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Sample records for alexithymia scale tas-20

  1. Alexithymia in parents and adolescent anorexic daughters: comparing the responses to TSIA and TAS-20 scales

    PubMed Central

    Balottin, Laura; Nacinovich, Renata; Bomba, Monica; Mannarini, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Background A growing body of literature has been focusing on individual alexithymia in anorexia nervosa, while there are only scarce and conflicting studies on alexithymia in the families of anorexic patients, despite the important role played by family dynamics in the development of the anorexic disorder, especially in adolescent patients. The aim of this study is to assess alexithymia in anorexic adolescent patients and in their parents using a multimethod measurement to gain more direct, in-depth knowledge of the problem. Methods Forty-six subjects, anorexic adolescent patients and their parents, underwent the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) along with the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA), which represents the first comprehensive clinically structured interview focused specifically on assessing alexithymia. The use of latent trait Rasch analysis allowed a comparison of the two instruments’ sensitivity and ability to detect the presence and intensity of alexithymic components in patients and parents. Results Significant discordance was found between the two measures. The clinical instrument allowed detection of a greater level of alexithymia compared with the self-report, in particular in our adult parent sample. Moreover, a significant alexithymic gap emerged within families, particularly within parental couples, with noticeably more alexithymic fathers compared with the mothers. Conclusion The TSIA clinical interview may be a more sensitive instrument in detecting alexithymia, minimizing parents’ negation tendency. Clinical questions have arisen on how useful it would be to give greater weight to family functioning (ie, alexithymic gap) in order to predict the possibility of establishing a therapeutic alliance, and thus the outcome of the anorexic adolescent. PMID:25336959

  2. Psychometric Properties of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in a Group of Italian Younger Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faraci, Palmira; Gori, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alexithymia is a personality construct that inhibits and interferes with normal affect regulating abilities. The purpose of our study was to assess psychometric properties of TAS-20 in younger adolescents. Methods Data were collected from 508 younger adolescents (48.8% male and 51.2% female) with a mean age of 12.56 years (DS=0.50, range: 12-13 years). We administered the following scales: 20-Item-Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Results The confirmatory factor analysis performed on the second random subsample showed reasonable goodness-of-fit for the oblique bi-factorial model: [chi]2 (32, n=254)=54.22; p=0.008; χ2/df=1.69; NNFI=0.92; CFI=0.95; SRMR=0.05; RMSEA=0.05; 90% confidence interval=0.027-0.078. Conclusion Based on the outcomes of our research we support the idea of evaluating adolescents for alexithymia. PMID:26508961

  3. Role of theory of mind in emotional awareness and alexithymia: Implications for conceptualization and measurement.

    PubMed

    Lane, Richard D; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Locke, Dona E C; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Stonnington, Cynthia M

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether alexithymia, which is characterized by difficulty in recognizing and describing emotions, is associated with impairments in the ability to mentally represent emotional states. We studied 89 outpatients including 29 conversion disorder patients, 30 functional somatic syndrome [e.g. fibromyalgia] patients and 30 medical controls. Groups did not differ on affective or cognitive Theory of Mind (ToM) measures, the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) or the Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) after adjusting for Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) variables. Across all patients, LEAS but not TAS-20 correlated positively with affective and cognitive ToM measures after adjusting for PANAS scores. Impairments in ToM functioning influence LEAS performance but not TAS-20 scores. These findings support the distinction between a milder "anomia" form of alexithymia associated with impaired emotion naming and a more severe "agnosia" form associated with impaired mental representation of emotion.

  4. Stability of alexithymia in late adolescence: results of a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Saikkonen, Suvi; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the stability of alexithymia in adolescents and the effects of parental factors and social support thereon. The sample comprised 315 late adolescents, of whom 259 were female and 56 male. At baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The follow-up period was 4 years (2008-2012). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for the assessment of alexithymia both at baseline and follow-up. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were used as measures at baseline. Regarding absolute stability, the changes in the TAS-20 total scores and two subscales (DIF and EOT) were statistically significant but the effect sizes for the changes were small (Cohen׳s d 0.21-0.24). The test-retest correlations for the TAS-20 total and subscale scores were high (ρ=0.50-0.64, P<0.001), indicating relative stability. While several parental and social support variables were associated with alexithymia at baseline, low social support from friends was the only to predict higher alexithymia at follow-up. Alexithymia is a stable personality trait also in late adolescence. Low social support from friends is related to alexithymia in young adulthood.

  5. Alexithymia in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goldberg, Jeremy; Bennett, Terry

    2008-11-01

    Given the recent findings regarding the association between alexithymia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the accumulating evidence for the presence of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) in relatives of individuals with ASD, we further explored the construct of alexithymia in parents of children with ASD as a potential part of the BAP. We hypothesized that (a) parents of children with ASD will demonstrate higher impairment in their emotion processing when compared to controls, and (b) high impairment in emotion processing in parents will be associated with severity of symptoms in children with ASD. Psychometric and diagnostic data were collected on 188 children with a diagnosis of ASD. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was completed by 439 parents of children with ASD and a control group of 45 parents of children with Prader Willi syndrome (PW). Results show that ASD parents score higher than controls on the TAS-20 total score. Within the ASD group, children of fathers with high alexithymia score higher on repetitive behaviour symptoms compared to children of fathers with low alexithymia. The alexithymia trait appears to be one of the many building blocks that make up the BAP. PMID:18473159

  6. Metacognition Beliefs and General Health in Predicting Alexithymia in Students

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Samaneh; Varandi, Shahryar Ranjbar; Hatami, Zohre; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the role of metacognition beliefs and general health in alexithymia in Iranian students. Methods: This descriptive and correlational study included 200 participants of high schools students, selected randomly from students of two cities (Sari and Dargaz), Iran. Metacognitive Strategies Questionnaire (MCQ-30); the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Farsi Version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were used for gathering the data. Using the Pearson’s correlation method and regression, the data were analyzed. Results: The findings indicated significant positive relationships between alexithymia and all subscales of general health. The highest correlation was between alexithymia and anxiety subscale (r=0.36, P<0.01). Also, there was a significant negative relationship between alexithymia and some metacognitive strategies. The highest significant negative relationship was seen between alexithymia and the sub-scale of risk uncontrollability (r=-0.359, P < 0.01). Based on the results of multiple regressions, three predictors explained 21% of the variance (R2=0. 21, F=7.238, P<0.01). It was found that anxiety subscale of General Health significantly predicted 13% of the variance of alexithymia (β=0.36, P<0.01) and risk uncontrollability subscale of Metacognition beliefs predicted about 8% of the variance of alexithymia (β=-0.028, P<0.01). Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that metacognition beliefs and general health had important role in predicting of alexithymia in students. PMID:26383206

  7. When parenting fails: alexithymia and attachment states of mind in mothers of female patients with eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Cecilia Serena; Cavanna, Donatella; Guiducci, Valentina; Bizzi, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years alexithymia and attachment theory have been recognized as two parallel research lines trying to improve the information on the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). However, no research has analyzed these constructs among patients’ families. In this study we compared alexithymia and attachment in mothers of patients with EDs and a control group. Further, we hypothesized that mothers of daughters with EDs with insecure and unresolved states of mind will reported high levels of alexithymia. Lastly, we explored the daughters’ evaluations of maternal alexithymia. Methods: 45 mothers of ED women and 48 mothers of healthy controls (N = 93) matched for age and socio-demographic variables were administered by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20) (S), while two sub-groups of “ED” mothers (n = 20) and “non-ED” ones (n = 22) were assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Moreover, the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS) was administered to the daughters for evaluating maternal alexithymia. Results: Regarding alexithymia, no differences were found between ED and non-ED mothers according to the TAS-20, while ED mothers showed more unresolved AAI classifications than non-ED mothers. No correlations were found between the TAS-20 and the AAI. Lastly, ED mothers were evaluated more alexithymic by their daughters with the OAS than those in the control group, and their alexithymic traits were significantly correlated with dismissing states of mind (idealization and lack of memory) in the AAIs. Discussion: Our results highlighted an interesting discrepancy among mothers with ED daughters between the low level of alexithymia provided by their self-reports and the high level of alexithymia observed by their daughters, although the OAS showed severe methodological limitations. Maternal attachment states of mind characterized by the lack of resolution of past losses could be connected to a confusing and incoherent

  8. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (p<0.04) with TAS-20 total score as well as the Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales. The lack of social support from friends appeared to predict alexithymia more strongly than lack of support from family and significant other people. Against our hypothesis, maternal and paternal care was not directly associated with alexithymic features. This study highlights the significance of intrusive and overprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia. PMID:21185086

  9. Does perceived social support and parental attitude relate to alexithymia? A study in Finnish late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti; Hautala, Lea; Kaleva, Olli; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of perceived social support and parental attitude with alexithymia in a Finnish adolescent population sample. Of the initial sample of 935 adolescents, 729 (78%) answered the questionnaire and formed the final sample. The mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for assessment of alexithymia. Perceived social support from family, friends, and significant other people was measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Perceived parental care and overprotection were assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and separately for mother and father. After controlling for the sociodemographic factors, alexithymia was significantly associated with a lower degree of experienced social support and higher parental overprotection both in females and males. Maternal overprotection was associated (p<0.04) with TAS-20 total score as well as the Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales. The lack of social support from friends appeared to predict alexithymia more strongly than lack of support from family and significant other people. Against our hypothesis, maternal and paternal care was not directly associated with alexithymic features. This study highlights the significance of intrusive and overprotective parental attitudes as a possible risk factor for development of alexithymia. However, to assess causality, we need longitudinal studies. The results also emphasize the need for further studies to establish the significance of peer relationships in the development of alexithymia.

  10. Relationships between the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia and dependency in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Loas, G; Otmani, O; Lecercle, C; Jouvent, R

    2000-09-25

    Several authors have shown that alexithymia, emotional and perceptual dependency characterize patients suffering from substance abuse. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia are associated with dependency in alcoholics. Three groups were investigated: 60 inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence, 57 healthy subjects, 144 university students. All subjects completed the following rating scales: The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT). Partial correlations, using the BDI score as constant, were calculated. In normal subjects, the 'Emotion' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale of the IDI and the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 did not correlate with the EFT score. In alcoholics, the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale, with the EFT score and with the 'Affirmation of autonomy' subscale. A particular cognitive style characterized by externally oriented thinking, affirmation of autonomy as denial of emotional dependency and field dependence could characterize alcoholics.

  11. A longitudinal mediational study on the stability of alexithymia among alcohol-dependent outpatients in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Thorberg, Fred Arne; Young, Ross McD; Sullivan, Karen A; Lyvers, Michael; Hurst, Cameron P; Connor, Jason P; Tyssen, Reidar; London, Edythe D; Noble, Ernest P; Feeney, Gerald F X

    2016-02-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and an externally oriented thinking style. Alexithymia has been described as a trait-like risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders. Few studies have investigated the absolute (whether mean scores change over time) and relative (extent to which relative differences among individuals remain the same over time) stability of alexithymia among men and women with alcohol dependence, or have considered potential underlying mechanisms. Social learning processes contribute to and maintain alcohol problems. The reinforcement of alcohol expectancies is one plausible mechanism that links the difficulties in emotional processing associated with alexithymia and alcohol use. The present study investigated the stability of alexithymia as well as alcohol expectancy as a mediator of alexithymia. Three hundred fifty-five alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled in a cognitive behavioral treatment program. Ninety-two alcohol-dependent patients completed assessments at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results indicated that total Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby, Parker, & Taylor, 1994) mean score, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings decreased significantly over time with a larger decrease in alexithymia mean scores for females. Externally oriented thinking mean scores did not change. The TAS-20 and its subfactors demonstrated significant correlations, from baseline to follow-up, which were stronger for males than for females. Regression analyses showed that the total TAS-20 mean scores, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings were partially mediated through assertion alcohol expectancies. In conclusion, this suggests that alexithymia has relative stability and is a trait-like factor among alcohol-dependent treatment seekers. PMID:26795394

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC). PMID:26444844

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC).

  14. Dental fear and alexithymia among adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Vesa; Mattila, Aino K; Joukamaa, Matti; Lahti, Satu

    2011-07-01

    population sample, controlling for age, gender, education and marital status as well as depressive and anxiety disorders. An additional aim was to evaluate whether gender modified this association. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The two-stage stratified cluster sample (n = 8028) represented the Finnish population aged 30 years and older. Participants (n = 5241) answered the question 'How afraid are you of visiting a dentist?' They also filled out the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), which included three sub-scales, i.e. difficulties in identifying feelings (DIF), difficulties in describing feelings (DDF) and externally oriented thinking (EOT). Anxiety and depressive disorders were assessed with a standardized structured psychiatric interview according to DSM-IV criteria. To evaluate the association between dental fear and alexithymia, multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, adjusting simultaneously for the effects of possible confounding variables. RESULTS. Gender modified the association between dental fear and alexithymia. Among women, those reporting higher scores for TAS-20, DIF and EOT sub-scale scores were more likely to have high dental fear than were those reporting lower scores. Among men no such association was observed. Those participants who reported high DDF sub-scale scores were more likely to have high dental fear than were those reporting lower scores. CONCLUSIONS. Alexithymics are more likely to have high dental fear than non-alexithymics are. The findings support the suggestion that some people with dental fear may have internal personality vulnerability to anxiety disorders. PMID:21294672

  15. Disordered eating attitudes, alexithymia and suicide probability among Turkish high school girls.

    PubMed

    Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Soylu, Nusret; Avci, Kadriye; Coşkun, Kerem Şenol; Kocak, Uğur; Taş, Hanife Uzel

    2015-03-30

    We aimed to examine association between disordered eating attitudes (DEAs), alexithymia and suicide probability among adolescent females and to explore potential link between alexithymia and suicide probability in subjects with DEAs. 381 female students completed Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS). It was found that 13.2% (n=52) of the subjects have DEAs. Results indicated that total TAS-20 score and scores of Difficulty in Identifying Feelings (DIF) and Difficulty in Describing Feelings (DDF) subscales were significantly higher in DEAs group than in those non DEAs group (p<0.05). Additionally, total SPS score (p<0.001), Hopelessness (p=0.001), Suicide Ideation (p<0.001) and Hostility (p=0.003) subscales scores of SPS were significantly higher in the alexithymic DEAs than the non-alexithymic DEAs group. In order to control potential effect of depression, SPS subscales were used as covariate factors in ANCOVA. Negative Self-Evaluation subscale yielded a statistically significant difference between groups, other subscales did not. Results point out these; DEAs are relatively frequent phenomenon among female students in Turkey and presence of alexithymia was associated with an increased suicide probability in adolescents with DEAs. The results should be evaluated taking into account that depressive symptomatology was not assessed using a depression scale.

  16. Traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and posttraumatic symptomatology: a cross-sectional population-based study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Eichhorn, Svenja; Brähler, Elmar; Franz, Matthias; Friedrich, Michael; Glaesmer, Heide

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have established an association between number of traumatic experiences and alexithymia. The present study examines this relationship in a large-scale representative sample of the German general population (N=2,507) and explores the potential mediating effects of posttraumatic symptomatology, particularly avoidance/numbing. Methods Alexithymia was assessed with the German version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Posttraumatic symptomatology was operationalized by the symptom score of the modified German version of the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale, and traumatic experiences were assessed with the trauma list of the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Two mediation analyses were conducted. Results Of the total sample, 24.2% (n=606) reported at least one traumatic experience, 10.6% (n=258) were classified as alexithymic, and 2.4% (n=59) fulfilled the criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants who had survived five or more traumatic experiences had significantly higher alexithymia sum scores. The PTSD symptom cluster avoidance/numbing mediated the association between the number of traumatic experiences and alexithymia. Conclusions Our findings illustrate an association between number of traumatic experiences and alexithymia and the influence of emotional avoidance and numbing within this relationship. The significant relationship between alexithymia and number of traumatic experiences in a general population sample further supports the concept of multiple and complex traumatization as associated with alexithymia. The results suggest the importance of further investigations determining the causal impact of alexithymia both as a potential premorbid trait and as consequence of traumatization. Lastly, future investigations are needed to clarify alexithymia as a distinct trauma-relevant characteristic for better diagnostics and specialized trauma-integrative therapy. PMID:25206956

  17. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and a negative affectivity scale (NAS). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted using IEI variables as the dependent variables. Results The TMAS and MCSDS scores were independently associated with the IEI variables, but there was no evidence of a role of the repressive coping construct. While the total alexithymia score was unrelated to IEI, the TAS-20 subscale of difficulties identifying feelings (DIF) was independently associated with symptoms attributed to IEI. Negative affectivity was a strong independent predictor of the IEI variables and a mediator of the association between DIF and IEI. Conclusion Our results provide no evidence for a role of repressive coping in IEI, and our hypothesis of an association with alexithymia was only partly supported. In contrast, strong associations between IEI and negative emotional reactions, defensiveness and difficulties identifying feelings were found, suggesting a need for exploring the influence of these emotional reactions in IEI. PMID:21432559

  18. Alexithymia, a compounding factor for eating and social avoidance symptoms in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Courty, Annaig; Godart, Nathalie; Lalanne, Christophe; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Socio-affective difficulties, in particular difficulties in representing, communicating and feeling emotions, may play a critical role in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore the links between alexithymia and two types of difficulties in AN: eating symptoms and social avoidance. Sixty adolescent girls with AN were recruited following hospitalisation in a specialised department. They completed self-administered questionnaires of alexithymia (TAS-20), of central symptoms of the eating disorders (EDI), and of anxious and depressive affects (SCL-90). Anxiety and social avoidance were assessed in the course of a standardised interview (LSAS). These measures were performed at inclusion, and at 6-, 12- and 18-months' follow-up. The relationship between TAS-20 and EDI or LSAS total scale scores across the four time points was assessed using mixed-effects models, including anxiety, depression, BMI, anorexia subtype, and age as co-factors. Partial least square regression was used to refine this multivariate analysis at subscale level, at inclusion and 18 months. Robust associations between TAS-20 and EDI scores were found, independently from anxious and depressive scores, nutritional state and AN subtype. These effects appeared more particularly linked to the implication of the dimensions difficulties identifying and describing feelings, interpersonal mistrust, feelings of inadequacy and interoceptive awareness deficit. There was also a durable association between alexithymia and social anxiety and avoidance, after adjusting for the confounding effects of depression, and anxiety, and the state of starvation. Difficulties in describing feelings appeared particularly involved here. Thus alexithymia does appear as a factor in the persistence of disorders in AN, and difficulties identifying and describing feelings could compound the social difficulties and major the relational isolation of these patients. PMID:25443977

  19. The association of interoceptive awareness and alexithymia with neurotransmitter concentrations in insula and anterior cingulate.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Jutta; Böker, Heinz; Hättenschwiler, Joe; Schüpbach, Daniel; Northoff, Georg; Seifritz, Erich; Grimm, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Alexithymia and increased interoceptive awareness have been associated with affective disorders as well as with altered insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated an association between neurotransmitter function and affective disorders as well as personality traits. Here, we first examined the relationship between alexithymic facets as assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and interoceptive awareness (assessed with the Body Perception Questionnaire) in 18 healthy subjects. Second, we investigated their association with glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the left insula and the ACC using 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Behaviorally, we found a close association between alexithymia and interoceptive awareness. Furthermore, glutamate levels in the left insula were positively associated with both alexithymia and awareness of autonomic nervous system reactivity, while GABA concentrations in ACC were selectively associated with alexithymia. Although preliminary, our results suggest that increased glutamate-mediated excitatory transmission-related to enhanced insula activity-reflects increased interoceptive awareness in alexithymia. Suppression of the unspecific emotional arousal evoked by increased awareness of bodily responses in alexithymics might thus be reflected in decreased neuronal activity mediated by increased GABA concentration in ACC. PMID:23596189

  20. The role of alexithymia in the development of functional motor symptoms (conversion disorder)

    PubMed Central

    Demartini, Benedetta; Petrochilos, Panayiota; Ricciardi, Lucia; Price, Gary; Edwards, Mark J; Joyce, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms leading to the development of functional motor symptoms (FMS) are of pathophysiological and clinical relevance, yet are poorly understood. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether impaired emotional processing at the cognitive level (alexithymia) is present in patients affected by FMS. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of patients with FMS and in two control groups (patients with organic movement disorders (OMD) and healthy volunteers). Methods 55 patients with FMS, 33 patients affected by OMD and 34 healthy volunteers were recruited. The assessment included the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test and the Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders. Results Alexithymia was present in 34.5% of patients with FMS, 9.1% with OMD and 5.9% of the healthy volunteers, which was significantly higher in the FMS group (χ2 (2)=14.129, p<0.001), even after controlling for the severity of symptoms of depression. Group differences in mean scores were observed on both the difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings dimensions of the TAS-20, whereas the externally orientated thinking subscale score was similar across the three groups. Regarding personality disorder, χ2 analysis showed a significantly higher prominence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the FMS group (χ2 (2)=16.217, p<0.001) and 71.4% of those with OCPD also reached threshold criteria for alexithymia. Conclusions Because alexithymia is a mental state denoting the inability to identify emotions at a cognitive level, one hypothesis is that some patients misattribute autonomic symptoms of anxiety, for example, tremor, paraesthesiae, paralysis, to that of a physical illness. Further work is required to understand the contribution of OCPD to the development of FMS. PMID:24610939

  1. Alexithymia Associated with Nightmare Distress in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Isabelle; Montplaisir, Jaques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is characterized by atypical REM sleep motor activity, vivid dreams and nightmares, and dream-enacting behaviors that can result in injuries to the patient and bed partner. It is also a known predictor of Parkinson disease (PD). Alexithymia has been associated with disturbances in sleep and dreaming (e.g., nightmares) and is a non-motor symptom of PD. We assessed alexithymia and disturbed dreaming in iRBD patients with the aim of determining if these two factors are elevated and interrelated among this population. Design: Questionnaire study of clinically diagnosed patients. Setting: Clinical sleep disorders center. Patients or participants: Thirty-two iRBD patients and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched control participants. Measurements and Results: Participants completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Dream Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. iRBD patients obtained higher TAS-20 total scores (62.16 ± 13.90) than did controls (52.84 ± 7.62; F1,59 = 10.44, P < 0.01), even when controlling for depressive symptoms, and more frequently attained the suggested cutoff for alexithymia than did controls (P < 0.01). iRBD patients obtained higher scores on the Difficulty Identifying Feelings alexithymia subscale. For both iRBD and control groups, the Difficulty Indentifying Feelings subscale correlated positively with the Nightmare Distress scale of the Dream Questionnaire. Conclusions: Elevated alexithymia scores among idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and especially a difficulty in identifying feelings, parallels evidence of dysautonomia in this population. The higher incidence of distressing nightmares and the association of nightmares with alexithymia further extend similar findings for both clinical and non-clinical samples and suggest that an affect regulation disturbance may be common to the two sets of symptoms. Citation: Godin I

  2. Metacognition and Body Image in Predicting Alexithymia in Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Samaneh; Gharechahi, Maryam; Hatami, Zohreh; Ranjbar Varandi, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance dependency is one of the biggest problems and worries of the world. It stunts the growth of society and causes various problems such as reduction in public health, increase in mortality, rise in social and domestic traumas, loss of educational and occupational opportunities, involvement with the judicial system, and development of the substance-abuse cycle. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the role of metacognition and body image in predicting alexithymia in substance abusers. Patients and Methods: The research sample included addicts (males and females aged 10 to 70 years) who referred to the addiction treatment and counseling centers of three Iranian cities of Zahedan, Sari, and Neyriz. Participants were selected by random sampling. The metacognitive strategy questionnaire (MCQ-30), physical self-description questionnaire (PSDQ), and Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS-20) were used for data collection. The hypotheses were tested using the Pearson’s correlation method and regression analysis. Results: According to the results of the current study, the highest correlation was between alexithymia and the cognitive awareness subscale (r = 0.305; P < 0.01).There was no significant correlation between alexithymia and body image. Based on the multiple regression analysis, the three predictors explained 11% of the variance (R2 = 0. 11, F = 3.981; P < 0.01). Cognitive awareness significantly predicted 9% of the variance (β = 0.305; P < 0.01), and the other subscales predicted about 2%. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that metacognition had an important role in predicting alexithymia in the substance abusers, which underscores the necessity of precautionary measures. PMID:26495262

  3. Art Therapy and Alexithymia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Marilyn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated effect of alexithymia upon person's art production. Administered Toronto Alexithymia Scale and 100-mm analog scales for depression and anxiety to 100 psychiatric patients. Each subject drew and identified his/her illness. All subjects, even those quantified as alexithymic, were able to graphically communicate their illness using these…

  4. Subtypes of French pathological gamblers: comparison of sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression scores.

    PubMed

    Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2009-12-01

    Recent data suggest the importance of identifying subtypes of pathological gamblers. This research studies sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression among a general population of French gamblers who play different types of game. Those games include games available in cafés (two cafés located in Paris suburb) like lottery, scratch-cards, etc., horse betting at the racetrack (five racetracks closest to Paris), slot machines and traditional games (roulette and card games) at the casino of Enghien-les-Bains (casino nearest to Paris). Sensation seeking was measured with the SSS form V, alexithymia with the TAS-20, and depression with the BDI-13. Pathological racetrack gamblers (42 males; mean age 29.1 years), who play active games involving skills, have the highest sensation seeking scores and are the most prone to alexithymia. Pathological gamblers playing the slot machines (12 males; 15 females; mean age 35.7 years) and games available in cafés (57 males; mean age 32.6 years), thus playing passive games that involve chance only, have low sensation seeking scores. Slot machines gamblers display alexithymia and have the highest depression scores. Pathological gamblers playing traditional games (15 males; mean age 37.8 years), games that involve strategy, do not perform well on any of these scales. These findings are consistent with the idea that clinically distinct subgroups of pathological gamblers can be identified. People displaying typical features could be attracted by specific games.

  5. Relationships among alexithymia and pain intensity, pain interference, and vitality in persons with neuromuscular disease: Considering the effect of negative affectivity.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Masako; Molton, Ivan R; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Amtmann, Silvia; O'Brien, Sarah; Arimura, Tatsuyuki; Kubo, Chiharu

    2010-05-01

    Alexithymia, the inability to identify or label emotions, has been shown to be associated with pain in patients with a number of chronic pain conditions. We sought to: (1) replicate this association in samples of persons with chronic pain secondary to neuromuscular disease, (2) extend this finding to other important pain-related measures, and (3) to determine whether relationships among alexithymia and study variables existed after controlling for negative affect. One hundred and twenty-nine individuals with muscular dystrophy and chronic pain were administered measures of alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20), pain intensity (0-10 NRS), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory Interference scale), mental health (SF-36 Mental Health scale; as a proxy measure of negative affect) and vitality (SF-36 Vitality scale). Higher TAS scores were associated significantly with higher pain intensity and interference, and less vitality. Although the strengths of these associations were reduced when mental health was used as a control, the associations between the Difficulty Identifying Feelings scale and vitality, and the Externally Oriented Thinking and Total TAS scales and pain intensity remained statistically significant. The findings replicate and extend previous findings concerning the associations between alexithymia and important pain-related variables in a sample of persons with chronic pain and neuromuscular disease. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which the associations are due to (1) a possible causal effect of alexithymia on patient functioning that is mediated via its effects on negative affect or (2) the possibility that alexithymia/outcome relationships reflect response bias caused by general negative affectivity.

  6. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ALEXITHYMIA AND PAIN INTENSITY, PAIN INTERFERENCE, AND VITALITY IN PERSONS WITH NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASE: CONSIDERING THE EFFECT OF NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, Masako; Molton, Ivan R.; Jensen, Mark P.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Amtmann, Silvia; O’Brien, Sarah; Arimura, Tatsuyuki; Kubo, Chiharu

    2010-01-01

    Alexithymia, the inability to identify or label emotions, has been shown to be associated with pain in patients with a number of chronic pain conditions. We sought to: (1) replicate this association in samples of persons with chronic pain secondary to neuromuscular disease; (2) extend this finding to other important pain-related measures, and (3) to determine whether relationships among alexithymia and study variables existed after controlling for negative affect. One hundred and twenty-nine individuals with muscular dystrophy and chronic pain were administered measures of alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20), pain intensity (0–10 NRS), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory Interference scale), mental health (SF-36 Mental Health scale; as a proxy measure of negative affect) and vitality (SF-36 Vitality scale). Higher TAS scores were associated significantly with higher pain intensity and interference, and less vitality. Although the strengths of these associations were reduced when mental health was used as a control, the associations between the Difficulty Identifying Feelings scale and vitality, and the Externally Oriented Thinking and Total TAS scales and pain intensity remained statistically significant. The findings replicate and extend previous findings concerning the associations between alexithymia and important pain-related variables in a sample of persons with chronic pain and neuromuscular disease. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which the associations are due to (1) a possible causal effect of alexithymia on patient functioning that is mediated via its effects on negative affect or (2) the possibility that alexithymia/outcome relationships reflect response bias caused by general negative affectivity. PMID:20207082

  7. Association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Polymorphism and Alexithymia in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Min Jung; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Lee, Su Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Alexithymia, defined as a deficit in the ability to recognize and describe one's own feelings, may be related to the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Materials and Methods We recruited 244 patients with OCD (169 males, 75 females). Alexithymia was assessed using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and genotyping of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism was evaluated. Results Patients with the COMT Val/Val genotype had significantly higher total and "difficulty identifying feelings" (DIF) subdimension scores than those with the Val/Met or Met/Met genotypes. Patients with the COMT Val/Val genotype had significantly higher "difficulty describing feelings" (DDF) subdimension scores than those with the COMT Val/Met genotype. However, there were no differences in the scores for the "externally oriented thinking" (EOT) subdimension among the three genotypes. Conclusion These results indicate that the high-activity Val allele of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with increased alexithymic traits in patients with OCD. The present finding suggests that alexithymia is an endophenotype of OCD that is mediated by the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. PMID:26996573

  8. VALIDATION STUDY OF THE TORONTO ALEXITHYMIA SCALE (TAS-26) IN CROATIAN POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Lovko, Sandra Kocijan; Gelo, Josipa; Karlović, Dalibor

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Croatian translation of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26). For this purpose, 194 volunteers from the general population, both genders, aged between 18 and 60, were tested on this scale after it had undergone a repeated back-translation procedure by an independent bilingual translator. The mean total score on TAS-26 (mean ± SD) was 72.9±8.4. Cronbach's α-coefficient for the entire scale was 0.71, indicating the scale to be sufficiently reliable. When analyzing the α-coefficient of reliability for the entire scale, it was found that upon removal of one of the factors, only 3 factors ('I have physical sensations that even doctors don't understand'; 'When I'm upset, I don't know if I'm sad, frightened, or angry'; and 'I have feelings that I can't quite identify') would determine the α-coefficient of the entire scale amounting to less than 0.67, which would indicate insufficient reliability of the scale. The aforementioned factors belong to the group of F1 facet factors, the facet around which most items are grouped (n=12) and therefore the scale would be reliable enough even without the three factors. The results of factor analysis in our study confirmed the four-factor structure wherein most items are saturated by the first factor (n=12), and it denotes the alexithymia facet F1 (difficulty identifying feelings). Five items are saturated by the second factor and it denotes the alexithymia facet F2 (difficulty describing feelings), and the third factor which denotes facet F3 (reduced daydreaming) also saturated five items, whereas the fourth factor which denotes facet F4 (externally oriented thinking) saturated four items. The four listed facets explain 47.2% of variance wherein the highest percentage (20.1%) is attributed to facet F1, with facet F2 accounting for 12.1%, facet F3 for 7.5%, and facet F4 for 6.6% of variance. PMID:26666095

  9. Alexithymia and aging: a neuropsychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Onor, Marialuisa; Trevisiol, Marianna; Spano, Mariangela; Aguglia, Eugenio; Paradiso, Sergio

    2010-12-01

    Consistent with the emotional changes associated with later life, higher alexithymia scores are widely reported in older adults, but their significance has not been fully examined. We posited that association between alexithymia and poorer neurocognition would support the deficit nature of alexithymia in later life. Widely used neurocognitive tests assessing the relative integrity of the left and right hemisphere functions were used to examine the extent to which alexithymia of older age is associated with poor left or right hemisphere functioning. Healthy community-dwelling volunteers (20 young and 20 elderly subjects) were studied with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Neurocognitive competence was assessed using a neuropsychological battery measuring attention, language, memory, visuospatial abilities, and executive functions. Neurocognitive abilities were strongly age-related and indirectly correlated with alexithymia. Alexithymia total score appeared to be uniquely predicted by Raven Matrices and Rey's Figure Recall. These results support the deficit hypothesis alexithymia of older age. PMID:21135641

  10. Alexithymia and fertility-related stress.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Griva, Faie; Vaslamatzis, Grigorios

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the relationship between alexithymia, the inability to identify and describe feelings and the absence of fantasies, and fertility-related distress is a relatively neglected area of research. The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the prevalence of alexithymia in a sample of infertile women, and (2) the association between alexithymia, coping strategies, and fertility-related stress. This study included 160 infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization in a public fertility clinic from September of 2013 to December of 2013. Self-report instruments were used to measure alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), coping (COPE), and fertility-related stress (Fertility Problem Inventory). Bivariate and multiple linear regression were used. A high alexithymia score was positively associated with age, infertility duration, and low educational and economic level. Multivariate analyses showed that, controlling for demographic factors, high avoidance coping, low problem-appraisal coping, and high alexithymia were positively associated with fertility-related stress (β = 0.309, p < .001, β = -0.203, p = .006, β = 0.151, p = .050, respectively). Results of this study indicated that alexithymia during fertility treatment was associated with maladaptive coping strategies and psychological stress. In addition, the association between alexithymia and duration of infertility may be interpreted as secondary alexithymia acts as a coping strategy in infertile women. PMID:26361792

  11. Alexithymia components in excessive internet users: a multi-factorial analysis.

    PubMed

    Kandri, Theodora A; Bonotis, Konstantinos S; Floros, Georgios D; Zafiropoulou, Maria M

    2014-12-15

    The increasing use of computers and the internet - especially among young people - apart from its positive effects, sometimes leads to excessive and pathological use. The present study examined the relationship among the excessive use of the internet by university students, the alexithymia components and sociodemographic factors associated with internet users and their online activities. 515 university students from the University of Thessaly participated in the study. Participants anonymously completed: a) the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), b) the Toronto Alexithymia Test (TAS 20) and c) a questionnaire covering various aspects of internet use and demographic characteristics of internet users. Excessive use of the internet among Greek university students was studied within a multi-factorial context and was associated with the alexithymia and demographic factors in nonlinear correlations, forming thus a personalized emotional and demographic profile of the excessive internet users.

  12. Neurocognitive correlates of alexithymia in asymptomatic individuals with HIV.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Yelena; Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2010-04-01

    Alexithymia, an impairment of affective and cognitive emotional processing, is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and may reflect effects of the virus on brain areas that are also important for multiple cognitive functions, such as the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. We hypothesized that there would be a correlation between extent of alexithymia and cognitive performance associated with these brain areas, including attention, executive function, and visuospatial processing. Thirty-four asymptomatic HIV+ participants and 34 matched healthy HIV- volunteers were administered the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, a series of neuropsychological tests, and measures of apathy, depression, and quality of life (QoL). The HIV+ participants had significantly higher levels of alexithymia, depression and apathy than the HIV- group. The extent of alexithymia and two of its processing components (Difficulty Describing Feelings [DDF] and Externally Oriented Thinking), but not depression, correlated with performance on measures of executive and visuospatial abilities, consistent with dysfunction of the frontostriatal circuits and their cortical projections. Apathy was related to alexithymia and two processing components (Difficulty Identifying Feelings and DDF) but to only one cognitive measure. The higher rate of alexithymia, as well as cognitive dysfunction, in HIV may be a consequence of the infection on the frontostriatal system and its cortical connections. Our findings also demonstrated a dissociation of apathy and alexithymia in HIV, pointing to overlapping but distinct neural substrates within frontostriatal circuits. Alexithymia correlated strongly with QoL ratings, underscoring the importance of assessment and treatment of HIV-associated emotional and cognitive processing deficits.

  13. Alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2015-08-01

    Psychological factors have an impact on subjective pain experience. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a sample of 271 first visit chronic pain patients of six pain clinics. The patients completed the study questionnaire consisting of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Finnish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and pain variables. Alexithymic patients scored higher on Early Maladaptive Schemas and had more pain intensity, pain disability and depression than nonalexithymic patients. Both alexithymia and depression correlated significantly with most Early Maladaptive Schemas. The co-occurrence of alexithymia, Early Maladaptive Schemas and depression seems to worsen the pain experience. Screening of alexithymia, depression and Early Maladaptive Schemas may help to plan psychological treatment interventions for chronic pain patients. PMID:26040835

  14. [Alexithymia and automatic activation of emotional-evaluative information].

    PubMed

    Suslow, T; Arolt, V; Junghanns, K

    1998-05-01

    The emotional valence of stimuli seems to be stored in the associative network and is automatically activated on the mere observation of a stimulus. A principal characteristic of alexithymia represents the difficulty to symbolize emotions verbally. The present study examines the relationship between the dimensions of the alexithymia construct and emotional priming effects in a word-word paradigma. The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale was administered to 32 subjects along with two word reading tasks as measures of emotional and semantic priming effects. The subscale "difficulty describing feelings" correlated as expected negatively with the negative inhibition effect. The subscale "externally oriented thinking" tended to correlate negatively with the negative facilitation effect. Thus, these dimensions of alexithymia are inversely related to the degree of automatic emotional priming. In summary, there is evidence for an impaired structural integration of emotion and language in persons with difficulties in describing feelings. Poor "symbolization" of emotions in alexithymia is discussed from a cognitive perspective. PMID:9632952

  15. [Alexithymia and automatic activation of emotional-evaluative information].

    PubMed

    Suslow, T; Arolt, V; Junghanns, K

    1998-05-01

    The emotional valence of stimuli seems to be stored in the associative network and is automatically activated on the mere observation of a stimulus. A principal characteristic of alexithymia represents the difficulty to symbolize emotions verbally. The present study examines the relationship between the dimensions of the alexithymia construct and emotional priming effects in a word-word paradigma. The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale was administered to 32 subjects along with two word reading tasks as measures of emotional and semantic priming effects. The subscale "difficulty describing feelings" correlated as expected negatively with the negative inhibition effect. The subscale "externally oriented thinking" tended to correlate negatively with the negative facilitation effect. Thus, these dimensions of alexithymia are inversely related to the degree of automatic emotional priming. In summary, there is evidence for an impaired structural integration of emotion and language in persons with difficulties in describing feelings. Poor "symbolization" of emotions in alexithymia is discussed from a cognitive perspective.

  16. Construct validity of the Schwartz outcome scale-10: comparisons to interpersonal distress, adult attachment, alexithymia, the five-factor model, romantic relationship length and ratings of childhood memories.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Greg; Blake, Margaret; Naraine, Melissa; Siefert, Caleb; Blais, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    The Schwartz Outcome Scale-10 (SOS-10) is a 10-item questionnaire that measures the broad domain of psychological well-being and quality of life. The SOS-10 is easy to administer and score. Past research has shown its utility, reliability and validity in different clinical settings (i.e., inpatient, outpatient and non-psychiatry medical settings) and with diverse clinical populations in measuring treatment outcome. The present study looks to extend the construct validity of the SOS-10 to assessing quality of life and psychological health in non-clinical samples as well. The results reveal that the SOS-10 is associated in predicted ways with established measures of attachment, interpersonal distress, alexithymia and the big five model whose construct validity and psychometric soundness has been well documented. The SOS-10 was also associated in predicted ways with ratings of childhood memories and the length of the participants' longest romantic relationship.

  17. Subclinical alexithymia modulates early audio-visual perceptive and attentional event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Delle-Vigne, Dyna; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have highlighted the advantage of using audio–visual oddball tasks (instead of unimodal ones) in order to electrophysiologically index subclinical behavioral differences. Since alexithymia is highly prevalent in the general population, we investigated whether the use of various bimodal tasks could elicit emotional effects in low- vs. high-alexithymic scorers. Methods: Fifty students (33 females and 17 males) were split into groups based on low and high scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). During event-related potential (ERP) recordings, they were exposed to three kinds of audio–visual oddball tasks: neutral-AVN—(geometrical forms and bips), animal-AVA—(dog and cock with their respective shouts), or emotional-AVE—(faces and voices) stimuli. In each condition, participants were asked to quickly detect deviant events occurring amongst a train of repeated and frequent matching stimuli (e.g., push a button when a sad face–voice pair appeared amongst a train of neutral face–voice pairs). P100, N100, and P300 components were analyzed: P100 refers to visual perceptive and attentional processing, N100 to auditory ones, and the P300 relates to response-related stages, involving memory processes. Results: High-alexithymic scorers presented a particular pattern of results when processing the emotional stimulations, reflected in early ERP components by increased P100 and N100 amplitudes in the emotional oddball tasks [P100: F(2, 48) = 20,319, p < 0.001; N100: F(2, 96) = 8,807, p = 0.001] as compared to the animal or neutral ones. Indeed, regarding the P100, subjects exhibited a higher amplitude in the AVE condition (8.717 μV), which was significantly different from that observed during the AVN condition (4.382 μV, p < 0.001). For the N100, the highest amplitude was found in the AVE condition (−4.035 μV) and the lowest was observed in the AVN condition (−2.687 μV, p = 0.003). However, no effect was found on the

  18. Alexithymia partly predicts pain, poor health and social difficulties in patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Mingarelli, A; Casagrande, M; Di Pirchio, R; Nizzi, S; Parisi, C; Loy, B C; Solano, L; Rampello, A; Di Paolo, C

    2013-10-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are functional diseases of the masticatory system; their symptoms are clicking, difficulty opening the mouth wide, ear pain, facial pain and headaches. The relationships among distress, emotional factors and TMD are well known. It was shown that patients with TMD have little awareness of their inner states and emotions, and it was found that those reporting oro-facial pain presented higher alexithymia than did asymptomatic people. Other authors confirmed that alexithymia was higher in the painful TMD group than controls. This study was aimed to evaluate whether alexithymia and its components can be considered as predisposing factors for pain severity, poor health and greater social difficulties in patients with TMD. One hundred thirty-three patients received a diagnosis of TMD and completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Multiple stepwise regressions showed that alexithymia and age explained 10% of the pain and 31% of poor health and also that alexithymia explained 7% of social difficulty. A direct comparison of patients with TMD based on alexithymia revealed a higher presence of pain in alexithymic patients with TMD than in those characterised by moderate or no alexithymia. In conclusion, alexithymia partly predicts pain, poor health and social difficulties in patients with TMD. Furthermore, alexithymic patients have more pain than those with moderate or low alexithymia.

