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Sample records for alfa alfalfa survey

  1. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The Galaxy Population Detected by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2012-09-01

    Making use of H I 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey (α.40) and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we investigate the global scaling relations and fundamental planes linking stars and gas for a sample of 9417 common galaxies: the α.40-SDSS-GALEX sample. In addition to their H I properties derived from the ALFALFA data set, stellar masses (M *) and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fitting the UV-optical spectral energy distributions. 96% of the α.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction f H I ≡ M H I /M * ~ 1.5. A transition in star formation (SF) properties is found whereby below M * ~ 109.5 M ⊙, the slope of the star-forming sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases, and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M *. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M * diagram, as well as that in the color-magnitude diagram, is linked to the H I content; below this transition mass, the SF is regulated strongly by the H I. Comparison of H I and optically selected samples over the same restricted volume shows that the H I-selected population is less evolved and has overall higher SFR and SSFR at a given stellar mass, but lower SFE and extinction, suggesting either that a bottleneck exists in the H I-to-H2 conversion or that the process of SF in the very H I-dominated galaxies obeys an unusual, low-efficiency SF law. A trend is found that, for a given stellar mass, high gas fraction galaxies reside preferentially in dark matter halos with high spin parameters. Because it represents a full census of H I-bearing galaxies at z ~ 0, the scaling relations and fundamental planes derived for the ALFALFA population can be used to assess the H I detection rate by future blind H I surveys and intensity mapping experiments at higher redshift. Based on observations made with the Arecibo

  2. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY: THE GALAXY POPULATION DETECTED BY ALFALFA

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2012-09-10

    Making use of H I 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey ({alpha}.40) and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we investigate the global scaling relations and fundamental planes linking stars and gas for a sample of 9417 common galaxies: the {alpha}.40-SDSS-GALEX sample. In addition to their H I properties derived from the ALFALFA data set, stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fitting the UV-optical spectral energy distributions. 96% of the {alpha}.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction f{sub HI} {identical_to} M{sub HI}/M{sub *} {approx} 1.5. A transition in star formation (SF) properties is found whereby below M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }, the slope of the star-forming sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases, and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M{sub *}. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M{sub *} diagram, as well as that in the color-magnitude diagram, is linked to the H I content; below this transition mass, the SF is regulated strongly by the H I. Comparison of H I and optically selected samples over the same restricted volume shows that the H I-selected population is less evolved and has overall higher SFR and SSFR at a given stellar mass, but lower SFE and extinction, suggesting either that a bottleneck exists in the H I-to-H{sub 2} conversion or that the process of SF in the very H I-dominated galaxies obeys an unusual, low-efficiency SF law. A trend is found that, for a given stellar mass, high gas fraction galaxies reside preferentially in dark matter halos with high spin parameters. Because it represents a full census of H I-bearing galaxies at z {approx} 0, the scaling relations and fundamental planes derived for the ALFALFA population can be used to assess the H I detection rate by future blind H I surveys and

  3. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. X. THE H I MASS FUNCTION AND {Omega}{sub H{sub i}} FROM THE 40% ALFALFA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Ann M.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Springob, Christopher M.; Stierwalt, Sabrina E-mail: papastergis@astro.cornell.ed E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.ed E-mail: sabrina@ipac.caltech.ed

    2010-11-10

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey has completed source extraction for 40% of its total sky area, resulting in the largest sample of H I-selected galaxies to date. We measure the H I mass function from a sample of 10,119 galaxies with 6.2 < log (M{sub H{sub i}}/M{sub sun}) < 11.0 and with well-described mass errors that accurately reflect our knowledge of low-mass systems. We characterize the survey sensitivity and its dependence on profile velocity width, the effect of large-scale structure, and the impact of radio frequency interference in order to calculate the H I mass function with both the 1/V{sub max} and 2DSWML methods. We also assess a flux-limited sample to test the robustness of the methods applied to the full sample. These measurements are in excellent agreement with one another; the derived Schechter function parameters are {phi}{sub *} (h {sup 3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup -3} dex{sup -1}) = 4.8 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -3}, log (M{sub *}/M{sub sun}) + 2 log h{sub 70} = 9.96 {+-} 0.02, and {alpha} = -1.33 {+-} 0.02. We find {Omega}{sub H{sub i}}= 4.3 {+-} 0.3 x10{sup -4} h {sup -1}{sub 70}, 16% larger than the 2005 HIPASS result, and our Schechter function fit extrapolated to log (M{sub H{sub i}}/M{sub sun}) = 11.0 predicts an order of magnitude more galaxies than HIPASS. The larger values of {Omega}{sub H{sub i}} and of M{sub *} imply an upward adjustment for estimates of the detection rate of future large-scale H I line surveys with, e.g., the Square Kilometer Array. A comparison with simulated galaxies from the Millennium Run and a treatment of photoheating as a method of baryon removal from H I-selected halos indicate that the disagreement between dark matter mass functions and baryonic mass functions may soon be resolved.

  4. Scientific Organization of the ALFA Legacy Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. L.

    2005-12-01

    The ALFA Legacy Surveys are organized as a partnership between NAIC and the community of interested and involved academic researchers. NAIC has committed a large fraction of the time on the Arecibo telescope to the ALFA surveys for the next 5 or more years in return for which the ALFA Consortia are making a large commitment of personnel resources in conducting the surveys, writing the needed software, and archiving the data for use by others. The surveys are facilitated by means of commensal observations--simultaneous observations made by two or more Consortia each processing the same received signal using different spectrometers designed for different scientific applications. The spectrometer specifications are set by the Consortia, and the hardware is built by NAIC under contract to university-based instrumentation groups. The NAIC vision of its partnership with the ALFA consortia: (1) Is necessary to the success of the ALFA legacy surveys; (2) Provides the opportunity to re-establish an effective partnership between the national observatory and the academic research community; (3) Reflects the maturity of 50 years of research in radio astronomy. NAIC is operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  5. The ALFA ZOA Deep Survey: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, T. P.; Henning, P. A.; Minchin, R. F.; Momjian, E.; Butcher, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The Arecibo L-band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance (ALFA ZOA) Deep Survey is the deepest and most sensitive blind H i survey undertaken in the ZOA. ALFA ZOA Deep will cover about 300 square degrees of sky behind the Galactic Plane in both the inner (30^\\circ ≤slant l≤slant 75^\\circ ;b≤slant | 2^\\circ | ) and outer (175^\\circ ≤slant l≤slant 207^\\circ ;-2^\\circ ≤slant b≤slant +1^\\circ ) Galaxy, using the Arecibo Radio Telescope. First results from the survey have found 61 galaxies within a 15 square degree area centered on l=192^\\circ and b = -2°. The survey reached its expected sensitivity of rms = 1 mJy at 9 km s-1 channel resolution, and is shown to be complete above integrated flux, FHi = 0.5 Jy km s-1. The positional accuracy of the survey is 28″ and detections are found out to a recessional velocity of nearly 19,000 km s-1. The survey confirms the extent of the Orion and Abell 539 clusters behind the plane of the Milky Way and discovers expansive voids, at 10,000 and 18,000 km s-1. Twenty-six detections (43%) have a counterpart in the literature, but only two of these have known redshifts. Counterparts are 20% less common beyond vhel = 10,000 km s-1 and 33% less common at extinctions higher than AB = 3.5 mag. The ALFA ZOA Deep survey is able to probe large scale structure beyond redshifts that even the most modern wide-angle surveys have been able to detect in the ZOA at any wavelength.

  6. Mapping Hydrogen in the Galaxy, Galactic Halo, and Local Group with ALFA: The GALFA-H I Survey Starting with TOGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. J.; Douglas, K. A.; Heiles, C.; Korpela, E. J.; Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M. E.; Stanimirović, S.

    2008-08-01

    Radio observations of gas in the Milky Way and Local Group are vital for understanding how galaxies function as systems. The unique sensitivity of Arecibo's 305 m dish, coupled with the 7-beam Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFA), provides an unparalleled tool for investigating the full range of interstellar phenomena traced by the H I 21 cm line. The GALFA (Galactic ALFA) H I Survey is mapping the entire Arecibo sky over a velocity range of -700 to +700 km s-1 with 0.2 km s-1 velocity channels and an angular resolution of 3.4'. We present highlights from the TOGS (Turn On GALFA Survey) portion of GALFA-H I, which is covering thousands of square degrees in commensal drift scan observations with the ALFALFA and AGES extragalactic ALFA surveys. This work is supported in part by the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  7. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health provider.Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs)Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Large doses of alfalfa might also increase your ...

  8. Fast Radio Burst Discovered in the Arecibo Pulsar ALFA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitler, L. G.; Cordes, J. M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Chatterjee, S.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Wharton, R. S.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jenet, F. A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Knispel, B.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; Swiggum, J. K.; Venkataraman, A.; Zhu, W. W.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.

    2014-08-01

    Recent work has exploited pulsar survey data to identify temporally isolated, millisecond-duration radio bursts with large dispersion measures (DMs). These bursts have been interpreted as arising from a population of extragalactic sources, in which case they would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the intergalactic medium; they may also be linked to new source classes. Until now, however, all so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been detected with the Parkes radio telescope and its 13-beam receiver, casting some concern about the astrophysical nature of these signals. Here we present FRB 121102, the first FRB discovery from a geographic location other than Parkes. FRB 121102 was found in the Galactic anti-center region in the 1.4 GHz Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) survey with the Arecibo Observatory with a DM = 557.4 ± 2.0 pc cm-3, pulse width of 3.0 ± 0.5 ms, and no evidence of interstellar scattering. The observed delay of the signal arrival time with frequency agrees precisely with the expectation of dispersion through an ionized medium. Despite its low Galactic latitude (b = -0.°2), the burst has three times the maximum Galactic DM expected along this particular line of sight, suggesting an extragalactic origin. A peculiar aspect of the signal is an inverted spectrum; we interpret this as a consequence of being detected in a sidelobe of the ALFA receiver. FRB 121102's brightness, duration, and the inferred event rate are all consistent with the properties of the previously detected Parkes bursts.

  9. Fast radio burst discovered in the Arecibo pulsar ALFA survey

    SciTech Connect

    Spitler, L. G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J.; Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S.; Wharton, R. S.; Brazier, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Jenet, F. A.; Knispel, B.; and others

    2014-08-01

    Recent work has exploited pulsar survey data to identify temporally isolated, millisecond-duration radio bursts with large dispersion measures (DMs). These bursts have been interpreted as arising from a population of extragalactic sources, in which case they would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the intergalactic medium; they may also be linked to new source classes. Until now, however, all so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been detected with the Parkes radio telescope and its 13-beam receiver, casting some concern about the astrophysical nature of these signals. Here we present FRB 121102, the first FRB discovery from a geographic location other than Parkes. FRB 121102 was found in the Galactic anti-center region in the 1.4 GHz Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) survey with the Arecibo Observatory with a DM = 557.4 ± 2.0 pc cm{sup –3}, pulse width of 3.0 ± 0.5 ms, and no evidence of interstellar scattering. The observed delay of the signal arrival time with frequency agrees precisely with the expectation of dispersion through an ionized medium. Despite its low Galactic latitude (b = –0.°2), the burst has three times the maximum Galactic DM expected along this particular line of sight, suggesting an extragalactic origin. A peculiar aspect of the signal is an inverted spectrum; we interpret this as a consequence of being detected in a sidelobe of the ALFA receiver. FRB 121102's brightness, duration, and the inferred event rate are all consistent with the properties of the previously detected Parkes bursts.

  10. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA HI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine; Darling, Jeremiah K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) in the local universe, OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release [1] detected by WISE but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, identified 127 HI optical counterparts and discovered five new OHMs. Fifty-six candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey.The number of OHMs in ALFALFA matches predictions based on the OH luminosity function [2]. Additionally, the OHMs found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This provides validation of the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z~0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH and HI lines without expensive spectral observations. This method utilizes infrared colors and magnitudes, such as WISE mid-IR data. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited HI surveys is expected to increase with the redshift of the survey [3], this analysis can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.We thank the ALFALFA team for observing and producing the survey dataset. The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF AST-1107390 and the Brinson Foundation.[1] Haynes, M. P., R. Giovanelli, A. M. Martin, K. M. Hess, A. Saintonge, et al. 2011, Astron J, 142, 142[2] Darling, J. & R. Giovanelli 2002, Astrophys J, 572, 810[3] Briggs, F. H. 1998, A&A, 336, 815

  11. HI Absorbers from Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. Z.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Zhu, M.; Chen, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    We present some preliminary results of an on-going study of the HI 21-cm absorption line based on the 40% data release of the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey. Ten HI absorption candidates have been detected. Five of them are previously published in the literature, and the rest of them are new detections that need further confirmation. For those sources with no detected absorptions, we calculated the upper limits of their foreground HI column density N_{HI}. The statistical result of the N_{HI} distribution indicates that the ratio of average spin temperature to covering factor T_{s}/f for DLAs (the damped Lyα systems) might be larger than 500 K. Radio frequency interference (RFI) and standing waves are the main issues affecting the detection of HI absorption profiles. Our study can serve as the pathfinder for a large scale search of HI 21-cm absorption lines using the Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) which is an Arecibo-type radio telescope currently under construction in China. We discuss two types of observational studies of HI absorptions toward extragalactic sources using the FAST telescope.

  12. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  13. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. IX. THE LEO REGION H I CATALOG, GROUP MEMBERSHIP, AND THE H I MASS FUNCTION FOR THE LEO I GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Kent, Brian R.; Saintonge, Amelie; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: amartin@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: amelie@physik.uzh.ch E-mail: vkarach@observ.univ.kiev.ua

    2009-08-15

    We present the catalog of H I sources extracted from the ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic H I line survey, found within the sky region bounded by 9{sup h}36{sup m} < {alpha} < 11{sup h}36{sup m} and +08{sup 0} < {delta} < +12{sup 0}. The H I catalog presented here for this 118 deg{sup 2} region is combined with the ones derived from surrounding regions also covered by the ALFALFA survey to examine the large-scale structure in the complex Leo region. Because of the combination of wide sky coverage and superior sensitivity, spatial and spectral resolution, the ALFALFA H I catalog of the Leo region improves significantly on the numbers of low H I mass sources as compared with those found in previous H I surveys. The H I mass function of the Leo I group presented here is dominated by low-mass objects: 45 of the 65 Leo I members have M{sub H{sub l}}<10{sup 8} M-odot, yielding tight constraints on the low-mass slope of the Leo I H I mass function. The best-fit slope is {alpha} {approx_equal} -1.41 + 0.2 - 0.1. A direct comparison between the ALFALFA H I line detections and an optical search of the Leo I region proves the advantage of the ALFALFA strategy in finding low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs. These results suggest the existence of a significant population of low surface brightness, gas-rich, yet still very low H I mass galaxies, and may reflect the same type of morphological segregation as is seen in the Local Group. While the low-mass end slope of the Leo I H I mass function is steeper than that determined for luminosity functions of the group, the slope still falls short of the values predicted by simulations of structure formation in the lambda cold dark matter paradigm.

  14. The Optical Luminosity Function of Void Galaxies in the SDSS and ALFALFA Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Hoyle, Fiona; Pan, Danny C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    We measure the r-band galaxy luminosity function (LF) across environments over the redshift range 0 < z < 0.107 using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We divide our sample into galaxies residing in large-scale voids (void galaxies) and those residing in denser regions (wall galaxies). The best-fitting Schechter parameters for void galaxies are {log}{{{Φ }}}*=-3.40+/- 0.03 log(Mpc-3), {M}* = -19.88 ± 0.05, and α = -1.20 ± 0.02. For wall galaxies, the best-fitting parameters are {log}{{{Φ }}}*=-2.86+/- 0.02 log(Mpc-3), {M}* = -20.80 ± 0.03, and α = -1.16 ± 0.01. We find a shift in the characteristic magnitude, {M}*, toward fainter magnitudes for void galaxies and find no significant difference between the faint-end slopes of the void and wall galaxy LFs. We investigate how low-surface-brightness selection effects can affect the galaxy LF. To attempt to examine a sample of galaxies that is relatively free of surface-brightness selection effects, we compute the optical galaxy LF of galaxies detected by the blind H i survey Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA). We find that the global LF of the ALFALFA sample is not well fit by a Schechter function because of the presence of a wide dip in the LF around Mr = -18 and an upturn at fainter magnitudes (α ˜ -1.47). We compare the H i selected r-band LF to various LFs of optically selected populations to determine where the H i selected optical LF obtains its shape. We find that sample selection plays a large role in determining the shape of the LF.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Arecibo Pulsar-ALFA (PALFA) survey. IV. (Lazarus+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, P.; Brazier, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Swiggum, J.; Zhu, W. W.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Cardoso, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Ferdman, R.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jenet, F. A.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Arecibo Pulsar-ALFA (PALFA) survey observations have been restricted to the two regions of the Galactic plane (|b|<5°) visible from the Arecibo observatory, the inner Galaxy (32°<~l<~77°), and the outer Galaxy (168°<~l<~214°). Integration times are 268s and 180s for inner and outer Galaxy observations, respectively. Observations conducted with the 7-beam Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) receiver of the Arecibo Observatory William E. Gordon 305m Telescope have a bandwidth of 322MHz centered at 1375MHz. PALFA survey data have been recorded with the Mock spectrometers since 2009. (2 data files).

  16. The Power of Wide Field HI Surveys: ALFALFA Imaging of Massive Tidal Features in the Leo Cloud of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisman, Luke; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Almost Darks Team

    2016-01-01

    Tidal interactions are well known to play an important role in galactic evolution in group environments, but the extent of these interactions, and their relative impact on the morphology-density relation is still unclear. Neutral hydrogen (HI) mapping can reveal the recent interaction history of group galaxies, but is difficult to execute due to the need for high sensitivity over wide fields. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA; Giovanelli et al. 2005; Haynes et al. 2011) provides high sensitivity, unbiased, wide field maps of HI in the local volume; here we will present a 50 deg2 ALFALFA map of a well studied region of the Leo Cloud of galaxies, which includes the NGC3226/7 group and HCG44. These observations reveal HI tails and plumes with extents exceeding 1.4 deg (~600 kpc), well beyond the primary beams of previous observations. These tails constitute a significant fraction of the total HI mass in NGC3226/7 (Arp 94) and HCG44. We will also present WSRT maps of the extended emission near Arp 94, which show tail morphologies inconsistent with 2 body interactions. These observations demonstrate that large scale group interactions will be an important science outcome for future sensitive, wide field HI surveys.This work is supported by NSF grants AST-0607007 and AST-1107390 and by grants from the Brinson Foundation.

  17. From H I to Stars: H I Depletion in Starbursts and Star-forming Galaxies in the ALFALFASurvey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.; Salzer, J. J.; Van Sistine, A.; Bell, E. F.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    H i in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, H i-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hα survey, we explore H i properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA Hα provides R-band and Hα imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on Hα equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar H i-to-stellar mass ratios ({M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts’ H i. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter H i depletion times ({t}{dep}), implying more efficient H i-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest-mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in {t}{dep} at low {M}*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers; their elevated {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* suggest that H i-to-H2 conversion is still ongoing at this stage. By comparing with the GASS sample, we find that {t}{dep} anticorrelates with stellar surface density for disks, while spheroids show no such trend. Among early-type galaxies, {t}{dep} does not correlate with bulge-to-disk ratio; instead, the gas distribution may determine the star formation efficiency. Finally, the weak connection between galaxies’ specific star formation rates and {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* contrasts with the well-known correlation between {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* and color. We show that dust extinction can explain the H i-color trend, which may arise from the relationship between {M}*, {M}{{H} {{I}}}, and metallicity.

  18. From H I to Stars: H I Depletion in Starbursts and Star-forming Galaxies in the ALFALFASurvey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.; Salzer, J. J.; Van Sistine, A.; Bell, E. F.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    H i in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, H i-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hα survey, we explore H i properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA Hα provides R-band and Hα imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on Hα equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar H i-to-stellar mass ratios ({M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts’ H i. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter H i depletion times ({t}{dep}), implying more efficient H i-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest-mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in {t}{dep} at low {M}*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers; their elevated {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* suggest that H i-to-H2 conversion is still ongoing at this stage. By comparing with the GASS sample, we find that {t}{dep} anticorrelates with stellar surface density for disks, while spheroids show no such trend. Among early-type galaxies, {t}{dep} does not correlate with bulge-to-disk ratio; instead, the gas distribution may determine the star formation efficiency. Finally, the weak connection between galaxies’ specific star formation rates and {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* contrasts with the well-known correlation between {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* and color. We show that dust extinction can explain the H i–color trend, which may arise from the relationship between {M}*, {M}{{H} {{I}}}, and metallicity.

  19. HI content and other structural properties of galaxies in the Virgo cluster from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Fabello, S.; Fumagalli, M.; Kent, B. R.; Koopmann, R. A.; Brosch, N.; Hoffman, G. L.; Salzer, J. J.; Boselli, A.

    2008-04-01

    We report the results of an HI blind survey of 80 deg2 of the Virgo cluster, based on the 08° ≤ δ ≤ 16° strip of ALFALFA, the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey. 187 HI sources of high significance are found providing a complete census of HI sources in this region of the Virgo cluster (-1000Survey, we analyzed i-band SDSS plates to measure optical structural parameters. We find that in the Virgo cluster: i) HI inhabits galaxies that are structurally similar to ordinary late-type galaxies; ii) their HI content can be predicted from their optical luminosity; iii) low surface brightness galaxies have low optical luminosity and contain small quantities of neutral hydrogen; iv) low surface brightness, massive Malin1 type galaxies are comfortably rare objects (less than 0.5%); v) there are no “dark-galaxies” with HI masses M_HI ≥ 107.5 ˜ 8~M_⊙; vi) less than 1% of early-type galaxies contain neutral hydrogen with M_HI ≥ 107.5 ˜ 8~M_⊙ (di Serego Alighieri et al. 2007, A&A, 474, 851).

  20. Arecibo Pulsar Survey Using ALFA. III. Precursor Survey and Population Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiggum, J. K.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bates, S. D.; Champion, D. J.; Ransom, S. M.; Lazarus, P.; Brazier, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Nice, D. J.; Ellis, J.; Senty, T. R.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jenet, F. A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A. G.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.; Zhu, W. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° <~ l <~ 77° and 168° <~ l <~ 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| <~ 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA survey is sensitive to sources fainter and more distant than have previously been seen because of Arecibo's unrivaled sensitivity. In this paper we detail a precursor survey of this region with PALFA, which observed a subset of the full region (slightly more restrictive in l and |b| <~ 1°) and detected 45 pulsars. Detections included 1 known millisecond pulsar and 11 previously unknown, long-period pulsars. In the surveyed part of the sky that overlaps with the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey (36° <~ l <~ 50°), PALFA is probing deeper than the Parkes survey, with four discoveries in this region. For both Galactic millisecond and normal pulsar populations, we compare the survey's detections with simulations to model these populations and, in particular, to estimate the number of observable pulsars in the Galaxy. We place 95% confidence intervals of 82,000 to 143,000 on the number of detectable normal pulsars and 9000 to 100,000 on the number of detectable millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk. These are consistent with previous estimates. Given the most likely population size in each case (107,000 and 15,000 for normal and millisecond pulsars, respectively), we extend survey detection simulations to predict that, when complete, the full PALFA survey should have detected 1000^{+330}_{-230} normal pulsars and 30^{+200}_{-20} millisecond pulsars. Identical estimation techniques predict that 490^{+160}_{-115} normal pulsars and 12^{+70}_{-5} millisecond pulsars would be detected by the beginning of 2014; at the time, the PALFA survey had detected 283 normal pulsars and 31 millisecond pulsars, respectively. We attribute the deficiency in normal pulsar detections predominantly to the radio frequency interference

  1. Arecibo pulsar survey using ALFA. III. Precursor survey and population synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Swiggum, J. K.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bates, S. D.; Senty, T. R.; Champion, D. J.; Lazarus, P.; Ransom, S. M.; Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Nice, D. J.; Ellis, J.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; and others

    2014-06-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° ≲ ℓ ≲ 77° and 168° ≲ ℓ ≲ 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| ≲ 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA survey is sensitive to sources fainter and more distant than have previously been seen because of Arecibo's unrivaled sensitivity. In this paper we detail a precursor survey of this region with PALFA, which observed a subset of the full region (slightly more restrictive in ℓ and |b| ≲ 1°) and detected 45 pulsars. Detections included 1 known millisecond pulsar and 11 previously unknown, long-period pulsars. In the surveyed part of the sky that overlaps with the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey (36° ≲ ℓ ≲ 50°), PALFA is probing deeper than the Parkes survey, with four discoveries in this region. For both Galactic millisecond and normal pulsar populations, we compare the survey's detections with simulations to model these populations and, in particular, to estimate the number of observable pulsars in the Galaxy. We place 95% confidence intervals of 82,000 to 143,000 on the number of detectable normal pulsars and 9000 to 100,000 on the number of detectable millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk. These are consistent with previous estimates. Given the most likely population size in each case (107,000 and 15,000 for normal and millisecond pulsars, respectively), we extend survey detection simulations to predict that, when complete, the full PALFA survey should have detected 1000{sub −230}{sup +330} normal pulsars and 30{sub −20}{sup +200} millisecond pulsars. Identical estimation techniques predict that 490{sub −115}{sup +160} normal pulsars and 12{sub −5}{sup +70} millisecond pulsars would be detected by the beginning of 2014; at the time, the PALFA survey had detected 283 normal pulsars and 31 millisecond pulsars, respectively. We attribute the deficiency in normal pulsar detections

  2. THE VELOCITY WIDTH FUNCTION OF GALAXIES FROM THE 40% ALFALFA SURVEY: SHEDDING LIGHT ON THE COLD DARK MATTER OVERABUNDANCE PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Martin, Ann M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. E-mail: amartin@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu

    2011-09-20

    The ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a wide-area, extragalactic HI-line survey conducted at the Arecibo Observatory. Sources have so far been extracted over {approx}3000 deg{sup 2} of sky (40% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of their observed velocity width (uncorrected for inclination) down to w = 20 km s{sup -1}, a factor of two lower than the previous generation HI Parkes All-Sky Survey. We confirm previous results that indicate a substantial discrepancy between the observational distribution and the theoretical one expected in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe, at low widths. In particular, a comparison with synthetic galaxy samples populating state-of-the-art CDM simulations imply a factor of {approx}8 difference in the abundance of galaxies with w = 50 km s{sup -1} (increasing to a factor of {approx}100 when extrapolated to the ALFALFA limit of w = 20 km s{sup -1}). We furthermore identify possible solutions, including a keV warm dark matter scenario and the fact that HI disks in low-mass galaxies are usually not extended enough to probe the full amplitude of the galactic rotation curve. In this latter case, we can statistically infer the relationship between the measured HI rotational velocity of a galaxy and the mass of its host CDM halo. Observational verification of the presented relationship at low velocities would provide an important test of the validity of the established dark matter model.

  3. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  4. The Hi content of early-type galaxies from the ALFALFA survey. II. The case of low density environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Giovanardi, C.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Kent, B. R.; Pellegrini, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Trinchieri, G.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: We present the analysis of the Hi content of a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in low-density environments (LDEs) using the data set provided by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We compare their properties to the sample in the Virgo cluster that we studied in a previous paper (di Serego Alighieri et al. 2007, A&A, 474, 851, Paper I). Our aim is both to investigate how the cool interstellar medium (ISM) of these systems depends on the galaxy mass and the environment and to relate the properties of the neutral hydrogen to the warm phases of the ISM. Methods: We have selected a sample of 62 nearby ETGs (V< 3000 km s-1) in an area of the sky where the ALFALFA data are already available (8h < RA < 16^h, 4° < Dec < 16°), avoiding the region of the Virgo cluster. Among these, 39 have absolute B magnitudes fainter than MB = -17. Results: Fifteen out of 62 galaxies have been firmly detected with ALFALFA (~25%). Five additional galaxies show a weaker Hi emission (S/N ~ 4) and they will need deeper observations to be confirmed. Eight objects had 21-cm measurements reported in the literature. One by one comparison with the available material confirms, as expected, that ALFALFA data are, with rare exceptions, of equal or better quality than the best spectra previously obtained for these objects. All together, our analysis doubles the number of known gas-rich ETGs in this area. The Hi detection rate is 44% in luminous ETGs (MB < -17) and 13% in dwarf ETGs (MB > -17). In both cases it is 10 times higher than that of the Virgo cluster. The presence of gas can be related to a recent star formation activity: 60% of all ETGs with Hi have optical emission line ratios typical of star-forming galaxies and blue colours suggesting the presence of young stellar populations, especially in the dwarf subsample. Conclusions: We show that the Hi detection rate of ETGs depends both on the environment and mass. The fraction of early-type systems with neutral hydrogen is

  5. ARECIBO PULSAR SURVEY USING ALFA: PROBING RADIO PULSAR INTERMITTENCY AND TRANSIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Deneva, J. S.; Cordes, J. M.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Edel, S.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Nice, D. J.; Crawford, F.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Camilo, F.; Champion, D. J.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kasian, L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazarus, P.; Stairs, I. H.; Kramer, M.; Ransom, S. M.

    2009-10-01

    We present radio transient search algorithms, results, and statistics from the ongoing Arecibo Pulsar ALFA (PALFA) survey of the Galactic plane. We have discovered seven objects through a search for isolated dispersed pulses. All of these objects are Galactic and have measured periods between 0.4 and 4.7 s. One of the new discoveries has a duty cycle of 0.01%, smaller than that of any other radio pulsar. We discuss the impact of selection effects on the detectability and classification of intermittent sources, and compare the efficiencies of periodicity and single-pulse (SP) searches for various pulsar classes. For some cases we find that the apparent intermittency is likely to be caused by off-axis detection or a short time window that selects only a few bright pulses and favors detection with our SP algorithm. In other cases, the intermittency appears to be intrinsic to the source. No transients were found with DMs large enough to require that they originate from sources outside our Galaxy. Accounting for the on-axis gain of the ALFA system, as well as the low gain but large solid-angle coverage of far-out sidelobes, we use the results of the survey so far to place limits on the amplitudes and event rates of transients of arbitrary origin.

  6. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. VIII. H I SOURCE CATALOG OF THE ANTI-VIRGO REGION AT {delta} = +25 DEG

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Ann M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Saintonge, Amelie; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kent, Brian R. E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: sabrina@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: hoffmang@lafayette.edu

    2009-08-01

    We present a fourth catalog of H I sources from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Survey. We report 541 detections over 136 deg{sup 2}, within the region of the sky having 22{sup h} < {alpha} < 03{sup h} and 24 deg. < {delta} < 26 deg. This complements a previous catalog in the region 26 deg. < {delta} < 28 deg. We present here the detections falling into three classes: (1) extragalactic sources with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)>6.5, where the reliability of the catalog is better than 95%; (2) extragalactic sources 5.0 < S/N < 6.5 and a previously measured optical redshift that corroborates our detection; or (3) High Velocity Clouds (HVCs), or subcomponents of such clouds, in the periphery of the Milky Way. Of the 541 objects presented here, 90 are associated with HVCs, while the remaining 451 are identified as extragalactic objects. Optical counterparts have been matched with all but one of the extragalactic objects.

  7. HI Absorption Lines Detected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong-zu, Wu; Martha P, Haynes; Riccardo, Giovanelli; Ming, Zhu; Ru-rong, Chen

    2015-10-01

    We present some preliminary results of an on-going study of HI 21-cm absorption lines based on the 40% survey data released by the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA). (1) Ten HI candidate absorbers have been detected. Five of them are previously published in the literature, and the rest of them are new detections that need further confirmation. (2) For those sources with no detected absorptions, we have calculated the upper limit of their foreground HI column density NHI. The statistical result of the NHI distribution indicates that the ratio Ts/f between the averaged spin temperature and coverage factor for DLAs (the damped Lyα systems) might be larger than 500 K. The radio frequency interference (RFI) and standing wave are the main factors affecting the detection of HI absorption lines, which have been analyzed and discussed as well in order to find a method of solution. Our study can serve as a pathfinder for the future large-scale search of HI 21-cm absorption lines using the Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), which is an Arecibo-type radio telescope currently under construction in China with greatly increased sensitivity, bandwidth, and observational sky area. As prospects, we have discussed two types of observational studies of HI absorption lines toward extragalactic sources using the FAST telescope.

  8. The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Survey: An Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael; Craig, David; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way's position in an outer filament of Lanieakea affords us a striking view of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) arcing roughly from 22h to 4h and 0° to +50° concentrated between cz = 4,000 km/s and cz = 8,000 km/s as a "wall" parallel to the plane of the sky. It is bounded by voids both between Laniakea and PPS and beyond PPS. Within this box, the 70% ALFALFA survey has detected 4,800 galaxies within cz = 8,000 km/s. Of these, 80% have masses greater than 108 M⊙. At the distance of the PPS, galaxies with MHI ≤ 108 M⊙ are below the ALFALFA detection limit. Thus to further explore this rich diversity of galaxy environments and the adjoining voids, the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team is in the process of using the L-band Wide receiver at Arecibo Observatory for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). We will observe galaxies with 108 M⊙ ≤ MHI ≤ 109 M⊙ chosen from the SDSS DR12 and GALEX catalogs. We are limiting our observations to the PPS ridge in 21h 30m to 3h 15m and 23° to 35°. Since this region lacks SDSS spectroscopy, targets have been selected using photometric criteria derived from SDSS and GALEX observations for galaxies detected by ALFALFA. The results of these observations will allow us to constrain the HI mass function along the PPS ridge. Application of the Tully-Fisher relation will allow a robust measure of the infall velocities of galaxies into the filament. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  9. Arecibo Pulsar Survey Using ALFA. IV. Mock Spectrometer Data Analysis, Survey Sensitivity, and the Discovery of 40 Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, P.; Brazier, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Swiggum, J.; Zhu, W. W.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Cardoso, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Ferdman, R.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jenet, F. A.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2015-10-01

    The on-going Arecibo Pulsar-ALFA (PALFA) survey began in 2004 and is searching for radio pulsars in the Galactic plane at 1.4 GHz. Here we present a comprehensive description of one of its main data reduction pipelines that is based on the PRESTO software and includes new interference-excision algorithms and candidate selection heuristics. This pipeline has been used to discover 40 pulsars, bringing the survey’s discovery total to 144 pulsars. Of the new discoveries, eight are millisecond pulsars (MSPs; P\\lt 10 ms) and one is a Fast Radio Burst (FRB). This pipeline has also re-detected 188 previously known pulsars, 60 of them previously discovered by the other PALFA pipelines. We present a novel method for determining the survey sensitivity that accurately takes into account the effects of interference and red noise: we inject synthetic pulsar signals with various parameters into real survey observations and then attempt to recover them with our pipeline. We find that the PALFA survey achieves the sensitivity to MSPs predicted by theoretical models but suffers a degradation for P≳ 100 ms that gradually becomes up to ˜10 times worse for P\\gt 4 {{s}} at {DM}\\lt 150 pc cm-3. We estimate 33 ± 3% of the slower pulsars are missed, largely due to red noise. A population synthesis analysis using the sensitivity limits we measured suggests the PALFA survey should have found 224 ± 16 un-recycled pulsars in the data set analyzed, in agreement with the 241 actually detected. The reduced sensitivity could have implications on estimates of the number of long-period pulsars in the Galaxy.

