dreams' that I write of are not the usual ones, the images that come up in our minds involuntarily during certain stages of sleep, but rather the hopes and expectations that we have lavished upon other worlds around us."-from the Preface. The surprisingly long history of debate over extraterrestrial life is full of marvelous visions of what life "out there" might be like, as well as remarkable stories of alleged sightings and heated disputes about the probability that life might actually have arisen more than once. In Planetary Dreams, acclaimed author Robert Shapiro explores this rich history of dreams and debates in search of the best current answers to the most elusive and compelling of all questions: Are we alone? In his pursuit, he presents three contrasting views regarding how life might have started: through Divine Creation, by a highly unlikely stroke of luck, or by the inevitable process of a natural law that he terms the Life Principle. We are treated to a lively fictional dinner debate among the leading proponents of these schools of thought-with the last named group arguing that life has almost surely formed in many places throughout the universe, and the others that life may well be entirely unique to our own blue planet. To set the stage for a deep exploration of the question, the author then leads us on a fantastic journey through the museum of the cosmos, an imagined building that holds models of the universe at different degrees of magnification. We then journey deep into inner space to view the astonishingly intricate life of a single cell, and learn why the origin of such a complex object from simple chemical mixtures poses one of the most profound enigmas known to science. Writing in a wonderfully entertaining style, Shapiro then reviews the competing theories about the start of life on Earth, and suggests the debate may best be settled by finding signs of life on the other worlds of our solar

  4. Astronomers Discover First Negatively-charged Molecule in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Cambridge, MA - Astronomers have discovered the first negatively charged molecule in space, identifying it from radio signals that were a mystery until now. While about 130 neutral and 14 positively charged molecules are known to exist in interstellar space, this is the first negative molecule, or anion, to be found. "We've spotted a rare and exotic species, like the white tiger of space," said astronomer Michael McCarthy of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). By learning more about the rich broth of chemicals found in interstellar space, astronomers hope to explain how the young Earth converted these basic ingredients into the essential chemicals for life. This new finding helps to advance scientists' understanding of the chemistry of the interstellar medium, and hence the birthplaces of planets. McCarthy worked with CfA colleagues Carl Gottlieb, Harshal Gupta (also from the Univ. of Texas), and Patrick Thaddeus to identify the molecular anion known as C6H-: a linear chain of six carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom at the end and an "extra" electron. Such molecules were thought to be extremely rare because ultraviolet light that suffuses space easily knocks electrons off molecules. The large size of C6H-, larger than most neutral and all positive molecules known in space, may increase its stability in the harsh cosmic environment. "The discovery of C6H- resolves a long-standing enigma in astrochemistry: the apparent lack of negatively charged molecules in space," stated Thaddeus. The team first conducted laboratory experiments to determine exactly what radio frequencies to use in their search. Then, they used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to hunt for C6H- in celestial objects. In particular, they targeted locations in which previous searches had spotted unidentified radio signals at the appropriate frequencies. They found C6H- in two very different locations-a shell of gas surrounding the evolved red giant

  5. Isolated Star-Forming Cloud Discovered in Intracluster Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Subaru and VLT Join Forces in New Study of Virgo Galaxy Cluster [1] Summary At a distance of some 50 million light-years, the Virgo Cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster. It is located in the zodiacal constellation of the same name (The Virgin) and is a large and dense assembly of hundreds of galaxies. The "intracluster" space between the Virgo galaxies is permeated by hot X-ray emitting gas and, as has become clear recently, by a sparse "intracluster population of stars". So far, stars have been observed to form in the luminous parts of galaxies. The most massive young stars are often visible indirectly by the strong emission from surrounding cocoons of hot gas, which is heated by the intense radiation from the embedded stars. These "HII regions" (pronounced "Eitch-Two" and so named because of their content of ionized hydrogen) may be very bright and they often trace the beautiful spiral arms seen in disk galaxies like our own Milky Way. New observations by the Japanese 8-m Subaru telescope and the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) have now shown that massive stars can also form in isolation, far from the luminous parts of galaxies. During a most productive co-operation between astronomers working at these two world-class telescopes, a compact HII region has been discovered at the very boundary between the outer halo of a Virgo cluster galaxy and Virgo intracluster space. This cloud is illuminated and heated by a few hot and massive young stars. The estimated total mass of the stars in the cloud is only a few hundred times that of the Sun. Such an object is rare at the present epoch. However, there may have been more in the past, at which time they were perhaps responsible for the formation of a fraction of the intracluster stellar population in clusters of galaxies. Massive stars in such isolated HII regions will explode as supernovae at the end of their short lives, and enrich the intracluster medium with heavy elements. Observations of two other Virgo cluster