  19. Alexithymia and Acne Vulgaris: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Baykir, Murat; Ateş, Gülfem; Ekşioğlu, Meral

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess relationship between alexithymia and acne vulgaris in young people. Methods A hundred and eleven subjects between 15 and 25 years of age referred to out-patient clinic of dermatology with acne and 78 subjects applied to family physician for complaints other than acne were included in patient and control groups of the study, respectively. A questionnaire to determine demographic characteristics, an acne classification to determine severity of acne and Toronto Alexithymic Scale (TAS) to assess alexithymia were used. Results The mean scores of TAS were 52.7±10.8 and 51.7±10.7 in patient and control groups, respectively. Alexitymia was determined in 23.4% of the subjects in acne group and in 24.4% of control group. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of alexithymia, intermediate alexitymia and three-factors of TAS. Conclusion Alexithymia does not appear to be related to acne vulgaris. PMID:22216042

  20. Are alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder synonymous diagnoses?

    PubMed

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Estey, Alisa J; Segal, Daniel L; Marle, Peter D

    2013-02-01

    Relationships among alexithymia, personality disorders, and higher-order psychopathological and interpersonal dimensions were examined in 199 college students and a close relative of each. Alexithymia, the difficulty to express and identify emotions, was measured by the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS; [Haviland, M. G., Warren, W. L., & Riggs, M. L. (2000). An observer scale to measure alexithymia. Psychosomatics, 41, 385-392]), which was completed by each student's relative. Each student completed three self-report measures: the Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; [Coolidge, F. L. (2000). Coolidge Axis II Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author.), the Five Dimensional Personality Test (5DPT; [van Kampen, D. (2009). Personality and psychopathology: A theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN model. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 5, 9-21]), and the Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI; [Coolidge, F. L. (1998). Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author]). Results indicated that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with personality disorders and their traits, such as schizoid, avoidant, and paranoid. With regard to the issue of the similarity and difference between alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder, there was sufficient evidence across all of the measures to suggest that they are not synonymous entities. Finally, alexithymic traits were associated with concurrent depressive traits even in a non-clinical sample.

  1. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    PubMed

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence.

  2. Relationship between alexithymia and coping strategies in patients with somatoform disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Toshiyuki; Choi, Hyungin; Nagoshi, Yasuhide; Wada, Yoshihisa; Fukui, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A multidimensional intervention integrating alexithymia, negative affect, and type of coping strategy is needed for the effective treatment of somatoform disorder; however, few studies have applied this approach to the three different dimensions of alexithymia in patients with somatoform disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between type of coping strategy and three different dimensions of alexithymia expressed in patients. Patients and methods A total of 196 patients with somatoform disorder completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale, and the Lazarus Stress Coping Inventory. The relationships between alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 score and subscales), demographic variables, and psychological inventory scores were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results The mean Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 total score (56.1±10.57) was positively correlated with the number of physical symptoms as well as with psychopathology scores (Self-Rating Depression Scale, State–Trait Anxiety Inventory trait, state, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale), but negatively correlated with planful problem solving, confrontive coping, seeking social support, and positive reappraisal coping scores. With respect to coping strategy, multiple regression analyses revealed that “difficulty in identifying feelings” was positively associated with an escape–avoidance strategy, “difficulty in describing feelings” was negatively associated with a seeking social support strategy, and “externally oriented thinking” was negatively associated with a confrontive coping strategy. Conclusion Alexithymia was strongly associated with the number of somatic symptoms and negative affect. Patients with high “difficulty in describing feelings” tend to

  3. Alexithymia in personality disorders: correlations with symptoms and interpersonal functioning.

    PubMed

    Nicolò, Giuseppe; Semerari, Antonio; Lysaker, Paul H; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Conti, Laura; D'Angerio, Stefania; Procacci, Michele; Popolo, Raffaele; Carcione, Antonino

    2011-11-30

    Impairment in the ability to recognize and make sense of emotions has been hypothesized to be present in a sub-sample of people suffering from personality disorder (PD). In particular it is possible that difficulty recognizing and expressing feelings, or alexithymia, is related to many of the symptoms and problems in making sense of social interactions which are hallmarks of PD. In this study we measured levels of alexithymia with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and explored its correlations with the overall presence of PD and different PD diagnoses, symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties. Results were largely consistent with the hypothesis. Higher levels of alexithymia were related to high levels of global psychopathology and with dysfunctional representation of interpersonal relations. A sub-sample of patients, mostly suffering from avoidant, dependent, passive-aggressive and depressive PD, had alexithymic features and, in particular reported difficulties describing their feelings to others. A patient with cluster B PD featured no alexithymia. Implications of this study for future research and treatment are discussed.

  4. Alexithymia and health behaviors in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Helmers, K F; Mente, A

    1999-12-01

    The association between alexithymia and maladaptive health behaviors was evaluated in 118 young, healthy men, aged 18-45 years. Subjects completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), and a health behaviors questionnaire, measuring alcohol and drug use, sedentary lifestyle, poor nutritional consumption, and risky sexual practices. In forced hierarchical regression analyses, the association between alexithymia and health behaviors was evaluated after adjusting for age, body mass index, social support, ambivalence over expression of emotion, and the expression of emotion. Results indicated that: (1) the TAS-26 and difficulty identifying feelings was associated with poor nutritional consumption; (2) difficulty identifying feelings was associated with greater alcohol and drug use; and (3) difficulty communicating feelings was associated with a more sedentary lifestyle. There was no association between risky sexual practices and alexithymia. These results suggest that, in young men, difficulties with identifying emotions and communicating emotions are associated with maladaptive nutritional habits, a sedentary lifestyle, and substance abuse, even after adjusting for other psychosocial and demographic variables. Such maladaptive health behaviors may help explain the association between alexithymia and premature mortality.

  5. What's in the name 'alexithymia'? A commentary on "Affective agnosia: Expansion of the alexithymia construct and a new opportunity to integrate and extend Freud's legacy.".

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graeme J; Bagby, R Michael; Parker, James D A

    2016-09-01

    The recent proposal of a new type of agnosia termed 'affective agnosia' extends Freud's legacy and captures the concept of not knowing one's own emotions. This concept links well with the theory of levels of emotional awareness and maps onto a hierarchical model of neural substrates of emotional experience, but does not encompass the pensée opératoire component of the alexithymia construct. Moreover, identifying agnosia and anomia subtypes, which connotes a categorical conceptualization of alexithymia, is inconsistent with the dimensional nature of the construct. We describe a more widely accepted definition of alexithymia, and argue that although aptly descriptive, the concept of affective agnosia does not advance the theory, measurement, and treatment of alexithymia. A review of alexithymia literature indicates that impairment in the mental representation of emotions has been a central aspect of alexithymia theory since the concept was introduced, and guided the development of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and other measures of the construct. Moreover, techniques to enhance mentalization of emotions have been used by psychotherapists for several decades. PMID:27235080

  6. What's in the name 'alexithymia'? A commentary on "Affective agnosia: Expansion of the alexithymia construct and a new opportunity to integrate and extend Freud's legacy.".

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graeme J; Bagby, R Michael; Parker, James D A

    2016-09-01

    The recent proposal of a new type of agnosia termed 'affective agnosia' extends Freud's legacy and captures the concept of not knowing one's own emotions. This concept links well with the theory of levels of emotional awareness and maps onto a hierarchical model of neural substrates of emotional experience, but does not encompass the pensée opératoire component of the alexithymia construct. Moreover, identifying agnosia and anomia subtypes, which connotes a categorical conceptualization of alexithymia, is inconsistent with the dimensional nature of the construct. We describe a more widely accepted definition of alexithymia, and argue that although aptly descriptive, the concept of affective agnosia does not advance the theory, measurement, and treatment of alexithymia. A review of alexithymia literature indicates that impairment in the mental representation of emotions has been a central aspect of alexithymia theory since the concept was introduced, and guided the development of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and other measures of the construct. Moreover, techniques to enhance mentalization of emotions have been used by psychotherapists for several decades.

  7. [Alexithymia in negative symptom and non-negative symptom schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Nkam, I; Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Coined by Sifneos in 1972, alexithymia refers to a relative narrowing in emotional functioning, an inability to find appropriate words to describe their emotions and, a poverty of fantasy life. Although initially described in the context of psychosomatic illness, alexithymic characteristics may be observed in patients with a wide range of medical and psychiatric disorders: Parkinson disease, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and eating disorders. Flattening of affect and poverty of speech, major negative symptoms, referred to chronic schizophrenia: there is a lack of outward display of emotion. Accordingly, some disturbances of alexithymia's scores would be expected in schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of alexithymia in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. The term "deficit symptoms" may be used as Carpenter, to refer specifically to those negative symptoms that are not considered secondary. The influence of patients' symptoms has also been studied on alexithymia scores: negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, anhedonia and effects of neuroleptics. Twenty-five patients, meeting DSM III-R criteria for schizophrenia have been studied. All of them treated by neuroleptics, were in a stable clinical status for at least one month. The patients have been categorized into deficit (n = 12) and non-deficit (n = 13) subgroups by one trained psychiatrist (SD), using the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. The subjects have been assessed by the same rater (IN), blind to deficit status, using six rating scales: Beth Israel Questionnaire (BIQ) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) for alexithymia, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and finally, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). Using TAS, alexithymic characteristics were more prevalent in the deficit subgroup as compared to

  8. How Does Emotional Context Modulate Response Inhibition in Alexithymia: Electrophysiological Evidence from an ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fengqiong; Cao, Zhaolun; Zhu, Chunyan; Cai, Zhu; Hu, Panpan; Pu, Hui; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Background Alexithymia, characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, is highly indicative of a broad range of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have also discovered the response inhibition ability impairment in alexithymia. However, few studies on alexithymic individuals have specifically examined how emotional context modulates response inhibition procedure. In order to investigate emotion cognition interaction in alexithymia, we analyzed the spatiao-temporal features of such emotional response inhibition by the approaches of event-related potentials and neural source-localization. Method The study participants included 15 subjects with high alexithymia scores on the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (alexithymic group) and 15 matched subjects with low alexithymia scores (control group). Subjects were instructed to perform a modified emotional Go/Nogo task while their continuous electroencephalography activities were synchronously recorded. The task includes 3 categories of emotional contexts (positive, negative and neutral) and 2 letters (“M” and “W”) centered in the screen. Participants were told to complete go and nogo actions based on the letters. We tested the influence of alexithymia in this emotional Go/Nogo task both in behavioral level and related neural activities of N2 and P3 ERP components. Results We found that negatively valenced context elicited larger central P3 amplitudes of the Nogo–Go difference wave in the alexithymic group than in the control group. Furthermore, source-localization analyses implicated the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as the neural generator of the Nogo-P3. Conclusion These findings suggest that difficulties in identifying feelings, particularly in negative emotions, is a major feature of alexithymia, and the ACC plays a critical role in emotion-modulated response inhibition related to alexithymia. PMID:23227242

  9. Alexithymia and posttraumatic stress disorder following asthma attack.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Cheung; Wall, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following asthma attack (post-asthma attack PTSD) and psychiatric co-morbidity among college students. It also investigated the association between these variables and alexithymia. One hundred and six college students participated in the study and completed an on-line survey comprising the Asthma Symptom Checklist, PTSD Checklist, General Health Questionnaire-28 and Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Ninety-one students without asthma and major illness formed the control group. 2 % met the diagnostic criteria for full-PTSD, while 42 and 56 % met the partial and no-PTSD criteria respectively. Compared with the control, the asthma group reported significantly more somatic problems, social dysfunction and depression and was five times more likely to have an elevated risk of developing a general psychiatric disorder. After adjusting age, marital status, asthma experience and symptoms, alexithymia did not predict PTSD, while difficulty identifying feelings predicted psychiatric co-morbidity. Mediational analyses showed that asthma symptoms partially mediated the link between difficulty identifying feelings and psychiatric co-morbidity. People can develop PTSD symptoms and other psychological difficulties following asthma attack. Alexithymia influenced general psychological difficulties independently of PTSD symptoms.

  10. Sense of alexithymia in patients with anxiety disorders comorbid with recurrent urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Ogłodek, Ewa A; Szota, Anna M; Just, Marek J; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Szromek, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    Aim Alexithymia is associated with limited cognitive processing of emotions by an individual suffering from recurrent urticaria and alexithymia and makes them focus on somatic manifestations of emotional arousal and on poorly controlled compulsive reactions to negative stimulation. Alexithymia is considered to be a personality trait, which, along with other factors, predisposes individuals toward developing somatic diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the measurement of alexithymic features in patients with recurrent urticaria and to assess the types of concurrent anxiety disorders and overall anxiety level. Methods In order to diagnose clinical anxiety symptoms in patients, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were applied. Alexithymic features were measured by means of a shortened version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, characterized by high discrimination power, internal coherence, and reliability. Results According to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale results, the greatest contributing factor was “inability to differentiate between feelings and bodily sensations”. This was observed in both males and females. Most frequently, the patients were found to suffer from generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia. Conclusion Alexithymia may result from the difficulty associated with expressing emotions caused by anxiety disorders. Undergoing treatment for anxiety disorders may contribute to reduced exacerbation of urticaria. PMID:27143899

  11. Alexithymia and illness behaviour among female Indian outpatients with multiple somatic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip; Chandra, Prabha

    2003-01-01

    Sixty Indian muslim women outpatients with multiple somatic complaints of nonorganic origin were assessed for alexithymia and abnormal illness behavior using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) and the Illness Behaviour Assessment Schedule (IBAS). Alexithymia represented by TAS scores correlated best with the IBAS variables of communication of affect, somatic illness causal beliefs and denial. Correlation with other IBAS variables was modest to poor.There was no correlation of IBAS variables with age of patient, duration of illness or nature of diagnosis: somatoform disorder or anxiety and depressive disorders, The study showed that alexithymia and illness behaviour are overlapping constructs and confirmed the usefulness of TAS as an instrument to discriminate between patients with anxiety/ depressive disorders and somatoform disorders PMID:21206863

  12. The Relationship Between Alopecia Areata and Alexithymia, Anxiety and Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, J; Ouali, U; Mnif, L; Amouri, M; Turki, H; Jaoua, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas, but its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in patient's psychological status and relationships. Aim: The goal was to investigate a possible relationship between AA and alexithymia as well as two other emotional dimensions, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax were included in this study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale questionnaire, alexithymia was assessed by Toronto Alexithymia scale 20, and severity of AA was measured by Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Patient's mean age was 32.92 years. 52% of patients were females. Depression and anxiety were detected respectively in 38% and 62% of patients. There was statistically significant difference between patients and control group in terms of depression (P = 0.047) and anxiety (P = 0.005). Forty-two percent of patients scored positive for alexithymia. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups (P = 0.683) in terms of alexithymia. Anxiety was responsible for 14.7% of variation in alexithymia (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in AA patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the psychological impact of AA, especially as current treatments have limited effectiveness. PMID:25071275

  13. Alexithymia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the role of anxiety, depression, and glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Dilek; Kelleci, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of alexithymia in patients with type 2 DM and the factors affecting it. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 patients with type 2 DM. Study data were collected with the Personal Information Form, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Glycemic control was assessed by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) results. The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Pear-son’s correlation, and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the patients, 37.7% were determined to have alexithymia. A significant relationship was determined between alexithymia and HbA1c, depression, and anxiety. According to binary logistic regression analyses, alexithymia was 2.63 times higher among those who were in a paid employment than those who were not, 2.09 times higher among those whose HbA1c levels were ≥7.0% than those whose HbA1c levels were <7.0%, 3.77 times higher among those whose anxiety subscale scores were ≥11 than those whose anxiety subscale scores were ≤10, and 2.57 times higher among those whose depression subscale scores were ≥8 than those whose depression subscale scores were ≤7. Conclusion In this study, it was determined that two out of every five patients with DM had alexithymia. Therefore, their treatment should be arranged to include mental health care services. PMID:27499615

  14. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse, Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alexithymia in Two Outpatient Samples: Examination of Women Treated in Community and Institutional Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Linda M.; Toner, Brenda; Jackson, Jennifer; Desrocher, Mary; Stuckless, Noreen

    2006-01-01

    Relationships between trauma variables, complex post-traumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD), affect dysregulation, dissociation, somatization, and alexithymia were studied in 70 women with early-onset sexual abuse treated in community-based private (n = 25) or clinic outpatient settings (n = 45). Measures were the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20…

  15. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Michela; Dal Santo, Francesco; Rago, Alessio; Spoto, Andrea; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI. Purpose This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects. Patients and methods This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33) included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79) were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist. Results Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder. Conclusion Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness) and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right.

  16. The relationship between alexithymia, anxiety, depression, and internet addiction severity in a sample of Italian high school students.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Cava, Lucia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed. PMID:25401143

  17. The Relationship between Alexithymia, Anxiety, Depression, and Internet Addiction Severity in a Sample of Italian High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Cava, Lucia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed. PMID:25401143

  18. The relationship between alexithymia, anxiety, depression, and internet addiction severity in a sample of Italian high school students.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Cava, Lucia; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Zoccali, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess whether Internet addiction (IA) severity was related to alexithymia scores among high school students, taking into account the role of gender differences and the possible effect of anxiety, depression, and age. Participants in the study were 600 students (ages ranging from 13 to 22; 48.16% girls) recruited from three high schools in two cities from Southern Italy. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Internet Addiction Test, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Scale. The findings of the study showed that IA scores were associated with alexithymia scores, over and above the effect of negative emotions and age. Students with pathological levels of alexithymia reported higher scores on IA severity. In particular, results showed that difficulty in identifying feelings was significantly associated with higher scores on IA severity. No effect of gender was found. Implications for clinicians were discussed.

  19. Lack of Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Alexithymia: Evidence from Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Min Jung; Kim, Wonji; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain regions, which involve social-emotional processing. Therefore, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual differences in alexithymia, which is considered to be a dysfunction of emotional processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recruited 355 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (234 men, 121 women). Alexithymia was measured by using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We performed single-marker and haplotype association analyses with eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs237885, rs237887, rs2268490, rs4686301, rs2254298, rs13316193, rs53576, and rs2268498) in the oxytocin receptor gene. There were no significant associations between any of the eight single nucleotide polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene and alexithymia. In addition, a six-locus haplotype block (rs237885-rs237887-rs2268490-rs4686301-rs2254298-rs13316193) was not significantly associated with alexithymia. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the oxytocin receptor gene may not explain a significant part of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:26599592

  20. Relationship of internet addiction severity with depression, anxiety, and alexithymia, temperament and character in university students.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Coskun, Kerem Senol; Ugurlu, Hilal; Yildirim, Fatma Gul

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) severity with alexithymia, temperament, and character dimensions of personality in university students while controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. A total of 319 university students from two conservative universities in Ankara volunteered for the study. Students were investigated using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Internet Addiction Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the university students enrolled in the study, 12.2 percent (n=39) were categorized into the moderate/high IA group (IA 7.2 percent, high risk 5.0 percent), 25.7 percent (n=82) were categorized into the mild IA group, and 62.1 percent (n=198) were categorized into the group without IA. Results revealed that the rate of moderate/high IA group membership was higher in men (20.0 percent) than women (9.4 percent). Alexithymia, depression, anxiety, and novelty seeking (NS) scores were higher; whereas self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were lower in the moderate/high IA group. The severity of IA was positively correlated with alexithymia, whereas it was negatively correlated with SD. The "difficulty in identifying feelings" and "difficulty in describing feelings" factors of alexithymia, the low C and high NS dimensions of personality were associated with the severity of IA. The direction of this relationship between alexithymia and IA, and the factors that may mediate this relationship are unclear. Nevertheless, university students exhibiting high alexithymia and NS scores, along with low character scores (SD and C) should be closely monitored for IA.

  1. Perceived Stress, Alexithymia, and Psychological Health as Predictors of Sedative Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gilan, Nader Rajabi; Reshadat, Sohyla; Komasi, Saeid; Ghasemi, Seyed Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background The harmful effects of sedative medications and substances in conjunction with limited research regarding predictive psychological constructs of drug abuse necessitate further investigation of associated factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the roles of perceived stress, alexithymia, and psychological health as predictors of sedative abuse in medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 548 students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were obtained using the Perceived Stress Scale, an alexithymia scale (Farsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20), and a General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological health. Data were analyzed using discriminant analyses. Results The results demonstrated that the user and non-user of sedative substances groups had significantly different predictive variables (except for social function disorder) (P>0.05). Physical complaints, alexithymia, and perceived stress, which had standard coefficients of 0.80, 0.60, and -0.27, respectively, predicted sedative drug use. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that perceived stress, alexithymia, physical complaints, anxiety, and depression are associated with sedative drug abuse. PMID:26435810

  2. [Negative symptoms, depression, anxiety and alexithymia in DSM III-R schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Nkam, I; Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Coined by Sifneos in 1972, alexithymia refers to a relative narrowing in emotional functioning, an inability to find appropriate words to describe their emotions, and a poverty of fantasy life. Although initially described in the context of psychosomatic illness, alexithymic characteristics may be observed in patients with a wide range of medical and psychiatric disorders: Parkinson disease, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and eating disorders. Flattening of affect and poverty of speech, major negative symptoms, referred to chronic schizophrenia: there is a lack of outward display of emotions. Accordingly, some disturbances of alexithymia's scores would be expected in schizophrenic patients. The aims of this study were: first to establish some correlations between alexithymia and some symptoms of schizophrenia, and second to estimate the intensity of alexithymia in negative versus positive and undifferentiated schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients, meeting DSM III-R criteria for schizophrenia have been studied. All of them treated by neuroleptics, were in a stable clinical status for at least one month. The patients were assessed by one trained psychiatrist (IN) using six rating scales: Beth Israel Questionnaire (BIQ) for alexithymia, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Depressive Retardation Rating Scale (DRRS), Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and finally, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). In the total sample, the mean score of BIQ was 4.79 +/- 1.68 (mean +/- SD). Significant correlations were found between alexithymia and blunted affect (r = 0.376; p < 0.05), poverty of speech (r = 0.471; p < 0.01), anxiety (r = 0.370; p < 0.05), total score of DRRS (r = 0.370; p < 0.05), and motor subscore of DRRS (r = 0.429; p < 0.05). The patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia had significantly higher total scores in alexithymia (p < 0.05), blunted affect (p < 0

  3. Metacognitive mastery moderates the relationship of alexithymia with cluster C personality disorder traits in adults with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Lysaker, Paul H; Olesek, Kyle; Buck, Kelly; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Vohs, Jenifer; Ringer, Jamie; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Outcalt, Jared

    2014-03-01

    Cluster C personality disorder traits have been observed in substance use disorders and linked with poorer outcome. One potential factor which may cause these disturbances in personality function is alexithymia, or the inability to name and express emotion. There may be other proximate factors which moderate the impact of alexithymia on the expression of cluster C traits, such as metacognitive mastery, which is the ability to use knowledge about mental states of self and others to cope with distress and solve social problems. To examine the possibility that mastery mediated the effects of alexithymia on cluster C traits, we assessed each of these constructs using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and SCID II among 58 adults in an early phase of recovery from substance misuse disorders in a residential setting. Results of a multiple regression revealed that, after controlling for symptom severity and severity of substance misuse history, metacognitive mastery moderated the effect of alexithymia on number of cluster C traits. A median split and subsequent ANCOVA revealed that participants with higher levels of alexithymia and poorer metacognitive mastery had more cluster C traits than the other groups. These findings may have clinical implications, suggesting that patients with substance use disorders may benefit from treatment which addresses metacognitive mastery.

  4. A Behavior Analytic Interpretation of Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Follette, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Alexithymia is a term used to describe individuals who seem unable to experience or at least describe emotions. This paper offers a theoretical interpretation of alexithymia from a radical behaviorist perspective. While there have been attempts to explain the etiology of alexithymia, the current analysis is unique in that it provides direct treatment implications. The pragmatic analysis described focuses on the verbal behavior of individuals rather than looking “inside” for explanations. This is supported by a review of experimental research that has failed to find consistencies among alexithymic individuals’ physiological responding. Descriptions of the various discriminative and consequential stimulus conditions involved in the complex learning histories of individuals that could result in an alexithymic presentation are provided. This analysis helps situate the alexithymia construct in a broader behavior analytic understanding of emotions. Finally this paper outlines implications for assessment and treatment, which involve influencing discriminative and consequential interpersonal stimulus conditions to shape verbal behavior about emotions. PMID:25473602

  5. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gatta, Michela; Dal Santo, Francesco; Rago, Alessio; Spoto, Andrea; Battistella, Pier Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI. Purpose This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects. Patients and methods This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33) included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79) were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist. Results Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder. Conclusion Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness) and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right. PMID:27672324

  6. Construct Validity of a Self-Report Measure of Alexithymia in a Psychiatric Inpatient Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Robert F.; O'Neill, Richard M.

    1993-01-01

    Examined construct validity of Shipko and Noviello's alexithymia scale (SNALEX), designed to assess one's difficulty identifying and expressing feelings, in 101 psychiatric inpatients. SNALEX scores correlated positively with Rorschach index of verbal productivity and negatively with subject age. Results do not support construct validity of SNALEX…

  7. Comparing Sensory Information Processing and Alexithymia between People with Substance Dependency and Normal

    PubMed Central

    Bashapoor, Sajjad; Hosseini-Kiasari, Seyyedeh Tayebeh; Daneshvar, Somayeh; Kazemi-Taskooh, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensory information processing and alexithymia are two important factors in determining behavioral reactions. Some studies explain the effect of the sensitivity of sensory processing and alexithymia in the tendency to substance abuse. Giving that, the aim of the current study was to compare the styles of sensory information processing and alexithymia between substance-dependent people and normal ones. Methods The research method was cross-sectional and the statistical population of the current study comprised of all substance-dependent men who are present in substance quitting camps of Masal, Iran, in October 2013 (n = 78). 36 persons were selected randomly by simple randomly sampling method from this population as the study group, and 36 persons were also selected among the normal population in the same way as the comparison group. Both groups was evaluated by using Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) and adult sensory profile, and the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test was applied to analyze data. Findings The results showed that there are significance differences between two groups in low registration (P < 0.020, F = 5.66), sensation seeking (P < 0.050, F = 1.92), and sensory avoidance (P < 0.008, F = 7.52) as a components of sensory processing and difficulty in describing emotions (P < 0.001, F = 15.01) and difficulty in identifying emotions (P < 0.002, F = 10.54) as a components of alexithymia. However, no significant difference were found between two groups in components of sensory sensitivity (P < 0.170, F = 1.92) and external oriented thinking style (P < 0.060, F = 3.60). Conclusion These results showed that substance-dependent people process sensory information in a different way than normal people and show more alexithymia features than them. PMID:26885354

  8. Alexithymia, mood states and pain experience in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Vadacca, Marta; Bruni, Rosa; Terminio, Nicolò; Sambataro, Gianluca; Margiotta, Domenico; Serino, Francesco Maria; Afeltra, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study aims to examine alexithymia, mood states and pain experience in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. We enrolled 49 patients with SLE or RA. All patients were evaluated through a set of questionnaires: (1) the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS), (2) the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and (3) visual analogue scale (VAS) and Questionario Italiano sul Dolore, self-report measures to assess pain intensity. Alexithymia was more prevalent in RA (44 %) than in SLE (37.5 %). The mean values of VAS were significantly higher in RA than in SLE population (p < 0.05). A linear relation between TAS and VAS values has been found in SLE (R = 0.714, p < 0.0001). The mean values of POMS regarding all negative dimensions of mood were higher in SLE than in RA. There was a linear relationship between TAS and POMS values in SLE patients (R = 0.7, p < 0.001). We found a high prevalence of alexithymia in SLE and RA. The chronic pain is influenced by emotional status as documented by a linear relation between TAS and VAS values in SLE patients. The difficulty in reporting emotional responses in these patients seems to be mediated by negative mood states.

  9. Alexithymia, emotion perception, and social assertiveness in adult women with Noonan and Turner syndromes.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Renée L; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Freriks, Kim; Verhaak, Chris M; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2015-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and Turner syndrome (TS) are associated with cognitive problems and difficulties in affective information processing. While both phenotypes include short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and a webbed neck, genetic etiology and neuropsychological phenotype differ significantly. The present study examines putative differences in affective information processing and social assertiveness between adult women with NS and TS. Twenty-six women with NS, 40 women with TS, and 40 female controls were matched on age and intelligence, and subsequently compared on (1) alexithymia, measured by the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, (2) emotion perception, evaluated by the Emotion Recognition Task, and (3) social assertiveness and social discomfort, assessed by the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior. Women with TS showed higher levels of alexithymia than women with NS and controls (P-values < 0.001), whereas women with NS had more trouble recognizing angry facial expressions in comparison with controls (P = 0.01). No significant group differences were found for the frequency of social assertiveness and the level of social discomfort. Women with NS and TS demonstrated different patterns of impairment in affective information processing, in terms of alexithymia and emotion perception. The present findings suggest neuropsychological phenotyping to be helpful for the diagnosis of specific cognitive-affective deficits in genetic syndromes, for the enhancement of genetic counseling, and for the development of personalized treatment plans. PMID:25711203

  10. Alexithymia and Affect Intensity of Fine Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Marion; Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Research on creative artists has examined mainly their personality traits or cognitive abilities. However, it seems important to explore also their emotional traits to complete the profile. This study examines two emotional characteristics: alexithymia and affect intensity. Even if most research suggests that artists are less alexithymic and…

  11. Alexithymia influences brain activation during emotion perception but not regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; Wiersma, Durk; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is a psychological construct that can be divided into a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analysing feelings. The affective dimension comprises reduced levels of emotional experience and imagination. Alexithymia is widely regarded to arise from an impairment of emotion regulation. This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to critically evaluate this by investigating the neural correlates of emotion regulation as a function of alexithymia levels. The aim of the current study was to investigate the neural correlates underlying the two alexithymia dimensions during emotion perception and emotion regulation. Using fMRI, we scanned 51 healthy subjects while viewing, reappraising or suppressing negative emotional pictures. The results support the idea that cognitive alexithymia, but not affective alexithymia, is associated with lower activation in emotional attention and recognition networks during emotion perception. However, in contrast with several theories, no alexithymia-related differences were found during emotion regulation (neither reappraisal nor suppression). These findings suggest that alexithymia may result from an early emotion processing deficit rather than compromised frontal circuits subserving higher-order emotion regulation processes. PMID:24760016

  12. Alexithymia in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goldberg, Jeremy; Bennett, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Given the recent findings regarding the association between alexithymia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the accumulating evidence for the presence of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) in relatives of individuals with ASD, we further explored the construct of alexithymia in parents of children with ASD as a potential part of the BAP. We…

  13. Alexithymia in children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Cáit; Lombardo, Michael V; Auyeung, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    Alexithymia refers to pronounced difficulty in identifying and describing one's own emotions and is associated with an externally oriented focus of thinking. Alexithymia is known to be much more common in adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared with the typically developing (TD) adult population. However, we know very little about alexithymia in young children with ASD and advancing our understanding of this topic may be of critical clinical and translational importance. Here, we present the first study to examine alexithymia in children with ASD. We find that alexithymia is substantially elevated in ASD on both self- and parent-report measures. Despite both measures being sensitive to on-average group differentiation, we find no evidence of correlation between such measures, indicating that children and their parents may be using different sources of information. Parent-rated alexithymia is also associated with increasing levels of autistic traits. Discrepancy between self and other alexithymia ratings are also associated with autistic traits, but only in ASD. These results underscore the idea that assessing alexithymia in ASD at younger ages may help identify important subgroups that have particular difficulties in the domain of emotion processing. Autism Res 2016, 9: 773-780. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Exploring the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, homicide-related posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Cheung; Di, Xiaohu; Wan, King Hung

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. One hundred and fifty male homicide perpetrators and 156 male perpetrators of non-violent crime completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (except for non-violent perpetrators), the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Defense Styles Questionnaire, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results showed that 44% of homicide perpetrators met the criteria for PTSD. No significant differences were found between groups in alexithymia, defense style and psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators suppressed depression significantly more than the non-violent group. PLS analyses showed that alexithymia was significantly correlated with defense style. Defense styles were significantly correlated with emotional suppression which, in turn, was associated with homicide-related PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, perpetrators can experience PTSD reactions following the act of homicide. The severity of these reactions and other psychological problems were related to difficulty getting in touch with distressing emotions, the defenses they used to protect themselves psychologically and the way they suppressed their emotion.

  15. Exploring the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, homicide-related posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Cheung; Di, Xiaohu; Wan, King Hung

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. One hundred and fifty male homicide perpetrators and 156 male perpetrators of non-violent crime completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (except for non-violent perpetrators), the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Defense Styles Questionnaire, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results showed that 44% of homicide perpetrators met the criteria for PTSD. No significant differences were found between groups in alexithymia, defense style and psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators suppressed depression significantly more than the non-violent group. PLS analyses showed that alexithymia was significantly correlated with defense style. Defense styles were significantly correlated with emotional suppression which, in turn, was associated with homicide-related PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, perpetrators can experience PTSD reactions following the act of homicide. The severity of these reactions and other psychological problems were related to difficulty getting in touch with distressing emotions, the defenses they used to protect themselves psychologically and the way they suppressed their emotion. PMID:27449006

  16. The relationship between self-harm and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Norman, Hilary; Borrill, Jo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the literature concerning the relationship between alexithymia and self-harm. Fifteen studies were selected following a systematic search of relevant databases. Results indicate significantly higher levels of alexithymia in women who self-harm compared with women who do not self-harm. Studies of men were less conclusive and require further investigation. A subsample of the studies found that childhood abuse and bullying were more likely to be associated with self-harm if alexithymia was present as a mediator. Other studies found that depression mediated between alexithymia and self-harm. The results indicate that the poor emotional cognition and expression associated with alexithymia may increase vulnerability to self-harm, particularly in women.

  17. Impairment of conflict processing in alexithymic individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Chunyan; Ye, Rong; Cao, Zhaolun; Tian, Yanghua; Yang, Ping; Hu, Panpan; Wang, Kai

    2011-10-31

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and in distinguishing between feelings and bodily sensations. Several researchers have examined the impairment of executive functioning in alexithymia; however, only a few studies have been specifically concerned with conflict processing in alexithymia. Utilizing the attention network test (ANT), we investigated whether alexithymia is related to or independent of executive function, especially with respect to conflict processing. Participants included 33 subjects with high alexithymia scores on the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and 30 matched subjects with low alexithymia scores. On the ANT, we found a significant difference between the two groups in conflict processing, and no significant difference in alerting and orienting dimensions. These findings suggested that subjects with high alexithymia scores have selective impairment in conflict processing.

  18. Does alexithymia explain variation in cue-elicited craving reported by methamphetamine-dependent individuals?

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-01-01

    Drug craving is an important motivational phenomenon among addicted individuals, and successful management of craving is essential to both the initiation and maintenance of abstinence. Although craving in response to drug cues is common in drug-dependent individuals, it is not universal. At the present time, it is not known why approximately 20-30% of all addicted persons fail to report appreciable craving in laboratory-based cue reactivity studies. This study examined the possibility that alexithymia, a personality attribute characterized by a difficulty identifying and describing emotions, may contribute to the impoverished cue-elicited craving experienced by some addicts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), would be inversely related to the magnitude of cue-elicited craving obtained in a cue reactivity protocol. Forty methamphetamine-dependent individuals completed the TAS and provided craving ratings for methamphetamine after presentation of methamphetamine-associated cues. Thirteen participants (32%) reported no methamphetamine cue-elicited craving. Contrary to expectation, TAS factor 1 (a measure of difficulty identifying feelings) scores were positively associated with cue-elicited craving. Thus, the results suggest that increasing difficulty-identifying feelings may be associated with higher cue-elicited craving. Clinical implications for this finding are discussed.

  19. Does Alexithymia Explain Variation in Cue-Elicited Craving Reported by Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Saladin, Michael E.; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Simpson, Annie N.; Tolliver, Bryan K.; Price, Kimber L.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    Drug craving is an important motivational phenomenon among addicted individuals and successful management of craving is essential to both the initiation and maintenance of abstinence. While craving in response to drug cues is common in drug-dependent individuals, it is not universal. At the present time, it is not known why approximately 20–30% of all addicted persons fail to report appreciable craving in laboratory-based cue reactivity studies. The present study examined the possibility that alexithymia, a personality attribute characterized by a difficulty identifying and describing emotions, may contribute to the impoverished cue-elicited craving experienced by some addicts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), would be inversely related to the magnitude of cue-elicited craving obtained in a cue reactivity protocol. Forty methamphetamine-dependent individuals completed the TAS and provided craving ratings for methamphetamine after presentation of methamphetamine-associated cues. Thirteen participants (32%) reported no methamphetamine cue-elicited craving. Contrary to expectation, TAS factor 1 (a measure of difficulty identifying feelings) scores were positively associated with cue-elicited craving. Thus, the results suggest that increasing difficulty identifying feelings may be associated with higher cue-elicited craving. Clinical implications for this finding are discussed. PMID:22332856

  20. The left amygdala: A shared substrate of alexithymia and empathy.

    PubMed

    Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Lamm, Claus; Pripfl, Juergen; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2015-11-15

    Alexithymia, a deficit in emotional self-awareness, and deficits in empathy, which encompasses the awareness of other's emotions, are related constructs that are both associated with a range of psychopathological disorders. Neuroimaging studies suggest that there is overlap between the neural bases of alexithymia and empathy, but no systematic comparison has been conducted so far. The aim of this structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to disentangle the overlap and differences between the morphological profiles of the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, and to find out to what extent these differ between women and men. High-resolution T1 anatomical images were obtained from 125 healthy right-handers (18-42 years), 70 women and 55 men. By means of voxel-based morphometry, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed on gray matter volumes of several anatomically defined a-priori regions previously linked to alexithymia and empathy. Partial correlations were conducted within the female and male group using ROI parameter estimates as dependent variables and the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, respectively, as predictors, controlling for age. Results were considered significant if they survived Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The left amygdala was identified as a key substrate of both alexithymia and empathy. This association was characterized by an opposite pattern: The cognitive alexithymia dimension was linked to smaller, the two empathy dimensions to larger left amygdala volume. While sex-specific effects were not observed for empathy, they were evident for the affective alexithymia dimension: Men-but not women-with difficulty fantasizing had smaller gray matter volume in the middle cingulate cortex. Moreover, structural covariance patterns between the left amygdala and other emotion-related brain regions differed markedly between alexithymia and empathy. These differences

  1. The left amygdala: A shared substrate of alexithymia and empathy.

    PubMed

    Goerlich-Dobre, Katharina Sophia; Lamm, Claus; Pripfl, Juergen; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2015-11-15

    Alexithymia, a deficit in emotional self-awareness, and deficits in empathy, which encompasses the awareness of other's emotions, are related constructs that are both associated with a range of psychopathological disorders. Neuroimaging studies suggest that there is overlap between the neural bases of alexithymia and empathy, but no systematic comparison has been conducted so far. The aim of this structural magnetic resonance imaging study was to disentangle the overlap and differences between the morphological profiles of the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, and to find out to what extent these differ between women and men. High-resolution T1 anatomical images were obtained from 125 healthy right-handers (18-42 years), 70 women and 55 men. By means of voxel-based morphometry, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed on gray matter volumes of several anatomically defined a-priori regions previously linked to alexithymia and empathy. Partial correlations were conducted within the female and male group using ROI parameter estimates as dependent variables and the cognitive and affective dimensions of alexithymia and empathy, respectively, as predictors, controlling for age. Results were considered significant if they survived Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The left amygdala was identified as a key substrate of both alexithymia and empathy. This association was characterized by an opposite pattern: The cognitive alexithymia dimension was linked to smaller, the two empathy dimensions to larger left amygdala volume. While sex-specific effects were not observed for empathy, they were evident for the affective alexithymia dimension: Men-but not women-with difficulty fantasizing had smaller gray matter volume in the middle cingulate cortex. Moreover, structural covariance patterns between the left amygdala and other emotion-related brain regions differed markedly between alexithymia and empathy. These differences

  2. Cognitive Alexithymia Is Associated with the Degree of Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Jorien; Swart, Marte; van Rijn, Sophie; van der Meer, Lisette; Wunderink, Lex; Wiersma, Durk; Krabbendam, Lydia; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality construct denoting emotion processing problems. It has been suggested to encompass two dimensions: a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analyzing emotions, while the affective dimension reflects the level of emotional arousal and imagination. Alexithymia has been previously proposed as a risk factor for developing psychosis. More specifically, the two alexithymia dimensions might be differentially related to the vulnerability for psychosis. Therefore, we examined the two dimensions of alexithymia, measured with the BVAQ in 94 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, 52 subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis, 38 patients with schizophrenia and 109 healthy controls. The results revealed that siblings and patients had higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to controls. In addition, subjects at UHR for psychosis had even higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to the siblings. The levels of affective alexithymia in siblings and patients were equal to controls. However, UHR individuals had significantly lower levels of affective alexithymia (i.e. higher levels of emotional arousal and fantasizing) compared to controls. Alexithymia was further related to subclinical levels of negative and depressive symptoms. These findings indicate that alexithymia varies parametrically with the degree of risk for psychosis. More specifically, a type-II alexithymia pattern, with high levels of cognitive alexithymia and normal or low levels of affective alexithymia, might be a vulnerability factor for psychosis. PMID:26030357

  3. Neuroimaging studies of alexithymia: physical, affective, and social perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia refers to difficulty in identifying and expressing one’s emotions, and it is related to disturbed emotional regulation. It was originally proposed as a personality trait that plays a central role in psychosomatic diseases. This review of neuroimaging studies on alexithymia suggests that alexithymia is associated with reduced neural responses to emotional stimuli from the external environment, as well as with reduced activity during imagery, in the limbic and paralimbic areas (i.e., amygdala, insula, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex). In contrast, alexithymia is also known to be associated with enhanced neural activity in somatosensory and sensorimotor regions, including the insula. Moreover, neural activity in the medial, prefrontal, and insula cortex was lowered when people with alexithymia were involved in social tasks. Because most neuroimaging studies have been based on sampling by self-reported questionnaires, the contrasted features of neural activities in response to internal and external emotional stimuli need to be elucidated. The social and emotional responses of people with alexithymia are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. PMID:23537323

  4. Culture and alexithymia: mean levels, correlates, and the role of parental socialization of emotions.

    PubMed

    Le, Huynh-Nhu; Berenbaum, Howard; Raghavan, Chitra

    2002-12-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between culture and alexithymia. In Study 1, mean levels and correlates of alexithymia were examined in 3 cultures: European American (EA), Asian American (AA), and Malaysian college students. Both Asian groups had higher alexithymia levels than the EA group. Somatization was more strongly associated with alexithymia in the Asian groups than in the EA group. Mood and life satisfaction were associated with alexithymia in similar ways across groups. In Study 2, the relations among culture, gender, retrospective reports of parental socialization of emotions, and alexithymia were examined among EA and AA college students. Cultural and gender differences were found in alexithymia and emotion socialization levels. Most important, parental emotion socialization mediated the relations among culture, gender, and alexithymia.