  10. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  11. Comparative drought response in eleven diverse alfalfa accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production is often negatively affected by drought stress. This is particularly true for alfalfa that is cultivated on rangeland. Thus, the development of drought-tolerant alfalfa cultivars is of great significance. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate 11 alfa...

  12. Dornase Alfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis. It breaks down the thick secretions in the ... doctor.Dornase alfa is used to treat cystic fibrosis but does not cure it. Continue to use ...

  13. Dornase Alfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... and to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis. It breaks down the thick secretions in the ... your doctor.Dornase alfa is used to treat cystic fibrosis but does not cure it. Continue to use ...

  14. The HI mass function in ALFALFA 70% and the role of confusion in future HI surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The HI mass function represents a fundamental component of our understanding of the the gas content of galaxies. How its form varies throughout the local Universe and as a function of redshift, is key to developing a complete picture of galaxy evolution.We use the ALFALFA 70% catalog, the largest uniform catalog of extragalactic HI sources to date, to explore the environmental dependence of the HI mass function based on the projected neighbour densities in both SDSS and 2MRS. The Schechter function 'knee' mass is found to increase by approximately 0.2 dex from the lowest to highest density quartiles. However, this dependence is seen only when environment is defined by SDSS neighbours, and not with 2MRS. We interpret this as an indication of local, rather than large scale, environmental depedence. In addition, we find no evidence for any change in the faint-end slope; which is a source of tension with HI surveys of galaxy groups, and DM halo simulations.As HI surveys push deeper in an attempt to assess the HI content of the Universe towards a redshift of order unity, only the integral of the HI mass function will be measurable through stacking. We present an anaytic, and thus computationally cheap, method to estimate the contribution of HI confusion noise to these stacks and explore the design implications for upcoming SKA-precusor surveys.The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF grants AST-0607007 and AST-1107390 to RG and MPH and by grants from the Brinson Foundation.

  15. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Large Astronomy Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David W.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. This effort has been made possible through the collaboration of the ALFALFA PIs and graduate students, Arecibo Observatory staff, and the faculty at 19 undergraduate-focussed institutions. In this talk, we will discuss how the UAT model works for the ALFALFA project and lessons learned from our efforts over the 8 years of grant funding. We will provide suggestions on how the model could be applied to other legacy projects, particularly in such areas as online collaboration and software usage by undergraduates. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  16. THE CLUSTERING CHARACTERISTICS OF H I-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM THE 40% ALFALFA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Ann M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Guzzo, Luigi E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: luigi.guzzo@brera.inaf.it

    2012-05-01

    The 40% Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog ({alpha}.40) of {approx}10,150 H I-selected galaxies is used to analyze the clustering properties of gas-rich galaxies. By employing the Landy-Szalay estimator and a full covariance analysis for the two-point galaxy-galaxy correlation function, we obtain the real-space correlation function and model it as a power law, {xi}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}}, on scales <10 h{sup -1} Mpc. As the largest sample of blindly H I-selected galaxies to date, {alpha}.40 provides detailed understanding of the clustering of this population. We find {gamma} = 1.51 {+-} 0.09 and r{sub 0} = 3.3 + 0.3, -0.2 h{sup -1} Mpc, reinforcing the understanding that gas-rich galaxies represent the most weakly clustered galaxy population known; we also observe a departure from a pure power-law shape at intermediate scales, as predicted in {Lambda}CDM halo occupation distribution models. Furthermore, we measure the bias parameter for the {alpha}.40 galaxy sample and find that H I galaxies are severely antibiased on small scales, but only weakly antibiased on large scales. The robust measurement of the correlation function for gas-rich galaxies obtained via the {alpha}.40 sample constrains models of the distribution of H I in simulated galaxies, and will be employed to better understand the role of gas in environmentally dependent galaxy evolution.

  17. A Catalog of Ultra-compact High Velocity Clouds from the ALFALFA Survey: Local Group Galaxy Candidates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s-1, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s-1. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of ~1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of ~105-106 M ⊙, H I diameters of ~2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of ~107-108 M ⊙, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  18. A CATALOG OF ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY: LOCAL GROUP GALAXY CANDIDATES?

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s{sup -1}, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s{sup -1}. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of {approx}1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, H I diameters of {approx}2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of {approx}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  19. The ALFALFASurvey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFAsurvey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ∼20 and ∼100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr‑1 Mpc‑3]) = ‑1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  20. The ALFALFASurvey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFAsurvey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ˜20 and ˜100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr‑1 Mpc‑3]) = ‑1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  1. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. VI. The role of bars in quenching star formation from z = 3 to the present epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Consolandi, G.; Dotti, M.; Fanali, R.; Fossati, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Viscardi, E.; Savorgnan, G.; Boselli, A.; Gutiérrez, L.; Hernández Toledo, H.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the star formation rate per unit stellar mass (sSFR) decreases with increasing mass in normal main-sequence star-forming galaxies. Many processes have been advocated as being responsible for this trend (also known as mass quenching), e.g., feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the formation of classical bulges. In order to improve our insight into the mechanisms regulating the star formation in normal star-forming galaxies across cosmic epochs, we determine a refined star formation versus stellar mass relation in the local Universe. To this end we use the Hα narrow-band imaging follow-up survey (Hα3) of field galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) in the Coma and Local superclusters. By complementing this local determination with high-redshift measurements from the literature, we reconstruct the star formation history of main-sequence galaxies as a function of stellar mass from the present epoch up to z = 3. In agreement with previous studies, our analysis shows that quenching mechanisms occur above a threshold stellar mass Mknee that evolves with redshift as ∝ (1 + z)2. Moreover, visual morphological classification of individual objects in our local sample reveals a sharp increase in the fraction of visually classified strong bars with mass, hinting that strong bars may contribute to the observed downturn in the sSFR above Mknee. We test this hypothesis using a simple but physically motivated numerical model for bar formation, finding that strong bars can rapidly quench star formation in the central few kpc of field galaxies. We conclude that strong bars contribute significantly to the red colors observed in the inner parts of massive galaxies, although additional mechanisms are likely required to quench the star formation in the outer regions of massive spiral galaxies. Intriguingly, when we extrapolate our model to higher redshifts, we successfully recover the observed

  2. Current Results at PALFA Pulsar Survey at Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beroiz, Martin; Stovall, K.; Jenet, F.; Cordes, J.; Lorimer, D.; Backer, D.; PALFA Consortium

    2010-01-01

    We present the current progress on the PALFALFA (Pulsar-ALFALFA) survey recently started at the Arecibo Radio Observatory. PALFALFA enhances the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) extragalactic HI survey by adding a commensal real-time pulsar/radio transient search pipe-line. The current analysis pipe-line runs on an 8 core (2.3 GHz) G5 Macpro at the observatory. It incorporates the PRESTO periodicity search tools together with software developed at University of Texas at Brownsville for radio transient detection. In this poster we present results, statistics, and algorithms used in the survey.

  3. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Undergraduate Participation and Outreach in Large Research Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Koopmann, R.; Higdon, S.; Balonek, T. J.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.; Adams, E. A. K.; Kent, B. R.; Stierwalt, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind neutral hydrogen survey is an ongoing project that includes an innovative undergraduate outreach component promoting the participation of students and faculty at undergraduate-focused institutions in a large, multi-year research collaboration. The survey, which will ultimately detect ˜30,000 gas-rich galaxies, provides resources and authentic opportunities for undergraduates and faculty, including a high fraction of women and minorities, through the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), an NSF-sponsored consortium of 18 participating institutions. The UAT experience features annual workshops at the Arecibo Observatory with hands-on experience for undergrad participants and their faculty mentors. Graduate students on the Cornell ALFALFA Team help plan and facilitate UAT activities and benefit by developing their own skills as mentors, project supervisors, and science communicators. The UAT is developing online lesson plans and activity guides that make use of the ALFALFA online data archive and of innovative learning techniques supported by the findings of astronomy education research.

  4. THE ALFALFA H I ABSORPTION PILOT SURVEY: A WIDE-AREA BLIND DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM SURVEY OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Jeremy; Macdonald, Erin P.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo E-mail: e.macdonald@physics.gla.ac.uk E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu

    2011-11-20

    We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (H I) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area 'blind' search for H I absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km s{sup -1} < cz < 17, 500 km s{sup -1} and covering 517.0 deg{sup 2} (7% of the full ALFALFA survey). The survey is sensitive to H I absorption lines stronger than 7.7 mJy (8983 radio sources) and is 90% complete for lines stronger than 11.0 mJy (7296 sources). The total redshift interval sensitive to all damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}) is {Delta}z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T{sub s} = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}) it is {Delta}z = 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic H I absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N{sub H{sub i}},X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10{sup 19} (T{sub s} /100 K) (1/f) cm{sup -2}surveys and the aggregate H I 21 cm emission in the local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line search of the complete ALFALFA survey-or any higher redshift, larger bandwidth, or more sensitive survey, such as those planned for Square Kilometer Array pathfinders or a low-frequency lunar array-will either make numerous detections or will set a strong statistical lower limit on the typical spin temperature of neutral hydrogen gas.

  5. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The α.40 H I Source Catalog, Its Characteristics and Their Impact on the Derivation of the H I Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Hess, Kelley M.; Saintonge, Amélie; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Huang, Shan; Kent, Brian R.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Balonek, Thomas J.; Craig, David W.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Kornreich, David A.; Miller, Jeffrey R.; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald P.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Spekkens, Kristine; Troischt, Parker; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2011-11-01

    We present a current catalog of 21 cm H I line sources extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey over ~2800 deg2 of sky: the α.40 catalog. Covering 40% of the final survey area, the α.40 catalog contains 15,855 sources in the regions 07h30m < R.A. < 16h30m, +04° < decl. <+16°, and +24° < decl. <+28° and 22h < R.A. < 03h, +14° < decl. <+16°, and +24° < decl. < + 32°. Of those, 15,041 are certainly extragalactic, yielding a source density of 5.3 galaxies per deg2, a factor of 29 improvement over the catalog extracted from the H I Parkes All-Sky Survey. In addition to the source centroid positions, H I line flux densities, recessional velocities, and line widths, the catalog includes the coordinates of the most probable optical counterpart of each H I line detection, and a separate compilation provides a cross-match to identifications given in the photometric and spectroscopic catalogs associated with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Fewer than 2% of the extragalactic H I line sources cannot be identified with a feasible optical counterpart; some of those may be rare OH megamasers at 0.16 < z < 0.25. A detailed analysis is presented of the completeness, width-dependent sensitivity function and bias inherent of the α.40 catalog. The impact of survey selection, distance errors, current volume coverage, and local large-scale structure on the derivation of the H I mass function is assessed. While α.40 does not yet provide a completely representative sampling of cosmological volume, derivations of the H I mass function using future data releases from ALFALFA will further improve both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  6. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Collaboration for Undergraduate Research Opportunities and Faculty Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Troischt, Parker; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    Legacy astronomy surveys involve large collaborations over long time periods, making it challenging to involve undergraduates in meaningful projects. Collaborating with faculty at 19 undergraduate-focused institutions across the US and Puerto Rico and with US-NSF funding, the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team has developed the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, an effective model to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. This talk will summarize the main components of the program, which include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Cannon et al., Collins, Elliott et al, Craig et al., Hansen et al., Johnson et al., Morrison et al., O'Donoghue et al., Smith et al., Sylvia et al., Troischt et al., this meeting). This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  7. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY: THE {alpha}.40 H I SOURCE CATALOG, ITS CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE DERIVATION OF THE H I MASS FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Huang Shan; Papastergis, Emmanouil E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: shan@astro.cornell.edu; and others

    2011-11-15

    We present a current catalog of 21 cm H I line sources extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey over {approx}2800 deg{sup 2} of sky: the {alpha}.40 catalog. Covering 40% of the final survey area, the {alpha}.40 catalog contains 15,855 sources in the regions 07{sup h}30{sup m} < R.A. < 16{sup h}30{sup m}, +04 Degree-Sign < decl. <+16 Degree-Sign , and +24 Degree-Sign < decl. <+28 Degree-Sign and 22{sup h} < R.A. < 03{sup h}, +14 Degree-Sign < decl. <+16 Degree-Sign , and +24 Degree-Sign < decl. < + 32 Degree-Sign . Of those, 15,041 are certainly extragalactic, yielding a source density of 5.3 galaxies per deg{sup 2}, a factor of 29 improvement over the catalog extracted from the H I Parkes All-Sky Survey. In addition to the source centroid positions, H I line flux densities, recessional velocities, and line widths, the catalog includes the coordinates of the most probable optical counterpart of each H I line detection, and a separate compilation provides a cross-match to identifications given in the photometric and spectroscopic catalogs associated with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Fewer than 2% of the extragalactic H I line sources cannot be identified with a feasible optical counterpart; some of those may be rare OH megamasers at 0.16 < z < 0.25. A detailed analysis is presented of the completeness, width-dependent sensitivity function and bias inherent of the {alpha}.40 catalog. The impact of survey selection, distance errors, current volume coverage, and local large-scale structure on the derivation of the H I mass function is assessed. While {alpha}.40 does not yet provide a completely representative sampling of cosmological volume, derivations of the H I mass function using future data releases from ALFALFA will further improve both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  8. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  9. H I CONTENT AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF FIELD GALAXIES FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY. I. SELECTION OF A CONTROL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Toribio, M. Carmen; Solanes, Jose M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Masters, Karen L. E-mail: jm.solanes@ub.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu

    2011-05-10

    We report results from a study of the H I content and stellar properties of nearby galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA blind 21 cm line survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We consider two declination strips covering a total area of 9 hr x 16 deg in the general direction of the Virgo Cluster. The present analysis focuses on gas-rich galaxies expected to show little or no evidence of interaction with their surroundings. We seek to assemble a control sample suitable for providing absolute measures of the H I content of gaseous objects, as well as to study the relationship between H I emission and widely used optical measures of morphology. From a database which includes more than 15,000 H I detections, we have assembled three samples that could provide adequate H I standards. The most reliable results are obtained with a sample of 5647 sources found in low-density environments, as defined by a nearest neighbor approach. The other two samples contain several hundred relatively isolated galaxies each, as determined from standard isolation algorithms based either on a combination of spectroscopic and photometric information or solely on photometric data. We find that isolated objects are not particularly gas-rich compared to their low-density-environment counterparts, while they suffer from selection bias and span a smaller dynamic range. All this makes them less suitable for defining a reference for H I content. We have explored the optical morphology of gaseous galaxies in quiet environments, finding that, within the volume surveyed, the vast majority of them display unequivocal late-type galaxy features. In contrast, bona fide gas-rich early-type systems account only for a negligible fraction of the 21 cm detections. We argue that H I emission provides the most reliable way to determine the morphological population to which a galaxy belongs. We have also observed that the color distribution of flux-limited samples of optically selected field H I

  10. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to decrease the chance that blood transfusions (transfer of one person's blood to another person's body) ... wheezing difficulty breathing or swallowing hoarseness lack of energy dizziness fainting Epoetin alfa injection may cause other ...

  11. Darbepoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may tell you not to use darbepoetin alfa injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  12. Results from the Arecibo Galactic HI Survey (GALFA-HI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Ayesha; Ballering, N.; Stanimirovic, S.; Douglas, K.; Gibson, S. J.; Grcevich, J.; Heiles, C.; Korpela, E.; Lee, M.; Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The consortium for Galactic studies with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) is conducting a neutral hydrogen survey of the whole Arecibo sky (declination range from -1 to 38 deg), over a velocity range of -700 to +700 km/s, with high angular (3.5 arcmin) and velocity resolution (0.2 km/s). We present highlights from TOGS (Turn On GALFA Survey), the largest portion of GALFA-HI, which is covering thousands of square degrees in commensal drift scan observations with the ALFALFA and AGES extragalactic ALFA surveys. The unprecedented resolution and sensitivity of our survey resulted in the detection of numerous isolated, ultra-compact HI clouds at low Galactic velocities, which are distinctly separated from the HI disk emission. We will discuss properties of this population, and their role in the interplay between the Galactic disk and halo.

  13. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. V. THE H I SOURCE CATALOG OF THE ANTI-VIRGO REGION AT {delta} = +27{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Saintonge, Amelie; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Kent, Brian R.; Martin, Ann M.; Stierwalt, Sabrina E-mail: bkentastro@cornell.edu E-mail: sabrina@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu

    2008-02-15

    We present a second catalog of H I sources detected in the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey. We report 488 detections over 135 deg{sup 2}, within the region of the sky having 22 h < {alpha} < 03 h and +26{sup 0} < {delta} < +28{sup 0}. We present here the detections that have either (a) S/N>6.5, where the reliability of the catalog is better than 95% or (b) 5.0 < S/N < 6.5 and a previously measured redshift that corroborates our detection. Of the 488 objects presented here, 49 are high-velocity clouds or clumps thereof with negative heliocentric recession velocities. These clouds are mostly very compact and isolated, while some of them are associated with large features such as Wright's Cloud or the northern extension of the Magellanic Stream. The remaining 439 candidate detections are identified as extragalactic objects and have all been matched with optical counterparts. Five of the six galaxies detected with M{sub Hi}<10{sup 7.5} M{sub sun} are satellites of either the NGC672/IC1727 nearby galaxy pair or their neighboring dwarf irregular galaxy NGC784. The data of this catalog release include a slice through the Pisces-Perseus foreground void, a large nearby underdensity of galaxies. We report no detections within the void, where our catalog is complete for systems with H i masses of 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}. Gas-rich, optically-dark galaxies do not seem to constitute an important void population, and therefore do not suffice for producing a viable solution to the void phenomenon.

  14. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106–107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  15. Drotrecogin alfa Eli Lilly.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, E

    2002-04-01

    Drotrecogin alfa (Xigris, recombinant activated protein C) is an anticoagulant developed and launched by Eli Lilly & Co for the treatment of sepsis [333781], [339372], [430133], [436271]. The FDA and the EMEA accepted the brand name Xigris for drotrecogin alfa in June 2001. This trade name had been proposed by Lilly in place of the previous brand name, Zovant, which was deemed unacceptable by the EMEA due to concerns that the name could be confused with hospital-based drugs [412512]. Filings for sepsis were made in the US, EU and Australia in February 2001 [398514], [447870] and in March 2001, the US FDA assigned drotrecogin alfa Priority Review status [403435]. The FDA extended the action date from July 27 to October 27, 2001 for completion of its review of the biologics license application (BLA) for drotrecogin alfa to assess further supplementary data submitted by Lilly [412512]. At the October 16, 2001 meeting (postponed from September 12), the FDA Advisory Committee on Anti-Infective Drugs split 10 to 10 over whether to recommend approval [425873], [425940]. In late October 2001, Lilly received an approvable letter from the FDA for the treatment of severe sepsis. Approval was contingent upon successful negotiation of labeling, agreement on post-approval clinical trials, and successful completion of manufacturing inspections [427301]. In November 2001, the FDA approved drotrecogin alfa for the reduction of mortality in adult patients with severe sepsis who have a high risk of death [430133]; the product was launched onto the US market days later [436271]. Following the FDA committee's split decision in October 2001, Credit Suisse First Boston, which expected mid-2002 approval but with restrictive labeling, revised its predictions from $1.265 billion in 2004 sharply downwards to $543 million [425929]. PMID:15565519

  16. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  17. An Undergraduate Research Project within the ALFALFA Collaboration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, J. A.; Stilp, A.; Patel, N.; Altaf, A.; Goldstein, J.; Forsyth, C.; Gillin, M.; Mahmood, B.; Read, J.; Vucic, L.; Mullan, B.; Walsh, B.; Wortel, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Kent, B. R.; Alonso, J. L.; Balonek, T. J.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Hoffman, G. L.; Koopmann, R. A.; Marr, J.; O'Donoghue, A.; Pantoja, C. A.; Salzer, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) project is an ongoing high sensitivity HI line survey with the 305m Arecibo telescope that will cover 7000 square degrees of sky and is expected to detect some 20,000 HI sources (Giovanelli et al. 2005, AJ in press, astro-ph/0508301). ALFALFA will make major contributions to the understanding of the structure and evolution of galaxies in the local Universe. In July 2005 an Undergraduate Research Workshop was held at Union College, Schenectady (see poster by Koopmann et al.). Participants included 14 undergraduate students, 2 graduate students, and 9 faculty members from 7 universities, in addition to the Director of the Arecibo Observatory Visitor Center. In preparation for the meeting, the students worked as a team in preparing and submitting an observing proposal to the Observatory, thus experiencing the rigorous process of matching science goals to instrumentation and other realities of the time allocation process. In addition to a mini-course on science and technical issues, students engaged in an observing session with the Arecibo telescope, which was carried out remotely and interactively from the lecture room at Union College. The region observed included a nearby loose group of galaxies, LGG 362, dominated by NGC 5363/5364. The group is an example of an intermediate galaxy density environment. As part of the workshop, the data were processed and the scientific analysis started. This poster presents the results of those observations and analysis. This research was supported by the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a management agreement with the National Science Foundation, and partially by NSF/AST-0307661, NSF/AST-0435697 and a Brinson Foundation grant. JA and CAP gratefully acknowledge the Arecibo Observatory and the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation at the UPR for assistance for this research.

  18. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  19. Introduction to ALFA and the GALFA Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.

    2004-12-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of the ALFA instrument, a 7 element focal plane array on the Arecibo 305m telescope, which covers the frequency range 1225 to 1525 MHz. Each pixel observes two orthogonal linear polarizations. There are several spectrometers for different types of observations. For Galactic astronomy, a FFT spectrometer has been developed by D. Werthimer and colleagues, which has 8192 channels covering 7 MHz ( 1500 km/s at 0.2 km/s resolution) along with 256 channels covering 100 MHz intended for measuring and removing spectral baselines. ALFA test observations have been underway since August 2004, and astronomical observations should be ramping up through Fall 2004 and be in full swing by early 2005. The GALFA consortium is comprised of individuals interested in using the ALFA system for galactic astronomy. It is divided by interest into subconsortia, focusing on a number of the outstanding problems which can be addressed by ALFA on the Arecibo telescope, with 8-10 K/Jy gain, 3.5' beamwidth, and 30-35 K system temperature. One subconsortium is planning to carry out a survey of 21cm continuum radiation from the Milky Way, focusing on mapping the polarized emission in order to perform Faraday tomography of the magnetic field distribution. Radio recombination lines are the focus of another subconsortium; the ALFA system will be able to observe multiple RRLs that fall within its bandpass. HI emission and absorption will be utilized by a number of consortia, but applied to different problems, including the Galactic plane, high latitude clouds, high velocity clouds, turbulence, and the relationship of the atomic and molecular components of the ISM. Each subconsortium is making plans, starting with relatively small-scale projects, and working towards large-scale projects. Commensal (GALFA together with extragalactic or pulsar observations) are anticipated, using multiple signal processing systems simultaneously.

  20. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Major Legacy Astronomy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; Alfalfa Team

    2015-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The collaborative nature of the UAT allows faculty and students from a wide ​range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to develop scholarly collaborations. Components of the program include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Alfvin et al., Martens et al., Sanders et al., this meeting). Through this model, faculty and students are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. In the 7 years of the program, 23 faculty and more than 220 undergraduate students have participated at a significant level. 40% of them have been women and members of underrepresented groups. Faculty, many of whom were new to the collaboration and had expertise in other fields, contribute their diverse sets of skills to ALFALFA ​related projects via observing, data reduction, collaborative research, and research with students. 142 undergraduate students have attended the annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 131 summer research projects and 94 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 62 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 46 have presented their results at national meetings. 93% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. Half of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been

  1. Alfalfa: bioenergy and more

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  2. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  3. Pythium species causing damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota: Identification, pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damping-off and seed rot is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. Globally, 15 Pythium species are reported to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in Minnesota are lacki...

  4. THE CLUSTERING OF ALFALFA GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON H I MASS, RELATIONSHIP WITH OPTICAL SAMPLES, AND CLUES OF HOST HALO PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael G.; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jonesmg@astro.cornell.edu

    2013-10-10

    We use a sample of ≈6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to measure the clustering properties of H I-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on galactic atomic hydrogen (H I) mass, over the range M{sub H{sub I}} ≈ 10{sup 8.5}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub ☉}. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low H I mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that H I-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of H I-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than H I-selected galaxies, a fact that is evident in both the projected as well as the full two-dimensional correlation function. A cross-correlation analysis further reveals that gas-rich galaxies 'avoid' being located within ≈3 Mpc of optical galaxies with red colors. Next, we consider the clustering properties of halo samples selected from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation. A comparison with the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies suggests that galactic H I mass is not tightly related to host halo mass and that a sizable fraction of subhalos do not host H I galaxies. Lastly, we find that we can recover fairly well the correlation function of H I galaxies by just excluding halos with low spin parameter. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that halo spin plays a key role in determining the gas content of galaxies.

  5. Reduced Lignin Alfalfa - Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. farmers harvested alfalfa (Medicago sativa) for hay or haylage from 24.5million acres in 2009. Midwestern states harvested 57 % of 2009 acreage for hay and haylage. However, acreage is stable to declining. Alfalfa provides an excellent source of fiber, protein, minerals and vitamins that partia...

  6. Drought and alfalfa nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although established alfalfa can access deep subsoil water, dry topsoils limit the availability of many nutrients. Dry topsoils can limit the uptake of many plant nutrients. With the potential for drought in 2007, farmers should consider fertilizing alfalfa if the soil tends to be droughty, is shall...

  7. Manure on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  8. Manure use on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...

  9. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  10. ALFALFA: BIOFUEL AND FEED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop that supports Idaho's dairy industry. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of its high biomasss production...

  11. Plant bugs on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper treats the most important plant bugs, or Miridae, found on alfalfa in North America. It is estimated that more than 10 species of plant bugs have the potential to develop on this important forage legume. Of these, the alfalfa plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus), pale legume bug (Lygus e...

  12. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  13. Review of Roundup Ready Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...

  14. Environmental dependence of the H I mass function in the ALFALFA 70% catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    We search for environmental dependence of the H I mass function in the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA) 70 per cent catalogue. The catalogue is split into quartiles of environment density based on the projected neighbour density of neighbours found in both Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) volume-limited reference catalogues. We find the Schechter function `knee' mass to be dependent on environment, with the value of log (M*/M⊙) shifting from 9.81 ± 0.02 to 10.00 ± 0.03 between the lowest and highest density quartiles. However, this dependence was only observed when defining environment based on the SDSS reference catalogue, not 2MRS. We interpret these results as meaning that the local environment is the dominant cause of the shift in M*, and that the larger scales that 2MRS probes (compared to SDSS) are almost irrelevant. In addition, we also use a fixed aperture method to probe environment, and find tentative evidence that H I-deficiency depresses the value of M* in the highest density regions. We find no significant dependence of the low-mass slope on environment in any test, using either method. Tensions between these results and those from the literature, are discussed and alternative explanations are explored.

  15. H I CONTENT AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF FIELD GALAXIES FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY. II. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF A GALAXY SAMPLE IN LOW-DENSITY ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Toribio, M. Carmen; Solanes, Jose M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Martin, Ann M. E-mail: jm.solanes@ub.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu

    2011-05-10

    This is the second paper of two reporting results from a study of the H I content and stellar properties of nearby galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA blind 21 cm line survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in a 2160 deg{sup 2} region of high galactic latitude sky covered by both surveys, in the general Virgo direction. Here, we analyze a complete H I flux-limited subset of 1624 objects with homogeneously measured 21 cm and multi-wavelength optical attributes extracted from the control sample of H I emitters in environments of low local galactic density assembled by Toribio et al. (Paper I). Strategies of multivariate data analysis are applied to this data set in order to (i) investigate the correlation structure of the space defined by an extensive set of potentially independent observables describing gas-rich systems, (ii) identify the intrinsic parameters that best define their neutral gas content, and (iii) explore the scaling relations arising from the joint distributions of the quantities most strongly correlated with the H I mass. The principal component analysis performed over a set of five galaxy properties reveals that they are strongly interrelated, supporting previous claims that nearby H I emitters show a high degree of correlation. The best predictors for the expected value of M{sub HI} are the diameter of the stellar disk, D{sub 25,r}, followed by the total luminosity (both in the r band), and the maximum rotation speed, while morphological proxies such as color show only a moderately strong correlation with the gaseous content attenuated by observational error. Among the various inferred prescriptions, the simplest and most accurate is log(M{sub HI}/M{sub sun}) = 8.72 + 1.25 log(D{sub 25,r}/kpc). We find a slope of -8.2 {+-} 0.5 for the relation between optical magnitude and log rotation speed, in good agreement with Tully-Fisher studies, as well as a log slope of 1.55 {+-} 0.06 for the H I mass-optical galaxy size relation. Given the

  16. H I Content and Optical Properties of Field Galaxies from the ALFALFA Survey. II. Multivariate Analysis of a Galaxy Sample in Low-density Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toribio, M. Carmen; Solanes, José M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Martin, Ann M.

    2011-05-01

    This is the second paper of two reporting results from a study of the H I content and stellar properties of nearby galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA blind 21 cm line survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in a 2160 deg2 region of high galactic latitude sky covered by both surveys, in the general Virgo direction. Here, we analyze a complete H I flux-limited subset of 1624 objects with homogeneously measured 21 cm and multi-wavelength optical attributes extracted from the control sample of H I emitters in environments of low local galactic density assembled by Toribio et al. (Paper I). Strategies of multivariate data analysis are applied to this data set in order to (i) investigate the correlation structure of the space defined by an extensive set of potentially independent observables describing gas-rich systems, (ii) identify the intrinsic parameters that best define their neutral gas content, and (iii) explore the scaling relations arising from the joint distributions of the quantities most strongly correlated with the H I mass. The principal component analysis performed over a set of five galaxy properties reveals that they are strongly interrelated, supporting previous claims that nearby H I emitters show a high degree of correlation. The best predictors for the expected value of M H I are the diameter of the stellar disk, D 25,r , followed by the total luminosity (both in the r band), and the maximum rotation speed, while morphological proxies such as color show only a moderately strong correlation with the gaseous content attenuated by observational error. Among the various inferred prescriptions, the simplest and most accurate is log(M H I /M ⊙) = 8.72 + 1.25 log(D 25,r /kpc). We find a slope of -8.2 ± 0.5 for the relation between optical magnitude and log rotation speed, in good agreement with Tully-Fisher studies, as well as a log slope of 1.55 ± 0.06 for the H I mass-optical galaxy size relation. Given the homogeneity of the

  17. Capacitively coupled and direct-current resistivity surveys of selected reaches of Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals in Nebraska, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial characteristics of leakage from canals is critical to effectively managing and utilizing water resources for irrigation and hydroelectric purposes. Canal leakage in some parts of Nebraska is the primary source of water for groundwater recharge and helps maintain the base flow of streams. Because surface-water supplies depend on the streamflow of the Platte River and the available water stored in upstream reservoirs, water managers seek to minimize conveyance losses, which can include canal leakage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District and Nebraska Public Power District, used capacitively coupled (CC) and direct-current (DC) resistivity techniques for continuous resistivity profiling to map near-surface lithologies near and underlying the Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals. Approximately 84 kilometers (km) of CC-resistivity data were collected along the five canals. The CC-resistivity data were compared with results from continuous sediment cores and electrical conductivity logs. Generally, the highest resistivities were recorded at the upstream reaches of the Cozad, Thirty-Mile, and Orchard-Alfalfa canals where flood-plain deposits of silt and clay mantle coarser channel deposits of sand and gravel. The finer grained deposits gradually thicken with increasing distance away from the Platte River. Consequently, for many surveyed reaches the thickness of fine-grained deposits exceeded the 8-meter depth of investigation. A detailed geophysical investigation along a 5-km reach of the Outlet Canal southwest of North Platte, Nebraska, used CC and DC resistivity to examine the condition of a compacted-core bank structure and characterized other potential controls on areas of focused seepage. CC-resistivity data, collected along the 5-km study reach, were compared with continuous sediment cores and DC-resistivity data collected near a selected seep near Outlet

  18. Peginterferon Alfa-2b Injection (Sylatron)

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called interferons. It works by stopping the growth of cancer ... allergic to peginterferon alfa-2b injection (PegIntron, Sylatron), interferon alfa-2b (Intron), any other medications, or any ...

  19. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5<' {log} M/{M}⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of HI properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of HI content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  20. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the H i content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5\\lt {log} M/{M}ȯ \\lt 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack H i at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of H i properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of H i content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that H i is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where H i is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  1. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Erin; Darling, J.; ALFALFA Team

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot project to search for HI 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is the first to conduct a "blind" wide-area search for HI absorption in the local universe. The search covered 517.0 deg2 spanning 10.9h < α < 14.95h and +7.7o < δ < +16.3o. The ALFALFA survey covers -650 km s-1 < cz < 17,500 km s-1, for a Δz = 0.054 along each line of sight (11% of the cz span is lost to radio frequency interference and Galactic HI emission). There are 243 sources toward which all damped Lyα systems (N(HI) > 2x1020 cm-2) could be detected, and 3282 sources toward which N(HI) > 2x1021 cm-2 columns could be detected (assuming 100 K spin temperature, 30 km s-1 line width, and unity filling factor). We performed Green Bank Telescope follow-up observations of 13 possible absorption lines and the 250 strong sources (> 220 mJy) in our survey region. One previously known intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 was re-detected, but no additional lines were identified in the survey region. Nevertheless, this pilot project demonstrates the value and feasibility of large-area absorption line searches commensal with emission line surveys. An absorption line search of the entire 7000 deg2 ALFALFA Survey is a worthwhile undertaking, not only to identify HI absorption systems in the local universe, but to measure the fraction of HI gas not accounted for by emission line surveys. ALFALFA is a legacy survey at the Arecibo Observatory supported by NAIC and NSF.

  2. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchin, R. F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J. I.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Keenan, O. C.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, R.

    2016-02-01

    We have used the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) to map three regions, each of 5 deg2, around the isolated galaxies NGC 1156, UGC 2082, and NGC 5523. In the vicinity of these galaxies we have detected two dwarf companions: one near UGC 2082, previously discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, and one near NGC 1156, discovered by this project and reported in an earlier paper. This is significantly fewer than the 15.4^{+1.7}_{-1.5} that would be expected from the field H I mass function from ALFALFA or the 8.9 ± 1.2 expected if the H I mass function from the Local Group applied in these regions. The number of dwarf companions detected is, however, consistent with a flat or declining H I mass function as seen by a previous, shallower, H I search for companions to isolated galaxies. We attribute this difference in H I mass functions to the different environments in which they are measured. This agrees with the general observation that lower ratios of dwarf to giant galaxies are found in lower density environments.