  6. Observatoriya imeni russkogo astronoma v dalekoj Brazilii. K 100-letiyu so diya rozhdeniya Aleksandra Ivanovicha Postoeva (1900 - 1976) %t An observatory in distant Brazil named after a Russian astronomer (dedicated to Alexander Postoyev (1900 - 1976) centennial anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques Dos Santos, P.; Matsuura, O. T.

    This is a biographical note on the life of Dr. Alexander Postoyev, a victim of Stalin's purge of Soviet astronomers in 1936 - 1937. Together with his family, he left the Soviet Union in 1943 and lived in Germany as a refugee and a "displaced person" until 1952, when he moved to Brazil. There, he started the second part of his professional career. Thanks to his efforts, the Astronomical and Geophysical Institute (IAG) of the University of Sao Paulo (USP) was for the first time included in programs of international cooperation, thus contributing to the institutional consolidation of IAG/USP as a leading center of astronomical research and teaching in Brazil now.

  7. Extrasolar Planet in Double Star System Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    Early Success With New Swiss Telescope During the past three years, about fifteen planetary companions have been discovered in orbits around dwarf stars. They have revealed to astrophysicists a broad diversity of planetary systems at other stars. Giant planets with masses ranging from half to several times the mass of Jupiter, the largest planet in our own solar system, have been detected with various telescopes. The orbital periods range from 3.1 to 1650 days; while some of the orbits are of circular shape, others are very elongated. The observed diversity naturally raises questions about how these exoplanets are formed. Now, following only a few months of observations, a Swiss team of astronomers [1], working with a new Swiss astronomical facility at the ESO La Silla Observatory mainly dedicated to the search for exoplanets, has made its first planetary detection. It is a massive planet moving in an almost circular orbit around a nearby star that is itself the primary component of a double star system. The Geneva southern extrasolar planet search programme ESO PR Photo 45a/98 ESO PR Photo 45a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 456k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2400 pix - 2.7Mb] ESO PR Photo 45b/98 ESO PR Photo 45b/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 953 pix - 296k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3572 pix - 2.3Mb] PR Photo 45a/98 (left) is a view of the dome with the 1.2-m Swiss Leonard Euler Telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. The telescope itself is shown in Photo 45b/98 (right). In June 1998, the CORALIE echelle spectrograph was mounted at the 1.2-m Swiss telescope at La Silla and the commissioning phase was begun, during which the telescope and the spectrograph would be trimmed to perfection. This facility is specifically designed for high-precision radial-velocity measurements and it will mostly be used for an ambitious search for large extrasolar planets around stars in the southern celestial hemisphere. Over 1000 stars will be investigated. Such a vast observational

  8. Evaluating return on investment in a school based health promotion and prevention program: the investment multiplier for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total

  9. Evaluating return on investment in a school based health promotion and prevention program: the investment multiplier for the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Dawber, James; Yeatman, Heather; Quinsey, Karen; Morris, Darcy

    2014-08-01

    Successful health promotion and disease prevention strategies in complex community settings such as primary schools rely on acceptance and ownership across community networks. Assessing multiplier impacts from investment on related community activity over time are suggested as key alongside evidence of program health effects on targeted groups of individuals in gauging community network engagement and ownership, dynamic impacts, and program long term success and return on investment. An Australian primary school based health promotion and prevention strategy, the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden National Program (SAKGNP), which has been providing garden and kitchen classes for year 3-6 students since 2008, was evaluated between 2011 and 2012. Returns on Australian Federal Government investment for school infrastructure grants up to $60,000 are assessed up to and beyond a two year mutual obligation period with: (i) Impacts on student lifestyle behaviours, food choices and eating habits surveyed across students (n = 491 versus 260) and parents (n = 300 versus 234) in 28 SAKGNP and 14 matched schools, controlling for school and parent level confounders and triangulated with SAKGNP pre-post analysis; (ii) Multiplier impacts of investment on related school and wider community activity up to two years; and (iii) Evidence of continuation and program evolution in schools observed beyond two years. SAKGNP schools showed improved student food choices (p = 0.024) and kitchen lifestyle behaviour (p = 0.019) domains compared to controls and in pre-post analysis where 20.0% (58/290) reported eating fruit and vegetables more often and 18.6% (54/290) preparing food at home more often. No significant differences were found in case control analysis for eating habits or garden lifestyle behaviour domains, although 32.3% of children helped more in the garden (91/278) and 15.6% (45/289) ate meals together more often in pre-post analysis. The multiplier impact on total