  5. Alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity and aggression: A multiple mediation model.

    PubMed

    Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, Carlo; Petrocchi, Chiara; Cavallo, Francesca; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2016-03-30

    There is a need to better understand the antecedent of aggressive behaviors in order to tailor treatments and reduce the associated damage to the others and the self. Possible mechanisms underlying aggression are poor emotional awareness and emotion dysregulation, as well as impulsivity. Here, we examined the relationships among alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity and aggression, comparing a mixed psychiatric sample (N=257) and a community sample (N=617). The clinical sample reported greater levels of alexithymia, emotion dysregulation, trait impulsivity and aggression, than the community sample. Furthermore, in the community sample, emotion dysregulation and impulsivity mediated the relationship (i.e., accounted for the shared variance) between alexithymia and aggression. In the clinical sample, only emotion dysregulation explained the alexithymia-aggression link. In particular, specific dimensions of the emotion dysregulation (i.e., Negative Urgency) and impulsivity constructs (i.e., cognitive and motor impulsivity) played a unique role in explaining these associations. Finally, controlling for depressive symptoms reduced some of the findings involving impulsivity to nonsignificant results. Overall, our findings add to the extant literature attesting to the relevance of alexithymia and emotion dysregulation for understanding aggression, and providing concrete recommendation for the treatment and prevention of aggressive tendencies.

  6. Psychoanalysis and empirical research: the example of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graeme J; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-02-01

    An extensive body of research on the alexithymia construct is reviewed to show how various empirical methodologies can be used to evaluate the validity and increase our understanding of theoretical and clinically derived psychoanalytic concepts. The historical background of alexithymia and the theoretical framework in which the construct was formulated are presented, after which measurement- and experiment-based approaches to construct validation are described. This is followed by a review of empirical investigations that have yielded evidence that alexithymia is a dimensional personality trait associated with several illnesses of interest to psychoanalysts. Empirical research also supports clinical observations and impressions that individuals with high degrees of alexithymia principally employ primitive defenses, have a limited capacity for empathy, exhibit deficits in mentalization, and do not respond well to traditional interpretive psychotherapies. Also reviewed is empirical research that implicates genetic and environmental/developmental factors in the etiology of alexithymia, in particular childhood trauma and insecure attachments, factors generally associated with deficits in affect development and affect regulation. The clinical relevance of the empirical research findings is discussed in the final section. PMID:23343505

  7. Apathy, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms: Points of convergence and divergence.

    PubMed

    Ready, Rebecca E; Mather, Molly A; Santorelli, Gennarina D; Santospago, Breanna P

    2016-10-30

    This study determined convergence and divergence in the constructs of alexithymia, apathy, and depressive symptoms. Understanding of similarities and differences between these constructs will improve diagnostic accuracy for clinical and research purposes. Community-dwelling participants (N=622, M age=35.6 years, SD=13.1) completed online measures of alexithymia, depression, and apathy; 12.2% were alexithymic, 37.8% reported significant depressive symptoms, and 24.9% reported significant apathy. Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFAs) determined the best factor structure for the apathy, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was comprised of three factors and accounted for 45.1% of item variance. The Depression, Apathy, and Alexithymia factors were defined most strongly by item content that is at the core of each construct. Depression was defined most highly by items assessing sadness, low self-esteem, and loneliness. The strongest item loadings for Alexithymia were difficulty identifying and describing feelings. Apathy was characterized by poor motivation, low interest, and lack of initiative. However, each of these core and defining features had significant cross-loadings on one of the other two factors. Negative affect shared variance with Apathy, low motivation shared variance with Depression, and difficulty describing and identify feelings shared variance with Depression and Apathy. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:27512920

  8. The Assessment of Alexithymia in Medical Settings: Implications for Understanding and Treating Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Mark A.; Neely, Lynn C.; Burger, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    The construct of alexithymia encompasses the characteristics of difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and a limited imaginal capacity. These characteristics are thought to reflect deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of emotions and to contribute to the onset or maintenance of several medical and psychiatric disorders. This article reviews recent methods for assessing alexithymia and examines how assessing alexithymia can inform clinical practice. Alexithymia is associated with heightened physiological arousal, the tendency to notice and report physical symptoms, and unhealthy compulsive behaviors. Alexithymic patients may respond poorly to psychological treatments, although perhaps not to cognitive-behavioral techniques, and it is unclear whether alexithymia can be improved through treatment. Interpretive problems regarding alexithymia include its overlap with other traits, whether it is secondary to illness or trauma, the possibility of subtypes, and low correlations among multiple measures. Nonetheless, we encourage the assessment of alexithymia in applied settings. PMID:18001224

  9. Impaired emotion recognition is linked to alexithymia in heroin addicts

    PubMed Central

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio; Dell’Aera, Stefano; Costanzo, Giulia; Fasciano, Silvia; Tomasello, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Several investigations document altered emotion processing in opiate addiction. Nevertheless, the origin of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here we examined the role of alexithymia in the ability (i.e., number of errors—accuracy and reaction times—RTs) of thirty-one heroin addicts and thirty-one healthy controls to detect several affective expressions. Results show generally lower accuracy and higher RTs in the recognition of facial expressions of emotions for patients, compared to controls. The hierarchical multivariate regression analysis shows that alexithymia might be responsible of the between groups difference with respect to the RTs in emotion detection. Overall, we provide new insights in the clinical interpretation of affective deficits in heroin addicts suggesting a role of alexithymia in their ability to recognize emotions. PMID:27069803

  10. Impaired emotion recognition is linked to alexithymia in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio; Dell'Aera, Stefano; Costanzo, Giulia; Fasciano, Silvia; Tomasello, Antonia; Vicario, Carmelo M

    2016-01-01

    Several investigations document altered emotion processing in opiate addiction. Nevertheless, the origin of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here we examined the role of alexithymia in the ability (i.e., number of errors-accuracy and reaction times-RTs) of thirty-one heroin addicts and thirty-one healthy controls to detect several affective expressions. Results show generally lower accuracy and higher RTs in the recognition of facial expressions of emotions for patients, compared to controls. The hierarchical multivariate regression analysis shows that alexithymia might be responsible of the between groups difference with respect to the RTs in emotion detection. Overall, we provide new insights in the clinical interpretation of affective deficits in heroin addicts suggesting a role of alexithymia in their ability to recognize emotions. PMID:27069803

  11. Nameless desire: alexithymia and the anorexic patient.

    PubMed

    Petterson, Regina

    2004-03-01

    In this article, the author attempts to provide a psychoanalytic understanding of the anorexic patient who is disconnected from her affective experience and is considered to be alexithymic. Through her restrictive food ritual, this type of patient may organize her internal states by repeatedly creating an illusion of what it is that she needs and desires. The author asserts that the task of the therapist working with the anorexic patient with alexithymia is to be aware of his own sensation-based reverie as lived within the intersubjective arena. This will enable the therapist to assist the patient in building an affective vocabulary to accurately identify, differentiate, and label the internal signals of her body. It is suggested that the subjective emotional experience of the patient will continue to be reorganized, expanded, and enriched as the therapist and patient mutually influence one another in this unique relational matrix. A clinical vignette is provided to illustrate intersubjective treatment interventions with a difficult-to-reach anorexic patient.

  12. The Relationships between Early Trauma, Dissociation, and Alexithymia in Alcohol Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ardino, Vittoria; Gori, Alessio; Caretti, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Addiction is often considered a dissociative behavior that is related to alexithymia and developmental trauma. The study aims were to explore the relationships between early trauma, alexithymia, and dissociation. Methods A total of 117 (males=60; females=57) alcohol-addicted individuals and 117 healthy individuals (males=60; females=57) were administered a series of self-report questionnaires that assess traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and pathological dissociation. Results Correlation analyses indicated significant correlations between alexithymia, dissociation, and trauma and a significant difference between the target and control groups, with higher alexithymia and dissociation scores in the target group. Conclusion These findings suggest that trauma, alexithymia, and dissociation are predictors of alcohol addiction. PMID:25110508

  13. I don't know how I feel, therefore I act: alexithymia, urgency, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hanako; Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between alexithymia, impulsivity, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 429 undergraduate students who reported drinking alcohol at least once in the past 3 months. Negative urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, whereas positive urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol consumption. In addition, positive urgency moderated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, increasing the strength of this association. These results indicate distinct relationships between alexithymia and negative urgency and positive urgency in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems. The findings of this research contribute to the body of the literature on alexithymia, self-regulation, and etiology of alcohol misuse and related consequences. Furthermore, the findings of the current study provide support for the importance of emotion identification and expression skills training in substance abuse treatment. PMID:23384454

  14. Loss-Chasing, Alexithymia, and Impulsivity in a Gambling Task: Alexithymia as a Precursor to Loss-Chasing Behavior When Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between loss-chasing, the propensity to continue gambling to recover from losses, alexithymia, a personality trait associated poor emotional processing and impulsivity, the tendency to act quickly without reflection or consideration of the consequences. Method: Two experiments are reported (E1: N = 60, Males, 11; Age, 21.6 years. E2: N = 49, Males, 22; Age, 21.1 years). In experiment 1, two groups (low alexithymia, high alexithymia) completed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). Loss-chasing behavior was investigated. In experiment 2, both alexithymia (low, high) and impulsivity (low, high) were examined also using the CGT. A further change was the order of bet proportion from ascending to descending. Results: Experiment 1 shows loss-chasing behavior in participants high in alexithymia but not those low in alexithymia (ηp2=0.09). Experiment 2 shows loss-chasing behavior in participants both low and high in alexithymia but it was greater for participants high in alexithymia (ηp2 = 0.09). The effect of impulsivity was not statistically significant (ηp2 = 0.01). Loss-chasing behavior was correlated with the emotional facets of alexithymia but not the cognitive facet. Conclusions: Alexithymia is a precursor to loss-chasing when gambling and loss-chasing reflects the cognitive and emotional aspects of gambling. Specifically, the tendency to loss-chase depends on the need to recoup previous losses and failure to process the emotional consequences of those losses. PMID:26834676

  15. Alexithymia: Should This Personality Disorder Be Considered During Treatment of Patients With Mental Illness?

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Johnson-Walker, Deidra

    2015-08-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by impairment of an individual's ability to experience, identify, and express emotions, and is associated with impaired emotional intelligence and an externally oriented cognitive style. There has been increasing interest in the phenomenon, with numerous peer-reviewed articles published recently. Alexithymia may occur in patients with many psychiatric disorders, and more severe alexithymia is related to worse outcome. However, many clinicians remain unaware of the issue. The current article discusses alexithymia and its importance in the field of mental health. PMID:26268478

  16. Investigation of health anxiety and its related factors in nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqun; Zhao, Yueqiu; Mao, Shengqin; Li, Guohong; Yuan, Yonggui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore health anxiety in a sample of nursing students to determine the relationships between health anxiety and life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia. Methods Two thousand and eighty-six nursing students in junior college, which were divided into five groups, were evaluated by questionnaires, including the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students, the Chinese version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results The mean age, whether the individual was an only child, residence (urban or rural), and were significantly different between the groups. The self-assessment scores were also significantly different between the groups. The Short Health Anxiety Inventory total score and the factor of fearing the likelihood of becoming ill were significantly negatively correlated with the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students total score and its two factors, but were significantly positively correlated with psychoticism, neuroticism, and TAS-20 total scores and its scores of the three TAS-20 factors. The negative consequence scale of Short Health Anxiety Inventory was not significantly correlated with externally oriented thinking, but was significantly negatively correlated with extraversion. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that objective satisfaction, subjective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the three factors of TAS-20 were predictors of health anxiety. Conclusion Health anxiety was correlated with life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia in junior college nursing students. Subjective and objective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the identification and expression of emotions may be predictors of health anxiety in nursing students. PMID:25045266

  17. Alexithymia in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Its Relationship to Internalising Difficulties, Sensory Modulation and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Carter Leno, Virginia; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Jones, Catherine R.; Erskine, Catherine; Charman, Tony; Happé, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait frequently found in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and has been linked to impairments in emotion recognition and empathy. The presentation of alexithymia within ASD at younger ages remains unexplored, and was examined in the present study. Alexithymia rates were significantly elevated in ASD (55%;…

  18. Delinquency in Male Adolescents: The Role of Alexithymia and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Gregoire

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages between alexithymia and delinquency in male adolescents (age ranging from 14 to 18 years), and to investigate whether alexithymia was a good discriminatory factor for juvenile delinquency. Thirty-six offender adolescents and 46 non-offender control adolescents participated in the study and…

  19. Relationship of Alexithymia Ratings to Dopamine D2-type Receptors in Anterior Cingulate and Insula of Healthy Control Subjects but Not Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Okita, Kyoji; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Payer, Doris E.; Robertson, Chelsea L.; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Individuals with substance-use disorders exhibit emotional problems, including deficits in emotion recognition and processing, and this class of disorders also has been linked to deficits in dopaminergic markers in the brain. Because associations between these phenomena have not been explored, we compared a group of recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals (n=23) with a healthy-control group (n=17) on dopamine D2-type receptor availability, measured using positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride. Methods: The anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices were selected as the brain regions of interest, because they receive dopaminergic innervation and are thought to be involved in emotion awareness and processing. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale, which includes items that assess difficulty in identifying and describing feelings as well as externally oriented thinking, was administered, and the scores were tested for association with D2-type receptor availability. Results: Relative to controls, methamphetamine-dependent individuals showed higher alexithymia scores, reporting difficulty in identifying feelings. The groups did not differ in D2-type receptor availability in the anterior cingulate or anterior insular cortices, but a significant interaction between group and D2-type receptor availability in both regions, on self-report score, reflected significant positive correlations in the control group (higher receptor availability linked to higher alexithymia) but nonsignificant, negative correlations (lower receptor availability linked to higher alexithymia) in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Conclusions: The results suggest that neurotransmission through D2-type receptors in the anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices influences capacity of emotion processing in healthy people but that this association is absent in individuals with methamphetamine dependence. PMID:26657175

  20. Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems. PMID:23244192

  1. Child maltreatment, alexithymia, and problematic internet use in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yates, Tuppett M; Gregor, Margo A; Haviland, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) examine the phenomenology and developmental correlates of problematic Internet use (PIU) in a large and diverse college student sample; (b) evaluate a developmental process model of PIU in which the expected association between child maltreatment and PIU would be explained by alexithymia; and (c) explore these relations as a function of gender and race. PIU was assessed in a sample of 1,470 college students (62.9 percent female, 37.1 percent male; M(age)=19.13 years [SD=1.49]; 46.1 percent Asian, 28.2 percent Hispanic, 16.3 percent White, 5.9 percent Black, and 3.5 percent Multiracial/Other) who participated in a larger study of young adult adaptation, which included measures of child maltreatment, alexithymia, self-concept, social support, and psychopathology. Males and Asian students endorsed higher levels of PIU than females and other ethnoracial groups, respectively. PIU was related to contemporaneous maladaptation in the form of decreased self-concept, lower social support, and increased psychopathology across groups. Experiences of child maltreatment were related to increased PIU, and mediation analyses showed that this relation was partially explained by alexithymia. These relations were comparable across males and females and between Asian and non-Asian respondents. The analyses provide evidence for the significant role of child maltreatment and the cognitive-affective deficits it precipitates in understanding pathways toward PIU in young adulthood. Our findings suggest that maltreated youth are at disproportionate risk for PIU, and their capacities to regulate and process emotion are important targets for prevention and therapeutic intervention. PMID:22313343

  2. [The role of alexithymia as a psychosomatic factor in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Torres-Hernández, Marcela; López-García, Sonia; Pedroza-Escobar, David; Escamilla-Tilch, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la alexitimia consiste en la carencia de representaciones mentales de las emociones que conduce a una capacidad limitada para comprender y regular estas, y que puede contribuir en el desarrollo o mantenimiento de una enfermedad psicosomática. El objetivo de este estudio fue demostrar que la alexitimia es una característica que se presenta más frecuentemente en pacientes con psoriasis y que la coexistencia de alexitimia-psoriasis se asocia, como rasgo, a niveles altos de ansiedad. Métodos: la escala de alexitimia de Toronto-20 (TAS- 20) y el inventario de ansiedad estado-rasgo (IDARE) se aplicaron a 16 pacientes con psoriasis de la consulta externa de Dermatología del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI y se compararon con 25 individuos control. Resultados: de los pacientes con psoriasis, 25 % presentaron alexitimia, mientras que en el grupo control fue un 8 % (p = 0.002). Se observó correlación entre las puntuaciones de la TSA-20 y del IDARE-rasgo (r = 0.6957, p < 0.0001). Conclusiones: la alexitimia se presenta con mayor frecuencia en individuos con psoriasis que en la población en general y los niveles de ansiedad como rasgo en individuos con psoriasis son similares, independientemente de la presencia de alexitimia.

  3. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Starita, Francesca; Làdavas, Elisabetta; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties in different domains of emotion processing, especially in relation to negative emotions. Nevertheless, its causal mechanisms remain elusive. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events might be one such mechanism because it enables the individual to prepare to respond effectively to coming events. To test this, changes in skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during classical fear conditioning in sixty participants with high (HA), medium (MA) and low (LA) levels of alexithymia. Two coloured squares were presented, one was reinforced with a mild electrical stimulation (CS+) while the other was never reinforced (CS-). Critically, despite all groups showing higher SCR to CS+ compared to CS-, SCR to CS+ was lower and extinguished earlier in HA compared to MA and LA. These differences appeared to be attributable neither to differences in the intensity of stimulation received, nor to SCR to the stimulation itself. Groups showed comparable SCR to CS- as well. Therefore, HA exhibited decreased anticipation of the occurrence of a negative emotional event. Disruption of this mechanism may then compromise effective emotion recognition, emotional response and response regulation, which characterise HA, and represent a unifying causal mechanism underlying the difficulties in emotion processing of this group. PMID:27278856

  4. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events in alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Starita, Francesca; Làdavas, Elisabetta; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties in different domains of emotion processing, especially in relation to negative emotions. Nevertheless, its causal mechanisms remain elusive. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events might be one such mechanism because it enables the individual to prepare to respond effectively to coming events. To test this, changes in skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during classical fear conditioning in sixty participants with high (HA), medium (MA) and low (LA) levels of alexithymia. Two coloured squares were presented, one was reinforced with a mild electrical stimulation (CS+) while the other was never reinforced (CS−). Critically, despite all groups showing higher SCR to CS+ compared to CS−, SCR to CS+ was lower and extinguished earlier in HA compared to MA and LA. These differences appeared to be attributable neither to differences in the intensity of stimulation received, nor to SCR to the stimulation itself. Groups showed comparable SCR to CS− as well. Therefore, HA exhibited decreased anticipation of the occurrence of a negative emotional event. Disruption of this mechanism may then compromise effective emotion recognition, emotional response and response regulation, which characterise HA, and represent a unifying causal mechanism underlying the difficulties in emotion processing of this group. PMID:27278856

  5. [Diagnosis of alexithymia in the workplace: definition and validation of an instrument].

    PubMed

    Catalano, S; Blandi, P; Miragliotta, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide, to develop and validate, a new instrument for measuring alexithymia in the workplace. To develop and validate the MAQ in the Italian population, verifying its psychometric properties, we involved 585 participants, ranged from 16 to 33 of age, divided by gender and level of schooling. All participants completed MAQ which contained 108 items, and then Principal Components Analysis with Oblimin rotation was elaborated to understand latent structure of alexithymia. The study showed Alexithymia is composed by five dimensions: (1) difficulty to communicate, (2) to identify emotions, (3) and to manage time such as a coping style, (4) diffident attachment, (5) and pragmatic way to think. The psychometric properties of MAQ and internal consistency were demonstrated to be robust. Reliability analysis by Alpha was significant. Hence, MAQ could be useful in evaluating of the main traits involved in Alexithymia. PMID:18575360

  6. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in College Students: The Complex Interplay between Alexithymia, Emotional Dysregulation and Rumination

    PubMed Central

    Reupert, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Both Emotional Cascade Theory and Linehan’s Biosocial Theory suggest dysregulated behaviors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) emerge, in part, because of cycles of rumination, poor emotional recognition and poor emotion regulation. In this study we examined relationships between rumination, alexithymia, and emotion regulation in predicting dysregulated behaviors associated with BPD (e.g. self-harm, substance use, aggression), and explored both indirect and moderating effects among these variables. The sample comprised 2261 college students who completed self-report measures of the aforementioned constructs. BPD symptoms, stress, family psychological illness, and alexithymia exerted direct effects on behaviors. Symptoms had an indirect effect on behaviors through rumination, alexithymia and emotional dysregulation. In addition, the relationship between symptoms and dysregulated behaviors was conditional on level of rumination and alexithymia. Implications for early identification and treatment of BPD and related behaviors in college settings are discussed. PMID:27348858

  7. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in College Students: The Complex Interplay between Alexithymia, Emotional Dysregulation and Rumination.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Rebecca; Hasking, Penelope; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Both Emotional Cascade Theory and Linehan's Biosocial Theory suggest dysregulated behaviors associated with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) emerge, in part, because of cycles of rumination, poor emotional recognition and poor emotion regulation. In this study we examined relationships between rumination, alexithymia, and emotion regulation in predicting dysregulated behaviors associated with BPD (e.g. self-harm, substance use, aggression), and explored both indirect and moderating effects among these variables. The sample comprised 2261 college students who completed self-report measures of the aforementioned constructs. BPD symptoms, stress, family psychological illness, and alexithymia exerted direct effects on behaviors. Symptoms had an indirect effect on behaviors through rumination, alexithymia and emotional dysregulation. In addition, the relationship between symptoms and dysregulated behaviors was conditional on level of rumination and alexithymia. Implications for early identification and treatment of BPD and related behaviors in college settings are discussed. PMID:27348858

  8. Migraine in the Emergency Department: a psychometric study of a migraine "repeaters" sample.

    PubMed

    Villani, Veronica; Bruti, Gianluca; Mostardini, Claudio; Di Stani, Fabrizio; Scattoni, Lorena; Dugoni, Demo; Vanacore, Nicola; Cerbo, Rosanna

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of psychometric variables on the "repeater" phenomenon in an emergency department, 15 "repeaters" and 27 outpatient migraineurs were recruited. All patients were submitted to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and Migraine DIsability Assessment Scale (MIDAS). The "repeater" group showed higher MIDAS total scores (p=0.02) and higher scores in TAS-20 (p=0.02) than the outpatients. A higher frequency of alexithymic trait (p=0.02) and higher BDI scores (p=0.07) have also been observed in the "repeater" group than the outpatients. Alexithymia and depressive mood associated with high disability may be a specific psychosocial pattern of "repeater" migraineurs. The psychometric evaluation of this population may be important to explain the "repeaters" phenomenon.

  9. Atypical trait inferences from facial cues in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Rebecca; Collins, Fredrika; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-10-01

    It is often difficult to distinguish strangers' permanent facial shapes from their transient facial expressions, for example, whether they are scowling or have narrow-set eyes. Overinterpretation of ambiguous cues may contribute to the rapid character judgments we make about others. Someone with narrow eyes might be judged untrustworthy, because of strong associations between facial anger and threat. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the trait judgments made by individuals with severe alexithymia, associated with impaired recognition of facial emotion. Consistent with the hypothesis, alexithymic participants demonstrated reduced interrater consistency when judging the character traits of unfamiliar faces, and the presence of subtle emotions. Nevertheless, where alexithymics perceived, or misperceived, emotion cues, the character traits inferred thereafter were broadly typical. The finding that individuals with developmental deficits of emotion recognition exhibit atypical attribution of character traits, confirms the hypothesis that emotion-recognition mechanisms play a causal role in character judgments. PMID:25867918

  10. Hearing Feelings: Affective Categorization of Music and Speech in Alexithymia, an ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Witteman, Jurriaan; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Background Alexithymia, a condition characterized by deficits in interpreting and regulating feelings, is a risk factor for a variety of psychiatric conditions. Little is known about how alexithymia influences the processing of emotions in music and speech. Appreciation of such emotional qualities in auditory material is fundamental to human experience and has profound consequences for functioning in daily life. We investigated the neural signature of such emotional processing in alexithymia by means of event-related potentials. Methodology Affective music and speech prosody were presented as targets following affectively congruent or incongruent visual word primes in two conditions. In two further conditions, affective music and speech prosody served as primes and visually presented words with affective connotations were presented as targets. Thirty-two participants (16 male) judged the affective valence of the targets. We tested the influence of alexithymia on cross-modal affective priming and on N400 amplitudes, indicative of individual sensitivity to an affective mismatch between words, prosody, and music. Our results indicate that the affective priming effect for prosody targets tended to be reduced with increasing scores on alexithymia, while no behavioral differences were observed for music and word targets. At the electrophysiological level, alexithymia was associated with significantly smaller N400 amplitudes in response to affectively incongruent music and speech targets, but not to incongruent word targets. Conclusions Our results suggest a reduced sensitivity for the emotional qualities of speech and music in alexithymia during affective categorization. This deficit becomes evident primarily in situations in which a verbalization of emotional information is required. PMID:21573026

  11. Relationship of burnout with personality, alexithymia, and coping behaviors among physicians in a semiurban and rural area in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Taycan, Okan; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Celik, Cihat

    2014-01-01

    This present study aimed to assess levels of burnout, to investigate the extent to which personal characteristics and coping behaviors are related to burnout, and to establish the predictors of burnout among physicians in a semiurban and rural area. A sample of 139 physicians was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Ways of Coping Inventory. The level of burnout was found to be moderately higher than those reported among urban physicians. A forward stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that neuroticism, occupation (specialist vs general practitioner), helpless, self-confident, and social support seeking approaches were predictors of burnout. The results showed that burnout was negatively related with problem-focused copping strategies, and positively with emotion-focused coping strategies. Fostering problem-focused coping strategies in physicians might be useful in the reduction of burnout.

  12. Alexithymia in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Its Relationship to Internalising Difficulties, Sensory Modulation and Social Cognition.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Carter Leno, Virginia; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Jones, Catherine R G; Erskine, Catherine; Charman, Tony; Happé, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait frequently found in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and has been linked to impairments in emotion recognition and empathy. The presentation of alexithymia within ASD at younger ages remains unexplored, and was examined in the present study. Alexithymia rates were significantly elevated in ASD (55%; 31/56 scoring above cut-off) versus non-ASD adolescents (16%; 5/32 scoring above cut-off). Within individuals with ASD, alexithymia was associated with increased self-reported anxiety, parent-reported emotional difficulties, self-reported sensory processing atypicalities, and poorer emotion recognition, but was not associated with theory of mind ability. Overall, our results suggest that alexithymia is highly prevalent, and has selective cognitive correlates in young people with ASD.

  13. Selective disruption of sociocognitive structural brain networks in autism and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Valk, Sofie L; Silani, Giorgia; Bird, Geoffrey; Frith, Uta; Singer, Tania

    2014-12-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal social cognition. A core feature of ASC is disrupted Theory of Mind (ToM), our ability to take the mental perspective of others. ASC is also associated with alexithymia, a trait characterized by altered emotional interoception and empathy. Here, we applied structural MRI covariance analysis to assess whether ASC and alexithymia differentially affect structural brain networks associated with sociocognitive and socioaffective functions. Based on previous functional MRI findings, we expected disrupted ToM networks (centered on dorsomedial prefontal cortex [dmPFC], and temporo-parietal junction [TPJ]) in ASC, while alexithymia would affect networks centered on fronto-insular cortex (FI), regions associated with interoception of emotion and empathy. Relative to controls, ASC indeed showed reduced covariance in networks centered on dmPFC and TPJ, but not within FI networks. Irrespective of ASC, covariance was negatively modulated by alexithymia in networks extending from FI to posterior regions. Network findings were complemented by self-reports, indicating decreased perspective taking but normal empathic concern in ASC. Our results show divergent effects of ASC and alexithymia on inter-regional structural networks, suggesting that networks mediating socioaffective processes may be separable from networks mediating sociocognitive processing.

  14. Blunted feelings: Alexithymia is associated with a diminished neural response to speech prosody

    PubMed Central

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Schiller, Niels O.; van Heuven, Vincent J. P.; Aleman, André; Martens, Sander

    2014-01-01

    How we perceive emotional signals from our environment depends on our personality. Alexithymia, a personality trait characterized by difficulties in emotion regulation has been linked to aberrant brain activity for visual emotional processing. Whether alexithymia also affects the brain’s perception of emotional speech prosody is currently unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the impact of alexithymia on hemodynamic activity of three a priori regions of the prosody network: the superior temporal gyrus (STG), the inferior frontal gyrus and the amygdala. Twenty-two subjects performed an explicit task (emotional prosody categorization) and an implicit task (metrical stress evaluation) on the same prosodic stimuli. Irrespective of task, alexithymia was associated with a blunted response of the right STG and the bilateral amygdalae to angry, surprised and neutral prosody. Individuals with difficulty describing feelings deactivated the left STG and the bilateral amygdalae to a lesser extent in response to angry compared with neutral prosody, suggesting that they perceived angry prosody as relatively more salient than neutral prosody. In conclusion, alexithymia may be associated with a generally blunted neural response to speech prosody. Such restricted prosodic processing may contribute to problems in social communication associated with this personality trait. PMID:23681887

  15. Cognitive Alexithymia Mediates the Association Between Avoidant Attachment and Interpersonal Problems in Patients With Somatoform Disorder.

    PubMed

    Koelen, Jurrijn A; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Liesbeth H M; Kempke, Stefan

    2016-08-17

    Patients with somatoform disorder (SFD) are characterized by the presence of chronic physical complaints that are not fully explained by a general medical condition or another mental disorder. Insecure attachment patterns are common in this patient group, which are often associated with interpersonal difficulties. In the present study, the mediational role of two types of alexithymia and negative affectivity (NA) was examined in the association between attachment styles and interpersonal problems in a group of 120 patients with SFD. Patients were requested to fill out several self-report questionnaires for the assessment of attachment strategies, alexithymia, NA, and interpersonal problems. Cognitive alexithymia (i.e., the inability to identify and verbalize emotions) mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment patterns and interpersonal problems, even after controlling for NA. Preliminary findings also suggested that NA acted as a moderator of the mediator cognitive alexithymia. These results have important implications for clinical practice, as this study clearly shows that interpersonal problems do not automatically follow from insecure attachment strategies, but are contingent upon alexithymic features. It is recommended to target alexithymic features in patients with SFD, particularly in the context of negative emotions. Therefore, cognitive alexithymia may be an important therapeutic focus, specifically in the treatment of avoidant ptients with SFD.

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation. PMID:26318149

  17. Anxiety Sensitivity and Aspects of Alexithymia Are Independently and Uniquely Associated with Posttraumatic Distress

    PubMed Central

    Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Jaycox, Lisa H.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of adult survivors of physical trauma requiring hospitalization (N = 677), we examined the relationship of aspects of alexithymia and anxiety sensitivity to symptoms of posttraumatic distress (PTD). At the bivariate level, both aspects of alexithymia and anxiety sensitivity were positively associated with acute PTD symptomatology, but anxiety sensitivity was more strongly related to PTD symptoms. At the multivariate level, both anxiety sensitivity and aspects of alexithymia made unique and independent contributions to both total PTD symptoms and the majority of PTD symptom clusters. At the facet level, anxiety sensitivity Physical Concerns and Psychological Concerns, and the alexithymic dimension of Difficulty Identifying Feelings, were uniquely associated with acute PTD symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of potential clinical implications. PMID:19301252

  18. Alexithymia is associated with an augmenter profile, but not only: evidence for anticipation to arousing music.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Delphine; Davydov, Dmitry M; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Luminet, Olivier

    2012-10-01

    It has been suggested that high alexithymia scorers have an 'augmenter' profile which amplifies their physiological and subjective responses to highly arousing stimuli. The aim of this study was to test this theory using several physiological measures. Participants listened to musical excerpts either in a 'weak-to-strong' or a 'strong-to-weak' order of arousing levels of stimuli. The results show that alexithymia was associated with an augmenter profile for subjective reports for the most arousing stimulus and with stronger skin conductance level responses in the 'strong-to-weak' order. These results partially support the augmenter profile and reveal that alexithymia may be associated with higher anticipation for the most arousing excerpt.

  19. Individual differences in socioaffective skills influence the neural bases of fear processing: the case of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Pouga, Lydia; Berthoz, Sylvie; de Gelder, Beatrice; Grèzes, Julie

    2010-10-01

    Being exposed to fear signals makes us feel threatened and prompts us to prepare an adaptive response. In our previous studies, we suggested that amygdala (AMG) and premotor cortex (PM) play a role in the preparation of the observers' motor response required by the situation. The present experiment aimed at assessing how interindividual differences in alexithymia--a personality trait associated with deficits in emotional reactivity and regulation--influence the neural network associated with the perception of fear. Using fMRI, we scanned 34 healthy subjects while they were passively observing fearful body expressions. Applying a dimensional approach, we performed correlation analyses between fear-related brain areas and alexithymia scores among all participants. Using a categorical approach, we conducted a between-group comparison (13 high vs. 12 low-alexithymia subjects). Our results were threefold. First, the right AMG activity in response to fearful stimuli was negatively correlated with the level of difficulty to identify emotions. Second, PM activity was linked to reduced subjective emotional reactivity. Third, the between-group comparison revealed greater activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for high than low-alexithymia scorers. Moreover, the relationship between ACC and PM was in opposite direction in individuals with high (negative link) and low (positive link) alexithymia. Therefore, compared to our previous findings, we hereby further reveal how ACC interacts with PM to sustain self-regulation of one's own emotional state in response to threatening social signals. Moreover, this neural mechanism could account for the description of the "cold-blooded" personality of individuals with alexithymia.

  20. Common and Distinct Impacts of Autistic Traits and Alexithymia on Social Reward

    PubMed Central

    Foulkes, Lucy; Bird, Geoffrey; Gökçen, Elif; McCrory, Eamon; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    According to the social motivation hypothesis of autism, individuals with high levels of autistic traits experience reduced levels of reward from social interactions. However, empirical evidence to date has been mixed, with some studies reporting lower levels of social reward in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and others finding no difference when compared to typically developing controls. Alexithymia, a subclinical condition associated with the reduced ability to identify and describe one’s own emotions, has been found to account for other affective difficulties observed inconsistently in individuals with ASD. The current study used a nonclinical sample (N = 472) to explore the associations between autistic traits and the value of six types of social reward, as measured by the Social Reward Questionnaire. In addition, we measured alexithymia to assess if this accounted for associations between autistic traits and social reward. There were three main findings. Firstly, higher levels of autistic traits were associated with significantly less enjoyment of admiration and sociability, and adding alexithymia to these models did not account for any additional variance. Secondly, both autistic traits and alexithymia were uniquely associated with reduced levels of enjoyment of prosocial interactions and sexual relationships. Thirdly, autistic traits were associated with higher levels of enjoyment of passivity and negative social potency, but these associations were no longer significant once alexithymia was taken into account, suggesting that co-occurring alexithymia accounted for these apparent associations. Overall, the current findings provide a novel and more nuanced picture of the relationship between autistic traits and social reward. PMID:25853670

  1. What I Like Is How I Am: Impact of Alexithymia on Aesthetic Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannini, Anna Maria; Tizzani, Emanuela; Baralla, Francesca; Gurrieri, Grazia

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this work was to explore the impact of alexithymia on art works appreciation, to examine the influence of emotion regulation on art judgment. While observing a painting, the viewer's cognitive structure contains several types of information (semantic, episodic, and strategic) and is the repository of personal traits, motivations, and…

  2. [Effects of a meditation program (mindfulness) on the measure of alexithymia and social skills].

    PubMed

    de la Fuente Arias, Manuel; Franco Justo, Clemente; Salvador Granados, Margarita

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether training in meditation (mindfulness) produced effects on measures of alexithymia and social skills in a group of students. The results indicated that the meditation program produced significant differences in the variable social skills and in five of its factors at posttest. In the intra-analysis, the differences were significant both in alexithymia and in social skills, and in all its factors in the experimental group, and no significant differences were observed in the control group. The percentages of change in the experimental group presented reductions in the total score of alexithymia and its three factors of about 20% and an increase in the variable social skills and its six factors ranging between 15.96 and 22.60%. In the control group, the two variables and their factors ranged from -0.14 to 4.43%. These results should be considered with caution as the study sample was non-clinical and relatively small; therefore, these results should be confirmed with larger samples and patients with high alexithymia.

  3. Is alexithymia associated with metabolic syndrome? A study in a healthy adult population.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Jula, Antti; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli

    2016-02-28

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors for, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality, and it constitutes a major clinical challenge affecting millions of lives. Alexithymia is a condition that has been linked with several mental diseases and symptoms, as well as somatic illnesses, including essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited research on the association of alexithymia and MetS. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively explore this association in a large (n=1648) non-clinical sample of adults. Logistic regression analyses were applied to the five separate MetS components as well as the MetS diagnosis, and the analyses included a number of sociodemographic variables and depressive symptoms as covariates. The results confirmed the previous finding of alexithymic features being independently and significantly associated with hypertension. As a new finding, this association appears to be related to two particular dimensions of alexithymia, namely difficulty describing feelings and externally oriented thinking. Interestingly, alexithymic features were also separately significantly associated with waist circumference and triglycerides as well as the MetS diagnosis. Depressive symptoms did not have any significant effect on the relations of alexithymia and MetS. PMID:26747214

  4. Alexithymia as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Self-Injurious Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivio, Sandra C.; McCulloch, Chantal R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women. Method: The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood…

  5. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating among Undergraduate Females: Mediating Influence of Alexithymia and Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…

  6. Dissociation between Emotional Remapping of Fear and Disgust in Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Scarpazza, Cristina; Làdavas, Elisabetta; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individuals are able to understand others’ emotions because they “embody” them, i.e., re-experience them by activating a representation of the observed emotion within their own body. One way to study emotion embodiment is provided by a multisensory stimulation paradigm called emotional visual remapping of touch (eVRT), in which the degree of embodiment/remapping of emotions is measured as enhanced detection of near-threshold tactile stimuli on one’s own face while viewing different emotional facial expressions. Here, we measured remapping of fear and disgust in participants with low (LA) and high (HA) levels of alexithymia, a personality trait characterized by a difficulty in recognizing emotions. The results showed that fear is remapped in LA but not in HA participants, while disgust is remapped in HA but not in LA participants. To investigate the hypothesis that HA might exhibit increased responses to emotional stimuli producing a heightened physical and visceral sensations, i.e., disgust, in a second experiment we investigated participants’ interoceptive abilities and the link between interoception and emotional modulations of VRT. The results showed that participants’ disgust modulations of VRT correlated with their ability to perceive bodily signals. We suggest that the emotional profile of HA individuals on the eVRT task could be related to their abnormal tendency to be focalized on their internal bodily signals, and to experience emotions in a “physical” way. Finally, we speculated that these results in HA could be due to a enhancement of insular activity during the perception of disgusted faces. PMID:26462241

  7. Interpersonal problem areas and alexithymia in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Berger, Sarah Shafer; Elliott, Camden; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants' interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits [as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature] (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (p's ≤ 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes.

