Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Naieni, Farahnaz Fatemi; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Rad, Leila
Laser systems that are commonly used for the treatment of hirsutism include the ruby laser (694 nm), the diode laser (800 nm), the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and the Nd:YAG laser (1084 nm). The diode laser and alexandrite laser are considered effective in treatment of hirsutism in dark-skinned patients. The response of hairs to these laser systems is variable and not complete. In this study, we compared the efficacy of these two laser systems for permanent hair removal. This was a randomized, controlled clinical trial that was performed with women of the age range 15-45 years old. After obtaining informed consent, the samples were randomized into two groups using random allocation software. The first group was treated with alexandrite laser alone (four sessions, two months apart). The second group was treated sequentially with diode laser for the first two sessions and alexandrite laser for the next two sessions. Overall, 111 patients (57 patients in the alexandrite laser group and 54 patients in the sequential diode-alexandrite laser group) were evaluated. There was no significant difference regarding mean of hair reduction between the two groups during the courses of treatment. Except for the first session, there was no significant difference regarding percent of patient satisfaction between the two groups (P value >0.05). Comparison between the two groups showed no significant difference one month, three months and six months after the last treatment (P value >0.05). Regarding the results of our study, there is no significant difference between sequential treatment with diode and alexandrite lasers versus alexandrite laser alone in the treatment of hirsutism. We suggest that in further studies, the efficacy of sequential treatment with other laser systems is evaluated against single treatment methods.
Cheng, Chun-Yu; Huang, Yau-Li; Lee, Mei-Ching; Chang, Shyue-Luen; Lin, Ying-Fang; Hu, Sindy
Melasma is a common acquired facial hypermelanosis with irregular brownish macules and patches. The clinical course is often fluctuated and refractory to treatment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulsed alexandrite laser for the treatment of melasma. In the present study, we enrolled Asian patients with melasma. All the patients received four monthly treatments with a pulsed alexandrite laser. The severity of melasma was evaluated by a blinded dermatologist, using the Modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (MMASI), and by patient assessment, using a visual analogue scale, at baseline, before each treatment, and at the 1-month and 3-month follow-up visits after the last treatment. Twenty-three patients completed all treatments and follow-up visits. The MMASI scores decreased significantly from 8.71 ± 5.83 at baseline to 6.07 ± 4.65 after four sessions of treatment (P < 0.05) and 6.91 ± 4.97 at 3 months after the last laser treatment (P < 0.05). After 4 sessions of treatment, 10 patients (43.5%) described their improvement as marked and excellent (>60% improvement). The treatments were well tolerated with only mild skin reaction. In the present study, we demonstrated that the pulsed alexandrite laser is safe and effective to treat melasma in Asian skin.
Lee, Min Kyung; Min, Kyung Sik; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong
Long-pulsed, 755-nm, alexandrite lasers have been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of pigmentary lesions. Clinical outcomes and side effects in the treatment of melasma using a fractional, long-pulsed, alexandrite laser were assessed. Forty-eight patients with melasma received 2 to 4 treatment sessions of fractional, long-pulsed, alexandrite laser at 2 to 3 weeks intervals. The parameter of treatment was 60 to 80 J/cm without dynamic cooling device using 15-mm spot size of fractional hand piece, with a 0.5- to 1-millisecond pulse width. The mean modified melasma area and severity index score decreased significantly 2 months after the final treatment compared with baseline (16.5 ± 8.2 vs 11.5 ± 7.0; p = .002). The patients with epidermal type melasma were more effective compared to dermal type (p < .001). Long-pulsed alexandrite lasers using a fractional hand piece are moderately effective in the treatment of melasma with low risk of adverse effects, and it is suggested that fractional, long-pulsed, alexandrite laser with combination of other modalities can be an additional therapeutic option in patients with melasma.
Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas; Reichart, Peter
While earlier periodontal investigations have proved the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser to eliminate efficiently and selectively dental calculus as well as bacteria the aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety of this laser for removal of dental calculus with respect to the dental pulp. Four adult Labrador dogs were treated with a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (laboratory prototype, q-switched, fiber guided, wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 1 microsecond, pulse repetition rate 70 Hz, water cooling) to remove dental calculus. After performing a modified Widman flap procedure the buccal surface of nine teeth in the lower and upper right jaw were irradiated for four minutes per tooth. Three different laser fluences up to four times higher than the fluence required for calculus removal were used (1.5, 3 and 6 J/cm2). At three other sites of the right jaw deep cavities were prepared with a dental drill and filled with compomere material (DyractR, Dentsply, Germany) to serve as a positive control with regard to possible pulpal reactions. The corresponding teeth of the lower and upper left jaw served as controls. Animals were sacrificed one day, one week, four weeks and six weeks after treatment. Teeth were separated, fixed in formalin and decalcified. After embedding and sectioning the histological sections were stained and investigated by a totally blinded investigator (P.A.R). Histological investigations revealed that irradiation with the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for periodontal treatment with fluences of 1.5 J/cm2 -- those fluences necessary for the selective removal of dental calculus and microbial plaque -- had no adverse side effects to the pulpal tissues. Moreover this pulpal safety study demonstrated that even applying fluences two or four times higher than those suggested for calculus removal do not lead to observable changes or alterations in the odontoblast cell layer or the pulpal tissues. No inflammatory reactions and no
Au, Sonoa; Liolios, Ana M; Goldman, Mitchel P
The picosecond Alexandrite laser has shown increased efficacy in tattoo removal in comparison to Q-switched lasers. However, bulla formation is a well-known and expected side effect of this novel treatment and causes patient discomfort. To analyze the incidence of bulla formation after tattoo treatment using the combination of the picosecond Alexandrite laser and fractionated CO2 ablation. This is a retrospective chart review to determine the incidence of bulla formation after laser tattoo removal in 95 patients who were treated with either with the picosecond Alexandrite laser alone or in combination with fractional CO2 ablation. Twenty-six patients (32%) treated with the picosecond laser alone experienced blistering, whereas none of the patients treated with the combination of the picosecond laser and fractionated CO2 ablation experienced blistering. The difference in incidence of bulla formation between the 2 groups was found to be statistically significant (p < .05). This study shows a significant decrease in bulla formation associated with tattoo treatment when fractionated CO2 ablation is added to the picosecond Alexandrite laser, which is consistent with observations from a previous case series. This is important because decreasing extensive blistering likely results in increased patient satisfaction and willingness to return for future treatments.
Grunewald, Sonja; Bodendorf, Marc Oliver; Zygouris, Alexander; Simon, Jan Christoph; Paasch, Uwe
Alexandrite and diode lasers are commonly used for hair removal. To date, the available spot sizes and repetition rates are defining factors in terms of penetration depth, treatment speed, and efficacy. Still, larger treatment areas and faster systems are desirable. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a continuously linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser with an alexandrite 755 nm laser for axillary hair removal. A total of 31 adults with skin types I-IV received 6 treatments at 4-week intervals with a 755 nm alexandrite laser (right axilla) and a continuously linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser (left axilla). Axillary hair density was assessed using a computerized hair detection system. There was a significant reduction in axillary hair after the 6th treatment (P < 0.05) on both sides (left, 808 nm: hair clearance of 72.16%; right, 755 nm: hair clearance of 71.30%). The difference in reduction between the two lasers was not significant, but both were persistant at 18 months follow-up (left: hair clearance of 73.71%; right: hair clearance of 71.90%). Erythema and perifollicular edema were more common after alexandrite laser treatment, but all side effects were transient. While 62.50% of patients reported more pain in response to treatment with the new diode laser, all patients rated treatment with either laser tolerable. Treatment with either the alexandrite or the linear-scanning diode laser results in significant, comparable, persistent (at least 18 months) axillary hair reduction among individuals with skin types I-IV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Mengli; Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Tong; Wu, Qiuju
To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of an Alexandrite picosecond laser versus Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black eyeliner tattoos which have existed more than 10 years. A total of 40 patients were treated with an Alexandrite picosecond laser in our department from August 2015 to July 2017, with a fluence of 1.96-6.37J/cm 2 , spot size of 2.0-3.6 mm, and pulse width of 750 ps. Another 32 patients were treated with an Nd:YAG nanosecond laser, with a fluence of 2.80-7.00 J/cm 2 , spot size of 3 mm, and pulse width of 5-20 ns. All analysed patients completed at least one treatment and follow-up. The median number of treatment for all the patients was 1 (range, 1-4). After a single session, no difference was found between the two lasers for the eyeliner removal (p > 0.05). For the people who achieved an excellent response of tattoo clearance, there was still no difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). Transient side effects were observed in two groups, but neither group had significant adverse reactions. To treat blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos over 10 years, Alexandrite picosecond laser does not provide better clearance than the Nd:YAG nanosecond laser.
Sulc, Jan; Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu
A tunable solid state laser system has been developed emitting visible light in the region from 710 to 775 nm, which can be used for medical applications. The laser head of this system is composed of alexandrite crystal rod, two dielectric mirrors, and a tuning element. The maximum reached output energy in the free running multimode regime was 400 mJ with the pulse duration of 70 micrometers . The output laser radiation was guided via a multimode quartz fiber or via a special fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide. At first, this radiation with laser fluency of 2.5 J/cm2 was used for the ablation of dental calculus. Next, the laser radiation propagation in the root canal and its effect on bacteria was proved. The dissipated energy measurement was made inside and outside the tooth. Hence, the alexandrite laser could be useful for medical applications in dentistry.
Thomas, G. M.; Minassian, A.; Damzen, M. J.
We present the demonstration of an optical vortex mode directly generated from a diode-pumped alexandrite slab laser, operating in the bounce geometry. This is the first demonstration of an optical vortex mode generated from an alexandrite laser or from any other vibronic laser. An output power of 2 W for a vortex mode with a ‘topological charge’ of 1 was achieved and the laser was made to oscillate with both left- and right-handed vorticity. The laser operated at two distinct wavelengths simultaneously, 755 and 759 nm, due to birefringent filtering in the alexandrite gain medium. The result offers the prospect of broadly wavelength tunable vortex generation directly from a laser.
Paasch, Uwe; Wagner, Justinus A; Paasch, Hartmut W
Alexandrite (755 nm) and diode lasers (800-810 nm) are commonly used for hair removal. The alexandrite laser technology is somewhat cumbersome whereas new diode lasers are more robust. Recently, alexandrite-like 755 nm wavelength diodes became available. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a 755 nm diode laser operated in conventional (HR) and non-conventional in-motion (SHR) modes with a conventional scanned alexandrite 755 nm laser for chest and axillary hair removal. A prospective, single-center, proof of principle study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy and handling of a 755 nm diode laser system in comparison to a standard alexandrite 755 nm scanning hair removal laser. The new 755 nm diode is suitable to be used in SHR and HR mode and has been tested for its safety, efficacy and handling in a volunteer with success. Overall, both systems showed a high efficacy in hair reduction (88.8% 755 nm diode laser vs. 77.7% 755 nm alexandrite laser). Also, during the study period, no severe adverse effects were reported. The new 755 nm diode laser is as effective and safe as the traditional 755 nm alexandrite laser. Additionally, treatment with the 755 nm diode laser with HR and SHR modes was found to be less painful.
Laughlin , S A; Dudley, D K
Laser epilation is now used widely as a clinical alternative to electrolysis for the removal of unwanted hair. All of the laser systems presently being used produce a reliable temporary hair loss by inducing telogen. Most of the published studies use follow-up periods of 6 months or less after the last treatment and cannot address the issue of permanency. Since many patients desire permanent hair loss, there is a need for specific information on the exact benefits and limitations of each particular system. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of hair loss attained by a single treatment with a 3-msec alexandrite laser. A designated period for follow-up was used to address the issue of long-term benefits. A single treatment was carried out on 25 study sites with a 3-msec alexandrite laser at 755 nm using fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2). Hair counts were obtained manually by two independent observers marking terminal hairs under magnification. The counts were repeated using photographic images and the average of the four readings taken. The degree of hair loss was calculated at a time after treatment equal to one complete growth cycle for the particular anatomic site. A second measurement was obtained at a time equal to one growth cycle plus 6 months to determine whether any hair loss had remained stable. The average hair loss at the first follow-up time was 43%, with 60% of sites showing a hair loss of >30%. The hair loss remained stable and the reduction in hair density at both designated times was statistically significant (p <.05). A normal-mode alexandrite laser achieves a long-term alopecia and may result in a permanent loss of terminal hair after one treatment at fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2).
Kerridge-Johns, William R; Damzen, Michael J
Diode pumped Alexandrite is a promising route to high power, efficient and inexpensive lasers with a broad (701 nm to 858 nm) gain bandwidth; however, there are challenges with its complex laser dynamics. We present an analytical model applied to experimental red diode end-pumped Alexandrite lasers, which enabled a record 54 % slope efficiency with an output power of 1.2 W. A record lowest lasing wavelength (714 nm) and record tuning range (104 nm) was obtained by optimising the crystal temperature between 8 °C and 105 °C in the vibronic mode. The properties of Alexandrite and the analytical model were examined to understand and give general rules in optimising Alexandrite lasers, along with their fundamental efficiency limits. It was found that the lowest threshold laser wavelength was not necessarily the most efficient, and that higher and lower temperatures were optimal for longer and shorter laser wavelengths, respectively. The pump excited to ground state absorption ratio was measured to decrease from 0.8 to 0.7 by changing the crystal temperature from 10 °C to 90 °C.
Loiko, Pavel; Ghanbari, Shirin; Matrosov, Vladimir; Yumashev, Konstantin; Major, Arkady
Alexandrite is a well-known material for broadly tunable and power-scalable near-IR lasers. We measured the thermal coefficients of the optical path (TCOP) and thermo-optic coefficients (TOCs) of Alexandrite at 632.8 nm for three principal light polarizations, E || a, E || b and E || c. All TOCs are positive and show a notable polarization-anisotropy, dna/dT = 5.5, dnb/dT = 7.0 and dnc/dT = 14.9×10-6 K-1. We also characterized thermal lensing in a continuous-wave Alexandrite laser which used a Brewster-oriented c-cut 0.16 at.% Cr3+ doped BeAl2O4 crystal pumped at 532 nm and emitted at 750.9 nm (E || b). The measured thermal lens was positive and astigmatic. The sensitivity factors of the thermal lens (Mx,y = dDx,y/dPabs) were found to be Mx = 1.74 and My = 2.38 [m-1/W].
Deyoung, Russell J.
An attempt was made to pump an alexandrite laser rod using a Tamarak solar simulator and also a tungsten-halogen lamp. A very low optical laser cavity was used to achieve the threshold minimum pumping-power requirement. Lasing was not achieved. The laser threshold optical-power requirement was calculated to be approximately 626 W/sq cm for a gain length of 7.6 cm, whereas the Tamarak simulator produces 1150 W/sq cm over a gain length of 3.3 cm, which is less than the 1442 W/sq cm required to reach laser threshold. The rod was optically pulsed with 200 msec pulses, which allowed the alexandrite rod to operate at near room temperature. The optical intensity-gain-length product to achieve laser threshold should be approximately 35,244 solar constants-cm. In the present setup, this product was 28,111 solar constants-cm.
Alegre-Sanchez, Adrian; Jiménez-Gómez, Natalia; Moreno-Arrones, Óscar M; Fonda-Pascual, Pablo; Pérez-García, Bibiana; Jaén-Olasolo, Pedro; Boixeda, Pablo
The novel picosecond lasers, initially developed for faster tattoo removal, have also shown great efficacy in endogenous pigmentary disorders. To describe the efficacy and safety profile of an alexandrite (755-nm) picosecond laser in a wide range of pigmented flat and elevated cutaneous lesions. A retrospective study was performed in which we collected all the clinical images of patients treated with the 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser for 12 months (November 2016-November 2017). Clinical features were obtained from their medical charts. Patients treated for tattoo removal were excluded. All the images were analyzed by three blind physicians attending to a visual analogue scale (VAS) from 0 to 5 (0, no change; 1, 1-24% clearance; 2, 25-49% clearance; 3, 50-74% clearance; 4, 75-99% clearance; 5, complete clearance). Patient satisfaction was obtained from a subjective survey including four items: very satisfied, satisfied, non-satisfied, and totally dissatisfied. Thirty-seven patients were included (12 males; 25 females). The mean age of the study was 42.35 years. Twenty-five patients (68%) were treated for different pigmented flat disorders such as solar and mucosal lentigines (5), stasis dermatitis (4), or nevus of Ota (4), among other diagnoses. Twelve patients (32%) were treated for epidermal elevated lesions such as warts (5), epidermal nevi (2), and seborrheic keratosis (3), among other elevated lesions. Mean number of laser treatment was 3.02 sessions while mean follow-up after last laser treatment was 4.02 months. Mean VAS score of the three observers was 3.44 (61% of clearance) for pigmentary flat disorders and 3.60 (67%) for elevated lesions. Adverse effects reported were mild blistering in the first 2-5 days following laser treatment in some of the patients. Overall satisfaction among the patients included was high. The novel 755-nm picosecond alexandrite laser is effective not only for the resolution of pigmented flat lesions of different nature
Sulc, Jan; Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu
For medical applications tunable solid state laser system emitting a visible light in a region from 710 to 775 nm was developed. Laser head of this system was composed of alexandrite crystal rod (4 mm in diameter, 90 mm of length), two dielectric mirrors and tuning element (dispersing prism or thin-film polarizer). For Q-switching, three different optics shutters were proved: a saturable NC-dye or LiF crystal, LiNbO3 Pockels cell, and rotating prism. Maximum output energy in free-running and Q-switching regime was 400 mJ and 70 mJ, respectively. The pulse duration was 70 microsecond(s) in the free-running and 45 - 250 ns in Q-switching regime. The output free running laser radiation was guided via a multimode quartz fiber (1 m of length, core diameter 600 micrometers ) or via a special fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide (0.62 m of length, inner diameter 1 mm). At first, this radiation with a laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm2 was used for an ablation of a dental calculus. Next, the laser radiation propagation in a root canal and its effect on bacteria was proved. The dissipated energy measurement was made inside and outside of the tooth. From the results follow that the alexandrite laser could be useful for medical applications.
Awadalla, Farah; Rosenbach, Alan
Familial benign pemphigus (Hailey-Hailey disease) is often resistant to conventional treatments. This report describes a 35-year-old Asian American male with a 12-year history of recalcitrant Hailey-Hailey disease who was treated with a long-pulsed alexandrite laser. Fluences ranged from 12 to 20 J/cm with a 5-ms pulse duration (spot sizes: 10-15 mm). Cold air cooling was used during the sessions. There was 50% improvement noted after the first treatment. Within 10 treatments, there was 95% clearance. Complete resolution was achieved by the thirteenth treatment. The lesions have been clear or nearly clear (greater than 95%) for the past 2 years. Once clearance was achieved, five maintenance laser treatments were initiated at 3-month intervals and eventually discontinued for 12 months without relapse.
Li, Li; Kono, Taro; Groff, William Frederick; Chan, Henry H; Kitazawa, Yoshihiko; Nozaki, Motohiro
Port wine stains (PWSs) are commonly treated by the pulsed dye laser. Recently, a long-pulse pulsed alexandrite laser was used to treat bulky vascular malformations. In the present study, we compare the efficacy and complications of the long-pulse pulsed dye laser (LPPDL) and the long-pulse pulsed alexandrite laser (LPPAL) in the treatment of PWSs. Eleven patients with Fitzpatrick skin types III-IV were enrolled in this study. One section of each patient's PWS was treated with LPPDL and another section was treated with LPPAL. The patients' PWSs were evaluated for efficacy of elimination of erythema and for treatment-related side effects. Both LPPDL and LPPAL treatment are effective in the treatment of PWSs. Hyperpigmentation was seen in two areas treated with LPPDL and in three areas treated with LPPAL. Hypopigmentation was seen in one area treated with LPPAL, but not in any of the areas treated with LPPDL. There was no scarring. LPPAL works best with hypertrophic, purple PWSs, while LPPDL yields better clinical improvements with the flat, pink PWSs. Targeting of deoxyhemoglobin, deeper penetration, and higher fluence may explain the effectiveness of LPPAL in purple, hypertrophic PWSs. However, there is a risk of dyspigmentation when using the LPPAL.
Pichon, Pierre; Blanchot, Jean-Philippe; Balembois, François; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick
In this paper, we report the first LED-pumped transition-metal-doped laser oscillator and amplifier based on an alexandrite crystal (Cr3+:BeAl2O4). A Ce:YAG luminescent concentrator illuminated by blue LEDs is used to reach higher pump powers than with LEDs alone. The luminescent 200-mm-long-composit luminescent concentrator involving 2240 LEDs can delivers up to 268 mJ for a peak irradiance of 8.5 kW/cm2. In oscillator configuration, an LED-pumped alexandrite laser delivering an energy of 2.9 mJ at 748 nm in free running operation is demonstrated. In the cavity, we measured a double pass small signal gain of 1.28, in good agreement with numerical simulations. As amplifier, the system demonstrated to boost a CW Ti:sapphire laser by a factor of 4 at 750 nm in 8 passes with a large tuning range from 710 nm to 800 nm.
Pilgrim, Christian G.; Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas; Goldin, Dan S.
Er:YAG laser as well as the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser have been suggested for the use in periodontal therapy and so for the elimination of calculus and the treatment of infected root cement. Intended is the laser application inside the gingival pocket. In consequence, both these lasers may be used in areas close to cervical or approximal location, or even on the fillings' surfaces. Light cured composite and compomer materials are in use for these types of fillings among others. Aim of the study presented here was to compare the effect of an Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 μm, pulse duration 250 μs, free running. fluence 4.5 J/cm2 and 21.4 J/cm2) on compomers and composites with the result following irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 200 ns, fluence 3 Jcm-2 and 6 J/cm2). The surface of standardized compomer and composite samples were irradiated with both laser wavelengths (either frequency doubled Alexandrite or Er:YAG laser) using the same standardized application protocol. Scanning electron microscopic investigation showed that irradiation with both lasers causes surface changes in composites and compomers removing calculus with these lasers.
Pilgrim, Christian G.; Rechmann, Peter; Goldin, Dan S.; Hennig, Thomas
Periodontal therapy aims in a most sufficient cleaning of tooth surfaces from supra- and subgingival calculus. As a standard dental procedure teeth are treated with ultrasonic devices. The competence of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for a highly effective and selective removal of calculus has been repeatedly proved. Aim of the study presented here was to determine the efficiency at simulated clinical conditions of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser (laboratory prototype, q-switched, fiber guided, wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 1 microsecond, pulse repetition rate 70 Hz, water cooling) by quantifying it's calculus removing efficiency. The evaluated data were compared to those obtained with an ultrasonic calculus remover. In the first part of the study sample material consisted of 23 pigs' jaws. They were divided into two groups. The teeth of one group were cleaned on their buccal surfaces using an ultrasonic device (Sonosoft Lux, KaVo, Biberach, Germany; tip #9). Than hand-guided cleaning was performed until no further improvement in cleanness was visible. Cleaning time was measured. Photographic documentation was taken before and after the treatment. The teeth in the second group were cleaned engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser. Treatment time was measured and photographs were taken in the same way. In the second part of the study 21 surfaces of human teeth set up in an artificial pocket model were treated with both systems again. Measurements followed the same protocol. The results strongly support the use of the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser for calculus removal.
Vangipuram, Ramya K; DeLozier, Whitney L; Geddes, Elizabeth; Friedman, Paul M
Pigmentation secondary to minocycline ingestion is an uncommon adverse event affecting 3.7-14.8% of treated individuals for which few effective therapies are available. Three patterns of minocycline pigmentation have a characteristic clinical and histological appearance. The pigment composition in each variety is different and occurs at varying skin depths. Accordingly, a tailored approach according to the type of minocycline pigmentation is crucial for treatment success. The purpose of this intervention was to evaluate the efficacy of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the Q-switched alexandrite laser for the treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation on the face. A patient with type I minocycline pigmentation was treated with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional photothermolysis followed immediately by 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser and then observed clinically to determine the outcome of this modality. The patient was seen in clinic 1 month later following her single treatment session and 100% clearance of all blue facial pigment was observed. Non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser should be considered for treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh
Introduction: To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. Methods: The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. Result: In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam–skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Conclusion: Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer. PMID:25653820
Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh
To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam-skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer.
Paterson, Lorna Menzies
This thesis forms a detailed study of the alexandrite laser and its potential in the medical field. Applications suggested include dermatological and dental procedures. This body of work encompasses these areas and touches on wider potential applications. A theoretical model has been developed to explain and predict the reaction of tissue to laser light with the wavelength and temporal profile of the alexandrite laser. The interaction of the fundamental 755 nm radiation with a variety of human tissues was initially studied and further studies carried out on porcine liver with long pulse and Q-switched laser pulses. The results were then compared to an analytical theoretical model and also to the standard de Beer's model of an exponential dependence of the light intensity on the attenuation coefficient of the tissue. The presence of a plume of debris was also taken into account. The interaction of the alexandrite laser output with hard dental material was studied. It was observed that 755 and 378 nm (second harmonic) laser light does not significantly affect healthy enamel or dentine. The selective ablation of carious material at 378 nm was observed. A system to photograph a plume of debris leaving an interaction site, with a known time delay from the moment of irradiation, was developed using a frequency doubled, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. This system could be used to measure plume velocities and also to observe the different stages of fast interactions, e.g. the different thresholds for water evaporation and tissue removal in infrared irradiation of water rich tissue. The removal of tattoo pigment by the alexandrite laser light was investigated using excised human tattoo sections. The limited number of samples available showed a clearing of the intradermal pigment and professionally tattooed pig skin was then used as a replacement for excised human tattoo samples. Professional tattoo pigment embedded in agar was used to look at the acoustic waves induced by laser
Ghanbari, Shirin; Fedorova, Ksenia A.; Krysa, Andrey B.; Rafailov, Edik U.; Major, Arkady
A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) passively mode-locked Alexandrite laser was demonstrated. Using an InP/InGaP quantum-dot saturable absorber mirror, pulse duration of 420 fs at 774 nm was obtained. The laser was pumped at 532 nm and generated 325 mW of average output power in mode-locked regime with a pump power of 7.12 W. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a passively mode-locked Alexandrite laser using SESAM in general and quantum-dot SESAM in particular.
Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Duskova, Jana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shoji, Shigeru; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal
The goal of the study was to verify differences between the alexandrite and Er:YAG laser energy distribution in the root canal and in the surrounding dentin and bone tissues. For the experiment, two lasers were prepared: the Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm) with a delivery system fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide ended by a special sapphire tip and the alexandrite laser (λ=0.75 μm) with a silicon fiber. The Er:YAG laser was operated in a free-running mode, the length of the generated pulses was 250 μsec and the output energy ranged from 100 to 350 mJ. The pulse length of the free- running alexandrite laser was 70 μsec and the output energy was ranged from 80 up to 200 mJ. For the experiment prepared root canals of molars were used. It was ascertained that the radiation of the alexandrite laser passes through the root canal and hits the surrounding tissue. Nocardia asteroids, Filaments, Micrococcus albus, Lactobacillus sp and Streptococcus sanguis colonies were treated by the Er:YAG or alexandrite laser radiation. The surface was checked by scanning electron microscopy. From the result it follows that the Er:YAG laser destroyed microbial colonies but the differences is in the depth of the affected area.
Lee, Sang Ju; Choi, Min Ju; Zheng, Zhenlong; Chung, Won Soon; Kim, Young Koo; Cho, Sung Bin
Keratosis pilaris (KP) has beenpresented as small keratotic follicular papules with or without surrounding erythema. Various treatments with laser or light therapy have been used for the management of KP with various clinical outcomes. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination therapy for KP. A total of 29 anatomical sites with KP in 26 patients were treated using a 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) with nonpurpuragenic fluences, a long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion. Clinical improvement was assessed by comparing preand posttreatment clinical photographs and patient satisfaction rates. Evaluation of the clinical results three months after the treatments showed that 12 of the 29 anatomical sites (41.4%) demonstrated Grade 3 clinical improvement, ten (34.5%) had Grade 2 clinical improvement, four (13.8%) showed Grade 1 improvement, and three (10.3%) showed Grade 4 improvement. We observed that KP lesions improved not only in erythema and skin texture, but also in brownish dyschromias. Potential adverse events were not observed, except prolonged posttherapy scaling. Our observations demonstrate that combination therapy using a 595-nm PDL, a long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser, and microdermabrasion can have a positive therapeutic effect on KP.
Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas; Sadegh, Hamid M. M.; Goldin, Dan S.
With respect to lasers emitting within the mid-IR spectral domain fiber applicators are being developed. Intended is the use of these lasers in periodontal therapy and their application inside the gingival pocket. Aim of the study presented here is to compare the effect of an Er:YAG laser on dental calculus with the results following irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser. The surface of freshly extracted wisdom teeth and of extracted teeth suffering from severe periodontitis were irradiated with both laser wavelengths using a standardized application protocol. Calculus on the enamel surface, at the enamel cementum junction and on the root surface was irradiated. For light microscope investigations undecalcified histological sections were prepared after treatment. For the scanning electron microscope teeth were dried in alcohol and sputtered with gold. Investigations revealed that with both laser systems calculus can be removed. Using the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser selective removal of calculus is possible while engaging the Er:YAG laser even at lowest energies necessary for calculus removal healthy cementum is ablated without control.
Ge, Yiping; Guo, Lifang; Wu, Qiuju; Zhang, Mengli; Zeng, Rong; Lin, Tong
A 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array has been reported for the treatment of acne scar and photoaging with clinical ef cacy. In this study, we evaluated the application of the 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array for facial photoaging in Chinese. Ten subjects with moderate facial photoaging were enrolled in a prospective, evaluator-blinded, open-label, and split-face trial to assess the ef cacy and safety of the 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array for facial photoaging. Each subject received a series of four treatment sessions on the right side of the face at two-week intervals. The left side of the face served as the control side. Blinded evaluation of baseline, pre-treatment, and two-month follow-up visit was performed by two independent dermatologists on a 5-point global photoaging scale (GPS) and a 6/8-point Asian photographic scale (APS). Adverse events and discomfort associated with the treatment were also assessed. Signi cant improvement in photoaged tissue was observed on the treated side of the face, with a mean GPS score decrease from 2.67 to 1.44 at the two-month follow-up visit. A greater improvement in wrinkles was observed (2.78 vs 1.89; P less than 0.05) when com- pared to the improvement in pigmentation (2.67 vs 2.11; P less than 0.05). No changes were observed on the control side. Treatment results improved gradually throughout the treatment program and continued to the two-month follow up. In addition, skin tightening was perceived in all subjects, and shallower nasolabial folds were observed in 60% of the subjects on the treated side of face. Moderate pain and transient erythema were observed as the two main discomforts associated with the treatment. The 755nm picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array is efficacious and safe for rejuvenation of photodamaged facial tissue in Chinese. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1390-1396..
Zuo, Ya-Gang; Ma, Dong-Lai; Jin, Hong-Zhong; Liu, Yue-Hua; Wang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Qiu-Ning
Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS), a rare, acquired pigmentary disorder of the lips, oral mucosa, and fingers, is known to be an entirely benign disease with no systemic manifestations. In the past, the pigmentation has been treated efficiently in a few patients with the Q-switched neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and the Q-switched alexandrite laser (QSAL). In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of QSAL on Chinese patients of LHS, we treated 22 patients with QSAL in the past 5 years. Treatments were delivered on a bimonthly or trimonthly basis until the abnormal pigmentation totally disappeared. Patients were evaluated at each visit for evidence of dyspigmentation, scarring, or other untoward effects from the laser treatment. Our 22 subjects consisted of 18 females and 4 males with a mean age of 42.4 years. After only one session of laser treatment, the clearing on the lips was as follow: 18 (81.8%) excellent, 2 (9.1%) good, 1 (4.5%) fair and 1 (4.5%) poor. Eighteen patients (81.8%) with LHS, who had achieved excellent clearing after only one session of laser treatment, did not receive further treatment. Among the left four patients, three patients (13.6%) achieved complete results after three laser treatments. Only one patient required six sessions to achieve complete clearance. No scarring was noted after any of the treatments. The appearance of pigmentation on mucous membranes in a middle-aged patient without a significant family history for skin disorders should prompt consideration for the possible diagnosis of LHS. Our study has also demonstrated QSAL to be highly effective and safe in the treatment of LHS.
Moreno-Arias, G A; Casals-Andreu, M; Camps-Fresneda, A
Q-switched laser systems have been used for removal of tattoo-related carbon, graphite, and other particles. We assessed elimination of traumatic tattoos of different origin with Q-switched alexandrite laser in nine patients. Fluence threshold was determined and a spot test was made. Q-switched alexandrite laser, with a fluence range 4.5-8.0 J/cm(2) (mean, 7.16 +/- 1.18), was used at 4-5-week intervals. Total treatment ranged from 3-12 sessions (mean, 6.1 +/- 3.6 sessions). Double-pulse technique was used in black/black-bluish areas, but single-shot was applied to slate-gray pigment. More than 95% lightening was achieved in five patients after 5.2 +/- 2.3 sessions, and >75% lightening in six subjects after 6.1 +/- 3.1 sessions of treatment. Blacktop, surgical pen, and gravel tattoos presented a better response than gunpowder/fireworks tattoos (>95% vs. 68.7 +/- 23.9% clearance), or tattoos of unknown origin (>95% vs. 62.5 +/- 53% clearance). Epidermal splattering and pinpoint bleeding were observed in one case. No pigmentary alteration or scarring was seen. The Q-switched alexandrite laser is a useful system for removal of traumatic tattoos of diverse origin. The best response (>95% clearance) was achieved in blacktop, surgical pen, and gravel tattoos, although an acceptable degree of lightening may be obtained in tattoos due to gunpowder or fireworks. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas
The aim of the study was the selective removal of dental calculus by means of pulsed lasers. In a first approach the optical characteristics of subgingival calculus were calculated using fluorescence emission spectroscopy (excitation laser: N2-laser, wavelength 337 nm, pulse duration 4 ns). Subgingival calculus seems to absorb highly in the ultraviolet spectral region up to 420 nm. According to these measurements a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser (wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 100 ns, repetition rate 110 Hz) was used to irradiate calculus located on enamel, at the cementum enamel junction and on the root surface (located on dentin or on cementum). Irradiation was performed perpendicular to the root surface with a laser fluence of 1 Jcm-2. During the irradiation procedure an effective water cooling-system was engaged. Histological investigations were done on undecalcified sections. As a result, engaging low fluences allows a fast and strictly selective removal of subgingival calculus. Even more the investigations revealed that supragingival calculus can be removed in a strictly selective manner engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser. No adverse side effects to the surrounding tissues could be found.
Hochberger, Juergen; Bredt, Marion; Mueller, Gudrun; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Ell, Christian
In the following study three different pulsed laser lithotripsy systems were compared for the fine fragmentation of identical sets of natural and synthetic gallstones `in vitro.' Using a pulsed coumarin dye laser (504 nm), a pulsed rhodamine 6G dye laser (595 nm), and a pulsed Alexandrite laser (755 nm) a total of 184 concrements of known chemical composition, size, and weight were disintegrated to a fragment size of
Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas
In a preceding trial the absorption characteristics of subgingival calculus were calculated using fluorescence emission spectroscopy (excitation laser: N2-laser, wavelength 337 nm, pulse duration 4 ns). Subgingival calculus seems to contain chromophores absorbing in the ultraviolet spectral region up to 420 nm. The aim of the actual study was the ablation of sub- and supragingival calculus using a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser (wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 100 ns, repetition rate 110 Hz). Extracted human teeth presenting sub- and supragingival calculus were irradiated perpendicular to their axis with a laser fluence of 1 Jcm-2. Using a standard application protocol calculus was irradiated at the enamel surface, at the junction between enamel and root, and at the root surface (located on dentin or on cementum). During the irradiation procedure an effective water cooling-system was engaged. For light microscopical investigations undecalcified histological sections were prepared after treatment. The histological sections revealed that a selective and total removal of calculus is possible at all locations without ablation of healthy enamel, dentin or cementum. Even low fluences provide us with a high effectiveness for the ablation of calculus. Thus, based on different absorption characteristics and ablation thresholds, engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser a fast and, even more, a selective ablation of sub- and supragingival calculus is possible without adverse side effects to the surrounding tissues. Even more, microbial dental plaque can be perfectly removed.
Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas
During prior studies it could be demonstrated that engaging a frequency double Alexandrite-laser allows a fast and strictly selective ablation of supra- and subgingival calculus. Furthermore, the removal of unstained microbial plaque was observed. First conclusions were drawn following light microscopic investigations on undecalcified sections of irradiated teeth. In the present study the cementum surface after irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser was observed by means of a scanning electron microscope. After irradiation sections of teeth were dried in alcohol and sputtered with gold. In comparison irradiated cementum surfaces of unerupted operatively removed wisdom teeth and tooth surfaces after the selective removal of calculus were investigated. A complete removal of calculus was observed as well as a remaining smooth surface of irradiated cementum.
Arbabzadah, E. A.; Damzen, M. J.
We report the investigation of an Alexandrite laser end-pumped by a fibre-coupled red diode laser module. Power, efficiency, spatial, spectral, and wavelength tuning performance are studied as a function of pump and laser cavity parameters. It is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of greater than 1 W power and also highest laser slope efficiency (44.2%) in a diode-pumped Alexandrite laser with diffraction-limited TEM00 mode operation. Spatial quality was excellent with beam propagation parameter M 2 ~ 1.05. Wavelength tuning from 737-796 nm was demonstrated using an intracavity birefringent tuning filter. Using a novel double pass end-pumping scheme to get efficient absorption of both polarisation states of the scrambled fibre-delivered diode pump, a total output coupled power of 1.66 W is produced in TEM00 mode with 40% slope efficiency.
Parali, Ufuk; Sheng, Xin; Minassian, Ara; Tawy, Goronwy; Sathian, Juna; Thomas, Gabrielle M.; Damzen, Michael J.
We report the first experimental demonstration of a wavelength tunable passively Q-switched red-diode-end pumped Alexandrite laser using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). We present the results of the study of passive SESAM Q-switching and wavelength-tuning in continuous diode-pumped Alexandrite lasers in both linear cavity and X-cavity configurations. In the linear cavity configuration, pulsed operation up to 27 kHz repetition rate in fundamental TEM00 mode was achieved and maximum average power was 41 mW. The shortest pulse generated was 550 ns (FWHM) and the Q-switched wavelength tuning band spanned was between 740 nm and 755 nm. In the X-cavity configuration, a higher average power up to 73 mW, and obtained with higher pulse energy 6 . 5 μJ at 11.2 kHz repetition rate, in fundamental TEM00 mode with excellent spatial quality M2 < 1 . 1. The Q-switched wavelength tuning band spanned was between 775 nm and 781 nm.
Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.
A narrow-linewidth pulsed alexandrite laser has been greatly modified for improved spectral stability in an aircraft environment, and its operation has been evaluated in the laboratory for making water-vapor differential absorption lidar measurements. An alignment technique is described to achieve the optimum free spectral range ratio for the two etalons inserted in the alexandrite laser cavity, and the sensitivity of this ratio is analyzed. This technique drastically decreases the occurrence of mode hopping, which is commonly observed in a tunable, two-intracavity-etalon laser system. High spectral purity (greater than 99.85%) at 730 nm is demonstrated by the use of a water-vapor absorption line as a notch filter. The effective cross sections of 760-nm oxygen and 730-nm water-vapor absorption lines are measured at different pressures by using this laser, which has a finite linewidth of 0.02 cm(exp -1) (FWHM). It is found that for water-vapor absorption linewidths greater than 0.04 cm(exp -1) (HWHM), or for altitudes below 10 km, the laser line can be considered monochromatic because the measured effective absorption cross section is within 1% of the calculated monochromatic cross section. An analysis of the environmental sensitivity of the two intracavity etalons is presented, and a closed-loop computer control for active stabilization of the two intracavity etalons in the alexandrite laser is described. Using a water-vapor absorption line as a wavelength reference, we measure a long-term frequency drift (approximately 1.5 h) of less than 0.7 pm in the laboratory.
Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas
During prior studies it could be demonstrated while engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser (wavelength 380 nm, pulse duration 100 ns, fluence 1 J/cm2, pulse repetition rate 110 Hz) a fast and strictly selective ablation of supra- and subgingival calculus is possible. Even the removal of unstained microbial plaque was observed. First conclusions were drawn after light microscopical investigations on undecalcified sections of irradiated teeth. In the present study the cementum surface after irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser was observed by means of a Scanning Electron Microscope. After irradiation sections of teeth were dried in alcohol and sputtered with gold. In comparison irradiated cementum surfaces of unerupted operatively removed wisdom teeth and tooth surfaces after the selective removal of calculus were investigated. A complete removal of calculus was observed as well as a remaining smooth surface of irradiated cementum.
Prasad, C. R.; Lee, H. S.; Glesne, T. R.; Monosmith, B.; Schwemmer, G. K.
Injection seeding is a method for achieving linewidths of less than 500 MHz in the output of broadband, tunable, solid state lasers. Dye lasers, CW and pulsed diode lasers, and other solid state lasers have been used as injection seeders. By optimizing the fundamental laser parameters of pump energy, Q-switched pulse build-up time, injection seed power and mode matching, one can achieve significant improvements in the spectral purity of the Q-switched output. These parameters are incorporated into a simple model for analyzing spectral purity and pulse build-up processes in a Q-switched, injection-seeded laser. Experiments to optimize the relevant parameters of an alexandrite laser show good agreement.
Choi, Jae Eun; Lee, Joo Bong; Park, Ki Beom; Kim, Bang Soon; Yeo, Un-Cheol; Huh, Chang Hun; Kim, Jie Hoon; Kye, Young Chul
While the Q-switched Alexandrite laser (QSAL) and the Q-switched neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (QSNY) laser have been widely used in treating nevus of Ota, few studies compared them. To compare the efficacies of the QSAL and the QSNY laser in the treatment of nevus of Ota in Korean patients. A retrospective multicenter study was conducted in 76 patients with nevus of Ota. Thirty-one patients were treated with a QSAL (5.5-8.0 J/cm(2), 4-mm spot size) and 45 patients were treated with QSNY laser (6.0-12.0 J/cm(2), 2-mm spot size). Treatment outcomes were categorized into five grades and the results were compared with the relevant variables taken into account using multivariate logistic regression analysis. QSAL treatment was more likely to achieve a better response compared with that with QSNY laser treatment. The odds ratio of achieving an excellent response, compared with the odds ratio of having a poor response, was 12.213-times more likely when a QSAL was used than when a QSNY laser was used (p = 0.026). The QSAL tends to be more efficient than the QSNY laser in the treatment of nevus of Ota in Korean patients. Further controlled, prospective comparison studies are needed.
Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Milrod, J.; Walden, H.
The first remote measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile made from an airborne platform are described. The measurements utilize a differential absorption lidar and tunable solid state Alexandrite lasers. The pressure measurement technique uses a high resolution oxygen A band where the absorption is highly pressure sensitive due to collision broadening. Absorption troughs and regions of minimum absorption were used between pairs of stongly absorption lines for these measurements. The trough technique allows the measurement to be greatly desensitized to the effects of laser frequency instabilities. The lidar system was set up to measure pressure with the on-line laser tuned to the absorption trough at 13147.3/cm and with the reference laser tuned to a nonabsorbing frequency near 13170.0/cm. The lidar signal returns were sampled with a 200 range gate (30 vertical resoltion) and averaged over 100 shots.
Wang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chih-Kang
Q-switched laser treatment for pigment disorders commonly leads to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in Asians. To evaluate the effect of spot size and fluence on Q-switched alexandrite laser (QSAL) treatment for pigmentation in Asians. Ten patients with freckles, 18 with lentigines, and 8 with acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules (ABNOM) received 1 session of QSAL treatment for a 3-mm spot on one cheek and a 4-mm spot on the other cheek. The lowest fluences to achieve a visible biologic effect were chosen. The patients with freckles experienced the highest improvement rate (83-84%), followed by those with lentigines (52%) and ABNOM (35%). Similar efficacy was observed for both cheeks (p > 0.05). PIH developed in 10% (1/10), 44% (8/18), and 75% (6/8) of the patients with freckles, lentigines, and ABNOM, respectively. The severity of PIH was lower in the 4-mm spot with a lower fluence than in the 3-mm spot with a higher fluence in patients with lentigines (p = 0.03), but not in those with freckles or ABNOM. Using a larger spot to achieve the same biologic effect at a lower fluence is associated with equal efficacy and less-severe PIH in patients with lentigines.
Alavi, Shiva; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammadali
The effects of alexandrite laser (AL) on skin parameters such as melanin content, skin layer depth, elasticity, and density have not been investigated through biometric methods. We aim to assess the effect of AL on the skin parameters through biometric devices to determine whether it has positive effects on treated region. In this pretest-posttest study, we recruited patients who attended Laser Clinic of Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from January through December 2014. Patients had to be free of any dermatologic conditions and lesion at the site of treatment or any contraindication to laser therapy. Baseline measurements were performed and patients received four sessions of AL therapy (spot size, 12 mm; fluence, 12 J/cm(2); and pulse width, 5 Hz) with 4-week intervals. Four weeks after the last treatment session, the same parameters were assessed that included skin color, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), dermis and epidermis density and depth (through skin ultrasonography), melanin content, erythema intensity, and skin elasticity. Biometric parameters of 33 patients (27 females [81.8%]), with mean (SD) age of 35.7 (9.5) years were evaluated. The mean percent changes of skin parameters were as follows: skin color, 5.88% through Visioface and by 56.8% through Colorimeter devices (became lighter); melanin content, -15.95%; TEWL, -2.96%; elasticity, +14.88%; dermis depth -19.01%; and dermis density, +1580.11% (P < 0.001 for changes in each parameter). AL could decrease melanin content of the skin and make the skin thinner while it could increase elasticity and density of epidermis and dermis, which might indicate increased collagen content of skin.
Levin, Melissa Kanchanapoomi; Ng, Elise; Bae, Yoon-Soo Cindy; Brauer, Jeremy A; Geronemus, Roy G
Laser procedures in skin of color (SOC) patients are challenging due to the increased risk of dyspigmentation and scarring. A novel 755 nm alexandrite picosecond laser has demonstrated effectiveness for tattoo removal and treatment of acne scars. No studies to date have evaluated its applications in pigmentary disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the safety profile and efficacy of the picosecond alexandrite laser compared to the current standard treatment, Q-switched ruby and neodynium (Nd):YAG nanosecond lasers, for pigmentary disorders in SOC patients. A retrospective photographic and chart evaluation of seventy 755 nm alexandrite picosecond, ninety-two Q-switched frequency doubled 532 nm and 1,064 nm Nd:YAG nanosecond, and forty-seven Q-switched 694 nm ruby nanosecond laser treatments, in forty-two subjects of Fitzpatrick skin types III-VI was conducted in a single laser specialty center. The picosecond laser was a research prototype device. Treatment efficacy was assessed by two blinded physician evaluators, using a visual analog scale for percentage of pigmentary clearance in standard photographs. Subject assessment of efficacy, satisfaction, and adverse events was performed using a questionnaire survey. The most common pigmentary disorder treated was Nevus of Ota (38.1%), followed by solar lentigines (23.8%). Other pigmentary disorders included post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, congenital nevus, café au lait macule, dermal melanocytosis, Nevus of Ito, and Becker's nevus. Clinical efficacy of the Q-switched nanosecond lasers and picosecond laser treatments were comparable for lesions treated on the face with a mean visual analog score of 2.57 and 2.44, respectively, corresponding to approximately 50% pigmentary clearance. Subject questionnaires were completed in 58.8% of the picosecond subjects and 52.0% of the Q-switched subjects. Eighty four percent of subjects receiving Q-switched nanosecond laser treatments and 50% of the
Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C
Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption
Tanghetti Md, Emil; Jennings, John
This study was performed to better understand the cutaneous effects of using a fractional picosecond laser at 755 nm with a diffractive lens array and a picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 mn and 1064 nm with a holographic optic. We characterized the injuries created by these devices on skin clinically and histologically over 24 hours. With this information we modeled the effects of these devices on a cutaneous target. Eight patients, representing Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI, were treated on their backs with a picosecond Alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array, as well as a picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm with a holographic optic. Photographs were taken 15 minutes and 24 hours after treatments. Punch biopsies were obtained at 24 hours and examined histologically. Treatment with the picosecond Nd:YAG laser at both 532 nm and 1064 nm with the holographic optic revealed erythema and small scatted areas of petechial hemorrhage areas immediately and in many cases at 24 hours after treatment. The 755 nm picosecond Alexandrite laser with diffractive lens array produced erythema immediately after treatment, which largely dissipated 24 hours later. Histologies revealed intra-epidermal vacuoles with all three wavelengths. Fractional picosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and 1064 nm with the holographic optic showed focal areas of dermal and intra-epidermal hemorrhage with areas of vascular damage in some patients. This study demonstrates that both fractional picosecond devices produce vacuoles in the skin, which are most likely due to areas of laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB). In the patients (skin type II-IV) we observed scatter areas of hemorrhage in the skin, due to vascular damage with the 532 nm and 1064 nm, but not with 755 nm wavelengths. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:37-44, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kozub, John; Ivanov, Borislav; Jayasinghe, Aroshan; Prasad, Ratna; Shen, Jin; Klosner, Marc; Heller, Donald; Mendenhall, Marcus; Piston, David W.; Joos, Karen; Hutson, M. Shane
Prior work with free-electron lasers (FELs) showed that wavelengths in the 6- to 7-µm range could ablate soft tissues efficiently with little collateral damage; however, FELs proved too costly and too complex for widespread surgical use. Several alternative 6- to 7-µm laser systems have demonstrated the ability to cut soft tissues cleanly, but at rates that were much too low for surgical applications. Here, we present initial results with a Raman-shifted, pulsed alexandrite laser that is tunable from 6 to 7 µm and cuts soft tissues cleanly—approximately 15 µm of thermal damage surrounding ablation craters in cornea—and does so with volumetric ablation rates of 2–5 × 10−3 mm3/s. These rates are comparable to those attained in prior successful surgical trials using the FEL for optic nerve sheath fenestration. PMID:21559139
Shields, Bridget E; Moye, Molly S; Bayon, Rodrigo; Sperry, Steven M; Wanat, Karolyn A
To present a case series of 4 patients who underwent postoperative hair removal using the long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG laser following intraoral cutaneous flap reconstruction. Patients underwent epilation in dermatology clinic with long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG lasers, spaced 8 weeks apart, until hair removal was achieved. All patients achieved improvement in hair removal regardless of initial flap donor site with significant improvement in quality of life and minimal side effects. The long-pulsed Alexandrite and Nd:YAG represent safe and effective treatment options to improve patient quality of life following intraoral flap repair following excision of malignancy.
Shand, M.L.; Lai, S.T.
A CW laser-pumped emerald laser is reported. A 34 percent output power slope efficiency is observed with longitudinal pumping by a krypton laser in a nearly concentric cavity. The laser has been tuned from 728.8 to 809.0 nm. Losses in emerald are larger than those of alexandrite determined in a similar cavity. The present data also indicate that the excited state absorption minimum is shifted from that of alexandrite. 13 references.
Arora, Pooja; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay K; Arya, Latika
Hyperpigmentary disorders, especially melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), cause significant social and emotional stress to the patients. Although many treatment modalities have been developed for melasma and PIH, its management still remains a challenge due to its recurrent and refractory nature. With the advent of laser technology, the treatment options have increased especially for dermal or mixed melasma. To review the literature on the use of cutaneous lasers for melasma and PIH. We carried out a PubMed search using following terms "lasers, IPL, melasma, PIH". We cited the use of various lasers to treat melasma and PIH, including Q-switched Nd:YAG, Q-switched alexandrite, pulsed dye laser, and various fractional lasers. We describe the efficacy and safety of these lasers for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Choosing the appropriate laser and the correct settings is vital in the treatment of melasma. The use of latter should be restricted to cases unresponsive to topical therapy or chemical peels. Appropriate maintenance therapy should be selected to avoid relapse of melasma.
Arora, Pooja; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay K; Arya, Latika
Hyperpigmentary disorders, especially melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), cause significant social and emotional stress to the patients. Although many treatment modalities have been developed for melasma and PIH, its management still remains a challenge due to its recurrent and refractory nature. With the advent of laser technology, the treatment options have increased especially for dermal or mixed melasma. To review the literature on the use of cutaneous lasers for melasma and PIH. We carried out a PubMed search using following terms “lasers, IPL, melasma, PIH”. We cited the use of various lasers to treat melasma and PIH, including Q-switched Nd:YAG, Q-switched alexandrite, pulsed dye laser, and various fractional lasers. We describe the efficacy and safety of these lasers for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. Choosing the appropriate laser and the correct settings is vital in the treatment of melasma. The use of latter should be restricted to cases unresponsive to topical therapy or chemical peels. Appropriate maintenance therapy should be selected to avoid relapse of melasma. PMID:23060704
Kozub, John A.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Prasad, Ratna; Shane Hutson, M.
Previous research showed that mid-infrared free-electron lasers could reproducibly ablate soft tissue with little collateral damage. The potential for surgical applications motivated searches for alternative tabletop lasers providing thermally confined pulses in the 6- to-7-μm wavelength range with sufficient pulse energy, stability, and reliability. Here, we evaluate a prototype Raman-shifted alexandrite laser. We measure ablation thresholds, etch rates, and collateral damage in gelatin and cornea as a function of laser wavelength (6.09, 6.27, or 6.43 μm), pulse energy (up to 3 mJ/pulse), and spot diameter (100 to 600 μm). We find modest wavelength dependence for ablation thresholds and collateral damage, with the lowest thresholds and least damage for 6.09 μm. We find a strong spot-size dependence for all metrics. When the beam is tightly focused (˜100-μm diameter), ablation requires more energy, is highly variable and less efficient, and can yield large zones of mechanical damage (for pulse energies >1 mJ). When the beam is softly focused (˜300-μm diameter), ablation proceeded at surgically relevant etch rates, with reasonable reproducibility (5% to 12% within a single sample), and little collateral damage. With improvements in pulse-energy stability, this prototype laser may have significant potential for soft-tissue surgical applications.
Kozub, John A.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Prasad, Ratna; Shane Hutson, M.
Abstract. Previous research showed that mid-infrared free-electron lasers could reproducibly ablate soft tissue with little collateral damage. The potential for surgical applications motivated searches for alternative tabletop lasers providing thermally confined pulses in the 6- to-7-μm wavelength range with sufficient pulse energy, stability, and reliability. Here, we evaluate a prototype Raman-shifted alexandrite laser. We measure ablation thresholds, etch rates, and collateral damage in gelatin and cornea as a function of laser wavelength (6.09, 6.27, or 6.43 μm), pulse energy (up to 3 mJ/pulse), and spot diameter (100 to 600 μm). We find modest wavelength dependence for ablation thresholds and collateral damage, with the lowest thresholds and least damage for 6.09 μm. We find a strong spot-size dependence for all metrics. When the beam is tightly focused (∼100-μm diameter), ablation requires more energy, is highly variable and less efficient, and can yield large zones of mechanical damage (for pulse energies >1 mJ). When the beam is softly focused (∼300-μm diameter), ablation proceeded at surgically relevant etch rates, with reasonable reproducibility (5% to 12% within a single sample), and little collateral damage. With improvements in pulse-energy stability, this prototype laser may have significant potential for soft-tissue surgical applications. PMID:26456553
A randomized, split-face clinical trial of low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (1,064 nm) laser versus low-fluence Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) for the treatment of facial melasma.
Fabi, Sabrina G; Friedmann, Daniel P; Niwa Massaki, Ane B; Goldman, Mitchel P
Melasma is distressing for patients and challenging for physicians to treat. Clinical data from controlled comparative studies is lacking to support the efficacy, longevity, and safety of laser treatments for melasma. Compare the efficacy and safety of low fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (1,064 nm) laser (Nd:YAG) versus low-fluence Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) (QSAL) for the treatment of facial melasma. Twenty male and female subjects with moderate to severe mixed-type melasma on both sides of the face were randomized to six, weekly treatments with the low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on one side and the low-fluence QSAL to the other side. Two independent investigators conducted Modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (MMASI) evaluations and subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires at baseline, after three treatments and each follow-up visit 2, 12, and 24 weeks after the last treatment. Standardized digital photographs were taken at baseline and at each subsequent follow-up visit. One male and fifteen females, mean age of 43.4 (range 32-64) years, completed the 29-week study. Both laser treated sides showed a significant improvement in MMASI evaluations after two treatments (22% improvement on the QS-Nd:YAG, 17% QSAL) and each follow-up visit 2 (36% QS-Nd:YAG; 44% QSAL), 12 (27% QS-Nd:YAG; and 24% QSAL), and 24 weeks (27% QS-Nd:YAG; and 19% QSAL) after the last treatment, but no significant difference was seen between study groups at any visit. There was also no significant difference in subject evaluation of improvement between both treatment sides at any visit. Both laser treated sides were tolerated well, and no serious adverse events were noted. Only one subject was taken out of the study due to development of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation bilaterally. Both low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG and low-fluence QSAL were equally effective at improving moderate to severe mixed-type facial melasma. This was a
Belkin, Daniel A; Neckman, Julia P; Jeon, Hana; Friedman, Paul; Geronemus, Roy G
Response to laser treatment for café au lait macules (CALMs) is inconsistent and difficult to predict. To test the hypothesis that irregularly bordered CALMs of the "coast of Maine" subtype respond better to treatment than those of the smooth-bordered "coast of California" subtype. This retrospective case series included patients from 2 multiple-clinician US practices treated from 2005 through 2016. All patients had a clinical diagnosis of CALM and were treated with a Q-switched or picosecond laser. A total of 51 consecutive patients were eligible, 6 of whom were excluded owing to ambiguous lesion subtype. Observers were blinded to final patient groupings. Treatment with 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser, Q-switched ruby laser, Q-switched alexandrite laser, or Q-switched 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser. Main outcome was grade in a visual analog scale (VAS) consisting of 4 levels of treatment response: poor (grade 1, 0%-25% improvement), fair (grade 2, 26%-50% improvement), good (grade 3, 51%-75% improvement), and excellent (grade 4, 76%-100% improvement). Forty-five patients were included in the series, 19 with smooth-bordered lesions and 26 with irregularly bordered lesions. Thirty-four (76%) of the participants were female; 33 (73%) were white; and the mean age at the time of laser treatment was 14.5 years (range, 0-44 years). Smooth-bordered lesions received a mean VAS score of 1.76, corresponding to a fair response on average (26%-50% pigmentary clearance). Irregularly bordered lesions received a mean VAS score of 3.67, corresponding to an excellent response on average (76%-100% clearance) (P < .001). CALMs with jagged or ill-defined borders of the coast of Maine subtype tend to respond well to laser treatment, whereas those with smooth and well-defined borders of the coast of California subtype tend to have poor response. Clinicians using Q-switched or picosecond lasers to treat CALMs can use morphologic characteristics to help predict response and more
Brackmann, Christian; Zhou, Bo; Samuelsson, Per; Alekseev, Vladimir A.; Konnov, Alexander A.; Li, Zhongshan; Aldén, Marcus
A new scheme for NH2 detection by means of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with excitation around wavelength 385 nm, accessible using the second harmonic of a solid-state Alexandrite laser, is presented. Detection of NH2 was confirmed by identification of corresponding lines in fluorescence excitation spectra measured in premixed NH3-air flames and on NH2 radicals generated through NH3 photolysis in a nonreactive flow at ambient conditions. Moreover, spectral simulations allow for tentative NH2 line identification. Dispersed fluorescence emission spectra measured in flames and photolysis experiments showed lines attributed to vibrational bands of the NH2 A2A1 ← X2B1 transition but also a continuous structure, which in flame was observed to be dependent on nitrogen added to the fuel, apparently also generated by NH2. A general conclusion was that fluorescence interferences need to be carefully considered for NH2 diagnostics in this spectral region. Excitation for laser irradiances up to 0.2 GW/cm2 did not result in NH2 fluorescence saturation and allowed for efficient utilization of the available laser power without indication of laser-induced photochemistry. Compared with a previously employed excitation/detection scheme for NH2 at around 630 nm, excitation at 385.7 nm showed a factor of 15 higher NH2 signal. The improved signal allowed for single-shot NH2 LIF imaging on centimeter scale in flame with signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for concentrations around 1000 ppm, suggesting a detection limit around 700 ppm. Thus, the presented approach for NH2 detection provides enhanced possibilities for characterization of fuel-nitrogen combustion chemistry.