  10. Chandra Discovers Eruption and Pulsation in Nova Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered a giant outburst of X-rays and unusual cyclical pulsing from a white dwarf star that is closely orbiting another star -- the first time either of these phenomena has been seen in X-rays. The observations are helping scientists better understand the thermonuclear explosions that occur in certain binary star systems. The observations of Nova Aquilae were reported today at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium by an international team led by Sumner Starrfield of Arizona State University. "We found two important results in our Chandra observations. The first was an underlying pulsation every 40 minutes in the X-ray brightness, which we believe comes from the cyclical expansion and contraction of the outer layers of the white dwarf," said Starrfield. "The other result was an enormous flare of X-rays that lasted for 15 minutes. Nothing like this has been seen before from a nova, and we don't know how to explain it." Novas occur on a white dwarf (a star which used up all its nuclear fuel and shrank to roughly the size of the Earth) that is orbiting a normal size star. Strong gravity tides drag hydrogen gas off the normal star and onto the white dwarf, where it can take more than 100,000 years for enough hydrogen to accumulate to ignite nuclear fusion reactions. Gradually, these reactions intensify until a cosmic-sized hydrogen bomb blast results. The outer layers of the white dwarf are then blown away, producing a nova outburst that can be observed for a period of months to years as the material expands into space. "Chandra has allowed us to see deep into the gases ejected by this giant explosion and extract unparalleled information on the evolution of the white dwarf whose surface is exploding," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The brightening of Nova Aquilae was first detected by optical astronomers in December 1999. "Although this star is at a distance of more than 6

  11. Extrasolar Planet in Double Star System Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    Early Success With New Swiss Telescope During the past three years, about fifteen planetary companions have been discovered in orbits around dwarf stars. They have revealed to astrophysicists a broad diversity of planetary systems at other stars. Giant planets with masses ranging from half to several times the mass of Jupiter, the largest planet in our own solar system, have been detected with various telescopes. The orbital periods range from 3.1 to 1650 days; while some of the orbits are of circular shape, others are very elongated. The observed diversity naturally raises questions about how these exoplanets are formed. Now, following only a few months of observations, a Swiss team of astronomers [1], working with a new Swiss astronomical facility at the ESO La Silla Observatory mainly dedicated to the search for exoplanets, has made its first planetary detection. It is a massive planet moving in an almost circular orbit around a nearby star that is itself the primary component of a double star system. The Geneva southern extrasolar planet search programme ESO PR Photo 45a/98 ESO PR Photo 45a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 640 pix - 456k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2400 pix - 2.7Mb] ESO PR Photo 45b/98 ESO PR Photo 45b/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 953 pix - 296k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3572 pix - 2.3Mb] PR Photo 45a/98 (left) is a view of the dome with the 1.2-m Swiss Leonard Euler Telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. The telescope itself is shown in Photo 45b/98 (right). In June 1998, the CORALIE echelle spectrograph was mounted at the 1.2-m Swiss telescope at La Silla and the commissioning phase was begun, during which the telescope and the spectrograph would be trimmed to perfection. This facility is specifically designed for high-precision radial-velocity measurements and it will mostly be used for an ambitious search for large extrasolar planets around stars in the southern celestial hemisphere. Over 1000 stars will be investigated. Such a vast observational