  3. Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: Insights in galaxy formation & near-field cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2013-03-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a blind, extragalactic survey in the 21cm emission line of atomic hydrogen (HI). Presently, sources have been cataloged over ≈4,000 deg2 of sky (~60% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We use the rich ALFALFA dataset to measure the statistical properties of HI-bearing galaxies, such as their mass distribution and clustering characteristics. These statistical distributions are determined by the properties of darkmatter on galactic scales, and by the complex baryonic processes through which galaxies form over cosmic time. As a result, detailed studies of these distributions can lead to important insights in galaxy formation & evolution and near-field cosmology. In particular, we measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of the width of their HI profile (i.e. the velocity width function of galaxies), and find substantial disagreement with the distribution expected in a lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) universe. In particular, the number of galaxies with maximum rotational velocities upsilonrot ≈ 35 kms--1 (as judged by their HI velocity width) is about an order of magnitude lower than what predicted based on populating ΛCDM halos with modeled galaxies. We identify two possible solutions to the discrepancy: First, an alternative dark matter scenario in which the formation of low-mass halos is heavily suppressed (e.g. a warm dark matter universe with keV-scale dark matter particles). Secondly, we consider the possibility that rotational velocitites of dwarf galaxies derived from HI velocity widths may systematically underestimate the true mass of the host halo, due to the shape of their rotation curves. In this latter scenario, quantitative predictions for the internal kinematics of dwarf galaxies can be made, which can be checked in the future to probe the nature of dark matter. Furthermore, we take advantage of the overlap of ALFALFA with the Sloan Digital

  4. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:25300843

  5. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Minnesota growers was conducted to determine adoption of extension N rate guidelines for fertilizer and manure for first- and second-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (AC and ACC, respectively) during 2009 to 2011. There were 421 and 273 valid responses for A...

  6. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 2012 to evaluate the acceptance of fertilizer and manure N extension N rate guidelines for corn (Zea mays L.) grown as the first (AC) and second (ACC) crop following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) during 2009 to 2011 in Minnesota. There were 421 valid responses for AC and 273...

  7. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  8. ALFA: Automated Line Fitting Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2015-12-01

    ALFA fits emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. It uses a catalog of lines which may be present to construct synthetic spectra, the parameters of which are then optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. Data cubes in FITS format can be analysed using multiple processors, and an analysis of tens of thousands of deep spectra obtained with instruments such as MUSE will take a few hours.

  9. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  10. Brown Root Rot of Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This bulletin describes the disease of alfalfa called brown root rot (BRR) including: the disease symptoms, the fungal pathogen and its biology, its distribution, and disease management. Since the 1920s, BRR has been regarded as an important disease of forage legumes, including alfalfa, in northern ...

  11. Biotechnological advancements in alfalfa improvement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh

    2011-05-01

    Review of biotechnology research in alfalfa shows that molecular techniques are extensively being used for basic and applied research toward alfalfa improvement. Biotechnological approaches have been used in two major areas, genomics and transgenics. In genomics, molecular markers, structural and functional genomics allowed identification of genes of interest and their regulatory components. Alfalfa being obstinate to genetic and genomic analysis, comparative genomics is used for molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes in alfalfa. Alternatively, transgenic approach involves incorporation of specific and useful genes into alfalfa to improve the traits of interest. Input traits to improve agronomic performance and output traits to improve forage quality, or to produce novel industrial/pharmaceutical proteins, are the focus of current transgenic research in alfalfa. However, transgenic approach is controversial requiring cautious experimental design to combat bioisafety concerns. Ideally, forage alfalfa needs to possess more fermentable carbohydrates, proteins with balanced amino acid profile that degrade slower in rumen, improved winter hardiness, better water use efficiency, pest resistance and no anti-quality factors. Concerted efforts are required to bring together maximum of these characteristic features into the alfalfa plant. PMID:21279557

  12. Alfalfa subsp. sativa by falcata intersubspecific semi-hybrid seed production using alfalfa leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator prefer...

  13. Agalsidase alfa: a review of its use in the management of Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2012-10-01

    stage 1 or 2 chronic kidney disease. Certain benefits of agalsidase alfa became apparent with longer-term therapy. For example, a significant reduction in cold and warm detection thresholds and a significant improvement in sweat function were seen after 3 years' therapy. Final results from a head-to-head trial comparing the effects of agalsidase alfa and agalsidase beta at approved dosages are not yet available. The only available fully published study compared agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg every other week with an off-label dosage of agalsidase beta 0.2 mg/kg every other week. This randomized, open-label, 24-month trial in adult men and women with Fabry disease generally found no significant differences in outcome between treatment arms. It should be noted that concerns were subsequently raised by the European Medicines Agency regarding the use of agalsidase beta at dosages other than the approved dosage of 1 mg/kg every other week. Preliminary results from an ongoing, randomized, open-label study suggest no differences in outcome between patients with Fabry disease receiving intravenous agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg every other week and those receiving the approved regimen of agalsidase beta 1 mg/kg every other week. In three switching studies, no safety concerns were raised and disease stability was generally maintained following the switch from agalsidase beta 1 mg/kg every other week to agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg every other week. Agalsidase alfa also demonstrated beneficial effects, including in women and pediatric patients, in noncomparative studies and in the Fabry Outcome Survey. Agalsidase alfa was generally well tolerated in patients with Fabry disease, with infusion reactions (e.g. rigors, pyrexia, flushing) being the most commonly occurring adverse event. IgG antibodies developed in ≈24% of male patients with Fabry disease who received agalsidase alfa. After 12-54 months of treatment, 17% of agalsidase alfa recipients were still IgG antibody positive

  14. Peginterferon Alfa-2b (PEG-Intron)

    MedlinePlus

    ... inject into your stomach if you are very thin. Use a different spot for each injection. Do not inject peginterferon alfa-2b into an area where the skin is sore, red, bruised, scarred, irritated, or infected; has stretch marks ...

  15. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  16. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  17. Efmoroctocog Alfa: A Review in Haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E

    2016-09-01

    Efmoroctocog alfa (Elocta(®), Eloctate(®), Eloctate™), a first-in-class recombinant factor VIII-Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc), has an extended half-life compared with conventional factor VIII (FVIII) preparations, including recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products. It is approved for the treatment and prophylaxis of bleeding in patients with haemophilia A in multiple countries worldwide. Data accumulated from pivotal phase III studies (A-LONG in adults and adolescents aged ≥12 years; Kids A-LONG in children aged <12 years) and their ongoing extension study (ASPIRE) have demonstrated the long-term effectiveness of efmoroctocog alfa for the treatment of acute bleeding episodes, perioperative management and routine prophylaxis in previously treated males with severe haemophilia A. Among patients on individualized efmoroctocog alfa prophylaxis who had previously received FVIII prophylaxis, all but one of those aged ≥12 years and three-quarters of those aged <12 years reduced their injection frequency compared with their pre-study regimen. FVIII replacement therapy with efmoroctocog alfa was generally well tolerated in previously treated patients, with no evidence of increased immunogenicity. The safety and efficacy of FVIII replacement therapy with efmoroctocog alfa in previously untreated males aged <6 years with severe haemophilia A are currently being evaluated. Although there are no direct, head-to-head studies, the available clinical trial evidence indicates that efmoroctocog alfa provides an effective alternative to conventional FVIII preparations (including rFVIIIs) for the management of haemophilia A. Moreover, by reducing the frequency of injections required, it has the potential to reduce treatment burden, and hence improve adherence to prophylaxis. PMID:27487799

  18. Genetically engineered alfalfa and feral alfalfa plants: What should growers know?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L) is the world’s most important forage crop. The western United States is the most important production area for both alfalfa forage and alfalfa seed. Alfalfa was the first major perennial genetically-engineered (GE)crop and a GE trait for resistance to glypho...

  19. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  20. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  1. ALFA: an automated line fitting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2016-03-01

    I present the automated line fitting algorithm, ALFA, a new code which can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. In contrast to traditional emission line fitting methods which require the identification of spectral features suspected to be emission lines, ALFA instead uses a list of lines which are expected to be present to construct a synthetic spectrum. The parameters used to construct the synthetic spectrum are optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. I show that the results are in excellent agreement with those measured manually for a number of spectra. Where discrepancies exist, the manually measured fluxes are found to be less accurate than those returned by ALFA. Together with the code NEAT, ALFA provides a powerful way to rapidly extract physical information from observations, an increasingly vital function in the era of highly multiplexed spectroscopy. The two codes can deliver a reliable and comprehensive analysis of very large data sets in a few hours with little or no user interaction.

  2. Genetic Mapping of Persistence in Tetraploid Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence is a critical trait for alfalfa, yet the genetics of this trait is poorly understood. Herein, we characterize an F1 alfalfa population derived from the cross between the two cultivated alfalfa subpecies for persistence in three production seasons at Ames and Nashua, Iowa locations and o...

  3. Managing the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa provides many benefits to cropping systems. These benefits occur both during alfalfa production and during the subsequent crops that follow. Some of the common benefits during alfalfa production are increased soil organic matter, decreased soil erosion, and decreased soil nitrate leaching lo...

  4. Prickly lettuce control in alfalfa seed production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are particularly troublesome in alfalfa grown for seed due to the wider row spacing and the lack of multiple cuttings compared to alfalfa grown for hay. Prickly lettuce is often an escape weed in alfalfa seed production fields as it can germinate throughout the entire year and is naturally tol...

  5. Ensiling Characteristics of Alfalfa Leaves and Stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...

  6. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Selected from the 40% Sky Area of the ALFALFA H I Survey. I. Sample and Statistical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wei; Wu, Hong; Lam, Man I.; Zhu, Yinan; Lei, Fengjie; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-06-01

    The population of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, which are objects with central surface brightnesses at least one magnitude fainter than the night sky, is crucial for understanding the extremes of galactic formation and evolution of the universe. As LSB galaxies are mostly rich in gas (H i), the α.40 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) sample is one of the best survey combinations to select a sample of them in the local universe. Since the sky backgrounds are systematically overestimated for galactic images by the SDSS photometric pipeline, particularly for luminous galaxies or galaxies with extended LSB outskirts, in this paper, we above all estimated the sky backgrounds of SDSS images accurately in both the g and r bands for each galaxy in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample, using a precise method of sky subtraction. Once subtracting the sky background, we did surface photometry with the Kron elliptical aperture using the SExtractor software and fitted geometric parameters with an exponential profile model using the Galfit software for each galactic image in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample. Based on the photometric and geometric results, we further calculated the B-band central surface brightness, {{μ }0}(B), for each galaxy and ultimately defined a sample of LSB galaxies consisting of 1129 galaxies with {{μ }0}(B) > 22.5 mag arcsec-2 and the axis ratio b/a > 0.3 from the 12,423 α.40 SDSS DR7 galaxies. This H i-selected sample of LSB galaxies is a relatively unbiased sample of gas-rich and disk-dominated LSB galaxies, which is complete both in H i observation and the optical magnitude within the limit of the SDSS DR7 photometric survey. This LSB galactic sample spans from 22.5 to 28.3 in {{μ }0}(B) with a fraction of 4% fainter than 25.0 mag arcsec-2 in B-band central surface brightness and distributes from -27.0 to -12.3 mag in absolute magnitude in the B band (M(B)), including the 43 faintest galaxies (M(B) > -17.3 mag). This sample is a blue LSB

  7. Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Selected from the 40% Sky Area of the ALFALFA H I Survey. I. Sample and Statistical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wei; Wu, Hong; Lam, Man I.; Zhu, Yinan; Lei, Fengjie; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-06-01

    The population of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, which are objects with central surface brightnesses at least one magnitude fainter than the night sky, is crucial for understanding the extremes of galactic formation and evolution of the universe. As LSB galaxies are mostly rich in gas (H i), the α.40 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) sample is one of the best survey combinations to select a sample of them in the local universe. Since the sky backgrounds are systematically overestimated for galactic images by the SDSS photometric pipeline, particularly for luminous galaxies or galaxies with extended LSB outskirts, in this paper, we above all estimated the sky backgrounds of SDSS images accurately in both the g and r bands for each galaxy in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample, using a precise method of sky subtraction. Once subtracting the sky background, we did surface photometry with the Kron elliptical aperture using the SExtractor software and fitted geometric parameters with an exponential profile model using the Galfit software for each galactic image in the α.40 SDSS DR7 sample. Based on the photometric and geometric results, we further calculated the B-band central surface brightness, {{μ }0}(B), for each galaxy and ultimately defined a sample of LSB galaxies consisting of 1129 galaxies with {{μ }0}(B) > 22.5 mag arcsec‑2 and the axis ratio b/a > 0.3 from the 12,423 α.40 SDSS DR7 galaxies. This H i-selected sample of LSB galaxies is a relatively unbiased sample of gas-rich and disk-dominated LSB galaxies, which is complete both in H i observation and the optical magnitude within the limit of the SDSS DR7 photometric survey. This LSB galactic sample spans from 22.5 to 28.3 in {{μ }0}(B) with a fraction of 4% fainter than 25.0 mag arcsec‑2 in B-band central surface brightness and distributes from ‑27.0 to ‑12.3 mag in absolute magnitude in the B band (M(B)), including the 43 faintest galaxies (M(B) > ‑17.3 mag). This sample is

  8. Alfalfa hay induced primary photosensitization in horses.

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization. PMID:27040919

  9. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  10. Redesigning alfalfa to reduce protein losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is often referred to as the “Queen of Forages” due to its relatively good digestibility, high protein, and ability to readily fix nitrogen. But there’s a big drawback to alfalfa – much of its protein is lost during the harvest and ensiling process, and more is lost in the rumen of livestock....

  11. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is known as the “Queen of the Forages” as it is primarily used as animal feed for dairy cows, beef cattle, horses, sheep, chickens and other domesticated animals. Alfalfa is the forage of choice due to its high feed value and high biomass production along with its ease of establishment; res...

  12. The Tradeoff Between Alfalfa Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within individual harvest periods. ...

  13. Past and Present Management of Alfalfa Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter covers the history of alfalfa pollination by bees. The management of alkali bees, Nomia melanderi, and alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata, is described. Concerns surrounding the current and future use of these bee species as commercial pollinators are discussed....

  14. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  15. Short-term low temperature storage of alfalfa leafcutting bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a major pollinator in alfalfa seed production systems throughout North America. Recent studies have shown that improved timing of female establishment and alfalfa bloom may allow producers to pollinate alfalfa seed crop...

  16. Alfalfa stand length and subsequent crop patterns in the upper Midwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain perspective on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), annual crop rotations in the upper midwestern United States, USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) cropland data layers (CDLs) and USDA-NRCS soil survey layers were combined for six states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minn...

  17. The existence and detection of optically dark galaxies by 21-cm surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, J. I.; Disney, M. J.; Minchin, R. F.; Auld, R.; Smith, R.

    2006-05-01

    One explanation for the disparity between cold dark matter (CDM) predictions of galaxy numbers and observations could be that there are numerous dark galaxies in the Universe. These galaxies may still contain baryons, but no stars, and may be detectable in the 21-cm line of atomic hydrogen. The results of surveys for such objects, and simulations that do/do not predict their existence, are controversial. In this paper, we use an analytical model of galaxy formation, consistent with CDM, to first show that dark galaxies are certainly a prediction of the model. Secondly, we show that objects like VIRGOHI21, a dark galaxy candidate recently discovered by us, while rare are predicted by the model. Thirdly, we show that previous `blind' HI surveys have placed few constraints on the existence of dark galaxies. This is because they have either lacked the sensitivity and/or velocity resolution or have not had the required detailed optical follow up. We look forward to new 21-cm blind surveys [Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey and Arecibo Galactic Environments Survey (AGES)] using the Arecibo multibeam instrument which should find large numbers of dark galaxies if they exist.

  18. Seeding Rate Effect on Establishment and Yield of Alfalfa in Bermudagrass Sod

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing alfalfa often requires field conversion from another forage species. Planting alfalfa into bermudagrass sod reduces risk of forage loss because bermudagrass would remain if alfalfa was not successfully established. Previous Arkansas experiments on establishing alfalfa in bermudagrass so...

  19. Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Darbepoetin Alfa from Leishmania tarentolae.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Oladnabi, Morteza; Safdari, Yaghoub; Ansari, Javad; Veisi, Kamal; Evazalipour, Mehdi; Shahbazmohammadi, Hamid; Omidinia, Eskandar

    2016-09-01

    Darbepoetin alfa is a biopharmaceutical glycoprotein that stimulates erythropoiesis and is used to treat anemia, which associated with renal failure and cancer chemotherapy. We herein describe the structural characterization of recombinant darbepoetin alfa produced by Leishmania tarentolae T7-TR host. The DNA expression cassette was integrated into the L. tarentolae genome through homologous recombination. Transformed clones were selected by antibiotic resistance, diagnostic PCRs, and protein expression analysis. The structure of recombinant darbepoetin alfa was analyzed by isoelectric focusing, ultraviolet-visible spectrum, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Expression analysis showed the presence of a protein band at 40 kDa, and its expression level was 51.2 mg/ml of culture medium. Darbepoetin alfa have 5 isoforms with varying degree of sialylation. The UV absorption and CD spectra were analogous to original drug (Aranesp), which confirmed that the produced protein was darbepoetin alfa. Potency test results revealed that the purified protein was biologically active. In brief, the structural and biological characteristics of expressed darbepoetin alfa were very similar to Aranesp which has been normally expressed in CHO. Our data also suggest that produced protein has potential to be developed for clinical use. PMID:27282622

  20. Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes, with more than 650 genera and 20,000 species, range from herbaceous annuals to woody perennials that are important for providing quality human diet and livestock diet. Legumes also contribute to sustainable agriculture because they can fix nitrogen in symbiosis with the soil bacteria called...

  1. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... like estrogen, and this might affect the pregnancy. “Auto-immune diseases” such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus ( ... active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. There are two case reports of ...

  2. Distribution of glassy-winged sharpshooter and threecornered alfalfa hopper on plant hosts in the San Joaquin valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homalodisca vitripennis Germar and Spissistilus festinus Say populations were surveyed bimonthly for 14 months in Kern County at five agricultural sites made up of a variety of potential host plants. Additionally, S. festinus populations were surveyed in four alfalfa fields in Kern and Tulare Counti...

  3. XM17 Follitropin Alfa (Ovaleap(®)): A Review in Reproductive Endocrine Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M

    2016-08-01

    The subcutaneous recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone XM17 follitropin alfa (Ovaleap(®)) is approved in the EU as a biosimilar of follitropin alfa (Gonal-f(®)) for use in all indications for which the reference product is approved, including as a multifollicular stimulant in women undergoing superovulation for assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. In a nonblind, phase I study in healthy female volunteers, the pharmacokinetic profile of XM17 follitropin alfa was bioequivalent to that of reference follitropin alfa following single dosing. Moreover, in a multinational, phase III study, the efficacy of XM17 follitropin alfa as a multifollicular stimulant was equivalent to that of reference follitropin alfa in terms of the number of retrieved oocytes (primary endpoint) in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for ART treatment. There were no clinically relevant differences in oocyte quality between XM17 follitropin alfa and reference follitropin alfa, with biochemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates and take-home baby rates not significantly differing between the treatment groups. XM17 follitropin alfa was generally well tolerated in this patient population, with its tolerability profile generally similar to that of reference follitropin alfa and with no new unexpected tolerability concerns identified. Thus, XM17 follitropin alfa is an effective treatment option in patients requiring follitropin alfa therapy for various reproductive endocrine disorders, providing a useful alternative to reference follitropin alfa. PMID:27342604

  4. THE SURVEY OF H I IN EXTREMELY LOW-MASS DWARFS (SHIELD)

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, John M.; Engstrom, Eric; Allan, John; Erny, Grace; Fliss, Palmer; Smith, AnnaLeigh

    2011-09-20

    We present first results from the Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), a multi-configuration Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) study of the neutral gas contents and dynamics of galaxies with H I masses in the 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun} range detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We describe the survey motivation and concept demonstration using Very Large Array imaging of six low-mass galaxies detected in early ALFALFA data products. We then describe the primary scientific goals of SHIELD and present preliminary EVLA and WIYN 3.5 m imaging of the 12 SHIELD galaxies. With only a few exceptions, the neutral gas distributions of these extremely low-mass galaxies are centrally concentrated. In only one system have we detected H I column densities higher than 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. Despite this, the stellar populations of all of these systems are dominated by blue stars. Further, we find ongoing star formation as traced by H{alpha} emission in 10 of the 11 galaxies with H{alpha} imaging obtained to date. Taken together these results suggest that extremely low-mass galaxies are forming stars in conditions different from those found in more massive systems. While detailed dynamical analysis requires the completion of data acquisition, the most well-resolved system is amenable to meaningful position-velocity analysis. For AGC 749237, we find well-ordered rotation of 30 km s{sup -1} at {approx}40'' distance from the dynamical center. At the adopted distance of 3.2 Mpc, this implies the presence of a {approx}>1 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} dark matter halo and a baryon fraction {approx}<0.1.

  5. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21 cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. We measure a slope for the linewidth-based BTFR of α = 3.75 ± 0.11, a value that is somewhat steeper than (but in broad agreement with) previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of ± 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample enables us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small (i.e., non-zero) intrinsic scatter. We furthermore find a systematic difference in the BTFR of galaxies with "double-horned" 21 cm line profiles - suggestive of flat outer galactic rotation curves - and those with "peaked" profiles - suggestive of rising rotation curves. When we restrict our sample of galaxies to objects in the former category, we measure a slightly steeper slope of α = 4.13 ± 0.15. Overall, the high-accuracy measurement of the BTFR presented in this article is intended as a reliable observational benchmark against which to test theoretical expectations. Here we consider a representative set of semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations in the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) context, as well as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). In the near future, interferometric follow-up observations of several sample members will enable us to further refine the BTFR measurement, and

  6. Cash in on N credits when corn follows alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When alfalfa is killed, some of the accumulated N in the soil and in alfalfa leaves, stems, and roots becomes available to subsequent crops. This increased N supply is known as the “alfalfa N credit,” which is the amount of fertilizer or available manure N a grower can save, resulting in higher net ...

  7. Using genomics to develop alfalfa as a biomass crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is frequently overlooked as a biomass feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. However, alfalfa has a number of advantages compared to other potential feedstocks. Alfalfa is a perennial, non-food crop that fixes atmospheric nitrogen, improves soil quality, and provides environmental bene...

  8. Understanding the Regulation of Cell Wall Composition in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and has excellent potential to be a sustainable cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. As the alfalfa stem matures, the xylem tissues become rich in cellulose, xylan, and lignin. The ideal alfalfa plant would have stems...

  9. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  10. Role of elosulfase alfa in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA.

    PubMed

    Regier, Debra S; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA or Morquio A) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which results in a striking skeletal phenotype, but does not negatively impact the intellect of the patient. MPS IVA has a phenotypic continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressing form to a slowly progressive form. The clinical diagnosis is often made in the preschool years based on abnormal bone findings on physical examination and dysplasia on radiographic imaging. Supportive care has been the mainstay in caring for patients. Orthopedic physicians often form the core of the care team due to the early and severe skeletal abnormalities; however, systemic disease is common and requires aggressive monitoring and management. Interdisciplinary care teams often consist of medical geneticists, cardiologists, pulmonary specialists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, audiologists, and ophthalmologists. With the US Food and Drug Administration's approval of elosulfase alfa, patients >5 years of age now have access to this medication from the time of diagnosis. The clinical trial with once weekly intravenous dosing (2.0 mg/kg per week) showed improvement in the 6-minute walk test. The composite end point analysis to evaluate the combining changes from baseline in 6-minute walk test, 3-minute stair climb test, and respiratory function showed that at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg per week, subjects performed better when compared to placebo. This indication was clinically meaningful in the treatment group. The treatment was generally well tolerated, and the uncommon infusion reactions responded well to traditional enzyme replacement therapy infusion reaction management algorithms. Currently, clinical trials are underway to determine the efficacy and safety in MPS IVA patients <5 years of age. PMID:27366102

  11. Role of elosulfase alfa in mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Debra S; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA or Morquio A) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease which results in a striking skeletal phenotype, but does not negatively impact the intellect of the patient. MPS IVA has a phenotypic continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressing form to a slowly progressive form. The clinical diagnosis is often made in the preschool years based on abnormal bone findings on physical examination and dysplasia on radiographic imaging. Supportive care has been the mainstay in caring for patients. Orthopedic physicians often form the core of the care team due to the early and severe skeletal abnormalities; however, systemic disease is common and requires aggressive monitoring and management. Interdisciplinary care teams often consist of medical geneticists, cardiologists, pulmonary specialists, gastroenterologists, otolaryngologists, audiologists, and ophthalmologists. With the US Food and Drug Administration’s approval of elosulfase alfa, patients >5 years of age now have access to this medication from the time of diagnosis. The clinical trial with once weekly intravenous dosing (2.0 mg/kg per week) showed improvement in the 6-minute walk test. The composite end point analysis to evaluate the combining changes from baseline in 6-minute walk test, 3-minute stair climb test, and respiratory function showed that at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg per week, subjects performed better when compared to placebo. This indication was clinically meaningful in the treatment group. The treatment was generally well tolerated, and the uncommon infusion reactions responded well to traditional enzyme replacement therapy infusion reaction management algorithms. Currently, clinical trials are underway to determine the efficacy and safety in MPS IVA patients <5 years of age. PMID:27366102

  12. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  13. ALFA: The new ALICE-FAIR software framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Turany, M.; Buncic, P.; Hristov, P.; Kollegger, T.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Lebedev, A.; Lindenstruth, V.; Manafov, A.; Richter, M.; Rybalchenko, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Winckler, N.

    2015-12-01

    The commonalities between the ALICE and FAIR experiments and their computing requirements led to the development of large parts of a common software framework in an experiment independent way. The FairRoot project has already shown the feasibility of such an approach for the FAIR experiments and extending it beyond FAIR to experiments at other facilities[1, 2]. The ALFA framework is a joint development between ALICE Online- Offline (O2) and FairRoot teams. ALFA is designed as a flexible, elastic system, which balances reliability and ease of development with performance using multi-processing and multithreading. A message- based approach has been adopted; such an approach will support the use of the software on different hardware platforms, including heterogeneous systems. Each process in ALFA assumes limited communication and reliance on other processes. Such a design will add horizontal scaling (multiple processes) to vertical scaling provided by multiple threads to meet computing and throughput demands. ALFA does not dictate any application protocols. Potentially, any content-based processor or any source can change the application protocol. The framework supports different serialization standards for data exchange between different hardware and software languages.

  14. Corifollitropin alfa: a new option to treat female infertility.

    PubMed

    de Lartigue, Jane

    2011-08-01

    Corifollitropin alfa (Elonva®) is the first hybrid follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) molecule with demonstrated sustained follicle-stimulating activity. The β subunit of this molecule contains the carboxy-terminal peptide of human chorionic gonadotropin, which alters the pharmacokinetic profile of the molecule. It demonstrates a longer circulation half-life and extended time to peak levels when compared with recombinant FSH (rFSH). Like rFSH, it lacks luteinizing hormone activity and binds specifically to the FSH receptor in vitro. Clinical trials show that corifollitropin alfa is able to sustain multiple follicular growth for a week, with a similar ovarian response and safety profile as rFSH. A single injection of corifollitropin alfa can replace 7 daily injections of rFSH during the first week of ovarian stimulation in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocols. Therefore, corifollitropin alfa addresses the need for a simplified treatment approach to lessen the burden of multiple daily injections for in vitro fertilization. PMID:21850281

  15. HI Gas in Large-Scale Filaments as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Skye; Phi, An; Shah, Ebrahim; Livecchi, Jack; Yu, Yang; Gengras, Graeme; Wolfe, Pierre-Francois; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Hyman, Mario; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We assess the relationship between galaxy environment and HI content as measured by ALFALFA. In particular, we consider membership in large-scale filaments in order to provide clues to how star formation in galaxies is quenched in different environments. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to define galaxy environments in terms of clusters, filaments, and voids for a sample of galaxies with z < 0.05, using both a friends-of-friends algorithm and a more refined approach similar to that used for the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, where a minimal spanning tree is constructed from group centers, and galaxies near branches are associated with filaments. We compare the HI content in these environments using statistics that include both HI detections and the upper limits on detections from ALFALFA. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  16. MANURE MANAGEMENT: ALFALFA FIELDS GIVE US OPTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The average cow in the U.S. produces more than 18,000 lbs. of milk each year and generates about 42,000 lbs. of manure. Manure management is not the only task on the farmer's 'to do' list, but in today’s world it is increasingly important to do it right. Although alfalfa acreage is a relatively smal...

  17. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  18. Sativa by falcata alfalfa hybrid variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) subsp. sativa by subsp. falcata hybrids showed heterosis. Limited work has been done examining these hybrids in a sward situation. The objective of this study was to produce sativa by falcata hybrids using Dairyland Seed Company’...

  19. N fixation versus N uptake in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer N is the single most expensive input in nearly all crop-production systems and has been implicated in declining groundwater quality due to nitrate contamination. Commercial alfalfas are highly productive in the absence of nitrogen inputs because of the symbiotic association with soil bact...

  20. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  1. ALFALFA TRAITS THAT WILL IMPACT BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in production of energy from renewable resources such as biomass has increased tremendously with the recent price spike for oil and growing recognition of the threat posed by global warming. Alfalfa is an attractive alternative for biomass production because of its perennial nature, ability...

  2. Asfotase Alfa Treatment Improves Survival for Perinatal and Infantile Hypophosphatasia

    PubMed Central

    Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Ozono, Keiichi; Riese, Richard; Moseley, Scott; Melian, Agustin; Thompson, David D.; Bishop, Nicholas; Hofmann, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn error of metabolism that, in its most severe perinatal and infantile forms, results in 50–100% mortality, typically from respiratory complications. Objectives: Our objective was to better understand the effect of treatment with asfotase alfa, a first-in-class enzyme replacement therapy, on mortality in neonates and infants with severe HPP. Design/Setting: Data from patients with the perinatal and infantile forms of HPP in two ongoing, multicenter, multinational, open-label, phase 2 interventional studies of asfotase alfa treatment were compared with data from similar patients from a retrospective natural history study. Patients: Thirty-seven treated patients (median treatment duration, 2.7 years) and 48 historical controls of similar chronological age and HPP characteristics. Interventions: Treated patients received asfotase alfa as sc injections either 1 mg/kg six times per week or 2 mg/kg thrice weekly. Main Outcome Measures: Survival, skeletal health quantified radiographically on treatment, and ventilatory status were the main outcome measures for this study. Results: Asfotase alfa was associated with improved survival in treated patients vs historical controls: 95% vs 42% at age 1 year and 84% vs 27% at age 5 years, respectively (P < .0001, Kaplan-Meier log-rank test). Whereas 5% (1/20) of the historical controls who required ventilatory assistance survived, 76% (16/21) of the ventilated and treated patients survived, among whom 75% (12/16) were weaned from ventilatory support. This better respiratory outcome accompanied radiographic improvements in skeletal mineralization and health. Conclusions: Asfotase alfa mineralizes the HPP skeleton, including the ribs, and improves respiratory function and survival in life-threatening perinatal and infantile HPP. PMID:26529632

  3. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  4. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use their HI Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; Van Sistine, Angela; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    2015-08-01

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With the ALFALFAsurvey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies’ abilities to access and consume their HI gas. On galaxy-wide scales, HI gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and HI content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-HI relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and HI depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from HI. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced HI gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts’ shorter HI depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of HI, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in HI gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of HI at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted HI reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient HI to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  5. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study has been completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation (IGCC) system that involves a set of inter-related processes between the alfalfa separation plant and the power plant. The alfalfa fractionation process reduces the stem size, improves the bulk density for feeding and provides a uniform moisture feed. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a fuel for the system. The leaf meal, animal feed co-product is separated from the alfalfa plant. The pressurized gasification process is the RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corporation. The adaptation of the process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion, overcome ash agglomeration, control volatile alkali species, and remove particulate matter with a hot gas filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa.

  6. Effect of electromagnetic stimulation of alfalfa seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwintal, M.; Dziwulska-Hunek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the conducted experiments the effect of presowing He-Ne laser light, magnetic field stimulation or the combination of these two factors of alfalfa seeds on the field emergence, structure and yields in the year of sowing and during three following years of full land use were studied. The examined factors had a significant effect on the number of shoots per 1 m2, plant height, mass of shoots, fresh and dry mass. Electromagnetic stimulation resulted in a significant increase in alfalfa seeds emergence (from 35% - control to 47.8% - magnetic field), number of shoots per 1m2 (from 608 - control to 813 - laser light in cut), but a decrease of the mass of the shoots (from 0.61 g - control to 0.50 g - laser light).

  7. Enhanced antitumor reactivity of tumor-sensitized T cells by interferon alfa

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Woude, D.L.; Wagner, P.D.; Shu, S.; Chang, A.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Tumor-draining lymph node cells from mice bearing the methylcholanthrene-induced MCA 106 tumors can be sensitized in vitro to acquire antitumor reactivity. We examined the effect of interferon alfa on the function of cells that underwent in vitro sensitization in adoptive immunotherapy. Interferon alfa increased the antitumor reactivity of in vitro sensitized cells in the treatment of MCA 106 pulmonary metastases. This effect was evident in irradiated mice, indicating that a host response to the interferon alfa was not required. Interferon alfa treatment increased class I major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on tumor cells and increased their susceptibility to lysis by in vitro sensitized cells. These results suggest that interferon alfa enhancement of adoptive immunotherapy was mediated by its effect on tumor cells. Interferon alfa may be a useful adjunct to the adoptive immunotherapy of human cancer.

  8. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. ); Geno, P.W. )

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  9. Selecting patients with severe sepsis for drotrecogin alfa (activated) therapy.

    PubMed

    Sollet, Jean-Pierre; Garber, Gary E

    2002-12-01

    Selecting patients for drotrecogin alfa (activated) (Xigris; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN) therapy outside of a clinical trial setting requires knowledge of the rationale that led the Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) investigators to select the various entry criteria for the trial. Enrollment criteria for the study included a known or suspected infection, presence of at least 3 systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, and dysfunction of > or =1 organ or system. The infection criteria used in PROWESS were designed to be straightforward and were based on common clinical and radiological data. Although previous definitions of sepsis required only 2 SIRS criteria, the PROWESS trial investigators required the presence of > or =3 SIRS criteria to improve the sensitivity and specificity of these criteria for the diagnosis of sepsis. Acute organ dysfunction, the diagnostic criterion for severe sepsis, was used to define the study population because it identifies patients at significant risk of death. Characteristics of drotrecogin alfa (activated)-treated patients, including infection, modified SIRS criteria, and organ dysfunction, were similar to those of the placebo group and the general sepsis population. Proper clinical judgment and use of the these inclusion criteria as a guide will help clinicians select and treat sepsis patients with drotrecogin alfa (activated). PMID:12521613

  10. Alfalfa forage and seed crop tolerance to flumioxazin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed and forage. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa forage and seed production in 2007 and 2008 in Washington State. Flumioxazin applied at 0.14 and 0.28 kg ai/ha plus paraquat in February t...

  11. Reductions in potash for last-year alfalfa production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying the correct amount of potassium (K) fertilizer is critical for alfalfa yield and stand persistence; however, excess K fertilizer will decrease profits and increase the risk of milk fever when alfalfa is fed to fresh cows. Stand persistence is often not a major concern in the last year of al...

  12. Environmental stability of stem cell wall traits in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem Klason lignin, glucose, xylose, an...