Carlsen, Berit C; Wenande, Emily; Erlendsson, Andres M; Faurschou, Annesofie; Dierickx, Christine; Haedersdal, Merete
Pulsed dye laser (PDL) represents the gold-standard treatment for port wine stains (PWS). However, approximately 20% of patients are poor responders and yield unsatisfactory end-results. The Alexandrite (Alex) laser may be a therapeutic alternative for selected PWS subgroups, but optimal laser parameters are not known. The aim of this study was to assess clinical PWS clearance and safety of Alex laser at a range of pulse durations. Sixteen individuals (14 previously PDL-treated) with deep red (n = 4), purple macular (n = 5) and purple hypertrophic (n = 7) PWS were included. Four side-by-side test areas were marked within each lesion. Three test areas were randomized to Alex laser at pulse durations of 3, 5, or 10 ms (8 mm spot, DCD 60/40), while the fourth was untreated. The lowest effective fluence to create purpura within the entire test spot was titrated and applied to intervention areas. Standardized clinical photographs were taken prior to, immediately after laser exposure and at 6-8 weeks follow up. Clinical PWS clearance and laser-related side effects were assessed using clinical photos. Alex laser at 3, 5, and 10 ms pulse durations demonstrated significant clearance compared to untreated controls (P < 0.001). Three milli second pulse duration exhibited improved clearance versus 5 ms (P = 0.016) and 10 ms (P = 0.004), while no difference between five and 10 ms was shown (P = 0.063). Though not significant, good responders (>50% clearance) were more likely to have purple hypertrophic PWS (5/7) compared to purple macular (2/5) and deep red lesions (1/4). Eight laser-exposed test areas (17%) developed hypopigmented atrophic scarring. Side effects tended to be more frequently observed with 5 ms (n = 4) and 10 ms (n = 3) versus 3 ms pulse duration (n = 1). Correspondingly, 3 ms was associated with a superior (n = 6) or comparable (n = 10) overall cosmetic appearance for all individuals. Alex
Ho, Stephanie GY; Goh, Chee Leok
Techniques for tattoo removal have evolved significantly over the years. The commonly used Quality-switched (QS) ruby, alexandrite, and Nd:YAG lasers are the traditional workhorses for tattoo removal. Newer strategies using combination laser treatments, multi-pass treatments, and picosecond lasers offer promising results. The tattoo color and skin type of the patient are important considerations when choosing the appropriate laser. Standard protocols can be developed for the effective and safe treatment of tattoos. PMID:25949017
Kozub, John; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Prasad, Ratna; Hutson, M. Shane
Background and Objective Optic nerve sheath fenestration is an established procedure for relief of potentially damaging overpressure on the optic nerve resulting from idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Prior work showed that a mid-IR free-electron laser could be delivered endoscopically and used to produce an effective fenestration. This study evaluates the efficacy of fenestration using a table-top mid-IR source based on a Raman-shifted alexandrite (RSA) laser. Study Design/Materials and Methods Porcine optic nerves were ablated using light from an RSA laser at wavelengths of 6.09, 6.27 and 6.43 μm and pulse energies up to 3 mJ using both free-space and endoscopic beam delivery through 250-μm I.D. hollow-glass waveguides. Waveguide transmission was characterized, ablation thresholds and etch rates were measured, and the efficacy of endoscopic fenestration was evaluated for ex vivo exposures using both optical coherence tomography and histological analysis. Results Using endoscopic delivery, the RSA laser can effectively fenestrate porcine optic nerves. Performance was optimized at a wavelength of 6.09 μm and delivered pulse energies of 0.5-0.8 mJ (requiring 1.5-2.5 mJ to be incident on the waveguide). Under these conditions, the ablation threshold fluence was 0.8 ± 0.2 J/cm2, the ablation rate was 1-4 μm/pulse, and the margins of ablation craters showed little evidence of thermal or mechanical damage. Nonetheless, nominally identical exposures yielded highly variable ablation rates. This led to fenestrations that ranged from too deep to too shallow – either damaging the underlying optic nerve or requiring additional exposure to cut fully through the sheath. Of 48 excised nerves subjected to fenestration at 6.09 μm, 16 ex vivo fenestrations were judged as good, 23 as too deep, and 9 as too shallow. Conclusions Mid-IR pulses from the RSA laser, propagated through a flexible hollow waveguide, are capable of cutting through porcine optic nerve sheaths in
John, Hannah; Manoloudakis, Nikolaos; Stephen Sinclair, J
To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of various types of lasers (and light based therapies) for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and to establish recommendations based on our findings. MEDLINE, Cochrane and PubMed databases. English language studies describing the use of laser for the treatment of HS. Multiple reviewers performed independent extraction and identified 22 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were categorised according to grading recommendations based on evidence quality guidelines for systematic reviews. Only 2 studies met criteria to be assigned the highest grade. Nd:YAG laser has been shown to be effective for the treatment of HS, as is intense pulsed light therapy (IPL) using the same principles of laser hair removal. There is weak evidence to recommend the use of carbon dioxide, diode or alexandrite lasers. The need for larger randomized controlled trials is highlighted. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, So Ra; Jo, Jeong Ho; Park, Sung Yun; Seo, Young Kwon
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare degrees of epidermal/dermal tissue damage quantitatively and histologically after laser irradiation, to find ideal treatment conditions with relatively high fluence for skin rejuvenation. Background data: A number of recent studies have evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of therapeutic lasers under relatively low fluence conditions. Methods: We transmitted the long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG and 755 nm Alexandrite lasers into pig skin according to different fluences and spot diameters, and estimated epidermal/dermal temperatures. Pig skin specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological assessments. The fluence conditions comprised 26, 30, and 36 J/cm2, and the spot diameter conditions were 5, 8, and 10 mm. Pulse duration was 30 ms for all experiments. Results: Both lasers produced reliable thermal damage on the dermis without any serious epidermal injuries, under relatively high fluence conditions. The 1064 nm laser provided more active fibrous formations than the 755 nm laser, while higher risks for tissue damages simultaneously occurred. Conclusions: The ideal treatment conditions for skin rejuvenation were 8 mm diameter with 30 J/cm2 and 10 mm diameter with 26 J/cm2 for the 1064 nm laser, and 8 mm diameter with 36 J/cm2 and 10 mm diameter with 26 J/cm2 for the 755 nm laser. PMID:24992273
Lee, Ju Hwan; Park, So Ra; Jo, Jeong Ho; Park, Sung Yun; Seo, Young Kwon; Kim, Sung Min
The purpose of this study was to compare degrees of epidermal/dermal tissue damage quantitatively and histologically after laser irradiation, to find ideal treatment conditions with relatively high fluence for skin rejuvenation. A number of recent studies have evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of therapeutic lasers under relatively low fluence conditions. We transmitted the long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG and 755 nm Alexandrite lasers into pig skin according to different fluences and spot diameters, and estimated epidermal/dermal temperatures. Pig skin specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological assessments. The fluence conditions comprised 26, 30, and 36 J/cm2, and the spot diameter conditions were 5, 8, and 10 mm. Pulse duration was 30 ms for all experiments. Both lasers produced reliable thermal damage on the dermis without any serious epidermal injuries, under relatively high fluence conditions. The 1064 nm laser provided more active fibrous formations than the 755 nm laser, while higher risks for tissue damages simultaneously occurred. The ideal treatment conditions for skin rejuvenation were 8 mm diameter with 30 J/cm2 and 10 mm diameter with 26 J/cm2 for the 1064 nm laser, and 8 mm diameter with 36 J/cm2 and 10 mm diameter with 26 J/cm2 for the 755 nm laser.
Vanaman Wilson, Monique J; Jones, Isabela T; Bolton, Joanna; Larsen, Lisa; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P
Infraorbital dark circles result from a combination of factors. The fractionated picosecond 755 nm alexandrite laser and dual wavelength picosecond Nd:YAG laser have not been examined as a method of addressing infraorbital hyperpigmentation. To determine the efficacy and safety of treatment of infraorbital dark circles using fractionated picosecond 755 nm and dual wavelength picosecond Nd:YAG laser. These trials did not utilize a comparative design; rather, these were separate, prospective, open-label, evaluator-blinded trials utilizing two treatment regimens: (i) 19 adult subjects were treated in a single session with the dual wavelengths of 532 nm and 1,064 nm in consecutive passes using the fractionated lens; (ii) 10 adult subjects were treated using the picosecond 755 nm laser via the fractionated lens in three treatment sessions at 3 week intervals. Subjects in both studies were followed-up for blinded-investigator assessment of infraorbital hyperpigmentation, adverse events, and improvement compared to baseline. The dual wavelength picosecond Nd:YAG laser, blinded-investigator assessment did not demonstrate a significant improvement in infraorbital hyperpigmentation at day 60 (P = 0.16). The picosecond 755 nm alexandrite laser significantly improved infraorbital hyperpigmentation by day 42, with improvement maintained through day 132 (P = 0.07 and 0.00001, respectively). Adverse events were mild and temporary. A single treatment with the fractionated picosecond 1,064/532 nm lasers did not produce a significant improvement in infraorbital hyperpigmentation. A series of three treatments with the fractionated picosecond 755 nm laser resulted in significant improvement in hyperpigmentation. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:45-50, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The gemstone alexandrite is known for its feature to change color depending on the spectral quality of the incident light. Thus, the stone looks green when illuminated by white LED light but looks red when illuminated by incandescent light. This effect (alexandrite effect) is caused by a special relationship between the spectral quality of the incident light and the absorbance spectrum of the stone. Here we report an alexandrite-like effect in the petals of torenia and cyclamen flowers. These flowers are purple in sunlight but magenta (reddish) in incandescent light, and violet (bluish purple) in white LED light. The m-n, triangle and round diagrams are devised to calculate the colors of visible light spectra, based on the RGB color-matching function. Using these calculations, the alexandrite-like effect in purple flowers was successfully analyzed in terms of the interaction between the incident light spectrum and the absorbance spectrum of their purple anthocyanin. This analysis allows both logical and intuitive understanding of the colors exhibited by any object showing alexandrite–like properties. PMID:27404088
Wang, Chia-Chen; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Yang, An-Hang; Chen, Chih-Kang; Lee, Shao-Chen; Leu, Fur-Jiang
Cosmetic tattoos contain titanium and ferric oxide and darken through reduction after Q-switched laser irradiation. The optimal treatment for removing these pigments remains unknown. To compare the effects of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (SP Er:YAG) laser to remove cosmetic tattoos in an animal model. Rats were tattooed using white, flesh-colored, and brown inks (4 bands of each color) on their backs. For each color, one band was left untreated, and one each was treated with a Q-switched neodymium-doped YAG laser, a Q-switched alexandrite laser, and a SP Er:YAG laser every 3 weeks until the pigments were clear. The two Q-switched lasers were equally effective; all three pigments darkened initially and then resolved gradually. Up to 20, 18, and 10 sessions were required to remove white, flesh-colored, and brown tattoos, respectively. Only six sessions were required with the SP Er:YAG laser. Minimal scarring was observed with all lasers. Skin biopsies confirmed pigment granule fragmentation after Q-switched laser treatment and a decrease in the amount of pigment after SP Er:YAG laser treatment. The SP Er:YAG laser was superior to the Q-switched lasers for removing cosmetic tattoos. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
DeCoste, S D; Farinelli, W; Flotte, T; Anderson, R R
The use of a laser to weld tissue in combination with a topical photosensitizing dye permits selective delivery of energy to the target tissue. A combination of indocyanine green (IG), absorption peak 780 nm, and the near-infrared (IR) alexandrite laser was studied with albino guinea pig skin. IG was shown to bind to the outer 25 microns of guinea pig dermis and appeared to be bound to collagen. The optical transmittance of full-thickness guinea pig skin in the near IR was 40% indicating that the alexandrite laser should provide adequate tissue penetration. Laser "welding" of skin in vivo was achieved at various concentrations of IG from 0.03 to 3 mg/cc using the alexandrite at 780 nm, 250-microseconds pulse duration, 8 Hz, and a 4-mm spot size. A spectrum of welds was obtained from 1- to 20-W/cm2 average irradiance. Weak welds occurred with no thermal damage obtained at lower irradiances: stronger welds with thermal damage confined to the weld site occurred at higher irradiances. At still higher irradiances, local vaporization occurred with failure to "weld." Thus, there was an optimal range of irradiances for "welding," which varied inversely with dye concentration. Histology confirmed the thermal damage results that were evident clinically. IG dye-enhanced laser welding is possible in skin and with further optimization may have practical application.
Jahren, A. H.; Kruger, M. B.; Jeanloz, Raymond
The wavelength shifts of the R1 and R2 fluorescence lines of alexandrite (BeAl2O4:Cr(+3)) have been experimentally calibrated against the ruby-fluorescence scale as a function of both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic pressures between 0 and 50 GPa, and simultaneously as a function of temperatures between 290 and 550 K. It is found that the pressure-temperature cross derivative of the fluorescence wavelength shifts are negligible for both ruby and alexandrite.
Gayen, S. K.; Wang, W. B.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, R. R.
The first direct picosecond time-resolved measurement of the nonradiative transition dynamics between the excited 4T2 pump band and the metastable 2E storage level of the trivalent chromium ion in alexandrite is reported. The nonradiative relaxation times of 17 ps for intra-4T2 vibrational transitions, and 27 ps for 4T2-2E electronic transition are obtained. The thermal repopulation rate of the 4T2 state from the metastable 2E level is of the order 3.5 x 10 to the 9th per s.
Faghihi, Gita; Iraji, Fariba; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Saffar, Bahar; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Aslani, Abolfazl; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali
Hirsutism is one of the most prevalent health problems in women. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of 755 nm alexandrite hair removal laser with that of alexandrite laser plus topical licorice on the improvement of idiopathic hirsutism. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study was performed on 90 female subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: alexandrite laser plus 15% licorice gel (group A) and placebo (group B). Each subject received one of both products over one side of the face, twice daily for 24 weeks on the hirsute locations. Each group underwent five sessions of alexandrite laser at 6-week intervals. To minimize the effects of confounding variables, the test was performed on two separate zones of patients' skin. The mean ± SD numbers of terminal hairs in group A were 7.05 ± 4.55 for zone 1 and 6.06 ± 3.70 for zone 2. In group B, they were 3.18 ± 1.75 for zone 1 and 2.49 ± 1.63 for zone 2. The difference in the mean number of terminal hairs was statistically significant between the two groups (p < 0.001), and there were no serious adverse reactions. The treatment of idiopathic hirsutism with 755 nm alexandrite laser plus topical licorice is more effective than alexandrite laser only. PMID:26273313
Helou, Josiane; Haber, Roger; Kechichian, Elio; Tomb, Roland
Laser treatment is a widespread method for hair removal. Despite its very common use, side effects remain relatively rare and transient. Axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis have already been reported in the literature after depilatory lasers. We report here a novel side effect of total body bromhidrosis following hair removal laser. A 27-year-old man, phototype 3 underwent four sessions of total body depilatory laser, combining pulsed alexandrite and pulsed diode lasers. A few days afterwards, a generalized foul odor was noted and was resistant to regular deodorants and Aluminum chloride based antiperspirants. Possible mechanisms include the activation of dormant bacteria in the skin flora, sweat gland dysfunction, altered skin flora, sweat gland hormone receptor disturbances, and genetic factors. Total body bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis are potential complications of total body laser hair removal.
Ahn, K J; Kim, B J; Cho, S B
Laser therapy is the treatment of choice in tattoo removal. However, the precise mechanisms of laser-tattoo pigment interactions remain to be evaluated. We evaluated the geometric patterns of laser-tattoo pigment particle interactions using a tattoo pigment-embedded tissue-mimicking (TM) phantom. A Q-switched (QS) neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser was used at settings of 532-, 660-, and 1064-nm wavelengths, single-pulse and quick pulse-to-pulse treatment modes, and spot sizes of 4 and 7 mm. Most of the laser-tattoo interactions in the experimental conditions formed cocoon-shaped or oval photothermal and photoacoustic injury zones, which contained fragmented tattoo particles in various sizes depending on the conditions. In addition, a long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser was used at a spot size of 6 mm and pulse widths of 3, 5, and 10 ms. The finer granular pattern of tattoo destruction was observed in TM phantoms treated with 3- and 5-ms pulse durations compared to those treated with a 10-ms pulse. We outlined various patterns of laser-tattoo pigment interactions in a tattoo-embedded TM phantom to predict macroscopic tattoo and surrounding tissue reactions after laser treatment for tattoo removal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lecocq, C; Pirard, D; del Marmol, V; Berlingin, E
Albert Einstein is undoubtedly the father of lasers. But it is not until 1964 that the first dermatological lasers were introduced. The Nd-YAG laser, the CO2 laser were developed by Kumar Patel. In a 40 year period lasers not only were diversified but have also become safer and miniaturized. This article hopes to strengthen general practionners' and specialist's knowledge of the different categories of available lasers. The most frequently used ones are ablative lasers (CO2-Erbium), vascular lasers (Nd-YAG, KTP, pulsed dye laser) and the pigment lasers (Q-Switched Nd-YAG, Alexandrite). A description of these lasers and their indications in dermatology will be discussed.
Chen, Jennifer K.; Ghasri, Pedram; Aguilar, Guillermo; van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Kelly, Kristen M.; Heger, Michal
Port wine stains (PWS) are the most common vascular malformation of the skin, occurring in 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Noninvasive laser irradiation with flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye lasers (selective photothermolysis) currently comprises the gold standard treatment of PWS; however, the majority of PWS fail to clear completely after selective photothermolysis. In this review, the clinically used PWS treatment modalities (pulsed dye lasers, alexandrite lasers, neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers, and intense pulsed light) and techniques (combination approaches, multiple passes, and epidermal cooling) are discussed. Retrospective analysis of clinical studies published between 1990 and 2011 was performed to determine therapeutic efficacies for each clinically used modality/technique. In addition, factors that have resulted in the high degree of therapeutic recalcitrance are identified, and emerging experimental treatment strategies are addressed, including the use of photodynamic therapy, immunomodulators, angiogenesis inhibitors, hypobaric pressure, and site-specific pharmaco-laser therapy. PMID:22305042
Chen, Jennifer K; Ghasri, Pedram; Aguilar, Guillermo; van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Kelly, Kristen M; Heger, Michal
Port wine stains (PWS) are the most common vascular malformation of the skin, occurring in 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Noninvasive laser irradiation with flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye lasers (selective photothermolysis) currently comprises the gold standard treatment of PWS; however, the majority of PWS fail to clear completely after selective photothermolysis. In this review, the clinically used PWS treatment modalities (pulsed dye lasers, alexandrite lasers, neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers, and intense pulsed light) and techniques (combination approaches, multiple passes, and epidermal cooling) are discussed. Retrospective analysis of clinical studies published between 1990 and 2011 was performed to determine therapeutic efficacies for each clinically used modality/technique. In addition, factors that have resulted in the high degree of therapeutic recalcitrance are identified, and emerging experimental treatment strategies are addressed, including the use of photodynamic therapy, immunomodulators, angiogenesis inhibitors, hypobaric pressure, and site-specific pharmaco-laser therapy. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Fayne, Rachel A; Perper, Marina; Eber, Ariel E; Aldahan, Adam S; Nouri, Keyvan
Unwanted facial and body hair presents as a common finding in many patients, such as females with hirsutism. With advances in laser and light technology, a clinically significant reduction in hair can be achieved in patients with light skin. However, in patients with darker skin, Fitzpatrick skin types (FST) IV-VI, the higher melanin content of the skin interferes with the proposed mechanism of laser-induced selective photothermolysis, which is to target the melanin in the hair follicle to cause permanent destruction of hair bulge stem cells. Many prospective and retrospective studies have been conducted with laser and light hair-removal devices, but most exclude patients with darkly pigmented skin, considering them a high-risk group for unwanted side effects, including pigmentation changes, blisters, and crust formation. We reviewed the published literature to obtain studies that focused on hair reduction for darker skin types. The existing literature for this patient population identifies longer wavelengths as a key element of the treatment protocol and indicates neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), diode, alexandrite, and ruby lasers as well as certain intense pulsed light sources for safe hair reduction with minimal side effects in patients with FST IV-VI, so long as energy settings and wavelengths are appropriate. Based on the findings in this review, safe and effective hair reduction for patients with FST IV-VI is achievable under proper treatment protocols and energy settings.
Colditz, I G; Cox, T; Small, A H
To assess whether human laser epilation technology can permanently prevent wool growth in sheep. An observational study. Two commercial human epilation lasers (Sharplan alexandrite 755 nm laser, and Lumenis LightSheer 800 nm diode laser) were tested at energies between 10 and 100 J/cm2 and pulse widths from 2 to 400 ms. Wool was clipped from flank, breech, pizzle and around the eyes of superfine Merino sheep with Oster clippers. After initial laser removal of residual wool to reveal bare skin, individual skin sites were treated with up to 15 cycles of laser irradiation. Behavioural responses during treatment, skin temperature immediately after treatment and skin and wool responses for 3 months after treatment were monitored. A clear transudate was evident on the skin surface within minutes. A dry superficial scab developed by 24 h and remained adherent for at least 6 weeks. When scabs were shed, there was evidence of scarring at sites receiving multiple treatment cycles and normal wool growth in unscarred skin. There was no evidence of laser energy level or pulse width affecting the response of skin and wool to treatment and no evidence of permanent inhibition of wool growth by laser treatment. Laser treatment was well tolerated by the sheep. Treatment of woolled skin with laser parameters that induce epilation by selective photothermolysis in humans failed to induce permanent inhibition of wool growth in sheep. Absence of melanin in wool may have contributed to the result. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.
When the laser was first applied in medicine and surgery in the late 1960"s and early 1970"s, early adopters reported better wound healing and less postoperative pain with laser procedures compared with the same procedure performed with the cold scalpel or with electrothermy, and multiple surgical effects such as incision, vaporization and hemocoagulation could be achieved with the same laser beam. There was thus an added beneficial component which was associated only with laser surgery. This was first recognized as the `?-effect", was then classified by the author as simultaneous laser therapy, but is now more accurately classified by the author as part of the auto-simultaneous aspect of laser treatment. Indeed, with the dramatic increase of the applications of the laser in surgery and medicine over the last 2 decades there has been a parallel increase in the need for a standardized classification of laser treatment. Some classifications have been machine-based, and thus inaccurate because at appropriate parameters, a `low-power laser" can produce a surgical effect and a `high power laser", a therapeutic one . A more accurate classification based on the tissue reaction is presented, developed by the author. In addition to this, the author has devised a graphical representation of laser surgical and therapeutic beams whereby the laser type, parameters, penetration depth, and tissue reaction can all be shown in a single illustration, which the author has termed the `Laser Apple", due to the typical pattern generated when a laser beam is incident on tissue. Laser/tissue reactions fall into three broad groups. If the photoreaction in the tissue is irreversible, then it is classified as high-reactive level laser treatment (HLLT). If some irreversible damage occurs together with reversible photodamage, as in tissue welding, the author refers to this as mid-reactive level laser treatment (MLLT). If the level of reaction in the target tissue is lower than the cells
Choudhary, Sonal; Elsaie, Mohamed L; Leiva, Angel; Nouri, Keyvan
Tattoos have existed and have been used as an expression of art by man for ages-and so have the techniques to remove them. Lasers based on the principle of selective photothermolysis are now being used to remove black as well as colorful tattoos with varying successes. The commonly used lasers for tattoo removal are the Q-switched 694-nm ruby laser, the Q-switched 755-nm alexandrite laser, the 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser, and the 532-nm Nd:YAG laser. Newer techniques and methods are evolving in tattoo removal with lasers. Choosing the right laser for the right tattoo color is necessary for a successful outcome. Our review aims to understand the principles of laser tattoo removal and their applications for different types and colors of tattoos. The review also highlights the complications that can occur such as dyspigmentation, allergic reactions, epidermal debris, ink darkening, and so on, in this process and how to prevent them.
Wölz, Martin; Zorn, Martin; Pietrzak, Agnieszka; Kindsvater, Alex; Meusel, Jens; Hülsewede, Ralf; Sebastian, Jürgen
A new high-power semiconductor laser diode module, emitting at 760 nm is introduced. This wavelength permits optimum treatment results for fair skin individuals, as demonstrated by the use of Alexandrite lasers in dermatology. Hair removal applications benefit from the industry-standard diode laser design utilizing highly efficient, portable and light-weight construction. We show the performance of a tap-water-cooled encapsulated laser diode stack with a window for use in dermatological hand-pieces. The stack design takes into account the pulse lengths required for selectivity in heating the hair follicle vs. the skin. Super-long pulse durations place the hair removal laser between industry-standard CW and QCW applications. The new 760 nm laser diode bars are 30% fill factor devices with 1.5 mm long resonator cavities. At CW operation, these units provide 40 W of optical power at 43 A with wall-plug-efficiency greater than 50%. The maximum output power before COMD is 90 W. Lifetime measurements starting at 40 W show an optical power loss of 20% after about 3000 h. The hair removal modules are available in 1x3, 1x8 and 2x8 bar configurations.
Gayen, S. K.; Wang, W. B.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, R. R.
The characteristics of nonradiative transitions between the 4T2 and 2E excited states of trivalent-chromium-ion-activated ruby (containing 0.04 percent Cr2O3 by weight) and alexandrite (containing 0.4 at. percent chromium ion) laser crystals were studied using the technique described by Gayen et al. (1985). In this technique, a 527-nm pulse excites the 4T2 band of the Cr(3+), and the subsequent population kinetics among excited states is monitored by an IR picosecond probe pulse as a function of pump-probe delay. In ruby, a resolution-limited sharp rise in the excited state population was followed by a long-lifetime decay, leading to an upper limit of 7 ps for the 4T2-state nonradiative lifetime. In alexandrite, a longer rise time was followed by a multicomponent decay. A theoretical model is proposed for explaining the induced absorption and the transition dynamics observed in these crystals.
Buddhadev, Rajesh M
Laser-assisted hair removal, Laser hair removal, Laser and light-assisted hair removal, Laser and light-assisted, long-term hair reduction, IPL photodepilation, LHE photodepilation; all these are acceptable synonyms. Laser (Ruby, Nd Yag, Alexandrite, Diode), intense pulse light, light and heat energy system are the different light-/Laser-based systems used for hair removal; each have its advantages and disadvantages. The word "LONG-TERM HAIR REDUCTION" should be used rather than permanent hair removal. Patient counseling is essential about the need for multiple sessions. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Laser hair removal may be practiced by any dermatologist, who has received adequate background training during postgraduation or later at a centre that provides education and training in Lasers or in focused workshops providing such training. The dermatologist should have adequate knowledge of the machines, the parameters and aftercare. The physician may allow the actual procedure to be performed under his/her direct supervision by a trained nurse assistant/junior doctor. However, the final responsibility for the procedure would lie with the physician. The procedure may be performed in the physician's minor procedure room. Investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair growth are important; concurrent drug therapy may be needed. Laser parameters vary with area, type of hair, and the machine used. Full knowledge about the machine and cooling system is important. Future maintenance treatments may be needed.
Klosner, M.; Wu, C.; Heller, D. F.
We present work on a laser system operating in the near- and mid-IR spectral regions, having output characteristics designed to be optimal for cutting various tissue types. We provide a brief overview of laser-tissue interactions and the importance of controlling certain properties of the light beam. We describe the principle of operation of the laser system, which is generally based on a wavelength-tunable alexandrite laser oscillator/amplifier, and multiple Raman conversion stages. This configuration provides robust access to the mid-IR spectral region at wavelengths, pulse energies, pulse durations, and repetition rates that are attractive for neurosurgical applications. We summarize results for ultra-precise selective cutting of nerve sheaths and retinas with little collateral damage; this has applications in procedures such as optic-nerve-sheath fenestration and possible spinal repair. We also report results for cutting cornea, and dermal tissues.
Bordage, Amélie; Rossano, Stéphanie; Horn, Adolf Heinrich; Fuchs, Yves
X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at the Cr K-edge of a trichroic crystal of alexandrite BeAl2O4:Cr3+ for different orientations of the crystal with respect to the polarization and direction of the x-ray incident beam have been performed. Analysis of the experimental spectra with the help of first-principles calculations of x-ray absorption spectra allowed us to estimate the proportion of chromium Cr3+ cations among the two different octahedral sites of the alexandrite structure (70% in the Cs site-30% in the Ci site). The methodology presented in this work opens up new possibilities in the field of mineralogy for the study of complex minerals containing several sites potentially occupied by several transition elements or for solid solutions.
Black, John F.; Tate, Tyler; Keenan, Molly; Swan, Elizabeth; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer
The properties of multi-spectral fluorescence imaging using deep-UV-illumination have recently been explored using a fiber-coupled thermal source at 280 nm. The resulting images show a remarkable level of contrast thought to result from the signal being overwhelmingly generated in the uppermost few cell layers of tissue, making this approach valuable for the study of diseases that originate in the endothelial tissues of the body. With a view to extending the technique with new wavelengths, and improving beam quality for efficient small core fiber coupling we have developed a mobile self-contained tunable solid-state laser source of deep UV light. An alexandrite laser, lasing at around 750 nm is frequency doubled to produce 375 nm and then tripled to produce 250 nm light. An optical deck added to the system allows other laser sources to be incorporated into the UV beam-line and a lens system has been designed to couple these sources into a single delivery fiber with core diameters down to 50 microns. Our system incorporates five wavelengths [250 nm, 375 nm, 442 nm (HeCd), 543 nm (HeNe) and 638 nm (diode laser)] as the illumination source for a small diameter falloposcope designed for the study of the distal Fallopian tube origins of high grade serous ovarian cancer. The tunability of alexandrite offers the potential to generate other wavelengths in the 720-800, 360-400 and 240-265 nm ranges, plus other non-linear optical conversion techniques taking advantage of the high peak powers of the laser.
Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Krupke, W.F.
Chromium doped colquiriite, LiCaAlF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3 +/, is useful as a tunable laser crystal that has a high intrinsic slope efficiency, comparable to or exceeding that of alexandrite, the current leading performer of vibronic sideband Cr/sup 3 +/ lasers. The laser output is tunable from at least 720 nm to 840 nm with a measured slope efficiency of about 60% in a Kr laser pumped laser configuration. The intrinsic slope efficiency (in the limit of large output coupling) may approach the quantum defect limited value of 83%. The high slope efficiency implies that excited state absorption (ESA) is negligible. The potential for efficiency and the tuning range of this material satisfy the requirements for a pump laser for a high density storage medium incorporating Nd/sup 3 +/ or Tm/sup 3 +/ for use in a multimegajoule single shot fusion research facility. 4 figs.
Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, Lloyd L.; Newkirk, Herbert W.; Krupke, William F.
Chromium doped colquiriite, LiCaAlF.sub.6 :Cr.sup.3+, is useful as a tunable laser crystal that has a high intrinsic slope efficiency, comparable to or exceeding that of alexandrite, the current leading performer of vibronic sideband Cr.sup.3+ lasers. The laser output is tunable from at least 720 nm to 840 nm with a measured slop efficiency of about 60% in a Kr laser pumped laser configuration. The intrinsic slope efficiency (in the limit of large output coupling) may approach the quantum defect limited value of 83%. The high slope efficiency implies that excited state absorption (ESA) is negligible. The potential for efficiency and the tuning range of this material satisfy the requirements for a pump laser for a high density storage medium incorporating Nd.sup.3+ or Tm.sup.3+ for use in a multimegajoule single shot fusion research facility.
de Riese, Cornelia
This presentation is designed as a brief overview of laser use in gynecology, for non-medical researchers involved in development of new laser techniques. The literature of the past decade is reviewed. Differences in penetration, absorption, and suitable delivery media for the beams dictate clinical application. The use of CO2 laser in the treatment of uterine cervical intraepithelial lesions is well established and indications as well as techniques have not changed over 30 years. The Cochrane Systematic Review from 2000 suggests no obviously superior technique. CO2 laser ablation of the vagina is also established as a safe treatment modality for VAIN. CO2 laser permits treatment of lesions with excellent cosmetic and functional results. The treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding by destruction of the endometrial lining using various techniques has been the subject of a 2002 Cochran Database Review. Among the compared treatment modalities are newer and modified laser techniques. Conclusion by reviewers is that outcomes and complication profiles of newer techniques compare favorably with the gold standard of endometrial resection. The ELITT diode laser system is one of the new successful additions. CO2 laser is also the dominant laser type used with laparoscopy for ablation of endometriotic implants. Myoma coagulation or myolysis with Nd:Yag laser through the laparoscope or hysteroscope is a conservative treatment option. Even MRI guided percutaneous approaches have been described. No long-term data are available.
Vogelmann, H.; Trickl, T.; Perfahl, M.; Biggel, S.
Recently, we quantified the very high spatio-temporal short term variability of tropospheric water vapor in a three dimensional study . From a technical point of view this also depicted the general requirement of short integration times for recording water-vapor profiles with lidar. For this purpose, the only suitable technique is the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) working in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region. The laser emission of most water vapor DIAL systems is generated by Ti:sapphire or alexandrite lasers. The water vapor absorption band at 817 nm is predominated for the use of Ti:sapphire. We present a new concept of transversely pumping in a Ti:Sapphire amplification stage as well as a compact laser design for the generation of single mode NIR pulses with two different DIAL wavelengths inside a single resonator. This laser concept allows for high output power due to repetitions rates up to 100Hz or even more. It is, because of its compactness, also suitable for mobile applications.
Lisitsyn, V.N.; Matrosov, V.N.; Pestryakov, E.V.
Results are reported of investigations aimed at generating nanosecond radiation pulses in solid-state lasers using new active media having broad gain lines. Passive mode locking is accomplished for the first time in a BeLa:Nd/sup 3/ laser at a wavelength 1.354 microm, and in a YAG:Nd/sup 3/ laser on a 1.32-microm transition. The free lasing and mode-locking regimes were investigated in an alexandrite (BeA1/sub 2/O/sub 4/:Cr/sup 3/) laser in the 0.72-0.78-microm range and in a synchronously pumped laser on F/sub 2//sup -/ centers in LiF in the 1.12-1.24-microm region. The features of nonlinear perception of IR radiation by the eye, usingmore » a developed picosecond laser on F/sub 2//sup -/ centers, are investigated for the first time.« less
... Cancer Treatment On This Page What is laser light? What is laser therapy, and how is it ... future hold for laser therapy? What is laser light? The term “ laser ” stands for light amplification by ...
Hwang, In H.; Lee, Ja H.
The authors consider the relation between the threshold pumping intensity, the material properties, the resonator parameters, and the ultimate slope efficiencies of various solid-state laser materials for solar pumping. They clarify the relation between the threshold pump intensity and the material parameters and the relation between the ultimate slope efficiency and the laser resonator parameters such that a design criterion for the solar-pumped solid-state laser can be established. Among the laser materials evaluated, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6 percent; however, it does not seem to be practical for a solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AM0) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12 percent when thermal deformation is completely prevented.
Poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been described as the common diagnosis for hirsutism in women. Facial hirsutism is by far the most distressing symptom of hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. A statistically significant improvement in psychological well-being has been reported in patients with PCOS allocated for laser-assisted hair removal. The theory of selective photothermolysis has revolutionized laser hair removal in that it is effective and safe, when operated by sufficiently trained and experienced professionals. Long-pulsed ruby (694 nm), long-pulsed alexandrite (755 nm), diode (800-980 nm), and long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) are commercially available laser devices for hair removal most widely studied. This article will introduce the fundamentals and mechanism of action of lasers in hair removal, in a contemporary literature review looking at medium to long term efficacy and safety profiles of various laser hair removal modalities most widely commercially available to date.
Damzen, M. J.; Thomas, G. M.; Teppitaksak, A.; Minassian, A.
Satellite-based remote sensing using laser-based lidar techniques provides a powerful tool for global 3-D mapping of atmospheric species (e.g. CO2, ozone, clouds, aerosols), physical attributes of the atmosphere (e.g. temperature, wind speed), and spectral indicators of Earth features (e.g. vegetation, water). Such information provides a valuable source for weather prediction, understanding of climate change, atmospheric science and health of the Earth eco-system. Similarly, laser-based altimetry can provide high precision ground topography mapping and more complex 3-D mapping (e.g. canopy height profiling). The lidar technique requires use of cutting-edge laser technologies and engineered designs that are capable of enduring the space environment over the mission lifetime. The laser must operate with suitably high electrical-to-optical efficiency and risk reduction strategy adopted to mitigate against laser failure or excessive operational degradation of laser performance.
Brightman, Lori A; Geronemus, Roy G; Reddy, Kavitha K
Port-wine stains are a type of capillary malformation affecting 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Port-wine stains present at birth as pink to erythematous patches on the skin and/or mucosa. Without treatment, the patches typically darken with age and may eventually develop nodular thickening or associated pyogenic granuloma. Laser and light treatments provide improvement through selective destruction of vasculature. A variety of vascular-selective lasers may be employed, with the pulsed dye laser being the most common and well studied. Early treatment produces more optimal results. Advances in imaging and laser treatment technologies demonstrate potential to further improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25624768
Wilkerson, Thomas D.
The main thrust of the program was the study of stimulated Raman processes for application to atmospheric lidar measurements. This has involved the development of tunable lasers, the detailed study of stimulated Raman scattering, and the use of the Raman-shifted light for new measurements of molecular line strengths and line widths. The principal spectral region explored in this work was the visible and near-IR wavelengths between 500 nm and 1.5 microns. Recent alexandrite ring laser experiments are reported. The experiments involved diode injection-locking, Raman shifting, and frequency-doubling. The experiments succeeded in producing tunable light at 577 and 937 nm with line widths in the range 80-160 MHz.
Sarmadi, R; Hedman, E; Gabre, P
The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of patient's experiences and perspectives after dental caries treatment with Er:YAG laser technology. Twelve patients aged 15-30 years who had undergone at least one laser caries excavation agreed to participate in an interview study. All the interviews were tape recorded and transcribed by a transcription agency. The transcribed texts were analysed using manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The categories in this study were identified as choosing laser, understanding laser, encouraging dental care and my oral health. The motivation for laser treatment was described as dental fear in general, specific fear of needles or discomfort with the drill. The informants described the dentist's role as initiators of treatment and willing or unwilling facilitators. Laser treatment was described as safer and more carefully considered treatment. They felt generally safe with laser and were able to relax during the treatment. All interviewers described a positive impression of the laser, and words like 'up to date' and 'future-oriented' were used to describe laser. Laser treatment was considered less painful. The results indicate that patients find laser a feasible and convenient treatment option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lask, Gary P.; Lee, Patrick K.; Seyfzadeh, Manouchehr; Nelson, J. Stuart; Milner, Thomas E.; Anvari, Bahman; Dave, Digant P.; Geronemus, Roy G.; Bernstein, Leonard J.; Mittelman, Harry; Ridener, Laurie A.; Coulson, Walter F.; Sand, Bruce; Baumgarder, Jon; Hennings, David R.; Menefee, Richard F.; Berry, Michael J.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the New Star Model 130 neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser system for nonablative laser treatment of facial rhytides (e.g., periorbital wrinkles). Facial rhytides are treated with 1.32 micrometer wavelength laser light delivered through a fiberoptic handpiece into a 5 mm diameter spot using three 300 microsecond duration pulses at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency and pulse radiant exposures extending up to 12 J/cm2. Dynamic cooling is used to cool the epidermis selectively prior to laser treatment; animal histology experiments confirm that dynamic cooling combined with nonablative laser heating protects the epidermis and selectively injures the dermis. In the human clinical study, immediately post-treatment, treated sites exhibit mild erythema and, in a few cases, edema or small blisters. There are no long-term complications such as marked dyspigmentation and persistent erythema that are commonly observed following ablative laser skin resurfacing. Preliminary results indicate that the severity of facial rhytides has been reduced, but long-term follow-up examinations are needed to quantify the reduction. The mechanism of action of this nonablative laser treatment modality may involve dermal wound healing that leads to long- term synthesis of new collagen and extracellular matrix material.
Mitsunaga, S; Iwai, T; Kitajima, H; Yajima, Y; Ohya, T; Hirota, M; Mitsudo, K; Aoki, N; Yamashita, Y; Omura, S; Tohnai, I
Cervicofacial subcutaneous emphysema is a rare complication of dental procedures. Although most cases of emphysema occur incidentally with the use of a high-speed air turbine handpiece, there have been some reports over the past decade of cases caused by dental laser treatment. Emphysema as a complication caused by the air cooling spray of a dental laser is not well known, even though dental lasers utilize compressed air just as air turbines and syringes do. In this study, we comprehensively reviewed cases of emphysema attributed to dental laser treatment that appeared in the literature between January 2001 and September 2012, and we included three such cases referred to us. Among 13 cases identified in total, nine had cervicofacial subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema. Compared with past reviews, the incidence of mediastinal emphysema caused by dental laser treatment was higher than emphysema caused by dental procedure without dental laser use. Eight patients underwent CO2 laser treatment and two underwent Er:YAG laser treatment. Nine patients had emphysema following laser irradiation for soft tissue incision. Dentists and oral surgeons should be cognizant of the potential risk for iatrogenic emphysema caused by the air cooling spray during dental laser treatment and ensure proper usage of lasers. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.
Fried, Nathaniel M
The recent introduction of higher power 100 W holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) and 80 W potassium titanyl phosphate lasers for rapid incision and vaporization of the prostate has resulted in renewed interest in the use of lasers for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although long-term studies are still lacking, short-term results demonstrate that these procedures are at least as safe and effective in relieving BPH symptoms as transurethral resection of the prostate and may provide reduced morbidity. Other laser techniques, such as interstitial laser coagulation and contact laser vaporization of the prostate, have lost popularity due to complications with increased catheterization time, irritative symptoms, and infection rates. Although Ho:YAG laser enucleation of the prostate is more difficult to learn and a slower procedure than potassium titanyl phosphate laser vaporization, the Ho:YAG laser is currently the most proven laser technique for BPH treatment. This article reviews the latest developments in laser treatment of BPH over the past 2 years and provides a view toward the future of lasers in the treatment of BPH.
Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen
Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.
The first Chinese ruby laser was created in 1961 and it was adopted for the retina coagulation experiment in 1965. Since 1970's, lasers had been widely applied clinically including the diseases suitable to physical therapy or acupuncture. The Chinese HpD was first produced in 1981 and first case of PDT was treated using Chinese HpD and Chinese lasers in the same year. Its success brought attention establishing a research group supported by the government in 1982. A nationwide systemic research project on PDT was then carried out. The step taken for PDT also accelerated the development of various fields of laser medicine and surgery. Laser treatments had been commonly adopted in the clinics and hospitals for the diseases of the superficial lesions and the lesions can be reached by the endoscopes non-invasively in 1980's. Since 1990's, the interventional laser therapies adopted mainly were percutaneous laser angioplasty, laser treatments through laparoscope, thoracoscope, arthroscope, neuro-endoscope etc. Ultrasound guided percutaneous laser heat coagulation for small hepatic cancer revealed good results and ultrasound guided percutaneous PDT for advanced large liver cancer revealed unexpected results after five years follow-up. At present: There are more long-term follow-up patients in the clinical trial; more advanced commercial available lasers and new techniques are adopted. Since the popularization of scanning electron microscope, laser scanning confocal microscope, laser induced auto-fluorescence system, high sensitivity fluorescence microscopic imaging system etc. in the laboratories, the basic studies can be more advanced and some times, the sub-cellular level can be reached; ultra-structure histo-morphology and gene studies are involved. In dermatology, Q-switched Alexandrite laser and other Q-switched lasers are used mainly for the treatment of skin pigmentation and vascular diseases; pulsed dye laser, ultra-pulsed CO2 laser are used in resurfacing, facial
Nguyen, Jannett; Korta, Dorota Z; Chapman, Lance W; Kelly, Kristen M
Although cutaneous warts are common lesions, full remission is not always achieved with conventional therapies. Laser modalities including carbon dioxide (CO2), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG), pulsed dye (PDL), and Nd:YAG have been investigated as alternative treatments for warts. To review the use and efficacy of lasers for treating nongenital cutaneous warts. Published randomized clinical trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case series, and case reports involving laser treatment of nongenital warts were retrieved by searching PubMed with no date limits. Quality ratings of studies were based on a modified version of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine scheme for rating individual studies. A higher emphasis was placed on RCTs and prospective cohort studies with large sample sizes and detailed methodology. There were 35 studies published between 1989 and 2015 that comprised an aggregate of 2149 patients. Simple and recalcitrant nongenital warts treated with lasers show variable response rates (CO2 laser, 50%-100%; Er:YAG laser, 72%-100%; PDL, 47%-100%; and Nd:YAG laser, 46%-100%). Current RCTs suggest that PDL is equivalent to conventional therapies such as cryotherapy and cantharidin. Combination therapies with lasers and other agents including bleomycin, salicylic acid, and light-emitting diode have shown some success. Lasers can be an effective treatment option for both simple and recalcitrant warts. The lasers most studied for this purpose are CO2, PDL, and Nd:YAG, and of these, PDL has the fewest adverse effects. Currently, use of lasers for wart treatment is limited by lack of established treatment guidelines. Future studies are needed to compare laser modalities with each other and with nonlaser treatment options, and to establish optimal treatment protocols.
Nguyen, Jannett; Chapman, Lance W; Korta, Dorota Z; Zachary, Christopher B
Angiokeratomas can present therapeutic challenges, especially in cases of extensive lesions, where traditional surgical methods carry high risks of scarring and hemorrhage. Argon, pulsed dye (PDL), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), copper vapor, potassium titanyl phosphate, carbon dioxide, and erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) lasers have emerged as alternative options. To review the use and efficacy of lasers in treating angiokeratomas. A PubMed search identified randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, case series, and case reports involving laser treatment of cutaneous angiokeratomas. Twenty-five studies were included. Quality ratings were assigned using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine scheme. Several laser modalities are effective in treating multiple variants of angiokeratomas. Vascular lasers like PDL, Nd:YAG, and argon are the most studied and of these, PDL offers the safest side effect profile. Nd:YAG may be more effective for hyperkeratotic angiokeratomas. Combination treatment with multiple laser modalities has also demonstrated some success. Lasers are a promising treatment option for angiokeratomas, but current use is limited by the lack of treatment guidelines. There are limited high quality studies comparing laser treatments to each other and to non-laser options. Additional studies are needed to establish guidelines and to optimize laser parameters. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chinnadurai, Sivakumar; Sathe, Nila A; Surawicz, Tanya
To systematically review studies of laser treatment of infantile hemangioma (IH). We searched multiple databases including MEDLINE® and EMBASE from 1982 to June 2015. Two investigators independently screened studies against predetermined criteria and extracted key data. Investigators independently assessed study risk of bias and the strength of the evidence of the body of literature. We identified 29 studies addressing lasers: 4 randomized controlled trials, 8 retrospective cohort studies, and 17 case series. Lasers varied across studies in type, pulse width, or cooling materials. Most comparative studies (n = 9) assessed variations of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and examined heterogeneous endpoints. Most studies reported on treatment of cutaneous lesions. Overall, longer pulse PDL with epidermal cooling was the most commonly used laser for cutaneous lesions; Nd:YAG was the most commonly used intralesionally. Most studies reported a higher success rate with longer pulse PDL compared with observation in managing the size of IH, although the magnitude of effect differed substantially. CO2 laser was used for subglottic IH in a single study, and was noted to have a higher success rate and lower complication rate than both Nd:YAG and observation. Studies comparing laser with β-blockers or in combination with β-blockers reported greater improvements in lesion size in combination arms versus β-blockers alone and greater effects of lasers on mixed superficial and deep IH. Strength of the evidence for outcomes after laser treatments ranged from insufficient to low for effectiveness outcomes. Strength of the evidence was insufficient for the effects of laser compared with β-blockers or in combination with β-blockers as studies evaluated different agents and laser types. Studies assessing outcomes after CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers typically reported some resolution of lesion size, but heterogeneity among studies limits our abilities to draw conclusions. Studies of laser
Ashnagar, Sajjad; Nowzari, Hessam; Nokhbatolfoghahaei, Hanieh; Yaghoub Zadeh, Behnoush; Chiniforush, Nasim; Choukhachi Zadeh, Nastaran
Peri-implantitis is a state defined as an inflammatory reaction around osseointegrated implants, leading to progressive loss of supporting bone. Various treatment methods are suggested in the treatment of peri-implantitis and clinicians have to choose a method over a large number of treatment protocols. Lasers have shown promising therapeutic effect in treatment of peri-implantitis. However, some controversies have been found in clinical outcomes after using lasers. Therefore, we aimed to review the current literature over the past ten years for the use of lasers in treatment of peri-implantitis, via the Pubmed electronic database of the US National Library of Medicine. Fifteen human studies were reviewed. Er:YAG (Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet), CO2(Carbon Dioxide Laser) and Diode lasers were used. Despite inconsistencies and disharmonies among studies in terms of study design, positive treatment outcomes were obvious among the majority of them. However, short period of follow-ups and poor control of plaque index, as a critical confounding factor, were the major problems which these studies suffered from. It seems that one session laser therapy is not adequate for achieving optimal clinical outcome. Further studies with longer periods of follow-ups, intense control of plaque index, and various sessions of laser treatments are needed to clearly illustrate the clinical privilege of laser therapy. PMID:25653815
Halm, R.; Kupper, Th.; Fischer, A.
Gridded reflectors are used on communication satellites antennas to provide frequency reuse in dual linear polarisation mode of operation. The polarisation sensitive surface consists of metallic strips, forming a grid with width and spacings of the order of 0.1 mm. The use of frequency-selective surface (FSS) subreflectors allows the simultaneous generation of different microwave beams with the same main reflector. Such a reflector will require a structure of conductive arrays of either dipoles, rings, squares or square loops with typical dimensions of the order of 3-6 mm. Optimisation of the electrical design leads to critical dimensioning of these structures. By direct ablation of an aluminium surface coating by means of laser evaporation, high accuracies can be achieved. The major requirements were to minimize thermal damage of the substrate material and to produce dimensionally accurate grids. Experiments were carried out using a pulsed TEA-CO2 laser and a Q-switched Alexandrite laser. Details of the experimental set-up and conditions are described.
Wang, Di; Wang, Yi-Ding; Liu, Bing-Chun
We propose the treatment of amblyopia using yellow-green laser diodes. There are amblyopia children in excess of fifty million in the world. Because the causative agent of amblyopia hasn't been well understood,only roughly considered to be concerned with visual sense cell, optic nerve network and function of nerve center, no appropriate treatment is found up to date. The vision of person is determined by the center hollow region of retina, where there are three kinds of cone cell. The corresponding peak wavelength in absorption spectrum locates 447nm (blue light), 532nm (green light) and 565nm (yellow light), respectively. When stimulated by white light, excited degree of three kinds of cone cell are identical,or yellow-green light, to which person eye is most sensitive, will significantly takes effects. Therefore the yellow-green laser diode is suitable for treating amblyopia. The weak laser, namely laser power less than mW order of magnitude, shows curative by stimulating bion tissue. When stimulating light power density is less than 0.001W/cm, the compounding speed of nucleic acid DNA is significantly increased. The growth rate of cell, activity of enzyme, content of hemoglobin and the growth of blood vessel, are all increased. However, it's key to control the dose of light. When the dose transcend some value, a inhibition will occur. The little dose of weak laser treatment can be accumulated with a parabolic characteristics, that is the weak laser generate bion response stengthening gradually versus time. Then it will weaken gradually after the peak. When the treatment duration is longer than a certain time, a inhibition also takes place. A suggested theraphy is characterized by little dose and short treatment course. In a conclusion, the yellow-green laser diode should be used for the treatment of amblyopia. The little dose and short treatment couse are to be adopted. Key words:treatment amblyopia laser diode
AD Treatment of Laser Induced Retinal Injuries0 0 " Midterm Report (September 30, 1987 through March 31, 1989) .rj1- .I N. Naveh, M.D. Michael Belkin...208 11. TITLE (Incude Secunty Olasufiation) Treatment of Laser Induced Retinal Injuries 12. PERSONAL. AUTHOR(S) M. Belkin, NJ. Naveh 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...enhancement in arachidonic acid metabolism and that steroid treatment curtailed this response. In the prsent study we investigated the involvement of
LaRosa, C; Chiaravalloti, A; Jinna, S; Berger, W; Finch, J
Laser treatment is a relatively new and increasingly popular modality for the treatment of many dermatologic conditions. A number of conditions that predominantly occur in women and that have a paucity of effective treatments include rosacea, connective tissue disease, melasma, nevus of Ota, lichen sclerosus (LS), notalgia paresthetica and macular amyloidosis, and syringomas. Laser therapy is an important option for the treatment of patients with these conditions. This article will review the body of literature that exists for the laser treatment of women with these medical conditions.
Iakovlev, Alexey; Ruzankina, Julia; Kascheev, Sergey; Vasilyev, Oleg; Parfenov, V.; Grishkanich, Alexsandr
Metal corrosion is the main problem of all metal constructions and buildings. Annual losses resulting from corrosion in industrialized countries are estimated in the range from 2% to 4 % of gross national product. We used a CW fiber laser with the wavelength of 1064 nm and a power up to 18,4 W for laser irradiation of metal surfaces. We report on the optimal treatment of the metal corrosion with laser power density in the range of 93,3÷ 95,5 W/cm2. After the process of laser treatment of steel surface we observe decreased roughness of steel and a small change in its chemical composition. There was an active research of new ways to improve the surface properties of metals and to increase the corrosion resistance. One of the breakthrough methods to protect the material against corrosion is laser treatment. We used a CW fiber laser operating at 1064 nm with up to 18,4 W output power. Experimentally, the samples (steel plates) were irradiated by laser for 35 seconds. Surface treatment of metal was provided at a room temperature and a relative air humidity of 55%. The impact of laser radiation on the surface has contributed to a small change of its chemical composition. It forms protective fluoride coating on the metal surface. The laser radiation significantly increased the concentration of fluorine in the metal from 0.01 atom. % to 5.24 atom. %. The surface roughness of steel has changed from 3.66 μ to 2.66 μ. Protective coatings with best resistance to corrosion were obtained with laser power density in a range of 93.3 W/cm2 to 95.5 W/cm2.
McMillan, Kathleen; Pankratov, Michail M.; Wang, Zhi; Bottrill, Ian; Rebeiz, Elie E.; Shapshay, Stanley M.
Ten to fifteen thousand new cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) are diagnosed each year in the United States. RRP is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and is characterized by recurrent, non-malignant, proliferative lesions of the larynx. Patients with RRP undergo numerous microsurgical procedures to remove laryngeal papilloma threatening airway patency and interfering with phonation. The standard surgical technique involves CO2 laser vaporization of laryngeal epithelium affected by the lesions, and requires general anesthesia. The pulsed dye laser operating at 585 nm has previously been demonstrated to be effective in clearing HPV lesions of the skin (verrucae). For treatment of RRP, the fiber- compatible pulsed dye laser radiation may be delivered under local anesthesia using a flexible intranasal laryngoscope. Potential advantages of the pulsed dye laser treatment over CO2 laser surgery include (1) reduced morbidity, especially a lower risk of laryngeal scarring; (2) lower cost; (3) reduced technical difficulty; and (4) reduced risk of viral dissemination or transmission. In vivo studies are underway to determine the effect of pulsed dye laser radiation on normal canine laryngeal tissue.
Neukam, F. W.; Stelzle, F.
Cancer treatment is an integral part of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral cancer in particular is a highly prevalent neoplasm. Standard treatment for most of the tumors is radical surgery combined with stage-based neo-/adjuvant therapy. Laser surgery has become a reliable treatment option for oral cancer as well as for precancerous lesions. Widely used lasers in oral and maxillofacial tumor surgery are the CO2 laser, the Er:YAG laser, the Nd:YAG laser and the KTM laser. The use of lasers in tumor surgery has several advantages: remote application, precise cutting, hemostasis, low cicatrization, reduced postoperative pain and swelling, can be combined with endoscopic, microscopic and robotic surgery. However, laser surgery has some major drawbacks: In contrast to conventional incisions with scalpels, the surgeon gets no feedback during laser ablation. There is no depth sensation and no tissue specificity with a laser incision, increasing the risk of iatrogenic damage to nerves and major blood vessels. Future prospects may solve these problems by means of an optical feedback mechanism that provides a tissue-specific laser ablation. First attempts have been made to perform remote optical tissue differentiation. Additionally, real time optical tumor detection during laser surgery would allow for a very precise and straight forward cancer resection, enhancing organ preservation and hence the quality of life for patients with cancer in the head and neck region.