  12. Chandra Discovers "Rivers Of Gravity" That Define Cosmic Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered part of an intergalactic web of hot gas and dark matter that contains most of the material in the universe. The hot gas, which appears to lie like a fog in channels carved by rivers of gravity, has been hidden from view since the time galaxies formed. “The Chandra observations, together with ultraviolet observations, are a major advance in our understanding of how the universe evolved over the last 10 billion years,” said Fabrizio Nicastro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. and head of one of the teams of scientists involved in the discovery. Four independent teams of scientists, whose results appear as separate papers in The Astrophysical Journal, used Chandra to detect intergalactic gas with temperatures ranging from 300,000 to 5 million degrees Celsius. This gas forms part of a gigantic system of hot gas and dark matter that defines the cosmic landscape. The gaseous component alone contains more material than all the stars in the universe. “We had strong suspicions from the Big Bang theory and observations of the early universe that this gas exists in the present era, but like a stealth aircraft it had eluded our detection,” said Claude Canizares of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), who along with Taotao Fang, led of one of the teams. The hot gas detected by Chandra can be used to trace the presence of the more massive dark matter component. The discovery of the hot gas may eventually enable astronomers to map of the distribution of dark matter in the universe and perhaps understand its origin. Ultraviolet telescopes had detected cooler components of the hot gas system, but because of its high temperatures most of it is detectable only with an extremely sensitive X-ray telescope. The various groups used two techniques to probe the intergalactic gas. One method uses the absorbing effects of the gas on X-rays from distant galaxies. On their way to

  13. Astronomers Discover Most Massive Neutron Star Yet Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered the most massive neutron star yet found, a discovery with strong and wide-ranging impacts across several fields of physics and astrophysics. "This neutron star is twice as massive as our Sun. This is surprising, and that much mass means that several theoretical models for the internal composition of neutron stars now are ruled out," said Paul Demorest, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "This mass measurement also has implications for our understanding of all matter at extremely high densities and many details of nuclear physics," he added. Neutron stars are the superdense "corpses" of massive stars that have exploded as supernovae. With all their mass packed into a sphere the size of a small city, their protons and electrons are crushed together into neutrons. A neutron star can be several times more dense than an atomic nucleus, and a thimbleful of neutron-star material would weigh more than 500 million tons. This tremendous density makes neutron stars an ideal natural "laboratory" for studying the most dense and exotic states of matter known to physics. The scientists used an effect of Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity to measure the mass of the neutron star and its orbiting companion, a white dwarf star. The neutron star is a pulsar, emitting lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as it rotates. This pulsar, called PSR J1614-2230, spins 317 times per second, and the companion completes an orbit in just under nine days. The pair, some 3,000 light-years distant, are in an orbit seen almost exactly edge-on from Earth. That orientation was the key to making the mass measurement. As the orbit carries the white dwarf directly in front of the pulsar, the radio waves from the pulsar that reach Earth must travel very close to the white dwarf. This close passage causes them to be delayed in their arrival by the distortion of

  14. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  15. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  16. Receiving and Discovering Information: Two Role-Playing Simulations of the World War I Conscription Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, John

    1999-01-01

    Proposes two approaches to using role-playing in the history classroom: (1) providing factual information to the students; and (2) allowing them to discover the experiences of historical actors. Expounds that the recommended role-playing simulations help students discover why Canadians were divided over the conscription issue in World War I. (CMK)

  17. The Use of a Performance Assessment for Identifying Gifted Lebanese Students: Is DISCOVER Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of DISCOVER, a performance- based assessment in identifying gifted Lebanese students. The sample consisted of 248 students (121 boys, 127 girls) from Grades 3-5 at two private schools in Beirut, Lebanon. Students were administered DISCOVER and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices…

  18. DISCOVER-AQ Ground Remote Sensing TraceGas Data (ICT)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-07

    ... N/A Platform:  Ground-based Pandora Network Spatial Coverage:  36.88N, (-77.59, -74.71) ... Relevant Documents:  DISCOVER-AQ - Airborne Science Data for Atmospheric Composition DISCOVER-AQ - NASA Earth ...