  13. Physical analysis of COMT and CCOMT downregulated alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase (CCOMT) downregulated alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.) have been created. This study examined stem characteristics of these lignin downregulated alfalfas grown in three environments. Twenty COMT and twenty CCOMT downregu...

  14. Predicting fertilizer nitrogen response in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct prediction and application of alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn can reduce fertilizer N costs for growers, reduce over-application of N, and reduce the potential for water contamination. For decades, researchers have found that first-year corn following alfalfa often requires n...

  15. Alfalfa: Potential For New Feed and Biofuel - USDFRC Research Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop supporting U.S ruminant livestock industry, particularly dairy. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of i...

  16. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  17. ALFALFA YIELD AND QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN INDIVIDUAL HARVESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within cuttings over the whole growi...

  18. Does K affect N response of corn after alfalfa?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for farmers to apply optimum K rates for alfalfa-corn rotations. However, little is understood about the effect of excess K applied to alfalfa on the subsequent corn crop's grain and silage yield. Furthermore, relatively ...

  19. Harvest management impacts on stem quality in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem total cell wall concentration, Kla...

  20. Satellite images reveal patterns in crop rotations with alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops that follow alfalfa in rotation usually benefit from: i) reduced nitrogen (N) requirement from fertilizer or manure; ii) increased yield potential than when following other crops; and iii) reduced weed, insect, and disease pressure. Although benefits of alfalfa in crop rotations often depend o...

  1. Dig Alfalfa Plants to Assess Root Rots and Yield Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digging alfalfa plants and inspecting their crowns and roots for rot is critical to assess stand health and production potential. Brown root rot (BRR) has been a significant plant disease on alfalfa for decades but until recently was thought to only cause significant damage in western Canada. With i...

  2. New strategies for managing leaf diseases of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation from leaf diseases has been measured from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, age of the stand, and location. In addition to yield loss, foliar diseases can reduce forag...

  3. Inoculant effects on alfalfa silage: fermentation products and nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of fourteen microbial inoculants on the fermentation and nutritive value of alfalfa silages was studied under laboratory conditions. First (477 g dry matter (DM)/kg) and second cuttings (393 g DM /kg) of a second year alfalfa stand were ensiled in two experiments. In both experiments, alf...

  4. Effect of glyphosate on foliar diseases in Roundup Ready alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation due to foliar diseases varies from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, and locale. Fungicide treatments are cost-effective in only some years and locations. Recently, ...

  5. CYTOGENETIC INVESTIGATIONS OF NON-DORMANT ALFALFA GERMPLASM SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined techniques of chromosome C-banding, image analysis, and cluster analysis were utilized to compare the four historically distinct non-dormant alfalfa germplasm sources of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa). Cytogenetic analyses revealed polymorphisms for heterochromatic DN...

  6. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  7. Complete genome sequence of the alfalfa latent virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In the US it is prevalent in Nebraska and Wisconsin. The virus is recognized as a strain of Pea streak virus (PeSV) So far, no complete genomic sequence of PSV or ALV is availab...

  8. Alfalfa Biomass Germplasms: SFP Detection and Transcriptome Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa] breeding, molecular genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex polysomic inheritance. Increasing cellulose and decreasing lignin in alfalfa stem cell walls would improve ...

  9. Does Alfalfa-Hay NDFD Matter in a Dairy TMR?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three feeding trials were conducted to study the effect of alfalfa-hay in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, 48-hour laboratory incubation in rumen fluid) on Holstein dairy cow performance. Treatments (Lh, Ll, Hh, and Hl) included four alfalfa hays selected for relatively low-(L) o...

  10. Potassium management during the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for growers to apply optimum K rates to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Current University of Minnesota fertilizer guidelines in the Corn Belt do not change for the last production year when alfalfa stand persistence is not a...

  11. 'Don' a Diploid Falcata Alfalfa for Western US Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Don' (Reg. No. CV-______, PI _______) a diploid falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp falcata L.) developed by the Forage and Range Research Laboratory in Logan, Utah, in cooperation with the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University. Recent interest in falcata alfalfa has been ...

  12. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  13. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (hymenoptera: megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  14. Host density drives spatial variation in parasitism of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica, across dryland and irrigated alfalfa cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control against the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), a destructive pest of alfalfa, has resulted in the establishment of nine hymenpoteran parasitoid species in the USA. Despite widespread redistribution of a number of these species, there remains little post-release data on th...

  15. Occurrence of transgenic feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in alfalfa seed production areas in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa) was commercialized in 2011. The potential risk of transgene dispersal into the environment is not clearly understood for alfalfa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral and tr...

  16. MOLECULAR DNA MARKERS UTILIZED TO DISCERN ALFALFA FALL DORMANCY CHECK CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa cultivars are difficult to distinguish based upon morphological traits. Only a few morphological traits have been used to describe alfalfa. Molecular markers especially simple sequence repeats (SSR) have not been utilized in alfalfa to characterize alfalfa cultivars. This study was conduct...

  17. Challenges and opportunities for improved N management in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With some exceptions, the alfalfa nitrogen (N) credit usually eliminates the need for manure N and/or fertilizer N to economically optimize yield of the first corn crop following alfalfa. Alfalfa also can provide nearly one-half or more of the N requirement for the second corn crop following alfalfa...

  18. Acquisition of Learning by Facilitating Academics (Project ALFA). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Paula

    This report assesses the Acquisition of Learning by Facilitating Academics (Project ALFA), which is designed to assist the academic progress of Haitian students at Lafayette High School in Brooklyn, New York. Project ALFA served a total of 62 students of limited English proficiency who had attended an English-speaking school system for less than 5…

  19. Development of anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies in clinical trial-treated patients with Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Pastores, Gregory M; Turkia, Hadhami Ben; Gonzalez, Derlis E; Ida, Hiroyuki; Tantawy, Azza A G; Qin, Yulin; Qiu, Yongchang; Dinh, Quinn; Zimran, Ari

    2016-07-01

    Anti-drug antibodies may develop with biological therapies, possibly leading to a reduction of treatment efficacy and to allergic and other adverse reactions. Patients with Gaucher disease were tested for anti-drug antibodies every 6 or 12weeks in clinical studies of velaglucerase alfa enzyme replacement therapy, as part of a range of safety endpoints. In 10 studies between April 2004 and March 2015, 289 patients aged 2-84years (median 43years) were assessed for the development of anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Sixty-four patients were treatment-naïve at baseline and 225 patients were switched to velaglucerase alfa from imiglucerase treatment. They received velaglucerase alfa treatment for a median of 36.4weeks (interquartile range 26.4-155.4weeks). Four patients (1.4%) became positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa IgG antibodies, two of whom had antibodies that were neutralizing in vitro, but there were no apparent changes in patients' platelet counts, hemoglobin levels or levels of CCL18 and chitotriosidase, suggestive of clinical deterioration after anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies were detected, and no infusion-related adverse events were reported. Less than 2% of patients exposed to velaglucerase alfa tested positive for antibodies and there was no apparent correlation between anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies and adverse events or pharmacodynamic or clinical responses. PMID:27282565

  20. Pathophysiology of hypophosphatasia and the potential role of asfotase alfa

    PubMed Central

    Orimo, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inherited systemic bone disease that is characterized by bone hypomineralization. HPP is classified into six forms according to the age of onset and severity as perinatal (lethal), perinatal benign, infantile, childhood, adult, and odontohypophosphatasia. The causative gene of the disease is the ALPL gene that encodes tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). TNAP is expressed ubiquitously, and its physiological role is apparent in bone mineralization. A defect in bone mineralization can manifest in several ways, including rickets or osteomalacia in HPP patients. Patients with severe forms suffer from respiratory failure because of hypoplastic chest, which is the main cause of death. They sometimes present with seizures due to a defect in vitamin B6 metabolism resulting from the lack of alkaline phosphatase activity in neuronal cells, which is also lethal. Patients with a mild form of the disease exhibit rickets or osteomalacia and a functional defect of exercise. Odontohypophosphatasia shows only dental manifestations. To date, 302 mutations in the ALPL gene have been reported, mainly single-nucleotide substitutions, and the relationships between phenotype and genotype have been partially elucidated. An established treatment for HPP was not available until the recent development of enzyme replacement therapy. The first successful enzyme replacement therapy in model mice using a modified human TNAP protein (asfotase alfa) was reported in 2008, and subsequently success in patients with severe form of the disease was reported in 2012. In 2015, asfotase alfa was approved in Japan in July, followed by in the EU and Canada in August, and then by the US Food and Drug Administration in the USA in October. It is expected that therapy with asfotase alfa will drastically change treatments and prognosis of HPP. PMID:27274262

  1. Pathophysiology of hypophosphatasia and the potential role of asfotase alfa.

    PubMed

    Orimo, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inherited systemic bone disease that is characterized by bone hypomineralization. HPP is classified into six forms according to the age of onset and severity as perinatal (lethal), perinatal benign, infantile, childhood, adult, and odontohypophosphatasia. The causative gene of the disease is the ALPL gene that encodes tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). TNAP is expressed ubiquitously, and its physiological role is apparent in bone mineralization. A defect in bone mineralization can manifest in several ways, including rickets or osteomalacia in HPP patients. Patients with severe forms suffer from respiratory failure because of hypoplastic chest, which is the main cause of death. They sometimes present with seizures due to a defect in vitamin B6 metabolism resulting from the lack of alkaline phosphatase activity in neuronal cells, which is also lethal. Patients with a mild form of the disease exhibit rickets or osteomalacia and a functional defect of exercise. Odontohypophosphatasia shows only dental manifestations. To date, 302 mutations in the ALPL gene have been reported, mainly single-nucleotide substitutions, and the relationships between phenotype and genotype have been partially elucidated. An established treatment for HPP was not available until the recent development of enzyme replacement therapy. The first successful enzyme replacement therapy in model mice using a modified human TNAP protein (asfotase alfa) was reported in 2008, and subsequently success in patients with severe form of the disease was reported in 2012. In 2015, asfotase alfa was approved in Japan in July, followed by in the EU and Canada in August, and then by the US Food and Drug Administration in the USA in October. It is expected that therapy with asfotase alfa will drastically change treatments and prognosis of HPP. PMID:27274262

  2. Pharmacologic profiling of corifollitropin alfa, the first developed sustained follicle stimulant.

    PubMed

    Verbost, Pieter; Sloot, Willem N; Rose, Ursula M; de Leeuw, Renato; Hanssen, Rob G J M; Verheijden, Gijs F M

    2011-01-25

    Corifollitropin alfa (Elonva®, MSD, previously N.V. Organon or Schering-Plough Oss, The Netherlands) is a newly developed sustained follicle stimulant composed of the α subunit of human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and a hybrid β subunit formed by fusion of the human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit carboxy terminal peptide with the β subunit of human FSH. Binding characteristics of corifollitropin alfa at the rat FSH receptor and transactivation properties at the rat FSH receptor, human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor, and human thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH receptor) were assessed in vitro. Bioactivity of corifollitropin alfa in rats was also assessed. Serum corifollitropin alfa levels in rats and dogs were used to derive the main pharmacokinetic parameters of corifollitropin alfa. Binding and transactivation profile of corifollitropin alfa to rat FSH receptor was specific and comparable to that of recombinant human FSH, with no intrinsic TSH receptor or LH receptor activation. From pharmacokinetic studies, circulating half-life of corifollitropin alfa was calculated to be 17.3h in rats and 46.9h in dogs, 1.5- to 2-fold longer than recombinant FSH. Corifollitropin alfa demonstrated a 2- to 4-fold increase in bioactivity (ovarian weight, serum estradiol and progesterone, ovulated ova) over recombinant FSH across all in vivo parameters assessed. These data demonstrate that corifollitropin alfa is a specific ligand with high affinity for FSH receptor, lacking intrinsic activity for LH receptor and TSH receptor. By virtue of its increased in vivo half-life, corifollitropin alfa can be a valuable alternative to FSH by acting as a sustained follicle stimulant. PMID:21115001

  3. Tetrasomic Segregation for Multiple Alleles in Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Quiros, Carlos F.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence of tetrasomic inheritance in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. and M. falcata L., for multiple codominant alleles at three isozymic loci is reported in this study. The locus Prx-1 governing anodal peroxidase and the loci Lap-1 and Lap-2 governing anodal leucine-aminopeptidase were studied by starch gel electrophoresis in seedling root tissue or seeds. The progenies from several di-, tri- or tetra-allelic plants belong to the species M. sativa and M. falcata and their hybrids were studied for the segregation of the three genes. In all cases, tetrasomic inheritance of chromosomal-type segregation was observed. In another progeny resulting from the crossing of two plants involving four different alleles at locus Lap-2, tetrasomic segregation with the possible occurrence of double reduction was observed. This study presents direct evidence of autotetraploidy and the existence of tetra-allelic loci in alfalfa. It also supports the concept that the species M. sativa and M. falcata are genetically close enough to be considered biotypes of a common species. PMID:17246077

  4. When is stacking confusing? The impact of confusion on stacking in deep H I galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytic model to predict the H I mass contributed by confused sources to a stacked spectrum in a generic H I survey. Based on the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) correlation function, this model is in agreement with the estimates of confusion present in stacked Parkes telescope data, and was used to predict how confusion will limit stacking in the deepest Square Kilometre Array precursor H I surveys. Stacking with LADUMA (Looking At the Distant Universe with MeerKAT) and DINGO UDEEP (Deep Investigation of Neutral Gas Origins - Ultra Deep) data will only be mildly impacted by confusion if their target synthesized beam size of 10 arcsec can be achieved. Any beam size significantly above this will result in stacks that contain a mass in confused sources that is comparable to (or greater than) that which is detectable via stacking, at all redshifts. CHILES (COSMOS H I Large Extragalactic Survey) 5 arcsec resolution is more than adequate to prevent confusion influencing stacking of its data, throughout its bandpass range. FAST (Five hundred metre Aperture Spherical Telescope) will be the most impeded by confusion, with H I surveys likely becoming heavily confused much beyond z = 0.1. The largest uncertainties in our model are the redshift evolution of the H I density of the Universe and the H I correlation function. However, we argue that the two idealized cases we adopt should bracket the true evolution, and the qualitative conclusions are unchanged regardless of the model choice. The profile shape of the signal due to confusion (in the absence of any detection) was also modelled, revealing that it can take the form of a double Gaussian with a narrow and wide component.

  5. In vitro ruminal degradation and synthesis of protein on fractions extracted from alfalfa hay and silage.

    PubMed

    Peltekova, V D; Broderick, G A

    1996-04-01

    Net release of degraded N as NH3 and total AA plus microbial protein synthesis, quantified from incorporation of 15NH3 into microbial protein, was used to estimate the rate and extent of in vitro degradation of protein fractions isolated from alfalfa hay and silage. Seven proteins (casein, alfalfa hay, alfalfa silage, extracts from alfalfa hay and silage, and residues from alfalfa hay and silage) were studied. Results from (NH4)2SO4 and SDS-PAGE fractionations suggested that soluble proteins in alfalfa hay and silage differed in susceptibility to proteolytic attack. Although the net release of NH3 plus total AA N from alfalfa silage and alfalfa silage extract was twofold greater than that from alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay extract, net microbial protein synthesis on alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay extract was 33 and 43% greater. Despite greater NPN content in alfalfa silage, protein degradation rate and estimated escape were similar for intact alfalfa hay (0.103/h and 43%) and silage (0.067/h and 43%). This result might be explained by the less efficient microbial utilization of silage NPN, greater protozoal numbers on hay, greater soluble true protein in hay, or differences in molecular mass and stability of soluble proteins in hay versus silage. Use of a two-compartment model, based on water-soluble and insoluble CP fractions assumed to pass with the liquid and solid phases, respectively, yielded RUP estimates for alfalfa hay and silage that were similar to NRC estimates. PMID:8744226

  6. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.; Wiant, B.; Oelke, E.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant to operate in conjunction with an alfalfa processing plant that provides the gasification feedstock and a mid-level protein animal feed co-product. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a gasification feedstock. The leaf material was evaluated as a mid-level protein animal feed supplement. The alfalfa leaf-stem separation and power generation operations have dual and/or synergistic functions which contribute to a technically and economically compatible combination. The pressurized biomass gasification process selected is the IGT RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corp. Adaptation of the air-blown gasification process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion with low tar production, overcome ash agglomeration, and provide for control of volatile alkali species. A hot gas clean-up system removes particulate matter with a ceramic filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa. The physical and chemical properties of the alfalfa feedstock were evaluated for the gasification process. The alfalfa char carbon-steam reaction, which is the slowest step in the complete conversion of biomass to gases, was measured and the char proved to have a high reactivity. Ash components were measured and evaluated in terms of agglomeration within the gasifier. Using this information, the alfalfa gasification conditions were predicted. A subsequent preliminary gasification test confirmed the alfalfa gasification conditions. To complete the engineering design of the IGCC system, additional testing is required, but the results to date are positive for a successful process.

  7. Relationship of crop radiance to alfalfa agronomic values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1980-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data of alfalfa were collected at the time of the third and fourth cuttings using a hand-held radiometer for the earlier alfalfa cutting. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover. For the alfalfa of the later cutting, which had experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth, the spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores.

  8. Feasibility study: Alfalfa leaf meal as a value-added crop and alfalfa stems as biomass fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.; Kaan, D.

    1996-05-28

    The grantee recognizes the importance of alfalfa production to agricultural economics in the western United States. With this grant, it secured the assistance of experts at the University of Wyoming to explore alternative uses for and, thus, ways to add value to alfalfa. The study was prompted by periodic unstable demand and price fluctuations for hay. The agricultural infrastructure and expertise for producing alfalfa is well established in the Western U.S. Alfalfa is a well-adapted, environmentally friendly crop which avoids a large fertilizer subsidy by fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form utilized for plant growth. Leaf-stem fractions were evaluated for forage quality, biofuel energy content, and co-product yield due to seperation procedure. The feasibility of conducting alfalfa leaf-stem separations in both stationary and mobile plants was considered on the basis of three factors: (1) price received for each fraction, (2) cost of the hay to be processed, and (3) cost of processing the hay. Both stationary and mobile separation plants showed positive net income potentials. Alfalfa stem pellets could be marked at appreciably lower cost than equivalent wood pellets for use in wood stoves. The report recommends that sufficient quantities of high-quality alfalfa leaf meal be produced and tested for evaluation in dairy, beef, aquaculture, poultry, and swine rations.

  9. Beyond Higher Education. A Survey and Analysis of the Experience of Access Students Proceeding through the Polytechnic of North London and into Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Verna

    Access to Learning for Adults (ALFA) links education providers and organizations in collaborative work to extend and improve access to education opportunities for adults underrepresented in the system. A survey followed the progress, performance, and experiences of 86 former ALFA students, aged 25 to 49, in London, England, in their seeking of…

  10. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  11. Epoetin alfa in platinum-treated ovarian cancer patients: results of a multinational, multicentre, randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, P M; Antonopoulos, M; Lahousen, M; Lind, M; Kosmidis, P

    2006-01-01

    This multicentre, open-label, controlled clinical trial assessed the effects of epoetin alfa treatment on haematologic and quality of life (QOL) parameters in 182 anaemic (Hb⩽12 g dl−1) ovarian cancer patients receiving platinum chemotherapy. Patients were randomised 2 : 1 to receive epoetin alfa 10 000–20 000 IU three times weekly plus best standard treatment (BST) or BST only. Main study end points were changes from baseline in haemoglobin (Hb) level, transfusion requirements, and QOL. For the epoetin alfa group, mean Hb increased by 1.8 g dl−1 by weeks 4–6 and was significantly increased from baseline through study end (P<0.001). The mean change in Hb from baseline was significantly (P<0.001) greater for epoetin alfa than BST patients at all postbaseline evaluations. Significantly fewer epoetin alfa than BST patients required transfusion(s) after the first 4 weeks of treatment (7.9 vs 30.5%; P<0.001). Also, significant (P⩽0.04) differences favouring the epoetin alfa group over the BST group were found for all three median CLAS scores (Energy Level, Ability to Do Daily Activities, Overall QOL) and the median average CLAS score during chemotherapy. These findings support use of epoetin alfa to increase Hb levels, reduce transfusion use, and improve QOL in anaemic ovarian cancer patients receiving platinum chemotherapy. PMID:16570051

  12. AmeriFlux US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa. Site Description - The Twitchell Alfalfa site is an alfalfa field owned by the state of California and leased to third parties for farming. The tower was installed on May 24, 2013. This site and the surrounding region are part of the San Joaquin - Sacramento River Delta drained beginning in the 1850's and subsequently used for agriculture. The field has been alfalfa for X years…., Crop rotation occurs every 5-6 years. The site is harvested by mowing and bailing several times per year. The field is fallow typically between November and February. The site is irrigated by periodically-flooded ditches surrounding the field. The site is irrigated by raising, and subsequently lowering the water table??

  13. Genetic Variation Within and Among Collections of Falata Alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow-flowered alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. falcata) persists in low precipitation rangeland and grassland environments. The origin of Medicago includes Russia, Mongolia, Scandinavia, and China (Hansen, 1909; Lesins and Lesins, 1979). The presence of legumes improves rangelands and grasslands ...

  14. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. PMID:2238434

  15. Evaluating the transport layer of the ALFA framework for the Intel® Xeon Phi™ Coprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santogidis, Aram; Hirstius, Andreas; Lalis, Spyros

    2015-12-01

    The ALFA framework supports the software development of major High Energy Physics experiments. As part of our research effort to optimize the transport layer of ALFA, we focus on profiling its data transfer performance for inter-node communication on the Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessor. In this article we present the collected performance measurements with the related analysis of the results. The optimization opportunities that are discovered, help us to formulate the future plans of enabling high performance data transfer for ALFA on the Intel Xeon Phi architecture.

  16. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

  17. Impact of alfalfa on soil and water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J.; Gupta, S.

    1997-10-30

    Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.

  18. Corifollitropin alfa, a long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone agonist for the treatment of infertility.

    PubMed

    Loutradis, Dimitris; Drakakis, Petros; Vlismas, Antonis; Antsaklis, Aristidis

    2009-04-01

    Corifollitropin alfa is being developed by Schering-Plough Corp as an injectable, long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) agonist for the treatment of infertility. A single dose of corifollitropin alfa could initiate and sustain multifollicular growth in patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation, such as during in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The agent comprises an alpha-subunit, which is identical to that of FSH, and a beta-subunit, which is produced by the fusion of the C-terminal peptide from the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin to the beta-subunit of FSH. Corifollitropin alfa has a longer half-life compared with FSH and thus requires less frequent dosing. The drug was well tolerated and does not appear to be associated with any serious adverse events or the formation of antibodies. The initial results from a large, phase III, double-blind clinical trial indicated that the ongoing pregnancy rate achieved with corifollitropin alfa treatment was high and similar to the rate established with daily treatment of recombinant FSH. The number of oocytes retrieved following the administration of corifollitropin alfa was slightly higher compared with the number observed with daily recombinant FSH treatment. Thus, corifollitropin alfa has the potential to serve as a viable fertility agent and to gain a place in the infertility market. PMID:19337959

  19. Conserving alfalfa wild relatives: is past introgression with Russian varieties evident today?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central Asia, particularly Kazakhstan, supports a rich concentration of wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) relatives. Because they freely cross with domesticated alfalfa, they are important genetic resources. When identifying in situ populations to conserve, contamination of wild populations with dom...

  20. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L.; Harris, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l−1 CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe3O4-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe3O4. CNTs bearing Fe3O4 nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up. PMID:22977097

  1. Biological Relationship of Meloidogyne hapla Populations to Alfalfa Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G. D.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse and growth chamber studies were established to determine if there are pathological and physiological differences among Meloidogyne hapla populations from California (CA), Nevada (NV), Utah (UT), and Wyoming (WY) on alfalfa cultivars classified as resistant or susceptible to root-knot nematodes. In the greenhouse, plant survival was not consistent with resistance classifications. While all highly resistant Nevada Synthetic germplasm (Nev Syn XX) plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, two cultivars classified as moderately resistant ('Chief' and 'Kingstar') survived (P ≤ 0.05) inoculation with M. hapla populations better than did 'Lobo' cultivar, which is classified as resistant. Plant growth of Nev Syn XX was suppressed by only the CA population, whereas growth of the other alfalfa cultivars classified as M. hapla resistant or moderately resistant was suppressed by all nematode populations. Excluding Nev Syn XX, all alfalfa cultivars were severely galled and susceptible to all nematode populations. Except for Nev Syn XX, reproduction did not differ among the nematode populations on alfalfa cultivars. Nev Syn XX was not as favorable a host to CA as were the other cultivars; but, it was a good host (reproductive factor [Rf] = 37). Temperature affected plant resistance; the UT and WY populations were more pathogenic at 15-25 C, and CA was more pathogenic at 30 C. Nev Syn XX was susceptible to all nematode populations, except for CA, at only 30 C, and all other alfalfa cultivars were susceptible to all nematode populations at all temperatures. PMID:19277299

  2. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  3. Soil N to corn after alfalfa through tillage and regrowth management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting corn after alfalfa can eliminate or greatly reduce the nitrogen (N) fertilizer requirement for first-year corn while increasing corn yield potential due to the rotation effect. Current University of Minnesota guidelines regarding alfalfa N credits to corn are based on alfalfa stand density ...

  4. Bacterial population dynamics during the ensiling of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and subsequent exposure to air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To describe, at high resolution, the bacterial population dynamics and chemical transformations during the ensiling of alfalfa and subsequent exposure to air. Methods and Results: Samples of alfalfa, ensiled alfalfa, and silage exposed to air were collected and their bacterial population stru...

  5. INFLUENCE OF ENHANCED MALATE DEHYDROGENASE EXPRESSION BY ALFALFA ON DIVERSITY OF RHIZOBACTERIA AND SOIL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic alfalfa over-expressing a nodule-enhanced malate dehydrogenase (neMDH) cDNA and untransformed alfalfa plants were grown at the same field site and rhizosphere soils collected after 53 weeks of plant growth. These alfalfa lines differ in the amount and composition of root organic acids pro...

  6. Alfalfa production with subsurface drip irrigation in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated alfalfa production is gaining interest because of the growing number of dairies in the semi-arid U.S. Central Great Plains and its longstanding superior profitability compared to other alternative crops grown in the region. Irrigation requirements for alfalfa are great because of alfalfa's...

  7. Comparison of Alfalfa and Orchardgrass Hay as Replacements for Grain in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While alfalfa has been the predominant perennial forage fed to dairy cows in the Midwest, there has been recent interest to increase use of perennial grasses. This interest is because alfalfa can be expensive to produce (short stand life), the perception that manure cannot be applied to alfalfa, and...

  8. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  9. Combining cropland data layers to identify alfalfa-annual crop rotation patterns and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can provide many economic and environmental benefits to crop rotations. Our objectives were to quantify alfalfa stand lengths, identify the two crops following alfalfa, and determine the soil and temporal factors affecting them. The USDA-NASS cropland data layers for 200...

  10. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  11. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  12. Corn response to nitrogen after alfalfa as affected by tillage and regrowth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current N guidelines for corn following alfalfa in Minnesota suggest that when compared to corn following corn, N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa can be reduced by 168 kg N/ha when greater than or equal to 43 alfalfa plants/square meter are present at termination. Two unanswered questions re...

  13. Genomic Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the fourth largest crop in the United States. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases and adverse environmental factors. Identification of genes/loci controlli...

  14. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  15. Charging properties of cassiterite (alfa-SnO2) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, L.; Cummings, Peter T; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-01-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite (alfa-SnO2) surfaces at 10 50 C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH-range 4.0 to 4.5 at all conditions and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH2 group is more acidic than the bridging Sn2OH group, with protonation constants (log KH) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural alfa-TiO2 (rutile), apparently due to the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na+ and Rb+, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, while adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable amounts of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na+ between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on surface charge density (pH), while the distribution of adsorbed Rb+ is almost independent of pH. A Surface Complexation Model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD predicted speciation of adsorbed Na+/Rb+ was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH-0.40) and the protonated bridging group (Sn2OH+0.36) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH-range (2.7 10), illustrating the ability of positively and negatively charged surface groups to coexist. Complexation of the medium cations

  16. Antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia due to epoetin alfa during antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Stravitz, R Todd; Chung, Harold; Sterling, Richard K; Luketic, Velimir A; Sanyal, Arun J; Price, Angie S; Purrington, Amy; Shiffman, Mitchell L

    2005-06-01

    Anemia frequently complicates the treatment of chronic hepatitis C with interferon and ribavirin (RVN), requiring dose reduction and jeopardizing sustained virologic response. Increasingly, epoetin alfa is used to prevent anemia in this setting. Below, we report the first case of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) in a patient with chronic hepatitis C who received epoetin alfa (Procrit) to manage anti-viral treatment-induced anemia. Red blood cell transfusion-dependence developed 16 wk after the patient was started on peginterferon alfa-2b and RVN for chronic hepatitis C despite the simultaneous administration of epoetin alfa and subsequent discontinuation of the antiviral medications. Bone marrow biopsy was consistent with PRCA. High-titer erythropoietin antibodies, assayed by two methods, appeared shortly after epoetin alfa was administered, and were associated with a decline in serum erythropoietin to undetectable levels. Erythropoietin antibodies directed toward epoetin alfa were shown to cross react with darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp), and a neutralization assay confirmed that they inhibited cell growth in the presence of erythropoietin. Transfusion-dependence resolved approximately 16 wk after discontinuing epoetin alfa, and 6 wk after starting danazol. PRCA caused by the development of erythropoietin antibodies is a potentially life-threatening complication of administering epoetin alfa to prevent the anemia associated with antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:15929778

  17. Toxic hepatopathy and photosensitization in cattle fed moldy alfalfa hay.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, D W; Blue, G K

    1994-01-15

    Cattle in 2 herds developed type-3 photosensitization after eating moldy alfalfa hay. Clinical signs included severe epidermal necrosis of unpigmented skin and marked decrease of milk production (herd 1). One herd had 18% mortality. Values for serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and serum bilirubin were high in affected cows. Biliary epithelial degeneration and necrosis affecting the smaller bile ductules is the most consistent histologic lesion. Biliary hyperplasia, early portal fibroplasia, hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and necrosis, and cholestasis were commonly seen. Mold growth on the alfalfa hay associated with prolonged wet weather prior to harvest was common to both herds. The cases reported here document hepatoxicosis and photosensitization associated with feeding moldy alfalfa hay grown in southeastern United States. PMID:7908282

  18. Corifollitropin alfa versus recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Georg; Boostanfar, Robert; Gordon, Keith; Gates, Davis; McCrary Sisk, Christine; Stegmann, Barbara J

    2016-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted of individual patient data (n = 3292) from three randomized controlled trials of corifollitropin alfa versus rFSH: Engage (150 µg corifollitropin alfa n = 756; 200 IU rFSH n = 750), Ensure (100 µg corifollitropin alfa n = 268; 150 IU rFSH n = 128), and Pursue (150 µg corifollitropin alfa n = 694; 300 IU rFSH n = 696). Women with regular menstrual cycles aged 18-36 and body weight >60 kg (Engage) or ≤60 kg (Ensure), or women aged 35-42 years and body weight ≥50 kg (Pursue), received a single injection (100 µg or 150 µg) of corifollitropin alfa (based on body weight and age) or daily rFSH. The difference (corifollitropin alfa minus rFSH) in the number of oocytes retrieved was +1.0 (95% CI: 0.5-1.5); vital pregnancy rate: -2.2% (95% CI: -5.3%-0.9%); ongoing pregnancy rate: -1.7% (95% CI: -4.7%-1.4%); and live birth rate: -2.0% (95% CI: -5.0%-1.1%). The odds ratio for overall OHSS was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.82-1.61), and for moderate-to-severe OHSS: 1.29 (95% CI: 0.81-2.05). A single dose of corifollitropin alfa for the first 7 days of ovarian stimulation is a generally well-tolerated and similarly effective treatment compared with daily rFSH. PMID:27178762

  19. Collaborative study for the validation of an improved HPLC assay for recombinant IFN-alfa-2.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, K H; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H; Terao, E

    2016-01-01

    The current European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) texts for Interferon (IFN)-alfa-2 include a nonspecific photometric protein assay using albumin as calibrator and a highly variable cell-based assay for the potency determination of the protective effects. A request was expressed by the Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) for improved methods for the batch control of recombinant interferon alfa-2 bulk and market surveillance testing of finished products, including those formulated with Human Serum Albumin (HSA). A HPLC method was developed at the Medical Products Agency (MPA, Sweden) for the testing of IFN-alfa-2 products. An initial collaborative study run under the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP; study code BSP039) revealed the need for minor changes to improve linearity of the calibration curves, assay reproducibility and robustness. The goal of the collaborative study, coded BSP071, was to transfer and further validate this improved HPLC method. Ten laboratories participated in the study. Four marketed IFN-alfa-2 preparations (one containing HSA) together with the Ph. Eur. Chemical Reference Substance (CRS) for IFN-alfa-2a and IFN-alfa-2b, and in-house reference standards from two manufacturers were used for the quantitative assay. The modified method was successfully transferred to all laboratories despite local variation in equipment. The resolution between the main and the oxidised forms of IFN-alfa-2 was improved compared to the results from the BSP039 study. The improved method even allowed partial resolution of an extra peak after the principal peak. Symmetry of the main IFN peak was acceptable for all samples in all laboratories. Calibration curves established with the Ph. Eur. IFN-alfa-2a and IFN-alfa-2b CRSs showed excellent linearity with intercepts close to the origin and coefficients of determination greater than 0.9995. Assay repeatability, intermediate precision and reproducibility varied with the tested sample within acceptable

  20. Alfalfa seed germination and yield ratio and alfalfa sprout microbial keeping quality following irradiation of seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2001-12-01

    Foods can be treated with gamma radiation, a nonthermal food process, to inactivate foodborne pathogens and fungi, to kill insects on or in fruits and vegetables, and to increase shelf life. Gamma irradiation is especially well suited for these treatments because of its ability to penetrate commercial pallets of foods. Irradiated fruits, vegetables, poultry, and hamburger have been received favorably by the public and are now available in supermarkets. The use of irradiation on fresh alfalfa sprouts was studied to determine its effect on keeping quality as related to aerobic microbial load. After an irradiation dose of 2 kGy, the total aerobic count decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-5) CFU/g, and the total coliform counts decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-0) CFU/g. The results showed that the sprouts maintained their structure after irradiation, and the keeping quality was extended to 21 days, which is an increase of 10 days from the usual shelf life. The effect of various doses of irradiation on alfalfa seeds as measured by percent germination and yield ratio (wt/wt) of sprouts was determined. There was little effect on the percent germination, but as the dose increased, the yield ratio of alfalfa sprouts decreased. As the length of growing time increased, so did the yield ratio of the lower dose irradiated seeds (1 to 2 kGy). The irradiation process can be used to increase the shelf life of alfalfa sprouts, and irradiating alfalfa seeds at doses up to 2 kGy does not unacceptably decrease the yield ratio for production of alfalfa sprouts. PMID:11770628

  1. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules : III. Genotypic and Tissue Expression of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa and Other Species.