  8. Interpersonal Problem Areas and Alexithymia in Adolescent Girls with Loss of Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Sarah Shafer; Elliott, Camden; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Young, Jami F.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high-risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI-z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants’ interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits (as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature) (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (ps ≤ 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at-risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes. PMID:24139852

  9. [Perception of organizational climate and burnout amongst health care workers: the role of alexithymia as a moderator].

    PubMed

    Lazzari, D; Pisanti, R; Avallone, F

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on 238 health care workers from an hospital in central Italy. We examined: 1) how some dimensions regarding perceived quality of the organizational and relational climate (social warmth and quality of working life both in the ward and in the organization) influence various indicators of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment); 2) if it was possible to improve the previous regressive models by including the personality construct, alexithymia. Controlling for age and gender, results of the hierarchical regression showed significant two-way interactions between organizational/relational climate and alexithymia in predicting emotional exhaustion (p = .005 for both the ward and the organization) and personal fulfillment (for ward, p = .020; for perceived relational climate, p = .037). Depersonalization was accounted by the main effect of alexithymia (p = .000). In conclusion, results demonstrate the need to include the alexithymia construct in models predicting the various dimensions of burnout.

  10. [Perception of organizational climate and burnout amongst health care workers: the role of alexithymia as a moderator].

    PubMed

    Lazzari, D; Pisanti, R; Avallone, F

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on 238 health care workers from an hospital in central Italy. We examined: 1) how some dimensions regarding perceived quality of the organizational and relational climate (social warmth and quality of working life both in the ward and in the organization) influence various indicators of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment); 2) if it was possible to improve the previous regressive models by including the personality construct, alexithymia. Controlling for age and gender, results of the hierarchical regression showed significant two-way interactions between organizational/relational climate and alexithymia in predicting emotional exhaustion (p = .005 for both the ward and the organization) and personal fulfillment (for ward, p = .020; for perceived relational climate, p = .037). Depersonalization was accounted by the main effect of alexithymia (p = .000). In conclusion, results demonstrate the need to include the alexithymia construct in models predicting the various dimensions of burnout. PMID:19031556

  11. Insula’s functional connectivity with ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates the impact of trait alexithymia on state tobacco craving

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Matthew T.; Carroll, Allison J.; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Ross, Thomas J.; Stein, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulty indentifying and describing subjective emotional experiences. Decreased aptitude in the perception, evaluation, and communication of affectively laden mental states has been associated with reduced emotion regulation, more severe drug craving in addicts, and structural/functional alterations in insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The insula and ACC represent sites of convergence between the putative neural substrates of alexithymia and those perpetuating cigarette smoking. Objectives We examined the interrelations between alexithymia, tobacco craving, and insula/ACC neurocircuitry using resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Methods Overnight-deprived smokers (n=24) and non-smokers (n=20) completed six neuroimaging assessments on different days both in the absence of, and following, varenicline and/or nicotine administration. In this secondary analysis of data from a larger study, we assessed trait alexithymia and state tobacco craving using self-reports and examined the rsFC of bilateral insular subregions (anterior, middle, posterior) and dorsal ACC. Results Higher alexithymia in smokers predicted reduced rsFC strength between the right anterior insula (aI) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Higher alexithymia also predicted more severe tobacco craving during nicotine withdrawal. Critically, the identified aI–vmPFC circuit fully mediated this alexithymia–craving relation. That is, elevated alexithymia predicted decreased aI–vmPFC rsFC and, in turn, decreased aI–vmPFC rsFC predicted increased craving during withdrawal. A moderated mediation analysis indicated that this aI–vmPFC mediational effect was not observed following drug administration. Conclusions These results suggest that a weakened right aI–vmPFC functional circuit confers increased liability for tobacco craving during smoking abstinence. Individual differences in alexithymia and/or a

  12. Facial and bodily emotion recognition in multiple sclerosis: the role of alexithymia and other characteristics of the disease.

    PubMed

    Cecchetto, Cinzia; Aiello, Marilena; D'Amico, Delia; Cutuli, Daniela; Cargnelutti, Daniela; Eleopra, Roberto; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) may be associated with impaired perception of facial emotions. However, emotion recognition mediated by bodily postures has never been examined in these patients. Moreover, several studies have suggested a relation between emotion recognition impairments and alexithymia. This is in line with the idea that the ability to recognize emotions requires the individuals to be able to understand their own emotions. Despite a deficit in emotion recognition has been observed in MS patients, the association between impaired emotion recognition and alexithymia has received little attention. The aim of this study was, first, to investigate MS patient's abilities to recognize emotions mediated by both facial and bodily expressions and, second, to examine whether any observed deficits in emotions recognition could be explained by the presence of alexithymia. Thirty patients with MS and 30 healthy matched controls performed experimental tasks assessing emotion discrimination and recognition of facial expressions and bodily postures. Moreover, they completed questionnaires evaluating alexithymia, depression, and fatigue. First, facial emotion recognition and, to a lesser extent, bodily emotion recognition can be impaired in MS patients. In particular, patients with higher disability showed an impairment in emotion recognition compared with patients with lower disability and controls. Second, their deficit in emotion recognition was not predicted by alexithymia. Instead, the disease's characteristics and the performance on some cognitive tasks significantly correlated with emotion recognition. Impaired facial emotion recognition is a cognitive signature of MS that is not dependent on alexithymia.

  13. The alexithymic brain: the neural pathways linking alexithymia to physical disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and is associated with psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. The mechanisms underlying the link between emotional dysregulation and psychosomatic disorders are unclear. Recent progress in neuroimaging has provided important information regarding emotional experience in alexithymia. We have conducted three brain imaging studies on alexithymia, which we describe herein. This article considers the role of emotion in the development of physical symptoms and discusses a possible pathway that we have identified in our neuroimaging studies linking alexithymia with psychosomatic disorders. In terms of socio-affective processing, alexithymics demonstrate lower reactivity in brain regions associated with emotion. Many studies have reported reduced activation in limbic areas (e.g., cingulate cortex, anterior insula, amygdala) and the prefrontal cortex when alexithymics attempt to feel other people’s feelings or retrieve their own emotional episodes, compared to nonalexithymics. With respect to primitive emotional reactions such as the response to pain, alexithymics show amplified activity in areas considered to be involved in physical sensation. In addition to greater hormonal arousal responses in alexithymics during visceral pain, increased activity has been reported in the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and midbrain. Moreover, in complex social situations, alexithymics may not be able to use feelings to guide their behavior appropriately. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) was developed to assess decision-making processes based on emotion-guided evaluation. When alexithymics perform the IGT, they fail to learn an advantageous decision-making strategy and show reduced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, a key area for successful performance of the IGT, and increased activity in the caudate, a region associated with impulsive choice. The neural machinery in

  14. Alexithymia and its relationships with dissociative experiences and Internet addiction in a nonclinical sample.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; D'Albenzio, Alessandro; Gambi, Francesco; Sepede, Gianna; Valchera, Alessandro; Conti, Chiara M; Fulcheri, Mario; Cavuto, Marilde; Ortolani, Carla; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Serroni, Nicola; Ferro, Filippo Maria

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate alexithymia, dissociative experiences, and Internet addiction (IA) in a nonclinical sample of 312 undergraduate students, identifying predictive factors associated with the possible risk of developing IA. We found that alexithymics had more consistent dissociative experiences, lower self-esteem, and higher obsessive-compulsive symptoms than nonalexithymics. In addition, alexithymics reported a higher potential risk for IA when compared to nonalexithymics. Difficulty in identifying feelings, higher dissociative experiences, lower self-esteem, and higher impulse dysregulation were associated with higher IA. Thus, a combination of alexithymia, dissociative experiences, low self-esteem, and impulse dysregulation may be a risk factor for IA, at least in a nonclinical sample.

  15. The influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on aggressive behavior of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    de Schutter, Marja A M; Kramer, Hein J M Th; Franken, Ernest J F; Lodewijkx, Hein F M; Kleinepier, Tom

    2016-09-30

    Current approaches in Dutch mental health care institutions towards inpatients' aggression have focused predominantly on environmental factors, such as training the staff in aggression management. However, personality traits might be an important factor in patients' aggression - as shown by incidents in the wards. This study explores the influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on psychiatric patients' aggressive behavior, through self-reports and through involvement in aggressive incidents. Personality traits influencing patients' aggression emphasize the importance of a more direct approach to their aggression. Clinical patients at Dutch mental health care institution Emergis (n=84) filled out questionnaires about their aggressiveness (using Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire Short Form), dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia. Multiple regression analyses indicated that dysfunctional impulsivity positively related to self-reported aggressive behavior. The relationship, however, could not be confirmed for inpatients' aggression as reported by the staff on the wards. Unexpectedly affective alexithymia negatively related to hostility. Gender differences in self-reported aggression were found. Female patients showed higher levels of hostility. Regression analyses indicated that the male gender positively related to physical aggression. Findings emphasize the importance of a new approach in Dutch mental health care, in which patients may engage in aggression-regulation training programs. PMID:27387554

  16. The relationships of antisocial behavior with attachment styles, autonomy-connectedness, and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Bekker, Marrie H J; Bachrach, Nathan; Croon, Marcel A

    2007-06-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationships among attachment styles, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness, sensitivity to others, and capacity for managing new situations), alexithymia, and antisocial behavior among 202 college students (67 men and 135 women). We were particularly interested in sex differences in the levels of these variables as well as their associations. Sex differences were expected in types of insecure attachment styles, patterns of autonomy-connectedness, and levels of self-reported antisocial and passive-aggressive behavior. All expected sex differences were indeed found. Furthermore, the model that we hypothesized was partly confirmed: For men, anxious attachment had a stronger direct and positive effect on antisocial behavior than for women, and the positive effect of anxious attachment on passive-aggressive behavior was smaller for women than for men. Interestingly, capacity for managing new situations had a main and mediating effect on antisocial behavior. Sensitivity to others appeared as a mediator between anxious attachment style and passive-aggressive behavior. Contrary to expectations, fantasizing (a component of alexithymia) had a strong, negative association with antisocial behavior. The results are discussed against the background of other recent findings concerning alexithymia and autonomy- connectedeness.

  17. The influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on aggressive behavior of psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    de Schutter, Marja A M; Kramer, Hein J M Th; Franken, Ernest J F; Lodewijkx, Hein F M; Kleinepier, Tom

    2016-09-30

    Current approaches in Dutch mental health care institutions towards inpatients' aggression have focused predominantly on environmental factors, such as training the staff in aggression management. However, personality traits might be an important factor in patients' aggression - as shown by incidents in the wards. This study explores the influence of dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia on psychiatric patients' aggressive behavior, through self-reports and through involvement in aggressive incidents. Personality traits influencing patients' aggression emphasize the importance of a more direct approach to their aggression. Clinical patients at Dutch mental health care institution Emergis (n=84) filled out questionnaires about their aggressiveness (using Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire Short Form), dysfunctional impulsivity and alexithymia. Multiple regression analyses indicated that dysfunctional impulsivity positively related to self-reported aggressive behavior. The relationship, however, could not be confirmed for inpatients' aggression as reported by the staff on the wards. Unexpectedly affective alexithymia negatively related to hostility. Gender differences in self-reported aggression were found. Female patients showed higher levels of hostility. Regression analyses indicated that the male gender positively related to physical aggression. Findings emphasize the importance of a new approach in Dutch mental health care, in which patients may engage in aggression-regulation training programs.

  18. The association between depression and craving in alcohol dependency is moderated by gender and by alexithymia factors.

    PubMed

    Luminet, Olivier; Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Mariana; Fantini, Carole; de Timary, Philippe

    2016-05-30

    Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality trait that involves difficulties in identifying and describing feelings to others, a poor fantasy life and an externally oriented cognitive style. Alexithymia has been described as a vulnerability factor for mental and physical diseases. We investigated in a group of 158 alcohol-dependent patients (103 men, 55 women) the association between depression and craving for alcohol when these patients were starting a detoxification program, and the moderating impact of gender and alexithymia on this relation. We first found an interaction between depression and gender in the prediction of craving in the sense that only for women an increase in depressive mood was related to an increase in total craving. When examining gender separately, we found that alexithymia factors acted as moderators. For women, the link between depression and craving was strengthened for the ones scoring higher on "difficulties describing feelings". But for men, the link between depression and craving was reduced for the ones scoring higher on "externally-oriented thinking". These findings suggest that in some cases that need to be identified more systematically in the future, the "externally-oriented thinking" alexithymia factor can exert - at least in the short term - some protective effects.

  19. Potential link between body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and alexithymia in an eating-disordered treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Andrea Siân; Sullivan, Karen Anne

    2011-09-30

    This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in a sample of people with eating disorders and to investigate possible associations between body dysmorphia and alexithymia. Forty patients currently seeking treatment for an eating disorder completed a battery of six measures assessing alexithymia, mood, eating behaviours, weight-related body image, body dysmorphia and non-weight related body image. Significant moderate positive correlations (Pearson's r) between selected variables were found, suggesting that participants with high levels of dysmorphic concern (imagined ugliness) have more difficulty with the affective elements of alexithymia, that is, identifying and describing feelings. When depression, eating attitudes, and weight-related body image concerns were controlled for, significant moderate positive correlations between this alexithymia factor and dysmorphic concerns remained present. An independent-samples t-test between eating-disordered participants with and without symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) revealed significant group differences in difficulties identifying feelings. This pattern of results was replicated when the groups were identified on the basis of dysmorphic concerns, as opposed to BDD symptoms. This study highlights the associations between alexithymia and body dysmorphia that have not previously been demonstrated. PMID:21803428

  20. Alexithymia and its impact on quality of life in a group of Brazilian women with migraine without aura

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Migraine is a type of primary headache widely known for its impact on quality of life of patients. Although the psychological aspects of the disease are receiving increasing attention in current research, some of them, as alexithymia, are still seldom explored. This study aimed to provide evidence on the relationships between markers of depression, anxiety, alexithymia, self-reflection, insight and quality of life in migraine. Methods Forty female outpatients from a Brazilian specialized headache hospital service and a paired control group were compared. Results The results revealed that women with migraine had higher levels of depression, anxiety and alexithymia, and lower levels of quality of life, self-reflection and insight, compared to controls. Quality of life in women with migraine was predicted by levels of depression and one alexithymia factor (ability to express emotions and fantasies). A binary regression analysis between clinical and control groups revealed the migraine group to comprise individuals with high anxiety, low quality of life in the physical domain and the presence of a concrete thinking style. Conclusions The results highlight the relevance of considering psychological variables in the routine healthcare practices for migraine patients in general, while keeping steady attention to individual case features. PMID:23565860

  1. Child Maltreatment, Subsequent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and the Mediating Roles of Dissociation, Alexithymia and Self-Blame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swannell, Sarah; Martin, Graham; Page, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Hazell, Philip; Taylor, Anne; Protani, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although child maltreatment is associated with later non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), the mechanism through which it might lead to NSSI is not well understood. The current retrospective case-control study examined associations between child maltreatment and later NSSI, and investigated the mediating roles of dissociation, alexithymia,…

  2. Life events, anxiety, social support, personality, and alexithymia in female patients with chronic pain: A path analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fanmin; Yang, Bangxiang; Fu, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This study sought to identify a model that explains the relationship between psychosocial factors and chronic pain in female patients, and to explore all of these constructs in a single study and provide a more holistic examination of the overall psychosocial factors that female patients with chronic pain encounter. Methods Female patients with chronic pain (n = 147), aged 20–65 (M = 34.9 years, SD = 11.25), from an outpatient pain clinic completed a cross‐sectional self‐report questionnaire on anxiety, life events, personality, social support, and alexithymia. Data were analyzed by means of path analysis. Results The direct effect of anxiety on female patients with chronic pain was greatest among all the paths. Personality and alexithymia led to chronic pain in female patients only indirectly, mediated by life events. The personality factors of neuroticism and extraversion were associated positively with social support, which had an indirect effect on the influence of life events on chronic pain. However, alexithymia was associated negatively with social support, which had an indirect effect on the influence of life events on chronic pain. Discussion Our findings provide evidence that life events are a mediator in the relationship between personality, social support, alexithymia, and chronic pain in female patients. PMID:26568558

  3. The Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire: A Measurement Invariance Examination among U.S. Anglos and U.S. Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, Scott E.; Morera, Osvaldo F.; Watson, P. J.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the measurement invariance of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) in U.S. Anglo (n = 490) and U.S. Hispanic (n = 379) samples of college students. The BVAQ items demonstrated invariance of the factor loadings, the latent item intercepts, and unique factor variances. However, Hispanics had higher…

  4. The effect of alexithymia on early visual processing of emotional body postures.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Khatereh; Borgomaneri, Sara; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Bertini, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Body postures convey emotion and motion-related information useful in social interactions. Early visual encoding of body postures, reflected by the N190 component, is modulated both by motion (i.e., postures implying motion elicit greater N190 amplitudes than static postures) and by emotion-related content (i.e., fearful postures elicit the largest N190 amplitude). At a later stage, there is a fear-related increase in attention, reflected by an early posterior negativity (EPN) (Borhani et al., 2015). Here, we tested whether difficulties in emotional processing (i.e., alexithymia) affect early and late visual processing of body postures. Low alexithymic participants showed emotional modulation of the N190, with fearful postures specifically enhancing N190 amplitude. In contrast, high alexithymic participants showed no emotional modulation of the N190. Both groups showed preserved encoding of the motion content. At a later stage, a fear-related modulation of the EPN was found for both groups, suggesting that selective attention to salient stimuli is the same in both low and high alexithymia. PMID:26762700

  5. The effect of alexithymia on early visual processing of emotional body postures.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Khatereh; Borgomaneri, Sara; Làdavas, Elisabetta; Bertini, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Body postures convey emotion and motion-related information useful in social interactions. Early visual encoding of body postures, reflected by the N190 component, is modulated both by motion (i.e., postures implying motion elicit greater N190 amplitudes than static postures) and by emotion-related content (i.e., fearful postures elicit the largest N190 amplitude). At a later stage, there is a fear-related increase in attention, reflected by an early posterior negativity (EPN) (Borhani et al., 2015). Here, we tested whether difficulties in emotional processing (i.e., alexithymia) affect early and late visual processing of body postures. Low alexithymic participants showed emotional modulation of the N190, with fearful postures specifically enhancing N190 amplitude. In contrast, high alexithymic participants showed no emotional modulation of the N190. Both groups showed preserved encoding of the motion content. At a later stage, a fear-related modulation of the EPN was found for both groups, suggesting that selective attention to salient stimuli is the same in both low and high alexithymia.

  6. Self-Other Distinction Enhanced Empathic Responses in Individuals with Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Natsuki; Yokoyama, Takemasa; Ohira, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Although empathy is important for social interactions, individuals with alexithymia have low empathic ability, particularly where advanced empathy is concerned (empathic concern, perspective taking). It has been argued that awareness of the self-other distinction enhances advanced empathy, and alexithymics are thought to inadequately distinguish the self from others. We therefore tested whether the self-other distinction increases advanced empathy in alexithymics. To this end, we presented painful hand images over participants’ own hands, and required participants to estimate felt pain intensity and their affective states. Half of the participants got specific instructions to distinct themselves from the other in the images. Felt pain intensity (perspective taking) and other-oriented affective responses (empathic concern) were increased by the instructions only when participants had high alexithymia scores as measured by questionnaire, although self-oriented affective responses (personal distress) were not affected by the instructions. These findings indicate that enhancing the self-other distinction enhances alexithymics’ ability to use advanced empathy, but not the primitive empathy. PMID:27739448

  7. Alexithymia impairs the cognitive control of negative material while facilitating the recall of neutral material in both younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Dressaire, Déborah; Stone, Charles B; Nielson, Kristy A; Guerdoux, Estelle; Martin, Sophie; Brouillet, Denis; Luminet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the moderating impact of the personality construct alexithymia on the ability of younger and older adults to control the recall of negative and neutral material. We conducted two experiments using the directed forgetting paradigm with younger and older adults. Participants studied negative (Experiment 1) or neutral (Experiment 2) words. Participants were instructed to forget the first half and remember the second half of an entire list of words. Overall, we found that alexithymia impairs the ability of both younger and older adults to cognitively control negative material (through both recall and inhibition). The "externally oriented thinking" factor of alexithymia appears to play a particularly pertinent role in terms of inhibiting negative material. Furthermore, older adults recalled fewer sought after negative items, but this was not evident in terms of inhibition. In contrast, only age (older adults) negatively impacted the recall of sought after neutral items. Interestingly, alexithymia had the opposite effect: the "difficulty in identifying emotions" factor of alexithymia was associated with an increased recall of neutral items. We discuss these results in terms of alexithymia and its impact on cognitive control.

  8. Brain activation during the perception of stressful word stimuli concerning interpersonal relationships in anorexia nervosa patients with high degrees of alexithymia in an fMRI paradigm.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Onoda, Keiichi; Shirao, Naoko; Okamoto, Yuri; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-02-28

    Several studies have reported that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have high levels of alexithymia. However, relatively little is known about the underlying neurobiological relationships between alexithymia and AN. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the brain responses in 30 AN patients and 20 healthy women during the processing of negative words concerning interpersonal relationships. We investigated the relationship between alexithymia levels and brain activation in AN. AN patients showed significant activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex while processing negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, as compared to the processing of neutral words. Moreover, the subjective rating of unpleasantness with negative words and neural activities in the amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) negatively correlated with the level of alexithymia in AN. Our neuroimaging results suggest that AN patients tend to cognitively process negative words concerning interpersonal relationships, resulting in activation of the prefrontal cortex. Lower activation of the amygdala, PCC and ACC in response to these words may contribute to the impairments of emotional processing that are hallmarks of alexithymia. Functional abnormalities associated with alexithymia may be involved in the emotional processing impairments in AN patients.

  9. Alexithymia, Emotional Dysregulation, and Recovery from Alcoholism: Therapeutic Response to Assessment of Mood

    PubMed Central

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Higgins, Margaret M.; Staller, Karen M.; Klatt, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial which tested the effects of a gratitude intervention on well-being in a sample of individuals in outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Follow-up qualitative interviews unexpectedly revealed that participants found the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to be helpful to their recovery in the ways that it asked them to identify and rate their emotions. Participant statements were purposively sampled and analyzed using grounded theory methods to produce a conceptual framework illustrating the process of mood identification and its sequelae. Evidence of existing alexithymia and emotional dysregulation, dominance of negative mood, and increasing ability to identify, accept, and regulate mood as part of recovery was found. Findings suggest that emotion regulation is a compelling topic for those in recovery from AUD, and may deserve a more prominent role in treatment. PMID:25810468

  10. Alexithymia and psychosocial problems among Italian preadolescents. A latent class analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Mannarini, Stefania; Balottin, Laura; Toldo, Irene; Gatta, Michela

    2016-10-01

    The study, conducted on Italian preadolscents aged 11 to 13 belonging to the general population, aims to investigate the relationship between the emotional functioning, namely, alexithymia, and the risk of developing behavioral and emotional problems measured using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire. The latent class analysis approach allowed to identify two latent variables, accounting for the internalizing (emotional symptoms and difficulties in emotional awareness) and for the externalizing problems (conduct problems and hyperactivity, problematic relationships with peers, poor prosocial behaviors and externally oriented thinking). The two latent variables featured two latent classes: the difficulty in dealing with problems and the strength to face problems that was representative of most of the healthy participants with specific gender differences. Along with the analysis of psychopathological behaviors, the study of resilience and strengths can prove to be a key step in order to develop valuable preventive approaches to tackle psychiatric disorders. PMID:27376760

  11. The relationships between interoception and alexithymic trait. The Self-Awareness Questionnaire in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Longarzo, Mariachiara; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Chiavazzo, Angela; Santangelo, Gabriella; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is the basic process enabling evaluation of one's own bodily states. Several previous studies suggested that altered interoception might be related to disorders in the ability to perceive and express emotions, i.e., alexithymia, and to defects in perceiving and describing one's own health status, i.e., hypochondriasis. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymic trait and interoceptive abilities evaluated by the “Self-Awareness Questionnaire” (SAQ), a novel self-report tool for assessing interoceptive awareness. Two hundred and fifty healthy subjects completed the SAQ, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items (TAS-20), and a questionnaire to assess hypochondriasis, the Illness Attitude Scale (IAS). The SAQ showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). We observed significant direct correlations between SAQ, TAS-20 and two of its subscales, and the IAS. Regression analysis confirmed that the difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions is significantly related with awareness for one's own interoceptive feelings and with a tendency to misinterpret and amplify bodily sensations. From a clinical point of view, the assessment of interoceptive awareness by the SAQ could be pivotal in evaluating several psychopathological conditions, such as the somatoform disorders. PMID:26300829

  12. Emotions and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Lambert, M C; Samms-Vaughan, M E; Lyubansky, M; Rose, D; Grandison, T; Holness, A; Hannah, S D; Podolski, C; Rowan, G T; Durst, J

    1999-12-01

    Few psychological assessment instruments exist for Jamaicans. Studies that address the appropriateness of foreign instruments for Jamaicans are sparse and empirical focus on psychopathology and its aetiology in Jamaican adults is virtually nonexistent. The present study addressed these deficits via Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) which revealed that factors on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were not replicated for a Jamaican sample (N = 352). Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) on the TAS-20 revealed one factor labelled Unawareness and Confusion Regarding Emotions (UCRE). Also, EFA yielded six BSI dimensions labelled Somatic Complaints, Paranoia, Hostility, Mild Depression/Dysthymia, Major Depression with Psychotic Features, and Agoraphobia with Panic. Regression analyses on the Jamaican-based TAS-20 and BSI factors revealed a positive relationship between UCRE and each BSI factor and total BSI score. Mild Depression, Agoraphobia with Panic, Paranoia, Hostility, Mild Depression and Major Depression were higher for women and younger Jamaicans, respectively, but younger Jamaicans with higher UCRE scores had higher scores on Paranoia, Major Depression, and total score. The findings suggest that Jamaican mental health policy and programmes should focus on the difficulties some Jamaicans experience in recognising and expressing their emotions. PMID:10639840

  13. Measurement equivalence of the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia across language, gender, and clinical status.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Kateryna V; Taylor, Graeme J; Parker, James D A; Inslegers, Ruth; Michael Bagby, R

    2015-08-30

    The Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA) has been translated into Dutch, German, and Italian and validated in clinical and nonclinical populations. In order to make valid comparisons across different population groups, it is important to establish measurement equivalence across variables such as language, gender, and clinical status. Our objective in this study was to establish measurement equivalence in relation to language (English, Dutch, German, and Italian), gender, and clinical status (non-clinical, psychiatric, and medical) using differential item functioning (DIF). The sample was composed of 842 adults representing the four language groups, all of whom had undergone the TSIA assessment as part of several earlier studies. Ordinal Logistic Regression was employed to explore DIF of the TSIA items. Although several items were found to exhibit DIF for language, gender, or clinical status, all of these effects were within an acceptable range. These findings provide support for the measurement equivalence of the TSIA, and allow researchers to reliably compare results from studies using the TSIA across the four language groups, gender, and clinical status.

  14. Alexithymia, Assertiveness and Psychosocial Functioning in HIV: Implications for Medication Adherence and Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Roger C; Ironson, Gail; Antoni, Michael; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Psychosocial function and adherence to antiretroviral regimen are key factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease management. Alexithymia (AL) is a trait deficit in the ability to identify and describe feelings, emotions and bodily sensations. A structural equation model was used to test whether high levels of AL indirectly relate to greater non-adherent behavior and HIV disease severity via psychosocial dysfunction. Blood draws for HIV-1 viral load and CD4 T-lymphocyte, along with psychosocial surveys were collected from 439 HIV positive adults aged 18-73 years. The structural model supports significant paths from: (1) AL to non-active patient involvement, psychological distress, and lower social support, (2) psychological distress and non-active involvement to non-adherent behavior, and (3) non-adherence to greater HIV disease severity (CFI = .97, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). A second model confirmed the intermediary effect of greater patient assertiveness on the path from AL to social support and non-active patient involvement (CFI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). Altogether, AL is indirectly linked with HIV disease management through it's association with poor psychosocial function, however greater patient assertiveness buffers the negative impact of AL on relationship quality with healthcare providers and members of one's social support network.

  15. Reduced empathic concern leads to utilitarian moral judgments in trait alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Indrajeet; Silani, Giorgia

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with moral dilemmas supports dual-process model of moral decision making. This model posits two different paths via which people can endorse utilitarian solution that requires personally harming someone in order to achieve the greater good (e.g., killing one to save five people): (i) weakened emotional aversion to the prospect of harming someone due to reduced empathic concern for the victim; (ii) enhanced cognition which supports cost-benefit analysis and countervails the prepotent emotional aversion to harm. Direct prediction of this model would be that personality traits associated with reduced empathy would show higher propensity to endorse utilitarian solutions. As per this prediction, we found that trait alexithymia, which is well-known to have deficits in empathy, was indeed associated with increased utilitarian tendencies on emotionally aversive personal moral dilemmas and this was due to reduced empathic concern for the victim. Results underscore the importance of empathy for moral judgments in harm/care domain of morality. PMID:24904510

  16. Alexithymia, Assertiveness and Psychosocial Functioning in HIV: Implications for Medication Adherence and Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Roger C; Ironson, Gail; Antoni, Michael; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Psychosocial function and adherence to antiretroviral regimen are key factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease management. Alexithymia (AL) is a trait deficit in the ability to identify and describe feelings, emotions and bodily sensations. A structural equation model was used to test whether high levels of AL indirectly relate to greater non-adherent behavior and HIV disease severity via psychosocial dysfunction. Blood draws for HIV-1 viral load and CD4 T-lymphocyte, along with psychosocial surveys were collected from 439 HIV positive adults aged 18-73 years. The structural model supports significant paths from: (1) AL to non-active patient involvement, psychological distress, and lower social support, (2) psychological distress and non-active involvement to non-adherent behavior, and (3) non-adherence to greater HIV disease severity (CFI = .97, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). A second model confirmed the intermediary effect of greater patient assertiveness on the path from AL to social support and non-active patient involvement (CFI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). Altogether, AL is indirectly linked with HIV disease management through it's association with poor psychosocial function, however greater patient assertiveness buffers the negative impact of AL on relationship quality with healthcare providers and members of one's social support network. PMID:26143246

  17. Conflict adaptation is predicted by the cognitive, but not the affective alexithymia dimension

    PubMed Central

    de Galan, Michiel; Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Stimulus-induced response conflict (e.g., in Simon or Stroop tasks) is often reduced after conflict trials—the Gratton effect. It is generally assumed that this effect is due to a strengthening of the representation of the current intention or goal, which in turn increases the degree of stimulus and/or response control. Recent evidence suggests that the motivational signal driving the Gratton effect might be affective in nature. If so, individual differences in either the strength of affective signals and/or the ability to interpret such signals might explain individual differences in cognitive-control adjustments as reflected in the Gratton effect. We tested this hypothesis by relating individual sizes of the Gratton effect in a Simon task to scores on the affective and the cognitive dimension of the Bermond/Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ)—which we assumed to assess individual differences in affective-signal strength and ability to interpret affective signals, respectively. Results show that the cognitive, but not the affective dimension predicted control adjustment, while the accuracy of heartbeat detection was only (and only weakly) related to online control. This suggests that the motivation to fine-tune one's cognitive-control operations is mediated by, and may depend on one's ability to interpret one's own affective signals. PMID:25101033

  18. Alexithymic Trait and Voluntary Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Liu, Xun; Guise, Kevin G.; Fossella, John; Wang, Kai; Fan, Jin

    2008-01-01

    Background Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control. Methodology/ Principal Findings We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ), respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control. PMID:19002254

  19. Affective agnosia: Expansion of the alexithymia construct and a new opportunity to integrate and extend Freud's legacy.

    PubMed

    Lane, Richard D; Weihs, Karen L; Herring, Anne; Hishaw, Alex; Smith, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new type of agnosia consisting of an impairment in the ability to mentally represent or know what one is feeling. Freud the neurologist coined the term "agnosia" in 1891 before creating psychoanalysis in 1895 but the term has not been previously applied to the domain of affective processing. We propose that the concept of "affective agnosia" advances the theory, measurement and treatment of what is now called "alexithymia," meaning "lack of words for emotion." We trace the origin of the alexithymia construct and discuss the strengths and limitations of extant research. We review evidence that the ability to represent and put emotions into words is a developmental achievement that strongly influences one's ability to experience, recognize, understand and use one's own emotional responses. We describe the neural substrates of emotional awareness and affective agnosia and compare and contrast these with related conditions. We then describe how this expansion of the conceptualization and measurement of affective processing deficits has important implications for basic emotion research and clinical practice. PMID:26054794

  20. Affective agnosia: Expansion of the alexithymia construct and a new opportunity to integrate and extend Freud's legacy.

    PubMed

    Lane, Richard D; Weihs, Karen L; Herring, Anne; Hishaw, Alex; Smith, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    We describe a new type of agnosia consisting of an impairment in the ability to mentally represent or know what one is feeling. Freud the neurologist coined the term "agnosia" in 1891 before creating psychoanalysis in 1895 but the term has not been previously applied to the domain of affective processing. We propose that the concept of "affective agnosia" advances the theory, measurement and treatment of what is now called "alexithymia," meaning "lack of words for emotion." We trace the origin of the alexithymia construct and discuss the strengths and limitations of extant research. We review evidence that the ability to represent and put emotions into words is a developmental achievement that strongly influences one's ability to experience, recognize, understand and use one's own emotional responses. We describe the neural substrates of emotional awareness and affective agnosia and compare and contrast these with related conditions. We then describe how this expansion of the conceptualization and measurement of affective processing deficits has important implications for basic emotion research and clinical practice.

  1. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  2. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  3. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  4. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  5. The self to other model of empathy: providing a new framework for understanding empathy impairments in psychopathy, autism, and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Bird, Geoffrey; Viding, Essi

    2014-11-01

    Despite increasing empirical and theoretical work on empathy, particularly on the content of empathic representations, there is a relative lack of consensus regarding the information processing necessary for empathy to occur. Here we attempt to delineate a mechanistic cognitive model of empathy in order to provide a framework within which neuroimaging work on empathy can be located, and which may be used in order to understand various disorders characterised by atypical levels of empathy. To this end data from individuals with psychopathy, autism, and alexithymia inform the model, and the model is used to provide a unifying framework for any empathy impairments seen in these disorders. The model adopts a developmental framework and tries to address the four difficult questions of empathy: How do we know what another is feeling? What is the role of theory of mind in empathy? How does the state of another cause a corresponding state in the self? How do we represent another's emotion once emotional contagion has taken place? PMID:25454356

  6. The self to other model of empathy: providing a new framework for understanding empathy impairments in psychopathy, autism, and alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Bird, Geoffrey; Viding, Essi

    2014-11-01

    Despite increasing empirical and theoretical work on empathy, particularly on the content of empathic representations, there is a relative lack of consensus regarding the information processing necessary for empathy to occur. Here we attempt to delineate a mechanistic cognitive model of empathy in order to provide a framework within which neuroimaging work on empathy can be located, and which may be used in order to understand various disorders characterised by atypical levels of empathy. To this end data from individuals with psychopathy, autism, and alexithymia inform the model, and the model is used to provide a unifying framework for any empathy impairments seen in these disorders. The model adopts a developmental framework and tries to address the four difficult questions of empathy: How do we know what another is feeling? What is the role of theory of mind in empathy? How does the state of another cause a corresponding state in the self? How do we represent another's emotion once emotional contagion has taken place?

  7. Touching the Lived Body in Patients with Medically Unexplained Symptoms. How an Integration of Hands-on Bodywork and Body Awareness in Psychotherapy may Help People with Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Calsius, Joeri; De Bie, Jozef; Hertogen, Raf; Meesen, Raf

    2016-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are a considerable presenting problem in general practice. Alexithymia and difficulties with mental elaboration of bodily arousal are hypothesized as a key mechanism in MUS. In turn, this inability influences the embodied being and participating of these patients in the world, which is coined as ‘the lived body’ and underlies what is mostly referred to as body awareness (BA). The present article explores a more innovative hypothesis how hands-on bodywork can influence BA and serve as a rationale for a body integrated psychotherapeutic approach of MUS. Research not only shows that BA is a bottom-up ‘bodily’ affair but is anchored in a interoceptive-insular pathway (IIP) which in turn is deeply connected with autonomic and emotional brain areas as well as verbal and non-verbal memory. Moreover, it is emphasized how skin and myofascial tissues should be seen as an interoceptive generator, if approached in the proper manual way. This article offers supportive evidence explaining why a ‘haptic’ touch activates this IIP, restores the myofascial armored body, helps patients rebalancing their window of tolerance and facilitates BA by contacting their bodily inner-world. From a trans-disciplinary angle this article reflects on how the integration of bodywork with non-directive verbal guidance can be deeply healing and resourcing for the lived body experience in MUS. In particular for alexithymic patients this approach can be of significance regarding their representational failure of bodily arousal. PMID:26973560

  8. A case-control study on family dysfunction in patients with alopecia areata, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Poot, Francoise; Antoine, Enora; Gravellier, Marion; Hirtt, Jennifer; Alfani, Stefania; Forchetti, Giulia; Linder, Dennis; Abeni, Damiano; Tabolli, Stefano; Sampogna, Francesca

    2011-06-01

    Family history can provide important information about a patient's psychological status, and thus their disease risk. A multicentric case-control study on family dysfunction was performed on 59 patients with psoriasis (63.7%), atopic dermatitis (11.9%) or alopecia areata (25.4%), and 47 patients with minor skin problems (controls), all attending a dermatological clinic or a psychodermatological consultation. The mean age of subjects was 47.7 years in the cases and 48.8 years in the controls. Women represented 53% of cases and 62% of controls. Patients and controls first completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) questionnaire. The overall prevalence of anxiety and/or depression in cases was 43.3% (71.4% in atopic dermatitis). To collect the family history a genogram was built by the interviewer during a semi-structured interview. It can show dysfunction in the family, as it highlights alliances and ruptures, generational repetition of behaviours of dependence or vulnerability, and traumatic events. The mean (± standard deviation) genogram score was 6.7 ± 3.3 in the cases and 3.0 ± 2.4 in the controls (p<0.001). The cases had three times the risk of having moderate family dysfunction compared with controls and 16 times the risk of having a severe family dysfunction. The genogram score was correlated with the severity of the disease as evaluated by the patient. In conclusion, family dysfunction may play an important role in the onset or the exacerbation of psoriasis, alopecia, and atopic dermatitis.

  9. Scale and scaling in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  10. Musical activity and emotional competence – a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Theorell, Töres P.; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Mosing, Miriam A.; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that musical activities may contribute to the prevention of alexithymia. We tested whether musical creative achievement and musical practice are associated with lower alexithymia. 8000 Swedish twins aged 27–54 were studied. Alexithymia was assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Musical achievement was rated on a 7-graded scale. Participants estimated number of hours of music practice during different ages throughout life. A total life estimation of number of accumulated hours was made. They were also asked about ensemble playing. In addition, twin modelling was used to explore the genetic architecture of the relation between musical practice and alexithymia. Alexithymia was negatively associated with (i) musical creative achievement, (ii) having played a musical instrument as compared to never having played, and – for the subsample of participants that had played an instrument – (iii) total hours of musical training (r = -0.12 in men and -0.10 in women). Ensemble playing added significant variance. Twin modelling showed that alexithymia had a moderate heritability of 36% and that the association with musical practice could be explained by shared genetic influences. Associations between musical training and alexithymia remained significant when controlling for education, depression, and intelligence. Musical achievement and musical practice are associated with lower levels of alexithymia in both men and women. Musical engagement thus appears to be associated with higher emotional competence, although effect sizes are small. The association between musical training and alexithymia appears to be entirely genetically mediated, suggesting genetic pleiotropy. PMID:25076933

  11. Millimeter Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvill, Leo M.

    This absolute scale contains nine times, each of which consists of a 100 millimeter vertical line with small division marks every 25 millimeters with the words "high" at the top and "low" at the bottom of the line. Above each of the vertical lines is a word or phrase. For the second grade scale these words are: arithmetic, counting, adding,…

  12. Activity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Larry C.; Weiner, Michael J.

    This twenty-four item scale assesses students' actual and desired political-social activism in terms of physical participation, communication activities, and information-gathering activities. About ten minutes are required to complete the instrument. The scale is divided into two subscales. The first twelve items (ACT-A) question respondents on…

  13. Scale interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, John T.

    Since the time of the first world war, investigation of synoptic processes has been a major focus of atmospheric research. These are the physical processes that drive the continuously evolving pattern of high and low pressure centers and attendant frontal boundaries that are to be seen on continental-scale weather maps. This effort has been motivated both by a spirit of scientific inquiry and by a desire to improve operational weather forecasting by national meteorological services. These national services in turn have supported the development of a global observational network that provides the data required for both operational and research purposes. As a consequence of this research, there now exists a reasonable physical understanding of many of the phenomena found at this synoptic scale. This understanding is reflected in the numerical weather forecast models used by the national services. These have shown significant skill in predicting the evolution of synoptic-scale features for periods extending out to five days.