  19. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  20. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  1. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  2. Distant World in Peril Discovered from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant Exoplanet Orbits Giant Star Summary When, in a distant future, the Sun begins to expand and evolves into a "giant" star, the surface temperature on the Earth will rise dramatically and our home planet will eventually be incinerated by that central body. Fortunately for us, this dramatic event is several billion years away. However, that sad fate will befall another planet, just discovered in orbit about the giant star HD 47536, already within a few tens of millions of years. At a distance of nearly 400 light-years from us, it is the second-remotest planetary system discovered to date [1]. This is an interesting side-result of a major research project, now carried out by a European-Brazilian team of astronomers [2]. In the course of a three-year spectroscopic survey, they have observed about 80 giant stars in the southern sky with the advanced FEROS spectrograph on the 1.52-m telescope installed at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It is one of these stars that has just been found to host a giant planet. This is only the fourth such case known and with a diameter of about 33 million km (or 23.5 times that of our Sun), HD 47536 is by far the largest of those giant stars [1]. The distance of the planet from the star is still of the order of 300 million km (or twice the distance of the Earth from the Sun), a safe margin now, but this will not always be so. The orbital period is 712 days, i.e., somewhat less than two Earth years, and the planet's mass is 5 - 10 times that of Jupiter. The presence of exoplanets in orbit around giant stars, some of which will eventually perish into their central star (be "cannibalized"), provides a possible explanation of the anomalous abundance of certain chemical elements that is observed in the atmospheres of some stars, cf. ESO PR 10/01. This interesting discovery bodes well for coming observations of exoplanetary systems with new, more powerful instruments, like HARPS to be installed next year at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on

  3. LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    is: how do binary black holes form? Two primary mechanisms have been proposed:A binary star system contains two stars that are each massive enough to individually collapse into a black hole. If the binary isnt disrupted during the two collapse events, this forms an isolated black-hole binary.Single black holes form in dense cluster environments and then because they are the most massive objects sink to the center of the cluster. There they form pairs through dynamical interactions.Now that were able to observe black-hole binaries through gravitational-wave detections, one way we could distinguish between the two formation mechanisms is from spin measurements. If we discover a clear preference for the misalignment of the two black holes spins, this would favor formation in clusters, where theres no reason for the original spins to be aligned.The current, single detection is not enough to provide constraints, but if we can compile a large enough sample of events, we can start to present a statistical case favoring one channel over the other.What does GW150914 mean for the future of gravitational-wave detection?The fact that Advanced LIGO detected an event even before the start of its first official observing run is certainly promising! The LIGO team estimates that the volume the detectors can probe will still increase by at least a factor of ~10 as the observing runs become more sensitive and of longer duration.Aerial view of the Virgo interferometer near Pisa, Italy. [Virgo Collaboration]In addition, LIGO is not alone in the gravitational-wave game. LIGOs counterpart in Europe, Virgo, is also undergoing design upgrades to increase its sensitivity. Within this year, Virgo should be able to take data simultaneously with LIGO, allowing for better localization of sources. And the launch of (e)LISA, ESAs planned space-based interferometer, will grant us access to a new frequency range, opening a further window to the gravitational-wave sky.The detection of GW150914 marks

  4. Obituary: Alexander Dalgarno (1928 - 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartquist, Tom; Babb, James F. Babb; Loeb, Avi