    PubMed

    Farnham, M W; Griffith, S M; Miller, S S; Vance, C P

    1990-12-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N(2)-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N(2)-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. PMID:16667896

  2. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Cloning and expression of codon-optimized recombinant darbepoetin alfa in Leishmania tarentolae T7-TR.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Golavar, Raziyeh; Rouintan, Mandana; Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Fard-Esfahani, Pezhman; Oladnabi, Morteza; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Mostafavi, Seyede Samaneh; Omidinia, Eskandar

    2016-02-01

    Darbepoetin alfa is an engineered and hyperglycosylated analog of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) which is used as a drug in treating anemia in patients with chronic kidney failure and cancer. This study desribes the secretory expression of a codon-optimized recombinant form of darbepoetin alfa in Leishmania tarentolae T7-TR. Synthetic codon-optimized gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pLEXSY-I-blecherry3 vector. The resultant expression vector, pLEXSYDarbo, was purified, digested, and electroporated into the L. tarentolae. Expression of recombinant darbepoetin alfa was evaluated by ELISA, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and biological activity. After codon optimization, codon adaptation index (CAI) of the gene raised from 0.50 to 0.99 and its GC% content changed from 56% to 58%. Expression analysis confirmed the presence of a protein band at 40 kDa. Furthermore, reticulocyte experiment results revealed that the activity of expressed darbepoetin alfa was similar to that of its equivalent expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. These data suggested that the codon optimization and expression in L. tarentolae host provided an efficient approach for high level expression of darbepoetin alfa. PMID:26546410

  4. Maintenance therapy with interferon alfa 2b in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Díaz-Maqueo, J C; Talavera, A; Nambo, M J; García, E L

    1998-08-01

    We performed a randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and toxicity of interferon alfa 2b (IFN) as maintenance therapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease in complete remission (CR) after conventional chemotherapy. One hundred and thirty-five patients (stage IIIB-IV B) were initially treated with EBVD (epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine). IF CR was achieved they were randomly assigned to receive either maintenance therapy with IFN 5.0 MU three times a week for one year or no further treatment (control group). Clinical and laboratory characteristics at diagnosis were quite similar in both groups. After a median follow-up of 74.3 months (range 49 to 108), 61 out of 68 patients (91%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 76% to 97%) remain in first complete remission in the IFN-treated group compared to 38 out of 67 (58%; 95% CI: 49% to 71%) in the control group (p<.01). Overall survival was also better in the IFN treated group: 62 patients (92%; 95% CI: 82% to 97%) are alive free of disease at 7-years compared to 40 patients (67%, 95%: 55% to 76%) in the control group (p<.01). Toxicity secondary to IFN administration was mild and no dose modification was necessary during treatment. All patients received the planned dose of IFN. This was not an intent-to treat analysis. IFN administration as maintenance therapy was appears to be the only cause of improvement in outcome in these patients. We feel that IFN should be considered as maintenance therapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease because this treatment improves the final outcome without the excessive toxicities of more aggressive therapeutic approaches such as bone marrow transplantation during first CR. We hope that IFN will be considered in future randomized clinical trials in order to define it's role in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease. PMID:9711927

  5. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  6. Soil particulate organic matter response to incorporation of alfalfa regrowth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the potential effects of climate change have driven a need to understand the potential of agricultural soils to store carbon (C). In Midwestern cropping systems, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has received attention from researchers because including it in crop r...

  7. Validating potassium fertilizer guidelines in alfalfa-corn rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2008 to 2010, on-farm research was conducted on 10 fields with medium soil test K (STK) to validate Minnesota K fertilizer guidelines by determining the effect of K fertilizer applications on alfalfa yield and quality in its last production year and estimating the carryover of excess fertilizer...

  8. The alfalfa yield gap: A review of the evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of feasibly attainable crop yields is needed for many purposes, from field-scale management to national policy decisions. For alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most widely used estimates of yield in the US are whole-farm reports from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, which are b...

  9. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  10. Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa: widespread distribution of race 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early spring of 2012 with prolonged wet soil conditions in many parts of the country resulted in reports of poor performance of alfalfa due to Aphanomyces root rot (ARR). Varieties with resistance to ARR are available, although fewer varieties have resistance to both race 1 and race 2 of the pat...

  11. How reliable are N credits from alfalfa to corn?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first Century farmer and writer, Columella, wrote that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 'dungs the land,' and it is likely that most of the benefit he saw was derived from improved nitrogen (N) supply. Today, there is widespread skepticism among growers and farm advisors about how much fertilizer N ...

  12. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  13. Hourly and daily evapotranspiration of alfalfa under regional advection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regional advection often affects the evapotranspiration rates of irrigated crops in the Southern High Plains. In 1998, during a 10-day period (13-22 June) of unusually strong advection, high evapotranspiration (ET) rates for unstressed, irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were measured with two prec...

  14. In-Situ Use of Ground Water By Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated column lysimeter study was conducted over a 4 year period to determine the effect of groundwater salinity and depth to ground water on the in-situ use of groundwater by a salt tolerant alfalfa crop. The treatments included a control with no groundwater, and ground water with electrical ...

  15. QTL Underlying Self-Fertility in Tetraploid Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential strategy to decrease the levels of self-seed production during the seed increase stages of alfalfa synthetic cultivar development is selection for decreased self-fertility. The underlying genetics of this trait have not been elucidated, and therefore, a study was designed to identify ge...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus.

    PubMed

    Nemchinov, Lev G; Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  17. Reducing Alfalfa Brown Root Rot with Crop Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stand injury resulting from brown root rot (BRR) of alfalfa, caused by Phoma sclerotioides, may be noted this spring as warmer temperatures promote stand emergence. BRR development occurs primarily over the winter and is favored when stands are covered with snow for an extended period of time. It is...

  18. RATE OF YIELD AND QUALITY CHANGE IN ALFALFA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

  19. Biochemical Conversion of Reduced Lignin Alfalfa Stems Into Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has potential utility as an energy crop for conversion to biofuels because it is already produced commercially, grows as a perennial, and the protein enriched leaves can be marketed for animal feed. In this paper, the biomass processing characteristics of the stem mater...

  20. The role of disease resistance in alfalfa persistence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of disease resistance on alfalfa persistence, a five-year field study was conducted using sixteen cultivars with release dates from 1940 to 1996. Fusarium wilt and anthracnose were the prevalent lethal diseases observed. Disease was present in all cultivars, with higher incide...

  1. Impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profi...

  2. ADVECTION INFLUENCES ON EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF ALFALFA IN A SEMIARID ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advective enhancement of crop evapotranspiration (ET) occurs when drier, hotter air is transported into the crop by wind and can be an important factor in the water balance of irrigated crops in a semiarid climate. Thirteen days of moderate to extremely high ET rates of irrigated alfalfa (Medicago ...

  3. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  4. Alfalfa diseases 101: diagnosing common and emerging disease problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 50 pathogens have been identified that cause significant damage to alfalfa and prevent it from reaching its full potential for producing high yields of quality forage. There has been excellent progress by plant breeders and plant pathologists in developing cultivars with multiple disease a...

  5. Orchardgrass vs. alfalfa for replacing dairy-cow grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is currently the predominant forage fed to lactating dairy cows in the Midwestern United States however interest in incorporating grasses into lactating dairy cow diets has recently been rejuvenated. Due to differences in chemical composition and physical characteristics of grasses and legum...

  6. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  7. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  8. Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...

  9. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A.

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  11. Thermoperiodism in the cavity nesting alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata is the most intensively managed solitary bee, and is the third most used pollinator in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that while the eclosion pattern of this cavity nesting bee is unaffected by photoperiod, a thermoperiod can give...

  12. Morphological and Molecular Variation in Perennial Medicago (Alfalfa) Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important cultivated forage legumes worldwide. Understanding the areas of adaptation and genetic variation available in a crop species facilitates efforts to identify suitable germplasm for integration in plant breeding programs. Accessions that repr...

  13. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  14. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  15. Alfalfa genomics: importance to sustainability and ecological services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of genomic approaches has the potential to impact alfalfa improvement for any number of traits. We have focused on using genomic and molecular approaches to understand how symbiotic nitrogen fixation, acclimation to phosphorus stress, and cell wall synthesis processes are regulated in alfalf...

  16. Geothermal energy savings for a New Zealand alfalfa drying plant

    SciTech Connect

    van de Wydeven, F.; Freeston, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    The existing alfalfa drying plant was analyzed to determine the efficiency and cost of energy use per unit of production. Further studies are reported of possibilities for energy savings both in the existing plant and in the future development which will incorporate a second dryer and treble the output. (MHR)

  17. Nitrogen management for first-year corn after alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn can increase corn yield potential due to improved soil physical properties that enhance water infiltration and root extension, altered soil microbial communities, and reduced pest pressure. In addition, fertilizer nitrogen (N) requirements are commonly reduced by about 100...

  18. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  19. Analysis of alfalfa root transcriptome in response to salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Illumina RNA-sequencing was performed in two alfalfa genotypes, AZ-88NDC and AZ-GERM SALT-II in order to estimate a broad spectrum of genes affected by and/or involved in adaptation to salt stress. Both accessions were considered susceptible due to the stage at which samples were collected. A total ...

  20. Rate of yield and quality change in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

  1. Assessing disease stress and modeling yield losses in alfalfa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jie

    Alfalfa is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and worldwide. Fungal foliar diseases are believed to cause significant yield losses in alfalfa, yet, little quantitative information exists regarding the amount of crop loss. Different fungicides and application frequencies were used as tools to generate a range of foliar disease intensities in Ames and Nashua, IA. Visual disease assessments (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation) were obtained weekly for each alfalfa growth cycle (two to three growing cycles per season). Remote sensing assessments were performed using a hand-held, multispectral radiometer to measure the amount and quality of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. Factors such as incident radiation, sun angle, sensor height, and leaf wetness were all found to significantly affect the percentage reflectance of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. The precision of visual and remote sensing assessment methods was quantified. Precision was defined as the intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability of assessment methods. F-tests, slopes, intercepts, and coefficients of determination (R2) were used to compare assessment methods for precision. Results showed that among the three visual disease assessment methods (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation), percentage defoliation had the highest intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Remote sensing assessment method had better precision than the percentage defoliation assessment method based upon higher intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Significant linear relationships between canopy reflectance (810 nm), percentage defoliation and yield were detected using linear regression and percentage reflectance (810 nm) assessments were found to have a stronger relationship with yield than percentage defoliation assessments. There were also significant linear relationships between percentage defoliation, dry

  2. EFFECT OF DORNASE ALFA ON INFLAMMATION AND LUNG FUNCTION: POTENTIAL ROLE IN THE EARLY TREATMENT OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Konstan, Michael W.; Ratjen, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Dornase alfa has been shown to reduce markers of inflammation and neutrophil-associated metalloproteinases in cystic fibrosis (CF), suggesting a potential benefit from use of this therapy early in the disease. However, observational studies indicate that dornase alfa is often reserved for “sicker” patients. A 2-year, early intervention study of dornase alfa in CF patients with early lung disease demonstrated significant improvements in lung function and risk of exacerbation compared to placebo. A more recent analysis, using the database of the large observational Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF), found that initiation of dornase alfa has the potential to alter the course of CF by decreasing the rate of lung function decline in children and adults. These encouraging results, possibly linked to indirect effects on inflammation, suggest a greater role for dornase alfa therapy in the early treatment of CF, where it may help preserve lung function and potentially extend survival. PMID:22093951

  3. Expression of β-Amylase from Alfalfa Taproots1

    PubMed Central

    Gana, Joyce A.; Kalengamaliro, Newton E.; Cunningham, Suzanne M.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots contain large quantities of β-amylase, but little is known about its role in vivo. We studied this by isolating a β-amylase cDNA and by examining signals that affect its expression. The β-amylase cDNA encoded a 55.95-kD polypeptide with a deduced amino acid sequence showing high similarity to other plant β-amylases. Starch concentrations, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase mRNA levels were measured in roots of alfalfa after defoliation, in suspension-cultured cells incubated in sucrose-rich or -deprived media, and in roots of cold-acclimated germ plasms. Starch levels, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase transcripts were reduced significantly in roots of defoliated plants and in sucrose-deprived cell cultures. β-Amylase transcript was high in roots of intact plants but could not be detected 2 to 8 d after defoliation. β-Amylase transcript levels increased in roots between September and October and then declined 10-fold in November and December after shoots were killed by frost. Alfalfa roots contain greater β-amylase transcript levels compared with roots of sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Southern analysis indicated that β-amylase is present as a multigene family in alfalfa. Our results show no clear association between β-amylase activity or transcript abundance and starch hydrolysis in alfalfa roots. The great abundance of β-amylase and its unexpected patterns of gene expression and protein accumulation support our current belief that this protein serves a storage function in roots of this perennial species. PMID:9847126

  4. Applying Social Networking and Clustering Algorithms to Galaxy Groups in ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramson, Ali; Wilcots, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Because most galaxies live in groups, and the environment in which it resides affects the evolution of a galaxy, it is crucial to develop tools to understand how galaxies are distributed within groups. At the same time we must understand how groups are distributed and connected in the larger scale structure of the Universe. I have applied a variety of networking techniques to assess the substructure of galaxy groups, including distance matrices, agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithms and dendrograms. We use distance matrices to locate groupings spatially in 3-D. Dendrograms created from agglomerative hierarchical clustering results allow us to quantify connections between galaxies and galaxy groups. The shape of the dendrogram reveals if the group is spatially homogenous or clumpy. These techniques are giving us new insight into the structure and dynamical state of galaxy groups and large scale structure. We specifically apply these techniques to the ALFALFA survey of the Coma-Abell 1367 supercluster and its resident galaxy groups.

  5. ALFALFA and WSRT Imaging of Extended H I Features in the Leo Cloud of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Józsa, Gyula; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Hess, Kelley M.

    2016-08-01

    We present ALFALFA H I observations of a well studied region of the Leo Cloud, which includes the NGC 3227 group and the NGC 3190 group. We detect optically dark H I tails and plumes with extents potentially exceeding 600 kpc, well beyond the field of view of previous observations. These H I features contain ˜40% of the total H I mass in the NGC 3227 group and ˜10% of the NGC 3190 group. We also present WSRT maps which show the complex morphology of the the extended emission in the NGC 3227 group. We comment on previously proposed models of the interactions in these group and the implications for the scale of group processing through interactions. Motivated by the extent of the H I plumes, we place the H I observations in the context of the larger loose group, demonstrating the need for future sensitive, wide field H I surveys to understand the role of group processing in galaxy evolution.

  6. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. II. OPTICAL IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu

    2013-06-15

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21 cm H I survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V{sub o} {approx} 25. We also use narrowband H{alpha} imaging from the KPNO 2.1 m telescope to identify a H II region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  7. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for treating chronic hepatitis C virus infection: analysis of Mexican patients included in a multicenter international clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bosques-Padilla, Francisco; Trejo-Estrada, Rafael; Campollo-Rivas, Octaivio; Cortez-Hernández, Carlos; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor; Pérez-Gómez, Rául; Cabrera-Valdespino, Armando

    2003-01-01

    Treatment with polyethylene glycol-modified interferon alfa-2a (peginterferon) alone produces significantly higher sustained antiviral responses than treatment with interferon alfa-2a alone in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, and peginterferon alfa-2a alone in the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to treatment, and received at least one dose of medication consisting of 180 microg of peginterferon alfa-2a once weekly plus daily ribavirin (1,000 or 1,200 mg, depending on body weight) (n = 14), weekly peginterferon alfa-2a plus daily placebo (n = 6), or three million units of interferon alfa-2b thrice weekly plus daily ribavirin for 48 weeks (n = 12). More patients who received peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin had a sustained virologic response (defined as the absence of detectable HCV RNA 24 weeks after cessation of therapy) than patients who received interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin (7/14 vs. 4/12) or peginterferon alfa-2a plus placebo (0/6). The overall safety profiles of the three treatment regimens were similar. In conclusion, for patients with chronic hepatitis C, once-weekly peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin was tolerated as well as interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin and produced significant improvements in the rate of sustained viral reduction compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin or peginterferon alfa-2a alone. PMID:15115965

  8. Extending ALFALFA: Reducing L-Band Wide Observations of Optically Selected Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Evan; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    Observations of galaxies in the Virgo Cluster were completed at the Arecibo Observatory in the spring and summer of 2015. 161 targets were observed, selected by photometry criteria such as magnitude and shape from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The targets, some too dim to be detected by Arecibo's ALFA drift scanner, were observed with the L-Band Wide detector. Once reductions in an IDL environment were done, these data were matched to the targets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the GALEX/MAST catalog. 115 of the 161 targets observed had positive detections, a 71% success rate. Comparing the galaxies that were detected against the galaxies that were not detected (by the L-Band Wide receiver) will allow us to refine our method of using photometric data to select HI-rich galaxies in the 2000 km/s to 9000 km/s range to refine our selection for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS), which uses the same method of target selection.

  9. Extragalactic HI surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-12-01

    We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric "blind" HI surveys, which for the first time produced extensive HI-selected data sets. Particular attention is given to the relationship between optical and HI populations, the differences in their clustering properties and the importance of HI-selected samples in contributing to the understanding of apparent conflicts between observation and theory on the abundance of low mass halos. The last section of this paper provides an overview of currently ongoing and planned surveys which will explore the cosmic evolution of properties of the HI population.

  10. Agronomic field evaluation of caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase downregulated alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a widely used forage legume. Increasing alfalfa digestibility would increase forage value. One digestibility limitation in alfalfa is stem lignification, which presents an attractive target for genetic manipulation and selection. Lignin biosynthesis is controlled by the...

  11. The alfalfa “almost darks” campaign: Pilot VLA HI observations of five high mass-to-light ratio systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, John M.; Martinkus, Charlotte P.; Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael E-mail: cmartink@macalester.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: hallenbg@union.edu; and others

    2015-02-01

    We present new Very Large Array (VLA) H i spectral line imaging of five sources discovered by the ALFALFA extragalactic survey. These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high H i mass to light ratios. The candidate “Almost Dark” objects fall into four broad categories: (1) objects with nearby H i neighbors that are likely of tidal origin; (2) objects that appear to be part of a system of multiple H i sources, but which may not be tidal in origin; (3) objects isolated from nearby ALFALFA H i detections, but located near a gas-poor early type galaxy; (4) apparently isolated sources, with no object of coincident redshift within ∼400 kpc. Roughly 75% of the 200 objects without identified counterparts in the α.40 database (Haynes et al. 2011) fall into category 1 (likely tidal), and were not considered for synthesis follow-up observations. The pilot sample presented here (AGC193953, AGC208602, AGC208399, AGC226178, and AGC233638) contains the first five sources observed as part of a larger effort to characterize H i sources with no readily identifiable optical counterpart at single dish resolution (3.′5). These objects span a range of H i mass [7.41 < log(M{sub Hi}) < 9.51] and H i mass to B-band luminosity ratios (3 < M{sub Hi}/L{sub B} < 9). We compare the H i total intensity and velocity fields to optical imaging drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to ultraviolet imaging drawn from archival GALEX observations. Four of the sources with uncertain or no optical counterpart in the ALFALFA data are identified with low surface brightness optical counterparts in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging when compared with VLA H i intensity maps, and appear to be galaxies with clear signs of ordered rotation in the H i velocity fields. Three of these are detected in far-ultraviolet GALEX images, a likely indication of star formation within

  12. Transcriptome profiling of gene expression in fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Senhao; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) is an adaptive trait in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). It appeared in the regrowth process in late summer or early autumn after alfalfa was harvested. FD affects the biomass accumulation and winter survival in high latitude area. However, the molecular mechanism under FD is still not clear at present. Performing RNA-seq of fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa varieties at different time points, we obtained differentially expressed genes between different FD types or time points. These differentially expressed genes may relate to FD in alfalfa. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study (Zhang S et al., De novo Characterization of Fall Dormant and Nondormant Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Relate to Fall Dormancy, submitted for publication) for reproducible research. Data generated in our work provide a resource to help decipher the molecular mechanism of FD in alfalfa. PMID:26484109

  13. Asfotase alfa: enzyme replacement for the treatment of bone disease in hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, C; Seefried, L; Jakob, F

    2016-05-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, TNSALP) gene. HPP causes a multisystemic syndrome with a predominant bone phenotype. The clinical spectrum ranges from high lethality in early onset (<6 months) HPP to mild late-onset syndromes. HPP management so far has been only supportive. Subcutaneous asfotase alfa, a first-in-class bone-targeted human TNAP enzyme replacement therapy, is the first compound to be approved for long-term treatment of bone manifestations in pediatric-onset HPP. In noncomparative clinical trials (treatment up to 7 years), this treatment was associated with skeletal, respiratory and functional improvement in perinatal, infantile and childhood-onset HPP. Compared with age-matched historical controls, patients with life-threatening perinatal and infantile HPP treated with asfotase alfa had substantially improved bone mineralization, survival and ventilation-free survival. In childhood HPP, asfotase alfa improved growth, gross motor function, strength and agility and decreased pain. The compound was well tolerated and most adverse events were of mild to moderate intensity. To date, data and experience concerning its efficacy and safety in long-term treatment are not yet available. Further studies to evaluate risks and benefits of enzyme replacement therapy with asfotase alfa in adults are in progress and are also strongly needed. PMID:27376160

  14. Acquisition of Learning by Facilitating Academics (Project ALFA). Final Evaluation Report, 1993-94. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Marc

    The Acquisition of Learning by Facilitating Academics (Project ALFA) was an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its second year in 1993-94. The project operated at a high school in Brooklyn, and served 75 Haitian-speaking students of limited English proficiency with fewer than 5 years in an English-speaking school.…

  15. The Synchrony and Diachrony of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian Adjectival Long-Form Allomorphy (ALFA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, James Joshua

    2010-01-01

    In Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), the gentive (G) and dative/locative (DL) cases exhibit adjectival long-form allomorphy (ALFA). The genitive -"og" -"oga" and the DL -"om" -"ome" -"omu" stand in free variation, inasmuch as when one form is substituted for another the truth value of an utterance remains unchanged. Some sociolinguists (particularly…

  16. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) monotherapy: a novel agent for chronic hepatitis C therapy.

    PubMed

    Zeuzem, S; Heathcote, J E; Martin, N; Nieforth, K; Modi, M

    2001-12-01

    Current therapy for hepatitis C remains far from optimal. The modification of IFN by the attachment of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety has produced long-lasting IFNs. A 40 kDa branched peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) (PEG-IFN alfa-2a) has unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PEG-IFN alfa-2a is absorbed in a sustained manner and its clearance is reduced substantially compared with IFN alfa-2a, resulting in sustained serum drug concentrations. These constant serum drug levels stay above the EC(50) values (effective concentration 50%) needed for antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory actions. Sustained virological responses were significantly greater in patients who received PEG-IFN alfa-2a versus IFN alfa-2a, with a similar side effect profile. Histological improvements were seen in patients who achieved sustained virological responses and were frequently observed among patients who did not achieve a virological response. The advantages of PEG-IFN alfa-2a were also seen in patients with cirrhosis or hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. PMID:11772316

  17. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  18. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  19. Switch from epoetin to darbepoetin alfa in hemodialysis: dose equivalence and hemoglobin stability

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Javier; Moina, Iñigo; Molina, José; Gallardo, Isabel; Muñiz, María Luisa; Robledo, Carmen; García, Oscar; Vidaur, Fernando; Muñoz, Rosa Inés; Iribar, Izaskun; Aguirre, Román; Maza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study reported here was to describe dose equivalence and hemoglobin (Hb) stability in a cohort of unselected hemodialysis patients who were switched simultaneously from epoetin alfa to darbepoetin alfa. Methods This was a multicenter, observational, retrospective study in patients aged ≥18 years who switched from intravenous (IV) epoetin alfa to IV darbepoetin alfa in October 2007 (Month 0) and continued on hemodialysis for at least 24 months. The dose was adjusted to maintain Hb within 1.0 g/dL of baseline. Results We included 125 patients (59.7% male, mean [standard deviation (SD)] age 70.4 [13.4] years). No significant changes were observed in Hb levels (mean [SD] 11.9 [1.3] g/dL, 12.0 [1.5], 12.0 [1.5], and 12.0 [1.7] at Months −12, 0, 12 and 24, respectively, P=0.409). After conversion, the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dose decreased significantly (P<0.0001), with an annual mean of 174.7 (88.7) international units (IU)/kg/week for epoetin versus 95.7 (43.4) (first year) and 91.4 (42.7) IU/kg/week (second year) for darbepoetin (65% and 64% reduction, respectively). The ESA resistance index decreased from 15.1 (8.5) IU/kg/week/g/dL with epoetin to 8.1 (3.9) (first year) and 7.9 (4.0) (second year) with darbepoetin (P<0.0001). The conversion rate was 354:1 in patients requiring high (>200 IU/kg/week) doses of epoetin and 291:1 in patients requiring low doses. Conclusion In patients on hemodialysis receiving ESAs, conversion from epoetin alfa to darbepoetin alfa was associated with an approximate and persistent reduction of 65% of the required dose. To maintain Hb stability, a conversion rate of 300:1 seems to be appropriate for most patients receiving low doses of epoetin alfa (≤200 IU/kg/week), while 350:1 would be better for patients receiving higher doses. PMID:25336984

  20. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  1. Effects of tabtoxinine-. beta. -lactam treatments on alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Margiotta, E.A.; Weaver, L.M.; Unkefer, P.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Tabtoxinine-{beta}-lactam (T{beta}L), excreted by the tobacco pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, is an active site directed, irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) (E.C.6.3.2.1). Previously, we have shown infestation of the alfalfa rhizosphere with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci results in selective impairment of GS and increased plant growth and nodule number. We have now shown purified T{beta}L, when administered to alfalfa roots, can produce the same effects as colonization of the rhizosphere with P. syringae pv. tabaci. Results of GS specific activity, nitrogen fixation as measured by acetylene reduction, and plant growth response to T{beta}L dosage are presented.

  2. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  3. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Kessmann, Helmut; Edwards, Robert; Geno, Paul W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with l-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures. PMID:16667691

  4. Evaluation of two supplements for the prevention of alfalfa bloat.

    PubMed

    Hall, J W; Walker, I; Majak, W

    1994-11-01

    Poloxalene and a mineral mixture feed supplement patented for the treatment of emphysema, polyarthritis, and other pectin related diseases were tested in two trials for their ability to prevent bloat in cattle fed fresh alfalfa. Each trial had a crossover design using three Jersey steers with rumen fistulas per group. Each trial period continued until the total number of cases of bloat reached > or = 24. Treatments were given at 0800 each day. The mineral mixture was given at 100 g/d and 190 mg/kg body weight per day in the first and second trials, respectively. Poloxalene, which was tested only in the second trial, was given at 23 mg/kg body weight per day. Each group of steers was then fed 200 kg of freshly harvested alfalfa in the vegetative to early bloom stages of growth at 0830. In the first trial, only 69% as many cases of bloat occurred on the mineral mixture as on the control treatment, but no significant difference was detected in the second trial. The potency of the alfalfa may have been higher in the second trial, when forage dry matter was lower, magnesium and soluble nitrogen were higher, and bloat occasionally occurred twice a day. Bloat did not occur when the steers were treated with poloxalene. In these trials, poloxalene was completely effective in preventing bloat, but the mineral mixture was only partially so. PMID:7866960

  5. Primary photosensitization related to ingestion of alfalfa silage by cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; George, L W; Oslund, K L; Galey, F D; Stannard, A W; Koch, L M

    1996-11-01

    A herd of 650 Holstein cows was examined for skin disease. Approximately 400 of the lactating adults were affected, but heifers, calves, and nonlactating cows were clinically normal. The condition was characteristic of primary photosensitization. Milk production of the affected cows was normal. Affected cows did not appear to be ill, and none of the cows was icteric. Three of 7 cows had high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, but in the other 4 cows, activity was within the reference range. Serum activities of other hepatic enzymes were within reference ranges in the 7 cows that were examined. Hepatic biopsy specimens from 3 cows were normal. Specimens from 4 other cows had changes that ranged from minimal to mild, chronic, lymphoplasmacytic periportal hepatitis to acute, random, necrotizing hepatitis. Development of photosensitivity was related to ingestion of alfalfa silage. Acetone extracts of the alfalfa silage, but not of other feedstuffs, were found to inhibit growth of Candida albicans under ultraviolet light. Cows experimentally fed a diet composed exclusively of the alfalfa silage developed skin lesions after 6 days, but did not have detectable serum concentrations of phylloerythrin. PMID:8899027

  6. Assessment of Genetic Diversity Among Nondormant and Semi-Dormant Alfalfa Populations using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphisms (SRAPs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic alfalfa populations consist of genetically heterogeneous plants, which has contributed to difficulties in applying molecular markers for examining genetic relationships among alfalfa cultivars. Molecular marker techniques combined with bulked plant DNA analyses provide perhaps the best com...

  7. GENETIC MAPPING FORAGE YIELD, PLANT HEIGHT, AND REGROWTH AT MULTIPLE HARVESTS IN TETRAPLOID ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crosses between Medicago sativa subspecies falcata and sativa result in high levels of heterosis for alfalfa forage production. However, desirable alfalfa cultivars must have acceptable performance for other agronomic traits including regrowth following harvest and appropriate autumn dormancy. In ...

  8. Ovulation induction with minimal dose of follitropin alfa: a case series study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gonadotropins are used in ovulation induction (OI) for patients with anovulatory infertility. Pharmacologic OI is associated with risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancy. Treatment protocols that minimize these risks by promoting monofollicular development are required. A starting dose of 37.5 IU/day follitropin alfa has been used in OI, particularly among women at high risk of multifollicular development and multiple pregnancy. A retrospective case series study was performed to evaluate rates of monofollicular development and singleton pregnancy following standard treatment with 37.5 IU/day follitropin alfa. Methods Spanish centers that had performed at least five OI cycles during 2008 using 37.5 IU/day follitropin alfa as a starting dose were invited to participate. Data could be provided from any cycle performed in 2008 (up to a maximum of 12 consecutive cycles per site). Case report forms were collected during April-November 2009 and reviewed centrally. Descriptive statistics were obtained from all cases, and follicular development and clinical pregnancy rates assessed. Potential associations of age and body mass index with follicular development and clinical pregnancy were assessed using univariate correlation analyses. Results Thirty centers provided data on 316 cycles of OI using a starting dose of 37.5 IU/day follitropin alfa. Polycystic ovary syndrome was the cause of anovulatory infertility in 217 (68.7%) cases. Follitropin alfa at 37.5 IU/day was sufficient to achieve ovarian stimulation in 230 (72.8%) cycles. A single follicle ≥16 mm in diameter developed in 193 cycles (61.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 55.7-66.4%). Seventy-eight women (24.7%; 95% CI 19.9-29.5%) became pregnant: 94.9% singleton and 5.1% twin pregnancies. Fourteen started cycles (4.4%) were cancelled, mainly due to poor response. Univariate correlation analyses detected weak associations. Conclusions Monofollicular growth rate was comparable with

  9. Identification of molecular markers associated with verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) using high-resolution melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to VW, an association study was conducted using autotetraploid alfalfa populations composed of 352...

  10. Assessing the potential of forage alfalfa crops to serve as Xylella fastidiosa, primary inoculum sources in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for forage alfalfa to serve as a primary inoculum source of Xylella fastidiosa in the San Joaquin Valley of California was evaluated. Laboratory inoculation of fourteen cultivars of alfalfa indicated that all alfalfa cultivars tested were equally suitable hosts for X. fastidiosa. Inci...

  11. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  12. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    PubMed

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P

    1982-04-23

    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  13. Production of bio-oil from alfalfa stems by fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study focused on the production of bio-oil from alfalfa stem material. Two alfalfa maturity stages, harvested at early bud and full flower stages of development, were examined to evaluate the impact of variation in cell wall polysaccharide and lignin content on pyrolysis oil yields, production ...

  14. Yield and ion relations of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in response to irrigation with saline waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a major forage crop utilized in arid and semi-arid regions under irrigation; these regions are commonly impacted by saline water and soils. Four commercial non-dormant, purported salt tolerant Alfalfa cultivars 'Salado', 'S&W8421s', 'S&W9720' and 'S&W9215' were grown in 24 outdoor sand ta...

  15. Research seeks to improve the establishment and subsequent yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This popular press article briefly describes the potential benefits of using prohexadione-calcium for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn. Prohexadione sprayed in June with drop nozzles at 10 to 14 oz ai/A typically reduced alfalfa top growth by about 20% in July and ...

  16. Molecular marker identified selfed progeny and their breeding implications in tetraploid alfalfa synthetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume. Selfing (i.e. self-pollination) in alfalfa is possible, particularly in the absence of pollen from another genotype. Selfing has also been shown to occur in insect pollinated seed production fields. Reported selfing rates under field conditions ...

  17. Sustainable biomass energy production and rural economic development using alfalfa as feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Swanberg, D.R.; Oelke, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and with separate alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  18. Validating Topdressed K Fertilizer Recommendations in an Alfalfa-Corn Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium (K) fertilizer prices are higher than average and may reduce bottom line returns for alfalfa growers. Potassium supports plant stress tolerance and plays a critical role in alfalfa yield by moving sugars from shoots to roots. Current University of Minnesota recommendations are to apply bet...

  19. Mycoleptodiscus Crown and Root Rot of Alfalfa: An Emerging Problem in Minnesota and Wisconsin?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoleptodiscus crown and root rot was observed on alfalfa plants from southeastern MN and southwestern WI during the summer of 2009. The disease was observed in new plantings and established stands. Although the disease has been known since the 1950's, it has not caused severe problems in alfalfa p...

  20. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops (Castagnone-Sereno et al. 2013) and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields...

  1. A system for identification of candidate genes controlling cell wall synthesis in alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...

  2. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  3. Effect of temperature on post-wintering development and total lipid content of alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature plays an important role in effective management of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata L.), the major commercial pollinator of seed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in North America. Previous studies of the effects of temperature on post-wintering development of M. rotundata ha...

  4. Gain from selection for 16- and 96-h in vitro NDF digestibility of alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a high-quality forage, but stems are high in NDF and of limited digestibility. A gain from selection study with alfalfa populations selected for divergent in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) was planted at St. Paul and Becker, MN. Two cycles of selection were conducted starting with a bas...

  5. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...

  6. Fungicide Tests on Adult Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera:Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood is a fungal disease of bee larvae caused by Ascosphaera aggregata. It causes significant mortality in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), a bee that is used extensively for alfalfa seed pollination in the U.S. Using laboratory bioassays, we previously demonstrated that fung...