  14. Scaling Rules!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkinson, Dan; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Scaling is a fundamental issue in any spatially or temporally hierarchical system. Defining domains and identifying the boundaries of the hierarchical levels may be a challenging task. Hierarchical systems may be broadly classified to two categories: compartmental and continuous ones. Examples of compartmental systems include: governments, companies, computerized networks, biological taxonomy and others. In such systems the compartments, and hence the various levels and their constituents are easily delineated. In contrast, in continuous systems, such as geomorphological, ecological or climatological ones, detecting the boundaries of the various levels may be difficult. We propose that in continuous hierarchical systems a transition from one functional scale to another is associated with increased system variance. Crossing from a domain of one scale to the domain of another is associated with a transition or substitution of the dominant drivers operating in the system. Accordingly we suggest that crossing this boundary is characterized by increased variance, or a "variance leap", which stabilizes, until crossing to the next domain or hierarchy level. To assess this we compiled sediment yield data from studies conducted at various spatial scales and from different environments. The studies were partitioned to ones conducted in undisturbed environments, and those conducted in disturbed environments, specifically by wildfires. The studies were conducted in plots as small as 1 m2, and watersheds larger than 555000 ha. Regressing sediment yield against plot size, and incrementally calculating the variance in the systems, enabled us to detect domains where variance values were exceedingly high. We propose that at these domains scale-crossing occurs, and the systems transition from one hierarchical level to another. Moreover, the degree of the "variance leaps" characterizes the degree of connectivity among the scales.

  15. Scaling satan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  16. Scaling satan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others. PMID:11577971

  17. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  18. Educational Scale-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the complexities of educational scale-making. "Educational scales" are defined as the spatial and temporal orders generated as pupils and teachers move and are moved through educational systems; scales are "envelopes of spacetime" into which certain schoolbased identities (and not others) can be folded. Scale is thus both an…

  19. Raters & Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Winifred A.; Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    The first article in this section, "Rating Scales and Shared Meaning," by Winifred A. Lopez, discusses the analysis of rating scale data. The second article, "Rating Scale Categories: Dichotomy, Double Dichotomy, and the Number Two," by Mark H. Stone, argues that dichotomies in rating scales are more useful than multiple ratings. (SLD)

  20. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  1. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  2. Weak scale supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-12

    An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

  3. On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Ernest A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

  4. Cross-scale morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Holling, Crawford S.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; El-Shaarawi, Abdel H.; Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    The scaling of physical, biological, ecological and social phenomena is a major focus of efforts to develop simple representations of complex systems. Much of the attention has been on discovering universal scaling laws that emerge from simple physical and geometric processes. However, there are regular patterns of departures both from those scaling laws and from continuous distributions of attributes of systems. Those departures often demonstrate the development of self-organized interactions between living systems and physical processes over narrower ranges of scale.

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN PSORIASIS

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, S.; Das, A.L.; John, Ranjan T.; Ramadasan, P.

    1998-01-01

    This study compares the levels of anxiety, depression, alexithymia and stressful life events in 30 consecutive patients of psoriasis with equal number of age and sex matched normal controls, patients with fungal infections and patients with neurosis, Sinha′s anxiety scale, Hamilton′s depression rating scale, Toronto alexithymia scale and the presumptive stressful life events scale were used to measure anxiety, depression, alexithymia and stressful life events respectively Analysis revealed that patients with psoriasis were significantly more anxious and depressed, obtained significantly higher alexithymia scores and had significantly more stressful life events as compared to normal subjects and patients with fungal skin infection. Psoriatics were significantly less anxious and depressed as compared to neurosis patients. Six patients with psoriasis were dependent on alcohol. Measures to reduce anxiety and depression and reduction of alcohol intake will not only improve subjective wellbeing of psoriasis patients but may also prevent relapses. PMID:21494487

  6. Reading Graduated Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lucien T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)

  7. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

  8. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  9. Belt scales user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.I. )

    1993-02-01

    A conveyor-belt scale provides a means of obtaining accurate weights of dry bulk materials without delaying other plant operations. In addition, for many applications a belt scale is the most cost-effective alternative among many choices for a weighing system. But a number of users are not comfortable with the accuracy of their belt scales. In cases of unsatisfactory scale performance, it is often possible to correct problems and achieve the accuracy that was expected. To have a belt scale system that is accurate, precise, and cost effective, practical experience has shown that certain basic requisites must be satisfied. These requisites include matching the scale capability to the needs of the application, selecting durable scale equipment and conveyor idlers, adopting improved conveyor support methods, employing superior scale installation and alignment techniques, and establishing and practicing an effective scale testing and performance monitoring program. The goal of the Belt Scale Users' Guide is to enable utilities to reap the benefits of consistently accurate output from their new or upgraded belt scale installations. Such benefits include eliminating incorrect payments for coal receipts, improving coal pile inventory data, providing better heat rate results to enhance plant efficiency and yield more economical power dispatch, and satisfying regulatory agencies. All these benefits can reduce the cost of power generation.

  10. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  11. Scaled models, scaled frequencies, and model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxburgh, Ian W.

    2015-12-01

    I show that given a model star of mass M, radius R, and density profile ρ(x) [x = r/R], there exists a two parameter family of models with masses Mk, radii Rk, density profile ρk(x) = λρ(x) and frequencies νknℓ = λ1/2νnℓ, where λ,Rk/RA are scaling factors. These models have different internal structures, but all have the same value of separation ratios calculated at given radial orders n, and all exactly satisfy a frequency matching algorithm with an offset function determined as part of the fitting procedure. But they do not satisfy ratio matching at given frequencies nor phase shift matching. This illustrates that erroneous results may be obtained when model fitting with ratios at given n values or frequency matching. I give examples from scaled models and from non scaled evolutionary models.

  12. Salzburger State Reactance Scale (SSR Scale)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This paper describes the construction and empirical evaluation of an instrument for measuring state reactance, the Salzburger State Reactance (SSR) Scale. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported a hypothesized three-factor structure: experience of reactance, aggressive behavioral intentions, and negative attitudes. Correlations with divergent and convergent measures support the validity of this structure. The SSR Subscales were strongly related to the other state reactance measures. Moreover, the SSR Subscales showed modest positive correlations with trait measures of reactance. The SSR Subscales correlated only slightly or not at all with neighboring constructs (e.g., autonomy, experience of control). The only exception was fairness scales, which showed moderate correlations with the SSR Subscales. Furthermore, a retest analysis confirmed the temporal stability of the scale. Suggestions for further validation of this questionnaire are discussed. PMID:27453806

  13. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  14. Parabolic scaling beams.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    We generalize the concept of diffraction free beams to parabolic scaling beams (PSBs), whose normalized intensity scales parabolically during propagation. These beams are nondiffracting in the circular parabolic coordinate systems, and all the diffraction free beams of Durnin's type have counterparts as PSBs. Parabolic scaling Bessel beams with Gaussian apodization are investigated in detail, their nonparaxial extrapolations are derived, and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  15. Multi-scale renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, C.; Wiesendanger, C.

    1997-02-01

    The standard MS renormalization prescription is inadequate for dealing with multi-scale problems. To illustrate this we consider the computation of the effective potential in the Higgs-Yukawa model. It is argued that it is natural to employ a two-scale renormalization group. We give a modified version of a two-scale scheme introduced by Einhorn and Jones. In such schemes the beta functions necessarily contain potentially large logarithms of the RG scale ratios. For credible perturbation theory one must implement a large logarithms resummation on the beta functions themselves. We show how the integrability condition for the two RG equations allows one to perform this resummation.

  16. Alexithymia, Affect Regulation, and Binge Drinking in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, F. Diane

    2015-01-01

    Numerous programs have been instituted to address the widely recognized problem of binge drinking in college students, with some excellent results. Yet binge drinking is commonly still viewed as a socially acceptable form of relaxing and bonding with peers, often with the stated goal of getting as drunk as possible as quickly as possible. The…

  17. The Family Constellation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemire, David

    The Family Constellation Scale (FC Scale) is an instrument that assesses perceived birth order in families. It can be used in counseling to help initiate conversations about various traits and assumptions that tend to characterize first-born, middle-born children, youngest-born, and only children. It provides both counselors and clients insights…

  18. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  19. Scaling up as Catachresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The metaphor of scaling up is the wrong one to use for describing and prescribing educational change. Many of the strategies being employed to achieve scaling up are counter-productive: they conceive of practitioners as delivery agents or consumers, rather than as co-constructors of change. An approach to educational innovation based on the…

  20. Thoughts on Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    This essay reflects on the challenges of thinking about scale--of making sense of phenomena such as continuous professional development (CPD) at the system level, while holding on to detail at the finer grain size(s) of implementation. The stimuli for my reflections are three diverse studies of attempts at scale--an attempt to use ideas related to…

  1. Premarital Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancouver Board of School Trustees (British Columbia). Dept. of Planning and Evaluation.

    The thirty-one item questionnaire was developed to measure how prepared high school students are for marriage. The students are directed to read each statement and to select a response on a five point scale ranging from agreeing strongly to disagreeing strongly. The scale is scored to indicate three factors which are considered important for a…

  2. Everyday Scale Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Elizabeth A.; Uttal, David H.; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2010-01-01

    Young children occasionally make "scale errors"--they attempt to fit their bodies into extremely small objects or attempt to fit a larger object into another, tiny, object. For example, a child might try to sit in a dollhouse-sized chair or try to stuff a large doll into it. Scale error research was originally motivated by parents' and…

  3. Teaching Satisfaction Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Chung-Lim; Au, Wing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    The present study proposes a teaching satisfaction measure and examines the validity of its scores. The measure is based on the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Scores on the five-item Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS) were validated on a sample of 202 primary and secondary school teachers and favorable psychometric properties were found. As…

  4. Teacher Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Observation Scales include four instruments: Observer Rating Scale (ORS), Reading Strategies Check List, Arithmetic Strategies Check List, and Classroom Description. These instruments utilize trained observers to describe the teaching behavior, instructional strategies and physical characteristics in each classroom. On the ORS, teacher…

  5. New scale factor measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2012-07-01

    The computation of probabilities in an eternally inflating universe requires a regulator or “measure.” The scale factor time measure truncates the Universe when a congruence of timelike geodesics has expanded by a fixed volume factor. This definition breaks down if the generating congruence is contracting—a serious limitation that excludes from consideration gravitationally bound regions such as our own. Here we propose a closely related regulator which is well defined in the entire spacetime. The new scale factor cutoff restricts to events with a scale factor below a given value. Since the scale factor vanishes at caustics and crunches, this cutoff always includes an infinite number of disconnected future regions. We show that this does not lead to divergences. The resulting measure combines desirable features of the old scale factor cutoff and of the light-cone time cutoff, while eliminating some of the disadvantages of each.

  6. The inflationary energy scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddle, Andrew R.

    1994-01-01

    The energy scale of inflation is of much interest, as it suggests the scale of grand unified physics, governs whether cosmological events such as topological defect formation can occur after inflation, and also determines the amplitude of gravitational waves which may be detectable using interferometers. The COBE results are used to limit the energy scale of inflation at the time large scale perturbations were imprinted. An exact dynamical treatment based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations is then used to translate this into limits on the energy scale at the end of inflation. General constraints are given, and then tighter constraints based on physically motivated assumptions regarding the allowed forms of density perturbation and gravitational wave spectra. These are also compared with the values of familiar models.

  7. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Williams, Mark L; Bowman, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  8. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  9. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  10. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  11. Scaling in sensitivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2002-01-01

    Population matrix models allow sets of demographic parameters to be summarized by a single value 8, the finite rate of population increase. The consequences of change in individual demographic parameters are naturally measured by the corresponding changes in 8; sensitivity analyses compare demographic parameters on the basis of these changes. These comparisons are complicated by issues of scale. Elasticity analysis attempts to deal with issues of scale by comparing the effects of proportional changes in demographic parameters, but leads to inconsistencies in evaluating demographic rates. We discuss this and other problems of scaling in sensitivity analysis, and suggest a simple criterion for choosing appropriate scales. We apply our suggestions to data for the killer whale, Orcinus orca.

  12. Lifshitz scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2015-02-01

    We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

  13. Large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolin, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    Classes of large scale dynamic systems were discussed in the context of modern control theory. Specific examples discussed were in the technical fields of aeronautics, water resources and electric power.

  14. Reconsidering earthquake scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J.; Wech, A.; Creager, K.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D.

    2016-06-01

    The relationship (scaling) between scalar moment, M0, and duration, T, potentially provides key constraints on the physics governing fault slip. The prevailing interpretation of M0-T observations proposes different scaling for fast (earthquakes) and slow (mostly aseismic) slip populations and thus fundamentally different driving mechanisms. We show that a single model of slip events within bounded slip zones may explain nearly all fast and slow slip M0-T observations, and both slip populations have a change in scaling, where the slip area growth changes from 2-D when too small to sense the boundaries to 1-D when large enough to be bounded. We present new fast and slow slip M0-T observations that sample the change in scaling in each population, which are consistent with our interpretation. We suggest that a continuous but bimodal distribution of slip modes exists and M0-T observations alone may not imply a fundamental difference between fast and slow slip.

  15. Scaling in Columnar Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Columnar jointing is a fracture pattern common in igneous rocks in which cracks self-organize into a roughly hexagonal arrangement, leaving behind an ordered colonnade. We report observations of columnar jointing in a laboratory analog system, desiccated corn starch slurries. Using measurements of moisture density, evaporation rates, and fracture advance rates, we suggest an advective-diffusive system is responsible for the rough scaling behavior of columnar joints. This theory explains the order of magnitude difference in scales between jointing in lavas and in starches. We investigated the scaling of average columnar cross-sectional areas in experiments where the evaporation rate was fixed using feedback methods. Our results suggest that the column area at a particular depth is related to both the current conditions, and hysteretically to the geometry of the pattern at previous depths. We argue that there exists a range of stable column scales allowed for any particular evaporation rate.

  16. Digital scale converter

    DOEpatents

    Upton, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    A digital scale converter is provided for binary coded decimal (BCD) conversion. The converter may be programmed to convert a BCD value of a first scale to the equivalent value of a second scale according to a known ratio. The value to be converted is loaded into a first BCD counter and counted down to zero while a second BCD counter registers counts from zero or an offset value depending upon the conversion. Programmable rate multipliers are used to generate pulses at selected rates to the counters for the proper conversion ratio. The value present in the second counter at the time the first counter is counted to the zero count is the equivalent value of the second scale. This value may be read out and displayed on a conventional seven-segment digital display.

  17. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  18. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. S.; Gao, Y. P.; Zhao, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observational data are not evenly sampled, and the internals between data points range from several hours to more than half a month. What's more, these data sets are sparse. And all these make it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, we use cubic spline interpolation to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points even. Then, we employ the Vondrak filter to smooth the data set, and get rid of high-frequency noise, finally adopt the weighted average method to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The pulsar timing residuals represent clock difference between the pulsar time and atomic time, and the high precision pulsar timing data mean the clock difference measurement between the pulsar time and atomic time with a high signal to noise ratio, which is fundamental to generate pulsar time. We use the latest released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set is from the newest NANOGRAV data release, which includes 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars using the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and 305-meter Arecibo telescope. We find that the algorithm used in this paper can lower the influence caused by noises in timing residuals, and improve long-term stability of pulsar time. Results show that the long-term (> 1 yr) frequency stability of the pulsar time is better than 3.4×10-15.

  19. The Improbability scale

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

  20. Scaling, Universality, and Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

    Theories of scaling apply wherever similarity exists across many scales. This similarity may be found in geometry and in dynamical processes. Universality arises when the qualitative character of a system is sufficient to quantitatively predict its essential features, such as the exponents that characterize scaling laws. Within geomorphology, two areas where the concepts of scaling and universality have found application are the geometry of river networks and the statistical structure of topography. We begin this review with a pedagogical presentation of scaling and universality. We then describe recent progress made in applying these ideas to networks and topography. This overview leads to a synthesis that attempts a classification of surface and network properties based on generic mechanisms and geometric constraints. We also briefly review how scaling and universality have been applied to related problems in sedimentology-specifically, the origin of stromatolites and the relation of the statistical properties of submarine-canyon topography to the size distribution of turbidite deposits. Throughout the review, our intention is to elucidate not only the problems that can be solved using these concepts, but also those that cannot.

  1. Earthquake Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.; Boettcher, M.; Richardson, E.

    2002-12-01

    Using scaling relations to understand nonlinear geosystems has been an enduring theme of Don Turcotte's research. In particular, his studies of scaling in active fault systems have led to a series of insights about the underlying physics of earthquakes. This presentation will review some recent progress in developing scaling relations for several key aspects of earthquake behavior, including the inner and outer scales of dynamic fault rupture and the energetics of the rupture process. The proximate observations of mining-induced, friction-controlled events obtained from in-mine seismic networks have revealed a lower seismicity cutoff at a seismic moment Mmin near 109 Nm and a corresponding upper frequency cutoff near 200 Hz, which we interpret in terms of a critical slip distance for frictional drop of about 10-4 m. Above this cutoff, the apparent stress scales as M1/6 up to magnitudes of 4-5, consistent with other near-source studies in this magnitude range (see special session S07, this meeting). Such a relationship suggests a damage model in which apparent fracture energy scales with the stress intensity factor at the crack tip. Under the assumption of constant stress drop, this model implies an increase in rupture velocity with seismic moment, which successfully predicts the observed variation in corner frequency and maximum particle velocity. Global observations of oceanic transform faults (OTFs) allow us to investigate a situation where the outer scale of earthquake size may be controlled by dynamics (as opposed to geologic heterogeneity). The seismicity data imply that the effective area for OTF moment release, AE, depends on the thermal state of the fault but is otherwise independent of fault's average slip rate; i.e., AE ~ AT, where AT is the area above a reference isotherm. The data are consistent with β = 1/2 below an upper cutoff moment Mmax that increases with AT and yield the interesting scaling relation Amax ~ AT1/2. Taken together, the OTF

  2. Fast ignition breakeven scaling.

    SciTech Connect

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E{sub T} = 7.5({rho}/100){sup -1.87} kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E{sub UT} = 15.3({rho}/100){sup -1.5} kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even.

  3. Scaling of Thermoacoustic Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zeegers, J. C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2008-03-01

    The possibility of scaling-down thermoacoustic refrigerators is theoretically investigated. Standing-wave systems are considered as well as traveling-wave. In the former case, a reference system is taken that consists of a resonator tube (50 cm) with a closed end and a PVC stack (length 5 cm). Helium is used at a mean pressure of 10 bar and an amplitude of 1 bar. The resulting operating frequency is 1 kHz. The variation of the performance of the refrigerator when scaled down in size is computed under the prerequisites that the temperature drop over the stack or the energy flux or its density are fixed. The analytical results show that there is a limitation in scaling-down a standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator due to heat conduction. Similar scaling trends are considered in traveling-wave refrigerators. The traveling-wave reference system consists of a feedback inertance tube of 0.567 m long, inside diameter 78 mm, a compliance volume of 2830 cm3 and a 24 cm thermal buffer tube. The regenerator is sandwiched between two heat exchangers. The system is operated at 125 Hz and filled with 30 bar helium gas. Again, the thermal conductance forms a practical limitation in down-scaling.

  4. Universities scale like cities.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  5. Fire toxicity scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Levin, B.C.; Paabo, M.; Gurman, J.; Holt, T.

    1987-02-01

    The toxicity of the thermal-decomposition products from two flexible polyurethane foams (with and without a fire retardant) and a cotton upholstery fabric was evaluated by a series of small-scale and large-scale tests single mock-up upholstery chair tests during smoldering or flaming decomposition. In addition other fire property data such as rates of heat release, effective heats of combustion, specific gas species yields, and smoke obscuration were measured. The degree of toxicity observed during and following the flaming tests (both large-scale room burns and the NBS Toxicity Tests) could be explained by a 3-Gas Model which includes the combined toxicological effects of CO, CO/sub 2/, and HCN. Essentially, no animal deaths were noted during the thirty minute exposures to the non-flaming or smoldering combustion products produced in the NBS Toxicity Test Method or the large-scale room test. In the large-scale room tests, little toxicological difference was noted between decomposition products from the burn room and a second room 12 meters away.

  6. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  7. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level.

  8. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  9. No-scale inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  10. Scales of rock permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, Y.; Gavrilenko, P.; Le Ravalec, M.

    1996-05-01

    Permeability is a transport property which is currently measured in Darcy units. Although this unit is very convenient for most purposes, its use prevents from recognizing that permeability has units of length squared. Physically, the square root of permeability can thus be seen as a characteristic length or a characteristic pore size. At the laboratory scale, the identification of this characteristic length is a good example of how experimental measurements and theoretical modelling can be integrated. Three distinct identifications are of current use, relying on three different techniques: image analysis of thin sections, mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption. In each case, one or several theoretical models allow us to derive permeability from the experimental data (equivalent channel models, statistical models, effective media models, percolation and network models). Permeability varies with pressure and temperature and this is a decisive point for any extrapolation to crustal conditions. As far as pressure is concerned, most of the effect is due to cracks and a model which does not incorporate this fact will miss its goal. Temperature induced modifications can be the result of several processes: thermal cracking (due to thermal expansion mismatch and anisotropy, or to fluid pressure build up), and pressure solution are the two main ones. Experimental data on pressure and temperature effects are difficult to obtain but they are urgently needed. Finally, an important issue is: up to which point are these small scale data and models relevant when considering formations at the oil reservoir scale, or at the crust scale? At larger scales the identification of the characteristic scale is also a major goal which is examined.

  11. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  12. Scale invariance in biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2000-06-01

    In this general talk, we offer an overview of some problems of interest to biophysicists, medical physicists, and econophysicists. These include DNA sequences, brain plaques in Alzheimer patients, heartbeat intervals, and time series giving price fluctuations in economics. These problems have the common feature that they exhibit features that appear to be scale invariant. Particularly vexing is the problem that some of these scale invariant phenomena are not stationary-their statistical properties vary from one time interval to the next or form one position to the next. We will discuss methods, such as wavelet methods and multifractal methods, to cope with these problems. .

  13. xi-scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Gunion, J.F.

    1980-04-01

    A class of purely kinematical corrections to xi-scaling is exposed. These corrections are inevitably present in any realistic hadron model with spin and gauge invariance and lead to phenomenologically important M/sub hadron//sup 2//Q/sup 2/ corrections to Nachtmann moments.

  14. Scale, Composition, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Scale (gross domestic product), composition (goods and services), and technology (impacts per unit of goods and services) in combination are the proximate determinants in an economy of the resources used, wastes generated, and land transformed. In this article, we examine relationships among these determinants to understand better the contribution…

  15. Scaling the Salary Heights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1986-01-01

    Federal cutbacks have created new demand for fund-raisers everywhere. Educational fund-raisers are thinking about "pay for performance"--incentive-based pay plans that can help them retain, reward, and motivate talented fund raisers within the tight pay scales common at colleges and universities. (MLW)

  16. Build an Interplanetary Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students use a bathroom scale and a long board to see how their weight changes on other planets and the moon. Materials list, procedures, tables of planet radii, comparative values, and gravitational ratios are provided. (DDR)

  17. Fundamentals of Zoological Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    The following animal characteristics are considered to determine how properties and characteristics of various systems change with system size (scaling): skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing-flapping, and maximum sizes of flying and hovering…

  18. Allometric scaling of countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Tongkui

    2010-11-01

    As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, and urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with the GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic (labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to the population between countries and cities were pointed out. First, population increases sub-linearly with area in countries. Second, the GDP increases linearly in countries but not super-linearly as in cities. Finally, electricity or oil consumption per capita increases with population faster than cities.

  19. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  20. Scaling up Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains several projects, each addressing different questions with different techniques. In chapter 1, I argue that they are unified thematically by their goal of "scaling up psycholinguistics"; they are all aimed at analyzing large data-sets using tools that reveal patterns to propose and test mechanism-neutral hypotheses about…

  1. The Infant Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the usefulness of the Infant Rating Scale (IRS) in the early identification of learning difficulties. Thirteen hundred five-year-olds were rated by their teachers after one term in school. The structure of the IRS, its reliability, and predictive validity are examined. (Author/SJL)

  2. The Spiritual Competency Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which was based on the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's original Spiritual Competencies. Participants were 662 counseling students from religiously based and secular universities nationwide. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 22-item,…

  3. Scales of mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Akber-Knutson, S.; Konter, J.; Kellogg, J.; Hart, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing question in mantle dynamics concerns the scale of heterogeneity in the mantle. Mantle convection tends to both destroy (through stirring) and create (through melt extraction and subduction) heterogeneity in bulk and trace element composition. Over time, these competing processes create variations in geochemical composition along mid-oceanic ridges and among oceanic islands, spanning a range of scales from extremely long wavelength (for example, the DUPAL anomaly) to very small scale (for example, variations amongst melt inclusions). While geochemical data and seismic observations can be used to constrain the length scales of mantle heterogeneity, dynamical mixing calculations can illustrate the processes and timescales involved in stirring and mixing. At the Summer 2004 CIDER workshop on Relating Geochemical and Seismological Heterogeneity in the Earth's Mantle, an interdisciplinary group evaluated scales of heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a combined analysis of geochemical data, seismological data and results of numerical models of mixing. We mined the PetDB database for isotopic data from glass and whole rock analyses for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR), projecting them along the ridge length. We examined Sr isotope variability along the East Pacific rise by looking at the difference in Sr ratio between adjacent samples as a function of distance between the samples. The East Pacific Rise exhibits an overall bowl shape of normal MORB characteristics, with higher values in the higher latitudes (there is, however, an unfortunate gap in sampling, roughly 2000 km long). These background characteristics are punctuated with spikes in values at various locations, some, but not all of which are associated with off-axis volcanism. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced data was utilized to construct a power spectrum of the scale lengths of heterogeneity along both ridges. Using the same isotopic systems (Sr, Nd

  4. Scaling Applications in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2010-05-01

    Besides downscaling applications, scaling properties of hydrological fields can be used to address a variety of research questions. In this presentation, we will use scaling properties to address questions related to satellite evapotranspiration algorithms, precipitation-streamflow relationships, and hydrological model calibration. Most of the existing satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms have been developed using fine-resolution Landsat TM and ASTER data. However, these algorithms are often applied to coarse-resolution MODIS data. Our results show that applying the satellite-based algorithms, which are developed at ASTER resolution, to MODIS resolution leads to ET estimates that (1) preserve the overall spatial pattern (spatial correlation in excess of 0.90), (2) increase the spatial standard deviation and maximum value, (3) have modest conditional bias: underestimate low ET rates (< 1 mm/day) and overestimate high ET rates; the overestimation is within 20%. The results emphasize the need for exploring alternatives for estimation of ET from MODIS. Understanding the relationship between the scaling properties of precipitation and streamflow is important in a number of applications. We present the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River basin in Georgia in the United States with focus on effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 22 km2 to 19,606 km2. Results show that large watersheds have more persistent flow fluctuations and stronger long-term (time greater than scale break point) memory than small watersheds while precipitation time series shows weak long-term correlation. We conclude that a watershed acts as a 'filter' for a 'white noise' precipitation with more significant filtering in case of large watersheds. Finally, we compare the scaling properties of simulated and observed spatial soil

  5. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  6. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  7. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  8. An elastica arm scale.

    PubMed

    Bosi, F; Misseroni, D; Dal Corso, F; Bigoni, D

    2014-09-01

    The concept of a 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  9. Fundamentals of zoological scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain—a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple physical ideas. We consider the following animal characteristics: skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing flapping, and maximum sizes of animals that fly and hover. These relationships are compared to zoological data and everyday experience, and match reasonably well.

  10. The Extragalactic Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Donahue, Megan; Panagia, Nino

    1997-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Early history of the distance scale problem, S. van den Bergh; Cosmology: From Hubble to HST, M. S. Turner; Age constraints nucleocosmochronology, J. Truran; The ages of globular clusters, P. Demarque; The linearity of the Hubble flow M. Postman; Gravitational lensing and the extragalactic distance scale, R. D. Blandford andT . Kundic; Using the cosmic microwave background to constrain the Hubble constant A. Lasenby and T M. Jones; Cepheids as distance indicators, N. R. Tanvir; The I-band Tully-Fisher relation and the Hubble constant, R. Giovanell; The calibration of type 1a supernovae as standard candles, A. Saha; Focusing in on the Hubble constant, G. A. Tammann & M. Federspiel; Interim report on the calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation in the HST Key Project to measure the Hubble constant, J. Mould et al.; Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale, W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore and T R. C. Kennicutt; Novae as distance indicators, M. Livio; Verifying the planetary nebula luminosity function method, G. H. Jacoby; On the possible use of radio supernovae for distance determinations, K. W. Weiler et al.; Post-AGB stars as standard candles, H. Bond; Helium core flash at the tip of the red giant branch: a population II distance indicator, B. F. Madore, W. L. Freedman and T S. Sakai; Globular clusters as distance indicators, B. C. Whitmore; Detached eclipsing binaries as primary distance and age indicators, B. Paczynski; Light echoes: geometric measurement of galaxy distances, W. B. Sparks; The SBF survey of galaxy distances J. L. Tonry; Extragalactic distance scales: The long and short of it, V. Trimble.

  11. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Mayeda, K.; Ruppert, S.

    2002-12-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by analyzing aftershock sequences in the Western U.S. and Turkey using two different techniques. First we examine the observed regional S-wave spectra by fitting with a parametric model (Walter and Taylor, 2002) with and without variable stress drop scaling. Because the aftershock sequences have common stations and paths we can examine the S-wave spectra of events by size to determine what type of apparent stress scaling, if any, is most consistent with the data. Second we use regional coda envelope techniques (e.g. Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al, 2002) on the same events to directly measure energy and moment. The coda techniques corrects for path and site effects using an empirical Green function technique and independent calibration with surface wave derived moments. Our hope is that by carefully analyzing a very large number of events in a consistent manner using two different techniques we can start to resolve this apparent stress scaling issue. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeda, K.; Walter, W. R.

    2003-04-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by applying the same methodology to a series of datasets that spans roughly 10 orders in seismic moment, M0. We will summarize recent results using a coda envelope methodology of Mayeda et al, (2003) which provide the most stable source spectral estimates to date. This methodology eliminates the complicating effects of lateral path heterogeneity, source radiation pattern, directivity, and site response (e.g., amplification, f-max and kappa). We find that in tectonically active continental crustal areas the total radiated energy scales as M00.25 whereas in regions of relatively younger oceanic crust, the stress drop is generally lower and exhibits a 1-to-1 scaling with moment. In addition to answering a fundamental question in earthquake source dynamics, this study addresses how one would scale small earthquakes in a particular region up to a future, more damaging earthquake. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E; Potok, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  14. Beyond the Planck Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2009-12-15

    I outline motivations for believing that important quantum gravity effects lie beyond the Planck scale at both higher energies and longer distances and times. These motivations arise in part from the study of ultra-high energy scattering, and also from considerations in cosmology. I briefly summarize some inferences about such ultra-planckian physics, and clues we might pursue towards the principles of a more fundamental theory addressing the known puzzles and paradoxes of quantum gravity.

  15. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    PubMed

    Leitão, J C; Miotto, J M; Gerlach, M; Altmann, E G

    2016-07-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼x (β) ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)-(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764

  16. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼xβ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)–(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764

  17. Scaling body size fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Carrara, Francesco; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The size of an organism matters for its metabolic, growth, mortality, and other vital rates. Scale-free community size spectra (i.e., size distributions regardless of species) are routinely observed in natural ecosystems and are the product of intra- and interspecies regulation of the relative abundance of organisms of different sizes. Intra- and interspecies distributions of body sizes are thus major determinants of ecosystems’ structure and function. We show experimentally that single-species mass distributions of unicellular eukaryotes covering different phyla exhibit both characteristic sizes and universal features over more than four orders of magnitude in mass. Remarkably, we find that the mean size of a species is sufficient to characterize its size distribution fully and that the latter has a universal form across all species. We show that an analytical physiological model accounts for the observed universality, which can be synthesized in a log-normal form for the intraspecies size distributions. We also propose how ecological and physiological processes should interact to produce scale-invariant community size spectra and discuss the implications of our results on allometric scaling laws involving body mass. PMID:23487793

  18. Urban scaling in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  19. Urban scaling in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  20. Mechanism for salt scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  1. The Practicality of Behavioral Observation Scales, Behavioral Expectation Scales, and Trait Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Uco; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    The practicality of three appraisal instruments was measured in terms of user preference, namely, behavioral observation scales (BOS), behavioral expectation scales (BES), and trait scales. In all instances, BOS were preferred to BES, and in all but two instances, BOS were viewed as superior to trait scales. (Author/ABB)

  2. Comparing the theoretical versions of the Beaufort scale, the T-Scale and the Fujita scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaden, G. Terence; Kochev, S.; Kolendowicz, L.; Kosa-Kiss, A.; Marcinoniene, Izolda; Sioutas, Michalis; Tooming, Heino; Tyrrell, John

    2007-02-01

    2005 is the bicentenary of the Beaufort Scale and its wind-speed codes: the marine version in 1805 and the land version later. In the 1920s when anemometers had come into general use, the Beaufort Scale was quantified by a formula based on experiment. In the early 1970s two tornado wind-speed scales were proposed: (1) an International T-Scale based on the Beaufort Scale; and (2) Fujita's damage scale developed for North America. The International Beaufort Scale and the T-Scale share a common root in having an integral theoretical relationship with an established scientific basis, whereas Fujita's Scale introduces criteria that make its intensities non-integral with Beaufort. Forces on the T-Scale, where T stands for Tornado force, span the range 0 to 10 which is highly useful world wide. The shorter range of Fujita's Scale (0 to 5) is acceptable for American use but less convenient elsewhere. To illustrate the simplicity of the decimal T-Scale, mean hurricane wind speed of Beaufort 12 is T2 on the T-Scale but F1.121 on the F-Scale; while a tornado wind speed of T9 (= B26) becomes F4.761. However, the three wind scales can be uni-fied by either making F-Scale numbers exactly half the magnitude of T-Scale numbers [i.e. F'half = T / 2 = (B / 4) - 4] or by doubling the numbers of this revised version to give integral equivalence with the T-Scale. The result is a decimal formula F'double = T = (B / 2) - 4 named the TF-Scale where TF stands for Tornado Force. This harmonious 10-digit scale has all the criteria needed for world-wide practical effectiveness.

  3. Small-scale strength

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the world of power project development there is a market for smaller scale cogeneration projects in the range of 1MW to 10MW. In the European Union alone, this range will account for about $25 Billion in value over the next 10 years. By adding the potential that exists in Eastern Europe, the numbers are even more impressive. In Europe, only about 7 percent of needed electrical power is currently produced through cogeneration installations; this is expected to change to around 15 percent by the year 2000. Less than one year ago, two equipment manufacturers formed Dutch Power Partners (DPP) to focus on the market for industrial cogeneration throughout Europe.

  4. Reconsidering Fault Slip Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.; Wech, A.; Creager, K. C.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The scaling of fault slip events given by the relationship between the scalar moment M0, and duration T, potentially provides key constraints on the underlying physics controlling slip. Many studies have suggested that measurements of M0 and T are related as M0=KfT3 for 'fast' slip events (earthquakes) and M0=KsT for 'slow' slip events, in which Kf and Ks are proportionality constants, although some studies have inferred intermediate relations. Here 'slow' and 'fast' refer to slip front propagation velocities, either so slow that seismic radiation is too small or long period to be measurable or fast enough that dynamic processes may be important for the slip process and measurable seismic waves radiate. Numerous models have been proposed to explain the differing M0-T scaling relations. We show that a single, simple dislocation model of slip events within a bounded slip zone may explain nearly all M0-T observations. Rather than different scaling for fast and slow populations, we suggest that within each population the scaling changes from M0 proportional to T3 to T when the slipping area reaches the slip zone boundaries and transitions from unbounded, 2-dimensional to bounded, 1-dimensional growth. This transition has not been apparent previously for slow events because data have sampled only the bounded regime and may be obscured for earthquakes when observations from multiple tectonic regions are combined. We have attempted to sample the expected transition between bounded and unbounded regimes for the slow slip population, measuring tremor cluster parameters from catalogs for Japan and Cascadia and using them as proxies for small slow slip event characteristics. For fast events we employed published earthquake slip models. Observations corroborate our hypothesis, but highlight observational difficulties. We find that M0-T observations for both slow and fast slip events, spanning 12 orders of magnitude in M0, are consistent with a single model based on dislocation

  5. Soil organic carbon across scales.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sharon M; Angers, Denis A; Holden, Nicholas M; McBratney, Alex B

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic understanding of scale effects is important for interpreting the processes that control the global carbon cycle. Greater attention should be given to scale in soil organic carbon (SOC) science so that we can devise better policy to protect/enhance existing SOC stocks and ensure sustainable use of soils. Global issues such as climate change require consideration of SOC stock changes at the global and biosphere scale, but human interaction occurs at the landscape scale, with consequences at the pedon, aggregate and particle scales. This review evaluates our understanding of SOC across all these scales in the context of the processes involved in SOC cycling at each scale and with emphasis on stabilizing SOC. Current synergy between science and policy is explored at each scale to determine how well each is represented in the management of SOC. An outline of how SOC might be integrated into a framework of soil security is examined. We conclude that SOC processes at the biosphere to biome scales are not well understood. Instead, SOC has come to be viewed as a large-scale pool subjects to carbon flux. Better understanding exists for SOC processes operating at the scales of the pedon, aggregate and particle. At the landscape scale, the influence of large- and small-scale processes has the greatest interaction and is exposed to the greatest modification through agricultural management. Policy implemented at regional or national scale tends to focus at the landscape scale without due consideration of the larger scale factors controlling SOC or the impacts of policy for SOC at the smaller SOC scales. What is required is a framework that can be integrated across a continuum of scales to optimize SOC management.

  6. Soil organic carbon across scales.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sharon M; Angers, Denis A; Holden, Nicholas M; McBratney, Alex B

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic understanding of scale effects is important for interpreting the processes that control the global carbon cycle. Greater attention should be given to scale in soil organic carbon (SOC) science so that we can devise better policy to protect/enhance existing SOC stocks and ensure sustainable use of soils. Global issues such as climate change require consideration of SOC stock changes at the global and biosphere scale, but human interaction occurs at the landscape scale, with consequences at the pedon, aggregate and particle scales. This review evaluates our understanding of SOC across all these scales in the context of the processes involved in SOC cycling at each scale and with emphasis on stabilizing SOC. Current synergy between science and policy is explored at each scale to determine how well each is represented in the management of SOC. An outline of how SOC might be integrated into a framework of soil security is examined. We conclude that SOC processes at the biosphere to biome scales are not well understood. Instead, SOC has come to be viewed as a large-scale pool subjects to carbon flux. Better understanding exists for SOC processes operating at the scales of the pedon, aggregate and particle. At the landscape scale, the influence of large- and small-scale processes has the greatest interaction and is exposed to the greatest modification through agricultural management. Policy implemented at regional or national scale tends to focus at the landscape scale without due consideration of the larger scale factors controlling SOC or the impacts of policy for SOC at the smaller SOC scales. What is required is a framework that can be integrated across a continuum of scales to optimize SOC management. PMID:25918852

  7. Scaling in Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about subway systems and more than railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

  8. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle inmore » motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.« less

  9. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.