    Alex Dalgarno's major contributions to the understanding of fundamental atomic and molecular processes enabled him to develop diagnostics of the physical conditions of atmospheres and astrophysical sources and to elucidate the roles of such processes in controlling those environments. He greatly influenced the research of physicists, chemists, atmospheric scientists, and astronomers, leading Sir David Bates to write, "There is no greater figure than Alex in the history of atomic physics and its applications." Alex was born and grew up in London. As a child, he enjoyed mathematical puzzles and did well at sports. He was invited to try out for the Tottenham Hotspur soccer team, but his professional sporting career ended due to an injury, which did not prevent Alex playing tennis and squash into his ninth decade. In 1945 Alex began to study Mathematics at University College London (UCL). In 1947 Sir Harrie Massey invited him to work for a PhD in Physics and suggested that Alex investigate collisions of metastable helium atoms in helium gas to determine the cross sections for excitation transfer. Richard Buckingham was Alex's immediate supervisor. After completing his graduate study in 1951, Alex became a member of staff in Applied Mathematics at the Queen's University of Belfast (QUB). He served as the Director of the Computational Laboratory after a 1954 visit to MIT, which had an electronic computer, led Alex to persuade colleagues that QUB needed one. In 1957, the poet Philip Larkin was the best man at the marriage of Alex to Barbara Kane. They had four children, Fergus, Penelope, Piers, and Rebecca, but the marriage dissolved after ten years. Alex's important work during the 1950s on the quantitative evaluation of long-range interactions underpinned his collaborations on precise scattering calculations relevant to ultra-cold collisions and the formation of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates over four decades later. He investigated the theory of atomic and molecular collisions and calculated charge transfer cross sections. Some of these proved later to be important for forming the spectra of diffuse astronomical matter surrounding high mass stars and 100 million solar mass black holes at the centers of active galaxies. In the early 1950s David Bates stimulated Alex's interest in the study of quantum processes occurring in the upper terrestrial atmosphere. Together they considered the sources of the nightglow and dayglow features and concluded that the altitudes previously inferred for them from observations were up to several hundred kilometers too large. Experiments carried on V2 rockets, like those seen by Alex in wartime London, proved him and David to be right. Alex felt that though many theorists believe that "physics is embodied in its equations," it is instead "to be found in the solutions to the equations." He was a master at developing and applying methods that simplified calculations leading to reliable solutions. Exploiting the contemporary advances in electronic computation, by the 1960s Alex and his colleagues were able to address atomic and molecular processes of increasing complexity. Their development and early applications of the S-matrix theory of molecular rotational excitation by particle impact triggered major advances in molecular physics and theoretical chemistry and in the understanding of processes important in many environments, including a wide variety of astrophysical sources. In 1967 Alex became a professor in the Harvard Department of Astronomy and a member of the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. He was a team member for several Atmosphere Explorer satellite missions, which elucidated the roles of atoms and ions in the upper atmosphere and paved the way for further applications to the other planets. By 1969 Alex was publishing papers on molecular hydrogen (H2) radiative processes, including photodissociation, in which the foundations of molecular astrophysics began to emerge. H2 is the most abundant astrophysical molecule and the main constituen

  5. ADONIS Discovers Dust Disk around a Star with a Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    and a planet, that combination may indeed be comparatively common among solar-type stars. Our own Solar system also contains dust. When the dust scatters the sunlight, this can be observed as "zodiacal light" , a cone of faint light extending above the western horizon soon after sunset or the eastern just before sunrise. The same phenomenon should thus be observable from the planet orbiting iota Horologii . PR Photo 27/00 : The disk at iota Horologii . The exoplanet at iota Horologii Last year, the star iota Horologii was found to have a planetary companion, at least twice as heavy as Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System. It was the first exoplanet to be discovered in an almost earth-like orbit, cf. ESO PR 12/99 ). This discovery was based on long-term measurements of the radial velocity of iota Horologii by means of the 1.4-m Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) at La Silla. The extremely accurate observations were made with the Coude-Echelle-Spectrometer (CES) which is now connected to the ESO 3.6-m telescope. With the combination of spectroscopic (CES) and high-angular resolution (ADONIS) observational facilities at one telescope, the 3.6-m is uniquely suited for this type of front-line research. Dust disks and planets around stars Dust disks around stars still retain information about the formation processes of the exoplanetary systems as they are formed by collisions of planetesimals or proto-planets. However, it is still a somewhat controversial issue exactly how the presence of giant planets influences these collisions or whether the existence of a planetary system can be inferred from observed structures in dust disks. To cast more light on this fundamental issue, it is necessary to search for systems which have both a planet and a dust disk. Our own Solar System contains a significant amount of dust particles which can be seen during very clear evenings and nights by naked eye as a diffuse band of light in the sky - the "zodiacal light". Observations

  6. Mining literatures to discover novel multiple biological associations in a disease context.

    PubMed

    Faro, Alberto; Giordano, Daniela; Maiorana, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The text mining methods proposed to discover associations between pairs of biological entities by mining a scientific literature often extract associations already existing in the literature, whereas their extensions supervise too much the discovery process with heuristics and ontologies that limit the research space. On the other hand, the methods that search novel associations applying the text mining methods to two literatures do not avoid the risk of discovering syllogisms based on faulty premises. For this reason, the paper proposes a method that helps the users to discover associations among biological entities by mining the literature using an unsupervised clustering approach. The discovered multiple associations are derived from binary associations to limit the computational load without compromising the methodology accuracy. A case study demonstrates how the tool derived from the methodology works in practice. A comparison between this tool and other tools available in the literature points out the methodology effectiveness. PMID:26510304