Osman, Mai Abdel Raouf; Kassab, Ahmed Nazmi
A verrucous epidermal nevus (VEN) is a skin disorder that has been treated using different treatment modalities with varying results. Ablative lasers such as carbon dioxide laser (CO 2 ) and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser have been considered as the gold standard for the treatment of epidermal nevi. To evaluate and compare the efficacy, postoperative wound healing and side effects of pulsed CO 2 laser and Er:YAG laser for the treatment of verrucous epidermal nevi. Twenty patients with localized VEN were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 was administered CO 2 laser and group 2 underwent Er:YAG laser treatment. A blinded physician evaluated the photographs and dermoscopic photomicrographs for the efficacy and possible side effects. All patients received one treatment session and were followed up over a 6-month period. Both lasers induced noticeable clinical improvement, but there were no significant differences between two lasers in treatment response, patient satisfaction, duration of erythema and side effects. The average time to re-epithelialization was 13.5 days with CO 2 and 7.9 days with Er:YAG laser (p< .0005). No scarring was observed in Er:YAG laser group and no lesional recurrence was detected in CO 2 laser group since treatment. Apart from re-epithelialization, both lasers showed equivalent outcomes with respect to treatment response, patient satisfaction, side effects and complications.
Smucler, Roman; Horak, Ladislav; Mazanek, Jiri
More than 2 500 leg veins patients were treated with dye laser / ScleroPlus, Candela, USA / successfully in our clinic and we use this therapy as the basic cosmetics treatment. But especially diameter of leg vein is limiting factor. Very often we have to treat some cases that are not ideal for classical surgical or for dye laser method. We decided to make invasive perivenous laser coagulation. We adapted original Czech 1064/1319 nm Nd:YAG laser / US patent pending /, which is new combine tool, for invasive application. Principe: After we have penetrated the cutis with laser fiber we coagulate leg veins during slowly perivenous motion. Perfect preoperative examination is a condition of success. After 15 months we have very interesting results. Some patients / 15%/ were perfect treated only with this possibility but excellent results are acquired from combination with dye laser.
Schoenewolf, Nicola L; Hafner, Jürg; Dummer, Reinhard; Bogdan Allemann, Inja
Lentigines solares (LS) on the dorsum of hands are often esthetically disturbing. Q-switched ruby laser treatment is highly effective in the treatment of these lesions. Ablative fractional photothermolysis may be a suitable alternative. We compared the Q-switched ruby laser with ablative CO2 fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of solar lentigines. To evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of 694nm Q-switched ruby laser (Sinon) with the ablative 10,600nm CO2 fractional laser (Quantel Excel O2) in an intra-individual side-to-side comparison in the treatment of LS on the dorsum of hands. Eleven patients were included in the study. The hands of each patient were randomized for treatment with the two laser systems. Three treatment sessions were scheduled at weeks 0, 4 and 8. Evaluations by patients, treating physician and blinded experts were scheduled at weeks 0, 4, 8, 16 and 24. The Q-switched ruby laser was significantly more efficacious than the ablative CO2 fractional laser for removing LS on the dorsum of hands (p = 0.01). In this first study on this topic, the Q-switched ruby laser was superior to the ablative CO2 fractional laser in the treatment of lentigines solares on the dorsum of hands.
van Jarwaarde, Jorien A; Wessels, Ronnie; Nieweg, Omgo E; Wouters, Michel W J M; van der Hage, Jos A
Cutaneous in-transit and satellite metastases are distressing presentations of melanoma progression. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers in patients with melanoma with cutaneous in-transit and satellite metastases. Results of CO2 laser therapy were retrospectively evaluated in 22 patients between January 2004 and January 2008. The number of laser treatments, postoperative morbidity, regional control, and overall survival were analyzed. Twenty-two patients received a total of 42 CO2 laser treatments. The number of lesions treated per session varied from 3 to 329. The median duration of regional control in all patients was 14 weeks (range, 3-117). In 9 of 22 patients, only 1 treatment with CO2 laser was performed resulting in a mean regional control of 11 weeks. In 10 patients, an average of 4 laser treatments (range, 1-17) was necessary to achieve regional control. Three of the 22 patients underwent isolated limb perfusion after laser treatment for disease control. This study shows that (repeated) laser treatment can achieve adequate regional control with little morbidity. CO2 laser is recommended as a first-line treatment to patients with small but numerous cutaneous satellite or in-transit lesions in whom other surgery would induce substantial morbidity.
Zhang, Mei-Jue; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Wang, Fu-Juan; Ke, Lin; Ma, Wei; Luo, Qun-Hua; Zhang, Yue-E.
We report 5 cases of pulmonary disease treated with Holmium:YAG laser through fibrous bronchoscope. 1 inflammatory granuloma was cured after three times of treatment. Compared with conventional methods such as electrocautery and microwave treatment, laser has the merit of good hemostasis effect and quick recovery of the operation area. The other 4 patients who were suffered late lung cancer received 3-7 times of palliative treatment. After the treatment, the tumor tissues become smaller variably, and tact were unobstructed, symptoms of tract- obstructed obviously alleviated. We think that laser treatment has some practical significance in alleviating tract blocking of pulmonary diseases of late stage, and therefore raise the life quality.
Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Gross, Daniel; Klosner, Marc; Chan, Gary; Wu, Chunbai; Heller, Donald F.
Globally, cancer is a major health issue as advances in modern medicine continue to extend the human life span. Breast cancer ranks second as a cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging (PAI) provides high molecular contrast at greater depths in tissue without the use of ionizing radiation. In this work, we describe the development of a PA tomography (PAT) system and a rapid wavelength-cycling Alexandrite laser designed for clinical PAI applications. The laser produces 450 mJ/pulse at 25 Hz to illuminate the entire breast, which eliminates the need to scan the laser source. Wavelength cycling provides a pulse sequence in which the output wavelength repeatedly alternates between 755 nm and 797 nm rapidly within milliseconds. We present imaging results of breast phantoms with inclusions of different sizes at varying depths, obtained with this laser source, a 5-MHz 128-element transducer and a 128-channel Verasonics system. Results include PA images and 3D reconstruction of the breast phantom at 755 and 797 nm, delineating the inclusions that mimic tumors in the breast.
Crisan, Bogdan; Baciut, Mihaela; Crisan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Dinu, Cristian; Moldovan, Iuliu; Baciut, Grigore
The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and indications of surgical laser therapy in the treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors compared to classic surgery. A controlled clinical study was conducted in a group of 93 patients presenting various forms of oral soft tissues benign tumors. These patients were examined pre-and postoperatively and the oral benign tumors were measured linearly and photographed. The surgery of laser-assisted biopsy excision of oral benign tumors was carried out using a diode laser device of 980 nm. In patients who received surgical laser treatment, therapeutic doses of laser to biostimulate the operated area were administered on the first day after the surgery. The interventions of conventional excision of oral soft tissues benign tumors consisted in removing them using scalpel. In patients who have received therapeutic doses of laser for biostimulation of the operated area, a faster healing of wound surfaces and tumor bed was observed during the first days after surgery. Two weeks after the surgical treatment, good healing without scarring or discomfort in the area of excision was documented. Surgical treatment of oral soft tissues benign tumors with laser assisted postoperative therapy confirms the benefits of this surgical procedure. A faster healing process of the excision area due to laser biostimulation of low intensity has been observed in patients with surgical laser assisted treatment in the postoperative period.
AD TREATMENT OF LASER INDUCED RETINAL INJURIES cANNUAL/FINAL REPORT MICHAEL BELKIN INAVA NAVEH JANUARY 1985 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH...CF ,I446 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) (U) Treatment of Laser Induced Retinal Injuries 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Michael Belkin 13a. TYPE...ciliary body as seen in uveitis , is associated by elevation of aqueous humor protein levels. Therefore, protein was used by some investigators as an
The CO 2 laser treatment system 'Melase 1000' has been developed for the treatment of Tinea pedis and the efficacy of the treatment using the system and its optimum irradiation condition are studied. The present system enables us to make the healing time of Tinea pedis treatment far shorter than conventional pharmaceuticals. This is in spite of using heat levels low enough for patients not to feel discomfort. Features offered by the system are a safe-and-easy operation and a stable laser power for a prolonged use. The efficacy of the present therapy is excellent; only two treatments a week for three weeks, i.e. six consecutive treatments, attained an improvement rate of 71.8% in the skin findings and a 'usefulness' of 66.2% determined from cases rated as 'useful' or 'better'. The optimum laser irradiation condition for a single treatment found in this experiment is a light fluence of about 3 J/cm 2 and four laser pulses with a time interval between pulses of 1 s for a typical horny layer thinner than 0.5 mm.
Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Suteanu, S.; Ignat, P.; Pruna, Simion; Chitu, A.
A computer controlled equipment, containing 6 lasers (HeNe and 5 diode lasers--DL) conceived to be used in rheumatological treatment is reported. DL emit at 895 nm and for typical applications, their expanded spots are superposed within the irradiation plane, on the HeNE defocused spot used to define the surface to be irradiated. DL emit 100 nsec pulses between 0.5 KHz and 1.5 KHz repetition rate and 0.5 mW average power (measured at 1 KHz). 150 patients with rheumathologic diseases were treated: lumbar spondylosis (75), gonarthrosis (30), cervical spondylosis (21), coxarthrosis (15), Heberden and Bouchard (9). The treatment consisted of: group I, 50 patients--laser therapy, 10 min/day, 10 days; group II, 50 patients--classical antirheumatic treatment; group III, 50 patients--mixed treatment. Assessment of sympathetic skin activity made using reactometry measurements, shows that latency time was longer before irradiation, 1867 +/- 289) msec then after, (1234 +/- 321) msec. Pain rating indexes decreasing for all three groups of patients were measured. Better results for more superficial diseases were obtained and best results were observed after irradiation with 1 KHz - 1.5 KHz repetition rate IR pulses. Better results were obtained when spot irradiation in a few points combined with zone irradiations was used.
By using He-Ne laser treatment, 84.7 - 91.1% of patients with menorrhagia, a common symptom of multiple gynecological diseases, are treated effectively. After laser irradiation, the amount of vaginal bleeding was reduced 47.1% on average. It has been proven that low-energy laser is an effective non-traumatic, painless, and easily acceptable new physical method in patients with menorrhagia. To study the mechanisms of efficiency, the quantitative determination of PGE2, PGF2(alpha ), 6-Keto-PGF1(alpha ), TXB2 in endometrium and blood flow before and after treatment were carried out. The results suggest that the effectiveness may be due to the recovery regulation of local uterine PGS level.
Lee, Yu-Chin; Chiang, Kuo-Hwa
The Nd-YAG laser has good tissue penetration and coagulation effects thus has become an important weapon for photoresection of tracheobronchial obstructive lesions since 1980. Treatment of benign lesions including benign tumors and scar tissues using the Nd-YAG laser has good results. In the treatment of malignant tumors however, it has a lower effectivity rate when compared to benign lesions. From July 1984 to September 1995, a total of 65 patients were treated with Nd-YAG laser for tracheobronchial obstruction. There were 32 (49%) malignant tumors and 33 (51%) benign lesions. 116 resections were performed in 48 patients using the non-contact Nd-YAG laser (MBB, Medilas 2) before 1992. Thereafter, another 41 resections were performed in 17 cases using contact Nd-YAG laser (SLT, CL-X). The overall effectivity rate was 60%. The effectivity rate for benign lesions was 81.3% and 39.4% for malignant tumor. The effectivity rate between non-contact and contact Nd-YAG laser was not significantly different. PMID:18493424
Perng, R P; Lee, Y C; Chiang, K H
The Nd-YAG laser has good tissue penetration and coagulation effects thus has become an important weapon for photoresection of tracheobronchial obstructive lesions since 1980.Treatment of benign lesions including benign tumors and scar tissues using the Nd-YAG laser has good results. In the treatment of malignant tumors however, it has a lower effectivity rate when compared to benign lesions. From July 1984 to September 1995, a total of 65 patients were treated with Nd-YAG laser for tracheobronchial obstruction. There were 32 (49%) malignant tumors and 33 (51%) benign lesions. 116 resections were performed in 48 patients using the non-contact Nd-YAG laser (MBB, Medilas 2) before 1992. Thereafter, another 41 resections were performed in 17 cases using contact Nd-YAG laser (SLT, CL-X). The overall effectivity rate was 60%. The effectivity rate for benign lesions was 81.3% and 39.4% for malignant tumor. The effectivity rate between non-contact and contact Nd-YAG laser was not significantly different.
Wozniak, Jakub; Dydowicz, Piotr; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz
The authors described the results of treatment of vaginal cysts with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in 12 women. In five of them the recurrent Bartholin's, in another five the Gartner's and in tow the endometrial cysts were diagnosed. All laser surgeries were done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology, Karol Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland between September 1995 and September 1996. In the authors' opinion the use of CO2 laser is the efficient method of treatment of vaginal cysts. The most of laser procedures are doing as the one-day surgery. There are no serious postoperative complications after laser surgery.
Ishii, Katsunori; Saiki, Masayuki; Hazama, Hisanao; Awazu, Kunio
Mid-infrared (MIR) laser with a specific wavelength can excite the corresponding biomolecular site to regulate chemical, thermal and mechanical interactions to biological molecules and tissues. In laser surgery and medicine, tunable MIR laser irradiation can realize the selective and less-invasive treatments and the special diagnosis by vibrational spectroscopic information. This paper showed a novel selective therapeutic technique for a laser angioplasty of atherosclerotic plaques and a laser dental surgery of a carious dentin using a MIR tunable nanosecond pulsed laser.
Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Harlander, Maximilian; Nussbaumer, Bernhard
We present a high power visible diode laser enabling a low-cost treatment of eye diseases by laser coagulation, including the two leading causes of blindness worldwide (diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration) as well as retinopathy of prematurely born children, intraocular tumors and retinal detachment. Laser coagulation requires the exposure of the eye to visible laser light and relies on the high absorption of the retina. The need for treatment is constantly increasing, due to the demographic trend, the increasing average life expectancy and medical care demand in developing countries. The World Health Organization reacts to this demand with global programs like the VISION 2020 "The right to sight" and the following Universal Eye Health within their Global Action Plan (2014-2019). One major point is to motivate companies and research institutes to make eye treatment cheaper and easily accessible. Therefore it becomes capital providing the ophthalmology market with cost competitive, simple and reliable technologies. Our laser is based on the direct second harmonic generation of the light emitted from a tapered laser diode and has already shown reliable optical performance. All components are produced in wafer scale processes and the resulting strong economy of scale results in a price competitive laser. In a broader perspective the technology behind our laser has a huge potential in non-medical applications like welding, cutting, marking and finally laser-illuminated projection.
Ignat, P.; Suteanu, S.; Brojbeanu, Gabriela; Vasiliu, Virgil V.
This work shows the result obtained in the medical clinic of the `Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital' on a lot of 43 diabetic patients using the `LASSIS' devices composed of a He-Ne laser and 4 semiconductor lasers. The 43 patients showed various clinic pictures of a diabetic leg (diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy) 16 of the lot showed an arteriopathy with claudication and a decrease of pulses oscillometrically measurements, 15 had ulceration and a beginning of gangrene and the other 12 showed a plantary boring ill. There has been achieved an amelioration of the oscillometric index of the claudication while walking the amelioration of local circulation, together with the limitation of the necrosis. For the boring ill, there has been achieved the acceleration of the granulating and epithelization process avoiding surgeries, suppuration and cutaneous plasties. The response to the laser treatment was compared to the response to the classic treatment (vasodilatation surgery unstrapping, antibiotherapy) on a proving lot. We appreciated that the cicatrization and local vasodilatation with athermal laser treatment should be a hope for the treatment of patients suffering of diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy.
Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira; Shafiee, Anoosh; Namazi, Nastaran; Talebi, Atefeh
There are different modalities for hand rejuvenation. Fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser were introduced for treating hand wrinkles. We plan to compare fractional Er:YAG laser and long pulse Nd:YAG laser in a randomized controlled double-blind design with multiple sessions and larger sample size in comparison with previous studies. Thirty-three participants with hand wrinkles entered this study. They were randomly allocated to undergo three monthly laser treatments on each hand, one with a fractional Er:YAG laser and the other with a long pulse Nd:YAG laser. The evaluations included assessment of clinical improvement determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of hands using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, potential side effects and patients' satisfaction have been documented at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the final treatment session. Clinical evaluation revealed both modalities significantly reduce hand wrinkles (p value < 0.05), with no significant difference between two lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to those of the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious persistent side effect after both laser treatments. Both fractional Er:YAG and long pulse Nd:YAG lasers show substantial clinical improvement of hand skin wrinkles with no serious side effects. However, combination treatment by these lasers along with the other modalities such as fat transfer could lead to better outcomes in hand rejuvenation. IRCT2016032020468N4.
Dejakum, K; Piegger, J; Plewka, C; Gunkel, A; Thumfart, W; Kudaibergenova, S; Goebel, G; Kral, F; Freysinger, W
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of medium-level laser therapy in chronic tinnitus treatment. In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial, either active laser (450 mW, 830 nm combined Ga-Al-As diode laser) or placebo irradiation was applied through the external acoustic meatus of the affected ear towards the cochlea. Fourty-eight patients with chronic tinnitus were studied. The main outcome was measured using the Goebel tinnitus questionnaire, visual analogue scales measuring the perceived loudness of tinnitus, the annoyance associated with tinnitus, and the degree of attention paid to tinnitus as well as psycho-acoustical matches of tinnitus pitch and loudness. The results did show only very moderate temporary improvement of tinnitus. Moreover, no statistically relevant differences between laser and placebo group could be found. We conclude that medium-level laser therapy cannot be regarded as an effective treatment of chronic tinnitus in our therapy regime considering the limited number of patients included in our study.
Nelius, T.; de Riese, W. T.; Reiher, F.; Filleur, S.; Allhoff, E. P.
Applications of lasers (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) in various disciplines of medicine including Urology are well developed. Urology is among the medical specialties that apply many different types of laser systems to treat a broad spectrum of clinical conditions ranging from genital, bladder and urethral tumors to the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), urethral strictures, and stones. The specific application of various laser systems depends on the characteristics of the laser itself, delivery media for the beams, laser-tissue interaction and the desired effect. These complex conditions require an intensive and continuous exchange of information between non-medical researchers and physicians to verify "what is currently technically possible and what is medically needed". Only this exchange can lead to the development of new laser systems. While lasers have become the treatment of choice in some conditions, they could not, despite excellent clinical results, replace conventional therapy options in others. Nonetheless, the use and the introduction of lasers of different wavelengths forces urologists to keep step with the fast developing laser technology. This paper reviews current indications for clinical laser applications relevant to urology and the advantages and disadvantages of using lasers for the management of various urological lesions.
Metelitsa, Andrei I; Alster, Tina S
Fractional photothermolysis represents a new modality of laser skin resurfacing that was developed to provide a successful clinical response while minimizing postoperative recovery and limiting treatment complications. To review all of the reported complications that develop as a result of fractional ablative and nonablative laser skin resurfacing. A literature review was based on a MEDLINE search (1998-2009) for English-language articles related to laser treatment complications and fractional skin resurfacing. Articles presenting the highest level of evidence and the most recent reports were preferentially selected. Complications with fractional laser skin resurfacing represent a full spectrum of severity and can be longlasting. In general, a greater likelihood of developing post-treatment complications is seen in sensitive cutaneous areas and in patients with intrinsically darker skin phototypes or predisposing medical risk factors. Although the overall rate of complications associated with fractional laser skin resurfacing is much lower than with traditional ablative techniques, recent reports suggest that serious complications can develop. An appreciation of all of the complications associated with fractional laser skin resurfacing is important, especially given that many of them can be potentially prevented. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.
Lee, SunWoo; Lee, TaeBum; Kim, HoYoun; Kim, JungSoo; Eun, HyeJun; Kim, RyunKyung
The recent rapid growth in demand for aesthetic non-invasive laser treatments such as unwanted skin rejuvenation, removal of age-related vascular blemishes has led to a boom in the medical devices to treat these conditions. Among diverse laser for skin treatment, copper bromide laser is a very effective, safe, and well tolerated treatment for facial telangiectasia at various energy levels and the most important thing of the copper bromide laser device is that the stability of the energy. However there is no evidence about effective copper bromide laser's energy level for the treatment of vascular lesions. We compared energy stability and treatment performance between two energy levels in 2 W and 8 W which commonly use in laser treatment for the vascular lesions. 8 W copper bromide laser was more stable compared than 2 W copper bromide laser. Also, 8 W copper bromide laser was effectively superior to 2 W copper bromide laser in treatment of vascular legion. Consequently, 8 W copper bromide laser treatment for vascular lesion might be more suitable than 2 W copper bromide laser.
Romeo, U.; Rocchetti, F.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Lo Giudice, G.
Vascular malformations are a very heterogeneous group of circulatory system's diseases that can involve different kind of vessels: arterial, venous or lymphatic ones. Many treatments, such as conventional surgery, embolization, steroid therapy and laser therapy, are available for vascular lesions. The laser approach relies more therapeutic techniques: the transmucosal thermophotocoagulation, intralesional photocoagulation, the excisional biopsy. Today laser is demonstrated to be the gold standard technique to treat vascular lesions that allows a safe and efficient treatment and a lower post-operative healing time. The only disadvantage is the risk of carbonization that could be avoided by using the multiple-spot single pulsed wave technique.
Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Zajac, Andrzej; Dudziec, Katarzyna
The authors present their clinical experience regarding the possibilities of application of Nd:YAG and Ho:YAG lasers for the treatment of disorders in the are of the upper respiratory tract. The patients with symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Aphnoe Syndrom need a various operations techniques. Lasers techniques makes it possible to perform a number of procedures in local anesthesia which considerably improves the economic effectiveness of the treatment. The surgeries performed using laser beam enabled very good effect of treatment.
Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Zukanovic, Amila; Pasic, Enes; Pavlic, Veriva
Dentine hypersensitivity is characterized by acute, sharp pain arising from the exposed dentine, most commonly in response to thermal, tactile, or chemical stimuli, and which cannot be linked to any other pathological changes in the tooth or the environment. Therapy uses various impregnating agents in the form of solutions or gels and, in more recent times, laser. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of treatment of hypersensitive dental cervix with diode laser. The study included 18 patients with 82 sensitive teeth. The degree of dentine hypersensitivity was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), and the treatment was carried out by application of low-power diode laser over the span of three visits, which depended on the initial sensitivity. There is a significant difference in VAS values measured at the onset of treatment (baseline) and immediately after the first laser treatment (t=9.275; p=0.000), after 7 days, after the second laser treatment (14 days) (t=7.085, p=0.000), as well as after 14 days and the third laser treatment (t=5.517, p=0.000), which confirms the effectiveness of this therapeutic procedure. The results showed a reduction of hypersensitivity in response to tactile stimulus with a probe after the third treatment, even with teeth whose value on the VAS was very high at the beginning of treatment (baseline). Within the scope of the conducted study, laser therapy has provided extremely safe and effective results in the treatment of cervical dentine hypersensitivity.
Todea, Carmen; Cânjǎu, Silvana; Dodenciu, Dorin; Miron, Mariana I.; Tudor, Anca; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin
This study was performed in order to evaluate in vivo the applicability of Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) in recording the gingival blood flow and to assess the changes of gingival blood flow following gingival reshaping performed with Er:YAG and 980 nm diode lasers. The LDF evaluation was performed on 20 anterior teeth, which underwent reshaping of gingiva, corresponding to 5 female patients (4 anterior teeth/patient), aged between 20 and 35. One part of the mouth was treated with Er:YAG laser (LP, VLP modes, 140 - 250 mJ, 10 - 20 Hz, using cylindrical sapphire tips) and other part with 980 nm diode laser (CW, 4 W, contact mode and saline solution cooling). The gingival blood flow was monitored using a MoorLab laser Doppler equipment (Moor Instruments Ltd., Axminster, UK) with a straight optical probe, MP3b, 10 mm. The data were processed using statistical analysis software SPSS v16.0.1. The investigation showed an evident decrease in perfusion for both areas in comparison with the baseline values 24 hours after treatment. The microvascular blood flow increased significantly after 7 days in both areas but mostly in diode area (p<0.001). After 14 days for the Er:YAG area the blood perfusion returned to the initial value. The results in diode area remained at a high level after 14 days. Both lasers proved efficiency in the surgical treatment of gingival tissue. Moreover, Laser Doppler Flowmetry is adequate for recording changes in gingival blood flow following periodontal surgery.
Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Grunewald, Sonja; Wagner, Justinus A; Simon, Jan C; Paasch, Uwe
Q-switched laser treatments are considered the standard method for removing both regular and traumatic tattoos. Recently, the removal of tattoo ink using ablative fractional lasers has been reported. Ablative fractional CO2 laser and q-switched ruby laser treatments were used in a split-face mode to compare the safety and efficacy of the two types of laser in removing a traumatic tattoo caused by the explosion of a firework. A male patient suffering from a traumatic tattoo due to explosive deposits in his entire face was subjected to therapy. A series of eleven treatments were performed. The right side of the face was always treated using an ablative fractional CO2 laser, whereas the left side was treated only using a q-switched ruby laser. After a series of eleven treatments, the patient demonstrated a significant lightening on both sides of his traumatic tattoo, with no clinical difference. After the first six treatments, the patient displayed greater lightening on the right side of his face, whereas after another five treatments, the left side of the patient's face appeared lighter. No side effects were reported. In the initial stage of removing the traumatic tattoo, the ablative fractional laser treatment appeared to be as effective as the standard ruby laser therapy. However, from the 6th treatment onward, the ruby laser therapy was more effective. Although ablative fractional CO2 lasers have the potential to remove traumatic tattoos, they remain a second-line treatment option.
Milojević, Momir; Kuruc, Vesna
Low-intensity lasers have been utilized in medicine in two ways: for local stimulation and for stimulation of acupuncture points. Literature data reveal that this method has been indiscriminately applied in psychiatry, rheumatology, gynecology, dermatology, otorhinolaryngology, in diverse acute and chronic pains, inflammations, vascular disorders, angina pectoris, bronchial asthma. Most commonly reported clinical effects are analgesia, spasmolytic and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as faster wound and bone healing. This prospective study analyses effects of laser biostimulation on patients with pleurisy. The analysis included 25 patients treated at the Institute of Lung Diseases in Sremska Kamenica during 2000, 2001 and 2002. Apart from conservative treatment, these patients were treated with laser biostimulation of acupuncture points and local region for ten days. During treatment, changes of present clinical signs, general symptoms, radiological findings, as well as changes of some relevant biochemical parameters were recorded. Results were compared with the control group which included the same number of patients, who differed from the examined group only by not being exposed to laser biostimulation. The examined group of patients with pleuritis presented with quicker resorption of pleural effusion, less pleural adhesions, more significant decrease of clinical symptoms, especially pain, as well as more significant increase of cortisol and immunoglobulin A and decrease of circulating immune complexes (CIC), leukocytes and sedimentation rate than the control group. Mechanisms of laser biostimulation in treatment of pleurisy were described in detail and the obtained results were correlated to those reported by other authors. 1. Patients with pleurisy undergoing laser stimulation presented with faster resorption of effusion and remission of the subjective symptoms, as well as significant decrease of biochemical acute inflammation parameters in the peripheral
Dejakum, K.; Piegger, J.; Plewka, C.; Gunkel, A.; Thumfart, W.; Kudaibergenova, S.; Goebel, G.; Kral, F.; Freysinger, W.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of medium-level laser therapy in chronic tinnitus treatment. In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial, either active laser (450 mW, 830 nm combined Ga-Al-As diode laser) or placebo irradiation was applied through the external acoustic meatus of the affected ear towards the cochlea. Fourty-eight patients with chronic tinnitus were studied. The main outcome was measured using the Goebel tinnitus questionnaire, visual analogue scales measuring the perceived loudness of tinnitus, the annoyance associated with tinnitus, and the degree of attention paid to tinnitus as well as psycho-acoustical matches of tinnitus pitch and loudness. The results did show only very moderate temporary improvement of tinnitus. Moreover, no statistically relevant differences between laser and placebo group could be found. We conclude that medium-level laser therapy cannot be regarded as an effective treatment of chronic tinnitus in our therapy regime considering the limited number of patients included in our study. PMID:24294604
Solberg, Yoram; Rosner, Mordechai; Belkin, Michael
Retinal laser photocoagulation treatments are often complicated with immediate side-effect of visual impairment. To determine whether glutamate-receptor blockers can serve as adjuvant neuroprotective therapy, we examined the effect of MK-801, an NMDA-receptor antagonist, on laser-induced retinal injury in a rat model. Argon laser retinal lesions were created in the retina of 36 DA rats. Treatment with intraperitoneal injections of MK-801 or saline was started immediately after the laser photocoagulation. The animals were sacrificed after 3, 20 or 60 days and the retinal lesions were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Photoreceptor-cell loss was significantly smaller in MK-801-treated rats than controls. The proliferative membrane composed of retinal pigment epithelial cells which was seen at the base of the lesion in control retinas, was smaller in the MK-801-treated retinas. MK-801 exhibited neuroprotective and anti-proliferative properties in the retina. Glutamate-receptor blockers should be further investigated for serving as adjuvant therapy to retinal photocoagulation treatments.
Forty-nine patients with alveoalgia were selected into three groups. Group I consisted of 17 patients treated with a conservative method. Group II comprised 16 patients subjected to conservative treatment together with laserotherapy. In group III 16 patients received laser treatment only. Results showed the greatest success in group II. The intended clinical effect -- the significant reduction of pain -- was already achieved during the initial exposure to the laser and after the third exposure there was a total disappearance of symptoms.
Bresson Dumont, H; Ballereau, L; Lehoux, A; Santiago, P-Y
Malignant glaucoma remains one of the most dramatic complications of ocular surgery. It can occur after glaucoma surgery but also after iridotomy, capsulotomy, or cataract extraction. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. to evaluate diode laser cyclodestruction as a complementary treatment in refractory malignant glaucoma. Seven women with malignant glaucoma with onset several months before (mean, 43 months; range, 12-96 months), in whom shallow anterior chamber and high IOP (25 mmHg +/- 5.5 treated with 2.86 +/- 0.9 topical and systemic medications) persisted despite prior surgical treatment (mean, 2; range, 1-5). Controlateral eyes had hyperopia (mean, +3.7 D, range, +1 to +6), five had shallow anterior chamber and high IOP. UBM detected plateau iris in four women. Seven eyes with malignant glaucoma and three controlateral eyes underwent cyclodestruction with diode laser (Viridis Twin Quantel Medical, laser, 810 nm), 22 burns around 270 degrees , 2 mm from the limbus for glaucomatous eyes and 15 inferior burns for controlateral eyes. Resolution of malignant glaucoma, with lower pressure (mean, 35%; range, 10%-70%), lower levels of medications (64%), final IOP at 13.2 mmHg (+/- 4.7), and deepening anterior chamber was achieved in all cases (mean follow-up, 18 months; range, 12-22). Cycloplegic topical treatment was stopped in 70% of cases. Diode laser cyclodestruction can help to resolve refractory malignant glaucoma. Larger UBM studies could help us to better understand the mechanisms of malignant glaucoma.
Hagemann, R.; Noelke, C.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.
Sintered alumina ceramics are used as refractory materials for industrial aluminum furnaces. In this environment the ceramic surface is in permanent contact with molten aluminum resulting in deposition of oxidic material on its surface. Consequently, a lower volume capacity as well as thermal efficiency of the furnaces follows. To reduce oxidic adherence of the ceramic material, two laser-based surface treatment processes were investigated: a powder- based single-step laser cladding and a laser surface remelting. Main objective is to achieve an improved surface quality of the ceramic material considering the industrial requirements as a high process speed.
Okada, Masayoshi; Yoshida, Masato; Tsuji, Yoshihiko; Horii, Hiroyuki
, in vascular surgery there are some problems to keep long-term patency after anastomosis of the conventional suture method, especially for small-caliber vessels. Materials and methods of Laser vascular anastomosis: From these standpoints, a low energy CO2 laser was employed experimentally in vascular anastomosis for small-caliber vessels. Resullts of Laser vascular anastomosis: From preliminary experiments it could be concluded that the optimal laser output was 20–40 mW and irradiation time was 6–12 sec/mm for vascular anastomosis of small-caliber vessels in the extremities. And then, histologic findings and intensity of the laser anastomotic sites were investigated thereafter. Subseqently, good enough intensity and good healing of laser anastomotic sites as well as the conventional suture method could be observed. There were no statistic differences between laser and suture methods. A feasibility of laser anastomosis could be considered and clinical application could be recognized. Clinical applications of Laser vascular anastomosis: On February 21, 1985, arterio-venous laser anastomosis for the patient with renal failure was smoothly done and she could accept hemodialysis. Conclusions of Laser vascular anastomosis: This patient was the first clinical successful case in the world. Thereafter, Laser vascular anastomosis were in 111 patients with intermittent claudication, refractory crural ulcer, and coronary disorders. Thereafter, they are going well. Laser angioplasty: Laser angioplasty for peripheral arterial diseases. There are many methods to treat peripheral arterial diseases such as balloon method, atherectomy, laser technique and stenting graft in the field of endovascular treatment. Recent years, minimal invasive treatment should be employed even in the surgical treatment. However, there are different images between these methods. Materials and methods of Laser angioplasty: We have chosen to use laser for endovascular treatment for peripheral arterial
Gaspar, Adrian; Brandi, Hugo; Gomez, Valentin; Luque, Daniel
The objective of this prospective comparative cohort study was to establish the effectiveness and safety of Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause and to compare it with an established topical estriol treatment. Fifty patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause were divided into two groups. The estriol group received a treatment of 0.5 mg estriol ovules for 8 weeks and the laser group was first treated for 2 weeks with 0.5 mg estriol ovules 3 times per week to hydrate the mucosa and then received three sessions with 2,940 nm Er:YAG laser in non-ablative mode. Biopsies were taken before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Maturation index, maturation value and pH where recorded up to 12-months post-treatment, while the VAS analysis of symptoms was recorded up to 18 months post-treatment. Statistically significant (P < 0.05), reduction of all assessed symptoms was observed in the laser group at all follow-ups up to 18 months post-treatment. Significant improvement in maturation value and a decrease of pH in the laser group was detected up to 12 months after treatment. The improvement in all endpoints was more pronounced and longer lasting in the laser group. Histological examination showed changes in the tropism of the vaginal mucosa and also angiogenesis, congestion, and restructuring of the lamina propria in the laser group. Side effects were minimal and of transient nature in both groups, affecting 4% of patients in the laser group and 12% of patients in the estriol group. Our results show that Er:YAG laser treatment successfully relieves symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause and that the results are more pronounced and longer lasting compared to topical estriol treatment. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:160-168, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Rizwan, M.; Kassas, M.
Laser treatment of neodymium magnet (Nd2Fe14B) surface is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. A thin carbon film containing 12% WC carbide particles with 400 nm sizes are formed at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. The corrosion resistance of the laser treated surface is analyzed incorporating the potentiodynamic tests carried out in 0.05 M NaCl+0.1 M H2SO4 solution. The friction coefficient of the laser treated surface is measured using the micro-scratch tester. The wetting characteristics of the treated surface are assessed incorporating the sessile water drop measurements. It is found that a dense layer consisting of fine size grains and WC particles is formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer. Corrosion resistance of the surface improves significantly after the laser treatment process. Friction coefficient of laser treated surface is lower than that of the as received surface. Laser treatment results in superhydrophobic characteristics at the substrate surface. The formation of hematite and grain size variation in the treated layer slightly lowers the magnetic strength of the laser treated workpiece.
Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Maunoury, Vincent; Cochelard, Dominique; Boniface, Brigitte
This present work reports the long term results after endoscopic laser treatment in 474 patients with benign rectosigmoid villous adenomas revealed by biopsy. Two types of wavelength were used: The 1.06 micrometers infrared light from the Nd:YAG laser and the green light from the argon laser or the Nd:YAG frequency doubled laser. In some patients, both wavelengths were used. Treatment was completed in 415 patients. Total tumor destruction was obtained in 92.8% of them, a carcinoma was detected in 6.5% on biopsy specimens obtained during laser treatment, and benign villous tissue persisted in 0.7%. During the average 30 mo. follow up period of the patients with total tumor destruction, 18% had a tumor recurrence. Treatment was well tolerated with a 1.8% complication rate (one perforation, one hemorrhage, and 7 stenosis requiring dilatation). Because treatment is long and difficult and cancer rate is high, endoscopic laser should be limited in patients with a circumferential villous adenoma to nonsurgical candidates. The risk of complication after surgery (some being fatal) has to be balanced against the risk of undetected carcinoma in the other patients and the indication for endoscopic laser treatment should be discussed case by case.
Armenores, Paul; James, Craig L; Walker, Patrick C; Huilgol, Shyamala C
Actinic cheilitis is a common condition with the potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Current treatments have varying cure rates and complications. The role of the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser in the treatment of actinic cheilitis has not been widely published, despite offering theoretical advantages over current treatment modalities. To evaluate the outcome of a series of patients treated with the Er:YAG laser for actinic cheilitis. This was a retrospective, interventional, nonrandomized, sequential case series set in a tertiary referral, dermatologic surgery unit. Ninety-nine consecutive patients with actinic cheilitis treated with the Er:YAG laser between January 2001 and June 2008 underwent a case note review, of which 77 went on to a structured telephone interview. The main outcome measures were a subjective improvement in lip symptoms related to actinic cheilitis and objective improvement in the lips at routine follow-up. Mean time to interview follow-up was 65.7 months. Of those interviewed, 92.2% believed there had been an improvement in the cosmetic appearance of their lips; one hundred percent believed the function of their lips had improved or remained unchanged; and 84.8% remained completely disease free at the time of follow-up. The majority of patients (93.5%) were satisfied with the laser treatment. Scarring as a direct result of the laser occurred in 5.1% of patients. Retrospective nature of data collection; inability to interview all patients who underwent treatment. The Er:YAG laser is a successful modality for the treatment of actinic cheilitis with good functional and cosmetic results and only a small risk of long-term scarring. It should be considered as a first-line treatment for the disease. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Osvay, K.; Képíró, I.; Berkesi, O.
The surface of gloss fired porcelain with and without raw glaze coating was radiated by a CO 2 laser working at 10.6 μm, a choice resulted from spectroscopic studies of suspensions made of China. The shine of the untreated sample was defined as the distribution of micro-droplets on the surface. The surface alterations due to laser heating were classified by the diameter of the completely melted surface, the ring of the surface at the threshold of melting, and the size of microscopic cracks. The diameter of the laser treated area was in the range of 3 mm, while the incident laser power and the duration of laser heating were varied between 1 and 10 W and 1-8 min, respectively. The different stages of surface modifications were attributed primarily to the irradiating laser power and proved to be rather insensitive to the duration of the treatment. We have found a range of parameters under which the white China surface coated with raw glaze and followed by laser induced melting exhibited very similar characteristics to the untreated porcelain. This technique seems prosperous for laser assisted reparation of small surface defects of unique China samples after the firing process.
Tay, Yong-Kwang; Khoo, Boo-Peng; Tan, Eileen; Kwok, Colin
The flashlamp pulsed dye laser has been used in the treatment of rhytids. To evaluate the efficacy of the long pulsed dye laser in the treatment of mild to moderate wrinkles in Asian patients. Wrinkles on one half of the face in 10 subjects were treated with the long pulsed dye laser (595 nm, 10 mm spot size, 10 ms, 7 J/cm2, 40 ms spray, 40 ms delay, single-pass, 30% overlap) with the other side serving as a control. A total of three treatments were given at 2 monthly intervals. The following sites were treated: periorbital area, six patients; forehead, two patients; cheek, two patients. No preoperative anesthesia or postoperative treatment were used. Clinical photographs were taken before and after each treatment, and analysis was undertaken through photographic evaluation by non-treating physicians. At 2 months after the last treatment, the clinical improvement of rhytids was noted in all patients compared with baseline. Four subjects had mild improvement (< or = 25%), five had moderate improvement (26-50%) and one had marked improvement (51-75%). The periorbital area was more responsive to treatment compared with the other sites. No clinical changes were noted in the control areas. No adverse effects were reported except for transient mild erythema in two patients which lasted for up to an hour. Nine patients were somewhat satisfied with the treatment and one was highly satisfied. All wanted the other half of the face to be treated. Treatment with a non-ablative 595 nm flashlamp pulsed dye laser can lead to mild to moderate clinical improvement in class I-II rhytids with minimal to no side effects in patients with darker skin types.
Landa, Nerea; Corrons, Natalia; Zabalza, Iñaki; Azpiazu, Jose L
Laser epilation is the most common dermatologic light-based procedure in the world. We describe a unique side effect of the procedure: a delayed persistent urticarial rash. We conducted a retrospective study involving 13,284 patients who received laser epilation at our clinics from January 2006 through March 2010 with 755 nm alexandrite laser (MiniGentleLase, Gentlelase, and GentleMax, Candela). Using patient clinical data and photos that were recorded on a standard side-effect report chart, we identified patients with suspected urticaria. Those patients were then followed for a period that ranged from 12 to 63 months. Only patients who could be diagnosed, treated, and followed by the dermatologist at our clinics were included in the study. Patients diagnosed or treated by other physicians or nurses and those without clinical photos or insufficient follow-up data were not included. We identified 36 patients who developed a severe, itchy, persistent hive rash on the treated area 6-72 hours after treatment. Eruption occurred most often on the legs (31 cases), followed by the groin (11 cases), axillae (eight cases), forearms (one case), and upper lip (one case). The eruption consisted of a hive rash with multiple pruritic perifollicular papules and confluent plaques on the treated area. Most patients required oral corticosteroids to control the symptoms. Lesions resolved in 7-30 days. The urticaria occurred mostly after the first treatment (26 cases), and was recurrent in subsequent treatments. Pretreating with oral corticosteroids prevented or limited the eruption. Thirty-three of the 36 patients reported a history of allergic rhinitis or some other allergy. Skin biopsies on four patients showed edema and a deep, dense dermal infiltrate consistent with lymphocytes mixed with eosinophils in a perivascular and occasionally perifollicular pattern in the mid and lower dermis. Persistent urticaria is a rare side effect of laser epilation. Rupture of the hair follicle by
Bernstein, Eric F
This is the first reported case of a local and widespread reaction in a 39 year old woman, to black tattoo ink, induced by Q-switched laser treatment. A 39 year old woman was treated with the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for removal of a decorative tattoo of her lower back. Subsequent to laser treatment, a severe, widespread allergic reaction developed within and surrounding the treated tattoo. Tattoo reactions subsequent to laser treatment should be considered in addition to reactions to topical antibiotics or wound dressings, following laser treatment of tattoos. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dostálová, T.; Jelínková, H.; Šulc, J.; Němec, M.; Koranda, P.; Bartoňová, M.; Radina, P.; Miyagi, M.; Shi, Y.-W.; Matsuura, Y.
The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems has been increasing. With the development of thin and flexible delivery systems for various wavelengths, laser applications in endodontics may become even more desirable. The aim of this study is to check the X-ray opacity of a hollow waveguide and to observe the results after laser root canal treatment. The root canal systems of 10 molars were treated endodontically by laser. For the laser radiation source, an Er:YAG laser system generating a wavelength of 2940 nm and an Alexandrite laser system generating a wavelength of 375 nm were used. The hollow waveguide used was checked under X-ray . A root canal surface treated by laser radiation was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The special hollow glass waveguide used was visible in the root canal system under X-ray imaging. Surface modification of the root canal after laser treatment was not found. After conventional treatment the root canal was enlarged. The surface was covered with a smear layer. After application of both laser systems, the smear layer was removed. The resulting canal surface was found to be clean and smooth. Under SEM observation open dentinal tubules were visible. No cracks were present, nor were surface modifications observed.
Shin, Sungsik; Hann, Seung-Kyung; Oh, Sang Ho
For the treatment of vitiligo, narrowband UVB (NBUVB) light is considered the most effective for nonsegmental vitiligo, while excimer laser treatment is commonly used for localized vitiligo. However, treatment areas may potentially be missed with excimer laser treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effect of combinational treatment with NBUVB light and excimer laser on vitiligo. All patients were first treated with NBUVB; excimer laser was then applied in conjunction with NBUVB phototherapy due to a slow response or no further improvement with continuous NBUVB treatment alone. To minimize adverse effects, a fixed dose of NBUVB was administered, and the dose of excimer laser was increased based on patient response. Among 80 patients, 54 patients showed responses after combination with excimer laser; however, 26 patients (32.5%) showed no remarkable change after combination therapy. Of the 26 patients who showed no further response, 12 patients (46.1%) presented with vitiligo on the acral areas, which are known to the least responsive sites. Our study suggests that combined treatment of NBUVB and excimer laser in vitiligo may enhance the treatment response without remarkable side effects, therefore might also increase the compliance of the patients to the treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Li, Janet Y; Geddes, Elizabeth Rc; Robinson, Deanne M; Friedman, Paul M
Melasma is a pigmentary disorder of unclear etiology with numerous treatment options and high recurrence rates. Laser and light therapies may be utilized cautiously as second- or third-line options for recalcitrant melasma, but low-energy settings are preferred due to the risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and melasma stimulation. Commonly used lasers include the low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, nonablative fractionated lasers, and intense pulsed light. Strict sun protection, concomitant use of bleaching agents, and maintenance treatments are necessary. A variety of other treatments that may also help to improve results are now being more widely adopted, including oral tranexamic acid, pulsed dye laser, antioxidants, and laser-assisted drug delivery. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.
Brandi, Hugo; Gomez, Valentin; Luque, Daniel
Objectives The objective of this prospective comparative cohort study was to establish the effectiveness and safety of Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause and to compare it with an established topical estriol treatment. Methods Fifty patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause were divided into two groups. The estriol group received a treatment of 0.5 mg estriol ovules for 8 weeks and the laser group was first treated for 2 weeks with 0.5 mg estriol ovules 3 times per week to hydrate the mucosa and then received three sessions with 2,940 nm Er:YAG laser in non‐ablative mode. Biopsies were taken before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post‐treatment. Maturation index, maturation value and pH where recorded up to 12‐months post‐treatment, while the VAS analysis of symptoms was recorded up to 18 months post‐treatment. Results Statistically significant (P < 0.05), reduction of all assessed symptoms was observed in the laser group at all follow‐ups up to 18 months post‐treatment. Significant improvement in maturation value and a decrease of pH in the laser group was detected up to 12 months after treatment. The improvement in all endpoints was more pronounced and longer lasting in the laser group. Histological examination showed changes in the tropism of the vaginal mucosa and also angiogenesis, congestion, and restructuring of the lamina propria in the laser group. Side effects were minimal and of transient nature in both groups, affecting 4% of patients in the laser group and 12% of patients in the estriol group. Conclusions Our results show that Er:YAG laser treatment successfully relieves symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause and that the results are more pronounced and longer lasting compared to topical estriol treatment. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:160–168, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27546524
Noguchi, Hiromitsu; Miyata, Keishi; Sugita, Takashi; Hiruma, Midori; Hiruma, Masataro
We investigated the efficacy of 1064nm Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes. The study population consisted of 12 patients (6 male, 6 female ; average age 53.5 years), with onychomycosis confirmed by fungal culture and/or real-time PCR identification of the pathogen. The causative agent was identified as Trichophyton rubrum in 11 cases and a mixture of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes in 1 case. For each patient, laser treatment was given to a single hallux nail, with turbidity at baseline affecting <75% of the nail surface and thickness at baseline <3mm. Treatment was given in 3 sessions at 4-week intervals, and nail turbidity was evaluated 3 and 6 months after the first laser treatment. After 6 months the efficacy results were as follows: 3 cases, turbidity significantly improved ( >70%) ; 2 cases, turbidity improved (50-70%), 1 case, turbidity slightly improved (30-50%) ; 5 cases, no change in turbidity (<30% improvement) ; and 1 case, turbidity worsened. Overall, the total lesion area with turbidity in 12 patients decreased from 664.4mm(2) to 481.0mm(2), corresponding to a 27.6% improvement after treatment. Pain during laser treatment was well tolerated, and all patients underwent all 3 treatments. These results suggest that the 1064nm Nd:YAG laser could be a useful treatment alternative for patients with mild onychomycosis.
Pham, Van Hoi; Phung, Huu A.; Bui, Huy; Hoang, Cao D.; Vu, Duc T.; Tran, Minh T.; Nguyen, Minh H.
The laser acupuncture equipment using laser diodes of 850, 1300 nm and optical fibers as light needles is presented. The double-frequency modulation of laser beam gives the high efficiency treatment of the low-power laser therapy by the oriental acupuncture method. The laser spot from optical fiber of 50 microns is suitable for the irradiation into special points on body or auricular by the acupuncture treatment schema. The laser intensity in pulse regime of 5 - 40 W/cm2 and irradiation time of 5 - 15 minutes are optimum for treatment of neurosis symptoms and pain-relieving.
Belikov, Andrey V.; Gelfond, Mark L.; Shatilova, Ksenia V.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.
Dynamics of temperature signal in operation area and laser power at nevus, papilloma, and keratoma in vivo removal by a 980+/-10 nm diode laser with "blackened" tip operating in continuous (CW) mode and with temperature feedback (APC) mode are presented. Feedback allows maintaining temperature in the area of laser treatment at a preset level by regulating power of diode laser radiation (automatic power control). Temperature in the area of laser treatment was controlled by measuring the amplitude of thermal radiation, which occurs when tissue is heated by laser radiation. Removal of neoplasm was carried out in CW mode with laser radiation average power of 12.5+/-0.5 W; mean temperature in the area of laser treatment was 900+/-10°C for nevus, 800+/-15°C for papilloma, and 850+/-20°C for keratoma. The same laser radiation maximal power (12.5 W) and targeted temperature (900°C) were set for nevus removal in APC mode. The results of investigation are real time oscillograms of the laser power and temperature in the area of laser treatment at neoplasms removal in two described above modes. Simultaneously with the measurement of laser power and the temperature in the area of laser treatment video recording of surgeon manipulations was carried out. We discuss the correlation between the power of the laser radiation, the temperature in the area of laser treatment and consistency of surgeon manipulation. It is shown that the method of removal (excision with or without traction, scanning) influences the temperature in the area of laser treatment. It was found, that at removal of nevus with temperature feedback (APC) mode to achieve comparable with CW mode temperature in the area of laser treatment (900+/-10°C) 20-50% less laser power is required. Consequently, removing these neoplasms in temperature feedback mode can be less traumatic than the removal in CW mode.
Salah El Din, Manal Mohamed; Samy, Nevien Ahmed; Salem, Amira Eid
Both pulsed dye laser and combined 585/1064-nm (sequential dual-wavelength PDL and Nd:YAG) laser improves inflammatory skin disorders including acne vulgaris. To compare the efficacy of 585-nm pulsed dye laser versus sequential dual-wavelength PDL and Nd:YAG in treatment of acne vulgaris. Thirty patients with acne vulgaris were treated by PDL alone on half of the face while contra lateral half was treated by combined 585/1064 nm laser. The study showed that inflammatory acne lesions count was significantly reduced by 82.5% (p 0.0001) on PDL sides and by 83.5% (p 0.00001) on combined 585/1064-nm side after 8 weeks, while reduction of non-inflammatory acne lesions was observed at 8 weeks by 58.4% and 71.5% respectively. However, difference between the two modalities was not statistically significant. PDL and combined PDL/Nd:YAG laser treatment were found to be an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment option for inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne vulgaris.
Milanic, Matija; Majaron, Boris
Pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) allows noninvasive determination of temperature depth profiles induced by pulsed laser irradiation of strongly scattering biological tissues and organs, including human skin. In present study, we evaluate the potential of this technique for investigational characterization and possibly quantitative evaluation of laser tattoo removal. The study involved 5 healthy volunteers (3 males, 2 females), age 20-30 years, undergoing tattoo removal treatment using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. There were four measurement and treatment sessions in total, separated by 2-3 months. Prior to each treatment, PPTR measurements were performed on several tattoo sites and one nearby healthy site in each patient, using a 5 ms Nd:YAG laser at low radiant exposure values and a dedicated radiometric setup. The laser-induced temperature profiles were then reconstructed by applying a custom numerical code. In addition, each tatoo site was documented with a digital camera and measured with a custom colorimetric system (in tristimulus color space), providing an objective evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy to be correlated with our PPTR results. The results show that the laser-induced temperature profile in untreated tattoos is invariably located at a subsurface depth of 300 μm. In tattoo sites that responded well to laser therapy, a significant drop of the temperature peak was observed in the profiles obtained from PPTR record. In several sites that appeared less responsive, as evidenced by colorimetric data, a progressive shift of the temperature profile deeper into the dermis was observed over the course of consecutive laser treatments, indicating that the laser tattoo removal was efficient.
Bernstein, Eric F; Schomacker, Kevin; Paranjape, Amit; Jones, Christopher J
The pulsed-dye laser has been used to treat facial redness and rosacea for decades. Recent advances in dye laser technology enable 50% higher output energies supporting 50% larger treatment areas, and beam-diameters up to 15 mm with clinically-relevant fluences. In this study, we investigate this novel pulsed-dye laser using a 15 mm diameter beam for treatment of rosacea. Twenty subjects with erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea were enrolled in the study. A total of 4 monthly treatments were administered, first treating linear vessels with a 3 × 10 mm elliptical beam, then diffuse redness with a 15-mm diameter circular beam. Blinded assessment of digital, cross-polarized photographs taken 2 months following the last treatment was performed using an 11-point clearance scale. Nineteen subjects completed the study. Blinded reviewers correctly identified baseline photos in 55 out of the total of 57 images (96.5%). The blinded reviewers scored 17 of the 19 subjects with an improvement greater than 40%, and 11 of the 19 subjects greater than 50%. The average improvement was 53.9%. Side effects were limited to mild edema, mild to moderate erythema, and mild to moderate bruising. This study demonstrates that a newly designed pulsed-dye laser having a novel 15-mm diameter treatment beam improves the appearance of rosacea with a favorable safety profile. Lasers Surg. Med. 9999:1-5, 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Robati, Reza M; Asadi, Elmira
Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides. Few studies have compared fractional CO 2 and Er:YAG lasers on cutaneous photodamages by a split trial. The aim of the present study was to compare these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face design with multiple sessions and larger sample size compared to previous studies done before. Forty patients with facial wrinkles were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three monthly treatments on each side of the face, one with a fractional CO 2 and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser. The evaluations included investigating clinical outcome determined by two independent dermatologists not enrolled in the treatment along with measuring skin biomechanical property of cheeks using a sensitive biometrologic device with the assessment of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT). Moreover, possible side effects and patients' satisfaction have been recorded at baseline, 1 month after each treatment, and 3 months after the last treatment session. Clinical assessment showed both modalities significantly reduce facial wrinkles (p value < 0.05), with no appreciable difference between two lasers. Mean CRRT values also decreased significantly after the laser treatment compared to the baseline in both laser groups. There was no serious long-standing adverse effect after both laser treatments, but the discomfort was more pronounced by the participants after CO 2 laser treatment. According to the present study, both fractional CO 2 and fractional Er:YAG lasers show considerable clinical improvement of facial skin wrinkles with no serious adverse effects, but post-treatment discomfort seems to be lower with Er:YAG laser.
Gundogan, Cuneyt; Greve, Bärbel; Raulin, Christian
Alopecia areata is a common disease of unknown etiology; it causes significant cosmetic and psycho-social distress for most of the people it affects. We report on an innovative form of treatment in two patients with typical alopecia areata on the capillitium. We successfully treated two patients whose alopecia areata had worsened progressively for 3 and 14 weeks. The treatment involved the use of a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser (dosage 300-2,300 mJ/cm(2) per session). After 11 and 12 sessions within a 9-week and 11-week period, the entire affected focus showed homogenous and thick regrowth. No relapse was observed during the follow-up period of 5 and 18 months. The use of the excimer laser is an effective, elegant, and safe means of treatment and has good tolerability. Analogous to topical treatment of alopecia areata, the immunosuppressive mechanism of the excimer laser can be interpreted as an induction of T-cell apoptosis. This new means of treatment has yet to be discussed in medical literature. Further studies with greater numbers are needed to assess its potential more precisely and evaluate the excimer laser in treating alopecia areata. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Moldovan, Corneliu I.; Antipa, Ciprian; Bratila, Florin; Brukner, Ion; Vasiliu, Virgil V.
Sixteen patients with knee pain, 17 patients with low back pain and 23 patients with vertebral pain were randomly allocated to multiwave laser therapy (MWL). The MWL was performed through an original method by a special designed laser system. The stimulation parameters adaptably optimized in a closed loop by measuring the reflected laser radiation. A control group of 11 patients was conventionally treated with a single infrared laser system. All patients were assessed by single observer using a visual analogue scale in a controlled trial. Our results indicate that the treatment with different laser wavelengths, different output power and frequencies, simultaneously applied through optic-fibers, has significant effects on the pain when compared with the common low laser therapy.
Kwon, Tae-Rin; Kim, Jong Hwan; Seok, Joon; Kim, Jae Min; Bak, Dong-Ho; Choi, Mi-Ji; Mun, Seok Kyun; Kim, Chan Woong; Ahn, Seungwon; Kim, Beom Joon
Various studies have investigated treatment for vaginal laxity with microablative fractional carbon dioxide CO 2 laser in humans; however, this treatment has not yet been studied in an animal model. Herein, we evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractional CO 2 laser for tissue remodeling of vaginal mucosa using a porcine model, with the aim of improving vaginal laxity. The fractional CO 2 laser enables minimally invasive and non-incisional procedures. By precisely controlling the laser energy pulses, energy is sent to the vaginal canal and the introitus area to induce thermal denaturation and contraction of collagen. We examined the effects of fractional CO 2 laser on a porcine model via clinical observation and ultrasound measurement. Also, thermal lesions were histologically examined via hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, and Elastica van Gieson staining and immunohistochemistry. The three treatment groups, which were determined according to the amount of laser-energy applied (60, 90, and 120 mJ), showed slight thermal denaturation in the vaginal mucosa, but no abnormal reactions, such as excessive hemorrhaging, vesicles, or erythema, were observed. Histologically, we also confirmed that the denatured lamina propria induced by fractional CO 2 laser was dose-dependently increased after laser treatment. The treatment groups also showed an increase in collagen and elastic fibers due to neocollagenesis and angiogenesis, and the vaginal walls became firmer and tighter because of increased capillary and vessel formation. Also, use of the fractional CO 2 laser increased HSP (heat shock protein) 70 and collagen type I synthesis. Our results show that microablative fractional CO 2 laser can produce remodeling of the vaginal connective tissue without causing damage to surrounding tissue, and the process of mucosa remodeling while under wound dressings enables collagen to increase and the vaginal wall to become thick and tightened. Lasers Surg. Med
Vachiramon, Vasanop; Panmanee, Wikanda; Techapichetvanich, Thanya; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart
Solar lentigines are benign pigmented lesions that occur mostly on sun-exposed areas. Q-switched and ablative lasers are effective for removing these lesions but the high incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation raises concern in darker skin types. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and degree of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation with the Q-switched Nd:YAG and fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser for treatment of solar lentigines in Asians. Twenty-five Thai patients (skin phototype III-IV) with at least two lesions of solar lentigines on upper extremities were enrolled in this study. Two lesions were randomly selected for the treatment with a single session of Q-switched Nd:YAG or fractional CO2 laser. Outcomes were evaluated using physician grading scale, colorimeter, and patient self-assessment at 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. Side effects were recorded. A total of 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser showed significant improvement of pigmentation over fractional CO2 laser at 6th and 12th week by both colorimeter assessment and physician grading scale (P < 0.05). No significant difference in postinflammatory hyperpigmentation from both lasers was observed. In terms of patient self-assessment, 80% of the patients treated with 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser had excellent results compared to 8% in fractional CO2 laser group. However, fractional CO2 laser treatment had faster healing time and less pain score compared to Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Q-switched Nd:YAG is superior to fractional CO2 laser for treatment of solar lentigines but requires longer healing time and produces more pain. The incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was not significantly different with both lasers. Further studies are needed to obtain the proper parameter and the treatment frequency of fractional CO2 laser in solar lentigines. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Capocci, M.; Mohsen, M.; Lo Giudice, R.; Del Vecchio, A.; Gaimari, G.; Tribolati, L.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.