  10. Aging scaled Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Hadiseh; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Jafari, Gholamreza R; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Scaled Brownian motion (SBM) is widely used to model anomalous diffusion of passive tracers in complex and biological systems. It is a highly nonstationary process governed by the Langevin equation for Brownian motion, however, with a power-law time dependence of the noise strength. Here we study the aging properties of SBM for both unconfined and confined motion. Specifically, we derive the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements and analyze their behavior in the regimes of weak, intermediate, and strong aging. A very rich behavior is revealed for confined aging SBM depending on different aging times and whether the process is sub- or superdiffusive. We demonstrate that the information on the aging factorizes with respect to the lag time and exhibits a functional form that is identical to the aging behavior of scale-free continuous time random walk processes. While SBM exhibits a disparity between ensemble and time averaged observables and is thus weakly nonergodic, strong aging is shown to effect a convergence of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacement. Finally, we derive the density of first passage times in the semi-infinite domain that features a crossover defined by the aging time. PMID:25974439

  11. Returns to Scale and Economies of Scale: Further Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Gregory M.; Mitchell, Douglas W.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that most economics textbooks continue to repeat past mistakes concerning returns to scale and economies of scale under assumptions of constant and nonconstant input prices. Provides an adaptation for a calculus-based intermediate microeconomics class that demonstrates the pointwise relationship between returns to scale and economies of…

  12. Global scale precipitation from monthly to centennial scales: empirical space-time scaling analysis, anthropogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to

  13. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  14. [Research progress on hydrological scaling].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianmei; Pei, Tiefan

    2003-12-01

    With the development of hydrology and the extending effect of mankind on environment, scale issue has become a great challenge to many hydrologists due to the stochasticism and complexity of hydrological phenomena and natural catchments. More and more concern has been given to the scaling issues to gain a large-scale (or small-scale) hydrological characteristic from a certain known catchments, but hasn't been solved successfully. The first part of this paper introduced some concepts about hydrological scale, scale issue and scaling. The key problem is the spatial heterogeneity of catchments and the temporal and spatial variability of hydrological fluxes. Three approaches to scale were put forward in the third part, which were distributed modeling, fractal theory and statistical self similarity analyses. Existing problems and future research directions were proposed in the last part.

  15. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  16. Earthquake impact scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  17. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  18. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  19. Biological scaling and physics.

    PubMed

    Rau, A R P

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  20. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  1. L-Scaling: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankmeyer, Eric

    L-scaling is introduced as a technique for determining the weights in weighted averages or scaled scores for T joint observations on K variables. The technique is so named because of its formal resemblance to the Leontief matrix of mathematical economics. L-scaling is compared to several widely-used procedures for data reduction, and the…

  2. The Gains from Vertical Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Domingue, Ben

    2013-01-01

    It is often assumed that a vertical scale is necessary when value-added models depend upon the gain scores of students across two or more points in time. This article examines the conditions under which the scale transformations associated with the vertical scaling process would be expected to have a significant impact on normative interpretations…

  3. Westside Test Anxiety Scale Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…

  4. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  5. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  6. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  7. The Cross-Scale Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Baumjohann, W.; Nakamura, R.; Horbury, T.; Schwartz, S.; Canu, P.; Roux, A.; Vaivads, A.

    2009-06-16

    Collisionless space plasmas exhibit complex behavior on many scales. Fortunately, one can identify a small number of processes and phenomena, essentially shocks, reconnection and turbulence that play a predominant role in the dynamics of a plasma. These processes act to transfer energy between locations, scales and modes, a transfer characterized by variability and three-dimensional structure on at least three scales: electron kinetic, ion kinetic and fluid scale. The nonlinear interaction between physical processes at these scales is the key to understanding these phenomena. Current and upcoming multi-spacecraft missions such as Cluster, THEMIS, and MMS only study three-dimensional variations on one scale at any given time, but one needs to measure the three scales simultaneously to understand the energy transfer processes and the coupling and interaction between the different scales. A mission called Cross-Scale would comprise three nested groups, each consisting of up to four spacecraft. Each group would have a different spacecraft separation, at approximately the electron and ion gyro radii, and at the larger magnetohydrodynamic or fluid scale. One would therefore be able to measure simultaneously variations on all three important physical scales, for the first time. With the spacecraft traversing key regions of near-Earth space, namely solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause and magnetotail, all three aforementioned processes can be studied.

  8. Composite Health Plan Quality Scales

    PubMed Central

    Caldis, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study employs exploratory factor analysis and scale construction methods with commercial Health Plan Employers Data Information Set (HEDIS®) process of care and outcome measures from 1999 to uncover evidence for a unidimensional composite health maintenance organization (HMO) quality scale. Summated scales by categories of care are created and are then used in a factor analysis that has a single factor solution. The category of care scales were used to construct a summated composite scale which exhibits strong evidence of internal consistency (alpha= 0.90). External validity of the composite quality scale was checked by regressing the composite scale on Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®) survey results for 1999. PMID:17645158

  9. Solar system to scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  10. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  11. Tipping the scales.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    In the US, the October 1998 murder of a physician who performed abortions was an outward manifestation of the insidious battle against legal abortion being waged by radical Christian social conservatives seeking to transform the US democracy into a theocracy. This movement has been documented in a publication entitled, "Tipping the Scales: The Christian Right's Legal Crusade Against Choice" produced as a result of a 4-year investigation conducted by The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. This publication describes how these fundamentalists have used sophisticated legal, lobbying, and communication strategies to further their goals of challenging the separation of church and state, opposing family planning and sexuality education that is not based solely on abstinence, promoting school prayer, and restricting homosexual rights. The movement has resulted in the introduction of more than 300 anti-abortion bills in states, 50 of which have passed in 23 states. Most Christian fundamentalist groups provide free legal representation to abortion clinic terrorists, and some groups solicit women to bring specious malpractice claims against providers. Sophisticated legal tactics are used by these groups to remove the taint of extremism and mask the danger posed to US constitutional principles being posed by "a well-financed and zealous brand of radical lawyers and their supporters." PMID:12294553

  12. Scaling of structural failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chen, Er-Ping

    1997-01-01

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  13. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    SciTech Connect

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  14. Scaling and Urban Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benguigui, L.; Czamanski, D.; Marinov, M.

    This paper presents an analysis of the growth of towns in the Tel Aviv metropolis. It indicates a similarity in the variation of populations so that the population functions can be scaled and superposed one onto the other. This is a strong indication that the growth mechanism for all these towns is the same. Two different models are presented to interpret the population growth: one is an analytic model while the other is a computer simulation. In the dynamic analytic model, we introduced the concept of characteristic time. The growth has two parts: in the first, the derivative is an increasing function, the town is very attractive and there is short delay between decision to build and complete realization of the process. At this time, there is no shortage of land. However, around a specific time, the delay begins to increase and there is lack of available land. The rate of the population variation decreases until saturation. The two models give a good quantitative description.

  15. Industrial scale gene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery.

  16. Plague and Climate: Scales Matter

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Gage, Kenneth L.; Kreppel, Katharina; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts) of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations. PMID:21949648

  17. Mechanically reliable scales and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Alexander, K.B.

    1995-07-01

    As the first stage in examining the mechanical reliability of protective surface oxides, the behavior of alumina scales formed on iron-aluminum alloys during high-temperature cyclic oxidation was characterized in terms of damage and spallation tendencies. Scales were thermally grown on specimens of three iron-aluminum composition using a series of exposures to air at 1000{degrees}C. Gravimetric data and microscopy revealed substantially better integrity and adhesion of the scales grown on an alloy containing zirconium. The use of polished (rather than just ground) specimens resulted in scales that were more suitable for subsequent characterization of mechanical reliability.

  18. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  19. Limitations in thermal scale modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, R. K.

    1971-01-01

    Thermal scale modeling limitations for radiation- conduction system of unmanned spacecraft, discussing material thermal properties, model dimensions, instrumentation effects and environment simulation

  20. Mixed scale joint graphical lasso.

    PubMed

    Pircalabelu, Eugen; Claeskens, Gerda; Waldorp, Lourens J

    2016-10-01

    SummaryWe have developed a method for estimating brain networks from fMRI datasets that have not all been measured using the same set of brain regions. Some of the coarse scale regions have been split in smaller subregions. The proposed penalized estimation procedure selects undirected graphical models with similar structures that combine information from several subjects and several coarseness scales. Both within-scale edges and between-scale edges that identify possible connections between a large region and its subregions are estimated. PMID:27324414

  1. Validating Large Scale Networks Using Temporary Local Scale Networks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA NRCS Soil Climate Analysis Network and NOAA Climate Reference Networks are nationwide meteorological and land surface data networks with soil moisture measurements in the top layers of soil. There is considerable interest in scaling these point measurements to larger scales for validating ...

  2. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING BATCH SCALES. SERIES OF FIVE SCALES WITH SIX DIFFERENT MATERIALS. MIX SIFTED DOWN FROM SILOS ABOVE. INGREDIENTS: SAND, SODA ASH, DOLOMITE LIMESTONE, NEPHELINE SYENITE, SALT CAKE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. Drift Scale THM Model

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist

    2004-10-07

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a

  4. On the genetics of loss aversion: An interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1a.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Gesine; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to overweight losses compared with gains in decision situations. Several studies have investigated the neurobiological background of this phenomenon and it was found that activation in the mesolimbic-mesocortical dopamine system during a gambling decision correlates with loss aversion. In a behavioral experiment with N = 143 subjects, the present study investigates the influence of 2 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism) and ANKK1 gene (DRD2 Taq1a/ANKK1 polymorphism), that are known to affect the dopamine system, on loss aversion. Additionally, associations of alexithymia, a personality construct describing the disability to consciously experience emotions in the self, with loss aversion and with the mentioned polymorphisms were assessed using the TAS-20 questionnaire, to replicate associations that have been reported before. Results revealed a significant interaction effect of the 2 polymorphisms on loss aversion. Carriers of the genetic constellation 66Met+/A1+ had the lowest loss aversion scores, compared with all other allelic groups. According to the literature this allelic configuration is characterized by a relatively low D2/3 receptor binding in the striatum and an impaired activity-dependent secretion of BDNF. This is the first study showing that loss aversion is related to naturally occurring differences in dopamine function. PMID:26501178

  5. Nonrelativistic scale anomaly, and composite operators with complex scaling dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, Sergej

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > Nonrelativistic scale anomaly leads to operators with complex scaling dimensions. > We study an operator O={psi}{psi} in quantum mechanics with 1/r{sup 2} potenial. > The propagator of the composite operator is analytically computed. - Abstract: It is demonstrated that a nonrelativistic quantum scale anomaly manifests itself in the appearance of composite operators with complex scaling dimensions. In particular, we study nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with an inverse square potential and consider a composite s-wave operator O={psi}{psi}. We analytically compute the scaling dimension of this operator and determine the propagator <0|TOO{sup +}|0>. The operator O represents an infinite tower of bound states with a geometric energy spectrum. Operators with higher angular momenta are briefly discussed.

  6. Scale invariance vs conformal invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-03-01

    In this review article, we discuss the distinction and possible equivalence between scale invariance and conformal invariance in relativistic quantum field theories. Under some technical assumptions, we can prove that scale invariant quantum field theories in d = 2 space-time dimensions necessarily possess the enhanced conformal symmetry. The use of the conformal symmetry is well appreciated in the literature, but the fact that all the scale invariant phenomena in d = 2 space-time dimensions enjoy the conformal property relies on the deep structure of the renormalization group. The outstanding question is whether this feature is specific to d = 2 space-time dimensions or it holds in higher dimensions, too. As of January 2014, our consensus is that there is no known example of scale invariant but non-conformal field theories in d = 4 space-time dimensions under the assumptions of (1) unitarity, (2) Poincaré invariance (causality), (3) discrete spectrum in scaling dimensions, (4) existence of scale current and (5) unbroken scale invariance in the vacuum. We have a perturbative proof of the enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance based on the higher dimensional analogue of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem, but the non-perturbative proof is yet to come. As a reference we have tried to collect as many interesting examples of scale invariance in relativistic quantum field theories as possible in this article. We give a complementary holographic argument based on the energy-condition of the gravitational system and the space-time diffeomorphism in order to support the claim of the symmetry enhancement. We believe that the possible enhancement of conformal invariance from scale invariance reveals the sublime nature of the renormalization group and space-time with holography. This review is based on a lecture note on scale invariance vs conformal invariance, on which the author gave lectures at Taiwan Central University for the 5th Taiwan School on Strings and

  7. The Callier-Azusa Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, Robert D., Ed.

    Presented is the Callier-Azusa Scale designed to aid in the assessment of deaf-blind and multihandicapped children in the areas of motor development, perceptual abilities, daily living skills, language development, and socialization. The scale is said to be predicated on the assumption that given the appropriate environment all children follow the…

  8. A Scale of Mobbing Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop the Mobbing Impacts Scale and to examine its validity and reliability analyses. The sample of study consisted of 509 teachers from Sakarya. In this study construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliabilities and item analysis of the scale were examined. As a result of factor analysis for…

  9. Rating scales for musician's dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Berque, Patrice; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart; Frucht, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a focal adult-onset dystonia most commonly involving the hand. It has much greater relative prevalence than non-musician’s focal hand dystonias, exhibits task specificity at the level of specific musical passages, and is a particularly difficult form of dystonia to treat. For most MD patients, the diagnosis confirms the end of their music performance careers. Research on treatments and pathophysiology is contingent upon measures of motor function abnormalities. In this review, we comprehensively survey the literature to identify the rating scales used in MD and the distribution of their use. We also summarize the extent to which the scales have been evaluated for their clinical utility, including reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity to MD, and practicality for a clinical setting. Out of 135 publications, almost half (62) included no quantitative measures of motor function. The remaining 73 studies used a variety of choices from among 10 major rating scales. Most used subjective scales involving either patient or clinician ratings. Only 25% (18) of the studies used objective scales. None of the scales has been completely and rigorously evaluated for clinical utility. Whether studies involved treatments or pathophysiologic assays, there was a heterogeneous choice of rating scales used with no clear standard. As a result, the collective interpretive value of those studies is limited because the results are confounded by measurement effects. We suggest that the development and widespread adoption of a new clinically useful rating scale is critical for accelerating basic and clinical research in MD. PMID:23884039

  10. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  11. Contrast Analysis for Scale Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olejnik, Stephen F.; And Others

    Research on tests for scale equality have focused exclusively on an overall test statistic and have not examined procedures for identifying specific differences in multiple group designs. The present study compares four contrast analysis procedures for scale differences in the single factor four-group design: (1) Tukey HSD; (2) Kramer-Tukey; (3)…

  12. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Adams, Cheryll M.; Cross, Tracy L.; Dixon, Felicia A.; Pierce, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observation scale that was developed to examine the differential learning activities and experiences of gifted children educated in regular classroom settings. The Differentiated Classroom Observation Scale (DCOS) is presented in total, with clarification of the coding practices and strategies. Although the…

  13. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), the state-of-the-art production techniques for computer chips, promises such powerful, inexpensive computing that, in the future, people will be able to communicate with computer devices in natural language or even speech. However, before full-scale VLSI implementation can occur, certain salient factors must be…

  14. Scale Shrinkage in Vertical Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three potential causes of scale shrinkage (measurement error, restriction of range, and multidimensionality) in item response theory vertical equating are discussed, and a more comprehensive model-based approach to establishing vertical scales is described. Test data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress are used to illustrate the…

  15. Multi-scale Material Appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongzhi

    Modeling and rendering the appearance of materials is important for a diverse range of applications of computer graphics - from automobile design to movies and cultural heritage. The appearance of materials varies considerably at different scales, posing significant challenges due to the sheer complexity of the data, as well the need to maintain inter-scale consistency constraints. This thesis presents a series of studies around the modeling, rendering and editing of multi-scale material appearance. To efficiently render material appearance at multiple scales, we develop an object-space precomputed adaptive sampling method, which precomputes a hierarchy of view-independent points that preserve multi-level appearance. To support bi-scale material appearance design, we propose a novel reflectance filtering algorithm, which rapidly computes the large-scale appearance from small-scale details, by exploiting the low-rank structures of Bidirectional Visible Normal Distribution Functions and pre-rotated Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions in the matrix formulation of the rendering algorithm. This approach can guide the physical realization of appearance, as well as the modeling of real-world materials using very sparse measurements. Finally, we present a bi-scale-inspired high-quality general representation for material appearance described by Bidirectional Texture Functions. Our representation is at once compact, easily editable, and amenable to efficient rendering.

  16. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  17. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  18. Children's Scale Errors with Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Krista; Eshleman, Angelica; Greene, Kimberly; Terziyan, Treysi

    2011-01-01

    Children sometimes make "scale errors," attempting to interact with tiny object replicas as though they were full size. Here, we demonstrate that instrumental tools provide special insight into the origins of scale errors and, moreover, into the broader nature of children's purpose-guided reasoning and behavior with objects. In Study 1, 1.5- to…

  19. Spiritual Competency Scale: Further Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Stephanie F.; Robertson, Linda A.; Gill, Carman S.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a follow-up analysis of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which initially validated ASERVIC's (Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling) spiritual competencies. The study examined whether the factor structure of the Spiritual Competency Scale would be supported by participants (i.e., ASERVIC…

  20. Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)

  1. Important Scaling Parameters for Testing Model-Scale Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the effects of aerodynamic and aeroelastic scaling parameters on model scale helicopter rotors has been conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The effect of varying Reynolds number, blade Lock number, and structural elasticity on rotor performance has been studied and the performance results are discussed herein for two different rotor blade sets at two rotor advance ratios. One set of rotor blades were rigid and the other set of blades were dynamically scaled to be representative of a main rotor design for a utility class helicopter. The investigation was con-densities permits the acquisition of data for several Reynolds and Lock number combinations.

  2. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela, A.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The Relative Surface Connection (RSC) function was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrograph at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l) or width (w) of the field. To different extents depending on the microtopography, border effects were observed for the smaller scales when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w, but a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased, the change in C being inversely proportional to the change in l. However, this observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no

  3. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity, at the interill scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuela Fernandez, A.; Bielders, C.; Javaux, M.

    2012-04-01

    The relative surface connection function (RSC) was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outlet (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrogram at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 x 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 x 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses was used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (L) or width (l) of the field. Border effects were observed for the smaller scales. In most of cases, for L or l smaller than 750mm, increasing L or l, resulted in a strong increase or decrease of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing l. On the contrary, a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing L. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as L increased. This change in C was inversely proportional to the change in L. This observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no correlation was found between C and L. The results of this study help identify the critical scale to study overland flow connectivity. At scales larger than the critical scale, the RSC function showed a great potential to be extrapolated to other scales.

  4. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela, A.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C. L.

    2012-06-01

    A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The relative surface connection function (RSC) was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrogram at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l) or width (w) of the field. Border effects, at different extents depending on the microtopography, were observed for the smaller scales, when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w. On the contrary, a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased. This change in C was inversely proportional to the change in l. This observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which

  5. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  6. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  7. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  8. 27 CFR 19.186 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Package scales. 19.186... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.186 Package scales. Proprietors must ensure that scales used.... However, if a scale is not used during a 6-month period, it is only necessary to test the scale prior...

  9. Scale-dependent halo bias from scale-dependent growth

    SciTech Connect

    Parfrey, Kyle; Hui, Lam; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2011-03-15

    We derive a general expression for the large-scale halo bias, in theories with a scale-dependent linear growth, using the excursion set formalism. Such theories include modified-gravity models, and models in which the dark energy clustering is non-negligible. A scale dependence is imprinted in both the formation and evolved biases by the scale-dependent growth. Mergers are accounted for in our derivation, which thus extends earlier work which focused on passive evolution. There is a simple analytic form for the bias for those theories in which the nonlinear collapse of perturbations is approximately the same as in general relativity. As an illustration, we apply our results to a simple Yukawa modification of gravity, and use Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the clustering of luminous red galaxies to constrain the theory's parameters.

  10. Concordance among anticholinergic burden scales

    PubMed Central

    Naples, Jennifer G.; Marcum, Zachary A.; Perera, Subashan; Gray, Shelly L.; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Shorr, Ronald I.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no gold standard to assess potential anticholinergic burden of medications. Objectives To evaluate concordance among five commonly used anticholinergic scales. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants 3,055 community-dwelling older adults aged 70–79 with baseline medication data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Measurements Any use, weighted scores, and total standardized daily dosage were calculated using five anticholinergic measures (i.e., Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden [ACB] Scale, Anticholinergic Drug Scale [ADS], Anticholinergic Risk Scale [ARS], Drug Burden Index anticholinergic component [DBI-ACh], and Summated Anticholinergic Medications Scale [SAMS]). Concordance was evaluated with kappa statistics and Spearman rank correlations. Results Any anticholinergic use in rank order was 51% for the ACB, 43% for the ADS, 29% for the DBI-ACh, 23% for the ARS, and 16% for the SAMS. Kappa statistics for all pairwise use comparisons ranged from 0.33 to 0.68. Similarly, concordance as measured by weighted kappa statistics ranged from 0.54 to 0.70 among the three scales not incorporating dosage (ADS, ARS, and ACB). Spearman rank correlation between the DBI-ACh and SAMS was 0.50. Conclusions Only low to moderate concordance was found among the five anticholinergic scales. Future research is needed to examine how these differences in measurement impact their predictive validity with respect to clinically relevant outcomes, such as cognitive impairment. PMID:26480974

  11. Estimating Plot Scale Impacts on Watershed Scale Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Peiffer, S.; Huwe, B.

    2010-12-01

    Over recent decades, land and resource use as well as climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, agricultural and forest products). The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integration of physical, economic, and social data over several scales to assess effects on water resources and ecology. Field-based meteorology, hydrology, biology, soil physics, plant production, solute and sediment transport, economic, and social behavior data were measured in a catchment of South Korea. A variety of models (Erosion-3D, HBV-Light, VS2DH, Hydrus, PIXGRO, DNDC, and Hydrogeosphere) are being used to simulate plot and field scale measurements within the catchment. Results from each of the local-scale models provide identification of sensitive, local-scale parameters which are then used as inputs into a large-scale watershed model. The experimental field data throughout the catchment was integrated with the spatially-distributed SWAT2005 model. Typically, macroscopic homogeneity and average effective model parameters are assumed when upscaling local-scale heterogeneous measurements to the watershed. The approach of our study was that the range in local-scale model parameter results can be used to define the sensitivity and uncertainty in the large-scale watershed model. The field-based and modeling framework described is being used to develop scenarios to examine spatial and temporal changes in land use practices and climatic effects on water quantity, water quality, and sediment transport. Development of accurate modeling scenarios requires understanding the social relationship between individual and policy driven land management practices and the value of sustainable resources.

  12. SCALING PROPERTIES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUCTUATIONS IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Jean Carlos; Mason, Joanne; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Cattaneo, Fausto E-mail: j.mason@exeter.ac.uk E-mail: cattaneo@flash.uchicago.edu

    2014-09-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale—the Alfvén velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this also imposes stringent conditions on numerical studies of MHD turbulence. In contrast with the hydrodynamic case, the discretization scale in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence should decrease faster than the dissipation scale, in order for the simulations to remain resolved as the Reynolds number increases.

  13. High performance oilfield scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Duccini, Y.; Dufour, A.; Hann, W.M.; Sanders, T.W.; Weinstein, B.

    1997-08-01

    Sea water often reacts with the formation water in offshore fields to produce barium, calcium and strontium sulfate deposits that hinder oil production. Newer fields often have more difficult to control scale problems than older ones, and current technology scale inhibitors are not able to control the deposits as well as needed. In addition, ever more stringent regulations designed to minimize the impact of inhibitors on the environment are being enacted. Three new inhibitors are presented that overcome many of the problems of older technology scale inhibitors.

  14. Semi-scaling cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2010-11-01

    We develop a model of string dynamics with back-reaction from both scaling and non-scaling loops taken into account. The evolution of a string network is described by the distribution functions of coherence segments and kinks. We derive two non-linear equations which govern the evolution of the two distributions and solve them analytically in the limit of late times. We also show that the correlation function is an exponential, and solve the dynamics for the corresponding spectrum of scaling loops.

  15. Scaling of graphene integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Massimiliano; Guerriero, Erica; Fiocco, Marco; Alberti, Ruggero; Polloni, Laura; Behnam, Ashkan; Carrion, Enrique A; Pop, Eric; Sordan, Roman

    2015-05-01

    The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing. PMID:25873359

  16. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws

    PubMed Central

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably. PMID:25411405

  17. Scale locality of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Aluie, Hussein; Eyink, Gregory L

    2010-02-26

    We investigate the scale locality of cascades of conserved invariants at high kinetic and magnetic Reynold's numbers in the "inertial-inductive range" of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where velocity and magnetic field increments exhibit suitable power-law scaling. We prove that fluxes of total energy and cross helicity-or, equivalently, fluxes of Elsässer energies-are dominated by the contributions of local triads. Flux of magnetic helicity may be dominated by nonlocal triads. The magnetic stretching term may also be dominated by nonlocal triads, but we prove that it can convert energy only between velocity and magnetic modes at comparable scales. We explain the disagreement with numerical studies that have claimed conversion nonlocally between disparate scales. We present supporting data from a 1024{3} simulation of forced MHD turbulence.

  18. Trends in Analytical Scale Separations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, James W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the instrumentation and practice of analytical scale operations. Emphasizes detection devices and procedures in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, supercritical fluid chromatography, and field-flow fractionation. (JN)

  19. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Rick L.; Fox, Don T.; Archiblad, Kip E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  20. Inflation in the scaling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Matarrese, S.; Ortolan, A.; Lucchin, F.

    1989-07-15

    We investigate the stochastic dynamics of the/ital inflaton/ for a wide class of potentials leading either tochaotic or to power-law inflation.At late times the system enters a /ital scaling/ /ital regime/where macroscopic order sets in: the field distribution sharply peaksaround the classical slow-rollover configuration and curvature perturbationsoriginate with a non-Gaussian scale-invariant statistics.

  1. Distributional Scaling in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polsinelli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    An investigation is undertaken into the fractal scaling properties of the piezometric head in a heterogeneous unconfined aquifer. The governing equations for the unconfined flow are derived from conservation of mass and the Darcy law. The Dupuit approximation will be used to model the dynamics. The spatially varying nature of the tendency to conduct flow (e.g. the hydraulic conductivity) is represented as a stochastic process. Experimental studies in the literature have indicated that the conductivity belongs to a class of non-stationary stochastic fields, called H-ss fields. The uncertainty in the soil parameters is imparted onto the flow variables; in groundwater investigations the potentiometric head will be a random function. The structure of the head field will be analyzed with an emphasis on the scaling properties. The scaling scheme for the modeling equations and the simulation procedure for the saturated hydraulic conductivity process will be explained, then the method will be validated through numerical experimentation using the USGS Modflow-2005 software. The results of the numerical simulations demonstrate that the head will exhibit multi-fractal scaling if the hydraulic conductivity exhibits multi-fractal scaling and the differential equations for the groundwater equation satisfy a particular set of scale invariance conditions.

  2. Scale-free primordial cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale structure of the Universe suggests that the physics underlying its early evolution is scale-free. This was the historic motivation for the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum and for inflation. Based on a hydrodynamical approach, we identify scale-free forms for the background equation of state for both inflationary and cyclic scenarios and use these forms to derive predictions for the spectral tilt and tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial density perturbations. For the case of inflation, we find three classes of scale-free models with distinct predictions. Including all classes, we show that scale-free inflation predicts tensor-to-scalar ratio r >10-4. We show that the observationally favored class is theoretically disfavored because it suffers from an initial conditions problem and the hydrodynamical form of an unlikeliness problem similar to that identified recently for certain inflaton potentials. We contrast these results with those for scale-free cyclic models.

  3. Color constancy and hue scaling.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Sven; Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we used a hue scaling technique to examine human color constancy performance in simulated three-dimensional scenes. These scenes contained objects of various shapes and materials and a matte test patch at the center of the scene. Hue scaling settings were made for test patches under five different illuminations. Results show that subjects had nearly stable hue scalings for a given test surface across different illuminants. In a control experiment, only the test surfaces that belonged to one illumination condition were presented, blocked in front of a black background. Surprisingly, the hue scalings of the subjects in the blocked control experiment were not simply determined by the color codes of the test surface. Rather, they depended on the sequence of previously presented test stimuli. In contrast, subjects' hue scalings in a second control experiment (with order of presentations randomized) were completely determined by the color codes of the test surface. Our results show that hue scaling is a useful technique to investigate color constancy in a more phenomenological sense. Furthermore, the results from the blocked control experiment underline the important role of slow chromatic adaptation for color constancy.

  4. Scale-Dependent Dispersivity Explained Without Scale-Dependent Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaliwal, P.; Engdahl, N. B.; Fogg, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    The observed scale-dependence of dispersivity has often been attributed to the scale-dependence of porous media heterogeneity. However, mass transfer between areas of high and low hydraulic conductivity and preferential solute migration may provide an alternative explanation for this phenomenon. To illustrate this point, we used geostatistical models representing the heterogeneity and interconnectedness of a typical aquifer system and plume modeling via a highly accurate random walk particle tracking method. The apparent dispersivity values were calculated using the statistical moments of the plumes. Apparent dispersivity was seen to grow from 0.01(m)to 100(m) over length scales of 0.06(m) to 500(m) even though heterogeneity scales and facies proportions were stationary and invariant with scale in the simulations. The results suggest that the increase in dispersivity was due solely to a stretching of the plume by two mechanisms. The first mechanism results from the diffusion of solute into areas of low conductivity and the second comes from the movement of solute through well-connected high K zone channels. Under such conditions, an "asymptotic dispersivity" may never be reached.

  5. Scaling of extreme rainfall areas at a planetary scale.

    PubMed

    Devineni, Naresh; Lall, Upmanu; Xi, Chen; Ward, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Event magnitude and area scaling relationships for rainfall over different regions of the world have been presented in the literature for relatively short durations and over relatively small areas. In this paper, we present the first ever results on a global analysis of the scaling characteristics of extreme rainfall areas for durations ranging from 1 to 30 days. Broken power law models are fit in each case. The past work has been focused largely on the time and space scales associated with local and regional convection. The work presented here suggests that power law scaling may also apply to planetary scale phenomenon, such as frontal and monsoonal systems, and their interaction with local moisture recycling. Such features may have persistence over large areas corresponding to extreme rain and regional flood events. As a result, they lead to considerable hazard exposure. A caveat is that methods used for empirical power law identification have difficulties with edge effects due to finite domains. This leads to problems with robust model identification and interpretability of the underlying relationships. We use recent algorithms that aim to address some of these issues in a principled way. Theoretical research that could explain why such results may emerge across the world, as analyzed for the first time in this paper, is needed. PMID:26232980

  6. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  7. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-05-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or perceived noise level (PNL) noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10(exp 6) based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using a small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  8. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or PNL noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10 exp 6 based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  9. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or PNL noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10 exp 6 based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  10. On the scaling of small-scale jet noise to large scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Allen, Christopher S.

    1992-01-01

    An examination was made of several published jet noise studies for the purpose of evaluating scale effects important to the simulation of jet aeroacoustics. Several studies confirmed that small conical jets, one as small as 59 mm diameter, could be used to correctly simulate the overall or perceived noise level (PNL) noise of large jets dominated by mixing noise. However, the detailed acoustic spectra of large jets are more difficult to simulate because of the lack of broad-band turbulence spectra in small jets. One study indicated that a jet Reynolds number of 5 x 10(exp 6) based on exhaust diameter enabled the generation of broad-band noise representative of large jet mixing noise. Jet suppressor aeroacoustics is even more difficult to simulate at small scale because of the small mixer nozzles with flows sensitive to Reynolds number. Likewise, one study showed incorrect ejector mixing and entrainment using a small-scale, short ejector that led to poor acoustic scaling. Conversely, fairly good results were found with a longer ejector and, in a different study, with a 32-chute suppressor nozzle. Finally, it was found that small-scale aeroacoustic resonance produced by jets impacting ground boards does not reproduce at large scale.

  11. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Pedersen, Ulf R.

    2015-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general "hidden" scale invariance of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant inverse power-law (IPL) pair interactions. However, crystal packings of several transition metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, and Hg), most post-transition metals (Ga, In, Sn, and Tl), and the metalloids Si and Ge cannot be explained by the IPL assumption. The virial-energy correlation coefficients of iron and phosphorous are shown to increase at elevated pressures. Finally, we discuss how scale invariance explains the Grüneisen equation of state and a number of well-known empirical melting and freezing rules.

  12. Strength Scaling in Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Morton, John

    1990-01-01

    A research program was initiated to study and isolate the factors responsible for scale effects in the tensile strength of graphite/epoxy composite laminates. Four layups were chosen with appropriate stacking sequences so as to highlight individual and interacting failure modes. Four scale sizes were selected for investigation including full scale size, 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4, with n = to 4, 3, 2, and 1, respectively. The full scale specimen sizes was 32 piles thick as compared to 24, 16, and 8 piles for the 3/4, 2/4, and 1/4 specimen sizes respectively. Results were obtained in the form of tensile strength, stress-strain curves and damage development. Problems associated with strength degradation with increasing specimen sizes are isolated and discussed. Inconsistencies associated with strain measurements were also identified. Enhanced x ray radiography was employed for damage evaluation, following step loading. It was shown that fiber dominated layups were less sensitive to scaling effects compared to the matrix dominated layups.

  13. Featured Invention: Laser Scaling Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    In September 2003, NASA signed a nonexclusive license agreement with Armor Forensics, a subsidiary of Armor Holdings, Inc., for the laser scaling device under the Innovative Partnerships Program. Coupled with a measuring program, also developed by NASA, the unit provides crime scene investigators with the ability to shoot photographs at scale without having to physically enter the scene, analyzing details such as bloodspatter patterns and graffiti. This ability keeps the scene's components intact and pristine for the collection of information and evidence. The laser scaling device elegantly solved a pressing problem for NASA's shuttle operations team and also provided industry with a useful tool. For NASA, the laser scaling device is still used to measure divots or damage to the shuttle's external tank and other structures around the launchpad. When the invention also met similar needs within industry, the Innovative Partnerships Program provided information to Armor Forensics for licensing and marketing the laser scaling device. Jeff Kohler, technology transfer agent at Kennedy, added, "We also invited a representative from the FBI's special photography unit to Kennedy to meet with Armor Forensics and the innovator. Eventually the FBI ended up purchasing some units. Armor Forensics is also beginning to receive interest from DoD [Department of Defense] for use in military crime scene investigations overseas."

  14. Scaling Effect In Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Lin, X.; Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Reimer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling is an important issue in the physical sciences. Economic trade is increasingly of interest to the scientific community due to the natural resources (e.g. water, carbon, nutrients, etc.) embodied in traded commodities. Trade refers to the spatial and temporal redistribution of commodities, and is typically measured annually between countries. However, commodity exchange networks occur at many different scales, though data availability at finer temporal and spatial resolution is rare. Exchange networks may prove an important adaptation measure to cope with future climate and economic shocks. As such, it is essential to understand how commodity exchange networks scale, so that we can understand opportunities and roadblocks to the spatial and temporal redistribution of goods and services. To this end, we present an empirical analysis of trade systems across three spatial scales: global, sub-national in the United States, and county-scale in the United States. We compare and contrast the network properties, the self-sufficiency ratio, and performance of the gravity model of trade for these three exchange systems.

  15. Visions of Atomic Scale Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T. F.; Miller, Michael K; Rajan, Krishna; Ringer, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    A microscope, by definition, provides structural and analytical information about objects that are too small to see with the unaided eye. From the very first microscope, efforts to improve its capabilities and push them to ever-finer length scales have been pursued. In this context, it would seem that the concept of an ultimate microscope would have received much attention by now; but has it really ever been defined? Human knowledge extends to structures on a scale much finer than atoms, so it might seem that a proton-scale microscope or a quark-scale microscope would be the ultimate. However, we argue that an atomic-scale microscope is the ultimate for the following reason: the smallest building block for either synthetic structures or natural structures is the atom. Indeed, humans and nature both engineer structures with atoms, not quarks. So far as we know, all building blocks (atoms) of a given type are identical; it is the assembly of the building blocks that makes a useful structure. Thus, would a microscope that determines the position and identity of every atom in a structure with high precision and for large volumes be the ultimate microscope? We argue, yes. In this article, we consider how it could be built, and we ponder the answer to the equally important follow-on questions: who would care if it is built, and what could be achieved with it?

  16. Definition of a nucleophilicity scale.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Paula; Pérez, Patricia; Contreras, Renato; Tiznado, William; Fuentealba, Patricio

    2006-07-01

    This work deals with exploring some empirical scales of nucleophilicity. We have started evaluating the experimental indices of nucleophilicity proposed by Legon and Millen on the basis of the measure of the force constants derived from vibrational frequencies using a probe dipole H-X (X = F,CN). The correlation among some theoretical parameters with this experimental scale has been evaluated. The theoretical parameters have been chosen as the minimum of the electrostatic potential V(min), the binding energy (BE) between the nucleophile and the H-X dipole, and the electrostatic potential measured at the position of the hydrogen atom V(H) when the complex nucleophile and dipole H-X is in the equilibrium geometry. All of them present good correlations with the experimental nucleophilicity scale. In addition, the BEs of the nucleophiles with two other Lewis acids (one hard, BF(3), and the other soft, BH(3)) have been evaluated. The results suggest that the Legon and Millen nucleophilicity scale and the electrostatic potential derived scales can describe in good approximation the reactivity order of the nucleophiles only when the interactions with a probe electrophile is of the hard-hard type. For a covalent interaction that is orbital controlled, a new nucleophilicity index using information of the frontier orbitals of both, the nucleophile and the electrophile has been proposed.

  17. The scaling of attention networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Jun; Wu, Lingfei

    2016-04-01

    We use clicks as a proxy of collective attention and construct networks to study the temporal dynamics of attention. In particular we collect the browsing records of millions of users on 1000 Web forums in two months. In the constructed networks, nodes are threads and edges represent the switch of users between threads in an hour. The investigated network properties include the number of threads N, the number of users UV, and the number of clicks, PV. We find scaling functions PV ∼ UV θ1, PV ∼N θ3, and UV ∼N θ2, in which the scaling exponents are always greater than 1. This means that (1) the studied networks maintain a self-similar flow structure in time, i.e., large networks are simply the scale-up versions of small networks; and (2) large networks are more "productive", in the sense that an average user would generate more clicks in the larger systems. We propose a revised version of Zipf's law to quantify the time-invariant flow structure of attention networks and relate it to the observed scaling properties. We also demonstrate the applied consequences of our research: forum-classification based on scaling properties.

  18. SCALE FORMATION IN CHRYSOPHYCEAN ALGAE

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R. Malcolm; Franke, Werner W.; Kleinig, Hans; Falk, Heinz; Sitte, Peter

    1970-01-01

    The cell wall of the marine chrysophycean alga Pleurochrysis scherfellii is composed of distinct wall fragments embedded in a gelatinous mass. The latter is a polysaccharide of pectic character which is rich in galactose and ribose. These wall fragments are identified as scales. They have been isolated and purified from the vegetative mother cell walls after zoospore formation. Their ultrastructure is described in an electron microscope study combining sectioning, freeze-etch, and negative staining techniques. The scales consist of a layer of concentrically arranged microfibrils (ribbons with cross-sections of 12 to 25 x 25 to 40 A) and underlying radial fibrils of similar dimensions. Such a network-plate is densely coated with particles which are assumed to be identical to the pectic component. The microfibrils are resistant to strong alkaline treatment and have been identified as cellulose by different methods, including sugar analysis after total hydrolysis, proton resonance spectroscopical examination (NMR spectroscopy) of the benzoylated product, and diverse histochemical tests. The formation and secretion of the scales can be followed along the maturing Golgi cisternae starting from a pronounced dilated "polymerization center" as a completely intracisternal process which ends in the exocytotic extrusion of the scales. The scales reveal the very same ultrastructure within the Golgi cisternae as they do in the cell wall. The present finding represents the first evidence on cellulose formation by the Golgi apparatus and is discussed in relation to a basic scheme for cellulose synthesis in plant cells in general. PMID:5513606

  19. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  20. Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Parkerson, Holly A.; Kehler, Melissa D.; Sharpe, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale (CMSS) was developed to assess coping strategies specific to multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite its wide application in MS research, psychometric support for the CMSS remains limited to the initial factor analytic investigation by Pakenham in 2001. Methods: The current investigation assessed the factor structure and construct validity of the CMSS. Participants with MS (N = 453) completed the CMSS, as well as measures of disability related to MS (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results: The original factor structure reported by Pakenham was a poor fit to the data. An alternate seven-factor structure was identified using exploratory factor analysis. Although there were some similarities with the existing CMSS subscales, differences in factor content and item loadings were found. Relationships between the revised CMSS subscales and additional measures were assessed, and the findings were consistent with previous research. Conclusions: Refinement of the CMSS is suggested, especially for subscales related to acceptance and avoidance strategies. Until further research is conducted on the revised CMSS, it is recommended that the original CMSS continue to be administered. Clinicians and researchers should be mindful of lack of support for the acceptance and avoidance subscales and should seek additional scales to assess these areas. PMID:27551244

  1. Galaxy clustering on large scales.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, G

    1993-06-01

    I describe some recent observations of large-scale structure in the galaxy distribution. The best constraints come from two-dimensional galaxy surveys and studies of angular correlation functions. Results from galaxy redshift surveys are much less precise but are consistent with the angular correlations, provided the distortions in mapping between real-space and redshift-space are relatively weak. The galaxy two-point correlation function, rich-cluster two-point correlation function, and galaxy-cluster cross-correlation function are all well described on large scales ( greater, similar 20h-1 Mpc, where the Hubble constant, H0 = 100h km.s-1.Mpc; 1 pc = 3.09 x 10(16) m) by the power spectrum of an initially scale-invariant, adiabatic, cold-dark-matter Universe with Gamma = Omegah approximately 0.2. I discuss how this fits in with the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite detection of large-scale anisotropies in the microwave background radiation and other measures of large-scale structure in the Universe.