  7. Discovering Your Radiant Self: A Transpersonal Approach to Expressing Your Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimek, Paula; Canfield, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Presents a process combining a drawing experience with exercises learned in psychosynthesis training to help people discover what transpersonal qualities are attempting to manifest themselves through their personalities. (Author/BEF)

  8. ASASSN-16bh: A Very Bright CV Candidate Discovered By ASAS-SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonian, G.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Basu, U.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Chen, Ping; Brimacombe, J.

    2016-02-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a new transient source.

  9. Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. Discovering Sustainable Solutions to Power and Secure America’s Future

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    Sustainability is fundamental to the Department of Energy’s research mission and operations as reflected in the Department’s Strategic Plan. Our overarching mission is to discover the solutions to power and secure America’s future.

  10. Discover Earth: Earth's Energy Budget or Can You Spare a Sun?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Tom; Peters, Dale E.; Steeley, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction, and provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

  11. The Best and the Brightest: Tidal Disruption Events Discovered by ASAS-SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren-Son Holoien, Thomas; ASAS-SN

    2016-01-01

    Even today only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the visible sky to 17th magnitude every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes in the northern and southern hemispheres. Having been in operation for two years, ASAS-SN is discovering new transient objects daily, and while the primary goal of ASAS-SN is a complete survey of bright, nearby supernovae, ASAS-SN also discovers many other interesting nearby transients. Notably, ASAS-SN has discovered three bright tidal disruption events (TDEs), the three closest such events ever discovered at optical wavelengths, providing the opportunity to obtain detailed follow-up data at many wavelengths. ASAS-SN is discovering roughly 1 TDE for every 60 Type Ia supernovae, a rate that is significantly higher than other surveys. By virtue of their brightness, TDEs discovered by ASAS-SN can also be studied in unprecedented detail for many months, allowing deeper insight into their physics.

  12. The journey of discovering skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt and the special influence of Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Elhadi, Ali M; Kalb, Samuel; Perez-Orribo, Luis; Little, Andrew S; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2012-08-01

    The field of anatomy, one of the most ancient sciences, first evolved in Egypt. From the Early Dynastic Period (3100 BC) until the time of Galen at the end of the 2nd century ad, Egypt was the center of anatomical knowledge, including neuroanatomy. Knowledge of neuroanatomy first became important so that sacred rituals could be performed by ancient Egyptian embalmers during mummification procedures. Later, neuroanatomy became a science to be studied by wise men at the ancient temple of Memphis. As religious conflicts developed, the study of the human body became restricted. Myths started to replace scientific research, squelching further exploration of the human body until Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria. This period witnessed a revolution in the study of anatomy and functional anatomy. Herophilus of Chalcedon, Erasistratus of Chios, Rufus of Ephesus, and Galen of Pergamon were prominent physicians who studied at the medical school of Alexandria and contributed greatly to knowledge about the anatomy of the skull base. After the Royal Library of Alexandria was burned and laws were passed prohibiting human dissections based on religious and cultural factors, knowledge of human skull base anatomy plateaued for almost 1500 years. In this article the authors consider the beginning of this journey, from the earliest descriptions of skull base anatomy to the establishment of basic skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt.

  13. Discovering Mozart.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Nicole

    2010-06-01

    High-throughput imaging of genome-wide RNA interference screens and systematic analysis of protein complexes involved in mitosis yield valuable resources and reveal new subunits of well-characterized complexes.

  14. Discovering astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of basic astronomical knowledge is presented with attention to the structure and dynamics of the stars and planets. Also dealt with are techniques of astronomical measurement, e.g., stellar spectrometry, radio astronomy, star catalogs, etc. Basic physical principles as they pertain to astronomy are reviewed, including the nature of light, gravitation, and electromagnetism. Finally, stellar evolution and cosmology are discussed with reference to the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe.