Oral leukoplakia is catalogued under the group of "potentially malignant disorders". In daily practice, the World Health Organization definition "white patch or plaque that cannot be characterized clinically or histologically as any other disease" is completed by including the observation that it cannot be removed by simple scraping, thereby distinguishing it from pseudo-membranous candidiasis. The aim of this study is to find a definitive treatment of oral leukoplakia, because of its recurrence and its potentiality to the malignant transformation. There are currently different approaches to oral leukoplakia: scalpel surgery, systemic therapy (carotenoids, vitamins, etc.), electro-cauterization, cryotherapy and the use of the laser. In every lesion, biopsy and histological analysis has been performed to identify the stage and classification of the oral leukoplakia. Laser can be used for the complete excision of the lesion (which is more effective, but also more invasive), for the photodynamic therapy (non-invasive procedure, which requires several applications) or for the vaporization of the lesion (very precise treatment and relatively easy to perform). Laser treatments have shown better healing, less soft tissues retraction and less post-operative pain, comparing with traditional surgery. The use of systemic therapies and smoking habit interruption (where present) has been also useful to reduce the lesions before the clinical treatments. The treatment has always to be supported by histological analysis to identify the risk and consequently planning the clinical approach.
Hua, Wen; Cao, Sijia; Cui, Jing; Maberley, David; Matsubara, Joanne
To identify the underlying reasons for noncompliance among Chinese patients undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Prospective cohort study. A total of 262 patients with DR with indications for panretinal photocoagulation and focal laser treatment were recruited. Those who did not complete the prescribed laser treatment were categorized into 2 types of defaulters: Type 1 defaulters were those who did not initiate laser treatment as scheduled; type 2 defaulters were those who did not complete the entire laser sessions, including terminating midterm or defaulting prompt supplement of laser treatment. A standardized questionnaire was given to the 2 types of defaulters to collect information about the reasons for noncompliance. Data were analyzed and subjected to χ 2 test or Fisher exact statistical tests. The noncompliance rate was 45.5%, which is significantly greater than some developed countries. Unawareness of the necessity for treatment and unawareness of the importance to complete treatment were 2 main reasons leading to noncompliance, representing 28.8% and 36.0%, respectively. Unawareness of the necessity for treatment and fear of laser treatment were more important for type 1 defaulters (29 vs 6 and 11 vs 0, respectively), whereas unawareness of completeness of laser treatment was overweighed in type 2 defaulters (27 vs 13 patients; all P<0.01). These results were likely related to the lack of knowledge about the potential consequences of DR, the underlying principle of laser treatment, and panretinal photocoagulation procedures. Developing appropriate education programs targeting specific reasons will help to improve the compliance in patients with DR. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ober, Michael D; Kernt, Marcus; Cortes, Marco A; Kozak, Igor
Navilas laser is a novel technology combining photocoagulation with imaging, including fluorescein angiographic (FA) images which are annotated and aligned to a live fundus view. We determine the time necessary for planning and treatment of macular edema utilizing the Navilas. The screen recordings during treatments were retrospectively analyzed for treatment type, number of laser shots, the duration of planning (measured from the time the planning image was selected to time of marking the last planned treatment spot), and total time of laser application. A total of 93 treatments (30 grid, 30 focal and 33 combined treatments) by four physicians from three sites were included. An average of 125 spots were applied to each eye. The total time spent for each focal treatment - including the planning was 7 min 47 s (±3 min and 32 s). Navilas is a novel device providing a time efficient platform for evaluating FA images and performing threshold macular laser photocoagulation.
Achauer, Bruce M.; Vander Kam, Victoria M.
Argon laser therapy is effective for removing port-wine stains and for reducing cutaneous vascular and pigmented lesions. Strawberry hemangiomas, being much thicker lesions than port-wine stains, were considered not appropriate for argon laser treatment. Using argon laser therapy in 13 cases of strawberry hemangioma, we achieved poor to dramatic results. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:4082569
Privalov, Valery A.; Krochek, Ivan V.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Poltavsky, Andrew N.; Antonov, Andrew A.
Laser osteoperforation method, initially developed for treatment of osteomyelitis, was successfully applied to 66 patients with osteal and osteoarticular panaritium. The procedure consisted in perforation of the affected phalanx with diode laser radiation (wavelength 970nm; average power 10-12W; pulse mode 100/50 ms), delivered through quartz monofiber. Additional laser induced thermotherapy (power 2-3W; continuous mode) was fulfilled for persistent fistulas. In comparison with conventional surgery, laser osteoperforation provided faster pain relieve, edema dissipation, wound and fistula closure; good functional results; decreasing of disability cases number.
Lister, T S; Brewin, M P
Test patches are routinely employed to determine the likely efficacy and the risk of adverse effects from cutaneous laser treatments. However, the degree to which these represent a full treatment has not been investigated in detail. This study aimed to determine the variability in pulse-to-pulse output energy from a representative selection of cutaneous laser systems in order to assess the value of laser test patches. The output energies of each pulse from seven cutaneous laser systems were measured using a pyroelectric measurement head over a 2-h period, employing a regime of 10-min simulated treatments followed by a 5-min rest period (between patients). Each laser system appeared to demonstrate a different pattern of variation in output energy per pulse over the period measured. The output energies from a range of cutaneous laser systems have been shown to vary considerably between a representative test patch and a full treatment, and over the course of an entire simulated clinic list. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.
Rocca, Jean-Paul; Oppici, Aldo; Cella, Luigi; Fornaini, Carlo
The neuronal disorders occurring in the oral district are mainly anaesthesia, paraesthesia, hypoesthesia and hyperaesthesia and they may occur frequently after surgical procedures. Medical treatment depends on degree of severity of the nerve injury but, in every case, it must be immediately carried out to reduce immune inflammatory reaction. The aim of this report is to investigate the effectiveness in the recovery of the peripheral nerve lesions of a new laser device recently proposed by the commerce that, due to its reduced size and to be a class I laser according the ANSI classification, may be used at home by the patient himself. Three different cases were treated with this “at-home approach”: complete resolution of symptomatology was obtained after laser treatment with a good compliance for the patient and without reporting any side effect. Key words:Laser, biomodulation, low level laser therapy, oral neuronal disorders, at-home treatment, paresthesia. PMID:28469830
Abbass, Muna Khethier
The present work aimed to study the laser surface treatment and modification of Al-4.0%Cu-1.0%Mg alloy matrix composite reinforced with 10%SiC particles produced by stir casting. The specimens of the base alloy and composite were irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser of 1000 mJ, 1064 nm and 3 Hz . Dry wear test using the pin-on -disc technique at different sliding times (5-30 min) at a constant applied load and sliding speed were performed before and after laser treatment. Micro hardness and wear resistance were increased for all samples after laser hardening treatment. The improvement of these properties is explained by microstructural homogenization and grain refinement of the laser treated surface. Modification and refinement of SiC particles and grain refinement in the microstructure of the aluminum alloy matrix (α-Al) were observed by optical and SEM micrographs. The highest increase in hardness was 21.4% and 26.2% for the base alloy and composite sample respectively.
Paasch, Uwe; Sonja, Grunewald; Haedersdal, Merete
Diode laser-based skin heating has been shown to minimise scars by interfering with wound healing responses through the induction of heat shock proteins (HSP). HSP are also induced after ablative fractional laser (AFXL) wound healing. AFXL itself is highly recommended for scar treatment. Therefore, the sequential combination of both modalities may produce superior outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the pretreatment effects of a diode laser before AFXL on wound healing responses in terms of HSP up-regulation in an in vitro model. Immediate responses and responses on days 1, 3 or 6 post-procedure were studied in an in vitro porcine skin model (n = 240). Untreated samples served as control. Immunohistochemical investigation (Hsp70) was performed in all untreated controls, diode laser-, AFXL-, and in diode laser + AFXL-treated samples. Hsp70 was shown to be up-regulated by all interventions between days 1 and 6 after interventions. The largest effect was caused by the combination of a diode laser and an AFXL procedure. Diode laser exposure induces a skin HSP response that can be further enhanced by sequential AFXL treatment. Clinical studies are necessary to investigate the dose response of HSP on scar formation and refine suitable laser exposure settings.
Simşek Kaya, Göksel; Yapici Yavuz, Günay; Sümbüllü, Muhammed A; Dayi, Ertunç
This study compared the use of diode and Er:YAG lasers in treating gingival melanin pigmentation (GMP) in terms of gingival depigmentation, local anesthesia requirements, postoperative pain/discomfort, depigmentation effectiveness, and total treatment duration. Twenty patients (13 female, 7 male) referred with GMP were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide diode laser with a continuous wavelength of 808 nm, and group 2 was treated with an Er:YAG laser with a continuous wavelength of 2,940 nm. Gingival depigmentation was performed by applying the laser at 1 W. Treatment was administered on a weekly basis until a normal pink gingival color was observable in clinical examination and photographs. In addition, patients were asked to evaluate the procedure by using a self-administered questionnaire. Procedures were carried out without the need for any topical or local anesthetic, and no unpleasant events occurred during the actual procedure or the healing period. The total length of treatment was significantly shorter with the diode laser (group 1) than with the Er:YAG laser (group 2; P < .05). No melanin recurrence was detected during any follow-up session. Diode and Er:YAG lasers administered at 1 W both result in satisfactory depigmentation of GMP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rho, Yong Kwan; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kang, Kweon Soo; Han, Hee Jin
Lipolysis using laser is currently widely used for reducing localized fat. A 1064 nm neodynium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser lipolysis was investigated in this study to evaluate its efficacy and safety in the treatment of gynecomastia. Five male patients diagnosed with gynecomastia were enrolled in this study, which was designed as a controlled split-breast trial. One breast of each patient was subjected to laser lipolysis and was then compared with a contralateral breast. Photographs and clinical assessments were obtained before the lipolysis, and at the fourth and eighth weeks thereafter. Computed tomography (CT) scan and ultrasound (US) imaging were used to evaluate the changes in the breasts' thicknesses. The mean chest circumference was found to have been significantly reduced 8 weeks after the laser lipolysis. The clinical outcomes of the laser lipolysis were considered favorable by both the patients and clinicians. The CT and US scans showed that the thicknesses of the treated right breasts reduced more than those of the left breasts were 8 weeks after the laser lipolysis. The side effects (pain, edema, and ecchymosis) were minimal and disappeared shortly after they first manifested. Limitations The limitations of this study are that it employed small treatment groups and short-term follow-up. This study demonstrated that gynecomastia can be treated effectively and safely through 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser lipolysis.
Yuan, Jinping; Chen, Hongqiang; Yan, Ru; Cui, Shaoshan; Li, Yuan-Hong; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo
Stable non-segmental vitiligo is often resistant to conventional therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three types of fractional lasers in the treatment of stable non-segmental vitiligo. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The vitiligo lesions of each patient were divided into four treatment parts, and all parts were treated with narrowband ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB). Three of the four parts were respectively treated with three types of fractional lasers (two ablative 10,600-nm CO 2 lasers and one non-ablative 1,565-nm laser), followed by topical betamethasone solution application. The treatment period lasted six months. Efficacy and satisfaction were respectively assessed by dermatologists and patients. The ablative CO 2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, achieved marked to excellent improvement on white patches assessed by dermatologists. Patients showed high satisfaction scores for the treatments. The non-ablative 1,565-nm fractional laser did not provide any further benefit in the treatment of vitiligo. No severe adverse events developed for any of the treatments. The treatment protocol with ablative CO 2 lasers, in combination with topical betamethasone solution and NB-UVB, was suitable for stable non-segmental vitiligo. For vitiligo, the ablative fractional CO 2 laser is more effective than the non-ablative fractional laser.
Liu, Wei-Bing; Sun, Li-Wei; Yang, Hua; Wang, Yan-Fei
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, has prolonged courses, repeated attacks and resistance to treatment. The traditional narrow spectrum UVB treatment has an established efficacy on skin lichen planus, and high safety. However, most of ultraviolet phototherapy devices have a huge volume, thereby cannot be used in the treatment of OLP. Lymphocytic infiltration is evident in the lesions of lichen planus, and the direct irradiation of 308-nm excimer laser can induce apoptosis of the T lymphocytes in skin lesions, thereby has a unique therapeutic effect on the diseases involving T lymphocytes. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP. A total of six OLP patients were enrolled into this study, and further pathological diagnosis was conducted, then 308-nm excimer laser was used in the treatment. The efficacy of 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of OLP was satisfactory. The clinical symptoms of five patients were significantly improved. In two patients, the erosion surface based on congestion and the surrounding white spots completely disappeared, and clinical recovery was achieved. Three patients achieved partial remission, that is, the erosion surface healed, congestion and white spot area shrunk by more than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. In the remaining one patient, the erosion surface had not completely healed after treatment, and congestion and white spot area shrunk by less than 1/2 of the primary skin lesions. Only one patients had developed mild pain during the treatment, and this symptom alleviated by itself. The 308-nm excimer laser therapy can serve as a safe and effective treatment for OLP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dextromethorphan , which is FDA approved and clinically used drug, in our rat model of laser-induced retinal...lesions. Methods: Argon laser retinal lesions were inflicted in the eyes of 36 pigmented rats. The treated group received dextromethorphan 50 mg/kg...size and the magnitude of photoreceptor nuclei loss within the lesions. Conclusions: Dextromethorphan treatment is not effective in ameliorating the
Muniz, German; Alum, Jorge
In the present work are given the results of the application of laser metal surface hardening techniques using a cw carbon dioxide laser as an energy source on steel 65 G. The laser heat treatment results are presented theoretically and experimentally. Continuous wave carbon dioxide laser of 0.6, 0.3, and 0.4 kW were used. A physical model for the descriptions of the thermophysical laser metal interactions process is given and a numerical algorithm is used to solve this problem by means of the LHT code. The results are compared with the corresponding experimental ones and a very good agreement is observed. The LHT code is able to do predictions of transformation hardening by laser heating. These results will be completed with other ones concerning laser alloying and cladding presented in a second paper.
El Shenawy, Hanaa M.; Nasry, Sherine A.; Zaky, Ahmed A.; Quriba, Mohamed A. A.
BACKGROUND: Gingival hyperpigmentation is a common esthetical concern in patients with gummy smile or excessive gingival display. Laser ablation has been recognized recently as the most effective, pleasant and reliable technique. It has the advantage of easy handling, short treatment time, hemostasis, decontamination, and sterilization effect. AIM: In the present study we wanted to explore the efficacy of a 980 nm wavelength diode laser in gingival depigmentation clinically by using both VAS and digital imaging method as means of assessment. METHODS: Diode laser ablation was done for 15 patients who requested cosmetic therapy for melanin pigmented gums. The laser beam delivered by fiberoptic with a diameter of 320 µm, the diode laser system has 980 nm wave lengths and 3 W irradiation powers, in a continuous contact mode in all cases, the entire surface of each pigmented maxillary and mandibular gingiva that required treatment was irradiated in a single session. Clinical examination and digital image analysis were done and the patients were followed up for 3 successive months. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant change in prevalence of bleeding after treatment, as none of the cases showed any signs of bleeding 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after ablation. No statistically significant change was observed in the prevalence of swelling after treatment The VAS evaluation demonstrated that only 4 patients complained of mild pain immediately after the procedure. No pain was perceived from the patients in the rest of the follow up period. There was no statistically significant change in prevalence of pain immediately after treatment compared to pain during treatment. There was a decrease in cases with mild pain after 1 week, 1 month as well as 3 months compared to pain during treatment and immediately after treatment. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, the use of diode laser was shown to be a safe and effective treatment modality that provides
Gutu, I.; Petre, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Taca, M.; Alexandrescu, E.; Ivanov, I.
An effective method for surface heat treatment with 10.6 μm linear polarized laser beam at oblique incidence is reported. A circular focused laser spot on the workpiece surface, simultaneously with 2.2-4 times increasing of the absorption are obtained in the 70-80° range of the incidence angle. The main element of the experimental setup is the astigmatic focusing head which focalize the laser beam into an elliptical spot of ellipticity ɛ>3 at normal incidence. At a proper incidence angle (obtained by the focusing head tilting) the focused laser spot on the work piece surface gets a circular form and p-state of polarization is achieved. We performed laser heat treatment (transformation hardening, surface remelting) of the uncoated surface, as well as the alloying and cladding processes by powder injection. An enhancement of the processing efficiency was obtained; in this way the investment and operation costs for surface treatment with CO 2 laser can be significantly reduced. Several technical advantages concerning the pollution of the focusing optical components, powder jet flowing and reflected radiation by the work piece surface are obtained.
Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S.; Karatas, C.
Laser controlled melting of pre-prepared Rene 41 surface is carried out. A carbon film composing of uniformly distributed 5% TiC carbide particles is formed at the surface prior to laser treatment process. The carbon film provides increased absorption of the incident radiation and facilitates embedding of TiC particles at the surface region of the workpiece during the treatment process. Nitrogen at high pressure is used as assisting gas during the controlled melting. It is found that laser treated layer extents 40 μm below the surface with almost uniform thickness. Fine grains and ultra-short dendrites are formed at the surface region of the laser treated layer. Partially dissolved TiC particles and γ, γ' and γ'N phases are observed in the treated layer.
Soleymani, Teo; Abrouk, Michael; Kelly, Kristen M
Skin cancer remains the most prevalent type of cancer in the United States, and its burden on the health care system remains substantial. Standard treatments such as cryosurgery, electrodessication and curettage, topical and photodynamic therapies, and surgical excision including Mohs micrographic surgery are not without inherent morbidity, including risk of bleeding, infection, and scar. Lasers may be an alternative for treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and this paper reviews this therapeutic option. A comprehensive search in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and PUBMED databases was performed to identify relevant literature investigating the role of laser therapy in the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. New literature regarding laser treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer is emerging, demonstrating promising clinical outcomes. The greatest efficacy has been seen with vascular-selective and ablative lasers in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas. Some success has been reported for laser treatment of squamous cell carcinoma, but data are less convincing. In summary, laser therapy offers an alternative treatment option for nonmelanoma skin cancer; however, its clinical efficacy is variable and, at this time, remains less than currently accepted standards of care. Further studies are needed to optimize parameters, determine maximum efficacy, and provide long-term follow-up.
Davoudi, Amin; Sanei, Maryam; Badrian, Hamid
Nowadays, lasers are widely used in many fields of medicine. Also, they can be applied at many branches of dental practice such as diagnosis, preventive procedures, restorative treatments, and endodontic therapies. Procedures like caries removal, re-mineralization, and vital pulp therapy are the most noticeable effects of laser irradiation which has gained much attention among clinicians. With controlled and appropriate wavelength, they can help stimulating dentinogenesis, controlling pulpal hemorrhage, sterilization, healing of collagenic proteins, formation of a fibrous matrix, and inducing hard tissue barrier. Nevertheless, there are many controversies in literatures regarding their effects on the quality of bonded restorations. It hampered a wide application of lasers in some aspects of restorative dentistry and requirements to identify the best way to use this technology. The aim of this mini review is to explain special characteristics of laser therapy and to introduce the possible applications of laser devices for dental purposes.
Kang, Dongyeon; Ko, Chang-Yong; Ryu, Yeon-Hang; Park, Sunwook; Kim, Han-Sung; Jung, Byungjo
Although the mechanism of laser stimulation effect in bone has not completely understood, laser stimulation is recommended in the treatment of osteoporosis due to positive treatment efficacy. In this study, a minimal invasive laser needle system (MILNS) was developed using a fine hollow needle in order to stimulate directly bone site by guiding an optical fiber. In order to evaluate the MILNS as a treatment method, in-vivo animal experiment study was performed using osteopenic mice. Twelve virginal ICR mice were employed and divided two groups: SHAM-group and LASERgroup. SHARM-group was stimulated by only fine hollow needle and LASER-group by fine hollow needle combined with laser stimulation. All mice were served in-vivo micro-CT images before and after treatment. Three dimensional (3D) structural parameters and vBMD (volume bone mineral density, g/cm3) in the trabecular bone were measured. After 2 weeks of stimulation, the vBMD, BV/TV, Tb.Th and Tb.N in LASER-group were significantly higher than those in SHAM-group (p<0.05). Potentially, this study suggested that the MILNS might prevent the bone loss and maintains the bone mineral density of osteopenic mice.
Aird, Gregory A; Sitenga, Jenna L; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Vaudreuil, Adam; Huerter, Christopher J
Treatment of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is poorly standardized. The present review seeks to comprehensively discuss the potential for laser and light modalities in the treatment of DSAP. A systematic review of light and laser treatment modalities was conducted to include 26 cases of patients with DSAP. Systematic review resulted in 14 articles to be included. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) overall was the least successful treatment modality, with clinical improvement seen in a minority of patients (MAL-PDT: N = 9 patients, 33.3% showed improvement; ALA-PDT: N = 3 patients, 0% improvement; hypericin-PDT: N = 2 patients, 0% improvement) after numerous post-procedural side effects of hyperpigmentation, inflammation, erythema, and discomfort. Overall, in the available reports, PDT demonstrates poor outcomes with greater incidence of side effects. The response rates of DSAP lesions treated with lasers were as follows: (Q-switched ruby lasers: N = 2, 100%; CO 2 laser: N = 1, 100%; PDT and CO 2 combination therapy: N = 2, 0-50%; erbium and neodymium YAG lasers: N = 2, 100%; fractional 1927-nm thulium fiber lasers: N = 2, 100%; Grenz rays: N = 1, 100%; and fractional photothermolysis: N = 2, 100%). The side effects of laser therapy were minimal and included mild erythema, slight hyperpigmentation, and moderate edema. Laser therapy is a promising treatment option for DSAP with an excellent side effect profile. However, higher power studies are required to determine optimal guidelines for laser treatment of DSAP.
Sensaki, Koji; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Takagi, Keigo; Tanaka, Susumu; Kikuchi, Makoto
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a common disease in young people. Operative intervention has been done in most of the recurrent cases. Recently thoracoscopic treatment has been tested as a less invasive treatment modarity. We adopted carbon monoxide (CO) laser for thoracoscopic treatment of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. CO laser (wavelength; 5.4 micrometers ) could be delivered by chalcogenide glass (As - S) covered with a teflon sheath and ZnSe fiber tip. The sterilized flexible bronchoscope was inserted through the thoracoscopic outer sheath under local anesthesia. Shrinkage of blebs was obtained by non-contact method of CO laser irradiation. Laser power at the tip was 2.5 - 5 W and irradiation duration was 0.5 s each. Excellent shrinkage of bleb and bulla could be obtained by CO laser without perforation complication. Advantages of CO laser as a thoracoscopic treatment were: (1) capability of fiber delivery (flexible thoracoscopy was easy to operate and clear to visualize the blebs which were frequently found at the apical portion of the lung, and (2) shallow extinction length (good shrinkage of blebs, low risk of perforation, and thin layer of carbonization). In conclusion, our new technique of thoracoscopic CO laser irradiation was found to be a safe and effective treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax.
Huang, Amy; Phillips, Arianna; Adar, Tony; Hui, Andrea
BACKGROUND: The eye is a vulnerable and commonly injured organ in cosmetic laser procedures of the face. Treatment of the eyelids and periorbital areas increases this risk, especially when ocular protection devices are not used or are removed during the procedure. A study has shown that injury from laser epilation of the periocular areas is one of the most common causes of litigation in cutaneous laser surgery. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review is to determine the causes of ocular injury in cosmetic laser procedures and derive lessons on critical safety elements to prevent future injury. METHODS: We conducted a review of the current literature through a PubMed search on case reports of ocular injury in cosmetic laser treatments of the face. Twenty-one cases are examined. RESULTS: In more than 62 percent of cases, ocular protection was not used or protection was used but removed during the procedure to treat areas close to the eye. However, despite the proper use of intraocular corneal shields and wavelength-specific goggles, accidents occurred in 33 percent of cases. CONCLUSION: Ocular protection devices are essential to prevent most cases of laser-induced eye injury. Use of high fluence and long wavelength lasers increases the risk of ocular injury due to deeper penetration of the organ by radiation. Inadequate cooling between pulses also predisposes to injury by cosmetic lasers.
Huang, Amy; Phillips, Arianna; Adar, Tony
BACKGROUND: The eye is a vulnerable and commonly injured organ in cosmetic laser procedures of the face. Treatment of the eyelids and periorbital areas increases this risk, especially when ocular protection devices are not used or are removed during the procedure. A study has shown that injury from laser epilation of the periocular areas is one of the most common causes of litigation in cutaneous laser surgery. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review is to determine the causes of ocular injury in cosmetic laser procedures and derive lessons on critical safety elements to prevent future injury. METHODS: We conducted a review of the current literature through a PubMed search on case reports of ocular injury in cosmetic laser treatments of the face. Twenty-one cases are examined. RESULTS: In more than 62 percent of cases, ocular protection was not used or protection was used but removed during the procedure to treat areas close to the eye. However, despite the proper use of intraocular corneal shields and wavelength-specific goggles, accidents occurred in 33 percent of cases. CONCLUSION: Ocular protection devices are essential to prevent most cases of laser-induced eye injury. Use of high fluence and long wavelength lasers increases the risk of ocular injury due to deeper penetration of the organ by radiation. Inadequate cooling between pulses also predisposes to injury by cosmetic lasers. PMID:29552271
Antipa, Ciprian; Moldoveanu, Vladimir; Rusca, Nicolae; Bruckner, Ion I.; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela; Ionescu, Elena; Vasiliu, Virgil V.
Low power laser (LPL) use in the treatment of arthrosic rheumatism is well known. From a total number of 280 patients with symptomatic spondylosis we finally selected 66, with changes of the EEG color mapping. These investigation was done before and after treatment in order to obtain an objective method to appreciate these results. The patients were splitted in laser group (36 patients treated with HeNe and IR diode LPL) and control group (30 patients treated with placebo laser). The results indicate a significant improvement of the symptoms at 77% of the patients from laser group as compared with 33% favorable results at the placebo laser. The EEG mapping improved at 58% patients from laser group as compared with 20% at the control group.
Mlacker, Stephanie; Shah, Vidhi V; Aldahan, Adam S; McNamara, Colin A; Kamath, Preetha; Nouri, Keyvan
Venous lake is a benign vascular malformation commonly seen in elderly patients, typically arising in sun-exposed areas of the body. Patients often seek treatment to prevent recurrent bleeding or because they find the lesion cosmetically unacceptable. Venous lake may negatively affect quality of life, due to the cosmetic disfigurement it can create and the resulting psychological distress. Traditional treatments, such as surgical excision, cryosurgery, sclerotherapy, and electrocoagulation, result in varying degrees of success and can cause discomfort. Laser- and light-based treatment modalities may offer a safe and effective alternative, as numerous studies have shown their benefit in the treatment of venous lakes, particularly with the long-pulsed 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG). Although various types of lasers and lights have been studied, there remains a lack of general consensus as to which one is the superior laser modality. Further studies that establish standardized protocols to compare the results of using different types of laser treatments are warranted.
Jang, Won Hyuk; Yoon, Yeoreum; Kim, Wonjoong; Kwon, Soonjae; Lee, Seunghun; Song, Duke; Choi, Jong Woon; Kim, Ki Hean
Laser tattoo removal is an effective method of eliminating tattoo particles in the skin. However, laser treatment cannot always remove the unwanted tattoo completely, and there are risks of either temporary or permanent side effects. Studies using preclinical animal models could provide detailed information on the effects of laser treatment in the skin, and might help to minimize side effects in clinical practices. In this study, two-photon microscopy (TPM) was used to visualize the laser treatment effects on tattoo particles in both phantom specimens and in vivo mouse models. Fluorescent tattoo ink was used for particle visualization by TPM, and nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) lasers at 532 nm were used for treatment. In phantom specimens, TPM characterized the fragmentation of individual tattoo particles by tracking them before and after the laser treatment. These changes were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). TPM was used to measure the treatment efficiency of the two lasers at different laser fluences. In the mouse model, TPM visualized clusters of tattoo particles in the skin and detected their fragmentation after the laser treatment. Longitudinal TPM imaging observed the migration of cells containing tattoo particles after the laser treatment. These results show that TPM may be useful for the assessment of laser tattoo removal treatment in preclinical studies. PMID:28856046
Abrouk, Michael; Levin, Ethan; Brodsky, Merrick; Gandy, Jessica R; Nakamura, Mio; Zhu, Tian Hao; Farahnik, Benjamin; Koo, John; Bhutani, Tina
Introduction The 308 nm excimer laser is a widely used device throughout the field of dermatology for many diseases including psoriasis. Although the laser has demonstrated clinical efficacy, there is a lack of literature outlining the safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of the excimer laser. Methods A literature search on PubMed was used with combinations of the terms “excimer”, “excimer laser”, “308 nm”, “psoriasis”, “protocol”, “safety”, “efficacy”, acceptability”, “side effects”, and “dose”. The search results were included if they contained information pertaining to excimer laser and psoriasis treatment and description of the safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of the treatment. Results The 308 nm excimer laser is generally safe and well tolerated with minimal side effects including erythema, blistering, and pigmentary changes. It has a range of efficacies depending on the protocol used with several different treatment protocols, including the induration protocol, the minimal erythema dose protocol, and the newer minimal blistering dose protocol. Conclusion Although the excimer laser is not a first-line treatment, it remains an excellent treatment option for psoriasis patients and has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment with little to no side effects. PMID:29387603
Lasers are widely used for the treatment of hirsutism. But the choice of the right laser for the right skin type is very important. Before starting with laser therapy, it is important to assess the skin type, the fluence, the pulse duration and the type of laser to be used. To compare the efficacy and side effects of Diode laser, Neodymium-yttrium aluminum - garnet (Nd: YAG) laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) on 30 female patients of hirsutism. Thirty female patients with hirsutism were selected for a randomised controlled study. The patients were divided into three groups of 10 patients each. In group I patients diode laser was used, in group II patients long pulsed Nd: YAG laser was used and in group III, IPL was used. The patients were evaluated and result graded according to a 4-point scale as excellent, >75% reduction; good, 50-75% reduction; fair; 25-50% reduction; and poor, <25% reduction in hair density. It was seen that the percentage of hair reduction after two sessions of treatment was maximum (40%) in the diode laser group, followed by 35% hair reduction in the Nd: Yag laser group and 10% hair reduction in the IPL group. The percentage of hair reduction after four sessions of treatment was maximum (64%) in the diode laser group, followed by 62% hair reduction in the Nd: Yag laser group and 48% hair reduction in the IPL group. The percentage of hair reduction after eight sessions of treatment was maximum (92%) in the diode laser group, followed by 90% hair reduction in the Nd: YAG group and 70% hair reduction in the IPL group. To conclude for the Indian skin with dark hairs, the diode laser still stands the test of time. But, since the diode laser has a narrow margin of safety, proper pre and post-procedure cooling is recommended. Although, the side effects of Nd: YAG laser are less as compared to the diode laser, it is less efficacious as compared to the diode laser.
Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Fleming, Simon; Lee, Yung-Chun; Swain, Michael; Law, Susan; Xue, Jing
In this work a non-destructive laser ultrasonic technique is used to quantitatively evaluate the progressive change in the elastic response of human dental enamel during a remineralization treatment. The condition of the enamel was measured during two weeks treatment using laser generated and detected surface acoustic waves in sound and demineralized enamel. Analysis of the acoustic velocity dispersion confirms the efficacy, as well as illuminating the progress, of the treatment. PMID:21339879
Li, Shaolong; Sun, Ting; Liu, Chang; Yang, Wenfeng; Tang, Qingru
Surface pre-treatment is one of the key processes in bonded repair of aircraft carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites. This paper investigates the surface modification of physical and chemical properties by laser ablation and conventional polish treatment techniques. Surface morphology analysed by laser scanning confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that a laser-treated surface displayed higher roughness than that of a polish-treated specimen. The laser-treated laminate exhibited more functional groups in the form of O 1 s/C 1 s atomic ratio of 30.89% for laser-treated and 20.14% for polish-treated as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation. Contact angle goniometry demonstrated that laser treatment can provide increased surface free energy and wettability. In the light of mechanical interlocking, molecular bonding and thermodynamics theories on adhesion, laser etching process displayed enhanced bonding performance relative to the polishing surface treatment. These properties resulted in an increased single lap shear strength and a cohesive failure mode for laser etching while an adhesive failure mode occurred in polish-treated specimen.
Li, Shaolong; Sun, Ting; Liu, Chang; Yang, Wenfeng; Tang, Qingru
Surface pre-treatment is one of the key processes in bonded repair of aircraft carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites. This paper investigates the surface modification of physical and chemical properties by laser ablation and conventional polish treatment techniques. Surface morphology analysed by laser scanning confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that a laser-treated surface displayed higher roughness than that of a polish-treated specimen. The laser-treated laminate exhibited more functional groups in the form of O 1 s/C 1 s atomic ratio of 30.89% for laser-treated and 20.14% for polish-treated as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation. Contact angle goniometry demonstrated that laser treatment can provide increased surface free energy and wettability. In the light of mechanical interlocking, molecular bonding and thermodynamics theories on adhesion, laser etching process displayed enhanced bonding performance relative to the polishing surface treatment. These properties resulted in an increased single lap shear strength and a cohesive failure mode for laser etching while an adhesive failure mode occurred in polish-treated specimen.
Sun, Ting; Liu, Chang; Yang, Wenfeng; Tang, Qingru
Surface pre-treatment is one of the key processes in bonded repair of aircraft carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites. This paper investigates the surface modification of physical and chemical properties by laser ablation and conventional polish treatment techniques. Surface morphology analysed by laser scanning confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that a laser-treated surface displayed higher roughness than that of a polish-treated specimen. The laser-treated laminate exhibited more functional groups in the form of O 1 s/C 1 s atomic ratio of 30.89% for laser-treated and 20.14% for polish-treated as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation. Contact angle goniometry demonstrated that laser treatment can provide increased surface free energy and wettability. In the light of mechanical interlocking, molecular bonding and thermodynamics theories on adhesion, laser etching process displayed enhanced bonding performance relative to the polishing surface treatment. These properties resulted in an increased single lap shear strength and a cohesive failure mode for laser etching while an adhesive failure mode occurred in polish-treated specimen. PMID:29657748
Kabeya, FB; Abrahamse, H.; Karsten, AE
Laser light is frequently used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. As in traditional treatments such as medication, bypass surgery, and minimally invasive ways, laser treatment can also fail and present serious side effects. The true reason for laser treatment failure or the side effects thereof, remains unknown. From the literature review conducted, and experimental results generated we conclude that an optimal laser treatment for coronary artery disease (named heart disease) can be obtained if certain critical parameters are correctly measured and understood. These parameters include the laser power, the laser beam profile, the fluence rate, the treatment time, as well as the absorption and scattering coefficients of the target treatment tissue. Therefore, this paper proposes different, accurate methods for the measurement of these critical parameters to determine the optimal laser treatment of heart disease with a minimal risk of side effects. The results from the measurement of absorption and scattering properties can be used in a computer simulation package to predict the fluence rate. The computing technique is a program based on the random number (Monte Carlo) process and probability statistics to track the propagation of photons through a biological tissue.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most commonly occurring neoplastic disease in the aging human male. Currently, surgical treatment of BPH is the primary therapeutic method. However, due to surgical complications, less invasive methods of treatment are desirable. In recent years, thermal coagulation of the hyperplastic prostate by a laser has received a considerable amount of attention. Nevertheless, the optimum laser irradiation parameters that lead to a successful and safe treatment of BPH have not been determined. This dissertation studies the physics of laser coagulation of prostate from both basic science and practical perspectives. Optical properties of prostatic tissue are determined over a spectrum of wavelengths. Knowledge of these properties allows for selection of appropriate laser wavelengths and provides a basis for performing dose equivalency studies among various types of lasers. Furthermore, knowledge of optical properties are needed for development of computer simulation models that predict the extent of thermal injury during laser irradiation of prostate. A computer model of transurethral heating of prostate that can be used to guide the clinical studies in determining an optimum dosimetry is then presented. Studies of the effects of non-laser heating devices, optical properties, blood perfusion, surface irrigation, and beam geometry are performed to examine the extent of heat propagation within the prostate. An in vitro model for transurethral laser irradiation of prostate is also presented to examine the effects of an 810 nm diode laser, thermal boundary conditions, and energy deposition rate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Results of these studies suggest that in the presence of laminar irrigation, the convective boundary condition is dominated by thermal diffusion as opposed to the bulk motion of the irrigation fluid. Distinct phases of thermal events are also identified during the laser irradiation. The in vivo studies of
Pahlitzsch, M; Torun, N; Pahlitzsch, M L; Klamann, M K J; Gonnermann, J; Bertelmann, E; Pahlitzsch, T
Purpose To assess the anterior chamber (AC) characteristics and its correlation to laser flare photometry immediately after femtosecond laser-assisted capsulotomy and photodisruption. Patients and methods The study included 97 cataract eyes (n=97, mean age 68.6 years) undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). Three cohorts were analysed relating to the flare photometry directly post femtosecond laser treatment (flare <100 n=28, 69.6±7 years; flare 100–249 n=47, 67.7±8 years; flare >249 photon counts per ms cohort n=22, 68.5±10 years). Flare photometry (KOWA FM-700), corneal topography (Oculus Pentacam, Germany: AC depth, volume, angle, pachymetry), axial length, pupil diameter, and endothelial cells were assessed before FLACS, immediately after femtosecond laser treatment and 1 day postoperative (LenSx Alcon, USA). Statistical data were analysed by SPSS v19.0, Inc. Results The AC depth, AC volume, AC angle, central and thinnest corneal thickness showed a significant difference between flare <100 vs flare 100–249 10 min post femtosecond laser procedure (P=0.002, P=0.023, P=0.007, P=0.003, P=0.011, respectively). The AC depth, AC volume, and AC angle were significantly larger (P=0.001, P=0.007, P=0.003, respectively) in the flare <100 vs flare >249 cohort 10 min post femtosecond laser treatment. Conclusions A flat AC, low AC volume, and a narrow AC angle were parameters associated with higher intraocular inflammation. These criteria could be used for patient selection in FLACS to reduce postoperative intraocular inflammation. PMID:27229702
Pahlitzsch, M; Torun, N; Pahlitzsch, M L; Klamann, M K J; Gonnermann, J; Bertelmann, E; Pahlitzsch, T
PurposeTo assess the anterior chamber (AC) characteristics and its correlation to laser flare photometry immediately after femtosecond laser-assisted capsulotomy and photodisruption.Patients and methodsThe study included 97 cataract eyes (n=97, mean age 68.6 years) undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). Three cohorts were analysed relating to the flare photometry directly post femtosecond laser treatment (flare <100 n=28, 69.6±7 years; flare 100-249 n=47, 67.7±8 years; flare >249 photon counts per ms cohort n=22, 68.5±10 years). Flare photometry (KOWA FM-700), corneal topography (Oculus Pentacam, Germany: AC depth, volume, angle, pachymetry), axial length, pupil diameter, and endothelial cells were assessed before FLACS, immediately after femtosecond laser treatment and 1 day postoperative (LenSx Alcon, USA). Statistical data were analysed by SPSS v19.0, Inc.ResultsThe AC depth, AC volume, AC angle, central and thinnest corneal thickness showed a significant difference between flare <100 vs flare 100-249 10 min post femtosecond laser procedure (P=0.002, P=0.023, P=0.007, P=0.003, P=0.011, respectively). The AC depth, AC volume, and AC angle were significantly larger (P=0.001, P=0.007, P=0.003, respectively) in the flare <100 vs flare >249 cohort 10 min post femtosecond laser treatment.ConclusionsA flat AC, low AC volume, and a narrow AC angle were parameters associated with higher intraocular inflammation. These criteria could be used for patient selection in FLACS to reduce postoperative intraocular inflammation.
Lauvetz, R W; Malek, R S; Husmann, D A
Urethral hemangiomas are rare. They vary in size from pinpoint masses to extensive honeycomb-shape deformities leading to significant hematuria. For extensive lesions, therapeutic options have included extensive surgical resection and reconstruction or multistaged neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation. We report our experience with the use of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP/532) laser for treatment of the extensive form. A 7-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of urethral bleeding. He had extensive hemangiomas of the genital and perineal regions. Cystourethroscopy disclosed diffusely scattered honeycomb-shape hemangiomatous malformation of the anterior urethra. KTP/532 laser energy was delivered transurethrally to the hemangiomatous areas until they blanched. The Foley catheter was removed 24 hours postoperatively, and the patient voided clear urine without difficulty. He has remained trouble-free for more than 2 years. Judicious endoscopic single-stage therapy with KTP/532 laser may obviate open surgical intervention in most cases of extensive and symptomatic urethral hemangiomas. In view of our observation and the literature, KTP/532 laser therapy should be considered the first line of treatment.
Fallah, Alireza; Mirzaei, Alireza; Gutknecht, Norbert; Demneh, Amir Saberi
Peripheral sensory neuropathy treatment is one of the common treatment problems and causes morbidity and mortality in people suffering from that. Although treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition, nevertheless, in some cases, there is no cure for it, and it requires palliative and symptomatic treatment. In laboratory studies, low-level laser has been effective in the nerves protection and restoration. The aim of this article is to investigate the clinical efficacy of low-level laser on improvement of the peripheral somatosensory neuropathy. Search in the articles published up to 30 October 2015 (full text and abstracts) in databases PubMed (Medline), Cochrane library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database was performed. The studies of low-level laser trials on patients with peripheral neuropathy were carried out and evaluated in terms of the exclusion criteria. There are 35 articles among which 10 articles had the intended and required criteria. 1, 3, and 6 articles study the patients with diabetes, neuropathy caused by trauma, and carpal tunnel syndrome, respectively. In six studies, laser led to a reduction in sensory impairment and improvement of the physiological function of the sensory nerves. In these articles, lasers (Diode, GaAlAs, He-Ne) had wavelength range 660-860 nm, radiation power 20-250 mW, energy density 0.45-70 J/cm 2 . The intervention sessions range was 6-21 times and patient follow-up was 0-6 months. According to the results of these studies, low-level laser therapy can improve sensory function in patients with peripheral somatosensory neuropathy, although little research have not been done, laser treatment regimens are varied and do not recommend a specific treatment protocol. It seems it requires more research to sum up better, particularly in relation to diabetes.
Dermatology laser treatments are undertaken at regional departments using lasers of different powers and wavelengths. In order to achieve good outcomes, there needs to be good consistency of laser output across different weeks as it is custom and practice to break down the treatments into individual fractions. Departments will also collect information from test patches to help decide on the most appropriate treatment parameters for individual patients. The objective of these experiments is to assess the variability of the energy outputs from a small number of lasers across multiple weeks at realistic parameters. The energy outputs from 3 lasers were measured at realistic treatment parameters using a thermopile detector across a period of 6 weeks. All lasers fired in single-pulse mode demonstrated good repeatability of energy output. In spite of one of the lasers being scheduled for a dye canister change in the next 2 weeks, there was good energy matching between the two devices with only a 4%-5% variation in measured energies. Based on the results presented, clinical outcomes should not be influenced by variability in the energy outputs of the dermatology lasers used as part of the treatment procedure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Neckel, Claus P.
Today more and more patients with bleeding disorder come to our office for treatment. The number of patients with therapeutic anticoagulation is growing steadily. Discontinuation of this therapy can often be crucial. On the other hand are oralsurgical procedures extremely sensitive to bleeding due to the constant presents of saliva with its high fibrinolytic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a surgical diode (wavelength 810 nm) laser as accessory tool in the treatment of patients with hemorrhagic diathesis. Enclosed in the study were 123 patients with: (1) Coumarintherapy, a Quick test ratio of 15 - 25%; (2) More than 300 mg of ASS/die; (3) Hemophilia, a factor activity under 35%; (4) Morbus Werlhof with less than 30000 thrombocytes. 179 Surgical procedures: (1) Tooth extraction 86%; (2) Apexectomy 3%; (3) Tumorexcision 9%; (4) Curettage and flapsurgery 1%; (5) Gingivectomy 1%. All procedures were laser-assisted with a diode laser emitting 810 nm. The glass fibers used were depending on the procedures either 200, 400, or 600 micron. No coagulating agents or tissue adhesives were used in addition. The postoperative outcome and complication rates were compared to substitution therapy and tissue adhesives. Laser-assisted treatment of these patients shows a high predictability and success rate leaving out side effects of drugs and human cryoprecipitates. Postoperative impairment is diminished.
Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Hye In; Lee, Jin Woong; Lim, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Won Serk
Various trials have been conducted on the management of male pattern hair loss (MPHL). A variety of laser and light sources have been used for the treatment of MPHL. To understand the effects of a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser on the hair cycle in an alopecia mouse model and to study the clinical effects of the same laser used as treatment for MPHL. Irradiation was applied to the shaved skin of C3H/HeN mice using various energy and density settings and varied irradiation intervals. In a clinical pilot study involving human subjects, 20 participants were treated over five sessions at 2-week intervals. A fractional photothermolysis laser was used at the energy of 5 mJ and a total density of 300 spots/cm(2). In the animal study, the hair stimulation effects were dependent upon the energy level, density, and irradiation interval. The anagen conversion of hair and the increase in Wnt 5a, β-catenin signals were observed. In the human pilot study, incremental improvements in hair density and growth rate were observed. This pilot study showed that a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser might induce hair growth, but more intensive studies are required to clarify the clinical applications of this treatment. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
Liu, Tong; Su, Ruiming; Qu, Yingdong; Li, Rongde
Microstructure, exfoliation corrosion (EXCO), intergranular corrosion (IGC) and potentidynamic polarization test of the 7075 aluminum alloy after retrogression and re-aging (RRA) treatment, and laser retrogression and re-aging (LRRA), respectively, were studied by using scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that after pre-aging, laser treatment (650 W, 2 mm s‑1) and re-aging a lot of matrix precipitates of alloy were precipitated again. The semi-continuous grain boundary precipitates and the wider precipitate-free zones (PFZ) improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The corrosion properties of the alloy after LRRA (650 W, 2 mm s‑1) treatment are better than that after RRA treatment.
Vieru, Rozana D.; Lefter, Agafita; Herman, Sonia
In the marginal pr ogressive profound periodontities, we associated low level laser therapy (LLLT) to the classical surgical treatment with implant of biovitroceramics. From a total of 50 patients, 37 where irradiated with the laser. We used a diode laser, =830 nm, energy density up to 2 J cm2, in Nogier pulsed mode. The laser treatment is used in a complex of therapeutic procedures: odontal, local anti-inflammatory -- as well as in the cabinet and at home --, prosthetic, and for the morphologic and functional rebalancing. The immediate effects where: an evolution without bleeding and without post-surgical complications, as can appear at the patients who didn't benefit of laser irradiation (hematom, pain, functional alteration in the first post-surgical week). Operated tissue is recovering faster. The percentage of recurrences decreases and the success depends less on the biological potential and the immunity of each individual.
Shin, Min Kyung; Kim, Tae In; Kim, Wan Sun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Kim, Kyung Sook
Lasers and photodynamic therapy have been considered a convergence treatment for onychomycosis, which is a fungal infection on the nail bed and nail plate. Laser therapies have shown satisfactory results without significant complications for onychomycosis; however, the mechanism of clearing remains unknown. In this work, we investigated changes in the chemical structure of nail keratin induced by Nd:YAG laser using Raman spectroscopy. Toe nails with onychomycosis were treated with 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. After laser treatment, the disulfide band (490-590 cm -1 ) of nail keratin was rarely observed or was reduced in intensity. The amide I band (1500-1700 cm -1 ) also showed changes induced by the laser. The α-helical (1652 cm -1 ) structures dominated the β-sheet (1673 cm -1 ) in nontreated nail, but the opposite phenomenon was observed after laser treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Jen
Background and Aims: Currently, the method of choice for the treatment of port-wine stains is laser photocoagulation. Because of evolving treatment options, it is no longer enough for port-wine stains merely to be lightened through laser treatment. The best course of management consists of the most appropriate laser that will produce the most complete clearing of a lesion in the fewest treatment sessions with the least morbidity. The goal is generally accomplished with the use of yellow-light lasers. Materials (Subjects) and Methods: Absorption of laser energy by melanin causes localized heating in the epidermis, which may, if not controlled, produce permanent complications such as hypertrophic scarring or dyspigmentation. Refinements of the results can be achieved by using the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser (FLPDL) in conjunction with the cryogen spray cooling (CSC) system. In our related studies, the infrared thermal image instrument is used for doctors in determining the optimum laser light dosage and preventing the side effects caused by FLPDL. Topic application of angiogenesis inhibitor (Imiquimod) in conjunction with pulsed dye laser treatment for the PWS patients has been assessed for improvement of FLPDL treatment. Results: We present the clinical effect of FLPDL, and the efficacy and safety of cooled laser treatment of PWS birthmarks. Our clinical outcome in the laser treatment of patients with PWS has been achieved to maximize thermal impact on targeted vessels, while minimizing adverse complications. Conclusions: CSC in conjunction with FLPDL can improve the treatment of PWS. The infrared image instrument is helpful for doctors in determining the optimum laser light dosage. Topic application of angiogenesis inhibitor (Imiquimod) in conjunction with laser treatment for the PWS patients is promising in the near future. PMID:24155536
Christensen, Mathias; Hansen, Anders K.; Noordegraaf, Danny; Jensen, Ole B.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.
The use of visible lasers for medical treatments is on the rise, and together with this comes higher expectations for the laser systems. For many medical treatments, such as ophthalmology, doctors require pulse on demand operation together with a complete extinction of the light between pulses. We have demonstrated power modulation from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz at 532 nm with a modulation depth above 97% by wavelength detuning of the laser diode. The laser diode is a 1064 nm monolithic device with a distributed feedback (DFB) laser as the master oscillator (MO), and a tapered power amplifier (PA). The MO and PA have separate electrical contacts and the modulation is achieved with wavelength tuning by adjusting the current through the MO 40 mA.
Introduction: Lasers are widely used for the treatment of hirsutism. But the choice of the right laser for the right skin type is very important. Before starting with laser therapy, it is important to assess the skin type, the fluence, the pulse duration and the type of laser to be used. Aims: To compare the efficacy and side effects of Diode laser, Neodymium-yttrium aluminum — garnet (Nd: YAG) laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) on 30 female patients of hirsutism. Materials and Methods: Thirty female patients with hirsutism were selected for a randomised controlled study. The patients were divided into three groups of 10 patients each. In group I patients diode laser was used, in group II patients long pulsed Nd: YAG laser was used and in group III, IPL was used. The patients were evaluated and result graded according to a 4-point scale as excellent, >75% reduction; good, 50-75% reduction; fair; 25-50% reduction; and poor, <25% reduction in hair density. Results: It was seen that the percentage of hair reduction after two sessions of treatment was maximum (40%) in the diode laser group, followed by 35% hair reduction in the Nd: Yag laser group and 10% hair reduction in the IPL group. The percentage of hair reduction after four sessions of treatment was maximum (64%) in the diode laser group, followed by 62% hair reduction in the Nd: Yag laser group and 48% hair reduction in the IPL group. The percentage of hair reduction after eight sessions of treatment was maximum (92%) in the diode laser group, followed by 90% hair reduction in the Nd: YAG group and 70% hair reduction in the IPL group. Conclusions: To conclude for the Indian skin with dark hairs, the diode laser still stands the test of time. But, since the diode laser has a narrow margin of safety, proper pre and post-procedure cooling is recommended. Although, the side effects of Nd: YAG laser are less as compared to the diode laser, it is less efficacious as compared to the diode laser. PMID:26157309
Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Karatas, C.
Laser surface texturing of Inconel 718 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface is achieved by controlling the laser scanning speed and the laser output power. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated surface are analyzed using the analytical tools including optical, electron scanning, and atomic force microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardnes and friction coefficient of the laser treated surface are measured. Residual stress formed in the surface region is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. Surface hydrophobicity of the laser treated layer is assessed incorporating the sessile drop method. It is found that laser treated surface is free from large size asperities including cracks and the voids. Surface microhardness increases significantly after the laser treatment process, which is attributed to the dense layer formation at the surface under the high cooling rates, dissolution of Laves phase in the surface region, and formation of nitride species at the surface. Residual stress formed is compressive in the laser treated surface and friction coefficient reduces at the surface after the laser treatment process. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface results in surface texture composes of micro/nano-poles and pillars, which enhance the surface hydrophobicity.
Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro
Summary The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892
Morais, Orlando Oliveira de; Lemos, Érica Freitas Lima; Sousa, Márcia Carolline dos Santos; Gomes, Ciro Martins; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Paula, Carmen Déa Ribeiro de
Melasma represents a pigmentary disorder that is difficult to treat. This study aims to broadly review the use of ablative lasers (Er:YAG and CO2) in the treatment of melasma, presenting the level of evidence of studies published to date. A total of 75 patients were enrolled in four case series studies (n=39), one controlled clinical trial (n=6) and one randomized controlled clinical trial (n=30). Studies on the Er:YAG laser showed better results with the use of short square-shaped pulses, which determined low rates of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and long-lasting maintenance of results. Likewise, studies on the CO2 laser proved the benefits of short pulse duration along with low-density energy. Post-treatment maintenance with the use of antipigmenting creams was necessary and effective to sustain long-term results. Ablative lasers may represent another useful and effective tool against melasma. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and difficulty in sustaining long-term results still represent the main limitations to a broader use of ablative lasers. Based on actual evidence, the use of this technology should be restricted to patients with recalcitrant disease. Further studies will help establish optimal laser parameters and treatment regimens.
David, L.M.; Lask, G.P.; Glassberg, E.
Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made on two patients. Preoperative examination of specimens from actinically damaged skin showed atypical keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, with overlying dense compact orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Abundant solar elastosis was seen in the papillary dermis.more » Postoperative histologic specimens showed a normal-appearing epidermis with fibrosis in the papillary dermis and minimal solar elastosis (about four weeks after laser treatment). At present, various modalities are available for the regeneration of the aged skin, including chemical peels and dermabrasion. Significantly fewer complications were noted with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion than with these methods. Thus, CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion can be useful in the cosmetic and medical treatment of the aged skin. Marked clinical and histologic improvement has been demonstrated.« less
de Morais, Orlando Oliveira; Lemos, Érica Freitas Lima; Sousa, Márcia Carolline dos Santos; Gomes, Ciro Martins; Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; de Paula, Carmen Déa Ribeiro
Melasma represents a pigmentary disorder that is difficult to treat. This study aims to broadly review the use of ablative lasers (Er:YAG and CO2) in the treatment of melasma, presenting the level of evidence of studies published to date. A total of 75 patients were enrolled in four case series studies (n=39), one controlled clinical trial (n=6) and one randomized controlled clinical trial (n=30). Studies on the Er:YAG laser showed better results with the use of short square-shaped pulses, which determined low rates of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and long-lasting maintenance of results. Likewise, studies on the CO2 laser proved the benefits of short pulse duration along with low-density energy. Post-treatment maintenance with the use of antipigmenting creams was necessary and effective to sustain long-term results. Ablative lasers may represent another useful and effective tool against melasma. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and difficulty in sustaining long-term results still represent the main limitations to a broader use of ablative lasers. Based on actual evidence, the use of this technology should be restricted to patients with recalcitrant disease. Further studies will help establish optimal laser parameters and treatment regimens. PMID:23739704
Bao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Jing; Shi, Hong-Min
Objective: To observe and study the improvement of the technique in treatment of internal hemorrhoids with Nd:YAG laser and evaluate the effective rate. Methods: 60 patients of internal hemorrhoids were treated with Nd:YAG laser (10-15mw) irradiating on the mucosa of the lesions. Results: Among 60 patients, 57 patients were primarily cured with one treatment, 3 patients were primarily cured with two treatments. The effective rate was 95% with one treatment, and it reached to 100% with two treatments. Conclusions: the improvement of the technique in treatment of internal hemorrhoids with Nd:YAG laser is effective and easy to operate.
Scharschmidt, D.; Algermissen, Bernd; Willms-Jones, J.-C.; Philipp, Carsten M.; Berlien, Hans-Peter
Different laser systems and techniques are used for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, keloids and acne scars. Significant criteria in selecting a suitable laser system are the scar's vascularization, age and diameter. Flashlamp- pumped dye-lasers, CO2-lasers with scanner, Argon and Nd:YAG-lasers are used. Telangiectatic scars respond well to argon lasers, erythematous scars and keloids to dye-laser treatment. Using interstitial Nd:YAG-laser vaporization, scars with a cross-section over 1 cm can generally be reduced. For the treatment of atrophic and acne scars good cosmetic results are achieved with a CO2-laser/scanner system, which allows a precise ablation of the upper dermis with low risk of side-effects.
A novel method for the treatment of Parkinson's disease is proposed. Pluripotent stem cells are laser cultured, using ultrashort wavelength, (around 0.1 micron-ultraviolet radiation-with intensities of a few mW/cm2) , multiple laser beams. The multiple-energy laser photons interact with the neuron DNA molecules to be cloned. The laser created dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons can be, (theoretically), laser transplanted, (a higher focusing precision as compared to a syringe method), into the striatum or substantia nigra regions of the brain, or both. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, Stefan University.