  2. Confidence in emotion perception in point-light displays varies with the ability to perceive own emotions.

    PubMed

    Lorey, Britta; Kaletsch, Morten; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Bischoff, Matthias; Kindermann, Stefan; Sauerbier, Isabell; Stark, Rudolf; Zentgraf, Karen; Munzert, Jörn

    2012-01-01

    One central issue in social cognitive neuroscience is that perceiving emotions in others relates to activating the same emotion in oneself. In this study we sought to examine how the ability to perceive own emotions assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale related to both the ability to perceive emotions depicted in point-light displays and the confidence in these perceptions. Participants observed video scenes of human interactions, rated the depicted valence, and judged their confidence in this rating. Results showed that people with higher alexithymia scores were significantly less confident about their decisions, but did not differ from people with lower alexithymia scores in the valence of their ratings. Furthermore, no modulating effect of social context on the effect of higher alexithymia scores was found. It is concluded that the used stimuli are fit to investigate the kinematic aspect of emotion perception and possibly separate people with high and low alexithymia scores via confidence differences. However, a general difference in emotion perception was not detected in the present setting.

  3. An environmentally friendly scale inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, J.B.; Brown, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes a method of inhibiting the formation of scales such as barium and strontium sulfate in low pH aqueous systems, and calcium carbonate in systems containing high concentrations of dissolved iron. The solution, chemically, involves treating the aqueous system with an inhibitor designed to replace organic-phosphonates. Typical low pH aqueous systems where the inhibitor is particularly useful are oilfield produced-water, resin bed water softeners that form scale during low pH, acid regeneration operations. Downhole applications are recommended where high concentrations of dissolved iron are present in the produced water. This new approach to inhibition replaces typical organic phosphonates and polymers with a non-toxic, biodegradable scale inhibitor that performs in harsh environments.

  4. Softness Correlations Across Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, Robert; Shavit, Amit; Rieser, Jennifer; Schoenholz, Samuel; Cubuk, Ekin; Durian, Douglas; Liu, Andrea; Riggleman, Robert

    In disordered systems, it is believed that mechanical failure begins with localized particle rearrangements. Recently, a machine learning method has been introduced to identify how likely a particle is to rearrange given its local structural environment, quantified by softness. We calculate the softness of particles in simulations of atomic Lennard-Jones mixtures, molecular Lennard-Jones oligomers, colloidal systems and granular systems. In each case, we find that the length scale characterizing spatial correlations of softness is approximately a particle diameter. These results provide a rationale for why localized rearrangements--whose size is presumably set by the scale of softness correlations--might occur in disordered systems across many length scales. Supported by DOE DE-FG02-05ER46199.

  5. Urban Transfer Entropy across Scales

    PubMed Central

    Murcio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of urban agglomeration is studied here in the context of information exchange between different spatio-temporal scales. Urban migration to and from cities is characterised as non-random and following non-random pathways. Cities are multidimensional non-linear phenomena, so understanding the relationships and connectivity between scales is important in determining how the interplay of local/regional urban policies may affect the distribution of urban settlements. In order to quantify these relationships, we follow an information theoretic approach using the concept of Transfer Entropy. Our analysis is based on a stochastic urban fractal model, which mimics urban growing settlements and migration waves. The results indicate how different policies could affect urban morphology in terms of the information generated across geographical scales. PMID:26207628

  6. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panico, Giuliano; Pomarol, Alex

    2016-07-01

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, overline{f}f . This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in Δ F = 2 and Δ F = 1 flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  7. Critical Multicultural Education Competencies Scale: A Scale Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar-Ciftci, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scale in order to identify the critical mutlicultural education competencies of teachers. For this reason, first of all, drawing on the knowledge in the literature, a new conceptual framework was created with deductive method based on critical theory, critical race theory and critical multicultural…

  8. Bath County Computer Attitude Scale: A Reliability and Validity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroz, Pauline A.; Nash, John B.

    The Bath County Computer Attitude Scale (BCCAS) has received limited attention concerning its reliability and validity with a U.S. adult population. As developed by G. G. Bear, H. C. Richards, and P. Lancaster in 1987, the instrument assessed attitudes toward computers in areas of computer use, computer-aided instruction, programming and technical…

  9. Childhood Career Development Scale: Scale Construction and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino; Stead, Graham B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to construct a theoretically driven and psychometrically sound childhood career development scale to measure career progress in fourth-through sixth-grade children. Super's nine dimensions (i.e., curiosity, exploration, information, key figures, interests, locus of control, time perspective, self-concept, and…

  10. Cavitation erosion size scale effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Size scaling in cavitation erosion is a major problem confronting the design engineers of modern high speed machinery. An overview and erosion data analysis presented in this paper indicate that the size scale exponent n in the erosion rate relationship as a function of the size or diameter can vary from 1.7 to 4.9 depending on the type of device used. There is, however, a general agreement as to the values of n if the correlations are made with constant cavitation number.

  11. Scaling Properties of Universal Tetramers

    SciTech Connect

    Hadizadeh, M. R.; Yamashita, M. T.; Tomio, Lauro; Delfino, A.; Frederico, T.

    2011-09-23

    We evidence the existence of a universal correlation between the binding energies of successive four-boson bound states (tetramers), for large two-body scattering lengths (a), related to an additional scale not constrained by three-body Efimov physics. Relevant to ultracold atom experiments, the atom-trimer relaxation peaks for |a|{yields}{infinity} when the ratio between the tetramer and trimer energies is {approx_equal}4.6 and a new tetramer is formed. The new scale is also revealed for a<0 by the prediction of a correlation between the positions of two successive peaks in the four-atom recombination process.

  12. Inflation at the electroweak scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, Lloyd; Turner, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    We present a model for slow-rollover inflation where the vacuum energy that drives inflation is of the order of G(F) exp -2; unlike most models, the conversion of vacuum energy to radiation ('reheating') is moderately efficient. The scalar field responsible for inflation is a standard-model singlet, develops a vacuum expectation value of 4 x 10 exp 6 GeV, has a mass of about 1 GeV, and can play a role in electroweak phenomena. We also discuss models where the energy scale of inflation is somewhat larger, but still well below the unification scale.

  13. Global scale predictability of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerts, Albrecht; Gijsbers, Peter; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek

    2016-04-01

    Flood (and storm surge) forecasting at the continental and global scale has only become possible in recent years (Emmerton et al., 2016; Verlaan et al., 2015) due to the availability of meteorological forecast, global scale precipitation products and global scale hydrologic and hydrodynamic models. Deltares has setup GLOFFIS a research-oriented multi model operational flood forecasting system based on Delft-FEWS in an open experimental ICT facility called Id-Lab. In GLOFFIS both the W3RA and PCRGLOB-WB model are run in ensemble mode using GEFS and ECMWF-EPS (latency 2 days). GLOFFIS will be used for experiments into predictability of floods (and droughts) and their dependency on initial state estimation, meteorological forcing and the hydrologic model used. Here we present initial results of verification of the ensemble flood forecasts derived with the GLOFFIS system. Emmerton, R., Stephens, L., Pappenberger, F., Pagano, T., Weerts, A., Wood, A. Salamon, P., Brown, J., Hjerdt, N., Donnelly, C., Cloke, H. Continental and Global Scale Flood Forecasting Systems, WIREs Water (accepted), 2016 Verlaan M, De Kleermaeker S, Buckman L. GLOSSIS: Global storm surge forecasting and information system 2015, Australasian Coasts & Ports Conference, 15-18 September 2015,Auckland, New Zealand.

  14. The Maternal Behavior Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gerald; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Independent ratings of videotaped sessions in which mothers (N=60) interacted with their mentally retarded children (ages 1-3) suggested that potentially important components of maternal behavior (child orientedness/pleasure and control) may be assessed with the seven-item short form of the Maternal Behavior Rating Scale. (JW)

  15. The Creative Processes Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulp, Margaret; Tarter, Barbara J.

    1986-01-01

    Developed from research about and teacher experience with children and creativity, the Creative Processes Rating Scale was tested with 100 sixth graders and found to be an effective instrument (which can be used by teachers with no experience in art) for assessing the creative processes of children in the visual arts. (Author/CB)

  16. Nanotribology: Rubbing on Small Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Nanometer-scale investigations offer the potential of providing first-principles understanding of tribo-systems in terms of fundamental intermolecular forces. Some of the basic issues and motivation for use of scanning probes in the area of nanotribology is presented.

  17. SCALING: Wind Tunnel to Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnels have wide-ranging functionality, including many applications beyond aeronautics, and historically have been the major source of information for technological aerodynamics/aeronautical applications. There are a myriad of scaling issues/differences from flight to wind tunnel, and their study and impacts are uneven and a function of the particular type of extant flow phenomena. Typically, the most serious discrepancies are associated with flow separation. The tremendous ongoing increases in numerical simulation capability are changing and in many aspects have changed the function of the wind tunnel from a (scaled) "predictor" to a source of computational calibration/validation information with the computation then utilized as the flight prediction/scaling tool. Numerical simulations can increasingly include the influences of the various scaling issues. This wind tunnel role change has been occurring for decades as computational capability improves in all aspects. Additional issues driving this trend are the increasing cost (and time) disparity between physical experiments and computations, and increasingly stringent accuracy requirements.

  18. The Adolescent Drug Involvement Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Hahn, Lori

    1991-01-01

    Developed Adolescent Drug Involvement Scale (ADIS) to measure level of drug involvement, considered as continuum ranging from no use to severe dependency, in adolescents. Administered ADIS to 453 adolescents referred for treatment. Results indicated acceptable internal consistency and provide preliminary evidence of validity. Scores correlated…

  19. Hydrodynamic aspects of shark scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschi, W. G.; Musick, J. A.

    1986-03-01

    Ridge morphometrices on placoid scales from 12 galeoid shark species were examined in order to evaluate their potential value for frictional drag reduction. The geometry of the shark scales is similar to longitudinal grooved surfaces (riblets) that have been previously shown to give 8 percent skin-friction reduction for turbulent boundary layers. The present study of the shark scales was undertaken to determine if the physical dimensions of the ridges on the shark scales are of the right magnitude to be used by the sharks for drag reduction based on previous riblet work. The results indicate that the ridge heights and spacings are normally maintained between the predicted optimal values proposed for voluntary and burst swimming speeds throughout the individual's ontogeny. Moreover, the species which might be considered to be the faster posses smaller and more closely spaced ridges that based on the riblet work would suggest a greater frictional drag reduction value at the high swimming speeds, as compared to their more sluggish counterparts.

  20. Scale invariance and superfluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Siddhartha; Ray, Koushik

    2013-11-01

    We construct a Schroedinger field theory invariant under local spatial scaling. It is shown to provide an effective theory of superfluid turbulence by deriving, analytically, the observed Kolmogorov 5/3 law and to lead to a Biot-Savart interaction between the observed filament excitations of the system as well.

  1. Citizen Science Data and Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Wasser, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is rapid growth in the collection of environmental data by non experts. So called ';citizen scientists' are collecting data on plant phenology, precipitation patterns, bird migration and winter feeding, mating calls of frogs in the spring, and numerous other topics and phenomena related to environmental science. This data is generally submitted to online programs (e.g Project BudBurst, COCORaHS, Project Feederwatch, Frogwatch USA, etc.)and is freely available to scientists, educators, land managers, and decisions makers. While the data is often used to address specific science questions, it also provides the opportunity to explore its utility in the context of ecosystem scaling. Citizen science data is being collected and submitted at an unprecedented rate and is of a spatial and temporal scale previously not possible. The amount of citizen science data vastly exceeds what scientists or land managers can collect on their own. As such, it provides opportunities to address scaling in the environmental sciences. This presentation will explore data from several citizen science programs in the context of scaling.

  2. Animal coloration: sexy spider scales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-08-01

    Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration.

  3. Newspaper Scale and Newspaper Expenditures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenburg, William B.

    Employing data from the 1986 Inland Daily Newspaper Association Cost and Revenue study effects of scale on the costs of various factors in newspaper production were examined. Despite several limitations of the Inland Survey, the following tentative conclusions were reached: total expenses rise faster than circulation, and total revenues rise…

  4. Animal coloration: sexy spider scales.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lisa A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2007-08-01

    Many male jumping spiders display vibrant colors that are used in visual communication. A recent microscopic study on a jumping spider from Singapore shows that three-layered 'scale sandwiches' of chitin and air are responsible for producing their brilliant iridescent body coloration. PMID:17686428

  5. Secondary School Burnout Scale (SSBS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop "Secondary School Burnout Scale." Study group included 728 students out of 14 schools in four cities in Turkey. Both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted on the data. A seven-factor solution emerged. The seven factors explained 61% of the total variance. The model…

  6. Scaling up of renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Karl; Chotani, Gopal; Danielson, Nathan; Zahn, James A

    2016-04-01

    The transition of promising technologies for production of renewable chemicals from a laboratory scale to commercial scale is often difficult and expensive. As a result the timeframe estimated for commercialization is typically underestimated resulting in much slower penetration of these promising new methods and products into the chemical industries. The theme of 'sugar is the next oil' connects biological, chemical, and thermochemical conversions of renewable feedstocks to products that are drop-in replacements for petroleum derived chemicals or are new to market chemicals/materials. The latter typically offer a functionality advantage and can command higher prices that result in less severe scale-up challenges. However, for drop-in replacements, price is of paramount importance and competitive capital and operating expenditures are a prerequisite for success. Hence, scale-up of relevant technologies must be interfaced with effective and efficient management of both cell and steel factories. Details involved in all aspects of manufacturing, such as utilities, sterility, product recovery and purification, regulatory requirements, and emissions must be managed successfully. PMID:26874264

  7. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  8. Hydrodynamic aspects of shark scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschi, W. G.; Musick, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Ridge morphometrices on placoid scales from 12 galeoid shark species were examined in order to evaluate their potential value for frictional drag reduction. The geometry of the shark scales is similar to longitudinal grooved surfaces (riblets) that have been previously shown to give 8 percent skin-friction reduction for turbulent boundary layers. The present study of the shark scales was undertaken to determine if the physical dimensions of the ridges on the shark scales are of the right magnitude to be used by the sharks for drag reduction based on previous riblet work. The results indicate that the ridge heights and spacings are normally maintained between the predicted optimal values proposed for voluntary and burst swimming speeds throughout the individual's ontogeny. Moreover, the species which might be considered to be the faster posses smaller and more closely spaced ridges that based on the riblet work would suggest a greater frictional drag reduction value at the high swimming speeds, as compared to their more sluggish counterparts.

  9. Scaling up of renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Karl; Chotani, Gopal; Danielson, Nathan; Zahn, James A

    2016-04-01

    The transition of promising technologies for production of renewable chemicals from a laboratory scale to commercial scale is often difficult and expensive. As a result the timeframe estimated for commercialization is typically underestimated resulting in much slower penetration of these promising new methods and products into the chemical industries. The theme of 'sugar is the next oil' connects biological, chemical, and thermochemical conversions of renewable feedstocks to products that are drop-in replacements for petroleum derived chemicals or are new to market chemicals/materials. The latter typically offer a functionality advantage and can command higher prices that result in less severe scale-up challenges. However, for drop-in replacements, price is of paramount importance and competitive capital and operating expenditures are a prerequisite for success. Hence, scale-up of relevant technologies must be interfaced with effective and efficient management of both cell and steel factories. Details involved in all aspects of manufacturing, such as utilities, sterility, product recovery and purification, regulatory requirements, and emissions must be managed successfully.

  10. Time scales of Magmatic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkesworth, C. J.

    2002-05-01

    Knowledge of the rates of natural processes is critical to the development of physically realistic models. For magmatic processes, rates are increasingly well determined from short lived isotopes, and from diffusion modified element profiles, on time scales that vary from 10s of 1000s of years to a few years. Our understanding of the melting processes beneath MOR have been revolutionised by the application of U-series isotopes, because they include isotopes with half lives similar to the time scales of melt generation and extraction. For island arcs there is much discussion of how to incorporate suggestions that Ra and Ba are transferred from the slab in a few 1000 years, and yet significantly more time is required to generate the excess Pa isotopes. Once in the crust, crystallisation and differentiation may be driven by cooling, degassing and decompression, and these should be characterised by different time scales. Crystals preserve rich high-resolution records of changing magma compositions, but the time scales of those changes are difficult to establish. Isotope studies have shown that more evolved rock types tend to contain more old crystals that may be 10s of 1000s of years old at the time of eruption. Whether these are xenocrysts, or evidence for long term crystallisation histories remains controversial. Moreover, diffusion modified element profiles, and crystal size distributions, suggest that crystals are often less than a 100 years old. An alternative approach is to consider U-series isotope ratios in the magma, and how these may change with degree of magma evolution. These suggest that differentiation time scales may be up to 200 ky for magmas at the base of the crust, but for magmas that crystallise at shallower levels the time scales are much shorter. In some cases these are in weeks and months, and crystallisation is likely to be due to decompression and degassing. One consequence of the short crystallisation times, is that there may be insufficient

  11. Optimal scaling in ductile fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokoua Djodom, Landry

    This work is concerned with the derivation of optimal scaling laws, in the sense of matching lower and upper bounds on the energy, for a solid undergoing ductile fracture. The specific problem considered concerns a material sample in the form of an infinite slab of finite thickness subjected to prescribed opening displacements on its two surfaces. The solid is assumed to obey deformation-theory of plasticity and, in order to further simplify the analysis, we assume isotropic rigid-plastic deformations with zero plastic spin. When hardening exponents are given values consistent with observation, the energy is found to exhibit sublinear growth. We regularize the energy through the addition of nonlocal energy terms of the strain-gradient plasticity type. This nonlocal regularization has the effect of introducing an intrinsic length scale into the energy. We also put forth a physical argument that identifies the intrinsic length and suggests a linear growth of the nonlocal energy. Under these assumptions, ductile fracture emerges as the net result of two competing effects: whereas the sublinear growth of the local energy promotes localization of deformation to failure planes, the nonlocal regularization stabilizes this process, thus resulting in an orderly progression towards failure and a well-defined specific fracture energy. The optimal scaling laws derived here show that ductile fracture results from localization of deformations to void sheets, and that it requires a well-defined energy per unit fracture area. In particular, fractal modes of fracture are ruled out under the assumptions of the analysis. The optimal scaling laws additionally show that ductile fracture is cohesive in nature, i.e., it obeys a well-defined relation between tractions and opening displacements. Finally, the scaling laws supply a link between micromechanical properties and macroscopic fracture properties. In particular, they reveal the relative roles that surface energy and microplasticity

  12. Structural Similitude and Scaling Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, George J.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft and spacecraft comprise the class of aerospace structures that require efficiency and wisdom in design, sophistication and accuracy in analysis and numerous and careful experimental evaluations of components and prototype, in order to achieve the necessary system reliability, performance and safety. Preliminary and/or concept design entails the assemblage of system mission requirements, system expected performance and identification of components and their connections as well as of manufacturing and system assembly techniques. This is accomplished through experience based on previous similar designs, and through the possible use of models to simulate the entire system characteristics. Detail design is heavily dependent on information and concepts derived from the previous steps. This information identifies critical design areas which need sophisticated analyses, and design and redesign procedures to achieve the expected component performance. This step may require several independent analysis models, which, in many instances, require component testing. The last step in the design process, before going to production, is the verification of the design. This step necessitates the production of large components and prototypes in order to test component and system analytical predictions and verify strength and performance requirements under the worst loading conditions that the system is expected to encounter in service. Clearly then, full-scale testing is in many cases necessary and always very expensive. In the aircraft industry, in addition to full-scale tests, certification and safety necessitate large component static and dynamic testing. Such tests are extremely difficult, time consuming and definitely absolutely necessary. Clearly, one should not expect that prototype testing will be totally eliminated in the aircraft industry. It is hoped, though, that we can reduce full-scale testing to a minimum. Full-scale large component testing is necessary in

  13. Time scales in cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Papo, David

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience boils down to describing the ways in which cognitive function results from brain activity. In turn, brain activity shows complex fluctuations, with structure at many spatio-temporal scales. Exactly how cognitive function inherits the physical dimensions of neural activity, though, is highly non-trivial, and so are generally the corresponding dimensions of cognitive phenomena. As for any physical phenomenon, when studying cognitive function, the first conceptual step should be that of establishing its dimensions. Here, we provide a systematic presentation of the temporal aspects of task-related brain activity, from the smallest scale of the brain imaging technique's resolution, to the observation time of a given experiment, through the characteristic time scales of the process under study. We first review some standard assumptions on the temporal scales of cognitive function. In spite of their general use, these assumptions hold true to a high degree of approximation for many cognitive (viz. fast perceptual) processes, but have their limitations for other ones (e.g., thinking or reasoning). We define in a rigorous way the temporal quantifiers of cognition at all scales, and illustrate how they qualitatively vary as a function of the properties of the cognitive process under study. We propose that each phenomenon should be approached with its own set of theoretical, methodological and analytical tools. In particular, we show that when treating cognitive processes such as thinking or reasoning, complex properties of ongoing brain activity, which can be drastically simplified when considering fast (e.g., perceptual) processes, start playing a major role, and not only characterize the temporal properties of task-related brain activity, but also determine the conditions for proper observation of the phenomena. Finally, some implications on the design of experiments, data analyses, and the choice of recording parameters are discussed. PMID:23626578

  14. Earthquake Scaling, Simulation and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Michael Karl

    Earthquakes are among the most devastating natural events faced by society. In 2011, just two events, the magnitude 6.3 earthquake in Christcurch New Zealand on February 22, and the magnitude 9.0 Tohoku earthquake off the coast of Japan on March 11, caused a combined total of $226 billion in economic losses. Over the last decade, 791,721 deaths were caused by earthquakes. Yet, despite their impact, our ability to accurately predict when earthquakes will occur is limited. This is due, in large part, to the fact that the fault systems that produce earthquakes are non-linear. The result being that very small differences in the systems now result in very big differences in the future, making forecasting difficult. In spite of this, there are patterns that exist in earthquake data. These patterns are often in the form of frequency-magnitude scaling relations that relate the number of smaller events observed to the number of larger events observed. In many cases these scaling relations show consistent behavior over a wide range of scales. This consistency forms the basis of most forecasting techniques. However, the utility of these scaling relations is limited by the size of the earthquake catalogs which, especially in the case of large events, are fairly small and limited to a few 100 years of events. In this dissertation I discuss three areas of earthquake science. The first is an overview of scaling behavior in a variety of complex systems, both models and natural systems. The focus of this area is to understand how this scaling behavior breaks down. The second is a description of the development and testing of an earthquake simulator called Virtual California designed to extend the observed catalog of earthquakes in California. This simulator uses novel techniques borrowed from statistical physics to enable the modeling of large fault systems over long periods of time. The third is an evaluation of existing earthquake forecasts, which focuses on the Regional

  15. Evaluating the impact of farm scale innovation at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breda, Phelia; De Clercq, Willem; Vlok, Pieter; Querner, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological modelling lends itself to other disciplines very well, normally as a process based system that acts as a catalogue of events taking place. These hydrological models are spatial-temporal in their design and are generally well suited for what-if situations in other disciplines. Scaling should therefore be a function of the purpose of the modelling. Process is always linked with scale or support but the temporal resolution can affect the results if the spatial scale is not suitable. The use of hydrological response units tends to lump area around physical features but disregards farm boundaries. Farm boundaries are often the more crucial uppermost resolution needed to gain more value from hydrological modelling. In the Letaba Catchment of South Africa, we find a generous portion of landuses, different models of ownership, different farming systems ranging from large commercial farms to small subsistence farming. All of these have the same basic right to water but water distribution in the catchment is somewhat of a problem. Since water quantity is also a problem, the water supply systems need to take into account that valuable production areas not be left without water. Clearly hydrological modelling should therefore be sensitive to specific landuse. As a measure of productivity, a system of small farmer production evaluation was designed. This activity presents a dynamic system outside hydrological modelling that is generally not being considered inside hydrological modelling but depends on hydrological modelling. For sustainable development, a number of important concepts needed to be aligned with activities in this region, and the regulatory actions also need to be adhered to. This study aimed at aligning the activities in a region to the vision and objectives of the regulatory authorities. South Africa's system of socio-economic development planning is complex and mostly ineffective. There are many regulatory authorities involved, often with unclear

  16. Mokken Scale Analysis Using Hierarchical Clustering Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Abswoude, Alexandra A. H.; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Hemker, Bas T.; van der Ark, L. Andries

    2004-01-01

    Mokken scale analysis (MSA) can be used to assess and build unidimensional scales from an item pool that is sensitive to multiple dimensions. These scales satisfy a set of scaling conditions, one of which follows from the model of monotone homogeneity. An important drawback of the MSA program is that the sequential item selection and scale…

  17. Stability of Rasch Scales over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine S.; Lee, Yoonsun

    2010-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) methods are generally used to create score scales for large-scale tests. Research has shown that IRT scales are stable across groups and over time. Most studies have focused on items that are dichotomously scored. Now Rasch and other IRT models are used to create scales for tests that include polytomously scored items.…

  18. 27 CFR 19.276 - Package scales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Scales used to weigh packages designed to hold 10 wine gallons or less shall indicate weight in ounces or... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package scales. 19.276... Package scales. Proprietors shall ensure the accuracy of scales used for weighing packages of...

  19. 30 CFR 57.3202 - Scaling tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ground Control Scaling and Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3202 Scaling tools. Where manual scaling is performed, a scaling...

  20. Simple scale interpolator facilitates reading of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, A.; Henry, B.; Hood, D.

    1966-01-01

    Set of cards with scale divisions and a scale finder permits accurate reading of the coordinates of points on linear or logarithmic graphs plotted on rectangular grids. The set contains 34 different scales for linear plotting and 28 single cycle scales for log plots.

  1. Emerging universe from scale invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Del Campo, Sergio; Herrera, Ramón; Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Labraña, Pedro E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il E-mail: plabrana@ubiobio.cl

    2010-06-01

    We consider a scale invariant model which includes a R{sup 2} term in action and show that a stable ''emerging universe'' scenario is possible. The model belongs to the general class of theories, where an integration measure independent of the metric is introduced. To implement scale invariance (S.I.), a dilaton field is introduced. The integration of the equations of motion associated with the new measure gives rise to the spontaneous symmetry breaking (S.S.B) of S.I. After S.S.B. of S.I. in the model with the R{sup 2} term (and first order formalism applied), it is found that a non trivial potential for the dilaton is generated. The dynamics of the scalar field becomes non linear and these non linearities are instrumental in the stability of some of the emerging universe solutions, which exists for a parameter range of the theory.

  2. The scale of cosmic isotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Marinoni, C.; Bel, J.; Buzzi, A. E-mail: Julien.Bel@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2012-10-01

    The most fundamental premise to the standard model of the universe states that the large-scale properties of the universe are the same in all directions and at all comoving positions. Demonstrating this hypothesis has proven to be a formidable challenge. The cross-over scale R{sub iso} above which the galaxy distribution becomes statistically isotropic is vaguely defined and poorly (if not at all) quantified. Here we report on a formalism that allows us to provide an unambiguous operational definition and an estimate of R{sub iso}. We apply the method to galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, finding that R{sub iso} ∼ 150h{sup −1}Mpc. Besides providing a consistency test of the Copernican principle, this result is in agreement with predictions based on numerical simulations of the spatial distribution of galaxies in cold dark matter dominated cosmological models.

  3. SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: INDIAN ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debasish; Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensation seeking refers to a biologically based personality dimension defined as the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. Although researched worldwide for nearly three decades now, there is to date no published Indian study utilizing the concept of sensation seeking. This paper describes adaptation of the Sensation Seeking Scale for the Indian population. After due modification of the scale, its reliability, internal consistency and discriminant validity were established Norms were developed for a defined segment of general population. This study may be seen as the beginning of research in India on the subject of sensation seeking. PMID:21743627

  4. Thermodynamics from a scaling Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pino, L. A.; Troncoso, P.; Curilef, S.

    2007-11-01

    There are problems with defining the thermodynamic limit of systems with long-range interactions; as a result, the thermodynamic behavior of these types of systems is anomalous. In the present work, we review some concepts from both extensive and nonextensive thermodynamic perspectives. We use a model, whose Hamiltonian takes into account spins ferromagnetically coupled in a chain via a power law that decays at large interparticle distance r as 1/rα for α⩾0 . Here, we review old nonextensive scaling. In addition, we propose a Hamiltonian scaled by 2((N/2)1-α-1)/(1-α) that explicitly includes symmetry of the lattice and dependence on the size N of the system. The approach enabled us to improve upon previous results. A numerical test is conducted through Monte Carlo simulations. In the model, periodic boundary conditions are adopted to eliminate surface effects.

  5. Allometric scaling laws of metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jafferson Kamphorst Leal; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Barbosa, Lauro A.

    2006-12-01

    One of the most pervasive laws in biology is the allometric scaling, whereby a biological variable Y is related to the mass M of the organism by a power law, Y=YM, where b is the so-called allometric exponent. The origin of these power laws is still a matter of dispute mainly because biological laws, in general, do not follow from physical ones in a simple manner. In this work, we review the interspecific allometry of metabolic rates, where recent progress in the understanding of the interplay between geometrical, physical and biological constraints has been achieved. For many years, it was a universal belief that the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of all organisms is described by Kleiber's law (allometric exponent b=3/4). A few years ago, a theoretical basis for this law was proposed, based on a resource distribution network common to all organisms. Nevertheless, the 3/4-law has been questioned recently. First, there is an ongoing debate as to whether the empirical value of b is 3/4 or 2/3, or even nonuniversal. Second, some mathematical and conceptual errors were found these network models, weakening the proposed theoretical arguments. Another pertinent observation is that the maximal aerobically sustained metabolic rate of endotherms scales with an exponent larger than that of BMR. Here we present a critical discussion of the theoretical models proposed to explain the scaling of metabolic rates, and compare the predicted exponents with a review of the experimental literature. Our main conclusion is that although there is not a universal exponent, it should be possible to develop a unified theory for the common origin of the allometric scaling laws of metabolism.

  6. Global scale groundwater flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.

  7. Quantum critical scaling in graphene.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Daniel E; Schmalian, Jörg

    2007-11-30

    We show that the emergent relativistic symmetry of electrons in graphene near its quantum critical point (QCP) implies a crucial importance of the Coulomb interaction. We derive scaling laws, valid near the QCP, that dictate the nontrivial magnetic and charge response of interacting graphene. Our analysis yields numerous predictions for how the Coulomb interaction will be manifested in experimental observables such as the diamagnetic response and electronic compressibility. PMID:18233313

  8. Scaling Exponents in Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Kim, Soo Yong

    2007-03-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of four exchange rates in foreign exchange markets. A detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is applied to detect the long-range correlation embedded in the non-stationary time series. It is for our case found that there exists a persistent long-range correlation in volatilities, which implies the deviation from the efficient market hypothesis. Particularly, the crossover is shown to exist in the scaling behaviors of the volatilities.

  9. Latest Developments in SLD Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Anderson, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Scaling methods have been shown previously to work well for super cooled large droplet (SLD) main ice shapes. However, feather sizes for some conditions have not been well represented by scale tests. To determine if there are fundamental differences between the development of feathers for appendix C and SLD conditions, this study used time-sequenced photographs, viewing along the span of the model during icing sprays. An airspeed of 100 kt, cloud water drop MVDs of 30 and 140 microns, and stagnation freezing fractions of 0.30 and 0.50 were tested in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel using an unswept 91-cm-chord NACA0012 airfoil model mounted at 0deg AOA. The photos indicated that the feathers that developed in a distinct region downstream of the leading-edge ice determined the horn location and angle. The angle at which feathers grew from the surface were also measured; results are shown for an airspeed of 150 kt, an MVD of 30 microns, and stagnation freezing fractions of 0.30 to 0.60. Feather angles were found to depend strongly on the stagnation freezing fraction, and were independent of either chordwise position on the model or time into the spray. Feather angles also correlated well with horn angles. For these tests, there did not appear to be fundamental differences between the physics of SLD and appendix C icing; therefore, for these conditions similarity parameters used for appendix C scaling appear to be valid for SLD scaling as well. Further investigation into the cause for the large feather structures observed for some SLD conditions will continue.

  10. An investigation of ride quality rating scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for the combined purposes of determining the relative merits of various category scales for the prediction of human discomfort response to vibration and for determining the mathematical relationships whereby subjective data are transformed from one scale to other scales. There were 16 category scales analyzed representing various parametric combinations of polarity, that is, unipolar and bipolar, scale type, and number of scalar points. Results indicated that unipolar continuous-type scales containing either seven or nine scalar points provide the greatest reliability and discriminability. Transformations of subjective data between category scales were found to be feasible with unipolar scales of a larger number of scalar points providing the greatest accuracy of transformation. The results contain coefficients for transformation of subjective data between the category scales investigated. A result of particular interest was that the comfort half of a bipolar scale was seldom used by subjects to describe their subjective reaction to vibration.

  11. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-12-23

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community.

  12. Mechanically reliable scales and coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Alexander, K.B.

    1995-06-01

    In many high-temperature fossil energy systems, corrosion and deleterious environmental effects arising from reactions with reactive gases and condensible products often compromise materials performance and, as a consequence, degrade operating efficiencies. Protection of materials from such reactions is best afforded by the formation of stable surface oxides (either as deposited coatings or thermally grown scales) that are slowly reacting, continuous, dense, and adherent to the substrate. However, the ability of normally brittle ceramic films and coatings to provide such protection has long been problematical, particularly for applications involving numerous or severe high-temperature thermal cycles or very aggressive (for example, sulfidizing) environments. A satisfactory understanding of how scale and coating integrity and adherence are improved by compositional, microstructural, and processing modifications is lacking. Therefore, to address this issue, the present work is intended to define the relationships between substrate characteristics (composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior) and the structure and protective properties of deposited oxide coatings and/or thermally grown scales. Such information is crucial to the optimization of the chemical, interfacial, and mechanical properties of the protective oxides on high-temperature materials through control of processing and composition and directly supports the development of corrosion-resistant, high-temperature materials for improved energy and environmental control systems.

  13. Transition physics and scaling overview

    SciTech Connect

    Carlstrom, T.N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent experimental progress towards understanding H-mode transition physics and scaling. Terminology and techniques for studying H-mode are reviewed and discussed. The model of shear E x B flow stabilization of edge fluctuations at the L-H transition is gaining wide acceptance and is further supported by observations of edge rotation on a number of new devices. Observations of poloidal asymmetries of edge fluctuations and dephasing of density and potential fluctuations after the transition pose interesting challenges for understanding H-mode physics. Dedicated scans to determine the scaling of the power threshold have now been performed on many machines. A dear B{sub t} dependence is universally observed but dependence on the line averaged density is complicated. Other dependencies are also reported. Studies of the effect of neutrals and error fields on the power threshold are under investigation. The ITER threshold database has matured and offers guidance to the power threshold scaling issues relevant to next-step devices.

  14. A Lab-Scale CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Mark E.; Finn, Cory K.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Sun, Sidney; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that prohibitive resupply costs for extended-duration manned space flight missions will demand that a high degree of recycling and in situ food production be implemented. A prime candidate for in situ food production is the growth of higher level plants. Research in the area of plant physiology is currently underway at many institutions. This research is aimed at the characterization and optimization of gas exchange, transpiration and food production of higher plants in order to support human life in space. However, there are a number of unresolved issues involved in making plant chambers an integral part of a closed life support system. For example, issues pertaining to the integration of tightly coupled, non-linear systems with small buffer volumes will need to be better understood in order to ensure successful long term operation of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has embarked on a program to explore some of these issues and demonstrate the feasibility of the CELSS concept. The primary goal of the Laboratory Scale CELSS Project is to develop a fully-functioning integrated CELSS on a laboratory scale in order to provide insight, knowledge and experience applicable to the design of human-rated CELSS facilities. Phase I of this program involves the integration of a plant chamber with a solid waste processor. This paper will describe the requirements, design and some experimental results from Phase I of the Laboratory Scale CELSS Program.

  15. Temporal scaling in information propagation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers. PMID:24939414

  16. Low on the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.

    2013-09-01

    Until relatively recently, many authors have assumed that if extraterrestrial life is discovered it will be via the discovery of extraterrestrial intelligence: we can best try to detect life by adopting the SETI approach of trying to detect beacons or artefacts. The Rio Scale, proposed by Almár and Tarter in 2000, is a tool for quantifying the potential significance for society of any such reported detection. However, improvements in technology and advances in astrobiology raise the possibility that the discovery of extraterrestrial life will instead be via the detection of atmospheric biosignatures. The London Scale, proposed by Almár in 2010, attempts to quantify the potential significance of the discovery of extraterrestrial life rather than extraterrestrial intelligence. What might be the consequences of the announcement of a discovery that ranks low on the London Scale? In other words, what might be society's reaction if 'first contact' is via the remote sensing of the byproducts of unicellular organisms rather than with the products of high intelligence? Here, I examine some possible reactions to that question; in particular, I discuss how such an announcement might affect our views of life here on Earth and of humanity's place in the universe.

  17. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter space that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.

  18. Non-relativistic scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2016-06-01

    We extend the cohomological analysis in arXiv:1410.5831 of anisotropic Lifshitz scale anomalies. We consider non-relativistic theories with a dynamical critical exponent z = 2 with or without non-relativistic boosts and a particle number symmetry. We distinguish between cases depending on whether the time direction does or does not induce a foliation structure. We analyse both 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions. In 1 + 1 dimensions we find no scale anomalies with Galilean boost symmetries. The anomalies in 2 + 1 dimensions with Galilean boosts and a foliation structure are all B-type and are identical to the Lifshitz case in the purely spatial sector. With Galilean boosts and without a foliation structure we find also an A-type scale anomaly. There is an infinite ladder of B-type anomalies in the absence of a foliation structure with or without Galilean boosts. We discuss the relation between the existence of a foliation structure and the causality of the field theory.

  19. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter spacemore » that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.« less

  20. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  1. Analytic theories of allometric scaling.

    PubMed

    Agutter, Paul S; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-04-01

    During the 13 years since it was first advanced, the fractal network theory (FNT), an analytic theory of allometric scaling, has been subjected to a wide range of methodological, mathematical and empirical criticisms, not all of which have been answered satisfactorily. FNT presumes a two-variable power-law relationship between metabolic rate and body mass. This assumption has been widely accepted in the past, but a growing body of evidence during the past quarter century has raised questions about its general validity. There is now a need for alternative theories of metabolic scaling that are consistent with empirical observations over a broad range of biological applications. In this article, we briefly review the limitations of FNT, examine the evidence that the two-variable power-law assumption is invalid, and outline alternative perspectives. In particular, we discuss quantum metabolism (QM), an analytic theory based on molecular-cellular processes. QM predicts the large variations in scaling exponent that are found empirically and also predicts the temperature dependence of the proportionality constant, issues that have eluded models such as FNT that are based on macroscopic and network properties of organisms.

  2. Dystonia rating scales: critique and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H.A.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T.; Leentjens, Albert F.G.; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.; Schrag, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Results Thirty six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving twenty-eight scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be “recommended”: the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two “recommended” scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for “suggested” and seven scales met criteria for “listed”. All the scales are individually reviewed in the online appendix. Conclusion The task force recommends five specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate in dystonia two recommended generic voice-disorder scales. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. PMID:23893443

  3. Coupled length scales in eroding landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Kelvin K.; Rothman, Daniel H.

    2001-05-01

    We report results from an empirical study of the anisotropic structure of eroding landscapes. By constructing a novel correlation function, we show quantitatively that small-scale channel-like features of landscapes are coupled to the large-scale structure of drainage basins. We show additionally that this two-scale interaction is scale-dependent. The latter observation suggests that a commonly applied effective equation for erosive transport may itself depend on scale.

  4. Evaluating the impact of farm scale innovation at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breda, Phelia; De Clercq, Willem; Vlok, Pieter; Querner, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological modelling lends itself to other disciplines very well, normally as a process based system that acts as a catalogue of events taking place. These hydrological models are spatial-temporal in their design and are generally well suited for what-if situations in other disciplines. Scaling should therefore be a function of the purpose of the modelling. Process is always linked with scale or support but the temporal resolution can affect the results if the spatial scale is not suitable. The use of hydrological response units tends to lump area around physical features but disregards farm boundaries. Farm boundaries are often the more crucial uppermost resolution needed to gain more value from hydrological modelling. In the Letaba Catchment of South Africa, we find a generous portion of landuses, different models of ownership, different farming systems ranging from large commercial farms to small subsistence farming. All of these have the same basic right to water but water distribution in the catchment is somewhat of a problem. Since water quantity is also a problem, the water supply systems need to take into account that valuable production areas not be left without water. Clearly hydrological modelling should therefore be sensitive to specific landuse. As a measure of productivity, a system of small farmer production evaluation was designed. This activity presents a dynamic system outside hydrological modelling that is generally not being considered inside hydrological modelling but depends on hydrological modelling. For sustainable development, a number of important concepts needed to be aligned with activities in this region, and the regulatory actions also need to be adhered to. This study aimed at aligning the activities in a region to the vision and objectives of the regulatory authorities. South Africa's system of socio-economic development planning is complex and mostly ineffective. There are many regulatory authorities involved, often with unclear

  5. Scale-up considerations: Pilot to commercial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisiger, Dan

    1996-01-01

    The success of Photovoltaic (PV) technology as a viable business enterprise depends largely on its ability to provide a competitive advantage over other current energy technologies in meeting the customers' needs. Successful commercialization of the PV technology, therefore requires, in part, an efficient and effective manufacturing strategy in order to ensure a superior quality, low cost product. Several key design considerations for process scale-up were examined associated with GPI's PV module manufacturing expansion project completed in Spring, 1994. Particular emphasis was given to product specification, process specification, process engineering design, site location selection, environmental/health/safety (EHS) factors, and plant maintenance.