  7. Quantitative evaluation of fiber from nonforage sources used to replace alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Swain, S M; Armentano, L E

    1994-08-01

    The effectiveness of NDF from nonforage fiber sources was evaluated in two trials using midlactation Holsteins. Dietary NDF was added to the basal diet using either alfalfa silage or a nonforage high fiber feed. Diets were fed for 21 d. In trial 1, four amounts of alfalfa were fed. Basal milk fat percentage was 2.61% at 144 g of alfalfa NDF/kg of diet and increased linearly by .066 for each additional 1% alfalfa NDF added, up to 22.8 g of alfalfa NDF/kg of diet. Based on one amount of added nonforage fiber, the ratio of fat test increase to NDF added was .014 for brewers grains, .040 for oat hulls, and .047 for corn gluten feed. In trial 2, one amount of added alfalfa and each nonforage fiber source was used. The ratio of fat test increase to added NDF was .094 for alfalfa, .043 for brewers grains, .067 for oat hulls, .038 for corn gluten feed, .041 for beet pulp, and .044 for malt sprouts. When added to low fiber diets, NDF from the nonforage fiber sources elevated milk fat concentration approximately one-half as effectively as did NDF from alfalfa. Chewing activity was less affected by nonforage NDF than was milk fat concentration. PMID:7962854

  8. Ensuring coexistence of GE and non-GE alfalfa: status of current research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa routinely places among the top five crops in the nation in terms of both farmgate value and total acreage. In 2011 USDA APHIS announced the complete deregulation of glyphosate-resistant alfalfa in 2011. Since then grower demand for RRA seed has surged. Recognizing the need to support all fac...

  9. INCIDENCE OF INTROGRESSION BETWEEN CULTIVATED ALFALFA AND WILD RELATIVES IN NORTHWESTERN KAZAKHSTAN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central Asia is considered the primary center of origin for alfalfa and has a rich diversity of taxa in the Medicago sativa Complex. An exploration was carried out in 2000 to collect germplasm of wild relatives of alfalfa in Northwestern Kazakhstan. Russian scientists had previously proposed areas w...

  10. Identification of Drought Response Genes fom Two Alfalfa Cultivars Using Medicago Truncatula Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the first step to identify drought-responsive genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and understand how nitrogen fixation interacts with drought response, the alfalfa Ladak and 53V08 were studied when subjected to drought stress. A small set of genes shared by these two cultivars were identified ...

  11. Water transfer in an alfalfa/maize association. [Medicago sativa; Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Corak, S.J.; Blevins, D.G.; Pallardy, S.G.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigated the possibility of interspecific water transfer in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) association. An alfalfa plant was grown through two vertically stacked plastic tubes. A 5 centimeter air gap between tubes was bridged by alfalfa roots. Five-week old maize plants with roots confined to the top tube were not watered, while associated alfalfa roots had free access to water in the bottom tube (the -/+ treatment). Additional treatments included: top and bottom tubes watered (+/+), top and bottom tubes droughted (-/-), and top tube droughted after removal of alfalfa root bridges and routine removal of alfalfa tillers (-*). Predawn leaf water potential of maize in the -/+ treatment fell to -1.5 megapascals 13 days after the start of drought; thereafter, predawn and midday potentials were maintained near -1.9 megapascals. Leaf water potentials of maize in the -/- and -* treatments declined steadily; all plants in these treatments were completely desiccated before day 50. High levels of tritium activity were detected in water extracted from both alfalfa and maize leaves after /sup 3/H/sub 2/O was injected into the bottom -/+ tube at day 70 or later. Maize in the -/+ treatment was able to survive an otherwise lethal period of drought by utilizing water lost by alfalfa roots.

  12. Inoculant effects on alfalfa silage: in vitro gas and volatile fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa silages from two similar trials, 15 treatments with an untreated control and 14 lactic acid bacterial inoculants, were analyzed for in vitro ruminal gas production. First cut (477 g DM/kg) and second cut (393 g DM/kg) alfalfa had been ensiled in glass jars for a minimum of 30 days at room te...

  13. Responses of Medicago sativa and M. falcata type alfalfas to different defoliation times and grass competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating alfalfa into rangelands can enhance the quantity and quality of forage production. We evaluated the impact of defoliation timing and selective defoliation on two grazing- (Anik and SCMF 3713) and one hay-type alfalfas (Vernal) near Mandan, North Dakota, USA. Entries were space-plante...

  14. Alfalfa root health and disease management: a foundation for maximizing production potential and stand life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneath the lush green leaves of an alfalfa plant is a surprisingly large root system. It is this large root system that is at the heart of the valuable traits of the crop. Many factors influence root growth and root health of alfalfa, but diseases can be especially important. Several different dise...

  15. Molecular marker identified selfed progeny and their breeding implications in tetraploid alfalfa synthetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume. Selfing (i.e. self-pollination) in alfalfa is possible, particularly in the absence of pollen from another genotype. Selfing has also been shown to occur in insect pollinated seed production fields. Reported selfing rates under field conditions...

  16. Optimizing Sativa and Falcata Alfalfa Subspecies Ratios for Leafcutter Bee Pollination to Maximize Hybrid Seed Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing seed production schemes which capture and maintain desired alfalfa (Medicago sativa) heterosis for utilization by growers has been problematic. The semi-hybrid seed production scheme is one proposed means of capturing heterosis in alfalfa cultivars. This scheme proposes mixing equal qua...

  17. Storage characteristics of large round and square alfalfa bales: low-moisture wrapped bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial dry matter (DM) and quality losses have been reported for partially dried alfalfa that has been rained on before moisture reduction to levels acceptable for dry hay storage. The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of preserving alfalfa baled at less than 45% mois...

  18. Should Yield or Quality be the 'Rule' at Alfalfa Harvest Time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within individual harvest periods. ...

  19. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  20. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  1. Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...

  2. Using Gene Arrays as Tools to Develop Alfalfa as a Biomass Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has considerable potential as a biomass feedstock for producing cellulosic ethanol. The model that we propose for alfalfa as a biomass crop involves stripping leaves from stems. The leaves would be used as a protein supplement for livestock while the stems would be used for cellulosic ethano...

  3. Prolonged field exposure after cut alfalfa receives rain reduces ensilability and nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserving high-quality alfalfa silage during unstable, inclement weather is a challenge. Within a series of experiments, rainfall events were applied to wilting alfalfa by both simulated (using a rainfall simulator) and natural methods across four different harvests. Based on our studies, the ensi...

  4. Mapping fall dormancy and winter injury in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a widely planted perennial forage crop. Dormancy in autumn (fall dormancy) is generally negatively correlated with winter injury in alfalfa. To understand the genetic basis of the two traits, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling autumn growth and winter injury using a...

  5. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  6. Potato Leafhopper Injury and Fusarium Crown Rot Effects on Three Alfalfa Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests homopterous insects and crown-rotting Fusarium species interact to impose stresses affecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence. Our objective was to investigate interactions of Fusarium crown rot and potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) in three alfalfa populations dif...

  7. A comparative study of alfalfa and Medicago truncatula stem traits: morphology, chemical composition, and ruminal digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an agronomically important forage, but digestibility of stem cell wall material is low. Because the tetraploid genome of alfalfa complicates genetic dissection of complex pathways, Medicago truncatula (Gaertn.) could serve as a model for stem cell wall development in ...

  8. microRNAs and microRNA Targets Involved in Alfalfa Stem Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the possible involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in alfalfa stem development, we hybridized 32P-labeled total miRNA purified from elongating and post-elongation stem internodes (ES and PES, respectively) of alfalfa clone 252 to a miRNA-macroarray that contained a total of 70 reference anti-...

  9. microRNAs and microRNA Targets Involved in Alfalfa Stem Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the possible involvement of microRNAs in alfalfa stem development, we hybridized 32P-labled total microRNAs purified from elongating and post-elongation stem internodes (ES and PES, respectively) of the alfalfa Clone 252 to a microRNA dot blot that contains a total of 70 reference anti-mi...

  10. Single-Feature Polymorphism Discovery in the Transcriptome of Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa ) has economic importance as a forage crop for livestock and potential for development as a biofuel feedstock. Advances in alfalfa breeding, genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex p...

  11. Fluctuating thermal regimes improve survival of the alfalfa leafcutting bee during cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata is commonly held at low temperatures for overwintering the prepupae or for interrupting spring incubation to synchronize adult emergence with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, static low temperature exposures can be stressful depending on the temperatu...

  12. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common alfalfa pollinator in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus ...

  13. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  14. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease. PMID:27068164

  15. Modeling viral and drug kinetics: hepatitis C virus treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2b.

    PubMed

    Powers, Kimberly A; Dixit, Narendra M; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Golia, Preeti; Talal, Andrew H; Perelson, Alan S

    2003-01-01

    Administration of peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin results in an early hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA decay followed by an increase as the drug concentration declines between doses. Upon administration of the next dose 1 week later, the same pattern is observed. We have incorporated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis into a model of viral dynamics to describe the effect that changes in drug concentration and effectiveness can have on viral levels. To illustrate the relationship between pharmacokinetics and viral dynamics, we fit the model to data from four HCV/human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients, and obtained good agreement with the measured serum HCV RNA levels. We were able to account for the observed increases in HCV RNA, and estimate virion and drug half-lives that are in agreement with previous reports. Models incorporating pharmacokinetics are needed to correctly interpret viral load changes and estimate drug effectiveness in treatment protocols using peginterferon alfa-2b. PMID:12934163

  16. A randomized comparison of every-2-week darbepoetin alfa and weekly epoetin alfa for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia in patients with breast, lung, or gynecologic cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Lee S; Yee, Lorrin K; Senecal, Frank M; Charu, Veena; Tomita, Dianne; Wallace, Joel; Rossi, Greg

    2004-01-01

    An important clinical question is the relative efficacy of the most common dosages of darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp; Amgen Inc.; Thousand Oaks, CA) 200 microg every 2 weeks (Q2W) and epoetin alfa (Procrit; Ortho Biotech Products, LP; Raritan, NJ) 40,000 U weekly (QW) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia. We designed three concurrent randomized, open-label, multicenter, identical trials (with the exception of tumor type criteria of breast, gynecologic, or lung cancer) of darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia to validate the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire for Anemia (PSQ-An) treatment tool and to compare the efficacies and safety profiles of these two agents. In each trial, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either darbepoetin alfa at a dose of 200 microg Q2W or epoetin alfa at a dose of 40,000 U QW for up to 16 weeks. The PSQ-An was assessed for validity, feasibility, and reliability. Secondary clinical endpoints were analyzed using the primary analysis set. Both individual trial analyses and a protocol-specified combined analysis of data from all three trials were conducted. Overall, 312 patients (157 darbepoetin alfa; 155 epoetin alfa) were randomized and received study drug. Baseline characteristics were similar in both treatment groups in each trial and overall. The PSQ-An was valid, feasible, and reliable. In general, no difference between treatment groups was observed for hemoglobin- and transfusion-based endpoints in each individual trial or in the combined analysis. From exploratory analyses, achievement and maintenance of a hemoglobin target range (11-13 g/dl) were similar in both groups. No differences in safety were observed. With the PSQ-An, formal comparisons of the impact of anemia therapies on patients and caregivers can be made in future prospective studies. Further, darbepoetin alfa (200 microg Q2W) and epoetin alfa (40,000 U QW) appear to achieve comparable clinical and hematologic outcomes

  17. Managing infertility with the follitropin alfa prefilled pen injector - patient considerations.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin treatment has been used in fertility treatment since the 1930s. First, preparations coming from animals were injected, then, gonadotropins prepared from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. A great step was achieved with the introduction of human menopausal gonadotropin extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. When cases of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease were recognized after the use of human pituitary-derived hormone injections, urinary gonadotropins were increasingly purified and then produced by the use of recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant gonadotropins were characterized by the extreme high specificity and the nearly 100% purity. This allows for follitropin alfa, the first recombinant-human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) approved, to be quantified and filled by mass, with a small variance of only ±2% and no more with a bioassay with a variance of 45%. With recombinant preparations, it is also possible to cover the tremendous growing demand for gonadotropins. Ovarian stimulation has become a self-injecting procedure for the patients. Accurate and easy-to-use injection devices which minimize pain, difficulty, and stress are essential for patient compliance. So, two pen injectors adapted from the well-known insulin pen were introduced in fertility treatment, one as a multiple-use device rechargeable with premixed, prefilled cartridges with r-hFSH (follitropin β) and the other a disposable, prefilled drug delivery system with a liquid formulation of follitropin alfa filled by mass. The efficacy in comparison to the quite more cumbersome handling with ampoules and syringes has been proven very quickly. In several studies, it has been shown that patients had a preference to the prefilled follitropin alfa pen due to the faster preparation and were more confident of accurate dosing. The follitropin alfa (filled by mass [FbM]) prefilled pen is a move toward better quality of treatment and also better quality of life for the women within

  18. The software and hardware for the ground testing of ALFA- ELECTRON space spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batischev, A. G.; Galper, A. M.; Naumov, P. Yu; Naumov, P. P.; Solodovnikov, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The complex for ground testing and space detector system calibration has been designed. The fast multilayer scintillation detector of the new telescope-spectrometer for the ALFA-ELECTRON space experiment is in ground testing mode now. The device will planned to install on the outer surface of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. The basic scheme for the detector amplitude parameters measurement by use of specially designed hardware and software are described and the first prototype testing results are demonstrated.

  19. Managing infertility with the follitropin alfa prefilled pen injector – patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin treatment has been used in fertility treatment since the 1930s. First, preparations coming from animals were injected, then, gonadotropins prepared from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. A great step was achieved with the introduction of human menopausal gonadotropin extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women. When cases of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease were recognized after the use of human pituitary-derived hormone injections, urinary gonadotropins were increasingly purified and then produced by the use of recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant gonadotropins were characterized by the extreme high specificity and the nearly 100% purity. This allows for follitropin alfa, the first recombinant-human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) approved, to be quantified and filled by mass, with a small variance of only ±2% and no more with a bioassay with a variance of 45%. With recombinant preparations, it is also possible to cover the tremendous growing demand for gonadotropins. Ovarian stimulation has become a self-injecting procedure for the patients. Accurate and easy-to-use injection devices which minimize pain, difficulty, and stress are essential for patient compliance. So, two pen injectors adapted from the well-known insulin pen were introduced in fertility treatment, one as a multiple-use device rechargeable with premixed, prefilled cartridges with r-hFSH (follitropin β) and the other a disposable, prefilled drug delivery system with a liquid formulation of follitropin alfa filled by mass. The efficacy in comparison to the quite more cumbersome handling with ampoules and syringes has been proven very quickly. In several studies, it has been shown that patients had a preference to the prefilled follitropin alfa pen due to the faster preparation and were more confident of accurate dosing. The follitropin alfa (filled by mass [FbM]) prefilled pen is a move toward better quality of treatment and also better quality of life for the women within

  20. Selenium and sulfur relationships in alfalfa and soil under field conditions, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between total Se and S or soluble SeO4 and SO4 in soils and tissue concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), under field conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, suggest that the rate of accumulation of Se in alfalfa may be reduced in areas where high Se and S concentrations in soils were measured. These data suggest that the balance between carbonate and sulfate minerals in soil may have a greater influence on uptake of Se by alfalfa than does the balance of SeO4 and SO4 in soil solution. Soil and alfalfa were sampled from areas representing a wide range in soil Se and S concentrations. Specific sampling locations were selected based on a previous study of Se, S, and other elements where 721 soil samples were collected to map landscape variability and distribution of elements. Six multiple-linear regression equations were developed between total and/or soluble soil chemical constituents and tissue concentrations of Se in alfalfa. We chose a regression model that accounted for 72% of the variability in alfalfa Se concentrations based on an association of elements in soil (total C, S, Se, and Sr) determined by factor analysis. To prepare a map showing the spatial distribution of estimated alfalfa Se concentrations, the model was applied to the data from the previously collected 721 soil samples. Estimated alfalfa Se concentrations in most of the study area were within a range that is predicted to produce alfalfa with neither Se deficiency nor toxicity when consumed by livestock. A few small areas are predicted to produce alfalfa that potentially would not meet minimum dietary needs of livestock.

  1. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501

  2. The GALFA-H I Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Begum, A.; Douglas, K. A.; Gibson, S. J.; Grcevich, J.; Heiles, C.; Korpela, E. J.; Lee, M.; Putman, M.; Saul, D. R.; Stanimirović, S.

    2010-12-01

    We present the GALFA-H I survey. GALFA-H I is an ongoing survey of neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Galaxy conducted at the 305 m Arecibo telescope. We briefly discuss the parameters of the survey, and the philosophy behind our observational strategy. We discuss the GALFA-H I survey in the context of other large area HI surveys, past, present, and future, and compare it to these surveys in terms of various observational parameters. We give a very brief overview of all the surveys being conducted with the ALFA instrument and discuss the importance of our commensal partnerships with a subset of these surveys. We discuss our current survey coverage, and describe our current and future data availability. We also briefly describe some of the science being conducted with the ongoing survey.

  3. Human factors engineering and design validation for the redesigned follitropin alfa pen injection device

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Mary C; Patterson, Patricia; Hayward, Brooke; North, Robert; Green, Dawne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate, using human factors engineering (HFE), that a redesigned, pre-filled, ready-to-use, pre-asembled follitropin alfa pen can be used to administer prescribed follitropin alfa doses safely and accurately. Methods: A failure modes and effects analysis identified hazards and harms potentially caused by use errors; risk-control measures were implemented to ensure acceptable device use risk management. Participants were women with infertility, their significant others, and fertility nurse (FN) professionals. Preliminary testing included ‘Instructions for Use’ (IFU) and pre-validation studies. Validation studies used simulated injections in a representative use environment; participants received prior training on pen use. Results: User performance in preliminary testing led to IFU revisions and a change to outer needle cap design to mitigate needle stick potential. In the first validation study (49 users, 343 simulated injections), in the FN group, one observed critical use error resulted in a device design modification and another in an IFU change. A second validation study tested the mitigation strategies; previously reported use errors were not repeated. Conclusions: Through an iterative process involving a series of studies, modifications were made to the pen design and IFU. Simulated-use testing demonstrated that the redesigned pen can be used to administer follitropin alfa effectively and safely. PMID:25895897

  4. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  5. Interactions Among Selected Endoparasitic Nematodes and Three Pseudomonads on Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Bookbinder, M. G.; Bloom, J. R.; Lukezic, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Meloidogyne hapla, Pratylenchus penetrans, and Helicotylenchus dihystera, reduced the growth of 'Saranac AR alfalfa seedlings when applied at concentrations of 50 nematodes per plant. All except P. penetrans reduced seedling growth when applied at 25 per seedling. M. hapla reduced growth when applied at 12 per seedling. Nematodes interacted with three pseudomonads to produce greater growth reductions than were obtained with single pathogens, suggesting synergistic relationships. Ditylenchus dipsaci, applied at 25 or 50 nematodes per seedling, reduced plant weight compared with weights of control plants, but did not interact with test bacteria. All of the nematodes except D. dipsaci produced root wounds which were invaded by bacteria. PMID:19295682

  6. Modelling the Dynamics of Feral Alfalfa Populations and Its Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V.; Begg, Graham S.; Gulden, Robert H.; Van Acker, Rene C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Feral populations of cultivated crops can pose challenges to novel trait confinement within agricultural landscapes. Simulation models can be helpful in investigating the underlying dynamics of feral populations and determining suitable management options. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a stage-structured matrix population model for roadside feral alfalfa populations occurring in southern Manitoba, Canada. The model accounted for the existence of density-dependence and recruitment subsidy in feral populations. We used the model to investigate the long-term dynamics of feral alfalfa populations, and to evaluate the effectiveness of simulated management strategies such as herbicide application and mowing in controlling feral alfalfa. Results suggest that alfalfa populations occurring in roadside habitats can be persistent and less likely to go extinct under current roadverge management scenarios. Management attempts focused on controlling adult plants alone can be counterproductive due to the presence of density-dependent effects. Targeted herbicide application, which can achieve complete control of seedlings, rosettes and established plants, will be an effective strategy, but the seedbank population may contribute to new recruits. In regions where roadside mowing is regularly practiced, devising a timely mowing strategy (early- to mid-August for southern Manitoba), one that can totally prevent seed production, will be a feasible option for managing feral alfalfa populations. Conclusions/Significance Feral alfalfa populations can be persistent in roadside habitats. Timely mowing or regular targeted herbicide application will be effective in managing feral alfalfa populations and limit feral-population-mediated gene flow in alfalfa. However, in the context of novel trait confinement, the extent to which feral alfalfa populations need to be managed will be dictated by the tolerance levels established by specific production systems for specific

  7. Velaglucerase alfa (VPRIV) enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Gaucher disease: Long-term data from phase III clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Derralynn A; Gonzalez, Derlis E; Lukina, Elena A; Mehta, Atul; Kabra, Madhulika; Elstein, Deborah; Kisinovsky, Isaac; Giraldo, Pilar; Bavdekar, Ashish; Hangartner, Thomas N; Wang, Nan; Crombez, Eric; Zimran, Ari

    2015-07-01

    Type 1 Gaucher disease is an inherited lysosomal enzyme deficiency with variable age of symptom onset. Common presenting signs include thrombocytopenia, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, bone abnormalities, and, additionally in children, growth failure. Fifty-seven patients aged 3-62 years at the baseline of two phase III trials for velaglucerase alfa treatment were enrolled in the single extension study. In the extension, they received every-other-week velaglucerase alfa intravenous infusions for 1.2-4.8 years at 60 U/kg, although 10 patients experienced dose reduction. No patient experienced a drug-related serious adverse event or withdrew due to an adverse event. One patient died following a convulsion that was reported as unrelated to the study drug. Only one patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Combining the experience of the initial phase III trials and the extension study, significant improvements were observed in the first 24 months from baseline in hematology variables, organ volumes, plasma biomarkers, and, in adults, the lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score. Improvements were maintained over longer-term treatment. Velaglucerase alfa had a good long-term safety and tolerability profile, and patients continued to respond clinically, which is consistent with the results of the extension study to the phase I/II trial of velaglucerase alfa. EudraCT number 2008-001965-27; www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00635427. PMID:25801797

  8. Velaglucerase alfa (VPRIV) enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Gaucher disease: Long-term data from phase III clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Derralynn A; Gonzalez, Derlis E; Lukina, Elena A; Mehta, Atul; Kabra, Madhulika; Elstein, Deborah; Kisinovsky, Isaac; Giraldo, Pilar; Bavdekar, Ashish; Hangartner, Thomas N; Wang, Nan; Crombez, Eric; Zimran, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 Gaucher disease is an inherited lysosomal enzyme deficiency with variable age of symptom onset. Common presenting signs include thrombocytopenia, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, bone abnormalities, and, additionally in children, growth failure. Fifty-seven patients aged 3–62 years at the baseline of two phase III trials for velaglucerase alfa treatment were enrolled in the single extension study. In the extension, they received every-other-week velaglucerase alfa intravenous infusions for 1.2–4.8 years at 60 U/kg, although 10 patients experienced dose reduction. No patient experienced a drug-related serious adverse event or withdrew due to an adverse event. One patient died following a convulsion that was reported as unrelated to the study drug. Only one patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Combining the experience of the initial phase III trials and the extension study, significant improvements were observed in the first 24 months from baseline in hematology variables, organ volumes, plasma biomarkers, and, in adults, the lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score. Improvements were maintained over longer-term treatment. Velaglucerase alfa had a good long-term safety and tolerability profile, and patients continued to respond clinically, which is consistent with the results of the extension study to the phase I/II trial of velaglucerase alfa. EudraCT number 2008-001965-27; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00635427. Am. J. Hematol. 90:584–591, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25801797

  9. Geographic trends in alfalfa stand age and crops that follow alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service cropland data layers and Soil Survey Geographic Database layers were combined for six states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin) and seven years (2006-2012) to determine how soil texture and geographic location affect t...

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment with peginterferon-alfa-2a versus peginterferon-alfa-2b for patients with chronic hepatitis C under the public payer perspective in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C affects approximately 170 million people worldwide, and thus being one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. About 20% of patients with chronic hepatitis C will develop cirrhosis over 20 years, and present an increased risk of developing hepatic complications. Sustained virological response (SVR) is associated with a better prognosis compared to untreated patients and treatment failures. The objective of this analysis was to compare treatment costs and outcomes of pegylated interferon-alfa-2a versus pegylated interferon-alfa-2b, both associated with ribavirin, in the therapeutic scheme of 24 weeks and 48 week for hepatitis C genotypes 2/3 and genotype 1, respectively, under the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) scenario. Methods To project disease progression, a Markov model was built based on clinical stages of chronic disease. A Delphi panel was conducted to evaluate medical resources related to each stage, followed by costing of related materials, services, procedures and pharmaceutical products. The evaluation was made from a public payer perspective. The source used for costing was government reimbursement procedures list (SAI/SIH–SUS). Drug acquisition costs were obtained from the Brazilian Official Gazette and “Banco de Preços em Saúde” (government official source). It was assumed a mean patient weight of 70 kg. Costs were reported in 2011 Brazilian Reais (US$1 ≈ $Brz1.80). A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis of the 7 identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared pegylated interferons, was conducted for obtaining relative efficacy of both drugs: for genotype 2/3, mean rate of SVR was 79.2% for peginterferon-alfa-2a and 73.8% for peginterferon-alfa-2b. For genotype 1, SVR mean rate was 42.09% versus 33.44% (peginterferon-alfa-2a and peginterferon-alfa-2b respectively). Time horizon considered was lifetime. Discount rate for costs and outcomes was 5%, according to Brazilian

  11. Exploring Extragalactic Emission: The Hα Dot Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampalli, Rayna; Salzer, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Hα Dot Survey was established as a result of finding point sources of strong line emission in the data obtained for the ALFALFASurvey (Van Sistine et al. 2015). In the latter survey, broad-band R and narrow-band Hα filters were used to examine target galaxies from the ALFALFA blind HI survey (Giovanelli et al. 2005, Haynes et al. 2011). In the process of reducing the ALFALFASurvey data the "Hα Dots" were discovered (Kellar et al. 2008, 2012). Using specialized image analysis tools, a large population of dots has already been detected in the more than 1500 ALFALFA Hα narrow-band images taken with the 0.9m WIYN and 2.1m KPNO telescopes. Follow-up spectra of over 200 Hα Dots discovered from the 0.9m images reveal that these objects are a mix of nearby low-luminosity star-forming galaxies, compact starbursts and Seyfert 2 galaxies at intermediate redshifts, and high-redshift QSOs. Here we present the first list of Hα Dots detected using 2.1m telescope data. The 2.1m images yield a sample of Dots that average almost two magnitudes fainter than those detected with the 0.9m. The current REU project is designed to characterize the set of Hα Dots detected in the deeper 2.1m telescope images, while the broad goals of the Hα Dot Survey include the desire to understand better the chemical evolution of galaxies over cosmic time. This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant 1358980, by the Maria Mitchell Association (Nantucket, MA), and by the Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium.

  12. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b plus ribavirin in the daily routine treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C in Germany: the PRACTICE study.

    PubMed

    Witthoeft, T; Hueppe, D; John, C; Goelz, J; Heyne, R; Moeller, B; Teuber, G; Wollschlaeger, S; Baumgarten, A; Simon, K-G; Moog, G; Dikopoulos, N; Mauss, S

    2010-07-01

    In randomized clinical trials, treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin (RBV) results in a sustained virological response (SVR) in around half of hepatitis C virus genotype 1-infected and 80% of genotype 2/3-infected individuals. This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon alfa-2a plus RBV compared with peginterferon alfa-2b plus RBV for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in routine clinical practice. The intent-to-treat cohort consisted of 3414 patients treated with either peginterferon alfa-2a plus RBV (Group A) or peginterferon alfa-2b plus RBV (Group B) in 23 centres participating in the large, multicentre, observational PRACTICE study. Collected data included baseline characteristics, treatment regimen, RBV dose and outcome. Rates of early virological response, end of treatment response and SVR were 76.6%, 75.7% and 52.9% in Group A, and 70.2%, 65.6% and 50.5% in Group B, respectively. In patients matched by baseline parameters, 59.9% of patients in Group A and 55.9% in Group B achieved an SVR (P < or = 0.051). In genotype 1-infected patients matched by baseline parameters and cumulative RBV dose, SVR rates were 49.6% and 43.7% for Group A and Group B, respectively (P < or = 0.047); when matched by baseline parameters and RBV starting dose, SVR rates were 49.9% and 44.6%, respectively (P = 0.068). Overall, 21.8% of group A and 29.6% of group B patients discontinued treatment (P < or = 0.0001). The efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon plus RBV in this large cohort of patients treated in routine daily practice was similar to that in randomized clinical trials. In matched pairs analyses, more patients achieved an SVR with peginterferon alfa-2a compared with peginterferon alfa-2b. PMID:20158603

  14. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. I. H I OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Cannon, John M.; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu E-mail: rhode@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu

    2013-07-01

    The discovery of a previously unknown 21 cm H I line source identified as an ultra-compact high velocity cloud in the ALFALFA survey is reported. The H I detection is barely resolved by the Arecibo 305 m telescope {approx}4' beam and has a narrow H I linewidth (half-power full width of 24 km s{sup -1}). Further H I observations at Arecibo and with the Very Large Array corroborate the ALFALFA H I detection, provide an estimate of the H I radius, {approx}1' at the 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} isophote, and show the cloud to exhibit a velocity field which, if interpreted as disk rotation, has an amplitude of {approx_equal}9.0 {+-} 1.5 km s{sup -1}. In other papers, Rhode et al. show the H I source to have a resolved stellar counterpart and ongoing star forming activity, while Skillman et al. reveal it as having extremely low metallicity: 12 + log (O/H) = 7.16 {+-} 0.04. The H I mass to stellar mass ratio of the object is found to be 2.6. We use the Tully-Fisher template relation in its baryonic form to obtain a distance estimate D{sub Mpc}=1.3{sup +0.9}{sub -0.5}. Additional constraints on the distance are also provided by the optical data of Rhode et al. and McQuinn et al., both indicating a distance in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 Mpc. The three estimates are compatible within their errors. The object appears to be located beyond the dynamical boundaries of, but still in close proximity to the Local Group. Its pristine properties are consistent with the sedate environment of its location. At a nominal distance of 1.75 Mpc, it would have an H I mass of {approx_equal} 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M {sub Sun }, a stellar mass of {approx_equal} 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M {sub Sun }, and a dynamical mass within the H I radius of {approx_equal} 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M {sub Sun }. This discovery supports the idea that optically faint-or altogether dark-low mass halos may be detectable through their non-stellar baryons.

  15. Unmasking of myasthenia gravis during pegylated Alfa 2 a interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ayesha

    2016-05-01

    Over last few decades, hepatitis C has emerged as a serious infection that has threatened the health and budgets of millions in the world. The objective of health professionals to treat it with recommended therapy of Alfa interferon and Ribavirin combination presents certain risks. One of the alarms is the ability of interferon to stimulate the production of autoantibodies in the body resulting in expression of autoimmune diseases in few who develop these antibodies. The case presented here is about unmasking of myasthenia gravis in a patient who received alfa interferon therapy for her chronic hepatitis C. Alfa interferon probably plays an important role in manifestation of the diseases in susceptible patients and all autoimmune diseases cannot be taken as mere side effects of the therapy. Clinicians need to be alert to pick up these diseases earlier so that the prompt management is possible. PMID:27183950

  16. Improving ethanol production from alfalfa stems via ambient-temperature acid pretreatment and washing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfei; Weimer, Paul J; Hatfield, Ronald D; Runge, Troy M; Digman, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed, and the strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with sulfuric acid at ambient-temperature after harvest, and following ensiling, after which the ensiled stems were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Ethanol yield was improved by ambient-temperature sulfuric acid pretreatment before ensiling, and by washing before SSF. It was theorized that the acid pretreatment at ambient temperature partially degraded hemicellulose, and altered cell wall structure, resulted in improved cellulose accessibility, whereas washing removed soluble ash in substrates which could inhibit the SSF. The pH of stored alfalfa stems can be used to predict the ethanol yield, with a correlation coefficient of +0.83 for washed alfalfa stems. PMID:25151072

  17. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections associated with eating alfalfa sprouts - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-05-15

    On February 24, 2009, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services identified six isolates of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul with collection dates from February 7--14. Salmonella Saintpaul is not a commonly detected serotype; during 2008, only three Salmonella Saintpaul isolates were identified in Nebraska. This report summarizes the preliminary results of the investigation of this outbreak, which has identified 228 cases in 13 states and implicated the source as alfalfa sprouts produced at multiple facilities using seeds that likely originated from a common grower. On April 26, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC recommended that consumers not eat raw alfalfa sprouts, including sprout blends containing alfalfa sprouts, until further notice. On May 1, FDA alerted sprout growers and retailers that a seed supplier was withdrawing voluntarily from the market all lots of alfalfa seeds with a specific three-digit prefix. PMID:19444155

  18. A Patient Friendly Corifollitropin Alfa Protocol without Routine Pituitary Suppression in Normal Responders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huai-Ling; Lai, Hsing-Hua; Chuang, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Wei; Huang, Shih-Chieh; Lee, Meng-Ju; Chen, Shee-Uan

    2016-01-01

    The release of corifollitropin alfa simplifies daily injections of short-acting recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH), and its widely-used protocol involves short-acting gonadotropins supplements and a fixed GnRH antagonist regimen, largely based on follicle size. In this study, the feasibility of corifollitropin alfa without routine pituitary suppression was evaluated. A total of 288 patients were stimulated by corifollitropin alfa on cycle day 3 following with routine serum hormone monitoring and follicle scanning every other day after 5 days of initial stimulation, and a GnRH antagonist (0.25 mg) was only used prophylactically when the luteinizing hormone (LH) was ≧ 6 IU/L (over half of the definitive LH surge). The incidence of premature LH surge (≧ 10 IU/L) was 2.4% (7/288) before the timely injection of a single GnRH antagonist, and the elevated LH level was dropped down from 11.9 IU/L to 2.2 IU/L after the suppression. Two hundred fifty-one patients did not need any antagonist (87.2% [251/288]) throughout the whole stimulation. No adverse effects were observed regarding oocyte competency (fertilization rate: 78%; blastocyst formation rate: 64%). The live birth rate per OPU cycle after the first cryotransfer was 56.3% (161/286), and the cumulative live birth rate per OPU cycle after cyrotransfers was 69.6% (199/286). Of patients who did and did not receive GnRH antagonist during stimulation, no significant difference existed in the cumulative live birth rates (78.4% vs. 68.3%, p = 0.25). The results demonstrated that the routine GnRH antagonist administration is not required in the corifollitropin-alfa cycles using a flexible and hormone-depended antagonist regimen, while the clinical outcome is not compromised. This finding reveals that the use of a GnRH antagonist only occasionally may be needed. PMID:27100388

  19. Tissue Cultures Derived from Ineffective Root Nodules of Alfalfa 1

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Carroll P.; Johnson, Lois E. B.; Boylan, Kristin L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Callus tissue cultures were developed from apical meristem regions of tumor-like ineffective root nodules of alfalfa. Callus growth was a function of tissue source and hormone composition and concentration. Callus derived from ineffective nodules also were shown not to contain Rhizobium meliloti. Glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities were present in callus cultures and in the respective nodule source used for callus induction. The mean specific activity of all enzymes evaluated was higher in callus cultures than in ineffective nodules. Quantitative but not qualitative differences in enzyme activities were evident between ineffective nodules and callus derived from these nodules. Tissue cultures derived from ineffective nodules may provide a model system to evaluate host plant-Rhizobium interactions. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663985

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana is an asymptomatic host of Alfalfa mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Ibrahim, Amr; Kim, Bong-Suk; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2006-11-01

    The susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to infection by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was evaluated. Thirty-nine ecotypes supported both local and systemic infection, 26 ecotypes supported only local infection, and three ecotypes could not be infected. No obvious symptoms characteristic of virus infection developed on the susceptible ecotypes under standard conditions of culture. Parameters of AMV infection were characterized in ecotype Col-0, which supported systemic infection and accumulated higher levels of AMV than the symptomatic host Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of infectious AMV particles in infected Col-0 was confirmed by infectivity assays on a hypersensitive host and by electron microscopy of purified virions. Replication and transcription of AMV was confirmed by de novo synthesis of AMV subgenomic RNA in Col-0 protoplasts transfected with AMV RNA or plasmids harboring AMV cDNAs. PMID:16875753

  1. Phosphorylation of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Suk; Halk, Edward L; Merlo, Donald J; Nelson, Steven E; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2014-07-01

    The 32-kDa movement protein, P3, of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of the virus in plants. P3 shares many properties with other virus movement proteins (MPs); however, it is not known if P3 is posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which is important for the function of other MPs. When expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, P3 accumulated primarily in the cell walls of older leaves or in the cytosol of younger leaves. When expressed in Pischia pastoris, P3 accumulated primarily in a soluble form. Metabolic labeling indicated that a portion of P3 was phosphorylated in both tobacco and yeast, suggesting that phosphorylation regulates the function of this protein as it does for other virus MPs. PMID:24435161

  2. The role of corifollitropin alfa in controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF in combination with GnRH antagonist.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Ayse; Ata, Baris

    2011-01-01

    Corifollitropin alfa is a synthetic recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) molecule containing a hybrid beta subunit, which provides a plasma half-life of ∼65 hours while maintaining its pharmocodynamic activity. A single injection of corifollitropin alfa can replace daily FSH injections for the first week of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Stimulation can be continued with daily FSH injections if the need arises. To date, more than 2500 anticipated normoresponder women have participated in clinical trials with corifollitropin alfa. It is noteworthy that one-third of women did not require additional gonadotropin injections and reached human chorionic gonadotropin criterion on day 8. The optimal corifollitropin dose has been calculated to be 100 μg for women with a body weight ≤60 kg and 150 μg for women with a body weight >60 kg, respectively. Combination of corifollitropin with daily gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist injections starting on stimulation day 5 seems to yield similar or significantly higher numbers of oocytes and good quality embryos, as well as similar ongoing pregnancy rates compared with women stimulated with daily rFSH injections. Stimulation characteristics, embryology, and clinical outcomes seem consistent with repeated corifollitropin-stimulated assisted reproductive technologies cycles. Multiple pregnancy or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rates with corifollitropin were not increased over daily FSH regimen. The corifollitropin alfa molecule does not seem to be immunogenic and does not induce neutralizing antibody formation. Drug hypersensitivity and injection-site reactions are not increased. Incidence and nature of adverse events and serious adverse events are similar to daily FSH injections. Current trials do not provide information regarding use of corifollitropin alfa in anticipated hyper- and poor responders to gonadotropin stimulation. Although corifollitropin alfa is unlikely to be teratogenic

  3. Epoetin alfa improves survival after chemoradiation for Stage III esophageal cancer: Final results of a prospective observational study

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk . E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Tribius, Silke; Yekebas, Emre F.; Bahrehmand, Roia; Wildfang, Ingeborg; Kilic, Ergin; Muellerleile, Ulrich; Gross, Eberhard; Schild, Steven E.; Alberti, Winfried

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: This prospective, nonrandomized study evaluates the effectiveness of epoetin alfa to maintain the hemoglobin levels at 12 to14 g/dL (optimal range for tumor oxygenation) during chemoradiation for Stage III esophageal cancer and its impact on overall survival (OS), metastatic-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC). Methods and Materials: Ninety-six patients were included. Forty-two patients received epoetin alfa (150 IU/kg, 3 times a week) during radiotherapy, which was started at hemoglobin less than 13 g/dL and stopped at 14 g/dL or higher. Hemoglobin levels were measured weekly during RT. Results: Both groups were balanced for age, sex, performance status, tumor length/location, histology, grading, T-stage/N-stage, chemotherapy, treatment schedule, and hemoglobin before RT. Median change of hemoglobin was +0.3 g/dL/wk with epoetin alfa and -0.5 g/dL/wk without epoetin alfa. At least 60% of hemoglobin levels were 12 to 14 g/dL in 64% and 17% of the patients, respectively (p < 0.001). Patients who received epoetin alfa had better OS (32% vs. 8% at 2 years, p = 0.009) and LC (67% vs. 15% at 2 years, p = 0.001). MFS was not significantly different (42% vs. 18% at 2 years, p = 0.09). Conclusions: The findings suggest that epoetin alfa when used to maintain the hemoglobin levels at 12 to 14 g/dL can improve OS and LC of Stage III esophageal cancer patients.