Svirin, Viatcheslav N.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Solovieva, Tatiana I.
To win the cancer is one of the most important mankind task to be decided in III Millenium. New technology of treatment is to recognize and kill cancer cells with the laser light not by surgery operation, but by soft painless therapy. Even though from the beginning of the 80s of the last century this technology, so-called photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received acceptance in America, Europe and Asia it is still considered in the medical circles to be a new method with the little-known approaches of cancer treatment. Recently the next step was done, and the unique method of PDT combined with laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) was developed. Compact and smart diode laser apparatus "Modul-GF" for its realization was designed. In this report the concept of this method, experimental materials on clinical trials and ways of optimization of technical decisions and software of apparatus "Modul-GF", including the autotuning of laser power dependently on tissue temperature measured with thermosensors are discussed. The special instruments such as fiber cables and special sensors are described to permit application of "Modul-GF" for the treatment of the tumors of the different localizations, both surface and deeply located with using of the endoscopy method. The examples of the oncological and nononcological pathologies" treatment by the developed method and apparatus in urology, gynecology, gastroenterology, dermatology, cosmetology, bronchology, pulmonology are observed. The results of clinical approval the developed combination of PDT&LITT realized with "Modul-GF" leads to essentially increasing of the treatment effectiveness.
Park, Ji Hye; Chun, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Hee
Laser-assisted drug delivery has generated intense interest. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the clinical benefit of laser-assisted corticosteroid delivery and to compare this technique to corticosteroid intralesional injection, a standard treatment for keloids. Patients with keloids on the left shoulder after BCG vaccination were enrolled in this study. The entire lesion was first treated with an ablative fractional erbium-YAG laser. After this treatment, the lesion was divided into two halves. The first half received an intralesional injection of corticosteroid, whereas the second half received topical application of corticosteroids that were occluded for 3 hours. Four treatment sessions were conducted, with treatments occurring once every 6 weeks. Treatment outcomes were evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Pain was self-assessed by the patient during the procedure. The mean keloid VSS score before treatment was 8.59 ± 1.23 for the corticosteroid injection site and 8.31 ± 2.09 for the topical site. After treatment, the mean keloid VSS score was decreased on both sides (4.56 ± 1.09 vs 5.02 ± 0.87, respectively, P > 0.05). Patients rated their satisfaction level as "moderate" on both sides. However, the mean pain score was 1.1 out of 10 on the topical side versus 6.1 on the corticosteroid injection site. The combination of ablative fractional laser treatment and topical corticosteroid application is a promising modality for the treatment of keloids. Moreover, this procedure was not associated with any serious adverse reactions or unbearable pain.
Imhan, Khalil Ibraheem; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Zakaria, Azmi; Ismail, Mohd Idris Shah B.; Alsabti, Naseer Mahdi Hadi; Ahmad, Ahmad Kamal
Laser forming is a flexible control process that has a wide spectrum of applications; particularly, laser tube bending. It offers the perfect solution for many industrial fields, such as aerospace, engines, heat exchangers, and air conditioners. A high power pulsed Nd-YAG laser with a maximum average power of 300 W emitting at 1064 nm and fiber-coupled is used to irradiate stainless steel 304 (SS304) tubes of 12.7 mm diameter, 0.6 mm thickness and 70 mm length. Moreover, a motorized rotation stage with a computer controller is employed to hold and rotate the tube. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to improve the laser tube bending process by enhancing the absorption coefficient of the material and the mechanical formability using laser softening heat treatment. The material surface is coated with an oxidization layer; hence, the material absorption of laser light is increased and the temperature rapidly rises. The processing speed is enhanced and the output bending angle is increased to 1.9° with an increment of 70% after the laser softening heat treatment.
Tsai, W F; Chen, Y C; Su, C Y
Fifteen cases of vitreous floaters with serious psychological reactions have been collected. By using a direct ophthalmoscope, causal vitreous opacities were detected. The opacities were photodisrupted with neodymium YAG laser, using energy levels of 5 to 7.1 mJ and total energy 71 to 742.0 mJ. Symptoms completely disappeared immediately after treatment in all 15 cases. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications noted during a follow up period of at least 1 year. To our knowledge, the use of neodymium YAG laser to treat vitreous floaters has not been previously described. Our initial experience indicates that the treatment is simple, safe, and effective. Images PMID:8025044
Yip, Yiu Wan Joanne
Polyamides have found widespread application in various industrial sectors, for example, they are used in apparel, home furnishings and similar uses. However, the requirements for high quality performance products are continually increasing and these promote a variety of surface treatments for polymer modification. UV excimer laser and low temperature plasma treatments are ideally suited for polyamide modification because they can change the physical and chemical properties of the material without affecting its bulk features. This project aimed to study the modification of polyamides by UV excimer laser irradiation and low temperature plasma treatment. The morphological changes in the resulting samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). The chemical modifications were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and chemical force microscopy (CFM). Change in degree of crystallinity was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After high-fluence laser irradiation, topographical results showed that ripples of micrometer size form on the fibre surface. By contrast, sub-micrometer size structures form on the polyamide surface when the applied laser energy is well below its ablation threshold. After high-fluence laser irradiation, chemical studies showed that the surface oxygen content of polyamide is reduced. A reverse result is obtained with low-fluence treatment. The DSC result showed no significant change in degree of crystallinity in either high-fluence or low-fluence treated samples. The same modifications in polyamide surfaces were studied after low temperature plasma treatment with oxygen, argon or tetrafluoromethane gas. The most significant result was that the surface oxygen content of polyamide increased after oxygen and argon plasma treatments. Both treatments induced many hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxylic acid (-COOH
Alizadeh, Narges; Ayyoubi, Sharad; Naghipour, Mohammadreza; Hassanzadeh, Rasool; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Zaresharifi, Shirin; Gharaei Nejad, Kaveh
Background Hirsutism can have negative impacts on psychosocial aspects of women’s lives and reduce their quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to assess the QOL of these women during laser treatment. Patients and methods Eighty-eight women with unwanted facial hair underwent laser therapy. Each patient completed a questionnaire consisting of a modified Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and visual analog scale (VAS) before the first, third, and fifth sessions of laser therapy. Interval between the sessions was 4–6 weeks. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software version18. Results The DLQI scores before treatment, and at third and fifth sessions were 7.75±2.36, 5.55±1.88, and 4.14±0.64, respectively (P<0.0001). Also, VAS scores had a decreasing trend between the first and second treatment sessions as the mean patient VAS score fell from 10±0.04 to 5.53±2.41 (P<0.0001). The DLQI scores were significantly different according to areas of hair growth and number of involved areas. There were no significant differences with regard to response to treatment and mean of DLQI score according to the level of education, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion Hair removal with laser therapy can improve the QOL in hirsute women. Also, socioeconomic status does not affect the satisfaction rate of laser therapy for hair removal. PMID:29089786
Alexander, Vinay V; Shi, Zhennan; Iftekher, Fariha; Welsh, Michael J; Gurm, Hitinder S; Rising, Gail; Yanovich, Amber; Walacavage, Kim; Islam, Mohammed N
Renal denervation has recently become of great interest as a potential treatment for resistant hypertension. Denervation techniques using radio frequency (RF) or ultrasound energy sources have already been explored in literature. In this study, we investigate the use of lasers as a potential energy source for renal denervation. In vitro studies are performed in porcine/ovine renal arteries with focused laser beams at 980 nm, 1210 nm, and 1700 nm to study the ability to damage renal nerves without causing injury to non-target tissue structures like the endothelium. Then, a 980 nm laser catheter prototype is built and used to demonstrate in vivo renal denervation in ovine renal arteries. This study utilizes fiber coupled infrared lasers at 980 nm, 1210 nm, and 1700 nm. In vitro laser denervation studies at 980 nm are performed in both porcine and ovine renal arteries to study the ability of focused laser beams to damage renal nerves without injuring the endothelium. In vitro studies using lasers close to the lipid absorption lines at 1210 nm and 1700 nm are also performed in porcine renal arteries to study the possibility of selectively damaging the renal nerves by targeting the lipid myelin sheaths surrounding the nerves. Then, a laser catheter prototype is designed and built for in vivo renal denervation in ovine renal arteries using the 980 nm laser (powers ranging from 2 to 4 W, 5 seconds per exposure). Histochemical evaluations of the frozen sections are performed using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Histochemical analysis of in vitro laser treatments at 980 nm in porcine and ovine renal arteries show clear evidence of laser-induced renal nerve damage without injury to the endothelium and part of the media. No evidence of selective nerve damage is observed using the 1210 nm and 1700 nm lasers with the current treatment parameters. Histochemical analysis of in vivo laser treatments in ovine renal arteries
Abstract- We propose a new computerized system to accurately guide laser shots to the diseased areas within the retina based on predetermined...image registration I. INTRODUCTION Diabetic retinopathy resulting from long term diabetes mellitus is one of the common diseases that lead to choroidal...have a strong impact on the effectiveness of such procedures. In this work, we propose a new computerized treatment planning system for laser treatment
Zhu, Jing; Nie, Fan; Shi, Hong-Min
Objective: The title is research curative effect of intravascular low level laser irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis. Method: 478 patients with psoriasis from five groups to observe their efficacy. Group1 were treated by He-Ne laser combined with drug. Group 2 were treated by semi-conductor laser combined with drug. Group 3 were treated only by He-He laser. Group 4 were treated by semi-conductor laser. Group 5 were treated only by drug. The Ridit statistical analysis was applied to all of these data. The treatment of intravascular low level laser irradiation is as follow: laser power:4-5mw, 1 hour per day and 10 days as a period combined with vit C 2.0 g iv and inhalation of O2. Results: The clinical results: the near efficient rate was 100%, in group1-4, if combined with drugs it would be better. Ridit statistical analysis showed no significant difference between group1-4, p>0.05. The efficient rate 72.97% in group5.There were showed very significant difference with group1-4, p<0.01. 2.There were no significant differences between He-Ne laser (632.8nm) and semiconductor laser(650nm); 3.The efficacy of ILLLI in psoriasis was positive correlation to the ILLLI times. Conclusions: It can improve curative effect of intravascular low levellaser irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis.
Schwarz, Frank; Bieling, Katrin; Sculean, Anton; Herten, Monika; Becker, Jürgen
In addition to conventional treatment modalities (mechanical and chemical), the use of different lasers has been increasingly proposed for the treatment of peri-implantitis. Results from both controlled clinical and basic studies have pointed to the high potential of an Er:YAG-laser. Its excellent ability to effectively ablate dental calculus without producing major thermal side-effects to adjacent tissue has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Recently, a new ultrasonic device has been used for the treatment of periodontal and peri-implantitis infections. Preliminary clinical data indicate that treatment with both treatment procedures may positively influence peri-implant healing. The aim of the present review paper is to evaluate, based on the available evidence, the use of an Er:YAG-laser and a newly introduced ultrasonic device for treatment of peri-implantitis in comparison to a conventional treatment approach.
Vandorselaer, T; Van De Velde, F; Tassignon, M J
Ten eyes of nine patients were treated for very disturbing vitreous floaters with the technique of Nd-YAG laser vitreolysis. The Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) was used to objectivate the position, the size and the motility of the vitreous floaters with respect to the patient's visual axis, which can be precisely located with the SLO. With this technique it was possible to define more precisely some eligibility criteria for Nd-YAG laser treatment of vitreous floaters and to classify the vitreous floaters in ill-suspended and well-suspended floaters in the vitreous body, the well-suspended floaters responding better to treatment compared to the ill-suspended vitreous floaters. The treatment was performed using the Q-Switched Nd-YAG Laser type Nanolas 15S of Alcon.
Mamalis, A.D.; Lev-Tov, H.; Nguyen, D.H.; Jagdeo, J.R.
Keloids are an overgrowth of fibrotic tissue outside the original boundaries of an injury and occur secondary to defective wound healing. Keloids often have a functional, aesthetic, or psychosocial impact on patients as highlighted by quality-of-life studies. Our goal is to provide clinicians and scientists an overview of the data available on laser and light-based therapies for treatment of keloids, and highlight emerging light-based therapeutic technologies and the evidence available to support their use. We employed the following search strategy to identify the clinical evidence reported in the biomedical literature: in November 2012, we searched PubMed.gov, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Reviews (1980-present) for published randomized clinical trials, clinical studies, case series, and case reports related to the treatment of keloids. The search terms we utilized were ‘keloid(s)’ AND ‘laser’ OR ‘light-emitting diode’ OR ‘photodynamic therapy’ OR ‘intense pulsed light’ OR ‘low level light’ OR ‘phototherapy.’ Our search yielded 347 unique articles. Of these, 33 articles met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We qualitatively conclude that laser and light-based treatment modalities may achieve favorable patient outcomes. Clinical studies using CO2 laser are more prevalent in current literature and a combination regimen may be an adequate ablative approach. Adding light-based treatments, such as LED phototherapy or photodynamic therapy, to laser treatment regimens may enhance patient outcomes. Lasers and other light-based technology have introduced new ways to manage keloids that may result in improved aesthetic and symptomatic outcomes and decreased keloid recurrence. PMID:24033440
Thoracoscopic laser pneumoplasty in the treatment of diffuse bullous emphysema by means of a contact neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet laser was evaluated by a retrospective analysis of the first consecutive 500 procedures in 443 patients. The indication for thoracoscopic laser pneumoplasty was intractable dyspnea. Advanced age (mean age, 67 years), high oxygen dependency (70%), steroid use (46%), and markedly diminished physical capacity (2% bedridden and 27% wheelchair-bound) were noted. Thoracoscopic laser pneumoplasty was carried out under general anesthesia and one-lung ventilation. Type 3 bullae (381 procedures) were contracted by contact neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet laser and type 4 bullae (199 procedures) excised. The operative mortality rate was 4.8%. Subjective improvement was reported by 87% of the patients. Follow-up functional evaluation was available in 229 patients, which showed highly significant improvement. A comparison of preoperative and postoperative functional tests between type 3 and 4 bullae patients showed no significant difference, except the latter had higher decrease in airway resistance, residual volume, and total lung capacity. Thoracoscopic laser pneumoplasty is an effective treatment for both type 3 and 4 bullous emphysema with an acceptable risk.
Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Boechat, Karol Pereira Ruela; dos Santos, Georgia Mouzinho Lima; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas
ABSTRACT Objective To describe the results of treatment with CO2 laser for Bartholin gland cysts. Methods Thirty-one women with Bartholin gland cysts were treated with CO2 laser at an outpatient´s setting. Skin incision was performed with focused laser beam, the capsule was opened to drain mucoid content, followed by internal vaporization of impaired capsule. Results There were no complications. Five patients had recurrence of the cyst and were submitted to a second and successful session. Conclusion CO2 laser surgery was effective to treat Bartholin gland cysts with minimal or no complications, and can be performed at an outpatient´s setting. PMID:27074230
Wong, Yisheng; Lee, Siong See Joyce; Goh, Chee Leok
The Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG) laser is increasingly used for nonablative skin rejuvenation or "laser toning" for melasma. Multiple and frequent low-fluence, large-spot-size treatments are used to achieve laser toning, and these treatments are associated with the development of macular hypopigmentation as a complication. We present a case series of three patients who developed guttate hypomelanotic macules on the face after receiving laser toning treatment with QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG.
Sivaprasad, Sobha; Dorin, Giorgio
Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a sight-threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of visual loss in the working-age population in the industrialized and emerging world. The standard of care for DME is focal/grid laser photocoagulation, which is proven effective in reducing the risk of vision loss, but inherently destructive and associated with tissue damage and collateral effects. Subthreshold diode laser micropulse photocoagulation is a nondestructive tissue-sparing laser procedure, which, in randomized controlled trials for the treatment of DME, has been found equally effective as conventional photocoagulation. Functional and anatomical outcomes from four independent randomized controlled trials provide level one evidence that vision stabilization/improvement and edema resolution/reduction can be elicited with less or no retinal damage, and with fewer or no complications. This review describes the principles of subthreshold diode laser micropulse photocoagulation, its treatment modalities and clinical outcomes in the context of standard laser treatments and of emerging nonlaser therapies for DME.
Gold, Michael H; Goldberg, David J; Nestor, Mark S
The treatment of acne, especially severe acne, remains a challenge to dermatologists. Therapies include retinoids, antibiotics, hormones, lights, lasers, and various combinations of these modalities. Acne is currently considered a chronic rather than an adolescent condition. The appropriate treatment depends on the patient and the severity of disease. The purpose of this study was to review current therapies for acne of all severities and to introduce the 650-μs 1064-nm laser for the treatment of acne. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chtchoupak, Oleg S.; Spilevoi, Boris N.; Zapaeva, Natlia L.
The method and system's design for the laser treatment of the heart ischemia is presented. Our conceptual approach to the development of the system is based on the theoretical and experimental works about positive influence of low intensity near infrared laser irradiation by treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The method and system allow it to influence the subepicardial collateral blood circulation with near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation in wavelength ranges of 0.86 - 1.06 mkm. The presented techniques make it possible to achieve a higher effectiveness of treatment. First, due to individual choice of radiation parameters on the basis of analysis of the patient's conditions before and after laser therapy. Second, due to simultaneous influence at several points of the human body. Finally, results of the clinical tests are presented, which confirm the discussed methods.
Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Korb, C. Laurence; Milrod, Jeffry; Walden, Harvey
The design and operation of a differential absorption lidar system capable of remotely measuring the vertical structure of tropospheric pressure and temperature are described. The measurements are based on the absorption by atmospheric oxygen of the spectrally narrowband output of two pulsed alexandrite lasers. Detailed laser output spectral characteristics, which are critical to successful lidar measurements, are presented. Spectral linewidths of 0.026 and 0.018 per cm for the lasers were measured with over 99.99 percent of the energy contained in three longitudinal modes.
Shin, Yo Sup; Cho, Eun Byul; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong
Viral warts are common infectious skin disease induced by human papillomavirus (HPV). But the treatment of recalcitrant warts is still challenging. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and long pulsed Nd:YAG (LPNY) laser in the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with recalcitrant warts treated with laser therapy between January 2013 and February 2016. Seventy-two patients with recalcitrant warts were evaluated. Thirty-nine patients were treated with pulsed dye laser and thirty-three patients were treated with LPNY laser. The following parameters were used: PDL (spot size, 7 mm; pulse duration, 1.5 ms; and fluence, 10-14 J/cm 2 ) and LPNY (spot size, 5 mm; pulse duration, 20 ms; and fluence, 240-300 J/cm 2 ). Complete clearance of two patients (5.1%) in PDL group, and three patients (9.1%) in LPNY group were observed without significant side effects. The patients who achieved at least 50% improvement from baseline were 20 (51.3%) in PDL and 22 (66.7%) in LPNY, respectively. This research is meaningful because we compared the effectiveness of the PDL and LPNY in the recalcitrant warts. Both PDL and LPNY laser could be used as a safe and alternative treatment for recalcitrant warts.
Honarmand, Marieh; Farhadmollashahi, Leila; Vosoughirahbar, Ehsan
Recently alternative therapies such as the use of diode laser therapy have been introduced for recurrent herpes labial infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diode laser for treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. This was single-blind randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of diode laser for the treatment of recurrent herpes labial. In total, 60 patients whit recurrent herpes simplex labialis were selected and randomly divided in to three groups. 20 patients received treatment whit diode laser (at a wavelength of 870 nm, energy density 4.5 j/cm2), 20 patients were treated with acyclovir cream 5%, 20 patients received treatment with laser-off (placebo). The end point was lesions crusting. Data analyzed by Tukey HSD Test and One-way ANOVA (at a significance level of 0.05) in SPSS-20 software. The mean length of recovery time (day) in the laser, off laser, and acyclovir groups was 2.20±0.41, 4.30±1.03, and 3.4±1.142, respectively. There is a significant difference between three groups in this regard ( P <0.0001). The mean duration of pain (day) was 1.35±0.74, 2.65±1.27, and 2.30±0.92 for laser, off laser, and acyclovir groups, respectively ( P <0.0001). Treatment with diode laser reduced the length of recovery time and pain severity faster than treatment with acyclovir cream. Key words: Recurrent herpes labial, Acyclovir, Low level laser therapy.
Kunin, Anatoly A.; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Petrov, Anatoly; Erina, Stanislava V.; Pankova, Svetlana N.
Precancer and background diseases of the oral mucosa and lips, such as lichen planus, chronic ulcers and fissures, meteorological heilit, lupus erythematosus, after radiation heilit were treated by low-intensity laser irradiation. Laser therapy of the over-mentioned diseases was combined with medicinal treatment. All the patients were selected and treated in the limits of dispensary system. THe choice of diagnostic methods were made according to each concrete nosological form. A great attention was paid to the goal- directly sanitation of the oral cavity and treatment of attended internal diseases. The etiological factors were revealed and statistically analyzed. The results received during our researches demonstrated high effectiveness of laser irradiation combined with medicinal therapy in the treatment of oral mucosa and lips precancer diseases.
Santos, Moises Oliveira Dos; Latrive, Anne; De Castro, Pedro Arthur Augusto; De Rossi, Wagner; Zorn, Telma Maria Tenorio; Samad, Ricardo Elgul; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi; Cesar, Carlos Lenz; Junior, Nilson Dias Vieira; Zezell, Denise Maria
Thousands of people die every year from burn injuries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of high intensity femtosecond lasers as an auxiliary treatment of skin burns. We used an in vivo animal model and monitored the healing process using 4 different imaging modalities: histology, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Second Harmonic Generation (SHG), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. 3 dorsal areas of 20 anesthetized Wistar rats were burned by water vapor exposure and subsequently treated either by classical surgical debridement, by laser ablation, or left without treatment. Skin burn tissues were non-invasively characterized by OCT images and biopsied for further histopathology analysis, SHG imaging and FTIR spectroscopy at 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after burn. The laser protocol was found as efficient as the classical treatment for promoting the healing process. The study concludes to the validation of femtosecond ultra-short pulses laser treatment for skinburns, with the advantage of minimizing operatory trauma.
Sagi, Lior; Halachmi, Shlomit; Levi, Assi; Amitai, Dan Ben; Enk, Claes D; Lapidoth, Moshe
Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology that manifests as characteristic red nodules and papules with a predilection for the scalp and periauricular region. Treatment is required for both esthetic and functional reasons, as lesions may ulcerate and bleed. Many treatment approaches have been reported, including excision, systemic medical approaches, topical or intralesional therapies, and non-invasive modalities including cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. Treatments have exhibited variable efficacy, and the recurrence rate is 100 %. We report the combination of pulsed dye laser and CO2 laser in the treatment of ALHE in 14 patients. All patients exhibited clinical response after a mean of 2.4 ± 0.4 treatment sessions. The clinical efficacy of the combined treatment, together with its well-tolerated nature, render the use of pulsed dye laser in combination with CO2 laser, a viable treatment for debulking ALHE lesions. Ongoing maintenance treatments are needed to due to the high degree of relapse.
Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Karatas, C.
Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy surface is carried out and nitrogen/oxygen mixture with partial pressure of PO2/PN2=1/3 is introduced during the surface treatment process. Analytical tools are used to characterize the laser treated surfaces. The fracture toughness at the surface and the residual stress in the surface region of the laser treated layer are measured. Scratch tests are carried out to determine the friction coefficient of the treated surface. It is found that closely spaced regular laser scanning tracks generates a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer while lowering the stress levels in the treated region. Introducing high pressure gas mixture impingement at the surface results in formation of oxide and nitride species including, TiO, TiO2, TiN and TiOxNy in the surface region. A dense layer consisting of fine size grains are formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer, which enhances the microhardness at the surface. The fracture toughness reduces after the laser treatment process because of the microhardness enhancement at the surface. The residual stress formed is comprehensive, which is in the order of -350 MPa.
Chik, N.; Zain, W. S. Wan Md; Mohamad, A. J.; Sidek, M. Z.; Ibrahim, W. H. Wan; Reif, A.; Rakebrandt, J. H.; Pfleging, W.; Liu, X.
Bacterial adhesion has become a significant problem in many industries causing billions of dollars for its complicated removal treatment and maintenance. In this study, metal surfaces undergone treatment with ultrafast laser with varies power. The microstructure produced on its original surfaces were expected to prevent the adhesion of Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC 6838. The laser treatment was performed at 380 fs pulse duration, 515 µm central wavelength and a repetition rate of 200 kHz. Stainless steel AISI 316L was treated with an average laser power of 0.04 W (SS-0.04) and 0.11 W (SS-0.11), while Grade 5 titanium alloy was tested with high laser power 0.11 W (T-0.11). The adhesion was observed after 16 hours and the number of adhering bacteria was counted per cm2. The result achieved shows that, increasing the average laser power is leading to an enhanced S. aureus adhesion while E. coli adhesion is reduced which is due to the hydrophobicity interaction and difference in surface texture. Meanwhile, the laser treatment showed significant reduction of the bacterial adhesion on its surface compared to the polished surfaces. Thus, ultrafast laser texturing can be suggested as a promising method to reduce the bacterial adhesion, which reduced the adhesion of >80% for E. coli and >20% for S. aureus.
Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna; Janas, Anna
Biostimulative laser therapy was used in 4 patients with actinomycosis. In each patient extraoral radiation by means of the "contact point" method was applied. The results were evaluated on the basis of clinical and bacteriological examinations. Laserotherapy had a beneficial effect on the course of treatment of actinomycosis and shortened the time of curing.
Rumpf, Christian G.; Lang, Robert D.; Goetz, Marcus H.
Today most surgical treatment of spinal deformations is concentrated on invasive mechanical techniques with long operation times and major effects on the patient's mobility. The proposed minimally invasive technique using laser light for tissue ablation offers a possibility of gentle scoliosis treatment. It is thought that an early removal of the epiphysial growth zone on the convex side over several vertebrae results in a straightening of the spine. In a first evaluation, four different laser systems including argon ion, Nd:YAG (Q-switched), Nd:YAG (cw), and Ho:YAG laser were compared with respect to thermal damage to adjacent tissue, ablation rates, efficiency and laser handling. For in-vivo investigation, fresh lamb spine was used. Comparison showed that the Ho:YAG laser is the most appropriate laser for the given goal, providing efficient photoablation with moderate thermal effects on the adjacent tissue. In a second step the proposed minimally invasive operation technique was performed in in-vivo experiments on young foxhounds using 3D- thoracoscopic operation techniques. During these operations temperature mapping was done using fiber-optic fluorescent probes. After 12 months of normal growth the animals were sacrificed and x-ray as well as MRI was performed on the spine. First results show a positive effect of scoliotic growth in two cases. Being able to produce a scoliosis by hemiepiphysiodesis on the vertebra, It is thought that this technique is successful for a straightening of the spine on patients with scoliosis.
Armstrong, Ehrin J; Thiruvoipati, Thejasvi; Tanganyika, Kundai; Singh, Gagan D; Laird, John R
To investigate if laser atherectomy with adjunctive balloon angioplasty can improve endovascular treatment outcomes for femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis (ISR). A dual center study included 135 symptomatic patients (mean age 71 years; 76 men) who underwent endovascular treatment of femoropopliteal ISR between 2006 and 2013. Of these, 54 (40%) were treated with laser atherectomy and the remaining 81 patients with balloon angioplasty alone. Angiographic images were reviewed for lesion morphology and characteristics, TransAtlantic InterSociety Consensus (TASC) II classification, and distal runoff. Class I ISR was defined as focal lesions ≤50 mm, class II ISR as lesions >50 mm, and class III ISR as stent total occlusion. Recurrent ISR was determined by a peak systolic velocity ratio >2.4 by duplex ultrasound. Patients treated with laser atherectomy had longer mean ISR lesion length (222 vs 114 mm, p<0.001) and more class III ISR (69% vs 20%, p=0.001). There was no association between laser atherectomy and rates of recurrent restenosis or occlusion for patients with class I/II ISR, but there was a significantly lower rate of target lesion revascularization at 2 years among patients treated with laser atherectomy (14% vs 44%, p=0.05). In comparison, patients with class III ISR treated with laser atherectomy had lower rates of recurrent restenosis at 1 year (54% vs 91%, p=0.05) and 2 years (69% vs 100%, p=0.05). Patients with class III ISR treated with laser atherectomy also had lower rates of recurrent in-stent occlusion at 2-year follow-up (33% vs 71%, p=0.04). When used to treat complex ISR, including in-stent occlusions, laser atherectomy with adjunctive balloon angioplasty may be associated with improved patency. © The Author(s) 2015.
DeBruler, Danielle M; Blackstone, Britani N; Baumann, Molly E; McFarland, Kevin L; Wulff, Brian C; Wilgus, Traci A; Bailey, J Kevin; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M
Fractional CO 2 laser therapy has been used to improve scar pliability and appearance; however, a variety of treatment protocols have been utilized with varied outcomes. Understanding the relationship between laser power and extent of initial tissue ablation and time frame for remodeling could help determine an optimum power and frequency for laser treatment. The characteristics of initial injury caused by fractional CO 2 laser treatment, the rates of dermal remodeling and re-epithelialization, and the extent of inflammation as a function of laser stacking were assessed in this study in a porcine scar model. Full-thickness burn wounds were created on female Red Duroc pigs followed by immediate excision of the eschar and split-thickness autografting. Three months after injury, the resultant scars were treated with a fractional CO 2 laser with 70 mJ of energy delivered as either a single pulse or stacked for three consecutive pulses. Immediately prior to laser treatment and at 1, 24, 96, and 168 hours post-laser treatment, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, and microscopic characteristics of laser injury were measured. In addition, markers for inflammatory cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins, and re-epithelialization were quantified at all time points using qRT-PCR. Both treatments produced erythema in the scar that peaked 24 hours after treatment then decreased to basal levels by 168 hours. TEWL increased after laser treatment and returned to normal levels between 24 and 96 hours later. Stacking of the pulses did not significantly increase the depth of ablated wells or extend the presence of erythema. Interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were found to increase significantly 1 hour after treatment but returned to baseline by 24 hours post laser. In contrast, expression of transforming growth factor β1 and transforming growth factor β3 increased slowly after treatment with a more modest increase than interleukin 6 and monocyte
Vujosevic, Stela; Bottega, Elisa; Casciano, Margherita; Pilotto, Elisabetta; Convento, Enrica; Midena, Edoardo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare microperimetry and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) after subthreshold micropulse diode laser versus modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study photocoagulation for clinically significant diabetic macular edema. A prospective randomized clinical trial including 62 eyes (50 patients) with untreated, center-involving, clinically significant diabetic macular edema was performed. All patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity determination (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, FAF, optical coherence tomography, microperimetry (macular sensitivity), and fluorescein angiography before and after treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography, microperimetry, and FAF were repeated at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Before treatment, demographic and macular parameters were not different between the two treatment groups. At 12 months, best-corrected visual acuity remained stable in both groups (P = 0.41 and P = 0.82), mean central retinal thickness decreased in both groups (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001), and mean central 4 degrees and 12 degrees retinal sensitivity increased in the micropulse diode laser group (P = 0.02 and P = 0.0075) and decreased in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study group (P = 0.2 and P = 0.0026). There was no significant difference in either best-corrected visual acuity or central retinal thickness between the 2 treatment groups (P = 0.48 and P = 0.29), whereas there was a significant difference in 4 degrees and 12 degrees retinal sensitivity (P = 0.04 and P < 0.0001). Fundus autofluorescence never changed in the micropulse diode laser group even after retreatment. In the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study group, FAF increased up to 9 months and decreased in 6 eyes (20%) at 12 months. Micropulse diode laser seems to be as
Chtchoupak, Oleg S.; Shpilevoj, Boris N.; Zapaeva, Natlia L.
The method and design of a system for the laser treatment of ischemic heart disease is presented. Our conceptual approach to the development of the system is based on the theoretical and experimental works of the east and west scientists about positive influence of low intensity laser irradiation in the near infrared range by treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The method and system allow active influence on the subepicardial collateral blood circulation with near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation in wavelength ranges of 0.86-1.06 mkm. The presented technique makes it possible to achieve a higher effectiveness of treatment due to individual choice of radiation parameters on the basis of analysis of the patient conditions before and after laser therapy and due to simultaneous affection at several points of the human body. Finally, results of the tests are presented, which prove given methods.
Jiang, Qi; Xia, Shujie
The two-micron (thulium) laser is the newest laser technique for treatment of bladder outlet obstruction resulting from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It takes less operative time than standard techniques, provides clear vision and lower blood loss as well as shorter catheterization times and hospitalization times. It has been identified to be a safe and efficient method for BPH treatment regardless of the prostate size.
Oliveira, V.; Sharma, S. P.; de Moura, M. F. S. F.; Moreira, R. D. F.; Vilar, R.
In the present work, we investigate the surface treatment of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites by laser ablation with femtosecond laser radiation. For this purpose, unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composites were treated with femtosecond laser pulses of 1024 nm wavelength and 550 fs duration. Laser tracks were inscribed on the material surface using pulse energies and scanning speeds in the range 0.1-0.5 mJ and 0.1-5 mm/s, respectively. The morphology of the laser treated surfaces was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. We show that, by using the appropriate processing parameters, a selective removal of the epoxy resin can be achieved, leaving the carbon fibers exposed. In addition, sub-micron laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are created on the carbon fibers surface, which may be potentially beneficial for the improvement of the fiber to matrix adhesion in adhesive bonds between CFRP parts.
Mathew, Anju; Reddy, N. Venugopal; Sugumaran, D. K.; Peter, Joby; Shameer, M.; Dauravu, Liju Marcely
Background: Dental caries is essentially a process of diffusion and dissolution. If the aspect of dissolution can be curtailed some degree of prevention can be achieved. Aims: The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effect of Er:YAG laser and Co2 laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment on in vitro acid resistance of human enamel. Design: An in vitro study was carried out on 30 human premolars to evaluate the enamel's acid resistance using an atomic emission spectrometry analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 enamel specimens were prepared from 30 human premolars and were randomly assigned to 6 groups: (1) Untreated (control); (2) 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel application alone for 4 min; (3) Er:YAG laser treatment alone; (4) Co2 laser treatment alone; (5) Er:YAG laser + APF gel application; (6) Co2 laser + APF gel application. The specimens were then individually immersed in 5 ml of acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol/L, pH 4.5) and incubated at 37°C for 24 h, and the acid resistance was evaluated by determining the calcium ion concentration using the atomic emission spectrometry. Statistical Analysis: An ANOVA model was constructed (P value of 0.05), followed by Tukey's test for multiple pair wise comparisons of mean values. Results: Significant differences were found between the control group and the test groups (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Combining acidulated phosphate fluoride with either Er:YAG or Co2 laser had a synergistic effect in decreasing the enamel demineralization more than either fluoride treatment or laser treatment alone. PMID:24015004
Sroka, Ronald; Leunig, Andreas; Janda, P.; Rosler, P.; Grevers, G.; Baumgartner, Reinhold
Although the successful use of the Ho:YAG laser in nasal turbinate surgery had been reported no clinical study had been performed to assess the clinical outcome in longterm. By means of a pulsed Ho:YAG laser emitting at λ=2080nm (1J/pulse, 3-8 Hz) 57 patients suffering from nasal obstruction due to allergic rhinitis and vasomotoric rhinitis were treated under local anesthesia. The study was conducted by standardized questionnaire, photo documentation, allergy test, mucocilliar test, rhinomanometry, radiology and histology. Within 2 weeks after laser treatment a significant improvement of nasal airflow correlating to the extent of the ablated turbinate tissue could be determined. This effect lasted up until 1 year post treatment resulting in an improved quality of life in more than 80 percent of the patients. Side effects like nasal dryness and pain were rare (<4%), no immediate complications were observed. The total treatment time takes 3-8 min and nasal packing was not necessary after the laser procedure. In conclusion Ho:YAG laser treatment can be performed as an outpatient procedure under local anesthesia with excellent ablation of soft tissue in a short treatment time with promising results.
Higdon, Noah S.; Browell, Edward V.
The Lidar Applications Group at NASA Langley Research Center has developed a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system for the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols from an aircraft. The airborne H2O DIAL system is designed for extended flights to perform mesoscale investigations of H2O and aerosol distributions. This DIAL system utilizes a Nd:YAG-laser-pumped dye laser as the off-line transmitter and a narrowband, tunable Alexandrite laser as the on-line transmitter. The dye laser has an oscillator/amplifier configuration which incorporates a grating and prism in the oscillator cavity to narrow the output linewidth to approximately 15 pm. This linewidth can be maintained over the wavelength range of 725 to 730 nm, and it is sufficiently narrow to satisfy the off-line spectral requirements. In the Alexandrite laser, three intracavity tuning elements combine to produce an output linewidth of 1.1 pm. These spectral devices include a five-plate birefringent tuner, a 1-mm thick solid etalon and a 1-cm air-spaced etalon. A wavelength stability of +/- 0.35 pm is achieved by active feedback control of the two Fabry-Perot etalons using a frequency stabilized He-Ne laser as a wavelength reference. The three tuning elements can be synchronously scanned over a 150 pm range with microprocessor-based scanning electronics. Other aspects of the DIAL system are discussed.
Wozniak, Jakub; Wilczak, Maciej; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Pisarski, Tadeusz
The study shows the treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix in 79 patients. After first vaporization 74 patients were cured successfully. In two cases the laser procedure should be repeated and in 3 women the operation should be performed for the third time. All patients are still under control in our department and there is no recurrence observed. Carbon- dioxide laser vaporization under colposcopic control is an efficient method of treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix that requires no anaesthesia. The healing process after laser procedures is fast and without complications. The number of recurrences is low. Use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control because of precise destruction of lesions, fast healing and a low number of recurrences seems to be the method of choice.
Kaya, Ã.-zgür; Gülsoy, Murat
Photothermal medical laser treatments are extremely dependent on the generated tissue temperature. It is necessary to reach a certain temperature threshold to achieve successful results, whereas preventing to exceed an upper temperature value is required to avoid thermal damage. One method to overcome this problem is to use previously conducted dosimetry studies as a reference. Nevertheless, these results are acquired in controlled environments using uniform subjects. In the clinical environment, the optical and thermal characteristics (tissue color, composition and hydration level) vary dramatically among different patients. Therefore, the most reliable solution is to use a closed-loop feedback system that monitors the target tissue temperature to control laser exposure. In this study, we present a compact, non-contact temperature measurement system for the control of photothermal medical laser applications that is cost-efficient and simple to use. The temperature measurement is achieved using a focused, commercially available MOEMS infrared thermocouple sensor embedded in an off-axis arrangement on the laser beam delivery hand probe. The spot size of the temperature sensor is ca. 2.5 mm, reasonably smaller than the laser spot sizes used in photothermal medical laser applications. The temperature readout and laser control is realized using a microcontroller for fast operation. The utilization of the developed system may enable the adaptation of several medical laser treatments that are currently conducted only in controlled laboratory environments into the clinic. Laser tissue welding and cartilage reshaping are two of the techniques that are limited to laboratory research at the moment. This system will also ensure the safety and success of laser treatments aiming hyperthermia, coagulation and ablation, as well as LLLT and PDT.
Lawandy, Nabil M.
The third phase of research will focus on the propagation and energy extraction of the pump and SERS beams in a variety of configurations including oscillator structures. In order to address these questions a numerical code capable of allowing for saturation and full transverse beam evolution is required. The method proposed is based on a discretized propagation energy extraction model which uses a Kirchoff integral propagator coupled to the three level Raman model already developed. The model will have the resolution required by diffraction limits and will use the previous density matrix results in the adiabatic following limit. Owing to its large computational requirements, such a code must be implemented on a vector array processor. One code on the Cyber is being tested by using previously understood two-level laser models as guidelines for interpreting the results. Two tests were implemented: the evolution of modes in a passive resonator and the evolution of a stable state of the adiabatically eliminated laser equations. These results show mode shapes and diffraction losses for the first case and relaxation oscillations for the second one. Finally, in order to clarify the computing methodology used to exploit the speed of the Cyber's computational speed, the time it takes to perform both of the computations previously mentioned to run on the Cyber and VAX 730 must be measured. Also included is a short description of the current laser model (CAVITY.FOR) and a flow chart of the test computations.
Nita, AC; Orzan, OA; Filipescu, M; Jianu, D
Abstract Rationale: Many treatments have been proposed for cosmetic or functional improvement of scars. It is known that fat grafts and laser treatment can have beneficial effects on the remodeling of scar tissue, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can be effective during the wound-healing process. We hypothesized that laser and PRP can enhance fat graft survival and the combination would be effective in improving scars appearance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of these combinations in the treatment of atrophic and contractile scars. Methods and Results: From 2008-2013, we treated with this combination 64 patients affected by atrophic and contractile scars involving different body parts. At 6 months the patients’ overall satisfaction rate was excellent for over 50% of the patients. Discussion: The association of an ablative laser CO2 with PRP and autologous fat graft seems to be a promising and effective therapeutic approach for atrophic and contractile scars. Abbreviations: PRP platelet-rich plasma, OTI orotracheal intubation, HLLT high level laser therapy, LLLT low level laser therapy PMID:24868255
Cerrati, Eric W; O, Teresa M; Chung, Hoyun; Waner, Milton
Infantile hemangiomas are well known for their rapid growth during the first 6 to 9 months of life, followed by a spontaneous but slow involution. The standard of care is to treat these lesions at an early age with propranolol to expedite the involution process; however, surgery still remains an active component in the management. Medical treatment with propranolol or natural involution will often result in residual telangiectasias. We evaluated the efficacy of using a diode laser as a treatment for telangiectasias following cervicofacial infantile hemangioma involution. Case series with chart review. Tertiary care hospital and practice specializing in the care of vascular anomalies. Twenty patients, aged 4 months to 11 years (average 2.69 years), underwent treatment with a 532-nm diode laser to treat the residual telangiectasias following hemangioma involution. All procedures were performed in the operating room. To assess the efficacy, we independently evaluated pre- and posttreatment digital photographs and ranked them on a 0- to 4-point scale (0 = no change and 4 = complete response). Adverse reactions were also recorded. The telangiectasias showed considerable improvement following treatment. In more than half of the patients treated, the affected area demonstrated a complete response. No adverse reactions were noted. A 532-nm diode laser effectively treats the remaining telangiectasias following hemangioma involution. Whether used independently or in conjunction with other treatment modalities, the diode laser should be part of the surgical armamentarium when treating infantile hemangiomas. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.
Correa, Alex J.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Reinisch, Lou
The ideal laser produces discrete wounds in a reproducible manner. The CO2 laser with its 10.6 micron wavelength is highly absorbed by water, its energy concentrated at the point of impact and the longer wavelength creates less scatter in tissue. The development of binocular endoscopic delivery system for use with binocular microlaryngoscopes have aided in using CO2 laser to treat patients with subglottic and tracheal stenosis. Often, patients with these disease processes require multiple endoscopic or open reconstructive procedures and my ultimately become tracheotomy dependent. The canine model of subglottic stenosis that has been develop allows testing of new agents as adjuncts to laser treatment. Mitomycin-C is an antibiotic with antitumor activity used in chemotherapy and also in ophthalmologic surgery due to its known inhibition of fibroblast proliferation. Current studies indicate this drug to have significant potential for improving our current management of this disease process.
Khater, Mohamed H; Khattab, Fathia M; Abdelhaleem, Manal R
Striae are atrophic dermal scars with overlying epidermal atrophy causing cosmetic concern. This study assesses and compares the efficacy and safety of needling therapy versus CO2 fractional laser in treatment of striae. Twenty Egyptian female patients with striae in the abdomen and lower limbs were involved in the study. The patients were treated with needling therapy and CO2 laser every 1 month for 3 sessions. Follow-up by digital photography and skin biopsy was conducted at baseline and 6 months after treatment. Clinical improvement was assessed by comparing photographs and patient's satisfaction before and after treatment. Nine of 10 (90%) needle-treated patients showed improvement. Among them, 3 (30%) had good, 4 (40%) had fair, and 2 (20%) had poor improvements; however, 1 (10%) did not show any improvement after the treatment. In CO2-laser treated patients, 5 of 10 (50%) of the patients showed clinical improvement; 1 (10%) were good, 3 (30%) were fair, and 1 (10%) were poor; however, 5 (50%) did not show improvement. The results support the use of microneedle therapy over CO2 lasers for striae treatment.
Romeo, U.; Gaimari, G.; Mohsen, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.
Oral Vascular Malformations (OVM) are congenital anomalies characterized by morph-structural and/or functional changes of nature in severity and extension. OVM can affect any type of vessels arterial, venous or lymphatic and any capillary or anatomical. They are divided into two categories: low and high flow. In this study were treated 40 patients with OVM with a range size from 2 mm to 44 mm; they were subjected to clinical examination supported by Colour-Doppler Ultrasound instrumental examination and only for doubt cases the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was prescribed. Only low flow venous and capillary malformations were treated by GaAlAs laser (Wiser®, Lambda, Brindole,Italy, 980nm) and KTP laser (SmartLite®, DEKA, Florence, Italy, 532nm) with two different techniques: the Transmucosal Thermophotocoagulation (TMT) and the Intralesional Photocoagulation (ILP). These techniques permitted a good control of haemostasis, avoiding bleeding both during surgery and in the postoperative. It is obtained an excellent and good healing respectively in 10% and 60% of cases, a moderate and poor resolution respectively in 22.5% and 7.5% of cases. A clear diagnosis allowed the management of Venous malformations (VM) by laser devices with wavelengths highly absorbed in haemoglobin in safety and efficacy and according to the principles of minimal invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to verify if the laser is effective in the treatment of OVM for the purpose of the clinical findings and the postoperative course. The Authors concluded that the laser can be considered the "gold standard" for treating OVM.
Tay, Yong-Kwang; Kwok, Colin; Tan, Eileen
Striae distensae are dermal scars with flattening and atrophy of the epidermis. Successful treatment of these stretch marks has been disappointing. The non-ablative 1,450-nm diode laser has been shown to improve atrophic scars and may be expected to improve striae. As yet, no study has been published to document the effects of this laser on striae. Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy of the 1,450-nm diode laser in the treatment of striae rubra and striae alba in Asian patients with skin types 4-6. Striae on one half of the body in 11 patients were treated with the 1,450-nm diode laser with cryogen cooling spray with the other half serving as a control. The following parameters were used: 6 mm spot size and dynamic cooling device (DCD) for 40 milliseconds to protect the epidermis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 4, 8, or 12 J/cm2. A total of three treatments were given at 6-week intervals. The following sites were treated: abdomen, arms, back, buttocks, and thighs. Two patients had striae rubra and nine striae alba. Clinical photographs were taken before and after each treatment and analysis was undertaken through photographic evaluation by non-treating physicians. At 2 months after the last treatment, no patients showed any noticeable improvement in the striae on the treated side compared to baseline and to the control areas. Side effects were limited to transient erythema and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), which occurred in seven (64%) patients. The non-ablative 1,450-nm diode laser is not useful in the treatment of striae in patients with skin types 4, 5, and 6. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Naylor, Mark F; Zhou, Feifan; Geister, Brian V; Nordquist, Robert E; Li, Xiaosong; Chen, Wei R
Immunotherapy has become a promising modality for melanoma, especially using checkpoint inhibitors, which revive suppressed T cells against the cancer. Such inhibitors should work better when combined with other treatments which could increase the number and quality of anti-tumor T cells. We treated one patient with advanced (stage IV) melanoma, using the combination of laser immunotherapy (LIT), a novel immunological approach for metastatic cancers that has been shown to stimulate adaptive immunity, and ipilimumab. The patient was treated with LIT, followed with one course of ipilimumab 3 months after the beginning of LIT. After LIT treatment, all treated cutaneous melanoma in head and neck cleared completely. After the application of ipilimumab, all the tumor nodules in the lungs decreased. The patient had remained tumor free for one year. While anecdotal, the responses seen in this patient support the hypothesis that laser immunotherapy increases the number and quality of anti-tumor T cells so that ipilimumab and other checkpoint inhibitors are more effective in enhancing the therapeutic effects. Picture: Schematic of treatment using laser immunotherapy and ipilimumab on a stage IV melanoma patient. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Oláh, Arthur; Croitoru, Catalin; Tierean, Mircea Horia
In this paper, several Cr-Mn-rich hardfacings have been open-arc deposited on S275JR carbon quality structural steel and further submitted to laser treatment at different powers. An overall increase with 34-98% in the average microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings has been obtained, due to the formation of martensite, silicides, as well as simple and complex carbides on the surface of the hardfacings, in comparison with the reference, not submitted to laser thermal treatment. Surface laser treatment of electrode-deposited hardfacings improves their chemical resistance under corrosive saline environments, as determined by the 43% lower amount of leached iron and respectively, 28% lower amount of manganese ions leached in a 10% wt. NaCl aqueous solution, comparing with the reference hardfacings. Laser heat treatment also promotes better compatibility of the hardfacings with water-based paints and oil-based paints and primers, through the relative increasing in the polar component of the surface energy (with up to 65%) which aids both water and filler spreading on the metallic surface.
Passeniouk, A. N.; Mikhailov, V. A.
Vaginitis is the most common female infectious disease. Females suffering from this disorder are annually increasing in number. There are a lot of modalities of treatment of vaginitis, but because of drug allergy and microbe's stability to drug the treatment of vaginitis is difficult. Our study compares the efficacy of laser-therapy with drug therapy in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis. Thirty women reci4eed the LLLT by local action with antiseptic liquid daily during ten days, 20 women received metronidazole and fluconozole and vaginal application of metronidazole. The results suggest that local laser-therapy is able to remove sights of vaginitis more efficiently and faster than drug therapy. Repair of normal vaginal microflora, which is the best indicator of recovery, was significantly at a faster rate in laser-therapy group. There were no report of adverse reaction with vaginal laser- therapy, whereas there were women on drug therapy who reported side effects. In conclusion, vaginal aser-therapy with antiseptic liquid is a suitable, effective, safe and chip alternative to drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis.
Filimonov, R M; Musaeva, O M
Primary chronic gastroduodenitis (PCG) is one of the most frequent diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Timely and efficient treatment of patients with PCG promotes ulcer prevention. In this connection, an urgent problem of restorative medicine is to develop medical programs with active introduction of pharmacophysiotherapeutic complexes, in particular, laser therapy and anti-secretory preparation (famotidine) that increase therapeutic efficacy of treatment of this disease. To this end, we give results of treatment of 50 patients with primary chronic gastroduodenitis (26 having undergone laser therapy only, and 24 having had a combination of laser therapy and famotidine), which demonstrated that the complex action method has a more adequate effect on pathogenetic components in this disease than monotherapy.
Wu, Xiufa; Mao, Wenjing; He, Peijie; Wei, Chunsheng
To evaluate three methods for treating adult laryngeal hemangiomas: conventional chemotherapy, CO 2 laser combined with chemotherapy, and KTP laser. And to identify risk factors that affected the prognosis of the lesions. A retrospective analysis was performed on the data from patients with adult laryngeal hemangiomas treated by one of three aforementioned methods, the curative efficacy, and safety of those methods was compared. All cases were confirmed by suspension micro-laryngoscope examination. Pre- and post-treatment clinical photographs were taken and the outcomes were graded. Thirty-eight patients in 48 different cases were enrolled in the study between June 2010 and June 2016, and some patients were treated more than once. The treatment efficacy of the KTP laser was higher than that of chemotherapy according to the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test; however, the ordinal logistic regression showed that the choice of surgical procedure did not affect the treatment results; only the size of the bases of the lesions affected the prognosis of adult laryngeal hemangiomas. Pingyangmycin injection, KTP laser, and CO 2 laser combined with chemotherapy are safe and effective methods for the treatment of adult laryngeal hemangiomas. The size of base of the lesion affects the prognosis of the hemangiomas.
Baeder, Fernando Martins; Santos, Maria Teresa Botti R; Pelino, Jose Eduardo Pelizon; Duarte, Danilo Antonio; Genovese, Walter Joao
The use of high-power lasers has facilitated and improved human papillomavirus (HPV) treatment protocols and has also become very popular in recent years. This application has been more frequently used in hospitals, especially in gynecology. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of high-power diode laser to remove oral lesions caused by HPV and the consequent effects on virus load following the wound tissue healing process compared with one of the most conventional surgical techniques involving electrocautery. Surgeries were performed on 5 patients who had 2 distinct lesions caused by HPV. All patients were submitted to both electrocautery and high-power diode laser. Following a 20-day period, when the area was healed, sample material was collected through curettage for virus load quantitative analysis.Observation verified the presence of virus in all the samples; however, surgeries performed with the laser also revealed a significant reduction in virus load per cell compared with those performed with electrocautery. The ease when handling the diode laser, because of the flexibility of its fibers and precision of its energy delivery system, provides high-accuracy surgery, which facilitates the treatment of large and/or multifocal lesions. The use of high-power diode laser is more effective in treatment protocols of lesions caused by HPV.
Peshko, Igor; Rubtsov, Vladimir; Vesselov, Leonid; Sigal, Gennady; Laks, Hillel
A fiber photo-catheter has been developed for surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation with laser radiation. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a heart rhythm abnormality that involves irregular and rapid heartbeats. Recent studies demonstrate the superiority of treating AF disease with optical radiation of the near infrared region. To produce long continuous transmural lesions, solid-state lasers and laser diodes, along with end-emitting fiber catheters, have been used experimentally. The absence of side-emitting flexible catheters with the ability to produce long continuous lesions limits the further development of this technology. In this research, a prototype of an optical catheter, consisting of a flexible 10-cm fiber diffuser has been used to make continuous photocoagulation lesions for effective maze procedure treatments. The system also includes: a flexible optical reflector; a series of openings for rapid self-attachment to the tissue; and an optional closed-loop irrigating chamber with circulating saline to cool the optical diffuser and irrigate the tissue. PMID:19587838
Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad
Laser photoradiation therapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a breakthrough in the management of neonatal jaundice. In this paper the authors present a new laser system that provides combined monitoring and therapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The new system incorporates tunable laser sources that can be operated at selected wavelengths to achieve both transcutaneous differential absorption measurements of bilirubin concentration in addition to laser photoradiation therapy. The new laser system can allow the treating physician to avoid over or under treatment of jaundiced neonates by the control of serum bilirubin from a critically high level to a reasonably safe level.
Memon, Salah; Ahsan, Shahid; Alvi, Rashid; Fawwad, Asher; Basit, Abdul; Shera, Samad; Sheikh, Sikander Ali; Fahim, Muhammad Faisal
To determine the acceptance of retinal screening, Laser uptake and subsequent follow-up in diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Centre of Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), Karachi. Observational case series. Diabetic Centre of Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), Karachi, from January 2011 to December 2012. All the diabetic patients were screened for Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) with non-Mydriatic Fundus Camera (NMFC). Patients with DR were examined by the ophthalmologist using fundus lens and slit lamp. DR was graded for severity on the basis of modified Airlie House Classification. Patients with Sight Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy (STDR) were advised Laser treatment. Each patient was followed-up for at least 6 months. The records of patients recommended Laser were retrieved, and called for re-examination. Retinal screening was accepted by all of the 8368 registered diabetics attending DAP Centre. On fundus photography, 21.2% (1777) individuals were found to have DR. Seven hundred and five (39.5%) patients were found to have STDR. Laser was advised to 96.4% (680) of STDR patients; amongst whom 70.5% (480) accepted Laser treatment. Out of 480 patients who had Laser treatment, 21.2% (107) turned out for follow-up after 6 months. Acceptance of retinal screening and Laser application was good; but follow-up was suboptional.
Mosesyants, Elvira N.; Zazulevskaya, Lidiya Y.; Shevtsova, Elena
Laser irradiation use for treatment of different manifestations of oral mucous diseases during the last 10 years. The aim of this research was study of the results of use He-Ne laser radiation in combination with main therapy for treatment of oral mucous lesions of different aetiology. He-Ne laser irradiation use for radiation of lesions were caused by different aetiology reasons. Under the observation was 116 patients 20 - 64 years old, who had and hadn't background pathology. There were biochemical, immunological controls. Data of research confirmed positive effect of use He-Ne laser radiation.
Wood, John P M; Shibeeb, O'Sam; Plunkett, Malcolm; Casson, Robert J; Chidlow, Glyn
To determine detailed effects to retinal cells and, in particular, neurons following laser photocoagulation using a conventional 532 nm Nd:YAG continuous wave (CW) laser. Furthermore, to determine whether a novel 3 ns pulse laser (retinal regeneration therapy; 2RT) could specifically ablate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells without causing collateral damage to other retinal cells. Adult Dark Agouti (DA) rats were separated into four groups: control, CW laser (12.7 J/cm(2)/pulse, 100 ms pulse duration), or 3 ns pulse 2RT laser at one of two energy settings ("High," 2RT-H, 163 mJ/cm(2)/pulse; "Low," 2RT-L, 109 mJ/cm(2)/pulse). Animals were treated and killed after 6 hours to 7 days, and retina/RPE was analyzed by histologic assessment, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Both lasers caused focal loss of RPE cells with no destruction of Bruch's membrane; RPE cells were present at lesion sites again within 7 days of treatments. CW and 2RT-H treatments caused extensive and moderate damage, respectively, to the outer retina. There were no obvious effects to horizontal, amacrine, or ganglion cells, as defined by immunolabeling, but an activation of PKCα within bipolar cells was noted. There was little discernible damage to any cells other than the RPE with the 2RT-L treatment. Conventional laser photocoagulation caused death of RPE cells with associated widespread damage to the outer retina but little influence on the inner retina. The novel 3 ns 2RT laser, however, was able to selectively kill RPE cells without causing collateral damage to photoreceptors. Potential benefits of this laser for clinical treatment of diabetic macular edema are discussed.
Eder, Scott Evan
Fractional CO 2 lasers have been shown to provide improvement of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). The aim of the current study was to assess the early effect of a fractional CO 2 laser system in treating postmenopausal women with clinical symptoms of VVA. 28 healthy post-menopausal women (mean age 60.1 ± 5.55 years) with VVA-related symptoms were treated with fractional CO 2 laser 3 times, in 4-week intervals. At each study visit, VHIS score and VVA symptom severity were recorded. Sexual function was assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). One month following the first laser treatment, the mean VHIS score was significantly improved (13.89 ± 4.25 vs. baseline 11.93 ± 3.82; p < 0.05), and improved further at 3 and 6 months following all three laser treatments (16.43 ± 4.20 and 17.46 ± 4.07, respectively). Almost all VVA symptoms were significantly improved at one month following the first treatment. A further significant improvement in VVA symptoms was noted at 3 and 6 months following the third laser treatment. Following treatments, the FSFI score increased significantly (22.36 ± 10.40 vs. baseline 13.78 ± 7.70; p < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than baseline at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits. CO 2 laser therapy for post-menopausal women can be considered an effective therapeutic option providing relief of symptoms already noted after one laser treatment.