  15. Discovering Greatness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    People are confronting the most pressing challenge facing every family, school, and community--raising respectful children in a toxic world. In simpler societies, raising children was a shared task of the whole community, as adults and youth worked in harmony and mutual respect. Today, humans are the only species in creation living out of balance.…

  16. 25 CFR 224.87 - What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach? 224.87 Section 224.87 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... obligations of a tribe if it discovers a violation or breach? As soon as practicable after discovering...

  17. A Generalized Bio-inspired Method for Discovering Sequence-based Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Elena S.; Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Teuton, Jeremy R.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2013-06-07

    Many phenomena that we wish to discover are comprised of sequences of events or event primitives. Often signatures are constructed to identify such phenomena using either distributions or frequencies of attributes, or specific subsequences that are known to correlate to the phenomena. Distribution-based identification does not capture the essence of the sequence of behaviors and therefore may suffer from lack of specificity. At the other extreme, using specific subsequences to identify target phenomena is often too specific and suffers from lower sensitivity when natural variations arise in the phenomena, measuring process, or data analysis. We introduce here a method for discovering signatures for phenomena that are well characterized by sequences of event primitives. In this paper, we describe the steps taken and lessons learned in generalizing a sequence analysis method, BLAST, for use on non-biological datasets including expressing and operating on alphabets of varying length, constructing a reward/penalty model for arbitrary datasets, and discovering low complexity segments in sequence data by extending BLAST’s native low-complexity estimating algorithms. We also present several case studies that demonstrate the utility of this method to discovering signatures in a wide array of applications including network traffic, software analysis, server characterization, and others. Finally, we demonstrate how signatures discovered using this method can be expressed using a variety of model formalisms, each having its own relative benefit.

  18. Extragalactic Transients Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan; Warren-Son Holoien, Thomas; ASAS-SN

    2016-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes can scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. The primary goal of ASAS-SN is to discover bright, nearby supernovae (SNe), we are discovering more than 60% of supernovae with V<17. Since June 2013, we have discovered 224 supernovae, 133 in 2015 alone (as of September 30, 2015). ASAS-SN has also discovered many other interesting extragalactic transients, including the three closest tidal disruption events (TDEs) ever discovered at optical wavelengths. The nearby nature of ASASSN discoveries allows detailed follow-up across a wide wavelength coverage; here we present some of these data on recent ASAS-SN extragalactic transients.

  19. DISCOVERING HABITABLE EARTHS, HOT JUPITERS, AND OTHER CLOSE PLANETS WITH MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R.

    2012-06-20

    Searches for planets via gravitational lensing have focused on cases in which the projected separation, a, between planet and star is comparable to the Einstein radius, R{sub E} . This paper considers smaller orbital separations and demonstrates that evidence of close-orbit planets can be found in the low-magnification portion of the light curves generated by the central star. We develop a protocol for discovering hot Jupiters as well as Neptune-mass and Earth-mass planets in the stellar habitable zone. When planets are not discovered, our method can be used to quantify the probability that the lens star does not have planets within specified ranges of the orbital separation and mass ratio. Nearby close-orbit planets discovered by lensing can be subject to follow-up observations to study the newly discovered planets or to discover other planets orbiting the same star. Careful study of the low-magnification portions of lensing light curves should produce, in addition to the discoveries of close-orbit planets, definite detections of wide-orbit planets through the discovery of 'repeating' lensing events. We show that events exhibiting extremely high magnification can effectively be probed for planets in close, intermediate, and wide distance regimes simply by adding several-time-per-night monitoring in the low-magnification wings, possibly leading to gravitational lensing discoveries of multiple planets occupying a broad range of orbits, from close to wide, in a single planetary system.

  20. DISCOVER Near Real-Time Ocean Data Products: Examples of Uses and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.; Gentemann, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    Scientists at Remote Sensing Systems produce satellite microwave ocean data products for DISCOVER, a NASA MEaSUREs project. These ocean products include ocean surface winds, sea surface temperatures, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water and rain rates created from passive microwave instrument data including that from SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, SSMIS and WindSat. Many users download DISCOVER data products in near real-time and use them within their specific applications. For example, some of the applications include ocean weather assessment for military sortie determination, sea surface temperature front identification for use by fishermen, and whale and turtle habitat monitoring. We will present the processing steps used to create the near real-time DISCOVER data, show several examples of user applications and discuss the benefits and limitations users find in applying our data products to their needs.