  4. Effects of Temperature on the Pathogenicity of Tylenchorhynchus clarus to Alfalfa and Observations on Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Gregory R.; Lownsbery, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    The involvement of Tylenchorhynchus clarus in plant disease is reported. Addition of a suspension of surface-axenized nematodes reduced top and root growth of alfalfa. Reproduction of T. clarus was greater at 24 and 27 than at 21 C. The interaction of nematodes with temperature did not produce significant effects on alfalfa growth in the 4.5-mo experimental period. T. clarus fed endo- and ectoparasitically. PMID:19305838

  5. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  6. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  7. Local production of agricultural fuel: conversion of alfalfa to ethanol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.; Tjostem, J.; Koeltzow, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    Initial project goals were to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing fuel grade ethanol from the sugars contained in alfalfa and other legumes using a small-scale, single-farm production facility. These data indicate that alfalfa from the field does have reducing sugar present before any breakdown due to the presence of the mold. There is also plenty of natural bacterial contamination which quickly depletes the sugar supply. However, if the alfalfa is autoclaved prior to incubation, the number of bacteria present in the samples is greatly reduced. There was no difference between the flasks which contained an inoculum of Tricoderma reesei and those that did not. Analysis of these solutions failed to show any trace of cellulase activity even after 288 hours (12 days). Therefore, one can also conclude that the Tricoderma reesei strain QM9414 does not grow on alfalfa under these conditions. Future experiments will involve different conditions of temperature and pH. Acid insoluble lignin levels in our 3rd cutting alfalfa samples range from 16.8% to 19.77% with an average of 18.3%. This agrees well with the levels of 13.8% and 15.9% reported by Linder, et al. Results of lipid, water, protein, lignin and cellulose analysis of alfalfa are given. Over 80% of the cellulose in alfalfa can be converted into glucose. Subsequent fermentation by S. carlisbergenois produced near theoretical yields of ethanol. However, the cost of the hay was $440.00; the market value of the ethanol was $120.00. The poor economics results since only 13.1% of the alfalfa contains cellulose. Results show that while production of ethanol from legume-type plants is technically possible, it is not economically feasible.

  8. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    PubMed

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-01-01

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility. PMID:26985924

  9. Effectiveness of neutral detergent fiber in whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains compared with alfalfa haylage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1993-09-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa NDF with NDF from whole, linted cottonseed or dried distillers grains. Low and high fiber control diets (13 and 19% of dietary DM from alfalfa haylage NDF, respectively) were compared with diets designed to contain 13% of DM from alfalfa haylage NDF plus 6% of DM from either cottonseed NDF or distillers grains NDF. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield were lower from the high fiber control diet. Milk fat percentage was lower for the low fiber control diet. The cottonseed diet was equal to the high fiber control diet in stimulating rumination. Rumen acetate to propionate ratio was higher for the high fiber control and cottonseed diets. Replacing alfalfa with either of these high fiber by-product feeds increased feed intake and yields of milk fat and protein. The effectiveness of the NDF in distillers grains and cottonseed was not significantly different from that of alfalfa NDF for maintaining milk fat yield. Whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains appear to be good sources of effective fiber for maintaining milk fat test when they are substituted for alfalfa haylage fiber in lactating cow rations. PMID:8227666

  10. Partial replacement of alfalfa fiber with fiber from ground corn cobs or wheat middlings.

    PubMed

    Depies, K K; Armentano, L E

    1995-06-01

    This trial examined the effect of using corn cobs or wheat middlings to replace alfalfa partially as the dietary fiber source for lactating cows. Multiparous midlactation cows were used in three 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A low fiber, basal diet contained 26.8 g of total NDF, including 14.7 g of alfalfa NDF/100 g of dietary DM. Dietary fiber was increased by addition of more alfalfa, corn cobs, or wheat middlings to obtain 27.4, 28.9, and 27.9%, respectively, of total dietary NDF. Intake (24.9 kg of DM/d) and milk yield (31.6 kg/d) were not different among treatments. Nonforage fiber sources raised milk fat concentration above basal amounts (3.1% to 3.4% fat) and decreased ruminating time below that of the high alfalfa diet (423 to 390 min/d). Fat test was raised approximately one-half as much per unit of NDF from these nonforage feeds as it was per unit of NDF from alfalfa. When additional dietary fiber came from nonforage sources, milk protein concentration (3.3%) was greater than when alfalfa provided the added fiber (3.2%). PMID:7673522

  11. Influence of particle size on the effectiveness of the fiber in alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    2002-11-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of alfalfa silage particle length on milk yield, milk composition, and chewing activity. Sixteen multiparous lactating Holsteins were used in each of two separate feeding trials over a 2-yr period providing two repetitions. Each trial was based on 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. All four diets (2-yr average, dry basis) contained a basal level of 10.7% neutral detergent fiber from corn silage and 2.3% neutral detergent fiber from chopped alfalfagrass hay. One of the diets served as a low forage, low fiber control and contained only the basal forages. The other three diets contained an additional 8.6% neutral detergent fiber from coarser alfalfa silage, finely rechopped alfalfa silage or an equal mixture ofthe two. An increase in the forage content above the basal amount using alfalfa silage increased 4% fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat yield and concentration, eating time, and total chewing time. Dry matter intake was not influenced by diet. Linear increases in rumination and total chewing times were observed as the mean particle size of the alfalfa silage increased from finer to coarser. There was no linear effect of alfalfa silage particle size on milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter intake, or milk composition. PMID:12487465

  12. Alfalfa varieties for biomass production. Task IId. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.; Lamb, J.

    1997-10-30

    The use of alfalfa for biomass production may require harvest schedules and alfalfa varieties with different traits than currently marketed varieties. A late flower (2-cut) system may have several advantages compared to more frequent cutting systems because it can result in high stem yield, result in less trips over the field, allow more schedule flexibility, provide greater wildlife habitat, and allow greater alfalfa persistence. However, modem alfalfa varieties have been developed for a frequent harvest system with 3-4 cuttings per season. The objectives of this study were to determine the total biomass yield; leaf and stem biomass yield; and leaf and stem composition of alfalfa varieties subject to diverse harvest regimes. Alfalfa varieties included those currently marketed in the biomass region as well as experimental entries developed for lodging resistance and leaf retention. Harvest regimes included conventional strategies based on harvests at bud or first flower and a non-conventional strategy with harvests at late flower. Harvest regime had the most consistent and greatest effect on the variables studied. Forage yields were greater for the early flower regime. Harvests at earlier maturity frequently result in leafier, higher quality forage than harvest at late flower. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Influence of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash on alfalfa growth and nutrient uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that large amounts of volcanic ash from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens may have created potential nutritional problems associated with forage production in northern Idaho and eastern Washington to the extent that adjustments need to be made in soil test correlation data. The objectives of this greenhouse study were to : (1) determine the effect of varying amounts of volcanic ash mixed into soils of northern Idaho on total alfalfa biomass production, and (2) to determine the effect of various soil/ash mixtures on the nutrient concentrations of P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn in alfalfa. Alfalfa was grown in eight different northern Idaho soils amended with differing levels of volcanic ash (0, 20, 35, 50 and 75%) in the greenhouse. The alfalfa seeds were inoculated and fertilizer P and S were added to all treatments. Total plant biomass and P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn plant concentrations were measured. The eight were pooled for analysis and it was found that increasing amounts of volcanic ash increased alfalfa biomass production. Plant P, S, Ca, Mg and Zn concentrations also increased with increasing levels of ash. Conversely, increasing levels of ash resulted in lower alfalfa tissue K and Mn concentrations. 13 references, 7 figures.

  14. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa. PMID:27400509

  15. Effect of replacing alfalfa with panicled-tick clover or sericea lespedeza in corn-alfalfa-based substrates on in vitro ruminal methane production.

    PubMed

    Naumann, H D; Lambert, B D; Armstrong, S A; Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Muir, J P; Ellersieck, M R

    2015-06-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If

  16. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards. PMID:23786042

  17. Effect of Drotrecogin alfa (activated) on platelet receptor expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schuerholz, Tobias; Friedrich, Lars; Marx, Gernot; Kornau, Ines; Sümpelmann, Robert; Scheinichen, Dirk

    2007-08-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common problem in critically ill patients, which is associated with increased mortality. Recently, Drotrecogin alfa (activated) (recombinant human activated protein C (APC)) was shown to reduce mortality in patients with severe sepsis. Only minimal effect of APC on coagulation markers was demonstrated. Nevertheless, low platelet count was identified as a risk factor for bleeding with use of this drug. We conducted this study to evaluate possible influence of APC on in vitro expression of platelet receptors at therapeutic and supra-therapeutic concentrations. Blood samples of volunteers and patients with severe sepsis were adjusted with APC to final concentrations of 0.045 microg mL(-1) APC (APC-45, therapeutic dose) and 0.225 microg mL(-1) APC (APC-225, five-fold therapeutic dose), respectively. The activation of platelets was mediated by two different agonists. APC had no significant influence on platelet activation, with or without stimulation at both concentrations. In group APC-225, CD62P showed a non-significant decrease. This in vitro study demonstrates that therapeutic plasma concentrations of Drotrecogin alfa (activated) have neither influence on expression of platelet activation markers nor on platelet-granulocyte complexes in blood of volunteers and patients with severe sepsis. Thus, a direct drug-platelet interaction seems unlikely. PMID:17654307

  18. Immunotherapy with imiquimod and interferon alfa for metastasized Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, R.U.; Braunschweig, T.; Ghassemi, A.; Rübben, A.

    2016-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (mcc) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumour of the skin. Remission rates are high with chemotherapy in patients with metastasis, but without any improvement in overall survival. We present the case of a 90-year-old woman with facial mcc. After radiation and surgery, the mcc recurred with widespread cutaneous and regional lymph node metastases. The metastases were treated with weekly intralesional injections of 1–2×106 IU interferon alfa-2a, accompanied by topical imiquimod 5% cream 3 times weekly. After partial regression, subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2b was added at a dose of 30 μg weekly, which was then increased to 50 μg weekly. At 4 months after the start of immunotherapy, all cutaneous metastases and the intralesionally treated lymph node metastases receded. Interruption or reduction of systemic interferon application resulted in locoregional relapses that were successfully treated with surgery or intralesional interferon injections. The patient remains alive 30 months after initiation of immunotherapy, suggesting that locally metastasized mcc might be able to be controlled with local and systemic immunotherapy. PMID:27122984

  19. Status report of PYRAMIR: a near-infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for ALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Joana B.; Feldt, Markus; Wagner, Karl; Bizenberger, Peter; Hippler, Stefan; Baumeister, Harald; Stumpf, Micaela; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Esposito, Simone; Henning, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    A new wavefront sensor based on the pyramid principle is being built at MPIA, with the objective of integration in the Calar Alto adaptive optics system ALFA. This sensor will work in the near-infrared wavelength range (J, H and K bands). We present here an update of this project, named PYRAMIR, which will have its first light in some months. Along with the description of the optical design, we discuss issues like the image quality and chromatic effects due to band sensing. We will show the characterization of the tested pyramidal components as well as refer to the difficulties found in the manufacturing process to meet our requirements. Most of the PYRAMIR instrument parts are kept inside a liquid nitrogen cooled vacuum dewar to reduce thermic radiation. The mechanical design of the cold parts is described here. To gain experience, a laboratory pyramid wavefront sensor was set up, with its optical design adapted to PYRAMIR. Different tests were already performed. The electronic and control systems were designed to integrate in the existing ALFA system. We give a description of the new components. An update on the future work is presented.

  20. Macroscale production of crystalline interferon alfa-2b in microgravity on STS-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagabhushan, Tattanahalli L.; Reichert, Paul; Long, Marianna M.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Bugg, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    Macroscale crystallization of zinc interferon alfa-2b was achieved on STS-52 in October 1992 in the Protein Crystallization Facility. Conditions for crystallization were established by adapting a microscale vapor diffusion method to a macroscale temperature induction method. A series of earth based pilot experiments established conditions to reproducibly crystallize zinc interferon alfa-2b in high yield and under cleanroom conditions. As a control for the STS-52 mission, a ground experiment was run simultaneously and in the same configuration as the flight experiment. Greater than 95% of the available protein crystallized in both the ground and flight experiments. Using a battery of physical, biochemical and biological characterization assays, demonstrated that sample processing, polysulfone bottle confinement and the conditions used for crystallization did not have a negative effect on protein integrity. Redissolved crystals from the flight and ground experiments showed full biological activity in a cytopathic effect inhibition assay as compared to an interferon control standard. Morphometric analysis comparing the overall length and width of the derived crystals showed a 2.4 fold increase in the length and width of the space grown crystals as compared to earth grown crystals. Space grown crystals have remained a stable free flowing suspension for over 2 years. Based on these results, further experiments are envisioned to investigate macroscale crystallization of biologically active macromolecules in microgravity.

  1. Immunotherapy with imiquimod and interferon alfa for metastasized Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R U; Braunschweig, T; Ghassemi, A; Rübben, A

    2016-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (mcc) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumour of the skin. Remission rates are high with chemotherapy in patients with metastasis, but without any improvement in overall survival. We present the case of a 90-year-old woman with facial mcc. After radiation and surgery, the mcc recurred with widespread cutaneous and regional lymph node metastases. The metastases were treated with weekly intralesional injections of 1-2×10(6) IU interferon alfa-2a, accompanied by topical imiquimod 5% cream 3 times weekly. After partial regression, subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2b was added at a dose of 30 μg weekly, which was then increased to 50 μg weekly. At 4 months after the start of immunotherapy, all cutaneous metastases and the intralesionally treated lymph node metastases receded. Interruption or reduction of systemic interferon application resulted in locoregional relapses that were successfully treated with surgery or intralesional interferon injections. The patient remains alive 30 months after initiation of immunotherapy, suggesting that locally metastasized mcc might be able to be controlled with local and systemic immunotherapy. PMID:27122984

  2. Drotrecogin alfa (activated)...a sad final fizzle to a roller-coaster party.

    PubMed

    Angus, Derek C

    2012-01-01

    Following the failure of PROWESS-SHOCK to demonstrate efficacy, Eli Lilly and Company withdrew drotrecogin alfa (activated) from the worldwide market. Drotrecogin was initially approved after the original trial, PROWESS, was stopped early for overwhelming efficacy. These events prompt consideration of both the initial approval decision and the later decision to withdraw. It is regrettable that the initial decision was made largely on a single trial that was stopped early. However, the decision to approve was within the bounds of normal regulatory practice and was made by many approval bodies around the world. Furthermore, the overall withdrawal rate of approved drugs remains very low. The decision to withdraw was a voluntary decision by Eli Lilly and Company and likely reflected key business considerations. Drotrecogin does have important biologic effects, and it is probable that we do not know how best to select patients who would benefit. Overall, there may still be a small advantage to drotrecogin alfa, even used non-selectively, but the costs of determining such an effect with adequate certainty are likely prohibitive, and the point is now moot. In the future, we should consider ways to make clinical trials easier and quicker so that more information can be available in a timely manner when considering regulatory approval. At the same time, more sophisticated selection of patients seems key if we are to most wisely test agents designed to manipulate the septic host response. PMID:22309988

  3. Accurate Learning with Few Atlases (ALFA): an algorithm for MRI neonatal brain extraction and comparison with 11 publicly available methods

    PubMed Central

    Serag, Ahmed; Blesa, Manuel; Moore, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Wilkinson, A. G.; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate whole-brain segmentation, or brain extraction, of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a critical first step in most neuroimage analysis pipelines. The majority of brain extraction algorithms have been developed and evaluated for adult data and their validity for neonatal brain extraction, which presents age-specific challenges for this task, has not been established. We developed a novel method for brain extraction of multi-modal neonatal brain MR images, named ALFA (Accurate Learning with Few Atlases). The method uses a new sparsity-based atlas selection strategy that requires a very limited number of atlases ‘uniformly’ distributed in the low-dimensional data space, combined with a machine learning based label fusion technique. The performance of the method for brain extraction from multi-modal data of 50 newborns is evaluated and compared with results obtained using eleven publicly available brain extraction methods. ALFA outperformed the eleven compared methods providing robust and accurate brain extraction results across different modalities. As ALFA can learn from partially labelled datasets, it can be used to segment large-scale datasets efficiently. ALFA could also be applied to other imaging modalities and other stages across the life course. PMID:27010238

  4. Characterization of IXINITY® (Trenonacog Alfa), a Recombinant Factor IX with Primary Sequence Corresponding to the Threonine-148 Polymorph

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Dougald M.; Jenny, Richard J.; Van Cott, Kevin E.; Saward, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of these studies was to extensively characterize the first recombinant FIX therapeutic corresponding to the threonine-148 (Thr-148) polymorph, IXINITY (trenonacog alfa [coagulation factor IX (recombinant)]). Gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and gel filtration were used to determine purity and confirm structure. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify and quantify posttranslational modifications. Activity was assessed as the ability to activate factor X (FX) both with and without factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) and in a standard clotting assay. All results were consistent across multiple lots. Trenonacog alfa migrated as a single band on Coomassie-stained gels; activity assays were normal and showed <0.002 IU of activated factor IX (FIXa) per IU of FIX. The molecule has >97%  γ-carboxylation and underwent the appropriate structural change upon binding calcium ions. Trenonacog alfa was activated normally with factor XIa (FXIa); once activated it bound to FVIIIa and FXa. When activated to FIXa, it was inhibited efficiently by antithrombin. Glycosylation patterns were similar to plasma-derived FIX with sialic acid content consistent with the literature reports of good pharmacokinetic performance. These studies have shown that trenonacog alfa is a highly pure product with a primary sequence and posttranslational modifications consistent with the common Thr-148 polymorphism of plasma-derived FIX. PMID:26997955

  5. Molecular design and downstream processing of turoctocog alfa (NovoEight), a B-domain truncated factor VIII molecule.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Haleh; Hansen, Ernst B; Faber, Johan H; Sejergaard, Lars; Karlsson, Johan; Bolt, Gert; Hansen, Jens J; Thim, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Turoctocog alfa (NovoEight) is a third-generation recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) with a truncated B-domain that is manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary cells. No human or animal-derived materials are used in the process. The aim of this study is to describe the molecular design and purification process for turoctocog alfa. A five-step purification process is applied to turoctocog alfa: protein capture on mixed-mode resin; immunoaffinity chromatography using a unique, recombinantly produced anti-FVIII mAb; anion exchange chromatography; nanofiltration and size exclusion chromatography. This process enabled reduction of impurities such as host cell proteins (HCPs) and high molecular weight proteins (HMWPs) to a very low level. The immunoaffinity step is very important for the removal of FVIII-related degradation products. Manufacturing scale data shown in this article confirmed the robustness of the purification process and a reliable and consistent reduction of the impurities. The contribution of each step to the final product purity is described and shown for three manufacturing batches. Turoctocog alfa, a third-generation B-domain truncated rFVIII product is manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary cells without the use of animal or human-derived proteins. The five-step purification process results in a homogenous, highly purified rFVIII product. PMID:26761578

  6. Accurate Learning with Few Atlases (ALFA): an algorithm for MRI neonatal brain extraction and comparison with 11 publicly available methods.

    PubMed

    Serag, Ahmed; Blesa, Manuel; Moore, Emma J; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A; Wilkinson, A G; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I; Boardman, James P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate whole-brain segmentation, or brain extraction, of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a critical first step in most neuroimage analysis pipelines. The majority of brain extraction algorithms have been developed and evaluated for adult data and their validity for neonatal brain extraction, which presents age-specific challenges for this task, has not been established. We developed a novel method for brain extraction of multi-modal neonatal brain MR images, named ALFA (Accurate Learning with Few Atlases). The method uses a new sparsity-based atlas selection strategy that requires a very limited number of atlases 'uniformly' distributed in the low-dimensional data space, combined with a machine learning based label fusion technique. The performance of the method for brain extraction from multi-modal data of 50 newborns is evaluated and compared with results obtained using eleven publicly available brain extraction methods. ALFA outperformed the eleven compared methods providing robust and accurate brain extraction results across different modalities. As ALFA can learn from partially labelled datasets, it can be used to segment large-scale datasets efficiently. ALFA could also be applied to other imaging modalities and other stages across the life course. PMID:27010238

  7. Accurate Learning with Few Atlases (ALFA): an algorithm for MRI neonatal brain extraction and comparison with 11 publicly available methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serag, Ahmed; Blesa, Manuel; Moore, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Wilkinson, A. G.; MacNaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate whole-brain segmentation, or brain extraction, of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a critical first step in most neuroimage analysis pipelines. The majority of brain extraction algorithms have been developed and evaluated for adult data and their validity for neonatal brain extraction, which presents age-specific challenges for this task, has not been established. We developed a novel method for brain extraction of multi-modal neonatal brain MR images, named ALFA (Accurate Learning with Few Atlases). The method uses a new sparsity-based atlas selection strategy that requires a very limited number of atlases ‘uniformly’ distributed in the low-dimensional data space, combined with a machine learning based label fusion technique. The performance of the method for brain extraction from multi-modal data of 50 newborns is evaluated and compared with results obtained using eleven publicly available brain extraction methods. ALFA outperformed the eleven compared methods providing robust and accurate brain extraction results across different modalities. As ALFA can learn from partially labelled datasets, it can be used to segment large-scale datasets efficiently. ALFA could also be applied to other imaging modalities and other stages across the life course.

  8. Molecular design and downstream processing of turoctocog alfa (NovoEight), a B-domain truncated factor VIII molecule

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Haleh; Hansen, Ernst B.; Faber, Johan H.; Sejergaard, Lars; Karlsson, Johan; Bolt, Gert; Hansen, Jens J.; Thim, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Turoctocog alfa (NovoEight) is a third-generation recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) with a truncated B-domain that is manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary cells. No human or animal-derived materials are used in the process. The aim of this study is to describe the molecular design and purification process for turoctocog alfa. A five-step purification process is applied to turoctocog alfa: protein capture on mixed-mode resin; immunoaffinity chromatography using a unique, recombinantly produced anti-FVIII mAb; anion exchange chromatography; nanofiltration and size exclusion chromatography. This process enabled reduction of impurities such as host cell proteins (HCPs) and high molecular weight proteins (HMWPs) to a very low level. The immunoaffinity step is very important for the removal of FVIII-related degradation products. Manufacturing scale data shown in this article confirmed the robustness of the purification process and a reliable and consistent reduction of the impurities. The contribution of each step to the final product purity is described and shown for three manufacturing batches. Turoctocog alfa, a third-generation B-domain truncated rFVIII product is manufactured in Chinese hamster ovary cells without the use of animal or human-derived proteins. The five-step purification process results in a homogenous, highly purified rFVIII product. PMID:26761578

  9. Characterization of IXINITY® (Trenonacog Alfa), a Recombinant Factor IX with Primary Sequence Corresponding to the Threonine-148 Polymorph.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Dougald M; Jenny, Richard J; Van Cott, Kevin E; Buhay, Shelly; Saward, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    The goal of these studies was to extensively characterize the first recombinant FIX therapeutic corresponding to the threonine-148 (Thr-148) polymorph, IXINITY (trenonacog alfa [coagulation factor IX (recombinant)]). Gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and gel filtration were used to determine purity and confirm structure. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify and quantify posttranslational modifications. Activity was assessed as the ability to activate factor X (FX) both with and without factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) and in a standard clotting assay. All results were consistent across multiple lots. Trenonacog alfa migrated as a single band on Coomassie-stained gels; activity assays were normal and showed <0.002 IU of activated factor IX (FIXa) per IU of FIX. The molecule has >97%  γ-carboxylation and underwent the appropriate structural change upon binding calcium ions. Trenonacog alfa was activated normally with factor XIa (FXIa); once activated it bound to FVIIIa and FXa. When activated to FIXa, it was inhibited efficiently by antithrombin. Glycosylation patterns were similar to plasma-derived FIX with sialic acid content consistent with the literature reports of good pharmacokinetic performance. These studies have shown that trenonacog alfa is a highly pure product with a primary sequence and posttranslational modifications consistent with the common Thr-148 polymorphism of plasma-derived FIX. PMID:26997955

  10. Threecornered alfalfa hopper (Hemiptera: Membracidae): seasonal occurrence, girdle distribution, and response to insecticide treatment on peanut in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Khalidur; Bridges, William C; Chapin, Jay W; Thomas, James S

    2007-08-01

    A survey of threecornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say) (Hemiptera: Membracidae), damage in 60 South Carolina peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., fields showed that 89 and 58% of plants had feeding girdles during 2003 and 2004, respectively. Use of a foliar insecticide for other target pests reduced hopper damage. Hopper damage was not affected by sampling distance from the field edge; therefore, injury was adequately assessed at 10 m from field borders. In-furrow insecticide choice, planting date, soil texture, previous crop, or tillage did not measurably affect girdling. Subsequent field experiments demonstrated a cultivar effect on threecornered alfalfa hopper injury, with the standard runner-type cultivar ('Georgia Green') more susceptible than the standard Virginia-type ('NC-V11'). More than 50% of stem girdling occurred on the basal quarter (first five internodes) of the plant. Most feeding occurred on secondary branches of main and lateral stems. Weekly sampling of seven grower fields showed that adult hoppers colonize peanut during June and produce two generations on peanut. Only low levels of plant girding were observed in June, but plant girdling increased gradually through late July, when girdling markedly increased contemporary with peak populations of first generation nymphs and adults. A second increase in plant girdling, observed in early September, coincided with the second generation of nymphs on peanut. Foliar treatments at 45- 60 d after planting (DAP) were most effective in suppressing injury. Granular chlorpyrifos treatment also suppressed hopper injury. There was no yield response to insecticide treatments at the hopper injury levels in these tests (up to six girdles per plant). Although the economic injury level (EIL) for this pest has not been defined, our data indicate that a critical interval for monitoring hopper activity is the first 3 wk of July, before the occurrence of significant injury. Where growers have a consistent risk of

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance

  12. Pathogenicity of Two Populations of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood on Alfalfa and Sainfoin.

    PubMed

    Wofford, D S; Gray, F A; Eckert, J W

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of two populations of the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, population 1 (P1) from alfalfa and population 2 (P2) from sainfoin, was studied on both alfalfa and sainfoin for 25 weeks. Alfalfa and sainfoin plants inoculated with P2 had significantly (P alfalfa and 84.5, 51.0, and 41.0% for sainfoin, respectively. The increased virulence of P2 was again shown when means of plant species were combined (inoculation x week of count interaction). Plants inoculated with P2 had significantly higher mortality than either those inoculated with P1 or the uninoculated control beginning at week 7 and continuing through week 25. Plant stands over species at 25 weeks for the uninoculated control, P1, and P2 were 82.5, 29.0, and 18.0%, respectively. Sainfoin was significantly more susceptible to either population than alfalfa (plant species x week of count interaction). Separation between species first occurred after week 7 and continued until week 25. Percentages of plants remaining for alfalfa and sainfoin were 61.5 and 25.0 after 25 weeks. Significantly higher reproduction occurred in the alfalfa plants remaining after 25 weeks in P2 than in P1. Mean number of eggs per root system were 60,371 for P1 and 104,438 for P2, a difference of 42%. The results of this study indicate a need for breeders to adequately sample nematode populations present in the intended area of cultivar use and to design screening procedures to account for population pathogenicity variability. PMID:19287580

  13. EFFECTS OF REPLACING DIETARY ALFALFA SILAGE WITH FORMATE-TREATED ALFALFA SILAGE OR RED CLOVER SILAGE ON MILK PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen Holstein cows averaging 256 DIM were blocked by parity and DIM and randomly assigned to 5 squares in a 3x3 Latin square trial and fed TMR containing (DM basis): 40% control alfalfa silage (CAS), 20% corn silage, 33% high moisture corn, 6% soybean meal (18% CP); 40% ammonium tetraformate-trea...

  14. Recombinant factor VIIa analog in the management of hemophilia with inhibitors: results from a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of vatreptacog alfa

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, S R; Ehrenforth, S; Abdul Karim, F; Matsushita, T; Weldingh, K N; Windyga, J; Mahlangu, J N; For the Adept™2 Investigators

    2014-01-01

    Background Vatreptacog alfa, a recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) analog with three amino acid substitutions and 99% identity to native FVIIa, was developed to improve the treatment of hemophilic patients with inhibitors. Objectives To confirm the safety and assess the efficacy of vatreptacog alfa in treating bleeding episodes in hemophilic patients with inhibitors. Patients and methods In this international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, crossover, confirmatory phase III trial (adept™2) in patients with hemophilia A or B and inhibitors, bleeds were randomized 3 : 2 to treatment with vatreptacog alfa (one to three doses at 80 μg kg−1) or rFVIIa (one to three doses at 90 μg kg−1). Treatment failures after three doses of trial product (TP) were managed according to the local standard of care. Results In the 72 patients enrolled, 567 bleeds were treated with TP. Both vatreptacog alfa and rFVIIa gave 93% effective bleeding control at 12 h. Vatreptacog alfa was superior to rFVIIa in secondary efficacy outcomes, including the number of doses used to treat a bleed and sustained bleeding control 24–48 h after the first dose. Eight patients (11%) developed antibodies against vatreptacog alfa, including four with cross-reactivity against rFVIIa and one with an in vitro neutralizing effect to vatreptacog alfa. Conclusions This large randomized controlled trial confirmed the well-established efficacy and safety profile of rFVIIa, and showed that vatreptacog alfa had similar or better efficacy than rFVIIa. However, because of the development of anti-drug antibodies, a positive benefit–risk profile is unlikely to be achieved with vatreptacog alfa. PMID:24931322

  15. Relationship of red and photographic infrared spectral radiances to alfalfa biomass, forage water content, percentage canopy cover, and severity of drought stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data were collected using a handheld radiometer for two cuttings of alfalfa. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover for the earlier alfalfa cutting. The alfalfa of later cutting experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth. The spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores for this alfalfa cutting.