Hazey, J W; McCreary, M; Guy, G; Melvin, W S
Few Western studies have focused on percutaneous techniques using percutaneous transhepatic choledochoscopy (PTHC) and holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser to ablate biliary calculi in patients unable or unwilling to undergo endoscopic or surgical removal of the calculi. The authors report the efficacy of the holmium:YAG laser in clearing complex biliary calculi using percutaneous access techniques. This study retrospectively reviewed 13 non-Asian patients with complex secondary biliary calculi treated percutaneously using holmium:YAG laser. Percutaneous access was accomplished via left, right, or bilateral hepatic ducts and upsized for passage of a 7-Fr video choledochoscope. Lithotripsy was performed under choledochoscopic vision using a holmium:YAG laser with 200- or 365-microm fibers generating 0.6 to 1.0 joules at 8 to 15 Hz. Patients underwent treatment until stone clearance was confirmed by PTHC. Downsizing and subsequent removal of percutaneous catheters completed the treatment course. Seven men and six women with an average age of 69 years underwent treatment. All the patients had their biliary tract stones cleared successfully. Of the 13 patients, 3 were treated solely as outpatients. The average length of percutaneous access was 108 days. At this writing, one patient still has a catheter in place. The average number of holmium:YAG laser treatments required for stone clearance was 1.6, with no patients requiring more than 3 treatments. Of the 13 patients, 8 underwent a single holmium:YAG laser treatment to clear their calculi. Prior unsuccessful attempts at endoscopic removal of the calculi had been experienced by 7 of the 13 patients. Five patients underwent percutaneous access and subsequent stone removal as their sole therapy for biliary stones. Five patients were cleared of their calculi after percutaneous laser ablation of large stones and percutaneous basket retrieval of the remaining stone fragments. There was one complication of pain
Kuntz, Rainer M
Evaluate the current role of lasers in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The results of a MEDLINE search for randomised trials and case series of the last 5 yr and published review articles were analysed for the safety and efficacy of neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP), and holmium (Ho):YAG laser prostatectomy. The analysis includes 12 reports on randomised clinical trials, 2 comparative studies, 10 review articles, and a total of >5000 patients. Laser treatment of BPH has evolved from coagulation to enucleation. Blood loss is significantly reduced compared with transurethral resection and open prostatectomy. Visual laser ablation of the prostate and interstitial laser coagulation cause coagulative necrosis with secondary ablation. Long postoperative catheterisation, unpredictable outcomes, and high reoperation rates have restricted the use of these techniques. Ablative/vaporising techniques have become popular again with the marketing of new high-powered 80-W KTP and 100-W Ho lasers. Vaporisation immediately removes obstructing tissue. Short-term results are promising, but large series, long-term results, and randomised trials are lacking. Holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP) allows whole lobes of the prostate to be removed, mimicking the action of the index finger in open prostatectomy. Prostates of all sizes can be operated on. It is at least as safe and effective as transurethral resection of the prostate and open prostatectomy, with significantly lower morbidity. It is the only laser procedure that provides a specimen for histologic evaluation. HoLEP appears to be a size-independent new "gold standard" in the surgical treatment of BPH.
Serra, Christian; Pinna, Stefania; Venturini, Antonio; Rossi, Giacomo; Fortuna, Damiano
We have treated with CO2 laser surgery 40 cases which contemplated: stomatitis and other oral pathologies, anorectal, cutaneous, subcutaneous lesions, and other ophthalmic ones. The parameters employed to evaluate surgical treatment success were: histological analyses, time of healing process and incidence (per cent) of relapses. During the T/3 period (45 days) all cases of feline stomatitis relapsed. The 83% of pets that suffered of anorectal pathologies healed up to 21 days and no relapse was observed in T/4 period (180 days). The cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules vaporization caused lesions that healed during 7 days (T/1) and no relapse was observed after laser treatment. In cutaneous chronic ulcers and in reptilian abscesses we had the lesions reparation by second intention healing in T/3. A case of feline oral squamocellular carcinoma relapsed in T/3 after laser treatment. The results showed three different level of utility: indispensable, useful but unnecessary, inefficacious. The CO2 laser application resulted the best treatment for anorectal pathologies, cutaneous ulcerations and reptilian abscesses. The laser surgery was only useful but unnecessary in treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous neoformations and also in oral and peri-ophthalmic pathologies. Finally, the laser application appeared inefficacious in squamocellular carcinoma and in chronic phlogosis of feline oral cavity.
Rai, S; Madan, V; August, P J; Ferguson, J E
Favre-Racouchot syndrome (FRS) is both disfiguring and difficult to treat. Available medical and surgical therapies are of variable efficacy. Most treatments do not achieve complete resolution and do not show maintenance of therapeutic response. To assess the response to a novel two-step treatment using the CO2 laser in patients with FRS. Seven patients with FRS were treated with the CO2 laser in resurfacing mode with manual expression of comedones under infiltrative local anaesthesia. The procedure was completed in one treatment session lasting 30 min and the wound was left to heal by secondary intention. A topical antibiotic was applied to treated areas, which were covered with a nonadherent dressing. All patients were assessed 3 months postoperatively by the operating laser surgeon and a visual assessment of clinical response to treatment in comparison with pretreatment photographs was made. Patient satisfaction was also recorded. All patients achieved complete resolution of FRS. The follow-up duration for our cohort ranged from 8 months to 3 years. Two patients required further treatment within a 2-3-year period from initial treatment. Disease relapse was noted over 1 year after the primary treatment; both these cases were smokers and repeat treatment with similar laser parameters maintained reproducible results. Our longest disease-free follow-up duration was 3 years postprimary treatment. The laser surgeons and patients reported high levels of therapeutic benefit and satisfaction with the results. This two-step treatment of FRS (CO2 laser resurfacing and manual pressure-induced expression of comedones) is an effective and durable treatment for FRS with an excellent cosmetic outcome. Long-term follow-up beyond 3 years is planned to determine whether later recurrence occurs with this technique. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.
CO2 lasers in particular are expected to have many dental applications because the CO2 laser beam exhibits strong tissue transpirative actions, such as instant coagulation, carbonization, and vaporization, and because its wavelength at 10.6 micrometers is fully absorbed by water so that the ability to make precise incisions with a high degree of safety is excellent, without damaging the deep tissues. However, clinical application of the CO2 laser has been slowed since a fiber which can conduct the laser beam to the oral cavity has only recently developed. This new fiber is an extremely flexible fiber with a minimum bending radius of 20 mm and utilizes pulse wave modes that have improved the handling characteristics in the mouth, and this has enabled us to apply the CO2 laser to a variety of periodontal conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 lasers for the early treatment of inflammation and pain relief of acute periodontitis, curettage of periodontal pockets, healing after excision of gingiva, and early improvement of gingivitis.
Siposan, Dan G.; Manastireanu, Dan I.
Background: Presently, there is no unanimous consensus regarding the methods to introduce laser therapy, on a large scale, into a medical assistance system. These methods may vary from one country to another, depending on some factors. Although, there are some compulsory stages that must be reached. Purpose: This paper's purpose is to present the necessary stages, in our opinion, to successfully introduce laser therapy in hospitals and treatment rooms in our country. They include, among others: an information of the public at large, by brochures or other informative materials, on therapeutic lasers' action; the introducing in high level medicine schools of courses on the biological action of low-level lasers; laboratory studies on action mechanisms of low level laser radiation on live tissues; establishing the more objective methods of patients' assessment; obtaining approval from the Bioethics Committee for clinical studies on volunteers, according to current legislation. Materials and methods: There had been done a preliminary clinical study on volunteers (over 100 in number), using mainly subjective methods of evaluation. The patients have been also monitored also after the treatment, during one to six months. We present briefly a method of monitoring and objective assessment, by optical means, for laser therapy results, which we intend to use in the near future. Results:-There are presented the stages we reached till now. In the preliminary clinical study we have treated patients with various pathologies: skin diseases, dental, surgical and neuralgic pathology etc. We observed an amelioration or total remission on the most patients and also a good mood after the treatments. There are presented a few cases with significant results. Discussion and conclusion: We estimate the success rate of our treatments with over 60 percents. We hope this study shall be useful for the purpose mentioned in the paper's title. In a country where living standard is low, laser
Linke, S J; Steinberg, J; Katz, T
Concomitant with new innovations in the field of refractive surgery, therapeutic excimer laser applications like phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) and topography-guided customised ablation treatment are gaining high importance and undergoing rapid evolution. Nowadays, PTK is an effective treatment modality for superficial corneal pathologies. Primary indications are decreased epithelial adherence, superficial opacifications and an irregular corneal surface. For the right indication and successful treatment of corneal pathologies with PTK, a knowledge of the size, depth and nature of the pathology, as well as the refractive status of both eyes is important. Next to slit-lamp examination, objective measuring systems like the topography, confocal microscopy and the anterior segment OCT facilitate presurgical planning. Regarding the treatment procedure the surgeon can choose between a variety of methods. PTK can be combined with manual epithelial debridement or done by only using the excimer laser. In the case of an irregular corneal surface, depending on the pathology, masking fluids or topography-guided custom ablation protocols can increase the visual outcome. To avoid recurrence of the underlying pathology (e.g., corneal dystrophy, haze), the topical application of 0.02% mitomycin C for 20-60 seconds has proved to be a safe and effective procedure. If the surgeon considers all the patient-related factors carefully and manages to combine the available treatment options correctly, PTK embodies an effective and minimally invasive alternative to lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Tempesta, Angela; Franco, Simonetta; Miccoli, Simona; Suppressa, Patrizia; De Falco, Vincenzo; Crincoli, Vito; Lacaita, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Michele; Favia, Gianfranco
Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a muco-cutaneous inherited disease. Symptoms are epistaxis, visceral arterio-venous malformations, multiple muco-cutaneous telangiectasia with the risk of number increasing enlargement, bleeding, and super-infection. The aim of this work is to show the dual Diode Laser efficacy in preventive treatment of Early Lesions (EL < 2mm) and therapeutic treatment of Advanced Lesions (AL < 2mm). 21 patients affected by HHT with 822 muco-cutaneous telangiectatic nodules have been treated in several sessions with local anaesthesia and cooling of treated sites. EL preventive treatment consists of single Laser impulse (fibre 320) in ultrapulsed mode (2 mm single point spot). AL therapeutic treatment consists of repeated Laser impulses in pulsed mode (on 200ms / off 400ms). According to the results, Diode Laser used in pulsed and ultra-pulsed mode is very effective as noninvasive treatment both in early and advanced oral and perioral telangiectasia.
Triantafyllidis, D.; Li, L.; Stott, F. H.
Alumina-based refractory materials are extensively used as linings in incinerators and furnaces. These materials are subject to molten salt corrosion and chemical degradation because of the existence of porosity and material inhomogeneity. Efforts to improve the performance of these materials have so far concentrated mainly on the optimisation of the manufacturing processes (e.g. producing denser refractory bricks) and in-service monitoring. Laser surface treatment has also been used to improve performance. The main problem identified with laser surface treatment is solidification cracking due to the generation of very large temperature gradients. The aim of this paper is to investigate the surface modification of alumina-based ceramics by using two combined laser sources in order to control the thermal gradients and cooling rates during processing so that crack formation can be eliminated. The material under investigation is 85% alumina refractory ceramic, used as lining material in incineration plants. The surface morphology and cross-section of the treated samples are analysed using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compared with single laser beam treated samples.
Salvatore, Stefano; Athanasiou, Stavros; Candiani, Massimo
This article reviews the literature regarding the safety and efficacy of the use of a pulsed CO2 laser for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA). Prospective observational studies have demonstrated histological changes after the use of pulsed CO2 laser vaginally in atrophic conditions. Increased collagen and extracellular matrix production has been reported together with an increase in the thickness of the vaginal epithelium with the formation of new papilla. Three different observational studies reported a significant improvement of VVA assessed subjectively (with a 10-point visual analogue scale) and objectively (using the Vaginal Health Index) after a cycle of three treatments of pulsed CO2 laser. Also sexual function (assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index) and quality of life (evaluated with the SF12 questionnaire) significantly improved. No complications or side-effects were reported during or after the laser procedure that was performed in an outpatient setting. Increasing evidence with histological and clinical data supports the use of pulsed CO2 lasers in the treatment of VVA; however, no randomized control trial (sham versus treatment) has yet been produced and no data on the duration of therapy are currently available.
Huang, Faye; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Chen, Ching; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lin, Shu-Ching; Tsai, Hsiu-Huang; Wang, Liang-Jen
Effectively managing pain is vital for the well-being and satisfaction of patients undergoing dermatologic treatments involving lasers. This study investigates the potential outcome of using muscle relaxation techniques to reduce pain among people having their tattoos removed with laser treatment. This study consists of 56 participants (mean age 18.1 ± 2.1 years) that had tattoos removed using the principle of selective photothermolysis. These participants underwent muscle relaxation before receiving the laser treatment. Their peripheral skin temperatures (PST) were measured both at the beginning and the end of the muscle relaxation period. Then, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was applied to evaluate anxiety levels. Once the laser treatment was completed, pain levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. A total of 125 person-sessions of laser treatment and psychometric assessments were performed in this study. The muscle relaxation method significantly increased the PST of the participants while reducing the levels of anxiety and pain throughout the course of the laser treatment procedure. The PST, anxiety scores, and pain scores all showed significant correlations with one another. According to the results obtained, this study proposes that muscle relaxation techniques be considered possibly auxiliary treatment options for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment. Additional studies with a comparison group and a larger sample size are required in the future to confirm the effectiveness of such intervention.
Comparison between Er:YAG laser and bipolar radiofrequency combined with infrared diode laser for the treatment of acne scars: Differential expression of fibrogenetic biomolecules may be associated with differences in efficacy between ablative and non-ablative laser treatment.
Min, Seonguk; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Yoon, Ji Young; Suh, Dae Hun
Fractional Er:YAG minimizes the risk associated with skin ablation. Infrared diode laser and radiofrequency have suggested comparable improvements in acne scar. We compared the clinical efficacy of Er:YAG laser and bipolar radiofrequency combined with diode laser (BRDL) for the treatment of acne scars. Moreover, acute molecular changes of cytokine profile associated with wound healing have been evaluated to suggest mechanisms of improvement of acne scar. Twenty-four subjects with mild-to-moderate acne scars were treated in a split-face manner with Er:YAG and BRDL, with two treatment sessions, 4 weeks apart. Objective and subjective assessments were done at baseline, 1, 3, 7 days after each treatment and 4 weeks after last treatment. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained at baseline, 1, 3, 7, 28 days after one session of treatment for investigation of molecular profile of acute skin changes by laser treatment. Investigator's Global Assessment representing the improvement degree shows 2.1 (50%) in fractional Er:YAG and 1.2 (25%) in BRDL. Er:YAG induced the later and higher peak expression of TGFβs and collagenases, whereas BRDL induced earlier and lower expression of TGFβ and collagenases, relatively. PPARγ dropped rapidly after a peak in Er:YAG-treated side, which is associated with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) expression. We observed higher expression of TIMP after Er:YAG treatment compared with BRDL by immunohistochemistry, which may be associated with the expression of upregulation of collagen fibers. The superior efficacy of Er:YAG to BRDL in the treatment of acne scars may be associated with higher expression of collagen which is associated with differential expression of TGFβs, collagenases, PPARγ, and TIMP. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:341-347, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Magnani, Lauren Rose; Schweiger, Eric S
This review examines the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 lasers for the treatment of atrophic scarring secondary to acne vulgaris. We reviewed 20 papers published between 2008 and 2013 that conducted clinical studies using fractional CO2 lasers to treat atrophic scarring. We discuss the prevalence and pathogenesis of acne scarring, as well as the laser mechanism. The histologic findings are included to highlight the ability of these lasers to induce the collagen reorganization and formation that improves scar appearance. We considered the number of treatments and different laser settings to determine which methods achieve optimal outcomes. We noted unique treatment regimens that yielded superior results. An overview of adverse effects is included to identify the most common ones. We concluded that more studies need to be done using uniform treatment parameters and reporting in order to establish which fractional CO2 laser treatment approaches allow for the greatest scar improvement.
Rajaratnam, Ratna; Laughlin, Sharyn A; Dudley, Denis
The pulsed dye laser is an effective and established treatment for port-wine stains and has become the generally accepted standard of care. However, in many cases, complete clearance cannot be achieved as a significant proportion of lesions become resistant to treatment. Multiple passes or pulse-stacking techniques have been used to improve the extent and rate of fading, but concerns over increased adverse effects have limited this clinical approach. In this work, a double-pass technique with the pulsed dye laser has been described, which may allow for increased depth of vascular injury, greater efficacy, and an acceptable risk profile. Our aim was to determine the efficacy and the rate of side-effects for a double-pass protocol with a pulsed dye laser (PDL) to treat patients previously treated with PDL and/or other laser modalities. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 26 patients treated with a minimum of three double-pass treatments alone, or in combination, with single pass conventional PDL. Almost half of the patients (n = 12) showed either a moderate or significant improvement in fading compared to pre-treatment photographs with the double-pass technique. In a further 12 patients, there was a mild improvement. In two patients, there was no change. Sixteen patients developed mild side-effects: blisters (n = 5), dry scabs (n = 11) and transient hyperpigmentation (n = 4). This preliminary experience suggests that a double-pass technique at defined intervals between the first and second treatment with PDL can further lighten some port-wine stains, which are resistant to conventional single-pass treatments. This technique may be a useful addition to the laser treatment of PWS and deserves further scrutiny with randomized prospective studies and histological analysis to confirm the increased depth of vascular injury.
Hsu, Vincent M; Aldahan, Adam S; Tsatalis, John P; Perper, Marina; Nouri, Keyvan
Verrucae are benign epithelial proliferations, characteristically 1-20 mm in diameter, caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection occurring on the skin and mucosa (Photomed Laser Surg 33(6):338-42, 2015; Lasers Med Sci 29(3):1111-6, 2014). Prevalence of verrucae is 5-20% in children and young adults with peak incidence reported during teenage years (Lasers Med Sci 29(3):1111-6, 2014; J Am Acad Dermatol 22(4):547-66, 1990; J Korean Med Sci 24(5):889-93, 2009). Patients often express significant displeasure with quality of life due to this cosmetic insecurity, as well as functional problems and physical discomfort when they occur on palms of hands and soles of feet. Traditional therapeutic options for warts, such as topical salicyclic acid, topical imiquimod, bleomycin injections, cryotherapy, surgical excision, and electrocautery, have proven somewhat effective but often lead to high recurrence rates or scarring (Photomed Laser Surg 33(6):338-42, 2015). Laser therapy offers an alternative solution by employing selective tissue destruction with minimal risks. We performed a broad literature search in PubMed to obtain all available published articles that studied the treatment of verrucae on the skin with 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. This laser is specifically suited for verruca treatment due to its deeply penetrating 1064-nm wavelength and relatively low risk of pigmentation changes in dark skin types (Photomed Laser Surg 33(6):338-42, 2015). Laser therapy is effective in the treatment of verrucae and has enabled clinicians to provide direct, targeted treatment of warts.
Min, Seong U K; Choi, Yu Sung; Lee, Dong Hun; Yoon, Mi Young; Suh, Dae Hun
Nonablative laser is gaining popularity because of the low risk of complications, especially in patients with darker skin. To compare the efficacy and safety of a long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and a combined 585/1,064-nm laser for the treatment of acne scars. Nineteen patients with mild to moderate atrophic acne scars received four long-pulse Nd:YAG laser or combined 585/1,064-nm laser treatment sessions at fortnightly intervals. Treatments were administered randomly in a split-face manner. Acne scars showed mild to moderate improvement, with significant Echelle d'évaluation clinique des cicatrices d'acné (ECCA) score reductions, after both treatments. Although intermodality differences were not significant, combined 585/1,064-nm laser was more effective for deep boxcar scars. In patients with combined 585/1,064-nm laser-treated sides that improved more than long-pulse Nd:YAG laser-treated sides, ECCA scores were significantly lower for combined 585/1,064-nm laser treatment. Histologic evaluations revealed significantly greater collagen deposition, although there was no significant difference between the two modalities. Patient satisfaction scores concurred with physicians' evaluations. Both lasers ameliorated acne scarring with minimal downtime. In light of this finding, optimal outcomes might be achieved when laser treatment types are chosen after considering individual scar type and response.
Cervantes, Jessica; Perper, Marina; Eber, Ariel E; Fertig, Raymond M; Tsatalis, John P; Nouri, Keyvan
Hyperhidrosis o`ccurs when the body produces sweat beyond what is essential to maintain thermal homeostasis. The condition tends to occur in areas marked by high-eccrine density such as the axillae, palms, and soles and less commonly in the craniofacial area. The current standard of care is topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate antiperspirant (10-20%), but other treatments such as anticholinergics, clonidine, propranolol, antiadrenergics, injections with attenuated botulinum toxin, microwave technology, and surgery have been therapeutically implicated as well. Yet, many of these treatments have limited efficacy, systemic side effects, and may be linked with significant surgical morbidity, creating need for the development of new and effective therapies for controlling excessive sweating. In this literature review, we examined the use of lasers, particularly the Neodynium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode lasers, in treating hyperhidrosis. Due to its demonstrated effectiveness and limited side effect profile, our review suggests that Nd:YAG laser may be a promising treatment modality for hyperhidrosis. Nevertheless, additional large, randomized controlled trials are necessary to confirm the safety and efficacy of this treatment option.
Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Villasante, Alexandra C; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Perez, Carmen I; Jimenez, Joaquin J
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy for which there is no effective interventional approach. A low-level laser (LLL) device, the HairMax LaserComb®, has been cleared by the FDA to treat androgenetic alopecia. Its effects may be extended to other settings; we have demonstrated that LaserComb treatment induced hair regrowth in a mouse model for alopecia areata. In the current study, we tested whether LLL treatment could promote hair regrowth in a rat model for CIA. Chemotherapy agents cyclophosphamide, etoposide, or a combination of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin were administered in young rats to induce alopecia, with or without LLL treatment. As expected, 7-10 days later, all the rats developed full body alopecia. However, rats receiving laser treatment regrew hair 5 days earlier than rats receiving chemotherapy alone or sham laser treatment (with the laser turned off). The accelerated hair regrowth in laser-treated rats was confirmed by histology. In addition, LLL treatment did not provide local protection to subcutaneously injected Shay chloroleukemic cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that LLL treatment significantly accelerated hair regrowth after CIA without compromising the efficacy of chemotherapy in our rat model. Our results suggest that LLL should be explored for the treatment of CIA in clinical trials because LLL devices for home use (such as the HairMax LaserComb®) provide a user-friendly and noninvasive approach that could be translated to increased patient compliance and improved efficacy.
Key, Douglas J
To compare single-treatment facial skin tightening achieved with the current radiofrequency (RF) protocol with single-treatment tightening achieved with the long-pulsed, 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser. A total of 12 patients were treated with RF energy on one side of the face and laser energy on the other. Results were evaluated on a numerical scale (0-12 with 12 = greatest enhancement) from pre- and posttreatment photographs by a blinded panel. Upper face improvement (posttreatment score minus pretreatment score) was essentially the same on both sides (30.2 and 31.3% improvement for laser and RF, respectively, P=0.89). Lower face improvement was greater in the laser-treated side (35.7 and 23.8% improvement for laser and RF, respectively), but the difference was not significant (P=0.074). Overall face improvement was significantly greater on the laser-treated side (47.5 and 29.8% improvement for laser and RF, respectively, P=0.028). A single high-fluence treatment with the long-pulse 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser may improve skin laxity more than a single treatment with the RF device. Further controlled split-face or very large non-self controlled studies are needed to conclusively determine the relative efficacies of the two technologies. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Ozlem, K; Esad, G M; Ayse, A; Aslihan, U
The aim of this clinical study was to determine and compare the efficiency of the glutaraldehyde-containing agent (GCA), Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers, and the combination of them on the dentin hypersensitivity (DH) treatment. This study was performed with the participation of 17 healthy adult patients having 100 teeth with DH; the patients were randomly divided into five groups according to the treatment protocol: (1) application of GCA on sensitive teeth, (2) Nd:YAG laser (1 W/cm 2 , 10 Hz) irradiation on sensitive teeth, (3) application of GCA on sensitive teeth and then Nd:YAG laser irradiation, (4) Er,Cr:YSGG laser (0.25 W/cm 2 , 20 Hz) irradiation on sensitive teeth, (5) application of GCA on sensitive teeth and then Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. Sensitivity levels were assessed by the Yeaple probe on the buccal surfaces of the teeth at a force setting of 10 g. Measurements were performed for 30 min, after 7, 90, and 180 days of the therapy to assess the effects of desensitization. The evaluations were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and repeated measurement test (P < 0.05). After sessions, DH was significantly reduced in all groups at each measurement point. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser with or without GCA application were the most effective ones in DH treatment (P < 0.05). Comparison of the treatment regimens demonstrated that the scores achieved with the Yeaple probe were not significantly higher for the Nd:YAG laser groups than the GCA alone group. This clinical study shows that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser have promising potential for the treatment of DH.
Naylor, Mark F.; Le, Henry; Li, Xiaosong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.
Topical application of a potent immunological modulator, imiquimod, followed by laser irradiation has been used for the treatment of late-stage melanoma patients. This novel approach, laser-assisted laser immunotherapy (LIT), targets the root course of melanoma, a highly metastatic cancer. We started a phase I clinical trial in 2006 with promising initial outcomes. The laser-imiquimod combination showed significant palliative effects for these patients with multiple treatment cycles. For the returning patients, we found that the recurrent tumors were less aggressive than usually seen in untreated patients. The current protocol uses a light-absorbing dye for selective laser photothermal interaction with a non-invasive treatment mode. It has limitations for patient treatment, particularly for large, deeper tumors, and for patients with dark pigmented skins. This study provides some information on the treated patients (both stage IV and stage IV) during the past several years. We also discuss the future directions of LIT, particularly in the area of photothermal treatment mode with a new approach of interstitial irradiation. The current results in melanoma treatment using LIT indicate that the combination of photothermal therapy and immunological stimulation may hold the key for the treatment of late-stage, metastatic cancers, not only for cutaneous cancers such as melanoma and breast cancer, but also for deep and internal tumors using different operations modes such as interstitial laser irradiation.
Ort, R J; Anderson, R R
Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.
Hultman, Charles Scott; Edkins, Renee E; Cairns, Bruce A; Meyer, Anthony A
Although lasers can improve burn scars, such treatment has not been adopted universally, due to operational challenges starting a practice and the perception that such a program is not financially viable. We report the logistics of building a laser practice for the treatment of hypertrophic burn scars. We analyzed the clinical, operational, and financial components of our laser practice, focusing on treatment of hypertrophic burn scars, using pulsed dye laser, fractional CO2 laser, and intense pulsed light. Cases were performed in an operating room, with anesthesia, after preauthorization. We examined professional charges and collections, case time, variable and indirect expenses, and breakeven volumes. Our practice grew as follows: 2008, 1 case; 2009, 44 cases; 2010, 169 cases; and 2011, 415 cases. Overall collection rate was 32.1%. Expenses incurred by the provider, per 8-hour session, included laser rental/lease ($2375), personnel salaries ($1900), and physician overhead ($808), for a total cost of $5083. Mean charge was $1642 per case; mean collection was $527 per case. Median case time (procedure plus turnover) was 40 minutes. In this model, breakeven volume is 9.7 cases per day; breakeven time is 49.7 minutes. Provider profit margin for 10 cases per day, or 83% capacity utilization, is $187 per day (income - expenses = $5270 - $5083). Despite high costs associated with starting and operating a laser practice for the treatment of hypertrophic burn scars, a sustainable enterprise can be achieved when the provider has accrued enough volume to batch cases over an entire day. Critical to achieving breakeven is preauthorization, controlling overhead, and efficient throughput.
Wozniak, Jakub; Rzymski, Pawel; Opala, Tomasz; Wilczak, Maciej; Sajdak, Stefan
There are several methods of treating cervical dysplasia, including surgical and electric conisation, laservaporisation. The aim of our study was to evaluate leep-loop method and laservaporisation wtih CO2 laser. Material consisted of 49 women, 28 underwent leep-loop conisation and 21 lavervaporisation. The effectiveness of laser treatment was 90,4% and with leep-loop 96,4%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Mean time of wound healing and frequency of pain was shorter after laser treatment, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Effect treatment with both methods is comparable.
Fedyai, S. G.; Prochonchukov, Alexander A.; Zhizhina, Nina A.; Metelnikov, Michael A.
We report results of clinical application of the new computer-laser system. The system includes hardware and software means, which are applied for new efficient methods of prevention and treatment of main dental diseases. The hardware includes a laser physiotherapeutic device (LPD) `Optodan' and a fiberoptic laser delivery system with special endodontic rigging. The semiconductor AG-AL-AG laser diode with wavelengths in the spectral range of 850 - 950 nm (produced by Scientific-Industrial Concern `Reflector') is used as a basic unit. The LPD `Optodan' and methods of treatment are covered by Russian patent No 2014107 and certified by the Russian Ministry of Health. The automated computer system allows us to examine patients quickly and to input differential diagnosis, to determine indications (and contraindications), parameters and regimen of laser therapy, to control treatment efficacy (for carious -- through clinical indexes of enamel solubles, velocity of demineralization and other tests; for periodontal diseases trough complex of the periodontal indexes with automated registry and calculation). We present last results of application of the new technique and methods in treatment of dental diseases in Russian clinics.
Nitta, Isami; Zhao, Xuefeng; Kanno, Akihiro; Kan, Yasushi; Yoshimasa, Takezawa; Maruyama, Tomohiro; Maeda, Yoshitaka
We propose a new laser irradiation method for the treatment of cutaneous lesions in plastic surgery. In general, lasers with a spot size of 1 to 10 mm are used in irradiation on diseased skin. Although the target absorbs more light energy according to the theory of selective photothermolysis, the surrounding tissue, however, is still somewhat damaged. In proposed method, an f-theta lens, which is assembled by a shrink fitter, focuses the irradiation laser beam to a very fine spot with the size of 125 μm. Guided by the captured object-image, such laser beam is conducted by a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors to irradiate only the desired tissue target without thermal damage to surrounding tissue. Moreover, an optical coherence tomography, whose probe is capable of wide field of view, can be used to provide the guidance information for the best treatment. The usefulness of the developed laser therapy apparatus was demonstrated by performing an experiment on the removal of tattoo pigment.
Dragoni, F; Moretti, S; Cannarozzo, G; Campolmi, P
Surgical treatment remains the first-line therapy of pilonidal cyst but is associated with high levels of postoperative pain, adverse events and a recurrence rate of 30%. We report our experience with laser hair removal using the Nd-YAG laser for the treatment of pilonidal cyst. Ten patients affected by pilonidal cyst were examined and treated from October 2011 to November 2016. Treatments were carried out using the Nd-YAG laser (Deka M.E.L.A, Calenzano, Florence, Italy) at a wavelength of 1064 nm at 30-day interval. Nine patients were asymptomatic after the second treatment, while in one case the symptom disappeared after the fourth session. After 4-8 treatments, the pilonidal cyst had clinically disappeared and patients subjectively felt healed. In all cases, the soft-tissue ultrasounds performed before the first and after the last session showed the disappearance of the pilonidal cyst. In the follow-up, all the patients remained asymptomatic without any disease recurrence. Nd-YAG laser is an effective treatment for pilonidal cysts, providing excellent results with quick healing and no risk of serious adverse side-effects. It could be a very attractive alternative to open surgery, enabling patients to prevent the frequent and severe postoperative issues associated with surgery.
Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.
An elevated serum bilirubin concentration in the newborn infant presents a therapeutic as well as a diagnostic problem to the physician. It has long been recognized that high levels of bilirubin cause irreversible brain damage and even death. The authors introduce the use of semiconductor diode lasers and diode-pumped solid-state lasers that can be used for solving such diagnostic and therapeutic problems. These new laser sources can improve the ergonomics of using laser, enhance performance capabilities and reduce the cost of employing laser energy to pump bilirubin out of an infant's body. The choice of laser wavelengths follows the principles of bilirubinometry and phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. The wide spread use of these new laser sources for clinical monitoring and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia will be made possible as each incremental or quantum jump cost reduction is achieved. Our leading clinical experience as well as the selection rules of laser wavelengths will be presented.
Klein, A; Buschmann, M; Babilas, P; Landthaler, M; Bäumler, W
Telangiectatic leg veins (TLV) represent a common cosmetic problem. Near infrared lasers have been widely used in treatment because of their deeper penetration into the dermis, but with varying degrees of success, particularly because of different vessel diameters. Indocyanine green (ICG)-augmented diode laser treatment (ICG+DL) may present an alternative treatment option. This trial evaluates the efficacy of ICG+DL in the treatment of TLV and compares the safety and efficacy of therapy with the standard treatment, the long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. In a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, 29 study participants with TLV were treated with a Nd:YAG laser (λem = 1064 nm, 160-240 J cm(-2) , 65-ms pulse duration, 5-mm spot size) and ICG+DL (λem = 810 nm, 60-110 J cm(-2) , 48-87-ms pulse duration, 6-mm spot size; total ICG dose 4 mg kg(-1) ) in a side-by-side comparison in one single treatment setting that included histological examination in four participants. Two blinded investigators and the participants assessed clearance rate, cosmetic appearance and adverse events up to 3 months after treatment. According to both the investigators' and participants' assessment, clearance rates were significantly better after ICG+DL therapy than after Nd:YAG laser treatment (P < 0·05). On a 10-point scale indicating pain during treatment, participants rated ICG+DL therapy to be more painful (6·1 ± 2·0) than Nd:YAG laser (5·4 ± 2·0). ICG+DL therapy represents a new and promising treatment modality for TLV, with high clearance rates and a very good cosmetic outcome after one single treatment session. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.
Klunboot, U.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Chitaree, R.; Emarat, N.
This research purpose is to investigate the changing of teeth color and to study the surface of teeth after treatment by laser diode at different power densities for tooth whitening treatment. In the experiment, human-extracted teeth samples were divided into 7 groups of 6 teeth each. After that laser diode was irradiated to teeth, which were coated by 38% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, during for 20, 30 and 60 seconds at power densities of 10.9 and 52.1 W/cm2. The results of teeth color change were described by the CIEL*a*b* systems and the damage of teeth surface were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the power density of the laser diode could affect the whiteness of teeth. The high power density caused more luminous teeth than the low power density did, but on the other hand the high power density also caused damage to the teeth surface. Therefore, the laser diode at the low power densities has high efficiency for tooth whitening treatment and it has a potential for other clinical applications.
White, J M; Fagan, M C; Goodis, H E
Lasers are being used for soft tissue removal, caries removal, and treatment of root surface sensitivity. One concern for laser safety is that the heat produced at the irradiated root surface may diffuse to the pulp causing irreversible pulpal damage. To test this heat diffusion, copper-constantan thermocouples were inserted into the radicular pulp canals of extracted teeth. Simulating direct exposure which might occur during gingival excision, superficial caries removal, and modification of the dentin surface for treatment of root surface sensitivity, a 2 mm2 area of the external root surface was uniformly irradiated with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser using a 320 microns diameter fiber optic contact probe. Power was varied from 0.3 to 3.0 W with frequencies of 10 and 20 Hz. Temperature changes during cavity preparations using a high speed handpiece with air coolant were also recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA (P < or = 0.05) indicated that intrapulpal temperatures increased as a function of power, frequency, and time. Intrapulpal temperatures decreased as remaining dentin thickness (0.2 to 2.0 mm) increased for each laser parameter. Irradiation of dentin using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser, within the treatment times, powers, and frequencies with adequate remaining dentin thickness, as outlined in this paper, should not cause devitalizing intrapulpal temperature rises.
Zeitels, Steven M; Akst, Lee M; Burns, James A; Hillman, Robert E; Broadhurst, Matthew S; Anderson, R Rox
Treatment of glottal papillomatosis and dysplasia was mirror-guided and done in surgeons' offices in the 19th century. It migrated to the operating room in the 20th century to accommodate direct laryngoscopic surgery, which required assistants to administer anesthesia and procedural support. The primary treatment goals, which are disease regression and voice restoration and/or maintenance, are tempered by the morbidity of general anesthesia and potential treatment-induced vocal deterioration. To obviate general anesthesia, office-based laser laryngeal surgery was first done in 2001 with the 585-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL), because it employs a fiber delivery system and its energy is selectively absorbed by oxyhemoglobin. Since then, this new angiolytic laser treatment paradigm has become a mainstay of management for many surgeons; however, there are a number of shortcomings of the PDL. To further develop this concept and address the limitations of the PDL, we used a 532-nm pulsed potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser. A prospective assessment was performed on 48 patients in 72 cases of recurrent glottal dysplasia (36) or papillomatosis (36). All individuals had previously undergone microlaryngoscopic management with histopathologic evaluation. Two dysplasia patients did not tolerate the procedure. Of the treatable dysplasia cases, there was follow-up in 29 of 34. Disease regression was at least 75% in 18 of 29 cases (62%), 50% to 75% in 7 of 29 (24%), and 25% to 50% in the remaining 4 of 29 (14%). Papilloma patients returned for treatment when symptoms recurred, so disease regression could not be assessed accurately. Similar to data obtained with the PDL, these data confirmed that dysplastic mucosa could normalize without resection. Our observations revealed that the 532-nm pulsed KTP laser provided enhanced performance over the PDL laser in a number of ways. The ability to use smaller glass fibers precluded mechanical trauma to the channels of the flexible
Ciuchita, Tavi; Usurelu, Mircea; Antipa, Ciprian; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela; Ionescu, Elena
The authors tried to verify the efficacy of Low Power Laser (LPL) in scalp alopecia and crural ulcers of different causes. Laser used was (red diode, continuous emission, 8 mW power, wave length 670 nm spot size about 5 mm diameter on some points 1 - 2 minutes per point. We also use as control classical therapy. Before, during and after treatment, histological samples were done for alopecia. For laser groups (alopecia and ulcers) the results were rather superior and in a three or twice time shorter than control group. We conclude that LPL therapy is a very useful complementary method for the treatment of scalp alopecia and crural ulcers.
Hughes, Tom; Callaghan, Michael
Local laser therapy has been suggested as a promising treatment for acute hamstring muscle tears. We carried out a shortcut systematic review to establish whether therapeutic lasers are beneficial for patients with acute hamstring tears. Despite a comprehensive literature search, no studies that were directly relevant to the question could be identified. The clinical bottom line is therefore that there is currently no evidence for the use of any form of laser therapy in the treatment of acute hamstring muscle tears. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Razhev, Alexander M.; Bagayev, Sergei N.; Chernikh, Valery V.; Kargapoltsev, Evgeny S.; Trunov, Alexander; Zhupikov, Andrey A.
For the first time the effect of the UV laser radiation to human eye cornea with herpetic keratitis was experimentally investigated. In experiments the UV radiation of ArF (193 nm), KrCl (223 nm), KrF (248 nm) excimer lasers were used. Optimal laser radiation parameters for the treatment of the herpetic keratitis were determined. The immuno-biochemical investigations were carried out and the results of clinical trials are presented. The maximum ablation rate was obtained for the 248 nm radiation wavelength. The process of healing was successful but in some cases the haze on the surface of the cornea was observed. When used the 193 nm radiation wavelength the corneal surface was clear without any hazes but the epithelization process was slower than for 248 nm wavelength and in some cases the relapse was occurred. The best results for herpetic keratitis treatment have been achieved by utilizing the 223 nm radiation wavelength of the KrCl excimer laser. The use of the 223 nm radiation wavelength allows treating the herpetic keratitis with low traumatic process of ablation and provides high quality of corneal surface.
Mutrynowski, Andrzej; Zabielska, Renata
Hysteroscopy, which is a kind of endoscopy, makes it possible to evaluate macroscopically the cervical canal, uterine cavity, and the uterine opening of the oviducts. Laser hysteroscopy is used for removing septa and intrauterine adhesions, polyps, small submucosus myomas, and for endometrium ablation in abnormal metrorrhagias. The paper aims at the initial evaluation of laser hysteroscopy in removing intrauterine adhesions in the cases of 41 infertile women. Among all infertile patients 16 women (39%) conceived. Among others 1 woman (2.5%) did not want to conceive and 19 had other causes of infertility. Thirteen (93%) out of 14 patients with hypomenorrhea before surgery reported improvement of the menstruation cycle after the treatment. Five patients (12%) had adhesions for the second time. The patients had the second laser hysteroscopy. The control diagnostic hysteroscopy showed no adhesions in those cases.
Antipa, Ciprian; Moldoveanu, Vladimir; Rusca, Nicolae; Bruckner, Ion I.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Stanciulescu, Viorica
We tried to establish the efficiency of low energy (power) lasers (LEL), in various inflammatory and noninflammatory rheumatic diseases during five years. We treated 514 patients with osteoarthrosis, 326 patients with nonarticular rheumatism and 82 patients with inflammatory rheumatism, in four different ways: only with Galium-Aluminum-Arsenide (GaAs) infrared lasers; both GaAs lasers and Helium neon (HeNe) lasers; with placebo laser; with classical anti-inflammatory therapy. The results were analyzed using local objective improvements and the score obtained from a pain scale before and after the treatments. We also note some preliminary results obtained by the computer analysis of the evocated potentials after laser irradiation. We conclude that LEL (especially HeNe with GaAs) is obviously more efficient than placebo laser therapy and also had better or at least similar results, in most of the cases, than classical anti-inflammatory therapy.
Kunin, Anatoly A.; Erina, Stanislava V.; Pankova, Svetlana N.; Buerger, Friedhelm R.; Baumert, R.; Stepanov, Nicolay N.; Malinovskaya, L. A.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Podolskaya, Elana E.; Kazmina, Svetlana G.; Dergunova, Elvira I.; Mozhaev, N. N.
A perspective trend in the perfection of laser methods of stomatological diseases treatment is the application of low intensity laser radiation having a wide range of the therapeutic effect. Thus, laser radiation has various, pathogenetic effect. Patients with carries, pulpits, periodontitis, diseases of parodontium and oral mucous membranes were treated. Traditional examination methods were used, i.e. biochemical, visual pulp examination, immunological and macrohistological ones. The obtained results prove high effectiveness of laser therapy in the treatment of a number of stomatological disease in comparison with traditional methods and can be recommended to be used in practice.
Silverman, Richard T.; Lach, Elliot
The outcome of laser tattoo removal is dependent on the type of laser and characteristics of the tattoo. A rabbit model was developed to study the Q-switched ruby laser in the treatment of traumatic tattooing. On the backs of white New Zealand rabbits, three 3 cm patches were dermabraded and dressed with carbon black and antibiotic ointment. After a healing period of eight weeks, pre-treatment biopsies were obtained, and the rabbits were treated with the Q- switched ruby laser at various fluence settings with a pulse width of 34 nsec. At set intervals, further biopsies were obtained and studied with light and electron microscopic analysis, and photodocumentation was performed. Grossly, clearance of the tattooed areas was noted in the laser treated specimens. More effective clearance was observed with higher fluence treatment. No infections occurred, and hair regrowth was noted in all cases, though the rate seemed to be altered by laser treatment.
Narang, Subina; Singh, Amrita; Jain, Suksham; Sood, Sunandan; Chawla, Deepak
Purpose: To study the fovea in preterm babies with Type I retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) before and after laser treatment using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational case-control study including preterm neonates undergoing screening for ROP from May 2009 to July 2011. Group 1 included 30 eyes of 15 neonates with Type I ROP. A 532-nm laser was used for treatment in all cases for Group 1. Group 2 included 14 eyes of 7 preterm neonates without ROP that served as controls. OCT was performed under sedation in the lateral position before and after laser treatment. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean initial central macular thickness (CMT) was comparable in both groups (P = 0.832) and statistically significantly correlated with gestational age (P = 0.015). No adverse effects on the anterior segment or posterior segment were observed. There was no significant difference in CMT before and after laser treatment in Group 1 (P = 0.007). There was one case of cystoid macular edema after laser treatment. Conclusion: The macula in preterm babies with Type 1 ROP was comparable to those without ROP. Gestational age was the only predictor of CMT. PMID:25371634
Crişan, Bogdan; BǎciuÅ£, Mihaela; BǎciuÅ£, Grigore; Crişan, Liana; Bran, Simion; Rotar, Horatiu; Moldovan, Iuliu; Vǎcǎraş, Sergiu; Mitre, Ileana; Barbur, Ioan; Magdaş, Andreea; Dinu, Cristian
Hemangioma and vascular malformations in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery is a pathology more often found in recent years in patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the laser photocoagulation performed with a diode laser (Ga-Al-As) 980 nm wavelength in the treatment of vascular lesions which are located on the oral and maxillofacial areas, using color Doppler ultrasonography for evaluation of the results. We also made a comparison between laser therapy and sclerotherapy in order to establish treatment protocols and recommendations associated with this pathology. We conducted a controlled study on a group of 92 patients (38 male and 54 female patients, with an average age of 36 years) having low flow hemangioma and vascular malformations. Patients in this trial received one of the methods of treatment for vascular lesions such as hemangioma and vascular malformations: laser therapy or sclerotherapy. After laser therapy we have achieved a reduction in size of hemangioma and vascular malformations treated with such a procedure, and the aesthetic results were favorable. No reperfusion or recanalization of laser treated vascular lesions was observed after an average follow-up of 6 to 12 months. In case of sclerotherapy a reduction in the size of vascular lesions was also obtained. The 980 nm diode laser has been proved to be an effective tool in the treatment of hemangioma and vascular malformations in oral and maxillofacial area. Laser therapy in the treatment of vascular lesions was more effective than the sclerotherapy procedure.
Pommer, Bernhard; Haas, Robert; Mailath-Pokorny, Georg; Fürhauser, Rudolf; Watzek, Georg; Busenlechner, Dieter; Müller-Kern, Michael; Kloodt, Claudia
Periimplantitis is the most frequent cause of late implant failure; however, little is known about the long-term success of periimplantitis treatment and the effectiveness of various therapeutic interventions. A total of 142 patients were referred to the Academy for Oral Implantology in Vienna for the treatment of recurrent periimplantitis around single-tooth implants. Of them, 72 patients (51%) were treated by laser decontamination, 47 patients (33%) by implantoplasty surgery, and 23 patients (16%) by a combination of both approaches. Overall success of periimplantitis therapy was 89% after 9 years of follow-up, and it did not differ significantly between female and male patients (P = 0.426). The number of implant failures that could not be prevented by periimplantitis treatment was 6 after laser decontamination (8%), 6 after implantoplasty surgery (13%), and 4 after a combination of both therapies (17%). Implant loss occurred after 4.9 ± 1.9 years of therapy, on average. No significant difference between the 3 treatment groups could be observed (P = 0.393). The present results suggest that success rates of periimplantitis therapy with either laser decontamination or surgical implantoplasty are high. These success rates do not appear to be associated with patient gender or treatment strategy.
Harazaki, M; Hayakawa, K; Fukui, T; Isshiki, Y; Powell, L G
Plaque control during the course of orthodontic treatment is not an easy task, and dental caries are not an unlikely complication. We examined the possibility of controlling dental caries with Nd-YAG laser irradiation in orthodontic patients. As a preliminary experiment, we used the Nd-YAG laser to irradiate an extracted tooth and then left it to soak in lactic acid. The decay of the tooth was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM); tooth decay was inhibited by the action of the laser. Twenty patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for early decalcification of the teeth (white spot lesions) were selected, and photographs were taken of their oral cavities. White spot lesions on the four incisors and two canines of the maxilla were traced on tracing paper, and their areas were calculated by computer. Ten of the patients received laser treatment and acidulated phosphate fluoride solution (APF); the other ten acted as the control group. Between 11 and 12 months later, we photographed the oral cavity as we had previously; the white spot lesions were again traced and their areas calculated. The changes in the areas of the white spots of the laser-irradiated and control groups showed the following increases: laser-irradiated group, 1.41 times; controls, 2.87 times. The difference was statistically significant. These results demonstrate that Nd-YAG laser irradiation with application of APF acts as an effective method of caries control during orthodontic treatment.
Mothes, A R; Runnebaum, M; Runnebaum, I B
First evaluation of dual-phase vaginal Er:YAG laser to omit hormonal treatment for atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal breast cancer survivors following prolapse surgery. Patients with a history of breast cancer at the time of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse were offered non-hormonal vaginal Er:YAG laser treatment when complaining of atrophy-related genitourinary syndrome of menopause. A single 10-min course of dual-phase protocol of pulsed Er:YAG laser (2940 nm, fractional ablative and thermal mode, fluence according to tissue thickness). Follow-up included subjective satisfaction, vaginal pH, vaginal health index (VHI), and complications after 6 weeks. A total of 16 breast cancer survivors (age 71 years, SD 7) had been seeking treatment for pelvic floor symptoms related to vaginal atrophy at follow-up visits after prolapse surgery. All ablative vaginal Er:YAG laser outpatient procedures were successfully completed, all patients returned to daily activities without a need for analgetic medication. Evaluation was performed after 8.3 (SD 2.5) weeks. Pre-laser VHI scored 16 (SD 4.6) and post-laser VHI 20 (SD 3) with p = 0.01. Patients were satisfied in 94% (n = 15) regarding symptom relief. Breast cancer survivors with atrophy-related complaints after pelvic floor surgery may benefit from vaginal application of this innovative dual protocol of Er:YAG laser technology as a non-hormonal treatment approach.
Peng, Lihong; Tang, Shijie; Li, Qin
To observe the effects of intense pulsed light (IPL) and lattice CO 2 laser treatment on scar evolution following cleft lip repair. Fifty cleft lip repair patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-five patients used conventional approach with scar cream massage combined with silica gel products after operation. While other 25 patients which received IPL and lattice CO 2 laser treatments. The treatments commenced 1 week after removal of stitches and observation of scar hyperplasia. Scar evolution was evaluated with the Vancouver scar scale (VSS) by postoperative photographs. Relative to the conventional approach, the laser treatments showed improved scar softening and flattening. These differences were reflected in the groups' significantly different VSS scores. Intense pulsed light combined with lattice CO 2 laser treatment can improve cleft lip surgery scar pliability and appearance, while alleviating children from having to endure the pain of scar massage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Antikas, Theo G.
This field report presents and analyzes results on 1 cases of rnusculoskeletal disorders of equine athletes treated either with a Soft Laser 632 device (Worldwide Lasers International Geneva) or with an Omega Biotherapy infrared multiprobe multiwavelength device (Omega Labs London). It proposes a codification of low power laser forms of treatment onthefield and suggests modalities of such treatment(s). The therapeutic effects of low power laser beams as well as their postulated modes of action are discussed. Further a new technique utilizing a low power laser device (Technosynthese AG Zurich) for the accurate rnesurement of the height of ponies and horses is described. After testing in over 500 equines the apparatus and the technique were found accurate with an error factor not exceeding 1. 2 mm (1/20 inch) whereas the ancient ''standard stick'' method was found to produce a constant significant error in all animals measured. MATERIALS AND METHODS Soft Laser 632R device: Portable 25 mW heliumneon laser device emitting a visible red band of 632. 8 nm either through a ''window'' or through an optic fiber probe. Omega Biotherapy device: Portable 50 mW infrared laser device with two probes and a multiprobe emitting four wavelength laser bands. Pony_MetreR: Portable heliumneon device with two incorporated nivels and sliding through a rotating ''head'' placed at the top of a tripod that can move on either the vertical (x) or horizontal y) axis. RESULTS
Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Hassan, Iffat; Sajad, Peerzada; Yaseen, Atiya; Mubashir, Syed; Akhter, Saniya; Wani, Roohi
Epidermal naevi are benign hamartomatous growths of the skin which are generally asymptomatic with a benign course but are cosmetically disagreeable. Topical treatments such as steroids, calcipotriol, 5 fluorouracil, podophyllin, retinoids and cryotherapy are ineffective and surgical excision results in scar formation. Therapy is often challenging. To study the response of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) laser in the management of epidermal naevi. We conducted a study of CO 2 laser treatment on 15 patients of epidermal naevi, eight with verrucous epidermal naevi and seven with sebaceous naevi. A thorough history and examination was done to rule out any epidermal naevus syndrome. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. The number of treatment sessions varied from 1 to 8. Response was excellent (>90% reduction in lesion size) in three patients, very good (>75% reduction) in five, good (>50% reduction in lesion size) in five and poor (<50% reduction in lesion size) in two patients. The side effects were hyperpigmentation and scarring. Long-term follow-up over a period of 10 months showed a recurrence rate of 20%. We conclude that CO 2 laser treatment might be an effective option with long-term safety, minimal discomfort and rapid recovery.
Kozak, Igor; Oster, Stephen F; Cortes, Marco A; Dowell, Dennis; Hartmann, Kathrin; Kim, Jae Suk; Freeman, William R
To evaluate the clinical use and accuracy of a new retinal navigating laser technology that integrates a scanning slit fundus camera system with fluorescein angiography (FA), color, red-free, and infrared imaging capabilities with a computer steerable therapeutic 532-nm laser. Interventional case series. Eighty-six eyes of 61 patients with diabetic retinopathy and macular edema treated by NAVILAS. The imaging included digital color fundus photographs and FA. The planning included graphically marking future treatment sites (microaneurysms for single-spot focal treatment and areas of diffuse leakage for grid pattern photocoagulation) on the acquired images. The preplanned treatment was visible and overlaid on the live fundus image during the actual photocoagulation. The NAVILAS automatically advances the aiming beam location from one planned treatment site to the next after each photocoagulation spot until all sites are treated. Aiming beam stabilization compensated for patient's eye movements. The pretreatment FA with the treatment plan was overlaid on top of the posttreatment color fundus images with the actual laser burns. This allowed treatment accuracy to be calculated. Independent observers evaluated the images to determine if the retinal opacification after treatment overlapped the targeted microaneurysm. Safety and accuracy of laser photocoagulation. The images were of very good quality compared with standard fundus cameras, allowing careful delineation of target areas on FA. Toggling from infrared, to monochromatic, to color view allowed evaluation and adjustment of burn intensity during treatment. There were no complications during or after photocoagulation treatment. An analysis of accuracy of 400 random focal targeted spots found that the NAVILAS achieved a microaneurysm hit rate of 92% when the placement of the treatment circle was centered by the operating surgeon on the microaneurysm. The accuracy for the control group analyzing 100 focal spots was
Chifor, Radu; Badea, Iulia; Avram, Ramona; Chifor, Ioana; Badea, Mîndra Eugenia
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the antimicrobial photodynamic laser therapy performed during the treatment of deep periodontal disease by using 40 MHz high frequency ultrasonography. The periodontal data recorded during the clinical examination before each treatment session were compared with volumetric changes of the gingiva measured on periodontal ultrasound images. The results show a significant decrease of gingival tissue inflammation proved both by a significant decrease of bleeding on probing as well as by a decrease of the gingival tissues volume on sites where the laser therapy was performed. Periodontal tissues that benefit of laser therapy besides classical non-surgical treatment showed a significant clinical improvement of periodontal status. Based on these findings we were able to conclude that the antimicrobial photodynamic laser therapy applied on marginal periodontium has important anti-inflamatory effect. The periodontal ultrasonography is a method which can provide useful data for assessing the volume changes of gingival tissues, allowing a precise monitoring of marginal periodontitis.
Cassuto, Daniel A.; Ancona, Deborah M.; Emanuelli, Guglielmo
Facial telangiectasias are a common cause of cosmetic concern. Current treatment modalities present various effects and limits. The pulsed dye laser has been considered the golden standard in efficacy and safety. Unfortunately it causes postoperative intracutaneous hematomata that discourage many patients form undergoing this treatment. Several other vascular lasers are disadvantaged by the risk of hypopigmented and atrophic scars. We assessed a recent powerful version of the potassium titanyl phosphate 532 nm laser, that can deliver sufficient energy in single pulses lasting 10-50 msec. Collateral damage is reduced while the heating of the vessel is slow enough to avoid explosive photothermolysis with its associated purpura. Sixty-six patients with facial telangiectasias were treated. In 62/66 patients, we achieved a 75 percent-100 percent clearance of the lesions, while two treatments were needed to reach an acceptable clearance in the remaining 4/66 patients. The overall need for more sessions was well tolerated, because the acceptable postoperative appearance allowed patients to continue normal business and social activities between treatments. No permanent complications or undesired effects were noted. The KTP/532nm laser is also being tested in combined laser-sclerotherapy of fine leg capillary telangiectasias with encouraging results.
Poleganova, I U; Iarŭmov, N; Popadiĭn, N
The doctrine on wounds is the most important and current one in general surgery and reflects the level and development of medicine. Each surgeon should be well acquainted with all processes and stages of wound healing, because treatment of a suppurative wound requires keen knowledge and art. The basic principle of the local treatment of a septic wound is the thorough knowledge on the objective criteria underlying the course of the wound process and on the etiopathogenetic therapy. Laser therapy of wounds accomplishes adequate necrotomy, acts aseptically on the wound surfaces, inhibits the wound microbial flora and stimulates the regeneration processes. The authors record their experience in CO2 laser and helium-neon treatment of 120 patients with suppurative, atonic and decubital wounds over the period 1984-1990.
Dong, Jie; He, Yanling; Zhang, Xiuying; Wang, Yixuan; Tian, Yongjing; Wang, Jie
To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of combining flumetasone ointment with 308-nm excimer laser therapy vs. 308-nm excimer laser monotherapy for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Forty patients with psoriasis vulgaris were recruited; 20 were treated with flumetasone ointment plus 308-nm excimer laser therapy, and the other 20 received only excimer laser monotherapy. The flumetasone ointment was applied topically twice a day, and laser treatments were scheduled twice weekly for a total of 10 treatments. Clinical efficacy was evaluated in a blinded manner by two independent physicians using photographs taken before and after treatment. Of the 40 patients who received and completed the entire course of therapy, the psoriasis area and severity index score was improved by 82.51 ± 11.24% and 72.01 ± 20.94% in the combination group and laser group, respectively (P > 0.05), and the average cumulative dose was 5.06 ± 2.20 j/cm(2) in the combination group and 7.75 ± 2.25 j/cm(2) in the laser-only group, respectively (P < 0.05). The clinical data suggest that combination treatment using flumetasone ointment and a 308-nm excimer laser is superior to laser monotherapy for treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. The combination therapy can increase effectiveness and decrease the total laser dose, thus potentially reducing side effects. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Klämpfl, Florian; Schmidt, Michael; Hagenah, Hinnerk; Görtler, Andreas; Wolfsgruber, Frank; Lampalzer, Ralf; Kaudewitz, Peter
American and European statistics have shown that 1-2 per cent of the human population is affected by the skin disease psoriasis. Recent research reports promising treatment results when irradiating skin areas affected by psoriasis with high powered excimer lasers with a wavelength of 308 nm. In order to apply the necessary high energy dose without hurting healthy parts of the skin new approaches regarding the system technology must be considered. The aim of the current research project is the development of a sensor-based, automated laser treatment system for psoriasis. In this paper we present the algorithms used to cope with the diffculties of irradiating irregularly shaped areas on curved surfaces with a predefined energy level using a pulsed laser. Patients prefer the treatment to take as little time as possible. This also helps to reduce costs. Thus the distribution of laser pulses on the surface to achieve the given energy level on every point of the surface has to be calculated within a limited time frame. The remainder of the paper will describe in detail an efficient method to plan and optimize the laser pulse distribution. Towards the end, some first results will be presented.
Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher
While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as 'excellent' if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as 'good' and 'poor' response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3%) while 15 (25%) and 19 patients (31.7%) demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar scars with minimal adverse effects.
Parzyan, G. R.; Geinits, A. V.
This article presents the results of treatment of 54 patients with acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to the method of treatment. The control group (26 patients) received a conventional therapy, whereas the experimental group (28 patients) received mexidol in combination with the intravenous laser irradiation of blood. Clinical and laboratory tests confirmed a high efficiency of the combined therapy based on the administration of mexidol antioxidant and low-intensity (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers diode laser irradiation of blood. This therapeutic technique produced an influence on the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of acute pancreatitis. The application of this method of treatment improved the course and prognosis of acute pancreatitis.
Fuentes, D.; Oden, J. T.; Diller, K. R.; Hazle, J. D.; Elliott, A.; Shetty, A.; Stafford, R. J.
An adaptive feedback control system is presented which employs a computational model of bioheat transfer in living tissue to guide, in real-time, laser treatments of prostate cancer monitored by magnetic resonance thermal imaging (MRTI). The system is built on what can be referred to as cyberinfrastructure - a complex structure of high-speed network, large-scale parallel computing devices, laser optics, imaging, visualizations, inverse-analysis algorithms, mesh generation, and control systems that guide laser therapy to optimally control the ablation of cancerous tissue. The computational system has been successfully tested on in-vivo, canine prostate. Over the course of an 18 minute laser induced thermal therapy (LITT) performed at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) in Houston, Texas, the computational models were calibrated to intra-operative real time thermal imaging treatment data and the calibrated models controlled the bioheat transfer to within 5°C of the predetermined treatment plan. The computational arena is in Austin, Texas and managed at the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES). The system is designed to control the bioheat transfer remotely while simultaneously providing real-time remote visualization of the on-going treatment. Post operative histology of the canine prostate reveal that the damage region was within the targeted 1.2cm diameter treatment objective. PMID:19148754
Fuentes, D; Oden, J T; Diller, K R; Hazle, J D; Elliott, A; Shetty, A; Stafford, R J
An adaptive feedback control system is presented which employs a computational model of bioheat transfer in living tissue to guide, in real-time, laser treatments of prostate cancer monitored by magnetic resonance thermal imaging. The system is built on what can be referred to as cyberinfrastructure-a complex structure of high-speed network, large-scale parallel computing devices, laser optics, imaging, visualizations, inverse-analysis algorithms, mesh generation, and control systems that guide laser therapy to optimally control the ablation of cancerous tissue. The computational system has been successfully tested on in vivo, canine prostate. Over the course of an 18 min laser-induced thermal therapy performed at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) in Houston, Texas, the computational models were calibrated to intra-operative real-time thermal imaging treatment data and the calibrated models controlled the bioheat transfer to within 5 degrees C of the predetermined treatment plan. The computational arena is in Austin, Texas and managed at the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES). The system is designed to control the bioheat transfer remotely while simultaneously providing real-time remote visualization of the on-going treatment. Post-operative histology of the canine prostate reveal that the damage region was within the targeted 1.2 cm diameter treatment objective.
Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Becerril-Chávez, Flavia; Carlín-Vargas, Gabriel; Ordoñez-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Abrajan-González, María Del Carmen; de la Cruz-Ramírez, Rosario; Ordaz-Pichardo, Cynthia
To investigate the antihyperglycaemic activity of laser acupuncture stimulation at 650 and 980 nm at BL20 in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Seventy healthy adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 250±50 g were divided into seven groups of 10 animals each. Groups I-III comprised healthy control rats which were untreated (I) or stimulated with laser acupuncture at 650 nm (II) and 980 nm (III), respectively. Groups IV-VII underwent induction of diabetes with a single intraperitoneal administration of STZ at 50 mg/kg. Animals with blood glucose levels of ≥200 mg/dL on the fifth day were used for the experiments and were left untreated (group IV), treated with glibenclamide (group V) or stimulated with laser acupuncture at 650 nm (group VI) and 980 nm (group VII), respectively. Laser acupuncture was applied at BL20 on alternate days for a total of 12 sessions over a 28-day period. After 28 days of treatment, STZ-induced diabetic rats stimulated with laser acupuncture at 650 and 980 nm had significantly lower glucose levels compared with untreated diabetic rats (242.0±65.0 and 129.8±33.2 vs 376.5±10.0 mg/dL, both p≤0.05). Treatment at 980 nm also attenuated the increase in glucose between day 1 and day 28 compared with the glibenclamide-treated diabetic group (41.5±19.6 mg/dL vs 164.1±13.7 g/dL, p<0.05). Laser acupuncture treatment did not affect the blood count or biochemical profile and was not associated with any morphological changes in the pancreas, liver, kidney or spleen. Stimulation with laser acupuncture at 650 and 980 nm at BL20 in STZ-induced diabetic rats has antihyperglycaemic activity. The results support further evaluation of laser acupuncture as an alternative or complementary treatment for the control of hyperglycaemia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Robinson, Caitlin G; Lee, Kory R; Thomas, Valencia D
Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (ENV) is a disfiguring skin condition that is difficult to treat. Existing treatment modalities serve to improve cosmesis or treat symptoms. Herein, we report a case of ENV with lymphocutaneous fistula successfully treated with ablative carbon dioxide laser. A 57-year-old woman with biopsy-proven ENV with lymphocutaneous fistula was treated with ablative carbon dioxide laser to the symptomatic area of her right thigh in 3 treatment sessions over 6 months. The patient had resolution of lymphocutaneous drainage as well as 90% improvement in the appearance of ENV lesions at the 1-month follow-up visit. Ablative carbon dioxide laser may provide cosmetic, symptomatic, and medical benefit for patients with localized ENV.
Bencini, Pier Luca; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Galimberti, Michela; Pellacani, Giovanni
Aging of the neck skin includes poikiloderma of Civatte, skin laxity and wrinkles. While the vascular alterations of poikiloderma of Civatte can be effectively treated with lasers or intense pulsed light, a successful treatment of dyschromia, skin laxity and wrinkles is still difficult to achieve. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser for the treatment of aged neck skin, also by means of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). A prospective study for neck resurfacing in 18 women with aged neck skin. Six laser treatments were performed in 4-week intervals with a 1540-nm erbium-glass fiber laser. By using a 6-point grading scale, the mean score (±SD; range) at baseline was 3.6 (±1.5; 1-6) for skin dyschromia, 2.9 (±1.4; 1-6) for laxity and 3.3 (±1.3; 1-5) for wrinkles. Three months after the last laser session, we found a significant clinical improvement of dyschromia (p = 0.0002; Wilcoxon test), and wrinkles (p = 0.0004; Wilcoxon test), with a mean (±SD) reduction of 2.5 (±1.0) and 1.9 (±1.1) points in the 6-point grading scale, respectively. No change was observed in laxity. These results were also supported by structural changes documented by RCM. Non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser was both safe and effective for the treatment of dyschromia and wrinkles, but not effective for the laxity of the neck skin.
Kraeva, Ekaterina; Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared
Keloids are fibrous growths that occur as a result of abnormal response to dermal injury. Keloids are cosmetically disfiguring and may impair function, often resulting in decreased patient quality-of-life. Treatment of keloids remains challenging, and rate of recurrence is high. We present a case of a 39-year-old African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI) with a 10-year history of keloid, who was successfully treated with eight sessions of fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser immediately followed by laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) of topical triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) ointment and review the medical literature on fractionated CO2 laser treatment of keloids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of a keloid using combination therapy of fractionated CO2 laser and LADD with topical TAC ointment in an African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI) with excellent cosmetic results sustained at 22 months post-treatment. We believe that this combination treatment modality may be safe and efficacious for keloids in skin of color (Fitzpatrick IV-VI) and other patients. This case highlights the ability of laser surgeons to safely use fractionated CO2 lasers in patients of all skin colors.
J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):925-927..
to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dextromethorphan, memantine and brimonidine in our rat model of laser- induced retinal-lesions Methods: Argon...dextromethorphan, memantine or brimonidine. The control groups (18 rats for each compound) received the solvent at the same volume and schedule as...size and the magnitude of photoreceptor nuclei loss within the lesions. Conclusions: Systemic treatments with dextromethorphan, memantine or brimonidine
CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.
Tumilty, Steve; Munn, Joanne; Haxby Abbott, J.; Mcdonough, Suzanne; Hurley, Deirdre A.; Basford, Jeffrey R.; David Baxter, G.
Background: Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has emerged as a possible treatment modality for tendinopathies. Human studies have investigated LLLT for Achilles Tendinopathy and the effectiveness remains contentious. Purpose: To assess the clinical effectiveness of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in the management of Achilles Tendinopathy. Method: Forty patients were randomised into an active laser or placebo group; all patients, therapists and investigator were blinded to allocation. All patients were given an eccentric exercise program and irradiated 3 times per week for 4 weeks with either an active or placebo laser at 6 standardized points over the affected tendons. Irradiation parameters in the active laser group were: 810 nm, 100 mW, applied to 6 points on the tendon for 30 seconds giving a dose of 3 J per point and 18 J per session; power density 100 mW/cm2. Outcome measures were the VISA-A questionnaire and a visual analogue scale of pain. Patients were measured before treatment, at 4 and 12 weeks. ANCOVA was used to analyze data, using the effects of baseline measurements as a covariate. Results: Within groups, there were significant improvements (p<0.05) at 4 and 12 weeks for all outcome measures, except pain for the laser group at 4 weeks (p = 0.13). Between groups differences at both 4 and 12 weeks showed no significant difference between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: This use of the above parameters demonstrated no added benefit of LLLT over that of eccentric exercise in the treatment of Achilles Tendinopathy.
Labisz, K.; Tański, T.; Brytan, Z.; Pakieła, W.; Wiśniowski, M.
Ceramic particles powder feeding into surface layer of engineering metal alloy is a well-known and widely used technique. New approach into the topic is to obtain finely distributed nano-sized particles involved in the aluminium matrix using the traditional laser technology. In this paper are presented results of microstructure investigation of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloys surface layer after heat treatment and alloying with ceramic carbides of WC and ZrO2 using high-power diode laser. The surface layer was specially prepared for the reason of reducing the reflectivity, which is the main problem in the up-to-date metal matrix composites production. With scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to determine the deformation process and distribution of WC and ZrO2 ceramic powder phase. Structure of the surface after laser treatment changes, revealing three zones—remelting zone, heat-affected zone and transition zone placed over the Al substrate. The structural changes of ceramic powder, its distribution and morphology as well as microstructure of the matrix material influence on functional properties, especially wear resistance and hardness of the achieved layer, were investigated.
Chen, G. Z.; Xu, Y. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, S. H.; Li, L. J.
Female climacteric syndrome is a clinical syndrome due to autonomic nerve dysfunction occurring in women during climacteric period, which may affect their physical and mental health. Therefore, how to pass climacteric period for women without any problems, avoid or reduce the occurrence of climacteric syndrome, prevent geriatric diseases and improve life quality is a key issue now for great attention. Looking for a convenient, effective, and safer method without toxic-side effects to control the disease is a modern medical problem. By analyzing the relationship between laser technology and traditional acupuncture and moxibustion, the advantage and the existing problems on acupuncture and moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome, the application of laser methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of menopausal syndrome was discussed. It's pointed out that the laser acupuncture is safe and effective to treat menopausal syndrome. Breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the selection of the acupoint prescription and mechanism of Acupuncture and Moxibustion for the treatment of menopausal syndrome by utilizing the advantage of interdisciplinary intersection. Laser technology will make the development of acupuncture and moxibustion science possess an unprecedented field.
Kono, Taro; Frederick Groff, William; Chan, Henry H; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Yamaki, Takashi
Pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment of hypertrophic port-wine stains (PWSs) on the lips has demonstrated poor efficacy and a potential risk of dyspigmentation. PDL-resistant hypertrophic PWS may require treatment with deeper penetrating lasers such as a 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of hypertrophic PWSs on the lips. Ten patients (four were male and six were female) with hypertrophic PWSs on the lips were recruited in this study. Eight patients showed good to excellent improvement without complications. In conclusion, the Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective for treating hypertrophic PWSs on the lips.
Kraeva, Ekaterina; Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared
Rhinophyma, a late complication of rosacea (phymatous subtype), is a chronic, progressive dermatological condition. The classic pre- sentation of rhinophyma is nodular, thickened skin over the distal nose, and is often accompanied by underlying erythema secondary to in ammation. Due to the unpleasant aesthetic and dis guring appearance, rhinophyma may be associated with a signi cant nega- tive psychosocial impact, resulting in decreased patient quality-of-life. Treatment of rhinophyma is challenging as topical and systemic pharmacotherapies have shown limited ef cacy. We present a case of a 39-year-old African-American male with long-standing, mild rhinophyma who was successfully treated with two sessions of fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. We also review the medical literature on fractionated CO2 laser treatment of rhinophyma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the rst report of successful treat- ment of rhinophyma using fractionated CO2 laser in an African-American man (Fitzpatrick VI). We believe that fractionated CO2 laser may be a safe and ef cacious treatment modality for rhinophyma in skin of color patients (Fitzpatrick IV-VI) and early intervention with fractionated CO2 laser to prevent rhinophyma worsening may yield better results than late intervention. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1465-1468..
Say, Ekin Mese; Gökdemir, Gonca
Background: A variety of lasers have been used for the treatment of rosacea. However, treatment of this condition with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser has not been reported yet. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser in two different subtypes (erythematotelangiectatic and papulopustular) of rosacea. Methods: A total of 66 patients were enrolled in the study. All of the patients were treated with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser with 3- to 4-week intervals. Rosacea severity score was assessed by using photographs. Improvement in severity was defined as the percentage reduction in severity scores from baseline to the end of treatment. Patients were also asked about their own opinions of improvement at the end of the treatment. Side effects were also documented. Results: Good to excellent improvement was achieved in up to 50 percent of the patients in the erythematotelangiectatic and papulopustular groups. Percent improvement of global severity was significantly greater in the erythematotelangiectatic patients than in the papulopustular patients. The majority of patients from both groups noted a significant improvement of the lesions. Hypopigmented atrophic scars were seen in two patients. Conclusion: The long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser is a safe and effective treatment for vascular and inflammatory lesions of rosacea. PMID:26430486
Fehm, Thomas F.; Deán-Ben, Xosé L.; Schaur, Peter; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is one of the most common medical conditions with reported prevalence estimates as high as 30% in the adult population. Although conservative management with compression therapy may improve the symptoms associated with CVI, healing often demands invasive procedures. Besides established surgical methods like vein stripping or bypassing, endovenous laser therapy (ELT) emerged as a promising novel treatment option during the last 15 years offering multiple advantages such as less pain and faster recovery. Much of the treatment success hereby depends on monitoring of the treatment progression using clinical imaging modalities such as Doppler ultrasound. The latter however do not provide sufficient contrast, spatial resolution and three-dimensional imaging capacity which is necessary for accurate online lesion assessment during treatment. As a consequence, incidence of recanalization, lack of vessel occlusion and collateral damage remains highly variable among patients. In this study, we examined the capacity of volumetric optoacoustic tomography (VOT) for real-time monitoring of ELT using an ex-vivo ox foot model. ELT was performed on subcutaneous veins while optoacoustic signals were acquired and reconstructed in real-time and at a spatial resolution in the order of 200μm. VOT images showed spatio-temporal maps of the lesion progression, characteristics of the vessel wall, and position of the ablation fiber's tip during the pull back. It was also possible to correlate the images with the temperature elevation measured in the area adjacent to the ablation spot. We conclude that VOT is a promising tool for providing online feedback during endovenous laser therapy.
Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz
The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.
Yang, Hui-Wen; Huang, Yu-Feng
To test the therapeutic efficacy of low-level energy diode laser on burning mouth syndrome. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by burning and painful sensations in the mouth, especially the tongue, in the absence of significant mucosal abnormalities. Although burning mouth syndrome is relatively common, little is known regarding its etiology and pathophysiology. As a result, no treatment is effective in all patients. Low-level energy diode laser therapy has been used in a variety of chronic and acute pain conditions, including neck, back and myofascial pain, degenerative osteoarthritis, and headache. A total of 17 patients who had been diagnosed with burning mouth syndrome were treated with an 800-nm wavelength diode laser. A straight handpiece was used with an end of 1-cm diameter with the fiber end standing 4 cm away from the end of handpiece. When the laser was applied, the handpiece directly contacted or was immediately above the symptomatic lingual surface. The output used was 3 W, 50 msec intermittent pulsing, and a frequency of 10 Hz, which was equivalent to an average power of 1.5 W/cm(2) (3 W × 0.05 msec × 10 Hz = 1.5 W/cm(2)). Depending on the involved area, laser was applied to a 1-cm(2) area for 70 sec until all involved area was covered. Overall pain and discomfort were analyzed with a 10-cm visual analogue scale. All patients received diode laser therapy between one and seven times. The average pain score before the treatment was 6.7 (ranging from 2.9 to 9.8). The results showed an average reduction in pain of 47.6% (ranging from 9.3% to 91.8%). The burning sensation remained unchanged for up to 12 months. Low-level energy diode laser may be an effective treatment for burning mouth syndrome.
Ozden, Müge Güler; Bahçivan, Muzaffer; Aydin, Fatma; Şentürk, Nilgün; Bek, Yüksel; Cantürk, Tayyar; Turanli, Ahmet Yaşar
The Nd:YAG laser has been considered the gold standard of treatment for leg veins, but pain and side effects have fueled physicians to use treatment alternatives. To compare the clinical efficacy of the long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser with KTP laser irradiation in the treatment of leg telangiectasia. A series of 16 patients with size-matched superficial telangiectases of the lower extremities were randomly assigned to receive three consecutive monthly treatments with the long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG on one leg and 532-nm KTP laser irradiation on the other. For the 16 patients who completed the study, 64 leg vein sites were treated. Average clinical improvement scores were 1.94 and 1.25 for the KTP laser-treated leg and 3.38 and 3.50 for the Nd:YAG laser-treated leg with thin (≤ 1 mm) and large (1-3 mm) vessels, respectively. After the third treatment session, average improvement scores of 2.44, 1.31 and 3.75, 3.23 were given for the KTP and Nd:YAG laser-treated sides, respectively. Both the 1064-nm Nd:YAG and KTP lasers are effective in the treatment of lower extremity telangiectases. However, the KTP laser has very low efficacy with vessels larger than 1 mm and should not be elected when treating such vessels.
Piruzian, A.; Korsunskaya, I.; Goldenkova, I.; Hertsen, A.; Sarkisova, M.; Egorenkova, L.
Psoriasis is a chronic, genetically-determined disease, characterized by an immuno-mediated pathogenesis. Treatment of psoriasis is often complicated and remains a challenge. Along with the many new immunomodulatory approaches, various laser systems have been employed for chronic plaque psoriasis treatment. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the light produced by xenon-chloride excimers (generated by sophisticated devices with peak emission of 308 nm) is effective in the treatment of several psoriasis forms. We treated patients, ranging in age from 35 to 55 years, affected by plaque-type psoriasis vulgaris with monochromatic excimer light (MEL). We used MEL in a complex with basic treatment. Therapy was administered three times a week. At the end of the 3th week of treatment all patients showed an improvement, as evidenced by flattening of plaques, decreased scaling and erythema, and decreased vesicle and pustule formation. Unwanted side effects such as pain, blistering was not observed. Minimal erythema and a hyperpigmentation were noted in some patients. It was concluded that the MEL therapy may be a valuable option for treatment of plaque-type psoriasis vulgaris in shorter time compare with traditional NB UVB, with exposure to lower cumulative doses
Son, Jung-Hyun; An, Ji-Hae; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Hwang, In-Nam; Park, Yeong-Joon; Song, Ho-Jun
This study is to evaluate the effect of laser activation on the whitening and crystalline structure of enamel surface during whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Bovine teeth were treated with whitening gel containing 35% hydrogen peroxide. A whitening gel was applied on the enamel surface for a period of 5 min, and then irradiated using a diode laser (740 nm) during whitening treatment for 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180s for the GL0-W, GL30-W, GL60-W, GL120-W and GL180-W groups, respectively. The total whitening application time was 30 min for all groups. Laser-irradiated enamel groups showed a similar lightness compared to the GL0-W group. The thickness of porous layer observed on the enamel surface of GL0-W group was decreased by increasing the laser irradiation time. While the Ca and P contents of the GL0-W group were lower than those of the non-whitening treated group (GL0-C), the Ca and P contents of the GL180-W group were similar to those of the GL180-C group. The enamel crystallinity was dramatically decreased by whitening treatment without laser irradiation. However, the decrease of crystallinity was protected by laser irradiation during whitening treatment. Raman measurement verified that laser irradiation could prevent the loss of mineral compositions on enamel and maintain its crystalline structure. The professional whitening treatment with hydrogen peroxide and diode laser activation improves not only the whitening effect but also protects the change of enamel structure compared to the treatment with only gel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rechmann, Peter; Fried, Daniel; Le, Charles Q.; Nelson, Gerald; Rapozo-Hilo, Marcia; Rechmann, Beate M. T.; Featherstone, John D. B.
In multiple well-controlled laboratory studies enhancing caries resistance of enamel has been successfully reported using short-pulsed 9.6 Âµm CO2 laser irradiation. The aim of this study was to prove in a short term clinical pilot trial that the use of the CO2 laser will significantly inhibit the formation of carious lesions around orthodontic brackets in vivo in comparison to a non-irradiated control area. Twelve subjects scheduled for extraction of premolars for orthodontic treatment reasons with an average age of 14.6 years were recruited for the 4-week study. Orthodontic brackets were placed on those premolars with a conventional composite resin (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, REF 712-035) and a defined area next to the bracket was irradiated with a CO2 laser, Pulse System, Inc (PSI) (Model #LPS-500, Los Alamos, New Mexico), wavelength 9.6 μm, pulse duration 20 μs, pulse repetition rate 20 Hz, beam diameter 1,100 μm, average fluence 4.31 +/- 0.11 J/cm2, 20 laser pulses per spot. Premolars were extracted after four weeks for a quantitative assessment of demineralization by cross sectional microhardness testing. The relative mineral loss ΔZ (vol% x Âµm) for the laser treated enamel was 402 +/- 85 (SE) while the control area showed a significantly higher mineral loss (mean ΔZ 738 +/- 131; P=0.04, unpaired t-test). The laser treatment produced a 46% demineralization inhibition around the orthodontic brackets in comparison to the non-laser treated areas. This study showed, for the first time that a pulsed 9.6 Âµm CO2 laser works for the prevention of dental caries in the enamel in vital teeth in human mouths.
Ciuchita, Tavi; Usurelu, Mircea; Antipa, Ciprian
The authors tried to verify the efficacy of low energy laser (LEL) in scalp alopecia. Sixty patients were divided in two groups: A) laser group, 33 patients treated with both LEL and classical therapy; B) control group, 27 patients treated only with classical therapy, Before, during and after treatment, historical samples were done. For the group A the results were rather superior but in a twice shorter time shorter time than group B. The maintenance of the good results needed classical therapy for a long period. We conclude that LEL therapy could have a useful complementary method for the treatment of scalp alopecia.
Novitskaya, E S; Kostakis, V; Broster, S C; Allen, L E
To assess the tolerability and outcomes of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) under sub-tenon anaesthetic with oral or rectal sedation using a reliable, multidimensional, and internationally accepted tool for assessment of neonatal pain. Sixty-two babies have had ROP laser treatment in our neonatal unit in the 7-year interval between 1 March 2005 and 28 February 2012; 44% (27 of the 62) were performed using sub-tenon anaesthesia. Pain scores were routinely assessed using the Neonatal Pain Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) every 10 min during laser treatment. The outcome and requirement for re-treatment in this group was compared with that in the intravenous sedation group. Pain scores were available in 19 of the 27 babies treated under sub-tenon anaesthesia. The mean pain score during treatment was 2.7 (SD ± 1.7, range 0.5-6.2). There was no statistically significant correlation between the mean pain score and duration of treatment (Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) = 0.31; P = 0.09), number of laser burns (ρ = 0.32; P = 0.09), or post-menstrual age of the baby at the time of treatment (ρ = 0.38; P = 0.052). Treatments performed under sub-tenon anaesthesia were as successful as those performed under intravenous sedation. The mean pain scores during laser treatment under sub-tenon anaesthesia in our study were lower than those previously reported during ROP screening or heel-stick procedure.Conclusion Our study demonstrated that sub-tenon anaesthesia with oral or rectal sedation provides sufficient pain control for laser treatment for ROP without the need or risks of intravenous sedation and intubation.
Andersson-Engels, S; Johansson, J; Svanberg, S; Svanberg, K
Lasers are useful in many applications in medicine and biology. Historically, most laser use has involved heat generated in the interaction of the laser beam with the tissue. Today, however, the spectroscopic aspects of this laser use are playing a more dominant role in a number of applications. In this two-part series, Sune Svanberg and co-workers present illustrations of emerging clinical applications from cooperative work performed by the Lund Institute of Technology and the Lund University Hospital. Part I includes a survey of laser techniques for atomic and molecular analyses of samples of medical interest, spectroscopic analysis of the laser-induced plasma obtained when a high-power pulsed laser beam interacts with tissue, and the use of tumor-seeking agents in combination with laser radiation to provide new possibilities for malignant tumor detection and treatment. Part II, which will appear in the January 1, 1990, issue, describes the use of laser-induced fluorescence for tumor and plaque diagnostics. Different lasers have been used, and research efforts increasingly are being focused on excimer lasers and lasers in the IR region for the ablation of atherosclerotic plaques, cell layer by cell layer.
Kadlecová, Martina; Dostálová, Tat'jana; Jelínková, Helena; Němec, Michal; Å ulc, Jan; Fibrich, Martin; Bradna, Pavel; Nejezchleb, Karel; Kapitch, Nickalai; Å koda, Václav
In the last decade, lasers found a number of indications in dentistry. However, there is still one problem: the narrow spectrum of usefulness for individual radiation wavelengths. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the use of a compact three-frequency pulsed Nd-YAG laser for more than one treatment, namely disinfection, coagulation, selective ablation, and soft tissue removal. The laser wavelengths and the maximal energies achieved were the following: 1.06 um, 1.32 um, 1.44 um and 830 mJ, 425 mJ, and 200 mJ, respectively. It has been found that all of the investigated wavelengths exhibit disinfection properties. Moreover, radiation of 1.06 um wavelength removes soft tissue and exhibits also coagulation properties. Radiation of 1.44 um is most useful for selective ablation of initial caries and disinfection, and 1.32 um radiation can be used for precise ablation when higher energy is applied.
Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Hassan, Iffat; Sajad, Peerzada; Yaseen, Atiya; Mubashir, Syed; Akhter, Saniya; Wani, Roohi
Background: Epidermal naevi are benign hamartomatous growths of the skin which are generally asymptomatic with a benign course but are cosmetically disagreeable. Topical treatments such as steroids, calcipotriol, 5 fluorouracil, podophyllin, retinoids and cryotherapy are ineffective and surgical excision results in scar formation. Therapy is often challenging. Aim of the Study: To study the response of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in the management of epidermal naevi. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a study of CO2 laser treatment on 15 patients of epidermal naevi, eight with verrucous epidermal naevi and seven with sebaceous naevi. A thorough history and examination was done to rule out any epidermal naevus syndrome. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. The number of treatment sessions varied from 1 to 8. Results: Response was excellent (>90% reduction in lesion size) in three patients, very good (>75% reduction) in five, good (>50% reduction in lesion size) in five and poor (<50% reduction in lesion size) in two patients. The side effects were hyperpigmentation and scarring. Long-term follow-up over a period of 10 months showed a recurrence rate of 20%. Conclusion: We conclude that CO2 laser treatment might be an effective option with long-term safety, minimal discomfort and rapid recovery. PMID:27761089
Moskalik, Konstantin; Kozlov, Alexander; Demin, Eugeny; Boiko, Ernest
The aim of this study was to assess the curative and cosmetic efficacy of treatment for facial skin cancer using neodymium laser irradiation. Due to the complex anatomy of the area, therapy for facial skin cancer is difficult. Laser irradiation was used for the treatment of 3461 patients with 3624 facial skin cancer lesions of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0:) 3346 basal cell skin cancers, 188 limited basal cell skin cancer recurrences, and 90 squamous cell skin cancers. Pulsed neodymium (Nd) and Nd:YAG lasers were used as the energy sources. The patients were followed-up from 3 mo to 5 y or more. Patients with basal cell skin cancer treated by irradiation with the Nd laser developed recurrences in 1.8% of cases, and patients treated with the Nd:YAG laser had a recurrence rate of 2.5%. Recurrences following treatment for basal cell skin cancer, and those of squamous cell skin cancer, after irradiation with the Nd laser appeared in 3.7% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Overall, the frequency of facial skin cancer recurrences after treatment with laser irradiation was 2.1% of all the irradiated tumors. Neodymium laser irradiation is an effective method to treat facial skin cancer of stages T(1-2)N(0)M(0), and results in acceptable cosmetic results.
Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Chi-Te; Lin, Feng-Chuan; Liao, Li-Jen; Lo, Wu-Chia; Cheng, Po-Wen
In-office angiolytic laser procedures have been used successfully as an alternative treatment for vocal fold polyps; little is known in detail about the treatment outcomes and adverse events. To examine the outcomes and incidence rates of adverse events associated with in-office angiolytic laser procedures with or without concurrent polypectomy as an alternative treatment for vocal fold polyps. Retrospective cohort study at a tertiary medical center. We identified 114 consecutive patients with vocal polyps who underwent in-office angiolytic laser treatments between January 1, 2014, and August 31, 2016. After the exclusion of 17 with missing or incomplete data, 97 were enrolled. In-office 532-nm laser procedures with or without concurrent polypectomy. Between 1 and 2 months after the surgical procedures, we collected the following outcome data: videolaryngostroboscopy, perceptual rating of voice quality, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, and subjective rating of voice quality using a visual analogue scale and 10-item voice handicap index. This study enrolled 97 patients (mean [SD] age, 45.6 [11.3] years; 48 [49%] male). The mean duration of symptoms was 10.1 months (range, 1-60 months). Twenty-nine patients (30%) had angiolytic laser procedures only, while 68 (70%) received laser with concurrent polypectomy. Both treatment modalities offered significant improvements. Only 1 patient (1%) receiving angiolytic laser with concurrent polypectomy underwent another treatment session, so this group had significantly less need for multiple treatments than those receiving laser treatment alone (6 [21%]; effect size, -1.57; 95% CI, -2.77 to -0.36). We identified 8 adverse events (8% of the cases): vocal fold edema (n = 5), vocal hematoma (n = 2), and vocal ulceration (n = 1). Patients treated with laser plus concurrent polypectomy had significantly fewer adverse events than those treated with angiolytic laser alone (2 [3%] vs 6 [21%]; effect size, 1
Treatment for most cases of keratosis pilaris requires simple reassurance and general skin care recommendations. Many Asian patients find lesions due to pigmented keratosis pilaris to be cosmetically unappealing. Treatment of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation using a 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with low fluence is reported. To investigate the efficacy of a novel Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of pigmented keratosis pilaris in Asian patients. Ten patients with pigmented keratosis pilaris underwent five weekly treatments using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (RevLite(®); HOYA ConBio(®), Freemont, CA, USA) at 1064 nm with a 6-mm spot size and a fluence of 5.9 J/cm(2). Photographic documentation was obtained at baseline and 2 months after the final treatment. Clinical improvement was achieved in all 10 patients with minimal adverse effects. For the treatment of keratosis pilaris, the use of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser can be helpful for improving cosmetic appearance as it can improve pigmentation.
Dann, Thomas; Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Jocham, Dieter
Condylomata acuminata of the urogenital and anal region are sexually transmitted warts caused by infection of human papilloma virus. In the literature different treatment modalities are reported. We report the treatment of 323 patients (315 male, 8 female) with a mean age of 27.9 years using the Nd:YAG laser. In 65% the lesions were located in the fossa navicularis, in 37% at the glans, in 30% at the foreskin. Thirty-five percent of all patients required endoscopic treatment of the distal urethra. Two-hundred-seventy-nine patients had recurrence after unsuccessful pretreatment with surgical and chemical therapy. After a mean follow-up of 15.5 months (2 - 43 months) of 95 evaluable patients 15 showed recurrences all within the first 6 months. The advantages of Nd:YAG laser treatment of condylomata acuminata, which might be done in local anaesthesia, are a low rate of recurrences and complications, the option of endoscopic treatment and the excellent cosmetic results.
Turkoglu, Elif Betul; Celık, Erkan; Aksoy, Nilgun; Bursalı, Ozlem; Ucak, Turgay; Alagoz, Gursoy
To compare the changes in vision related quality of life (VR-QoL) in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) undergoing intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injection or focal/grid laser. In this prospective study, 70 patients with clinically significant macular edema (CSME) were randomized to undergo IVR injection (n=35) and focal/grid laser (n=35). If necessary, the laser or ranibizumab injections were repeated. Distance and near visual acuities, central retinal thickness (CRT) and The 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25) were used to measure the effectiveness of treatments and VR-QoL before and after 6 months following IVR or laser treatment. The demographic and clinical findings before the treatments were similar in both main groups. The improvements in distance and near visual acuities were higher in IVR group than the laser group (p<0.01). The reduction in CRT in IVR group was higher than that in laser treatment group (p<0.01). In both groups, the VFQ-25 composite score tended to improve from baseline to 6 months. And at 6th month, the changes in composite score were significantly higher in IVR group than in laser group (p<0.05). The improvements in overall composite scores were 6.3 points for the IVR group compared with 3.0 points in the laser group. Patients treated with IVR and laser had large improvements in composite scores, general vision, near and distance visual acuities in VFQ-25 at 6 months, in comparison with baseline scores, and also mental health subscale in IVR group. Our study revealed that IVR improved not only visual acuity or CRT, but also vision related quality of life more than laser treatment in DME. And these patient-reported outcomes may play an important role in the treatment choice in DME for clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sidenco, Elena-Luminita; Ristache, Sanda; Belu, Luminita
We consulted 189 patients, with different locomotory diseases: degenerative, posttraumatic and chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. We followed the main clinical parameters: pain, limitation of mobility, affected function, inflammation and disorders of sensitivity. We applied an infrared LASER source of 100 mW (BTL), daily, for 5 days. The tolerance of the patients at the LASER treatment was excellent (100%). The evolution of the clinical parameters was variated, but inflammation, limitation of mobility and the affected function significantly improved (30-50%). We found a significant diminution of pain (27- 39%). We believe the LASER treatment in ambulatory conditions is essential for the function of the patients with different locomotory diseases.
Hudson, C; Flanagan, J G; Turner, G S; Chen, H C; Young, L B; McLeod, D
To correlate change of an oedema index derived by scanning laser tomography with change of visual function in patients undergoing grid laser photocoagulation for clinically significant diabetic macular oedema (DMO). The sample comprised 24 diabetic patients with retinal thickening within 500 micro m of the fovea. Inclusion criteria included a logMAR visual acuity of 0.25, or better. Patients were assessed twice before a single session of grid laser treatment and within 1 week of, and at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after, treatment. At each visit, patients underwent logMAR visual acuity, conventional and short wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP), and scanning laser tomography. Each visual function parameter was correlated with the mean oedema index. The mean oedema index represented the z-profile signal width divided by the maximum reflectance intensity (arbitrary units). A Pearson correlation coefficient (Bonferroni corrected) was undertaken on the data set of each patient. 13 patients exhibited significant correlation of the mean oedema index and at least one measure of visual function for the 10 degrees x 10 degrees scan field while 10 patients correlated for the 20 degrees x 20 degrees scan field. Seven patients demonstrated correlation for both scan fields. Laser photocoagulation typically resulted in an immediate loss of perimetric sensitivity whereas the oedema index changed over a period of weeks. Localised oedema did not impact upon visual acuity or letter contrast sensitivity when situated extrafoveally. Correlation of change of the oedema index and of visual function following grid laser photocoagulation was not found in all patients. An absence of correlation can be explained by the localised distribution of DMO in this sample of patients, as well as by differences in the time course of change of the oedema index and visual function. The study has objectively documented change in the magnitude and distribution of DMO following grid laser treatment and has
Choi, Jae Eun; Oh, Ga Na; Kim, Jong Yeob; Seo, Soo Hong; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kye, Young Chul
Nonablative fractional photothermolysis has been reported to show early promise in the treatment of hypertrophic scars, but there are few reports on ablative fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of Er:YAG fractional laser (EYFL) and CO2 fractional laser (CO2FL) for treatment of hypertrophic scars. Thirteen patients with hypertrophic scars were treated with 2,940 nm EYFL, and ten were treated with 10,600 nm CO2FL. An independent physician evaluator assessed the treatment outcomes using Vancouver scar scale (VSS) and 5-point grading scale (grade 0, no improvement; grade 1, 1-25%; grade 2, 26-50%; grade 3, 51-75%; grade 4, 76-100% improvement). Patients are queried about their subjective satisfaction with the treatment outcomes. After the final treatment, average percentage changes of VSS were 28.2% for EYFL and 49.8% for CO2FL. Improvement was evident in terms of pliability, while insignificant in terms of vascularity and pigmentation. Based on physician's global assessment, mean grade of 1.8 for EYFL and 2.7 for CO2FL was achieved. Patient's subjective satisfaction scores paralleled the physician's objective evaluation. CO2FL is a potentially effective and safe modality for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, particularly in terms of pliability.
Chen, Yichao; Gnyawali, Surya C.; Wu, Feng; Liu, Hong; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Abbott, Andrew; Towner, Rheal A.; Chen, Wei R.
In cancer treatment and immune response enhancement research, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an ideal method for non-invasive, three-dimensional temperature measurement. We used a 7.1-Tesla magnetic resonance imager for ex vivo tissues and small animal to determine temperature distribution of target tissue during laser irradiation. The feasibility of imaging is approved with high spatial resolution and high signal-noise- ratio. Tissue-simulating gel phantom gel, biological tissues, and tumor-bearing animals were used in the experiments for laser treatment and MR imaging. Thermal couple measurement of temperature in target samples was used for system calibration. An 805-nm laser was used to irradiate the samples with a laser power in the range of 1 to 2.5 watts. Using the MRI system and a specially developed processing algorithm, a clear temperature distribution matrix in the target tissue and surrounding tissue was obtained. The temperature profiles show that the selective laser photothermal effect could result in tissue temperature elevation in a range of 10 to 45 °C. The temperature resolution of the measurement was about 0.37°C including the total system error. The spatial resolution was 0.4 mm (128x128 pixels with field of view of 5.5x5.5 cm). The temperature distribution provided in vivo thermal information and future reference for optimizing dye concentration and irradiation parameters to achieve optimal thermal effects in cancer treatment.
Yoon, Je Moon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Ham, Don-Il; Kang, Se Woong; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon
To investigate the anatomical and refractive outcomes in patients with Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity in Zone I. The medical records of 101 eyes of 51 consecutive infants with Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity in Zone I were analyzed. Infants were treated by conventional laser photocoagulation (Group I), combined intravitreal bevacizumab injection and Zone I sparing laser (Group II), or intravitreal bevacizumab with deferred laser treatment (Group III). The proportion of unfavorable anatomical outcomes including retinal fold, disc dragging, retrolental tissue obscuring the view of the posterior pole, retinal detachment, and early refractive errors were compared among the three groups. The mean gestational age at birth and the birth weight of all 51 infants were 24.3 ± 1.1 weeks and 646 ± 143 g, respectively. In Group I, an unfavorable anatomical outcome was observed in 10 of 44 eyes (22.7%). In contrast, in Groups II and III, all eyes showed favorable anatomical outcomes without reactivation or retreatment. The refractive error was less myopic in Group III than in Groups I and II (spherical equivalent of -4.62 ± 4.00 D in Group I, -5.53 ± 2.21 D in Group II, and -1.40 ± 2.19 D in Group III; P < 0.001). In Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity in Zone I, intravitreal bevacizumab with concomitant or deferred laser therapy yielded a better anatomical outcome than conventional laser therapy alone. Moreover, intravitreal bevacizumab with deferred laser treatment resulted in less myopic refractive error.
Koss, Shira L; Baxter, Peter; Panossian, Haig; Woo, Peak; Pitman, Michael J
Although vocal fold (VF) leukoplakia is commonly treated with in-office laser, there is no data on its long-term effectiveness. This study hypothesizes that VF leukoplakia treated by serial in-office laser results in long-term disease control with maintenance of voice and minimal morbidity. Retrospective review (2008-2015). Forty-six patients with VF leukoplakia treated by in-office KTP (potassium titanyl phosphate) or PDL (pulsed dye laser) were included. Median follow-up from final laser treatment was 19.6 months. Main outcomes included: 1) rate of disease control, 2) percentage of disease regression using ImageJ analysis. Secondary outcomes included vocal assessment using the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10). Patients underwent a median of 2 (range: 1-6) in-office laser treatments. Time between treatments was median 7.6 months. After final treatment, 19 patients (41.3%) had no disease; two patients (4.3%) progressed to invasive cancer; overall disease regression was median 77.1% (P < 0.001); and VHI-10 score decreased by median 5 (P = 0.037). Thirty-one patients (67.4%) were responders (controlled with in-office treatment only); failures were 13 patients (28.3%) who required operative intervention and two patients (4%) who underwent radiation. Compared to responders, failures demonstrated significantly shorter duration between treatments (median 2.3 vs. 8.9 months, P = 0.038) and significantly less regression (median 49.3% vs. 100%, P = 0.006). Serial outpatient KTP or PDL treatment of VF leukoplakia is effective for disease control with minimal morbidity and preservation of voice quality. We suggest that patients requiring repeated in-office treatment every 6 months may benefit from earlier operative intervention; other factors associated with in-office success remain unclear. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1644-1651, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher
Background: While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as ‘excellent’ if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as ‘good’ and ‘poor’ response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Results: Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3%) while 15 (25%) and 19 patients (31.7%) demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Conclusions: Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar scars with minimal
Topaloglu, Nermin; Tabakoglu, Ozgur; Ergenoglu, Mehmet U.; Gülsoy, Murat
The use of endovenous laser treatment for varicose veins has been increasing in recent years. It is a safer technique than surgical vein stripping. Its complications (e.g. bruising, pain) are less than the complications of surgical vein stripping. But best parameters such as optimum wavelength, power, and application duration are still under investigation to clarify uncertainties about this technique. To prevent its complications and improve its clinical outcomes, the exact mechanism of it has to be known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different laser wavelengths on endovenous laser therapy. In this study 980-nm diode laser and 1070-nm fiber laser were used. Human veins were irradiated with 980-nm and 1070-nm lasers at 8 W and 10 W to find the optimal power and wavelength. After laser application, remarkable shrinkage was observed. Inner and outer diameters of the veins also narrowed for both of the laser types. 10 W of 980-nm laser application led to better shrinkage results.
Ortiz, Arisa E; Anderson, R Rox; DiGiorgio, Catherine; Jiang, Shang I Brian; Shafiq, Faiza; Avram, Mathew M
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an indolent form of skin cancer that is rarely life threatening, but can cause significant cosmetic and functional morbidity. Surgical treatments often result in disfiguring scars, while topical therapies frequently result in recurrence. The need for a more effective nonsurgical alternative has led to the investigation of laser treatment of BCC. We have previously conducted a pilot study which showed 100% histologic clearance at high fluences. Treatments were well tolerated with no significant adverse events. The objective of this larger study was to confirm preliminary results that the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser is a safe and effective method for treating non-facial BCC. This is an IRB-approved, prospective, multi-center study evaluating the safety and efficacy of the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of BCC on the trunk and extremities. Thirty-three subjects seeking treatment for biopsy-proven BCC that did not meet the criteria for Mohs surgery were recruited. Subjects on current anticoagulation therapy, or with a history of immunosuppression were excluded. Subjects received one treatment with the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser as follows: 5-6 mm spot, fluence of 125-140 J/cm 2 and a pulse duration of 7-10 ms. Standard excision with 5 mm clinical margins was performed at 30 days after laser treatment to evaluate clinical and histologic clearance of BCC. Standardized photographs and adverse assessments were taken at the baseline visit, immediately after laser treatment and on the day of excision. Thirty-one subjects completed the study. BCC tumors had a 90% (28 of 31 BCC tumors) histologic clearance rate after one treatment with the long-pulsed 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Treatments were generally well tolerated without any anesthesia. Immediate side effects included edema and erythema. At 1-month follow-up, some patients had residual crusting. No significant adverse events occurred. The 1064 nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser is an
Park, Kelly K; Swan, James; Koo, John
Treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis often requires the use of phototherapy or systemic therapy, which includes immunosuppressants, retinoids, and biologic agents. Although biologic use is becoming increasingly popular, it is not uncommon for patients to experience treatment failure. We describe a patient who had a suboptimal response to etanercept monotherapy after twelve weeks of induction dosing (50 mg twice weekly), as well as to a combination of etanercept (50 mg once weekly-maintenance dosing) and narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy three times weekly for an additional twelve weeks. Noticeable improvement was noted after the addition of NB-UVB and the patient's promising response to phototherapy influenced further management. Etanercept and NB-UVB were discontinued and the patient was initiated on excimer laser treatments twice weekly. After 4 weeks, the patient had a 75 percent reduction in Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score and after 7 weeks had over 95 percent clearance of psoriasis. The unique properties of the excimer laser may account for its clinical efficacy in our patient as well as in other cases of recalcitrant psoriasis. We propose that the excimer laser be considered in cases of biologic or conventional phototherapy failure in addition to being a standard treatment option or adjunct for the treatment of psoriasis.
Paradiso, V.; Rubino, F.; Tucci, F.; Astarita, A.; Carlone, P.
Titanium coatings are very attractive to several industrial fields, especially aeronautics, due to the enhanced corrosion resistance and wear properties as well as improved compatibility with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials. Cold sprayed titanium coatings, among the others deposition processes, are finding a widespread use in high performance applications, whereas post-deposition treatments are often used to modify the microstructure of the cold-sprayed layer. Laser treatments allow one to noticeably increase the superficial properties of titanium coatings when the process parameters are properly set. On the other hand, the high heat input required to melt titanium particles may result in excessive temperature increase even in the substrate. This paper introduces a thermo-mechanical model to simulate the laser treatment effects on a cold sprayed titanium coating as well as the aluminium substrate. The proposed thermo-mechanical finite element model considers the transient temperature field due to the laser source and applied boundary conditions using them as input loads for the subsequent stress-strain analysis. Numerical outcomes highlighted the relevance of thermal gradients and thermally induced stresses and strains in promoting the damage of the coating.
Borelli, C; Korting, H C
The medical treatment of acne is generally sufficient to meet the expectations of acne patients. However, in a number of situations additional therapeutic approaches may be advisable. There are a wide variety of useful physical methods. They range from electromagnetic waves, usually light, to peeling and manual therapy. Phototherapy of acne includes not just visible light but also laser and flash lamp therapy. The present review provides an overview on the evidence. Visible light, in particular blue light, provides an effective option for treatment of inflammatory acne. Photodynamic therapy also is efficacious; however, it should not be used because of an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. UV treatment of acne is obsolete. Newer studies on the use of a variety of laser systems and flash lamps have demonstrated in part rewarding results.
Dontu, O.; Ganatsios, S.; Alexandrescu, N.; Predescu, C.
The paper presents a study concerning the post - weld heat treatment of a duplex stainless steel. Welded joint samples were surface - treated using the same laser source adopted during welding in order to counterbalance the excess of ferrite formed in the welding process.
Chen, Vivian A.; Le, Henry; Li, Xiaosong; Wolf, Roman F.; Ferguson, Halie; Sarkar, Akhee; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.
Laser immunotherapy using laser photothermal therapy and immunological stimulation could achieve tumor-specific immune responses, as indicated by our previous pre-clinical and preliminary clinical studies. To further study the effect of laser immunotherapy, we conducted an investigation combining laser immunotherapy and surgery. After laser immunotherapy, treated tumors were surgically removed at different time points. The survival rates of treated mice were compared among different groups. Furthermore, the cured mice were rechallenged to test the immunity induced by laser immunotherapy. Our results showed that the mice treated with surgical removal one week after laser immunotherapy had the highest survival rate (77%). When the tumors were removed immediately after laser immunotherapy treatment, the survival rate was 57%. Most cured mice withstood tumor rechallenges, indicating an induction of tumor immunity by laser immunotherapy. The differentiations between different surgery groups indicate that the treated tumors have contributed to the immunological responses of the hosts.
Xu, Sheng; Agarwal, Harsh; Bernardo, Marcelino; Seifabadi, Reza; Turkbey, Baris; Partanen, Ari; Negussie, Ayele; Glossop, Neil; Choyke, Peter; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford J.
Prostate cancer is often over treated with standard treatment options which impact the patients' quality of life. Laser ablation has emerged as a new approach to treat prostate cancer while sparing the healthy tissue around the tumor. Since laser ablation has a small treatment zone with high temperature, it is necessary to use accurate image guidance and treatment planning to enable full ablation of the tumor. Intraoperative temperature monitoring is also desirable to protect critical structures from being damaged in laser ablation. In response to these problems, we developed a navigation platform and integrated it with a clinical MRI scanner and a side firing laser ablation device. The system allows imaging, image guidance, treatment planning and temperature monitoring to be carried out on the same platform. Temperature sensing phantoms were developed to demonstrate the concept of iterative treatment planning and intraoperative temperature monitoring. Retrospective patient studies were also conducted to show the clinical feasibility of the system.
Leavitt, Matt; Charles, Glenn; Heyman, Eugene; Michaels, David
The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and oedema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissue and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost 40 years since the invention of lasers. The HairMax LaserComb is a hand-held Class 3R lower level laser therapy device that contains a single laser module that emulates 9 beams at a wavelength of 655 nm (+/-5%). The device uses a technique of parting the user's hair by combs that are attached to the device. This improves delivery of distributed laser light to the scalp. The combs are designed so that each of the teeth on the combs aligns with a laser beam. By aligning the teeth with the laser beams, the hair can be parted and the laser energy delivered to the scalp of the user without obstruction by the individual hairs on the scalp. The primary aim of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the promotion of hair growth and in the cessation of hair loss in males diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre, 26-week trial randomized male patients with Norwood-Hamilton classes IIa-V AGA to treatment with the HairMax LaserComb or the sham device (2 : 1). The sham device used in the study was identical to the active device except that the laser light was replaced by a non-active incandescent light source. Of the 110 patients who completed the study, subjects in the HairMax LaserComb treatment group exhibited a significantly greater increase in mean terminal hair density than subjects in the sham device group (p < 0.0001). Consistent with this evidence for primary effectiveness, significant improvements in overall hair regrowth were demonstrated in terms of patients' subjective assessment (p < 0.015) at 26 weeks over baseline. The HairMax LaserComb was well tolerated with no serious adverse events reported and no statistical difference in
Akdoğan, Vakur; Dokur, Mehmet M.; Göller, Gültekin; Keleş, Özgül
Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) consisting of atmospheric plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt.% Y2O3 and a high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed metallic bond coat were subjected to CO2 continuous wave laser treatments. The effects of laser power on TBCs were investigated as was the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer development of all as-sprayed and laser-treated coatings after thermal oxidation tests in air environment for 50, 100, and 200 h at 1100 °C. The effects of laser power on TBCs were investigated. TGO layer development was examined on all as-sprayed and laser-treated coatings after thermal oxidation tests in air environment for 50, 100, and 200 h at 1100 °C. Melted and heat-affected zone regions were observed in all the laser-treated samples. Oxidation tests showed a stable alumina layer and mixed spinel oxides in the TGO layers of the as-sprayed and laser-treated TBCs.
Zhu, Jing; Bao, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Mei-Jue
Objective: To research epidermal cellular vegetal cycle and the difference of DNA content between pre and post Intravascular Low Level Laser Irradiation treatment of psoriasis. Method: 15 patients suffered from psoriasis were treated by intravascular low level laser irradiation (output power: 4-5mw, 1 hour per day, a course of treatment is 10 days). We checked the different DNA content of epidermal cell between pre and post treatment of psoriasis and 8 natural human. Then the percentage of each phase among the whole cellular cycle was calculated and the statistical analysis was made. Results: The mean value of G1/S phase is obviously down while G2+M phase increased obviously. T test P<0.05.The related statistical analysis showed significant difference between pre and post treatments. Conclusions: The Intravascular Low Level Laser Irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis is effective according to the research of epidermal cellular vegetal cycle and the difference DNA content of Intravascular Low Level Laser Irradiation between pre and post treatment of psoriasis
Paiva, M B; Saxton, R E; Letts, G A; Chung, P S; Soudant, J; Vanderwerf, Q; Castro, D J
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with lasers and new dyes has gained popularity in recent years as a minimally invasive technique with high tumoricidal effects in vitro and in some cancer patients. However, because new laser dyes are not FDA approved at present, the clinical evaluation of PDT may be years away. During the past 6 years we have used laser alone for photothermal ablation in both preclinical studies and in a large number of patients with an observed 60% tumor response rate. The 40% treatment failure led us to explore the possibility of combined therapy with lasers and standard chemotherapeutic drugs. We have recently tested a promising preclinical alternative using implantation of a bare 600-microns KTP 532 laser fiberoptic in multiple tumor sites 30 min after intratumor injection of the anthrapyrazole DUP-941. As a control, this drug was injected in 3 sites of P3 human squamous cell tumor transplants in nude mice, which led to tumor stasis without regression. Similar 400-600 mm3 tumors exposed to laser illumination alone (0.8 W for 5 sec) at multiple sites resulted in tumor regrowth after 10 weeks in 80% of the animals. However, combining interstitial laser illumination with intratumor DUP-941 injections led to complete tumor regression in 85% of the mice. We propose that intratumor drug injection followed by interstitial laser fiberoptic treatment represents a potentially useful new method for tumor ablation in advanced cancer patients.
Kono, Ayuko; Oguri, Akiko; Yokoo, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Hideto
The non-ablative laser therapies have been speculated to cause microinjury in the dermal collagen fibres and increase collagen synthesis in the fibroblasts, leading to remodelling of the extracellular matrix. This study investigated the effects of neodymium YAG laser treatment on pig skin, especially focusing on its extracellular matrix molecules. The dorsal areas of a minipig were subjected to laser treatment, and samples were obtained by punch biopsies, and histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were performed. The laser treatment caused degeneration of collagen fibres and fibrils, which were reconstituted within 24 hours, whereas there was no inflammation and no apparent damage on elastic fibres. Small blood vessels disappeared by the laser treatment, which re-appeared in 3 days. Biochemically, the amounts of collagen decreased up to day 3 after the treatment and then increased at day 7. When fibroblasts in dermal tissue at day 28 were counted, more fibroblasts in the treated tissue were observed than non-treated control. These results suggest that, although the laser treatment transiently degenerates collagen fibres and fibrils, it restores and increases them, mainly by an increase in dermal fibroblasts, assuring its minimal complication of skin.
Khater, Mohammad M.; El-Shorbagy, Mohammad S.; Selima, Adel A.