  6. Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotzek, Nikolai

    A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of an E-scale. Aside from its foundation in physical quantities which allow for a calibration of the scales, the E-scale concept can help to overcome the present plethora of scales for winds in the range from gale to hurricane intensity. A procedure to convert existing data based on the Fujita-scale or other scales (Saffir-Simpson, TORRO, Beaufort) to their corresponding E-scales is outlined. Even for the large US tornado record, the workload of conversion in case of an adoption of the E-scale would in principle remain manageable (if the necessary metadata to do so were available), as primarily the F5 events would have to be re-rated. Compared to damage scales like the "Enhanced Fujita" or EF-scale concept recently implemented in the USA, the E-scales are based on first principles. They can consistently be applied all over the world for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. To account for international variations in building characteristics, one should not adapt wind speed scale thresholds to certain national building characteristics. Instead, one worldwide applicable wind speed scale based on physical principles should rather be complemented by nationally-adapted damage descriptions. The E-scale concept can provide the basis for such a standardised wind speed scale.

  7. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  8. Dimensional Review of Scales for Forensic Photography.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Massimiliano; Doiron, Theodore D; Thompson, Robert M; Jones, John P; Freeman, Adam J; Neiman, Janice A

    2016-03-01

    Scales for photography provide a geometrical reference in the photographic documentation of a crime scene, pattern, or item of evidence. The ABFO No. 2 Standard Reference Scale (1) is used by the forensic science community as an accurate reference scale. We investigated the overall accuracy of the major centimeter graduations, internal/external diameters of the circles, error in placement of the circle centers, and leg perpendicularity. Four vendors were selected for the scales, and the features were measured on a vision-based coordinate measurement system. The scales were well within the specified tolerance for the length graduations. After 4 years, the same scales were measured to determine what change could be measured. The scales demonstrated acceptable stability in the scale length and center-to-center measurements; however, the perpendicularity exhibited change. The study results indicate that scale quality checks using certified metal rulers are good practice. PMID:27404626

  9. Proposing a tornado watch scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Jonathan Brock

    This thesis provides an overview of language used in tornado safety recommendations from various sources, along with developing a rubric for scaled tornado safety recommendations, and subsequent development and testing of a tornado watch scale. The rubric is used to evaluate tornado refuge/shelter adequacy responses of Tuscaloosa residents gathered following the April 27, 2011 Tuscaloosa, Alabama EF4 tornado. There was a significant difference in the counts of refuge adequacy for Tuscaloosa residents when holding the locations during the April 27th tornado constant and comparing adequacy ratings for weak (EF0-EF1), strong (EF2-EF3) and violent (EF4-EF5) tornadoes. There was also a significant difference when comparing future tornado refuge plans of those same participants to the adequacy ratings for weak, strong and violent tornadoes. The tornado refuge rubric is then revised into a six-class, hierarchical Tornado Watch Scale (TWS) from Level 0 to Level 5 based on the likelihood of high-impact or low-impact severe weather events containing weak, strong or violent tornadoes. These levels represent maximum expected tornado intensity and include tornado safety recommendations from the tornado refuge rubric. Audio recordings similar to those used in current National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radio communications were developed to correspond to three levels of the TWS, a current Storm Prediction Center (SPC) tornado watch and a particularly dangerous situation (PDS) tornado watch. These were then used in interviews of Alabama residents to determine how changes to the information contained in the watch statements would affect each participant's tornado safety actions and perception of event danger. Results from interview participants (n=38) indicate a strong preference (97.37%) for the TWS when compared to current tornado watch and PDS tornado watch statements. Results also show the TWS elicits more adequate safety decisions from participants

  10. Scaling on a limestone flooring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Natural stone can be use on nearly every surface, inside and outside buildings, but decay is more commonly reported from the ones exposed to outdoor aggressively conditions. This study instead, is an example of limestone weathering of uncertain origin in the interior of a residential building. The stone, used as flooring, started to exhibit loss of material in the form of scaling. These damages were observed before the building, localized in the South of Spain (Málaga), was inhabited. Moreover, according to the company the limestone satisfies the following European standards UNE-EN 1341: 2002, UNE-EN 1343: 2003; UNE-EN 12058: 2004 for floorings. Under these circumstances the main objective of this study was to assess the causes of this phenomenon. For this reason the composition of the mortar was determined and the stone was characterized from a mineralogical and petrological point of view. The last material, which is a fossiliferous limestone from Egypt with natural fissure lines, is mainly composed of calcite, being quartz, kaolinite and apatite minor phases. Moreover, under different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques (FTIR, micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, etc) samples of the weathered, taken directly from the buildings, and unweathered limestone tiles were examined and a new mineralogical phase, trona, was identified at scaled areas which are connected with the natural veins of the stone. In fact, through BSE-mapping the presence of sodium has been detected in these veins. This soluble sodium carbonate would was dissolved in the natural waters from which limestone was precipitated and would migrate with the ascendant capilar humidity and crystallized near the surface of the stone starting the scaling phenomenon which in historic masonry could be very damaging. Therefore, the weathering of the limestone would be related with the hygroscopic behaviour of this salt, but not with the constructive methods used. This makes the limestone unable to be used on restoration

  11. Adopted: A practical salinity scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards has recommended the adoption of a Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and a corresponding new International Equation of State of Seawater, 1980. A full account of the research leading to their recommendation is available in the series Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science.The parent organizations have accepted the panel's recommendations and have set January 1, 1982, as the date when the new procedures, formulae, and tables should replace those now in use.

  12. Scale-free convection theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasetto, Stefano; Chiosi, Cesare; Cropper, Mark; Grebel, Eva K.

    2015-08-01

    Convection is one of the fundamental mechanism to transport energy, e.g., in planetology, oceanography as well as in astrophysics where stellar structure customarily described by the mixing-length theory, which makes use of the mixing-length scale parameter to express the convective flux, velocity, and temperature gradients of the convective elements and stellar medium. The mixing-length scale is taken to be proportional to the local pressure scale height of the star, and the proportionality factor (the mixing-length parameter) must be determined by comparing the stellar models to some calibrator, usually the Sun.No strong arguments exist to claim that the mixing-length parameter is the same in all stars and all evolutionary phases. Because of this, all stellar models in literature are hampered by this basic uncertainty.In a recent paper (Pasetto et al 2014) we presented the first fully analytical scale-free theory of convection that does not require the mixing-length parameter. Our self-consistent analytical formulation of convection determines all the properties of convection as a function of the physical behaviour of the convective elements themselves and the surrounding medium (being it a either a star, an ocean, a primordial planet). The new theory of convection is formulated starting from a conventional solution of the Navier-Stokes/Euler equations, i.e. the Bernoulli equation for a perfect fluid, but expressed in a non-inertial reference frame co-moving with the convective elements. In our formalism, the motion of convective cells inside convective-unstable layers is fully determined by a new system of equations for convection in a non-local and time dependent formalism.We obtained an analytical, non-local, time-dependent solution for the convective energy transport that does not depend on any free parameter. The predictions of the new theory in astrophysical environment are compared with those from the standard mixing-length paradigm in stars with

  13. The NIST Length Scale Interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Beers, John S.; Penzes, William B.

    1999-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) interferometer for measuring graduated length scales has been in use since 1965. It was developed in response to the redefinition of the meter in 1960 from the prototype platinum-iridium bar to the wavelength of light. The history of the interferometer is recalled, and its design and operation described. A continuous program of modernization by making physical modifications, measurement procedure changes and computational revisions is described, and the effects of these changes are evaluated. Results of a long-term measurement assurance program, the primary control on the measurement process, are presented, and improvements in measurement uncertainty are documented.

  14. Scale problem in wormhole physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. E.; Lee, K.

    1989-07-03

    Wormhole physics from the quantum thoery of gravity coupled to the second-rank antisymmetric tensor or Goldstone-boson fields leads to an effective potential for these fields. The cosmological energy-density bound is shown to put an upper bound on the cosmological constant which wormhole physics can make zero. This upper bound, of order 10/sup 11/ GeV, is far smaller than the Planck scale and barely compatible with the possible cosmological constant arising from grand unified theories. In addition, the effect of wormholes on the axion for the strong /ital CP/ problem is discussed.

  15. Supergroups and economies of scale.

    PubMed

    Schlossberg, Steven

    2009-02-01

    With the changing environment for medical practice, physician practice models will continue to evolve. These "supergoups'' create economies of scale, but their advantage is not only in the traditional economic sense. Practices with enough size are able to better meet the challenges of medical practice with increasing regulatory demands, explosion of clinical knowledge, quality and information technology initiatives, and an increasingly tight labor market. Smaller practices can adapt some of these strategies selectively. Depending on the topic, smaller practices should think differently about how to approach the challenges of practice.

  16. New Scalings in Nuclear Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnet, E.; Bougault, R.; Galichet, E.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Marini, P.; Parlog, M.

    2010-10-01

    Fragment partitions of fragmenting hot nuclei produced in central and semiperipheral collisions have been compared in the excitation energy region 4-10 MeV per nucleon where radial collective expansion takes place. It is shown that, for a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the amount of radial collective energy fixes the mean fragment multiplicity. It is also shown that, at a given total excitation energy per nucleon, the different properties of fragment partitions are completely determined by the reduced fragment multiplicity (i.e., normalized to the source size). Freeze-out volumes seem to play a role in the scalings observed.

  17. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  18. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Modified propeller and spinner in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project

  19. Multi-scale Shock Technique

    2009-08-01

    The code to be released is a new addition to the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code. LAMMPS is developed and maintained by Sandia, is publicly available, and is used widely by both natioanl laboratories and academics. The new addition to be released enables LAMMPS to perform molecular dynamics simulations of shock waves using the Multi-scale Shock Simulation Technique (MSST) which we have developed and has been previously published. This technique enables molecular dynamics simulations of shockmore » waves in materials for orders of magnitude longer timescales than the direct, commonly employed approach.« less

  20. Hydrological Modeling of Continental-Scale Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Liang, Xu; Nijssen, Bart; Wetzel, Suzanne W.

    Hydrological models at continental scales are traditionally used for water resources planning. However, continental-scale hydrological models may be useful in assessing the impacts from future climate change on catchment hydrology and water resources or from human activity on hydrology and biogeochemical cycles at large scales. Development of regional-scale terrestrial hydrological models will further our understanding of the Earth's water cycle. Continental scales allow for better understanding of the geographic distribution of land-atmospheric moisture fluxes, improved water management at continental scales, better quantification of the impact of human activity and climate change on the water cycle, and improved simulation of weather and climate.

  1. Identifying characteristic scales in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpena, P.; Bernaola-Galván, P.; Coronado, A. V.; Hackenberg, M.; Oliver, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    The scale-free, long-range correlations detected in DNA sequences contrast with characteristic lengths of genomic elements, being particularly incompatible with the isochores (long, homogeneous DNA segments). By computing the local behavior of the scaling exponent α of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we discriminate between sequences with and without true scaling, and we find that no single scaling exists in the human genome. Instead, human chromosomes show a common compositional structure with two characteristic scales, the large one corresponding to the isochores and the other to small and medium scale genomic elements.

  2. How resilient are resilience scales? The Big Five scales outperform resilience scales in predicting adjustment in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Waaktaar, Trine; Torgersen, Svenn

    2010-04-01

    This study's aim was to determine whether resilience scales could predict adjustment over and above that predicted by the five-factor model (FFM). A sample of 1,345 adolescents completed paper-and-pencil scales on FFM personality (Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children), resilience (Ego-Resiliency Scale [ER89] by Block & Kremen, the Resilience Scale [RS] by Wagnild & Young) and adaptive behaviors (California Healthy Kids Survey, UCLA Loneliness Scale and three measures of school adaptation). The results showed that the FFM scales accounted for the highest proportion of variance in disturbance. For adaptation, the resilience scales contributed as much as the FFM. In no case did the resilience scales outperform the FFM by increasing the explained variance. The results challenge the validity of the resilience concept as an indicator of human adaptation and avoidance of disturbance, although the concept may have heuristic value in combining favorable aspects of a person's personality endowment.

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Social Support, and Psychological Outcomes: A Loss Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the study were: (a) to develop a scale to assess CSA-related loss among a college sample of CSA survivors (CSALM), (b) to examine the measure's convergent validity through associations among depression, alexithymia, coping, and social support, and (c) to test whether social support moderates the relation between…

  4. Personality Correlates of the Jenkins Activity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Glenn R.; Beck, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    Administered Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) and 11 other personality scales to over 700 college students to identify JAS personality correlates. Results revealed that, relative to subjects identified as Type B, those classified as Type A exhibited significantly greater status concern, less alexithymia, more misanthropy, and greater life…

  5. Development and Validation of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire: A Measure of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Kyle D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of the Emotional Self-Awareness Questionnaire (ESQ), a self-report measure of emotional intelligence. The ESQ, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and measures of alexithymia, positive negative affect, personality, cognitive ability, life satisfaction, and leadership aspirations were administered to…

  6. Scaling analysis of stock markets.

    PubMed

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

  7. Impedance Scaling and Impedance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W.; Griffin, J.

    1997-05-01

    When a machine becomes really large, such as the Really Large Hadron Collider (RLHC),(G. W. Foster and E. Malamud, Fermilab-TM-1976 (June, 1996).) of which the circumference could reach the order of megameters, beam instability could be an essential bottleneck. This paper studies the scaling of the instability threshold vs. machine size when the coupling impedance scales in a ``normal'' way. It is shown that the beam would be intrinsically unstable for the RLHC. As a possible solution to this problem, it is proposed to introduce local impedance inserts for controlling the machine impedance. In the longitudinal plane, this could be done by using a heavily detuned rf cavity (e.g., a biconical structure), which could provide large imaginary impedance with the right sign (i.e., inductive or capacitive) while keeping the real part small. In the transverse direction, a carefully designed variation of the cross section of a beam pipe could generate negative impedance that would partially compensate the transverse impedance in one plane.

  8. Engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents results from an engineering scale electrostatic enclosure demonstration test. The electrostatic enclosure is part of an overall in-depth contamination control strategy for transuranic (TRU) waste recovery operations. TRU contaminants include small particles of plutonium compounds associated with defense-related waste recovery operations. Demonstration test items consisted of an outer Perma-con enclosure, an inner tent enclosure, and a ventilation system test section for testing electrostatic curtain devices. Three interchangeable test fixtures that could remove plutonium from the contaminated dust were tested in the test section. These were an electret filter, a CRT as an electrostatic field source, and an electrically charged parallel plate separator. Enclosure materials tested included polyethylene, anti-static construction fabric, and stainless steel. The soil size distribution was determined using an eight stage cascade impactor. Photographs of particles containing plutonium were obtained with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM also provided a second method of getting the size distribution. The amount of plutonium removed from the aerosol by the electrostatic devices was determined by radiochemistry from input and output aerosol samplers. The inner and outer enclosures performed adequately for plutonium handling operations and could be used for full scale operations.

  9. The Kirby-Desai Scale

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Alpesh; Desai, Tejas; Kartono, Francisca; Geeta, Patel

    2009-01-01

    Background: As tattoos have become increasingly popular in the Western world, tattoo-removal requests have also increased, as patients’ personal identities advance. Laser tattoo removal is the current treatment of choice given its safety and efficacy. However, due to varying types of tattoos, it has been difficult to quantify the number of laser treatments required with certainty when discussing laser tattoo removal with our patients. Objective: To propose a practical numerical scale to assess the number of laser tattoo-removal treatments necessary to achieve satisfactory results. Methods and materials: A retrospective chart review was performed on 100 clinic patients who presented for laser tattoo removal. An algorithm was proposed to assign a numerical score to each tattoo across six different categories (skin type, location, color, amount of ink, scarring, and layering). The cumulative score (Kirby-Desai score) is proposed to correlate with the number of treatment sessions required for satisfactory tattoo removal. Results: A correlation coefficient of 0.757 was achieved, with satisfactory tattoo removal in all subjects (N=100, p<0.001). Conclusion: We propose the Kirby-Desai scale as a practical tool to assess the number of laser tattoo-removal sessions required, which will translate into a more certain cost calculation for the patient. PMID:20729941

  10. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Wing and nacelle set-up in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The NACA conducted drag tests in 1931 on a P3M-1 nacelle which were presented in a special report to the Navy. Smith DeFrance described this work in the report's introduction: 'Tests were conducted in the full-scale wind tunnel on a five to four geared Pratt and Whitney Wasp engine mounted in a P3M-1 nacelle. In order to simulate the flight conditions the nacelle was assembled on a 15-foot span of wing from the same airplane. The purpose of the tests was to improve the cooling of the engine and to reduce the drag of the nacelle combination. Thermocouples were installed at various points on the cylinders and temperature readings were obtained from these by the power plants division. These results will be reported in a memorandum by that division. The drag results, which are covered by this memorandum, were obtained with the original nacelle condition as received from the Navy with the tail of the nacelle modified, with the nose section of the nacelle modified, with a Curtiss anti-drag ring attached to the engine, with a Type G ring developed by the N.A.C.A., and with a Type D cowling which was also developed by the N.A.C.A.' (p. 1)

  11. Scaling analysis of stock markets.

    PubMed

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis. PMID:24985421

  12. Scaling analysis of stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Luping; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), local scaling detrended fluctuation analysis (LSDFA), and detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate correlations of several stock markets. DFA method is for the detection of long-range correlations used in time series. LSDFA method is to show more local properties by using local scale exponents. DCCA method is a developed method to quantify the cross-correlation of two non-stationary time series. We report the results of auto-correlation and cross-correlation behaviors in three western countries and three Chinese stock markets in periods 2004-2006 (before the global financial crisis), 2007-2009 (during the global financial crisis), and 2010-2012 (after the global financial crisis) by using DFA, LSDFA, and DCCA method. The findings are that correlations of stocks are influenced by the economic systems of different countries and the financial crisis. The results indicate that there are stronger auto-correlations in Chinese stocks than western stocks in any period and stronger auto-correlations after the global financial crisis for every stock except Shen Cheng; The LSDFA shows more comprehensive and detailed features than traditional DFA method and the integration of China and the world in economy after the global financial crisis; When it turns to cross-correlations, it shows different properties for six stock markets, while for three Chinese stocks, it reaches the weakest cross-correlations during the global financial crisis.

  13. The weak scale from BBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Pinner, David; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2014-12-01

    The measured values of the weak scale, v, and the first generation masses, m u, d, e , are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of ( m u , m d , m e , v), catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of (1.4, 1.3, 2.5, ˜ 5), respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as v is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of m u, d, e that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability.

  14. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale.

    PubMed

    DiFranza, Joseph R; Wellman, Robert J; Ursprung, W W Sanouri A; Sabiston, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Our goal was to create an instrument that can be used to study how smokers lose autonomy over smoking and regain it after quitting. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale was produced through a process involving item generation, focus-group evaluation, testing in adults to winnow items, field testing with adults and adolescents, and head-to-head comparisons with other measures. The final 12-item scale shows excellent reliability (alphas = .91-.97), with a one-factor solution explaining 59% of the variance in adults and 61%-74% of the variance in adolescents. Concurrent validity was supported by associations with age of smoking initiation, lifetime use, smoking frequency, daily cigarette consumption, history of failed cessation, Hooked on Nicotine Checklist scores, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) nicotine dependence criteria. Potentially useful features of this new instrument include (a) it assesses tobacco withdrawal, cue-induced craving, and psychological dependence on cigarettes; (b) it measures symptom intensity; and (c) it asks about current symptoms only, so it could be administered to quitting smokers to track the resolution of symptoms.

  15. Scaling characteristics of topographic depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.

    2013-12-01

    Topographic depressions, areas of no lateral surface flow, are ubiquitous characteristic of land surface that control many ecosystem and biogeochemical processes. Landscapes with high density of depressions increase the surface storage capacity, whereas lower depression density increase runoff, thus influencing soil moisture states, hydrologic connectivity and the climate--soil--vegetation interactions. With the widespread availability of high resolution LiDAR based digital elevation model (lDEM) data, it is now possible to identify and characterize the structure of the spatial distribution of topographic depressions for incorporation in ecohydrologic and biogeochemical studies. Here we use lDEM data to document the prevalence and patterns of topographic depressions across five different landscapes in the United States and quantitatively characterize the distribution of attributes, such as surface area, storage volume, and the distance to the nearest neighbor. Through the use of a depression identification algorithm, we show that these distribution attributes follow scaling laws indicative of a fractal structure in which a large fraction of land surface areas can consist of high number of topographic depressions, accounting for 4 to 200 mm of depression storage. This implies that the impacts of small-scale topographic depressions in the fractal landscapes on the redistribution of surface energy fluxes, evaporation, and hydrologic connectivity are quite significant.

  16. Scaling device for photographic images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jorge E. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Cox, Robert B. (Inventor); Haskell, William D. (Inventor); Stevenson, Charles G. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A scaling device projects a known optical pattern into the field of view of a camera, which can be employed as a reference scale in a resulting photograph of a remote object, for example. The device comprises an optical beam projector that projects two or more spaced, parallel optical beams onto a surface of a remotely located object to be photographed. The resulting beam spots or lines on the object are spaced from one another by a known, predetermined distance. As a result, the size of other objects or features in the photograph can be determined through comparison of their size to the known distance between the beam spots. Preferably, the device is a small, battery-powered device that can be attached to a camera and employs one or more laser light sources and associated optics to generate the parallel light beams. In a first embodiment of the invention, a single laser light source is employed, but multiple parallel beams are generated thereby through use of beam splitting optics. In another embodiment, multiple individual laser light sources are employed that are mounted in the device parallel to one another to generate the multiple parallel beams.

  17. The SCALE-UP Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichner, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The Student Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies (SCALE-UP) project was developed nearly 20 years ago as an economical way to provide collaborative, interactive instruction even for large enrollment classes. Nearly all research-based pedagogies have been designed with fairly high faculty-student ratios. The economics of introductory courses at large universities often precludes that situation, so SCALE-UP was created as a way to facilitate highly collaborative active learning with large numbers of students served by only a few faculty and assistants. It enables those students to learn and succeed not only in acquiring content, but also to practice important 21st century skills like problem solving, communication, and teamsmanship. The approach was initially targeted at undergraduate science and engineering students taking introductory physics courses in large enrollment sections. It has since expanded to multiple content areas, including chemistry, math, engineering, biology, business, nursing, and even the humanities. Class sizes range from 24 to over 600. Data collected from multiple sites around the world indicates highly successful implementation at more than 250 institutions. NSF support was critical for initial development and dissemination efforts. Generously supported by NSF (9752313, 9981107) and FIPSE (P116B971905, P116B000659).

  18. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous

  19. SCALE-UP OF RAPID SMALL-SCALE ADSORPTION TESTS TO FIELD-SCALE ADSORBERS: THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BASIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design of full-scale adsorption systems typically includes expensive and time-consuming pilot studies to simulate full-scale adsorber performance. Accordingly, the rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) was developed and evaluated experimentally. The RSSCT can simulate months of f...

  20. The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, William R.

    2015-09-01

    The Adaptive Multi-scale Simulation Infrastructure (AMSI) is a set of libraries and tools developed to support the development, implementation, and execution of general multimodel simulations. Using a minimal set of simulation meta-data AMSI allows for minimally intrusive work to adapt existent single-scale simulations for use in multi-scale simulations. Support for dynamic runtime operations such as single- and multi-scale adaptive properties is a key focus of AMSI. Particular focus has been spent on the development on scale-sensitive load balancing operations to allow single-scale simulations incorporated into a multi-scale simulation using AMSI to use standard load-balancing operations without affecting the integrity of the overall multi-scale simulation.

  1. A Three Component Cancer Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Seffrin, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A scale was developed to measure college students' attitudes toward cancer and cancer prevention. The three components of attitude were feeling (affective), belief (cognitive), and intention to act (conative). Development of the scale is discussed. (DF)

  2. Scaling ansatz for the jamming transition.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Carl P; Liu, Andrea J; Sethna, James P

    2016-08-30

    We propose a Widom-like scaling ansatz for the critical jamming transition. Our ansatz for the elastic energy shows that the scaling of the energy, compressive strain, shear strain, system size, pressure, shear stress, bulk modulus, and shear modulus are all related to each other via scaling relations, with only three independent scaling exponents. We extract the values of these exponents from already known numerical or theoretical results, and we numerically verify the resulting predictions of the scaling theory for the energy and residual shear stress. We also derive a scaling relation between pressure and residual shear stress that yields insight into why the shear and bulk moduli scale differently. Our theory shows that the jamming transition exhibits an emergent scale invariance, setting the stage for the potential development of a renormalization group theory for jamming. PMID:27512041

  3. Scaling ansatz for the jamming transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Carl P.; Liu, Andrea J.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a Widom-like scaling ansatz for the critical jamming transition. Our ansatz for the elastic energy shows that the scaling of the energy, compressive strain, shear strain, system size, pressure, shear stress, bulk modulus, and shear modulus are all related to each other via scaling relations, with only three independent scaling exponents. We extract the values of these exponents from already known numerical or theoretical results, and we numerically verify the resulting predictions of the scaling theory for the energy and residual shear stress. We also derive a scaling relation between pressure and residual shear stress that yields insight into why the shear and bulk moduli scale differently. Our theory shows that the jamming transition exhibits an emergent scale invariance, setting the stage for the potential development of a renormalization group theory for jamming.

  4. Small-Scale Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. successfully tested a sub-scale solid rocket motor on May 27. Testing a sub-scale version of a rocket motor is a cost-effective ...

  5. Scaling ansatz for the jamming transition

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich, Carl P.; Liu, Andrea J.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a Widom-like scaling ansatz for the critical jamming transition. Our ansatz for the elastic energy shows that the scaling of the energy, compressive strain, shear strain, system size, pressure, shear stress, bulk modulus, and shear modulus are all related to each other via scaling relations, with only three independent scaling exponents. We extract the values of these exponents from already known numerical or theoretical results, and we numerically verify the resulting predictions of the scaling theory for the energy and residual shear stress. We also derive a scaling relation between pressure and residual shear stress that yields insight into why the shear and bulk moduli scale differently. Our theory shows that the jamming transition exhibits an emergent scale invariance, setting the stage for the potential development of a renormalization group theory for jamming. PMID:27512041

  6. The AppScale Cloud Platform

    PubMed Central

    Krintz, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    AppScale is an open source distributed software system that implements a cloud platform as a service (PaaS). AppScale makes cloud applications easy to deploy and scale over disparate cloud fabrics, implementing a set of APIs and architecture that also makes apps portable across the services they employ. AppScale is API-compatible with Google App Engine (GAE) and thus executes GAE applications on-premise or over other cloud infrastructures, without modification. PMID:23828721

  7. Scale Interaction in a California precipitation event

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M. J., LLNL

    1997-09-01

    Heavy rains and severe flooding frequently plaque California. The heavy rains are most often associated with large scale cyclonic and frontal systems, where large scale dynamics and large moisture influx from the tropical Pacific interact. however, the complex topography along the west coast also interacts with the large scale influences, producing local areas with heavier precipitation. In this paper, we look at some of the local interactions with the large scale.

  8. Strongly scale-dependent non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Riotto, Antonio; Sloth, Martin S.

    2011-02-15

    We discuss models of primordial density perturbations where the non-Gaussianity is strongly scale dependent. In particular, the non-Gaussianity may have a sharp cutoff and be very suppressed on large cosmological scales, but sizable on small scales. This may have an impact on probes of non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure and in the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies.

  9. The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-05

    We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

  10. Hypoallometric scaling in international collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiehchen, David; Espinoza, Magdalena; Hsieh, Antony

    2016-02-01

    Collaboration is a vital process and dominant theme in knowledge production, although the effectiveness of policies directed at promoting multinational research remains ambiguous. We examined approximately 24 million research articles published over four decades and demonstrated that the scaling of international publications to research productivity for each country obeys a universal and conserved sublinear power law. Inefficient mechanisms in transborder team dynamics or organization as well as increasing opportunity costs may contribute to the disproportionate growth of international collaboration rates with increasing productivity among nations. Given the constrained growth of international relationships, our findings advocate a greater emphasis on the qualitative aspects of collaborations, such as with whom partnerships are forged, particularly when assessing research and policy outcomes.

  11. Enabling department-scale supercomputing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, D.S.; Hart, W.E.; Phillips, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories have one of the longest and most consistent histories of supercomputer use. The authors summarize the architecture of DOE`s new supercomputers that are being built for the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). The authors then argue that in the near future scaled-down versions of these supercomputers with petaflop-per-weekend capabilities could become widely available to hundreds of research and engineering departments. The availability of such computational resources will allow simulation of physical phenomena to become a full-fledged third branch of scientific exploration, along with theory and experimentation. They describe the ASCI and other supercomputer applications at Sandia National Laboratories, and discuss which lessons learned from Sandia`s long history of supercomputing can be applied in this new setting.

  12. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale.

    PubMed

    Stubbendieck, Reed M; Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Straight, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities. PMID:27551280

  13. Modeling biosilicification at subcellular scales.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Narjes; Cronemberger, Carolina M; Kaandorp, Jaap A

    2013-01-01

    Biosilicification occurs in many organisms. Sponges and diatoms are major examples of them. In this chapter, we introduce a modeling approach that describes several biological mechanisms controlling silicification. Modeling biosilicification is a typical multiscale problem where processes at very different temporal and spatial scales need to be coupled: processes at the molecular level, physiological processes at the subcellular and cellular level, etc. In biosilicification morphology plays a fundamental role, and a spatiotemporal model is required. In the case of sponges, a particle simulation based on diffusion-limited aggregation is presented here. This model can describe fractal properties of silica aggregates in first steps of deposition on an organic template. In the case of diatoms, a reaction-diffusion model is introduced which can describe the concentrations of chemical components and has the possibility to include polymerization chain of reactions. PMID:24420712

  14. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  15. Anisotropic scaling of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Horbury, Timothy S; Forman, Miriam; Oughton, Sean

    2008-10-24

    We present a quantitative estimate of the anisotropic power and scaling of magnetic field fluctuations in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, using a novel wavelet technique applied to spacecraft measurements in the solar wind. We show for the first time that, when the local magnetic field direction is parallel to the flow, the spacecraft-frame spectrum has a spectral index near 2. This can be interpreted as the signature of a population of fluctuations in field-parallel wave numbers with a k(-2)_(||) spectrum but is also consistent with the presence of a "critical balance" style turbulent cascade. We also find, in common with previous studies, that most of the power is contained in wave vectors at large angles to the local magnetic field and that this component of the turbulence has a spectral index of 5/3.

  16. Size Scaling of Static Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, O. M.; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-01

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as fm+Δf/Aγ for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of fm, controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  17. Scale control in urea solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, L.; Diep, D.V.

    1997-08-01

    Legislation to control NO{sub x} emissions, one cause of acid rain and ozone induced smog, has created an impetus to control NO{sub x} emissions. Selective Non Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) using urea chemistry is utilized to control NO{sub x} emissions from boilers, municipal waste incinerators, refinery furnaces, recovery boilers, utilities and other stationary combustion sources. Control requires injecting urea-based solutions into the flue gas at specified temperatures. Urea solutions accelerate CaCO{sub 3} precipitation in industrial waters used for dilution, and thereby interfere with proper application of the urea solution. The negative effect of urea solutions on hardness stability is discussed as well as how CaCO{sub 3} precipitation in urea solution can be controlled by suitable scale inhibitors.

  18. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    PubMed Central

    Stubbendieck, Reed M.; Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Straight, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities. PMID:27551280

  19. Quantitative Scaling of Magnetic Avalanches.

    PubMed

    Durin, G; Bohn, F; Corrêa, M A; Sommer, R L; Le Doussal, P; Wiese, K J

    2016-08-19

    We provide the first quantitative comparison between Barkhausen noise experiments and recent predictions from the theory of avalanches for pinned interfaces, both in and beyond mean field. We study different classes of soft magnetic materials, including polycrystals and amorphous samples-which are characterized by long-range and short-range elasticity, respectively-both for thick and thin samples, i.e., with and without eddy currents. The temporal avalanche shape at fixed size as well as observables related to the joint distribution of sizes and durations are analyzed in detail. Both long-range and short-range samples with no eddy currents are fitted extremely well by the theoretical predictions. In particular, the short-range samples provide the first reliable test of the theory beyond mean field. The thick samples show systematic deviations from the scaling theory, providing unambiguous signatures for the presence of eddy currents.

  20. Quantitative Scaling of Magnetic Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durin, G.; Bohn, F.; Corrêa, M. A.; Sommer, R. L.; Le Doussal, P.; Wiese, K. J.

    2016-08-01

    We provide the first quantitative comparison between Barkhausen noise experiments and recent predictions from the theory of avalanches for pinned interfaces, both in and beyond mean field. We study different classes of soft magnetic materials, including polycrystals and amorphous samples—which are characterized by long-range and short-range elasticity, respectively—both for thick and thin samples, i.e., with and without eddy currents. The temporal avalanche shape at fixed size as well as observables related to the joint distribution of sizes and durations are analyzed in detail. Both long-range and short-range samples with no eddy currents are fitted extremely well by the theoretical predictions. In particular, the short-range samples provide the first reliable test of the theory beyond mean field. The thick samples show systematic deviations from the scaling theory, providing unambiguous signatures for the presence of eddy currents.

  1. Chip Scale Package Implementation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    The JPL-led MicrotypeBGA Consortium of enterprises representing government agencies and private companies have jointed together to pool in-kind resources for developing the quality and reliability of chip scale packages (CSPs) for a variety of projects. In the process of building the Consortium CSP test vehicles, many challenges were identified regarding various aspects of technology implementation. This paper will present our experience in the areas of technology implementation challenges, including design and building both standard and microvia boards, and assembly of two types of test vehicles. We also discuss the most current package isothermal aging to 2,000 hours at 100 C and 125 C and thermal cycling test results to 1,700 cycles in the range of -30 to 100 C.

  2. Quantitative Scaling of Magnetic Avalanches.

    PubMed

    Durin, G; Bohn, F; Corrêa, M A; Sommer, R L; Le Doussal, P; Wiese, K J

    2016-08-19

    We provide the first quantitative comparison between Barkhausen noise experiments and recent predictions from the theory of avalanches for pinned interfaces, both in and beyond mean field. We study different classes of soft magnetic materials, including polycrystals and amorphous samples-which are characterized by long-range and short-range elasticity, respectively-both for thick and thin samples, i.e., with and without eddy currents. The temporal avalanche shape at fixed size as well as observables related to the joint distribution of sizes and durations are analyzed in detail. Both long-range and short-range samples with no eddy currents are fitted extremely well by the theoretical predictions. In particular, the short-range samples provide the first reliable test of the theory beyond mean field. The thick samples show systematic deviations from the scaling theory, providing unambiguous signatures for the presence of eddy currents. PMID:27588876

  3. Quasistatic scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    A network is formed using the N sites of a one-dimensional lattice in the shape of a ring as nodes and each node with the initial degree kin=2. N links are then introduced to this network, each link starts from a distinct node, the other end being connected to any other node with degree k randomly selected with an attachment probability proportional to kα. Tuning the control parameter α, we observe a transition where the average degree of the largest node changes its variation from N0 to N at a specific transition point of αc. The network is scale free, i.e., the nodal degree distribution has a power law decay for α⩾αc.

  4. L-scaling. Working Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankmeyer, Eric

    Given "T" joint observations on "K" variables, it is frequently useful to consider the weighted average or scaled score. L-scaling is introduced as a technique for determining the weights. The technique is so named because of its resemblance to the Leontief matrix of mathematical economics. L-scaling is compared to two widely-used procedures for…

  5. 21 CFR 880.2720 - Patient scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transducers, electronic signal amplification, conditioning and display equipment. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Patient scale. 880.2720 Section 880.2720 Food and... Patient scale. (a) Identification. A patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  6. 27 CFR 19.183 - Scale tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Tank Requirements § 19.183 Scale tanks. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this... quickly and accurately determined. (b) The requirement to mount tanks on scales does not apply to tanks... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scale tanks....

  7. 27 CFR 19.183 - Scale tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Tank Requirements § 19.183 Scale tanks. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this... quickly and accurately determined. (b) The requirement to mount tanks on scales does not apply to tanks... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scale tanks....

  8. 21 CFR 880.2720 - Patient scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transducers, electronic signal amplification, conditioning and display equipment. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Patient scale. 880.2720 Section 880.2720 Food and... Patient scale. (a) Identification. A patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  9. 27 CFR 19.183 - Scale tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Tank Requirements § 19.183 Scale tanks. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this... quickly and accurately determined. (b) The requirement to mount tanks on scales does not apply to tanks... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scale tanks....

  10. 21 CFR 880.2720 - Patient scale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transducers, electronic signal amplification, conditioning and display equipment. (b) Classification. Class I... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Patient scale. 880.2720 Section 880.2720 Food and... Patient scale. (a) Identification. A patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is...

  11. 27 CFR 19.183 - Scale tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Tank Requirements § 19.183 Scale tanks. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this... quickly and accurately determined. (b) The requirement to mount tanks on scales does not apply to tanks... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scale tanks....

  12. Researching Developmental Careers: The Career Conformity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Developed interval scale to measure deviation from the normative sequencing of first job, marriage, and birth of first child. Scale scores had predictive utility for marital instability and work interruptions. Use of scale score as independent variable provided more information than that provided by Hogan's (1978) temporal sequence categories as…

  13. Behavioral Observation Scales for Performance Appraisal Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Gary P.; Wexley, Kenneth N.

    1977-01-01

    This research attempts to determine whether Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS) could be improved by developing them through quantitative methods. The underlying assumption was that developing composite scales with greater internal consistency might improve their generalizability as evidenced by the cross-validation coefficients of scales based on…

  14. Automatic scale selection for medical image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Ersin; Wyatt, Christopher L.; Ge, Yaorong

    2001-07-01

    The scale of interesting structures in medical images is space variant because of partial volume effects, spatial dependence of resolution in many imaging modalities, and differences in tissue properties. Existing segmentation methods either apply a single scale to the entire image or try fine-to-coarse/coarse-to-fine tracking of structures over multiple scales. While single scale approaches fail to fully recover the perceptually important structures, multi-scale methods have problems in providing reliable means to select proper scales and integrating information over multiple scales. A recent approach proposed by Elder and Zucker addresses the scale selection problem by computing a minimal reliable scale for each image pixel. The basic premise of this approach is that, while the scale of structures within an image vary spatially, the imaging system is fixed. Hence, sensor noise statistics can be calculated. Based on a model of edges to be detected, and operators to be used for detection, one can locally compute a unique minimal reliable scale at which the likelihood of error due to sensor noise is less than or equal to a predetermined threshold. In this paper, we improve the segmentation method based on the minimal reliable scale selection and evaluate its effectiveness with both simulated and actual medical data.

  15. 76 FR 18348 - Required Scale Tests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Register on January 20, 2011 (76 FR 3485), defining required scale tests. That document incorrectly defined... Tests AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. ACTION: Correcting amendments... packer using such scales may use the scales within a 6-month period following each test. * * * * * Alan...

  16. The Attitudes toward Multiracial Children Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Charmain F.; Wagner, William G.; Johnson, J. T.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies evaluated items developed for the Attitudes Toward Multiracial Children Scale. Researchers administered the scale to diverse college students, revised it, then administered it again. The scale's psychometric properties were such that the instrument could be used to research adults' attitudes regarding psychosocial development of…

  17. Scale and corrosion inhibition by thermal polyaspartates

    SciTech Connect

    Bains, D.I.; Fan, G.; Fan, J.; Ross, R.J.

    1999-11-01

    Organic polymers have found wide spread use as inhibitors for the prevention of mineral scales in heat transfer equipment. Recently a biodegradable organic polymer has been developed which provides both scale and corrosion control. The development of the polymeric inhibitor and laboratory evaluations of scale and corrosion inhibition is discussed together with its potential application in open recirculating cooling systems.

  18. An Aesthetic Value Scale of the Rorschach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insua, Ana Maria

    1981-01-01

    An aesthetic value scale of the Rorschach cards was built by the successive interval method. This scale was compared with the ratings obtained by means of the Semantic Differential Scales and was found to successfully differentiate sexes in their judgment of card attractiveness. (Author)

  19. Development of Capstone Project Attitude Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to develop valid and reliable Capstone Project Attitude Scales (CPAS). Among the scales reviewed, the Modified Fennema-Shermann Mathematics Attitude Scales was adapted in the construction of the CPAS. Usefulness, Confidence, and Gender View were the three subscales of the CPAS. Four hundred sixty-three students answered the…

  20. Developing a Sense of Scale: Looking Backward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy R.

    2009-01-01

    Although scale has been identified as one of four major interdisciplinary themes that cut across the science domains by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1989), we are only beginning to understand how students learn and apply scale concepts. Early research on learning scale tended to focus on perceptions of linear distances,…