AIM To compare argon laser photocoagulation and intrastromal injection of voriconazole as adjunctive treatment modalities in cases of resistant mycotic corneal ulcers. METHODS Two groups each of them included 20 cases of resistant mycotic corneal ulcers. Both groups treated with local and systemic specific antimicrobial drugs guided with culture and sensitivity results. In one group argon laser photocoagulation was used as an adjunctive therapy to the specific antifungal drugs and in the other group, intrastromal injection of voriconazole was done besides the specific antifungal drugs. The 40 cases included in the study were proven according to culture and sensitivity to be 28 cases with pure fungal results and 12 cases with mixed (fungal and bacterial). In argon laser group, argon laser irradiation of the corneal ulcer was performed using argon laser 532 nm wavelength (Carl Zeiss LSL 532s AG; Meditec, Inc.) after fluorescein staining. In the other group, voriconazole solution (500 µg/mL) was prepared and injected in the corneal stroma. All cases were followed up for 3mo after healing was achieved. RESULTS Complete healing of the epithelial defect and resolution of stromal infiltration with no adverse effects were achieved in argon laser group in duration ranged from 2-4wk in 90% of cases. In voriconazole group 4 cases needed amniotic membrane graft due to thinning and 16 cases healed in duration ranged from 2-6wk (80% of cases). CONCLUSION Argon laser photocoagulation is superior to intrastromal voriconazole injection in treatment of resistant fungal corneal ulcers. PMID:26949639
Greveling, Karin; Prens, Errol P; van Doorn, Martijn B
Pulsed Dye Laser (PDL) is currently the gold standard treatment for port wine stains (PWS), although the degree of lesion blanching is variable and often unpredictable. This appears to be due to reformation and reperfusion of blood vessels. Rapamycin has shown potential as an antiangiogenic agent and may prevent the revascularization after PDL treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant use of (commercially available) topical rapamycin after PDL treatment in patients with PWS. We conducted a prospective, intra-patient, randomized controlled trial. Four treatment areas of 1 cm 2 were created in each PWS. PDL-only treatment was compared to the following three treatments: PDL + rapamycin, PDL + Erbium YAG laser ablation of the stratum corneum + rapamycin, and rapamycin monotherapy. We also compared PDL + Erbium YAG + rapamycin with PDL + rapamycin. The primary endpoint was the percentage clearance assessed colorimetrically at 6 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes were photographic evaluation by an expert panel, patient satisfaction, treatment related pain, and safety. Fourteen patients completed the treatment protocol. The highest percentage clearance was achieved with PDL-only treatment (mean [SD] 16% ), but there were no statistically significant differences between treatments. The best photographic evaluation and highest patient satisfaction were also achieved with PDL-only treatment, but only the difference between PDL-only and rapamycin monotherapy was statistically significant. The treatment related pain was well tolerated. Application-site pruritus was a frequent occurring adverse event. Allergic contact dermatitis to rapamycin occurred in one patient. There were no serious adverse events. Topical application of the commercially available solution of rapamycin (Rapamune ® 0.1%) as an adjuvant to PDL treatment does not appear to improve PWS blanching. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:104-109, 2017. © 2016
Fisher, Jessica W.; Rylander, Marissa Nichole
Laser therapies can provide a minimally invasive treatment alternative to surgical resection of tumors. However, the effectiveness of these therapies is limited due to nonspecific heating of target tissue which often leads to healthy tissue injury and extended treatment durations. These therapies can be further compromised due to heat shock protein (HSP) induction in tumor regions where non-lethal temperature elevation occurs, thereby imparting enhanced tumor cell viability and resistance to subsequent chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Introducing multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) into target tissue prior to laser irradiation increases heating selectivity permitting more precise thermal energy delivery to the tumor region and enhances thermal deposition thereby increasing tumor injury and reducing HSP expression induction. This study investigated the impact of MWNT inclusion in untreated and laser irradiated monolayer cell culture and cell phantom model. Cell viability remained high for all samples with MWNT inclusion and cells integrated into alginate phantoms, demonstrating the non-toxic nature of both MWNTs and alginate phantom models. Following, laser irradiation samples with MWNT inclusion exhibited dramatic temperature elevations and decreased cell viability compared to samples without MWNT. In the cell monolayer studies, laser irradiation of samples with MWNT inclusion experienced up-regulated HSP27, 70 and 90 expression as compared to laser only or untreated samples due to greater temperature increases albeit below the threshold for cell death. Further tuning of laser parameters will permit effective cell killing and down-regulation of HSP. Due to optimal tuning of laser parameters and inclusion of MWNT in phantom models, extensive temperature elevations and cell death occurred, demonstrating MWNT-mediated laser therapy as a viable therapy option when parameters are optimized. In conclusion, MWNT-mediated laser therapies show great promise for effective
Colaiuda, S; Colaiuda, F; Gasparotti, M
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the efficacy of Nd:Yag laser and IPL combined action for the treatment of deep (up to 5 mm) and large (up to 3 mm in diameter) reticular varicosity of the lower extremity. A group of 38 subjects (2 male and 36 female) aged from 34 to 65 years were treated for deep reticular varicosity of the legs. All patients underwent various clinical analyses in order to evaluate and exclude pre-existing cardiovascular pathology, coagulation disorders as well as pathology due to saphena incontinence. Also, for the first three months they underwent ambulatory specialistic treatments at 21-days intertreatment interval. A reduction of venous network of 80-90% after 2 treatment sessions with Nd:Yag laser was obtained in 84% of subjects. Successive 3 treatment sessions with IPL have achieved complete vanishing of the treated venous network in 36 patients (95%). A combined action of Nd:Yag laser and IPL has demonstrated its particular efficacy in non-invasive treatment of deep and extensive reticolar varicosity of the lower extremity, considering also that it is well tolerated by patients and applicable in each single case on out patient basis.
Lavisse, L.; Berger, P.; Cirisan, M.; Jouvard, J. M.; Bourgeois, S.; de Lucas, M. C. Marco
Surface laser treatment of commercially pure titanium plates was performed in air using two different Nd : YAG sources delivering pulses of 5 and 35 ns. The laser fluence conditions were set to obtain with each source either yellow or blue surface layers. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) was used to quantify the amount of light elements in the formed layers. Titanium oxinitrides, containing different amounts of oxygen and nitrogen, were mainly found, except in the case of long pulses and high laser fluence, which led to the growth of titanium dioxide. The structure of the layers was studied by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, reflectance spectra showed the transition from a metal-like behaviour to an insulating TiO2-like behaviour as a function of the treatment conditions. Modelling of the laser-target interaction on the basis of the Semak model was performed to understand the different compositions and properties of the layers. Numerical calculations showed that vaporization dominates in the case of short pulses, whereas a liquid-ablation regime is achieved in the case of 35 ns long pulses.
Safonov, A. N.
For the thirty six years that have passed since the creation of the first laser, laser engineering has progressed enormously. For example, for the last twenty years the world volume of sales of all kinds of lasers for civil purposes has increased more than tenfold in monetary terms, growing by 15% every year. In 1995, over 90 million lasers were sold for over 1.2 billion dollars. Today we know over 100 fields of laser application. The primary use of lasers is for treating materials; the volume of such sales has grown by an order of magnitude for the last twenty years and amounts to 350 million dollars a year (about 25% of the cost of all lasers), which is equal to 20 thousand units a year. The author of the present paper analyzes and gives examples of the use of lasers for heat treatment of tools and various machine parts.
Chughtai, Bilal; Laor, Leanna; Dunphy, Claire; Te, Alexis
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition that occurs increasingly with age. The established gold standard treatment for BPH has been the electrocautery-based transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). TURP, however, is associated with several complications and side effects. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in a number of emerging minimally invasive therapies as alterative treatment options. Laser therapy using the Greenlight laser is a promising alternative to the traditional TURP. Selective absorption by hemoglobin allows rapid, hemostatic vaporization of prostate tissue. Additional advantages include avoidance or minimization of complications such as intraoperative fluid absorption, and bleeding, retrograde ejaculation, impotence, and incontinence, as well as its use in treating high volume BPH. We review the use of the Greenlight laser in the treatment of BPH, when comparing complications and advantages in relation to TURP.
Liebert, Ann D; Bicknell, Brian T; Adams, Roger D
Responsiveness to low-level laser treatment (LLTT) at a wavelength of 450-910 nm has established it as an effective treatment of medical, veterinary and dental chronic pain, chronic inflammation conditions (arthritis and macular degeneration), wound repair, and lymphoedema, yet the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of LLLT remain unclear. However, there is now sufficient evidence from recent research to propose an integrated model of LLLT action. The hypothesis presented in this paper is that external applications of photons (through laser at an appropriate dose) modulates the nervous system through an integrated mechanism. This stimulated mechanism involves protein-to-protein interaction, where two or more proteins bind together to facilitate molecular processes, including modification of proteins by members of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier proteins) and also protein phosphorylation and tyrosination. SUMO has been shown to have a role in multiple nuclear and perinuclear targets, including ion channels, and in the maintenance of telomeres and the post-translational modification of genes. The consequence of laser application in treatment, therefore, can be seen as influencing the transmission of neural information via an integrated and rapid modulation of ion channels, achieved through both direct action on photo-acceptors (such as cytochrome c-oxidase) and through indirect modulation via enzymes, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tyrosine kinases and tyrosine kinase receptors. This exogenous action then facilitates an existing photonic biomodulation mechanism within the body, and initiates ion channel modulation both in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence indicates that the ion channel modulation functions predominately through the potassium channels, including two pore leak channels (K2P), which act as signal integrators from the periphery to the cortex. Photonic action also transforms SUMOylation processes at the cell
Gentileschi, Stefano; Servillo, Maria; D'Ettorre, Marco; Salgarello, Marzia
Body contouring by means of minimally invasive procedures is a growing trend. Current approaches to body contouring often involve a combination of surgical techniques (eg, laser-assisted liposuction) and a series of noninvasive device-based treatments aimed at accelerating recovery and improving aesthetic outcomes. In this case study, we describe a 38-year-old woman who presented with an abdominal-wall mass that resembled a tumor when assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-six months before presenting to our office, the patient had undergone laser lipolysis and a series of treatments with a device that delivered dual-wavelength laser energy and vacuum-assisted massage. To address the patient's concerns, we removed the mass and performed abdominal dermolipectomy. No postoperative complications occurred, and the patient was highly satisfied with the aesthetic outcome. The results of histologic studies indicated that the mass was pseudocystic and fluid-filled, surrounded by a fibrous capsule, and characterized as a foreign-body granuloma. Further analysis is warranted regarding the safety of laser lipolysis without aspiration combined with a device delivering dual-wavelength laser energy and vacuum-assisted massage. 5 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Akopov, A. L.; Bely, K. P.; Berezin, Yu. D.; Orlov, S. V.
Plasmapheresis in pulmonology is one of the leading methods of extracorporeal detoxification of patients with purulent lung and pleura diseases. However this method causes a decrease in patients' leukocyte level and humoral immunity indices. The medico-biological research conducted at the State Scientific Center of Pulmonology demonstrated that a combination of plasmapheresis with additional irradiation of the patients' reinfused erythrocyte mass with low intensive He-Ne laser light with the wavelength of 0.63 mkm considerably reduces the probability of these complications. It may be due to the fact that laser irradiation of autologous erythrocytes induces local and general stimulation, favoring in this way the inflammatory process involution. The suggested method of plasmapheresis was used in the process of treatment of 76 patients with lung abscess, empyema, purulent mediastinitis, sepsis. The essence of the method consists in irradiating with He-Ne laser the last portion of the erythrocyte mass (130 - 170 ml), diluted with saline, during its reinfusion in the course of a routine plasmapheresis. The positive impact of practical application of the above method allows to characterize it as highly effective for treatment of purulent diseases in pulmonology.
Solovieva, A. B.; Tolstih, P. I.; Melik-Nubarov, N. S.; Zhientaev, T. M.; Kuleshov, I. G.; Glagolev, N. N.; Ivanov, A. V.; Karahanov, G. I.; Tolstih, M. P.; Timashev, P. S.
Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for the treatment of festering wounds and trophic ulcers. An important advantage of PDT is its ability to affect bacterial cultures that are resistant to antibiotics. However the use of PDT alone does not usually guarantee a stable antiseptic effect and cannot prevent an external infection of wounds and burns. In this work attention is focused on the healing of the extensive soft tissues wounds with combined laser therapy (LT) and PDT treatment. At the first stage of this process festering tissues (for example spacious purulent wounds with area more than 100 cm2) were illuminated with high-energy laser beam (with power 20 W) in continues routine. The second stage involves “softer” PDT affect, which along with the completion stages of destruction pathological cells, stimulating the process of wound granulation and epithelization. Also, according to our previous results, photosensitizer (photoditazin) is introduced inside the wound with different amphiphilic polymers for increasing the PDT efficacy.
Hussein, Haitham T; Kadhim, Abdulhadi; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar
Influence of laser treatment on mechanical properties, wear resistance, and Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy was studied. The specimens were treated by using Nd:YaG laser of energy 780 mj, wavelength 512 nm, and duration time 8 ns. The wear behavior of the specimens was studied for all specimens before and after treatment by Nd:YaG laser and the dry wear experiments were carried out by sing pinon-disc technique. The specimens were machined as a disk with diameter of 25 mm and circular groove in depth of 3 mm. All specimens were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDS), optical microscopy, and Vickers hardness. The results showed that the dry wear rate was decreased after laser hardening and increased Vickers hardness values by ratio of 2.4:1. The results showed that the values of wear rate for samples having circular grooves are less than samples without grooves after laser treatment.
Taibjee, S M; Cheung, S-T; Laube, S; Lanigan, S W
The excimer laser delivers high energy monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) B at 308 nm. Advantages over conventional UV sources include targeting of lesional skin, reducing cumulative dose and inducing faster clearance. Studies of the pulsed dye laser (PDL) in psoriasis report between 57% and 82% response rates; remission may extend to 15 months. To our knowledge, this is the first study assessing both excimer and PDL in psoriasis. We conducted a within-patient controlled prospective trial of treatment of localized plaque psoriasis. Twenty-two adult patients, mean Psoriasis Area and Severity Index 7.1, were recruited. Fifteen patients completed the full treatment, of which 13 were followed up to 1 year. Two selected plaques were treated with excimer twice weekly and V Beam PDL, pretreated with salicylic acid (SA), every 4 weeks, respectively. Two additional plaques, treated with SA alone or untreated, served as controls. The primary outcome measures were: (i) changes in plaque-modified Psoriasis Activity and Severity Index (PSI) scores from baseline to end of treatment; (ii) clinical response to treatment (CR(T)), assessed by serial photographs; (iii) percentage of plaques clear at the end of treatment; and (iv) percentage of plaques clear at 1-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measures were: (i) number of laser treatments to clearance; (ii) time to relapse; (iii) frequency of side-effects; and (iv) qualitative observations with SIAscope. The mean improvement in PSI was 4.7 (SD 2.1) with excimer and 2.7 (SD 2.4) with PDL. PSI improvement was significantly greater in excimer than PDL (P = 0.003) or both control plaques (P < 0.001). CR(T) indicated 13 patients responded best with excimer, two patients best with PDL, and in seven patients there was no difference between the two lasers. CR(T) was significantly greater for excimer than PDL (P = 0.003) or both controls (P < 0.001). CR(T) was also significantly greater for PDL than SA alone (P = 0.004) or untreated control
Greijmans, Ellen; Luiting-Welkenhuyzen, Hedwig; Luijks, Harriet; Bovenschen, H Jorn
Although not an accepted standard treatment, the 532-nm continuous wave potassium titanyl phosphate (CW-KTP) laser might be a powerful device to treat xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP). To determine the safety and efficacy of CW-KTP laser treatment for XP. Between January 2013 and January 2015, 30 consecutive patients with XP were treated with a 532-nm CW-KTP laser (spot size: 0.9 mm, power: 5.0 W, fluence: 36-38 J/cm, pulse width: 46 milliseconds, frequency: 2.0 Hz, passes per session: 3). In a retrospective study design, safety and efficacy data were collected and analyzed. Overall, 29/30 (97%) of patients had an excellent cosmetical result. Downtime was 1 week with crusted lesions. Although slight hypopigmentation was common, only 1/30 (3%) patients had hypopigmentation that was more than expected. Recurrences (13/30; 43%) were frequent, so that yearly maintenance therapy was warranted. No major side effects were noticed. Continuous wave KTP laser therapy is safe and highly effective for XP, although regular follow-up treatments are often necessary to maintain the achieved cosmetic results.
Jelinkova, Helena; Pasta, Jiri; Hamal, Karel; Cech, Miroslav; Prochazka, Ivan
Plasma breakdown generated by high power lasers is used in ophthalmic microsurgery for perforation of the various membranes. We report on ten years of clinical experiences with the ophthalmic Nd:YAG laser system operating alternatively in both Q-switched or mode-locked regimes. This option gives the surgeon a possibility to compare the effect of treatments with nanosecond or picosecond pulses. The pulse duration in the picosecond regime is 25 ps, the length of a nanosecond pulse is 4 ns and the energy is variable up to 70 mJ. In the ten year period the laser system was used for more than 10 000 treatments. From the results is possible to conclude that in clinical practice the picosecond pulses are better for the posterior capsule opacification treatment and that there are not retinal complications. The nanosecond pulses are useful for iridectomies. Our constructed Nd:YAG laser system provides the surgeons with the possibility to use different photodisruptive regimes for special indications, which can be very useful for the ophthalmologists.
Alonso, Delilah; Lazarus, Melissa C; Baumann, Leslie
Claims have been made suggesting that topical arnica prevents and speeds the resolution of bruises, yet there are no well-designed placebo-controlled studies to date evaluating topical arnica's effect on bruising. To compare the efficacy of topical arnica in the prevention and resolution of laser-induced bruising. Nineteen patients with facial telangiectases were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study and were divided into pretreatment and posttreatment groups. The pretreatment group applied arnica with vehicle to one side of the face and vehicle alone to the other side of the face twice a day for 2 weeks prior to laser treatment. The posttreatment group followed the same procedure for 2 weeks after laser treatment. On day 0, all patients were treated for facial telangiectases using a 585 nm pulsed dye laser. Bruising was assessed using a visual analog scale on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 17 by the patient and the physician. In addition, photographs taken at each of the follow-up visits were later assessed by a second physician using the visual analog scale. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean scores of arnica and vehicle (P = 0.496) and the mean scores of arnica and vehicle (P = 0.359) in the pretreatment and posttreatment groups, respectively. No significant difference was found between topical arnica and vehicle in the prevention or resolution of bruising.
Navratil, Leos; Navratilova, Blanka
Non-invasive laser therapy is currently frequently used in stomatological practice thanks to its analgesic, anti- inflammatory and biostimulating effects. Suitable indications and methodic procedures of treatment should be established to provide the relevant efficacy of the method. The work characteristics the efficacy of the treatment in selected indications with checking suitable physical parameters of laser radiation. The study was carried out on total of 382 patients divided into three groups depending on the method of the treatment. The treatment result were evaluated based on the above-mentioned effects expressed with the help of relevant coefficients. The result demonstrated the contribution of therapeutic laser to the treatment of herpetic affections, aphthae, erosions, decubiti on the mucous membrane, conditions after difficult extractions, papilitits, wounds after teeth resection, linqua geographica, scar and treatment aimed at reducing the dentin sensitivity.
Philandrianos, Cécile; Bertrand, Baptiste; Andrac-Meyer, Lucile; Magalon, Guy; Casanova, Dominique; Kerfant, Nathalie; Mordon, Serge
A temperature increase can improve wound healing by activation of heat shock protein 70 and stimulation of fibroblasts. Since keloids are a dysfunction of collagen fiber synthesis and organization, this study aimed to evaluate if a 1,210 nm diode laser could have effects in a new animal model of keloid scars. A total of 39 nude mice were used for this study. Phototypes IV and V human keloids were grafted into their backs and after 1 month of healing, the mice were divided into four groups: Control, Laser, Resection, Resection/Laser. In the Laser group, the keloids were treated with a 1,210-nm diode-laser with the following parameters: 4 W; 10 seconds; fluence: 51 J/cm(2) ; spot: 18.9 × 3.7 mm(2) . In the Resection group, surgical intra-lesional excision was performed. In the Resection/Laser group, keloids were treated with the 1,210-nm laser-diode after surgical intra-lesional excision. Temperature measurements were made during the laser treatment. Clinical examination and histological study were performed on the day of treatment and 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months later. Mean temperature measurement was of 44.8°C (42-48°) in the Laser groups. No healing complications or keloid proliferation was observed in any group. Keloid histologic characters were confirmed in all grafts. No histologic particularity was observed in the laser groups in comparison with the Control and Resection groups. First, this keloid animal model appears to be adapted for laser study. Secondly, the 1,210-nm diode laser does not induce keloid thermal damage in vivo. Further studies with different 1,210-nm laser diode parameters should be performed in order to observe significant effects on keloids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cassuto, D A; Ancona, D M; Emanuelli, G
Facial telangiectasias are a common cause of cosmetic concern. Current treatment modalities present various untoward effects and limits. The pulsed dye laser has been considered the gold standard in efficacy and safety; unfortunately it causes postoperative intracutaneous hematomata, discouraging many patients from undergoing this treatment. Several other vascular lasers (argon, tunable dye, copper, krypton, etc.) are disadvantaged by the risk of hypopigmented and atrophic scars. We assessed a recent powerful version of the potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) 532 nm laser, which delivers sufficient energy in single pulse lasting 10-50 msec (DioLite 532; IRIDEX, Mountain View, CA, USA). Collateral damage is reduced while the heating of the vessel is slow enough to avoid explosive photothermolysis with its associated purpura. Sixty six patients with facial telangiectasias were treated. In 62/66 patients (93.9%) we achieved a 75-100% clearance of the lesions, while two treatments were needed to reach an acceptable clearance in the remaining 4/66 patients (6.1%). The eventual need for more sessions was well tolerated because the acceptable postoperative appearance allowed patients to continue normal business and social activities between treatments. No permanent complications or undesired effects were noted. We conclude that this diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is an effective device for the treatment of facial telangiectasias, with a low profile of undesired effects that can be well tolerated by patients.
Cai, Hong; Wang, Yi-xia; Zheng, Ji-Chun; Sun, Ping; Yang, Zhi-yong; Li, Yuan-li; Liu, Xiao-yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Wei
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the activation of a previously administered photosensitizing agent by visible light to induce tumor necrosis. Photosensitizers are topically applied in the treatment of skin tumors to avoid systemic side effects. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a photosensitizer (ALA-PDT) in combination with CO2 laser in the treatment of Bowen's disease (BD; intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma). Twenty-two lesions from 18 patients were randomized into two groups: 11 lesions were treated with topical ALA-PDT (180 J/cm(2) at 100 mW/cm(2)) + CO2 laser for one to three sessions. The remaining 11 lesions were treated with CO2 laser alone, serving as control group. All patients were reviewed at ≤1-week intervals. Biopsies were taken from BD lesions prior to treatment. The initial evaluation was undertaken 1 month after treatment, and biopsies were harvested for histological evaluation. Patients who did not respond to the three sessions of treatment were referred to surgical treatment. In the ALA-PDT + CO2 laser group, 72.73 % (8/11) of BD lesions showed complete remission, with an overall clearance of 90.91 %, and only one recurred (9 %) during follow-up. Local side effects included mild erythema, edema, erosion, and burning and/or stinging sensation. No systemic side effects were observed. In the control group, 63.63 % (7/11) of lesions had complete remission and the overall clearance was 54.55 %. However, five lesions (45.45 %) had recurrence. Local side effects included mild to moderate edema, erosion, ulceration, delayed healing, prolonged pain, and scarring. There existed a significant difference in recurrence rate between the two groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, after ALA-PDT plus CO2 laser treatment, complete necrosis was observed in responsive lesions, and 3 months later, the atypical BD cells were replaced by normal keratinocytes. Topical ALA-PDT in combination
Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz
The results of laser therapy in the treatment of condylomata acuminata of male reproductive organs are reported. Between November 1991 and February 1995 in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Karol Marcinkowski University School of Medical Sciences, Poznan in 28 patients with condylomatous changes of reproductive organs carbon-dioxide laser therapy under colposcopic control was done. In 24 of them the healing was achieved. In four patients second laser therapy was done. All patients are still under control in the Department of Reproduction and there was no recurrence diagnosed.
Bae, Jung Min; Jung, Han Mi; Goo, Boncheol; Park, Young Min
Alopecia is one of the most common dermatological problems in the elderly; however, current therapies for it are limited by low efficacy and undesirable side effects. Although clinical reports on fractional laser treatment for various alopecia types are increasing, the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the effect of ablative fractional laser treatment on hair follicle regrowth in vivo and investigate the molecular mechanism after laser treatment. Ablative CO2 fractional laser was applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice whose hair was in the telogen stage. After 12 mice were treated at various energy (10-40 mJ/spot) and density (100-400 spots/cm(2) ) settings to determine the proper dosage for maximal effect. Six mice were then treated at the decided dosage and skin specimens were sequentially obtained by excision biopsy from the dorsal aspect of each mouse. Tissue samples were used for the immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to examine hair follicle status and their related molecules. The most effective dosage was the 10 mJ/spot and 300 spots/cm(2) setting. The anagen conversion of hair was observed in the histopathological examination, while Wnt/β-catenin expression was associated with hair regrowth in the immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. Ablative fractional lasers appear to be effective for inducing hair regrowth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vivo. Our findings indicate that fractional laser treatment can potentially be developed as new treatment options for stimulating hair regrowth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jin, Lan; Zhang, Zhongtao
Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration (LTCBDE) is a complex procedure requiring expertise in laparoscopic and choledochoscopic skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of treating biliary calculi through laparoscopic transcystic exploration of the CBD via an ultrathin choledochoscope combined with dual-frequency laser lithotripsy. Methods: From August 2011 through September 2014, 89 patients at our hospital were treated for cholecystolithiasis with biliary calculi. Patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and exploration of the CBD via the cystic duct and the choledochoscope instrument channel. A dual-band, dual-pulse laser lithotripsy system was used to destroy the calculi. Two intermittent laser emissions (intensity, 0.12 J; pulse width 1.2 μs; and pulse frequency, 10 Hz) were applied during each contact with the calculi. The stones were washed out by water injection or removed by a stone-retrieval basket. Results: Biliary calculi were removed in 1 treatment in all 89 patients. No biliary tract injury or bile leakage was observed. Follow-up examination with type-B ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography 3 months after surgery revealed no instances of retained-calculi–related biliary tract stenosis. Conclusion: The combined use of laparoscopic transcystic CBD exploration by ultrathin choledochoscopy and dual-frequency laser lithotripsy offers an accurate, convenient, safe, effective method of treating biliary calculi. PMID:27904308
Bergholm, Åsa; Östberg, Anna-Lena; Gabre, Pia
The aim of this study was to obtain an understanding of the factors that affected the way new technology and methods were used in dentistry after a training program. A qualitative research method was used to collect data. Nine dentists working in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in Uppsala County in Sweden agreed to be interviewed in the study. They worked in five different clinics, all with laser equipment, and had received training in the use of lasers. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed, and were analysed using manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The categories in this study were identified as "Prerequisites and obstacles to imple- mentation", "Attitudes to laser technology and treatments" and "Laser technology in the future'". The dentists described working with lasers as complicated and problematic. They had concerns about the method relating to the working environment, evidence of efficacy of treatment, costs, and benefits for patients and dentists. The main finding was that the decision to adopt the technology seemed to be based on individual perceptions of the value of lasers compared to other ways of achieving the same goal. They provided uniform proposals regarding how an organization should implement new methods, including an emphasis on the importance of preparation and having opportunities to be able to test and evaluate the technology. Another important factor was support from surrounding staff, colleagues and management. Despite all the barriers, the respondents were positive about working with lasers in the future, mainly due to their belief that patients would demand laser treatment. In conclusion both individual and organizational factors affected the extent to which the respondents used the laser. The main finding was the individual perception of the value of lasers compared to other methods which could achieve the same goal.
Weber, Lothar W.; Meier, Thomas H.
Medical laser treatment enlarged its application in recent years in an explosive way. By a given distance to the patient the laser surgeon can cut, coagulate, or evaporate human tissue in a very distinct manner. Due to the mainly thermal interaction of the laser light with the irradiated tissue it may be heated up to pyrolysis conditions. By pyrolysis of human tissue degradation products are generated, which may be harmful. Chemical substances and particles formed of tissue could be toxic, cancerogenic or irritant to skin and airways or after uptake. Special hazards of human laser plume in the health care environment may result from infectious viruses, bacterias, parasites, spread tumor cells and DNA fragments.
Evison, D; Brown, R F R; Rice, P
The chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard (SM), is a potent blistering agent in man. Skin exposure can produce partial-thickness burns which take up to three months to heal. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of early laser ablation as a means of accelerating this exceptionally slow rate of healing. Four circular partial-thickness SM burns were induced on the dorsum of nine large white pigs (under general anaesthesia). At 72 h post-exposure, three burns per animal were ablated with a single pass of an UltraPulse 5000C CO(2) laser, at a fluence of 5-6 J cm(-2). All the burns were dressed with silver sulphadiazine and a semi-occlusive dressing. At one, two and three weeks post-surgery three animals were culled and all lesions excised for histological analysis. Burn depth was confirmed and measurements of the radii of regenerative epithelium were performed allowing the area of the zone of re-epithelialisation in each lesion to be calculated. Laser-treated lesions showed a significant increase (350%) in healing rates compared to controls (p<0.005). At two weeks, the laser-treated sites were 95% healed in comparison with control sites (28% healed). These data suggest that laser ablation may be effective in the treatment of partial-thickness SM-induced skin injury.
Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Huang, Fei-Ran; Luo, Dan; Wang, Da-Guang
Tacrolimus is a conventional medication for the treatment of vitiligo, but the effect of a single medication is limited. This paper aims at observing the effects, adverse responses, and repigmentation results of the joint treatment of vitiligo by Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser together with tacrolimus. Forty-five patients with vitiligo were randomly divided into two groups: treatment (T) group and control (C) group, and each group was further divided into three subgroups (face, torso and limbs, and hand and foot) according to the location of the skin defect. Both groups used topical 0.1% tacrolimus cream, but the T group was given one CO 2 fractional laser treatment each month. We observed the clinical efficacy, adverse responses, and repigmentation results after 6 months. Compared to the C group, the T group showed better improvement in both objective and subjective assessments. When the treatment time was increased, the efficacy was also improved, and the repigmentation in the T group occured in three ways: perifollicular repigmentation, marginal repigmentation and diffuse repigmentation. There were three cases of isomorphic responses (2 cases in the rapid progression stage, one case in the progression stage), and 1 case formed scarring on the neck in the T group. The treatment of vitiligo by CO 2 fractional laser together with tacrolimus is significantly effective and is most suitable for patients in the progression stage. Patients in the rapid progression stage should use this approach with caution, and its efficacy was limited for patients in the stable stage. An extended course of treatment is helpful for the repigmentation of white patches. All three forms of repigmentation can occur in the joint treatment of vitiligo by CO 2 fractional laser together with tacrolimus. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Myers, Michael J.; Myers, Jeffrey A.; Roth, Franziska; Guo, Baoping; Hardy, Christopher R.; Myers, Sean; Carrabba, Angelo; Trywick, Carmen; Bryant, Stewart; Griswold, John Robert; Mazzochi, Aggie
We report on "eye-safe" erbium glass laser operating at Short-Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) region at 1534nm, to treat Onychomycosis or toenail fungus. Infected toenails of 12 patients were treated over a 3 month period using both long pulse and Q-switched laser output pulses. Our results compared favorably to Neodymium Yittrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser fungus treatment studies as reported in literature. Nd:YAG laser devices, operating in the Near Infra- Red, (NIR) region at 1064nm, have recently become an effective alternative treatment to traditional oral medications used to treat nail fungal infections. Conventional nail infection treatments employ medications such as allylamines, azoles and other classes of antifungal drugs that are unpopular due to numerous side-affects and drug interactions. Side effects of these drugs include headache, itching, loss of sense of taste, nausea, diarrhea, heart failure and even potential death from liver failure [1,2,3]. The effectiveness of conventional oral antifungal medications varies. In addition, antifungal prescription drugs are administered for long periods ranging from 6 weeks to 18 months. Nd:YAG antifungal laser treatment reports claim high success rates (65-95%) in eradicating toenail fungus and without adverse side-affects. Multiple laser treatments are administered over a 3 to 6 month period [4,5,6,7]. Our initial treatments performed with the Er:glass laser on toenail fungus patients required only 1 to 2 treatments for cure. This same SWIR laser was used in experiments to treat Athlete's Foot fungal infections. The 1534nm Er:glass laser emission has been found to be well optimized for dermatological treatments due high transmission properties of human skin in the SWIR region. Increased depth of tissue penetration is well
Cole, Grayson L; Lux, Cassie N; Schumacher, Juergen P; Seibert, Rachel L; Sadler, Ryan A; Henderson, Andrea L; Odoi, Agricola; Newkirk, Kim M
To evaluate effects of laser treatment on incisional wound healing in ball pythons (Python regius). 6 healthy adult ball pythons. Snakes were sedated, a skin biopsy specimen was collected for histologic examination, and eight 2-cm skin incisions were made in each snake; each incision was closed with staples (day 0). Gross evaluation of all incision sites was performed daily for 30 days, and a wound score was assigned. Four incisions of each snake were treated (5 J/cm(2) and a wavelength of 980 nm on a continuous wave sequence) by use of a class 4 laser once daily for 7 consecutive days; the other 4 incisions were not treated. Two excisional skin biopsy specimens (1 control and 1 treatment) were collected from each snake on days 2, 7, 14, and 30 and evaluated microscopically. Scores were assigned for total inflammation, degree of fibrosis, and collagen maturity. Generalized linear models were used to investigate the effect of treatment on each variable. Wound scores for laser-treated incisions were significantly better than scores for control incisions on day 2 but not at other time points. There were no significant differences in necrosis, fibroplasia, inflammation, granuloma formation, or bacterial contamination between control and treatment groups. Collagen maturity was significantly better for the laser-treated incisions on day 14. Laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in collagen maturity at day 14 but did not otherwise significantly improve healing of skin incisions.
Yu, Peng; Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Yu, Zhanjiang; Ren, Wanfei; Yu, Huadong
In this paper, a lot of micron-sized sand granular structures were formed on the substrate of the stainless steel mesh (SSM) by laser treatment. The rough surface with sand granular structures showed superhydrophilic in air and superoleophobic under water. With its special wettability, the SSM by laser treatment could achieve the separation of the oil/water mixture, showing good durability and high separation efficiency, which was very useful in the practical application of large-scale oil/water separation facility for reducing the impacts of oil leaked on the environment. In addition, it showed that the laser-treated SSM had a very high separation rate. The development of the laser-treated SSM is a simple, environmental, economical and high-efficiency method, which provides a new approach to the production of high efficiency facilities for oil/water separation.
Samal, S.; Heller, L.; Brajer, J.; Tyc, O.; Kadrevek, L.; Sittner, P.
Here the aim of this research is annealing the surface of NiTi wire for shape memory alloy, super-elastic wire by solid state laser beam. The laser surface treatment was carried out on the NiTi wire locally with fast, selective, surface heat treatment that enables precisely tune the localized material properties without any precipitation. Both as drawn (hard) and straight annealing NiTi wire were considered for laser annealing with input power 3 W, with precisely focusing the laser beam height 14.3 % of the Z-axis with a spot size of 1 mm. However, straight annealing wire is more interest due to its low temperature shape setting behavior and used by companies for stent materials. The variable parameter such as speed of the laser scanning and tensile stress on the NiTi wire were optimized to observe the effect of laser response on the sample. Superelastic, straight annealed NiTi wires (d: 0.10 mm) were held prestrained at the end of the superelastic plateau (ε: 5 ∼6.5 %) above the superelastic region by a tensile machine ( Mitter: miniature testing rig) at room temperature (RT). Simultaneously, the hardness of the wires along the cross-section was performed by nano-indentation (NI) method. The hardness of the NiTi wire corresponds to phase changes were correlated with NI test. The laser induced NiTi wire shows better fatigue performance with improved 6500 cycles.
Pees, Michael; Schmidt, V; Pees, K
Therapy of dermatitis in koi using a diode laser technique. A diode laser with a wavelength of 980 nm and an energy density of 9 J/cm(2) was used to treat defined skin alterations in ten koi carp. The clinical situation after repeated laser application was recorded. In addition, the diode laser was used for surgical removal of proliferative skin alterations caused by Dermocystidium sp. in two koi ponds. An improvement of the clinical situation following laser therapy was seen in nine of the ten koi carp. Complete healing of the wound area occurred in four carp. A pronounced healing process was observed in four patients and a low healing tendency in one fish. Healing of the skin lesions following removal of the alterations caused by Dermocystidium sp. was unproblematic in one pond, whereas in the other collection a repeated treatment was necessary due to relapse of the alterations. Diode laser therapy for treatment of dermatitis in koi is a promising technique. An expedited wound healing process was seen in wound areas that were present for long periods and resistant to previous therapy attempts, including antibiotics. Wound healing was undisturbed following surgical use of the laser technique for the removal of skin proliferations. Therefore, the diode laser technique can be recommended for the treatment of dermatitis in koi, especially in cases of unsuccessful treatment using anti-infective drugs, and for the treatment of Dermocystidium infections.
Radmanesh, Mohammed; Radmanesh, Ramin
The hypertrophic Port Wine Stain (PWS) is only partially and superficially treated with the Pulsed dye laser (PDL) because of its limited depth of penetration. We used combined PDL and fiberoptic 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser to treat a case with hypertrophic PWS. After tumescent anesthesia, few holes were made by a 16-gauge needle on different sides of the lesion. The fiberoptic tip of 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser was inserted within the holes and was pushed forward while triggering. In a fan pattern and by a back and forth movement, the subcutaneous and deep dermal areas were coagulated. The skin and outer mucosal surfaces were then treated by PDL. The fiberoptic system used was Accusculpt 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser (Lutronic lasers, South Korea), and the PDL used was 585 nm Nlite system (Chromogenex UK). The parameters used for PDL were fluence = 9 Joules/cm 2 and the spot size was 5 mm. The parameters used for fiberoptic 1444-nm Nd-YAG laser were: Pulse rate = 30 Hz, pulse energy = 300 mJ, power = 6 W, and the total energy = 4000 J for the whole face and mucosa. Little sign of regression and moderate purpura were detected immediately after combined fiberoptic Nd-YAG and PDL therapy. The lesion gradually regressed within 4 months with satisfactory color and volume change. Combined fiberoptic Nd-YAG laser and PDL can be used for the treatment of deeper and superficial layers of hypertrophic PWS.
Moubasher, Alaa E A; Youssef, Eman M K; Abou-Taleb, Doaa A E
Melasma is a common disorder of facial hyperpigmentation that is often resistant to treatment. To evaluate the efficacy of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peeling in comparison with double frequency Q-switched neodymium-doped:yttrium aluminum garnet (QS-Nd:YAG) laser in the treatment of melasma. Sixty-five adult Egyptian female patients with melasma were enrolled in this study. Wood light was used for determination of the histological type of melasma. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to treatment modalities: peeling with different concentrations of TCA and double frequency QS-Nd:YAG laser. Trichloroacetic acid peeling was performed every 2 weeks up to 8 sessions, whereas laser treatment was performed every month up to 6 sessions. Melasma area and severity index (MASI) score was used before and after treatment for evaluation. Improvement percentage of MASI score was significantly higher among patients treated with TCA 25% (p < .001). Epidermal type of melasma was significantly improved compared with the dermal type (p = .0029). Q-switched neodymium-doped:yttrium aluminum garnet laser showed the highest incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (53.3%). Trichloroacetic acid peeling is effective in the treatment of melasma, TCA 25% was the most effective concentration. Q-switched neodymium-doped:yttrium aluminum garnet laser is not recommended in the treatment of melasma because it was associated with the highest incidence of complications.
Hirogaki, Toshiki; Aoyama, Eiichi; Minagi, Ryu; Ogawa, Keiji; Katayama, Tsutao; Matsuoka, Takashi; Inoue, Hisahiro
We propose a new method for cleaning blind via holes after laser drilling of PWBs using oxygen plasma treatment. This report dealt with three kinds of PWB materials: epoxy resin and two kinds of aramid fiber reinforced plastics (AFRP: Technora or Kevlar fiber reinforcement). We observed the drilled holes after plasma treatment using both an optical and a scanning electric microscope (SEM). It was confirmed that adequate etching took place in the drilled holes by plasma treatment. We also compared the hole wall and hole bottom after plasma treatment with ones after chemical etching. It was clear that there was no damage to the aramid fiber tip on the hole wall, and that a smooth roughness of the hole wall was obtained by means of plasma treatment. As a result, we demonstrated that the plasma treatment is effective in cleaning the laser drilled holes of PWBs.
Lee, Yongsoo; Kim, Wooram
The application of laser treatments beginning on the day of stitch removal has been demonstrated to improve scar quality. However, there are few guidelines for the treatment of immature scars (ISs), which are defined as "scars whose features are not yet expressed." The purpose of this study was to extract information about early combination laser treatment (CLT) beyond what is currently known by analyzing 33 pairs of pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs of ISs. Two hundred fifty medical records of patients with scars were reviewed, and 33 scars were included in the study. The included scars were treated with vascular lasers (585 or 532 nm) followed by 1550-nm fractional lasers from May 2014 to July 2015 (fewer than 52 days after stitch removal, Fitzpatrick's skin types III-IV, mean age = 16.0 years). Blinded evaluators (one plastic surgeon and two dermatologists) evaluated the pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs. The pre-treatment photographs were scored on a spectrum from "0," when no difference with the surrounding unaffected skin was observed, to "100," when the worst scarring was present. The pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs were compared, and the results were graded on a spectrum from 0, when no difference between the pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs was observed, to 100, when no difference was observed between the post-treatment skin and the surrounding unaffected skin. Statistical analyses were performed with PASW 17.0, SPSS Korea, Seoul, Korea (p < 0.05). The improvement scores (ImS) and weighted scores (Wtd: i.e., weighted according to the pre-treatment scores) were used as dependent variables. The average improvement score was 87.98 (median = 90). Seventeen cases were scored as 100-point improvements. The facial and non-facial scars exhibited differences in the ImS and Wtd scores. The Wtd scores were negatively correlated with the temporal gap (in days) between stitch removal and the beginning of CLT. No
Chen, Y-T; Shih, P-Y; Chen, H-J; Chen, T-J
Axillary osmidrosis can lead to personal and social problems, particularly in Asian culture. Superficial liposuction with curettage and subcutaneous laser are surgical intervention commonly used for osmidrosis. Retrospectively, we compared the effectiveness and complications between superficial liposuction with curettage and subcutaneous laser in an Asian population. Totally, 66 and 19 patients receiving subcutaneous laser and superficial liposuction with curettage (LC) were recruited. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed by patients subjectively. Recurrence rate of osmidrosis and complications were also evaluated. 95% of patients showed good-to-excellent improvement in LC group and only 30% of patients showing good-to-excellent results in laser group (P < 0.01). Binary logistic regression revealed that the odds ratio of LC was 53.288 (P = 0.006) for >50% improvement in osmidrosis. The recurrence rate was not significantly different (P = 0.139), however, the duration to recurrence of osmidrosis was significantly longer in LC group (P < 0.01). The complication rate was 31% in LC group and 6% in laser group (P < 0.01). Superficial liposuction with curettage provides more effective treatment with higher complication rates and is possibly suitable for severe patients. For mild-to-moderate osmidrosis, or preferring a better cosmetic result or short recovery, subcutaneous laser could be applied. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Bakhshi, Mahin; Rahmani, Somayeh; Rahmani, Ali
The health and suitability of mouth components play an important role towards defining facial attractiveness. An important component of the oral cavity is the color of the gingival tissue. Gingival melanin hyperpigmentation is caused by several reasons and affects people across ethnicity, race, age, and both gender. Lasers are presently being used for gingival melanin depigmentation. In this article, we reviewed studies on laser parameters, duration of gingival healing, pain perception during and after the operation, scores used for the evaluation of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation, follow-up period, treatment results, and recurrence reports. We conclude that laser ablation for gingival depigmentation is one of the most pleasant, reliable, acceptable, and impressive techniques available for treating gingival melanin hyperpigmentation.
Kotsakis, Georgios A; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Karoussis, Ioannis K; Ma, Xiaoye; Chu, Haitao
The primary aim of this systematic review is to address the following focused question: Is laser therapy, as a monotherapy or as an adjunctive therapy, an efficacious treatment modality for patients with peri-implantitis? The PubMed database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were electronically searched, complemented by manual searches up to June 2013. The search yielded 137 titles and abstracts. After initial screening, 15 of 137 publications were scrutinized during the second phase of the review. In the second phase, nine articles were excluded from the analysis and six controlled, clinical studies were selected. Narrative synthesis of the results revealed that non-surgical laser treatment with a single application of either an erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) (2,940-nm) laser or a diode (660-nm) laser in combination with a phenothiazine chloride dye is efficient in controlling inflammation around treated implants for at least 6 months following intervention, whereas it has only a mild effect on reduction in probing depth (PD) and gain in clinical attachment level (CAL). There is limited information regarding the clinical application of the CO2 (10.6-µm) laser in the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis; however, its use may be promising. A meta-analysis could be performed only for the efficacy of Er:YAG laser due to the heterogeneity of the studies and the limited amount of data available. Meta-analysis did not reveal statistically significant evidence for treatment effects in reducing PD and CAL levels in comparison to controls. Based on the limited information currently available, any superiority of laser treatment in comparison to conventional treatment of peri-implantitis could not be identified. Considering the high heterogeneity and the low number of included studies, the authors cautiously conclude that non-surgical laser therapy may be investigated as phase I therapy for the
Bogdan Allemann, Inja; Kaufman, Joely
Since the construction of the first laser in the 1960s, the role that lasers play in various medical specialities, including dermatology, has steadily increased. However, within the last 2 decades, the technological advances and the use of lasers in the field of dermatology have virtually exploded. Many treatments have only become possible with the use of lasers. Especially in aesthetic medicine, lasers are an essential tool in the treatment armamentarium. Due to better research and understanding of the physics of light and skin, there is now a wide and increasing array of different lasers and devices to choose from. The proper laser selection for each indication and treatment requires a profound understanding of laser physics and the basic laser principles. Understanding these principles will allow the laser operator to obtain better results and help avoid complications. This chapter will give an in-depth overview of the physical principles relevant in cutaneous laser surgery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Rhee, Chung-Ku; He, Peijie; Jung, Jae Yun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Min Young; Suh, Myung-Whan
The primary cause of hearing loss includes damage to cochlear hair cells. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has become a popular treatment for damaged nervous systems. Based on the idea that cochlea hair cells and neural cells are from same developmental origin, the effect of LLLT on hearing loss in animal models is evaluated. Hearing loss animal models were established, and the animals were irradiated by 830-nm diode laser once a day for 10 days. Power density of the laser treatment was 900 mW/cm2, and the fluence was 162 to 194 J. The tympanic membrane was evaluated after LLLT. Thresholds of auditory brainstem responses were evaluated before treatment, after gentamicin, and after 10 days of LLLT. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations were done by counting remaining hair cells. Tympanic membranes were intact at the end of the experiment. No adverse tissue reaction was found. On SEM images, LLLT significantly increased the number of hair cells in middle and basal turns. Hearing was significantly improved by laser irradiation. After LLLT treatment, both the hearing threshold and hair-cell count significantly improved.
Fanjul Vélez, Félix; Luis Arce-Diego, José; del Barrio Fernández, Ángela; Borragán Torre, Alfonso
The importance of vocal cords for the interaction with the world around is obviously known. Vocal cords disorders can be divided mainly into three categories: difficulty of movement of one or both vocal folds, lesion formation on them, and difficulty or lack of mucosal wave movement. In this last case, a laser heating treatment can be useful in order to improve tissue vibration. However, thermal damage should be considered to adjust laser parameters and so to prevent irreversible harmful effects to the patient. in this work, an analysis of thermal damage in vocal folds is proposed. Firstly thermo-optical laser-tissue interaction is studied, by means of a RTT (Radiation Transfer Theory) model solved with a Monte Carlo approach for the optical propagation of radiation, and a bio-heat equation, with a finite difference numerical method based solution, taking into account blood perfusion and boundary effects, for the thermal distribution. The spatial-temporal temperature distributions are obtained for two widely used lasers, Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and KTP (532 nm). From these data, an Arrhenius thermal damage analysis allows a prediction of possible laser treatment harmful effects on vocal cords that could cause scar formation or tissue burn. Different source powers and exposition times are considered, in such a way that an approximation of adequate wavelength, power and duration is achieved, in order to implement an efficient and safe laser treatment.
Hussein, Haitham T.; Kadhim, Abdulhadi; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar
Influence of laser treatment on mechanical properties, wear resistance, and Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy was studied. The specimens were treated by using Nd:YaG laser of energy 780 mj, wavelength 512 nm, and duration time 8 ns. The wear behavior of the specimens was studied for all specimens before and after treatment by Nd:YaG laser and the dry wear experiments were carried out by sing pinon-disc technique. The specimens were machined as a disk with diameter of 25 mm and circular groove in depth of 3 mm. All specimens were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray florescence analysis (EDS), optical microscopy, and Vickers hardness. The results showed that the dry wear rate was decreased after laser hardening and increased Vickers hardness values by ratio of 2.4 : 1. The results showed that the values of wear rate for samples having circular grooves are less than samples without grooves after laser treatment. PMID:25136694
Fox, Sara A; Shanblatt, Ashley A; Beckman, Hugh; Strasswimmer, John; Terentis, Andrew C
The number of cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), which include squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), continues to rise as the aging population grows. Mohs micrographic surgery has become the treatment of choice in many cases but is not always necessary or feasible. Ablation with a high-powered CO2 laser offers the advantage of highly precise, hemostatic tissue removal. However, confirmation of complete cancer removal following ablation is difficult. In this study we tested for the first time the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy as an in situ diagnostic method to differentiate NMSC from normal tissue following partial ablation with a high-powered CO2 laser. Twenty-five tissue samples were obtained from eleven patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery to remove NMSC tumors. Laser treatment was performed with a SmartXide DOT Fractional CO2 Laser (DEKA Laser Technologies, Inc.) emitting a wavelength of 10.6 μm. Treatment levels ranged from 20 mJ to 1200 mJ total energy delivered per laser treatment spot (350 μm spot size). Raman spectra were collected from both untreated and CO2 laser-treated samples using a 785 nm diode laser. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Binary Logistic Regression (LR) were used to classify spectra as originating from either normal or NMSC tissue, and from treated or untreated tissue. Partial laser ablation did not adversely affect the ability of Raman spectroscopy to differentiate normal from cancerous residual tissue, with the spectral classification model correctly identifying SCC tissue with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity following partial laser ablation, compared with 92% sensitivity and 60% selectivity for untreated NMSC tissue. The main biochemical difference identified between normal and NMSC tissue was high levels of collagen in the normal tissue, which was lacking in the NMSC tissue. The feasibility of a combined high-powered CO2 laser ablation, Raman diagnostic procedure for the
Ledin, A. O.; Dobkin, V. G.; Sadov, A. Y.; Galichev, K. V.; Rzeutsky, V. S.
We counted expedient to include different methods of the soft-laser use in the preoperative medicinal program and in the postoperative period. During the preoperative preparation the basic group patients together with standard treatment received the combined soft-laser therapy, which included intravenous laser blood irradiation (ILBI) by He-Ve laser and external transcutaneous irradiation of the abscess projection by semi-conductorial arrenite-gallium laser. During postoperative treatment with ILBI remarkable changes were observed in the functional activity of the T- and B- cell. The soft-laser use allowed to achieve improvement of quality and shortening of terms of the preoperative preparation of 1,4 times, to level the immunosuppressive influence of surgery to reduce amount of the postoperative complications in 1,8 times and duration of the postoperative period in 1,5 times.
Barbosa Siqueira, Carolina; Spadini de Faria, Natália; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Colucci, Vivian; Alves Gomes, Erica
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laser irradiation on flexural strength, elastic modulus, and surface roughness and morphology of glass fiber posts (GFPs). Laser treatment of GFPs has been introduced to improve its adhesion properties. A total of 40 GFPs were divided into 4 groups according to the irradiation protocol: GC-no irradiation, GYAG-irradiation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Er:YAG], GCR-irradiation with erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG), and GDI-irradiation with diode laser. The GFP roughness and morphology were evaluated through laser confocal microscopy before and after surface treatment. Three-point bending flexural test measured flexural strength and elastic modulus. Data about elastic modulus and flexural strength were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test (p < 0.05). The effect of roughness was evaluated using the linear mixed effects model and Bonferroni test (p < 0.05). Laser treatment changed surface roughness in the groups GCR (p = 0.000) and GDI (p = 0.007). The mean flexural strength in GYAG (995.22 MPa) was similar to that in GC (980.48 MPa) (p = 1.000) but different from that in GCR (746.83 MPa) and that in GDI (691.34 MPa) (p = 0.000). No difference was found between the groups GCR and GDI (p = 0.86). For elastic modulus: GYAG (24.47 GPa) was similar to GC (25.92 GPa) (p = 1.000) but different from GCR (19.88 GPa) (p = 0.002) and GDI (17.20 GPa) (p = 0.000). The different types of lasers, especially Er,Cr:YSGG and 980 ηm diode, influenced the mechanical properties of GFPs.
Iatrakis, G; Peitsidou, A; Papandonopolos, L; Nikolopoulou, MK; Papadopoulos, L; Vladareanu, R
This is a prospective study to assess a complementary treatment for genital warts after laser vaporization. 62 patients were enrolled in two randomized groups: A1: laser vaporization alone. A2: laser vaporization, followed with Pidotimod plus vitamin C for 2 and 1/2 months. The latter treatment shortened the time of warts remission and marginally decreased the rate of the warts' recurrence: 81% versus 67% (N.S.). Despite the non–significant difference, this complementary treatment seems to have some efficiency. PMID:20945819
Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad S. E.
The authors have introduced laser phototherapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. Clinical trials have demonstrated its high efficacy compared to the conventionally used fluorescent phototherapy. In this paper a new modification to laser irradiation in phototherapy can be achieved by scanning the laser output beam in the selected wavelength of irradiation (488 nm) through a fiberoptic bundle which irradiate the skin of the baby. Scanning of the laser beam provides intermittent irradiation at high frequency, which can provide the same therapeutic efficacy with almost half the power of laser irradiation.
Pesevska, Snezana; Nakova, Marija; Ivanovski, Kiro; Angelov, Nikola; Kesic, Ljiljana; Obradovic, Radmila; Mindova, Sonja; Nares, Salvador
The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of low-level laser irradiation to traditional topical fluoride treatment for treatment choices of dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing. The experimental group (15 patients) was treated with low-energy-level diode laser at each site of dentinal hypersensitivity following scaling and root planning. The control group (15 patients) received topical fluoride treatment (protective varnish for desensitization). All the patients were treated at baseline visit, and then at day 2 and 4 after the initial treatment; the pain was subjectively assessed by the patients as strong, medium, medium low, low, or no pain. Total absence of the dental hypersensitivity was reported in 26.66% of the examined group even after the second visit, compared to the control group where complete resolution of the hypersensitivity was not present after the second visit in any of the treated cases. Complete absence of pain was achieved in 86.6% of patients treated with laser and only in 26.6% in the fluoride treated group, after the third visit. Based on our findings, we conclude that low-energy biostimulative laser treatment can be successfully used for treatment of dental hypersensitivity following scaling and root planing.
Prodromos, Chadwick C.; Finkle, Susan; Dawes, Alexander; Dizon, Angelo
INTRODUCTION: In our practice Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections effectively reduce pain in most but not all arthritic patients. However, for patients who fail PRP treatment, no good alternative currently exists except total joint replacement surgery. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the surface of the skin has not been helpful for arthritis patients in our experience. However, we hypothesized that intra-articular laser treatment would be an effective augmentation to PRP injection and would increase its efficacy in patients who had failed prior PRP injection alone. METHODS: We offered Intra-articular Low Level Laser Therapy (IAL) treatment in conjunction with repeat PRP injection to patients who had received no benefit from PRP injection alone at our center. They were the treatment group. They were not charged for PRP or IAL. They also served as a historical control group since they had all had failed PRP treatment alone. 28 patients (30 joints) accepted treatment after informed consent. 22 knees, 4 hips, 2 shoulder glenohumeral joints and 1 first carpo-metacarpal (1st CMC) joint were treated RESULTS: All patients were followed up at 1 month and no adverse events were seen from the treatment. At 6 months post treatment 46% of patients had good outcomes, and at 1 year 17% still showed improvement after treatment. 11 patients failed treatment and went on to joint replacement. DISCUSSION: A single treatment of IAL with PRP salvaged 46% of patients who had failed PRP treatment alone, allowing avoidance of surgery and good pain control.
Soares, Marília De Lima; Porciúncula, Geane Bandeira; Lucena, Mara Ilka Holanda Medeiros De; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino Monteiro; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Carvalho, Alessandra De Albuquerque Tavares
Lasers demonstrate excellent therapeutic action and are often employed in dentistry for the treatment of diverse clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser, and 2% neutral fluoride gel in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. Twenty-three patients were evaluated, involving a total of 48 quadrants with at least 1 tooth with dentinal hypersensitivity (89 teeth total). Pain intensity was recorded on a visual analog scale at the time of clinical examination (baseline), immediately after treatment, and 1 week posttreatment. Teeth were treated with 60 seconds of 2% neutral fluoride gel application or 60 seconds of laser treatment-Nd:YAG laser at a distance of 0.5 cm (unfocused; 1 W and 10 Hz for 60 seconds, perpendicular to the cervical surfaces) or GaAlAs laser in contact (40 mW; 4 J/cm²; spot: 0.028 cm²; 15 seconds per point on 4 points [mesial, medial, distal, and apical])-as well as sham treatments so that patients remained blind to their treatment group. All treatments provided adequate pain reduction immediately posttreatment, but laser treatments resulted in significantly greater reductions in pain intensity.
Favia, G; Tempesta, A; Limongelli, L; Suppressa, P; Sabbà, C; Maiorano, E
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is rare, and characterised by vascular dysplasia that leads to various symptoms including visceral arteriovenous malformations and mucocutaneous telangiectatic lesions. Our aim was to describe the clinical features and options for the treatment of multiple oral lesions, and to illustrate the efficacy of the diode laser in the treatment of early (<2mm) and advanced lesions (2mm or more). We report 24 patients with 1200 oral telangiectatic lesions, which were often associated with regular bleeding (from monthly to daily), superinfection, pain, and swelling, and treated with multiple sessions of laser according to the number and size of the lesions. Early lesions were treated with a single laser impulse in ultrapulsed mode, and advanced lesions with repeated laser impulses in pulsed mode (t-on 200ms/t-off 500ms), at a power of 8W. Early lesions healed completely after laser photocoagulation with no operative or postoperative complications, while advanced lesions improved with a remarkable reduction in size but more discomfort. Protective occlusal plates were sometimes used to reduce the incidence of new lesions caused by dental trauma. The treatment of oral telangiectatic lesions is still being debated, and it is important to improve quality of life for patients. Diode laser surgery could be an effective treatment for oral lesions in those with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kono, Takeyuki; Yabe, Haruna; Uno, Kosuke; Saito, Koichiro; Ogawa, Kaoru
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign epithelial tumor that exhibits a high frequency of recurrence. This study assesses the vocal function after laser treatment for RRP, particularly in relation to the frequency of surgery. Retrospective study. Thirty RRP patients who underwent laser surgery that controlled the tumor were included. Preoperative and postoperative Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain Scale, videostroboscopic findings, aerodynamic and acoustic parameters, and self-assessment questionnaires were measured and compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Subsequently, to evaluate the association between postoperative voice quality and the number of surgeries, the patients were divided into three groups (group 1: single surgery, group 2: 2-5 surgeries, group3: >6 surgeries), and comparative multidimensional vocal assessments were performed. The mean number of surgeries was 3.4 (range, 1-8). Although all patients exhibited poorer vocal function than the control group preoperatively, they showed improvement in postoperative subjective and objective parameters. However, four patients who underwent one surgery with relatively aggressive ablation exhibited vocal cord scarring and deteriorated objective parameters. All remaining patients showed voice quality that was on par with the control group. Subgroup analysis proved no association between post-therapeutic voice quality and the patient characteristics, including preoperative staging and the number of surgical treatments performed. RRP patients can achieve a close to normal voice with high satisfaction even after recurrent surgical treatment when ablation of a subepithelial lesion using sufficient laser energy is adequate. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:679-684, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Alegre-Sánchez, Adrián; Pérez-García, Bibiana; Boixeda, Pablo
Pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment of port-wine stains (PWSs) in children is a common procedure performed in most laser units. Pain assessment in our younger patients is a major concern, especially in those with extensive PWSs. The use of general anesthesia (GA) results in pain-free treatment, but its effects on the developing brain are far from totally understood. Thus we propose some tips that avoid the use of GA in most of our young patients, including the use of topical anesthetics and cooling systems, large laser spot size and high frequencies, early and frequent treatment with parents present, and the "introduction" and "pressure" techniques, among others. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.