  16. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. PMID:21439724

  17. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  18. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  19. Transgenic Alfalfa Plants Expressing the Sweetpotato Orange Gene Exhibit Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Myoung Duck; Kim, Sun Ha; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr) is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants), three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8) selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands. PMID:25946429

  20. Production of a diagnostic monoclonal antibody in perennial alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Khoudi, H; Laberge, S; Ferullo, J M; Bazin, R; Darveau, A; Castonguay, Y; Allard, G; Lemieux, R; Vézina, L P

    1999-07-20

    The increasing use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in diagnostic reagents necessitates efficient and cost-effective mAb production methods. In blood banks, one of the most routinely used reagents is the anti-human IgG reagent used for the detection of non-agglutinating antibodies. Here we report the production of a functional, purified anti-human IgG, through the expression of its encoding genes in perennial transgenic alfalfa. Transgenic plants expressing the light- and heavy-chain encoding mRNAs were obtained, and plants from crosses were found to express fully assembled C5-1. The purification procedure yielded mainly the H2L2 form with specificity and affinity identical to those of hybridoma-derived C5-1. The ability to accumulate the antibody was maintained both in parental F1 lines during repeated harvesting and in clonal material; the antibody was stable in the drying hay as in extracts made in pure water. Also, plant and hybridoma-derived C5-1 had similar in vivo half-lives in mice. These results indicate that plant C5-1 could be used in a diagnostic reagent as effectively as hybridoma-derived C5-1, and demonstrates the usefulness of perennial systems for the cost-effective, stable, and reliable production of large amounts of mAbs. PMID:10397849

  1. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem vascular tissue suggests a role for invertase in cell wall cellulose synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants were transformed with two constructs: (1) a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase promoter isolated from alfalfa nodules (PEPC-4) fused to GUS; and (2) PEPC-4 fused with sucrose synthase (SUS) isolated from alfalfa nodules. Histochemical staining for GUS in st...

  2. Implications of season and management protocol on the landscape of gene regulation during diapause development in the Alfalfa Leaf Cutting Bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : The alfalfa leaf cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee for commercial pollination. It is the primary pollinator of seed alfalfa, a valuable crop for dairy cow feed. Overwintering bees emerge in the spring during alfalfa bloom to mate an...

  3. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  4. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  5. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country...

  6. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: atomic gas and the regulation of star formation in barred disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large-scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' H I content from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) blind H I survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas-rich disc galaxies than gas-poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangulation removing gas). All three explanations are consistent with the observed correlations. In addition our observations suggest bars may reduce or halt star formation in the outer parts of discs by holding back the infall of external gas beyond bar co-rotation, reddening the global colours of barred disc galaxies. This suggests that secular evolution driven by the exchange of angular momentum between stars in the bar, and gas in the disc, acts as a feedback mechanism to regulate star formation in intermediate-mass disc galaxies. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 200 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at South East Physics Network, E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.ukEinstein fellow.

  7. EFFECTS OF FEEDING FORMATE-TREATED ALFALFA SILAGE OR RED CLOVER SILAGE ON THE PRODUCTION OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In trial 1, 15 Holsteins were fed 3 total mixed rations (TMR) with 33% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in 3 x 3 Latin squares (28 d periods). Two TMR contained (dry matter basis): 40% control alfalfa silage (CAS) or 40% ammonium-tetraformate treated alfalfa silage (TAS), 20% corn silage (CS), 33% high...

  8. EFFECTS OF OZONE AND WATER STRESS ON CANOPY TEMPERATURE, WATER USE, AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF ALFALFA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (O3) and soil water deficit are two environmental stresses that significantly affect the growth and yield of alfalfa. However, little is known of the responses of field-grown alfalfa to O3, and the effects of the interaction between O3 and water stress on canopy temperature...

  9. Assessment of the importance of alfalfa to the epidemiology of xylellae diseases in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of alfalfa in the epidemiology of xylellae diseases in the San Joaquin Valley of California was assessed. Alfalfa was investigated as it is a known host of Xylella fastidiosa and often harbors large populations of a native vector, Draeculacephala minerva. Laboratory inoculation of fourtee...

  10. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee (hymenoptera: megachilidae) reproductive success according to location of nests in United States commercial domiciles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  11. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa stem vascular tissue by a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: sucrose synthase construct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important role of sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) in plants is to provide UDP-glucose needed for cellulose synthesis in cell walls. We examined if over-expressing SUS in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would increase cellulose content of stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with two ...

  12. Effects of dairy slurry application and bale moisture concentration on voluntary intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage by sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as a fertilizer in agriculture. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing...

  13. Chalkbrood Transmission in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee: The Impact of Disinfecting Bee Cocoons in Loose Cell Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A good understanding of pathogen transmission in a host population should illuminate methods for disease prevention and control. A case in point for this is the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), a solitary bee which is used extensively for pollination of alfalfa grown for seed. Propaga...

  14. Nutrient composition, forage parameters, and antioxidant capacity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) in response to saline irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although alfalfa is moderately tolerant of salinity, the effects of salinity on nutrient composition and forage parameters are poorly understood. In addition, there are no data on the effect of salinity on the antioxidant capacity of alfalfa. We evaluated four non-dormant, salinity-tolerant commerci...

  15. In vitro ruminal fermentation of treated alfalfa silage using ruminal inocula from high and low feed-efficient lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to assess the effect of two additives on alfalfa silage and on in vitro ruminal fermentation when using ruminal inocula prepared from high feed-efficient (HE) and low feed-efficient (LE) lactating cows. Second and third cut alfalfa was harvested at 40% bloom stage, treated with con...

  16. Evaluating the accuracy of the presidedress soil nitrogen test when manure is applied during the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has a great capacity to fix nitrogen (N), and it increases the amount of soil N available for the next crop. However, prediction of fertilizer requirement for corn after alfalfa is complicated because N release from organic sources varies with soil temperature and moisture. Furthermore, many...

  17. Laboratory Bioassays to Evaluate Fungicides for Chalkbrood Control in Larvae of the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood, a fungal disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata, is a major mortality factor in populations of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) used in commercial alfalfa seed production. Four formulated fungicides, Benlate®, Captan®, Orbit™, and Rovral®, were tested in the laboratory...

  18. A native ground nesting bee, Nomia melanderi, sustainably managed to pollinate alfalfa across an intensively agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The world’s only intensively managed ground-nesting bee, the alkali bee (Nomia melanderi Cockerell), has been used for >50 years as an effective pollinator of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown for seed across the western USA. Throughout the 240 km2 Touchet Valley alfalfa farmin...

  19. Plant density and maturity stage impacts on stem cell wall composition in high quality and non-lodging alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can affect energy availability in livestock production systems and energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Knowledge of the environmental variability of cell wall concentration and composi...

  20. Effects of extended prepupal storage duration on adult flight physiology of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee and is the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. Bee management practices include cold storage during the prepupal stage. Fluctuating thermal regimes (FTR) during cold storage increases survival of c...

  1. Molecular Biology Approaches to Solve Forage Crop Limitations: Improving Protein Utilization and Preventing Leaf Loss in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our laboratory is using molecular biology approaches to better understand and develop solutions to some of the current limitations of alfalfa and other forage crops used in animal and bioenergy production systems. A major limitation of alfalfa is that much of its protein is degraded during harvest a...

  2. The genetic components of extended life expectancy in chilled, post-diapause quiescent Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, a solitary bee native to Eurasia, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee and has become the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. These bees, when commercially managed, are overwintered as diapausing prepupae under static ther...

  3. Effect of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed development and viability in genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral populations of cultivated crops have the potential to function as bridges and reservoirs that contribute to the unwanted movement of novel genetically engineered (GE) traits. Recognizing that feral alfalfa has the potential to lower genetic purity in alfalfa seed production fields when it is g...

  4. Trace gas fluxes from a northern mixed-grass prairie interseeded with alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of legumes in improving soil fertility, forage quantity and quality is well established, however what is less clear is the extent that the nitrogen fixed by legumes may drive increased trace gas emissions. A chronosequence study in native prairie that had been interseed with the legume alfa...

  5. Durability of responses to interferon alfa-2b in advanced hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ratain, M J; Golomb, H M; Bardawil, R G; Vardiman, J W; Westbrook, C A; Kaminer, L S; Lembersky, B C; Bitter, M A; Daly, K

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that significant hematologic improvement occurs in the majority of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) treated with partially purified or recombinant interferon (IFN). Fifty-three patients received IFN alfa-2b for at least 3 months in a dose of 2 X 10(6) U/m2 subcutaneously thrice weekly. Of the 49 patients evaluable for response (at least 6 months of IFN therapy), there were ten complete responses and 29 partial responses for a total response rate of 80%. The peripheral blood counts and bone marrow continued to improve over the course of a full year of therapy. IFN was well tolerated, with no patients discontinuing therapy because of toxicity. Transient myelosuppression occurred in most patients during the first 1 to 2 months of therapy, occasionally precipitating a transfusion requirement. After IFN treatment was discontinued, there was a marked decrease in normal marrow elements and a relative increase in marrow hairy cells. This was associated with a transient increase in normal elements in the peripheral blood. Only one of 24 patients followed after receiving IFN for a median of 8.5 months (range, 3 to 16 months) has required further therapy. We conclude that low-dose IFN alfa-2b is highly effective in advanced HCL; responding patients should be treated for at least 1 year. The decision to initiate a second course of IFN therapy should be based primarily on peripheral blood counts and the clinical status of the patient rather than on the bone marrow. PMID:3814819

  6. Combined effects of ozone and water stress on alfalfa growth and yield (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, P.J.; Benoit, L.F.; Lennox, R.W.; Reagan, C.A.; Taylor, O.C.

    1988-01-01

    The interactive effects of ozone (O/sub 3/) and water stress on alfalfa were studied to determine how water stress could alter these functions, and to describe the cumulative effects of multiple-year exposures to O/sub 3/ on this perennial crop. Water stress reduced total seasonal yield about 10% in 1984 and 27% in 1985. Ozone significantly reduced yields in both years, and the interaction between O/sub 3/ and water stress was statistically significant in 1985 and for combined 1984 and 1985 years. Ozone dose-alfalfa yield loss functions were homogeneous between 1984 and 1985, and no evidence of a cumulative effect of multiple-year exposure to O/sub 3/ was found on top growth. However, crown (underground stem) weights were significantly reduced by O/sub 3/, suggesting that continued exposure to O/sub 3/ could shorten the productive life of alfalfa stands, in addition to its effect on yield.

  7. Phase III Trial of Bevacizumab Plus Interferon Alfa Versus Interferon Alfa Monotherapy in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Final Results of CALGB 90206

    PubMed Central

    Rini, Brian I.; Halabi, Susan; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Stadler, Walter M.; Vaena, Daniel A.; Archer, Laura; Atkins, James N.; Picus, Joel; Czaykowski, Piotr; Dutcher, Janice; Small, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab is an antibody that binds vascular endothelial growth factor and has activity in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Interferon alfa (IFN-α) is the historic standard initial treatment for RCC. A prospective, randomized, phase III trial of bevacizumab plus IFN-α versus IFN-α monotherapy was conducted. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated, metastatic clear cell RCC were randomly assigned to receive either bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks) plus IFN-α (9 million units subcutaneously three times weekly) or the same dose and schedule of IFN-α monotherapy in a multicenter phase III trial. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate, and safety. Results Seven hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled. The median OS time was 18.3 months (95% CI, 16.5 to 22.5 months) for bevacizumab plus IFN-α and 17.4 months (95% CI, 14.4 to 20.0 months) for IFN-α monotherapy (unstratified log-rank P = .097). Adjusting on stratification factors, the hazard ratio was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73 to 1.01; stratified log-rank P = .069) favoring bevacizumab plus IFN-α. There was significantly more grade 3 to 4 hypertension (HTN), anorexia, fatigue, and proteinuria for bevacizumab plus IFN-α. Patients who developed HTN on bevacizumab plus IFN-α had a significantly improved PFS and OS versus patients without HTN. Conclusion OS favored the bevacizumab plus IFN-α arm but did not meet the predefined criteria for significance. HTN may be a biomarker of outcome with bevacizumab plus IFN-α. PMID:20368558

  8. Replacement of alfalfa neutral detergent fiber with a combination of nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1997-04-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa neutral detergent fiber (NDF), with NDF from a combination of whole linted cottonseed, dried distillers grains, and wheat middlings. The four diets were a basal control diet that was low in forage and fiber [(5.9 g of corn silage NDF and 6.1 g of alfalfa NDF/100 g of dry matter (DM)], a normal forage diet (low forage plus 10 g of additional alfalfa NDF/100 g of DM), and two low forage diets with either 5 or 10 g of NDF from the nonforage fiber sources added per 100 g of DM. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk protein percentage were higher, and milk fat percentage and fat yield were lower, for cows fed the low forage diets than for those fed the alfalfa control diet that was higher in fiber. Among the low forage diets, dry matter intake, milk fat percentage, and fat yield all increased linearly as NDF content increased. The ratio of acetate to propionate in the rumen and rumination times were greater for the normal forage control diet than for the high nonforage fiber diet. Added NDF from these nonforage fiber sources increased milk fat percentage and yield, but this increase was less than the NDF from alfalfa and less than predicted. In agreement with results of similar previous trials, milk protein yield and percentage were increased when alfalfa NDF was replaced with fiber from nonforage fiber sources. PMID:9149962

  9. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    PubMed Central

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  10. Use of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to enhance in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A; Schulze, H

    2007-03-01

    Two in vitro experiments were performed to identify promising exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products (EFE) and optimum dose rates (DR) for improving the degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage. The relationship between enzymatic activity and fermentation responses was examined to identify optimum formulations. In experiment 1, 5 EFE containing mainly endoglucanase and xylanase activities, with different ratios between the 2 activities, were assessed at a DR of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1 mg/g of DM forage. Milled alfalfa hay or corn silage was incubated in an in vitro batch culture with buffer, ruminal fluid, and EFE. Gas production (GP) was measured during 24 h of incubation, and degradabilities of DM and fiber were measured after terminating the incubation at 24 h. Two (E1 and E3) EFE substantially improved GP and degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage fiber. The optimum DR of these EFE was 1.4 mg/g of DM for both forages with improvements in NDF degradability up to 20.6% for alfalfa hay and up to 60.3% for corn silage. Whereas added activities of endoglucanase and exoglucanase were positively correlated with improvement in NDF degradability for alfalfa hay and corn silage, there was no relationship between added xylanase activity and NDF degradability. The 2 most promising EFE from experiment 1 were reevaluated in experiment 2, alone and in combination with a high xylanase EFE, to determine whether their effectiveness could be enhanced by decreasing the endoglucanase to xylanase ratio. The 2 EFE improved GP and fiber degradation in a manner similar to that observed in experiment 1, but the combination treatments resulted in no further beneficial effects. Exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products can greatly improve forage utilization, but DR and the activities supplied are critical for achieving this response. Products used with alfalfa hay and corn silage should contain high endoglucanase activity, with an ideal ratio of endoglucanse to xylanase. PMID:17297117

  11. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    PubMed

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  12. [Alfalfa quality evaluation in the field by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui-Xuan; Li, Dong-Ning; Yang, Dong-Hai; Lin, Jian-Hai; Xiang, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2013-11-01

    To explore the feasibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate alfalfa quality rapidly in the field and try to find the appropriate machine and sample preparation method, the representative population of 170 fresh alfalfa samples collected from different regions with different stages and different cuts were scanned by a portable NIRS spectrometer (1 100 - 1 800 nm). This is the first time to build models of fresh alfalfa to rapidly estimate quality in the field for harvesting in time. The calibrations of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were developed through the partial least squares regression (PLS). The determination coefficients of cross-validation (R2((CV)) were 0.831 4, 0.597 9, 0.803 6, 0.786 1 for DM, CP, NDF, ADF, respectively; the root mean standard error of cross-validation (RMSECV) were 1.241 1, 0.261 4, 0.990 3, 0.830 6; The determination coefficients of validation (R2(V)) were 0.815 0, 0.401 1, 0.784 9, 0.752 1 and the root mean standard errors of validation(RMSEP)were 1.06, 0.31, 0.95, 0.80 for DM, CP, NDF, ADF, respectively. For fresh alfalfa ,the calibration of DM, NDF, ADF can do rough quantitative analysis but the CP's calibration is failed. however, as CP in alfalfa hay is enough for animal and the DM, NDF and ADF is the crucial indicator for evaluating havest time, the model of DM, NDF and ADF can be used for evaluating the alfalfa quality rapidly in the field. PMID:24555370

  13. Maintenance treatment of renal anaemia in haemodialysis patients with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta versus darbepoetin alfa administered monthly: a randomized comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Fernando; Lok, Charmaine E.; de Francisco, Angel; Locatelli, Francesco; Mann, Johannes F.E.; Canaud, Bernard; Kerr, Peter G.; Macdougall, Iain C.; Besarab, Anatole; Villa, Giuseppe; Kazes, Isabelle; Van Vlem, Bruno; Jolly, Shivinder; Beyer, Ulrich; Dougherty, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Several studies with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents claim that maintenance therapy of renal anaemia may be possible at extended dosing intervals; however, few studies were randomized, results varied, and comparisons between agents were absent. We report results of a multi-national, randomized, prospective trial comparing haemoglobin maintenance with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly. Methods. Haemodialysis patients (n = 490) on stable once-weekly intravenous darbepoetin alfa were randomized to methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta once monthly or darbepoetin alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks, with dose adjustment for individual haemoglobin target (11–13 g/dL; maximum decrease from baseline 1 g/dL). Subsequently, patients entered a second 26-week period of once-monthly methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who maintained average haemoglobin ≥10.5 g/dL, with a decrease from baseline ≤1 g/dL, in Weeks 50–53; the secondary endpoint was dose change over time. The trial is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00394953. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. One hundred and fifty-seven of 245 patients treated with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 99 of 245 patients with darbepoetin alfa met the response definition (64.1% and 40.4%; P < 0.0001). Doses increased by 6.8% with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 58.8% with darbepoetin alfa during once-monthly treatment. Death rates were equal between treatments (5.7%). Most common adverse events included hypertension, procedural hypotension, nasopharyngitis and muscle spasms, with no differences between groups. Conclusions. Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta maintained target haemoglobin more successfully than darbepoetin alfa at once-monthly dosing intervals despite dose increases with darbepoetin alfa

  14. [Cation exchanges during the process of Cd(2+) absorption by Alfalfa in aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Peng; Yin, Hua; Ye, Jin-Shao; Peng, Hua; Qin, Hua-Ming; Long, Yan; He, Bao-Yan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Yao; Peng, Su-Fen

    2011-11-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the cation exchanges during the process of Cd2+ absorption by Alfalfa in aqueous solution. The absorption efficiency of Alfalfa plants with 0-10 mg x L(-1) Cd2+ treatments, changes of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and NH4(+) concentration, and the variation of pH values at different absorption time (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 72 h) were studied separately. The multiple linear regressions between Cd2+ absorption and cation variation were analyzed. The results indicated that when Cd2+ concentrations were 0.1, 1, 5, 10 mg x L(-1), the absorption efficiencies of Cd2+ by Alfalfa after 72 h were 85.86%, 52.14%, 15.97% and 7.81%. Cation exchange was involved in the removal of Cd2+ by Alfalfa in aqueous solution. Except for NH4(+), the concentrations of cationic metals Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in aqueous solution increased over time, which increased 11.30% - 61.72%, 21.44% - 98.73%, 24.09% - 8.90% and 37.04% - 191.96%, respectively. Kinetic studies illuminated that the release of Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ by Alfalfa in Cd2+ solution with initial concentrations of 0, 0. 1, 1, 5, 10 mg x L(-1) best fitted pseudo-second-order equation,while the NH4(+) release fitted this model when Cd2+ concentrations were 1, 5, 10 mg x L(-1). The gradual decrease of pH during adsorption of Cd2+ by Alfalfa was observed. As the competition ion of Cd2+, H+ might affect the capacity of Alfalfa root system to absorb Cd2+. The ternary linear equation results demonstrated that the content of Cd2+ absorption by Alfalfa strongly related with the release of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+. And this exchange mainly occurred among Cd2+ and divalent cations. PMID:22295633

  15. Soluble Proteins in Alfalfa Roots as Related to Cold Hardiness 12

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, Eldean D.; Stahmann, Mark A.; Smith, Dale

    1967-01-01

    Soluble proteins extracted from alfalfa roots of hardy and nonhardy varieties were studied in relation to cold hardiness with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quantitative enzyme analysis. Soluble protein content of alfalfa roots increased during hardening in all varieties. Two new isoenzymes with peroxidase activities were found in the fully hardened samples but no large shifts in the electrophoretic pattern were detected with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peroxidase and catalase activities increased during hardening in all varieties, but only small differences among hardy and nonhardy varieties were detectable. The studies indicated that protein metabolism was altered during the hardening process. Images PMID:16656593

  16. Long-term efficacy and safety results of taliglucerase alfa up to 36 months in adult treatment-naïve patients with Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Zimran, Ari; Durán, Gloria; Mehta, Atul; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Giona, Fiorina; Amato, Dominick J; Petakov, Milan; Muñoz, Eduardo Terreros; Solorio-Meza, Sergio Eduardo; Cooper, Peter A; Varughese, Sheeba; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill-Almon, Einat

    2016-07-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is an intravenous enzyme replacement therapy approved for treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), and is the first available plant cell-expressed recombinant therapeutic protein. Herein, we report long-term safety and efficacy results of taliglucerase alfa in treatment-naïve adult patients with GD. Patients were randomized to receive taliglucerase alfa 30 or 60 U/kg every other week, and 23 patients completed 36 months of treatment. Taliglucerase alfa (30 U/kg; 60 U/kg, respectively) resulted in mean decreases in spleen volume (50.1%; 64.6%) and liver volume (25.6%; 24.4%) with mean increases in hemoglobin concentration (16.0%; 35.8%) and platelet count (45.7%; 114.0%), and mean decreases in chitotriosidase activity (71.5%; 82.2%). All treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity and transient. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, arthralgia, upper respiratory tract infection, headache, pain in extremity, and hypertension. These 36-month results of taliglucerase alfa in treatment-naïve adult patients with GD demonstrate continued improvement in disease parameters with no new safety concerns. These findings extend the taliglucerase alfa clinical safety and efficacy dataset. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00705939. Am. J. Hematol. 91:656-660, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27174694

  17. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    PubMed

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs. PMID:27447893

  18. A Randomized Study of Extended Dosing Regimens for Initiation of Epoetin Alfa Treatment for Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Spinowitz, Bruce; Germain, Michael; Benz, Robert; Wolfson, Marsha; McGowan, Tracy; Tang, K. Linda; Kamin, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Although epoetin alfa is commonly initiated weekly (QW) in anemic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, recent evidence indicates that it can be initiated every 2 wk (Q2W) and used in maintenance therapy every 4 wk (Q4W). This study examined the feasibility of initiating epoetin alfa Q4W in anemic CKD patients not receiving dialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This open-label study randomized subjects (1:2:2:2) to treatment with epoetin alfa 10,000 IU QW, 20,000 IU Q2W, 20,000 IU Q4W, or 40,000 IU Q4W for 16 wk. Subjects were ≥18 yr, had hemoglobin <11 g/dl, a glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and had not received erythropoietic therapy within 8 wk. The primary analysis was a noninferiority comparison of the 40,000 IU Q4W to the 20,000 IU Q2W group in the per-protocol population with respect to hemoglobin change from baseline to the end of study. Results: Of 262 subjects randomized, 229 comprised the per-protocol population. Mean hemoglobin change from baseline for the 40,000 IU Q4W group (1.24 g/dl) was not inferior to the 20,000 IU Q2W group (1.11 g/dl) with the lower limit of 95% CI, −0.21 g/dl. In the QW, 20,000 IU Q2W, 20,000 IU Q4W, and 40,000 IU Q4W groups, 90%, 87%, 75%, and 86% of subjects, respectively, achieved a hemoglobin increase ≥1 g/dl. Serious adverse events were similar across all groups. Conclusions: Epoetin alfa can be initiated Q4W in anemic CKD subjects. PMID:18400964

  19. Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Alfalfa Caterpillar, Colias lesbia, Egg Density in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Fields in Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Gerardo V.; Porta, Norma C. La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies. PMID:23909840

  20. Quantification of follicle stimulating hormone (follitropin alfa): is in vivo bioassay still relevant in the recombinant age?

    PubMed

    Driebergen, R; Baer, G

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) for clinical use has traditionally involved the use of in vivo bioassays, particularly the Steelman-Pohley bioassay. This assay has limited precision, requires large numbers of laboratory animals and involves cumbersome procedures for data generation and interpretation. Recent advances in manufacturing procedures for recombinant human FSH (r-hFSH) have resulted in a preparation (follitropin alfa; Gonal-F) that is highly consistent in both isoform profile and glycan species distribution. As a result, follitropin alfa can be reliably quantified using an optimised size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) method, and vials can be filled by mass. Preliminary clinical studies suggest that the fill-by-mass process results in a product that delivers a more consistent clinical response and is more effective than follitropin alfa vials filled by bioassay in women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. Non-bioassay methods such as SE-HPLC are likely to become increasingly important for quality testing and regulatory purposes, provided that the manufacturing process is well controlled and produces a protein of highly consistent physico-chemical properties. PMID:12661779

  1. Surface displaced alfa-enolase of Lactobacillus plantarum is a fibronectin binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Castaldo, Cristiana; Vastano, Valeria; Siciliano, Rosa Anna; Candela, Marco; Vici, Manuela; Muscariello, Lidia; Marasco, Rosangela; Sacco, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are one of the most important health promoting groups of the human intestinal microbiota. Their protective role within the gut consists in out competing invading pathogens for ecological niches and metabolic substrates. Among the features necessary to provide health benefits, commensal microorganisms must have the ability to adhere to human intestinal cells and consequently to colonize the gut. Studies on mechanisms mediating adhesion of lactobacilli to human intestinal cells showed that factors involved in the interaction vary mostly among different species and strains, mainly regarding interaction between bacterial adhesins and extracellular matrix or mucus proteins. We have investigated the adhesive properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, a member of the human microbiota of healthy individuals. Results We show the identification of a Lactobacillus plantarum LM3 cell surface protein (48 kDa), which specifically binds to human fibronectin (Fn), an extracellular matrix protein. By means of mass spectrometric analysis this protein was identified as the product of the L. plantarum enoA1 gene, coding the EnoA1 alfa-enolase. Surface localization of EnoA1 was proved by immune electron microscopy. In the mutant strain LM3-CC1, carrying the enoA1 null mutation, the 48 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable neither by anti-enolase Western blot nor by Fn-overlay immunoblotting assay. Moreover, by an adhesion assay we show that LM3-CC1 cells bind to fibronectin-coated surfaces less efficiently than wild type cells, thus demonstrating the significance of the surface displaced EnoA1 protein for the L. plantarum LM3 adhesion to fibronectin. Conclusion Adhesion to host tissues represents a crucial early step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensal bacteria. We demonstrated the involvement of the L. plantarum Eno A1 alfa-enolase in Fn-binding, by studying LM3 and LM3-CC1 surface

  2. Integrated protein production and electricity generation using renewable alfalfa feedstock in a combination advanced IGCC and feed processing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Oelke, E.A.; Hanson, C.

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of a co-production concept of alfalfa leaf meal as a concentrated protein animal feed and the generation of electricity from the remaining stem material. Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 8.96 metric tonnes/hectare (4 dry tons per acre) per year and with separated alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier/combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed-co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product. This concept provides a means for rural economic development with a sustainable approach to production agriculture.

  3. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Using the Illumina Platform and the Development of EST-SSR Markers in Autotetraploid Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhipeng; Chen, Tianlong; Ma, Lichao; Zhao, Zhiguang; Zhao, Patrick X.; Nan, Zhibiao; Wang, Yanrong

    2013-01-01

    Background Alfalfa is the most widely cultivated forage legume and one of the most economically valuable crops in the world. The large size and complexity of the alfalfa genome has delayed the development of genomic resources for alfalfa research. Second-generation Illumina transcriptome sequencing is an efficient method for generating a global transcriptome sequence dataset for gene discovery and molecular marker development in alfalfa. Methodology/Principal Findings More than 28 million sequencing reads (5.64 Gb of clean nucleotides) were generated by Illumina paired-end sequencing from 15 different alfalfa tissue samples. In total, 40,433 unigenes with an average length of 803 bp were obtained by de novo assembly. Based on a sequence similarity search of known proteins, a total of 36,684 (90.73%) unigenes were annotated. In addition, 1,649 potential EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers from unigenes with lengths exceeding 1 kb. A total of 100 pairs of PCR primers were randomly selected to validate the assembly quality and develop EST-SSR markers from genomic DNA. Of these primer pairs, 82 were able to amplify sequences in initial screening tests, and 27 primer pairs successfully amplified DNA fragments and detected significant amounts of polymorphism among 10 alfalfa accessions. Conclusions/Significance The present study provided global sequence data for autotetraploid alfalfa and demonstrates the Illumina platform is a fast and effective approach to EST-SSR markers development in alfalfa. The use of these transcriptome datasets will serve as a valuable public information platform to accelerate studies of the alfalfa genome. PMID:24349529

  4. Incorporation of p-coumarates into the cell walls of alfalfa changes the lignin composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In general, monocots can contain a significant amount of an ester-linked p-coumarate (pCA) in their cell walls, but its function is unclear. One hypothesis is that pCA aids in the formation of syringyl-rich regions during lignification. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a dicot, is a cultivated perennial f...

  5. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a 15.2 km2 area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready seed production fields (totalin...

  6. Alfalfa N credits to second-year corn larger than expected

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa can provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to the first crop that follows it. Recent field research on first-year corn confirms that it is highly likely that grain yields will not improve with added fertilizer N, except on very sandy and very clayey soils. It is less clear how much fert...

  7. The alfalfa N credit: field-specific recommendations may be coming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa can provide all the nitrogen (N) needed for two years of corn. This may sound surprising, but research reports support this statement for about one-half of all trials that have been conducted in the US. However, in other research trials, the need for fertilizer N varied widely and ranged up ...

  8. Acidified sodium chlorite as an alternative to chlorine for elimination of Salmonella on alfalfa seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disadvantage associated with the use of chlorine for food processing and water treatment had been documented previously. This study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) could be used to replace calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2] for disinfection of alfalfa seeds. Seeds co...

  9. Progress report on reduced-lignin alfalfa: part 1, plant modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume in U.S. dairy cow diets because it has a high protein content, it increases feed intake and milk production, and it is an excellent complement to non-forage components of dairy cow diets. It is also an excellent source of effective fiber which is essential...

  10. Induction of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases in transformed embryogenic calli of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were analyzed in non-regenerative transformed embryogenic lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) carrying wound-inducible oryzacystatin I (OC-I), wound-inducible oryzacystatin I antisense (OC-Ias) or hygromycin phosphotransferase (...

  11. Growth environment, harvest management and germplasm impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock and stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profitab...

  12. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  13. Behavioral responses of laying hens to different alfalfa-layer ration combinations fed during molting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens which were either full-fed (FF) or hens which had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9 day trial. Each treatment co...

  14. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, St. Paul Alfalfa/Forage Research Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...

  15. It's still true: plowing up alfalfa releases plenty of N for corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers and their advisors question the accuracy of published fertilizer N replacement values that alfalfa provides to first-year corn. Their skepticism has risen as corn yields have increased, but higher fertilizer prices have heightened the need to trim unproductive inputs. Recent Minnesota data c...

  16. COMBINED EFFECTS OF OZONE AND WATER STRESS ON ALFALFA GROWTH AND YIELD (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactive effects of ozone (O3) and water stress on alfalfa were studied to determine how water stress could alter these functions, and to describe the cumulative effects of multiple-year exposures to O3 on this perennial crop. Water stress reduced total seasonal yield abou...

  17. EFFECT OF AN OZONE INJURY RETARDANT CHEMICAL ON ISOZYME PROFILES FROM ALFALFA CALLUS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant ozone injury retardant (EDU or ethylenediurea) at 1.0 ppm inhibited growth of callus of alfalfa cultivars Williamsburg (ozone-sensitive) and MSB-CW5An2(ozone-insensitive) germplasm of Medicago sative. The presence of EDU(0.1 ppm) in growth medium increased the number of pro...

  18. Environmental variability and/or stability of stem fiber content and digestibility in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration and low digestibility of stem fiber constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L, herbage can limit dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems. Stem neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and stem neutral detergent fiber digest...

  19. Canopy visible and near-infrared reflectance data to estimate alfalfa nutritive attributes before harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proximal sensing could help improve profit margins by timing the cutting or harvesting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), in rapid assessment of nutritive values, such as total nitrogen (N), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) as well as nutritive quality indicators such as r...

  20. Effects of natural and simulated rainfall on indicators of alfalfa silage fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frustrations of forage producers attempting to conserve high-quality alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage during periods of unstable or inclement weather are widely known. Our objectives were: i) to assess the effects of simulated or natural rainfall on indicators of ensilability, such as pH, buf...

  1. Role of a putative amino acid transporter in fungal disease resistance in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessions of the model legume Medicago truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, were identified that are resistant to several foliar pathogens, and microarray technology was used to identify genes specifically expressed in the resistance response. A large proportion of the up-regulated genes had on...

  2. Optimum Stand Density of Spring Triticale for Grain Yield and Alfalfa Establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale (XTriticosecale Wittmack) has promise as a feed crop in the North Central U.S. and could be used as a companion crop for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) establishment. The objectives of this research were to assess the suitability of a short-statured spring triticale as a companion crop for a...

  3. Overexpression of malate dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa enhances organic acid synthesis and confers tolerance to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, M; Temple, S J; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Samac, D A

    2001-12-01

    Al toxicity is a severe impediment to production of many crops in acid soil. Toxicity can be reduced through lime application to raise soil pH, however this amendment does not remedy subsoil acidity, and liming may not always be practical or cost-effective. Addition of organic acids to plant nutrient solutions alleviates phytotoxic Al effects, presumably by chelating Al and rendering it less toxic. In an effort to increase organic acid secretion and thereby enhance Al tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), we produced transgenic plants using nodule-enhanced forms of malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNAs under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We report that a 1.6-fold increase in malate dehydrogenase enzyme specific activity in root tips of selected transgenic alfalfa led to a 4.2-fold increase in root concentration as well as a 7.1-fold increase in root exudation of citrate, oxalate, malate, succinate, and acetate compared with untransformed control alfalfa plants. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme specific activity in transgenic alfalfa did not result in increased root exudation of organic acids. The degree of Al tolerance by transformed plants in hydroponic solutions and in naturally acid soil corresponded with their patterns of organic acid exudation and supports the concept that enhancing organic acid synthesis in plants may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity. PMID:11743127

  4. Characterization of physiological responses of two alfalfa half-sib families with improved salt tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing soil salinity is a global issue that threatens crop production. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage crop worldwide that is relatively sensitive to soil salinity. Improved cultivars with high production on saline soil will benefit many producers and land managers. This study ...

  5. Variable Temperatures Improves Survival of the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee During Cold Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata are commonly held at low-temperatures for overwintering the prepupae or interrupting the spring incubation to synchronize the adult emergence with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, low-temperature exposure can be stressful depending on the temperature, duration of exposure, and th...

  6. Ractopamine uptake by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in t...

  7. Impact of growth environment variability on alfalfa yield, cellulosic ethanol traits, and paper pulp characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a promising bioenergy feedstock due to its high yield, nitrogen-fixation capacity, high net energy ratio, potential for planting in rotation with corn, and valuable protein co-product (leaf meal). Our objective was to examine the effect of growth environment on biomass yield, cellulosic e...

  8. Emergence, forage production, and ion relations of alfalfa in response to saline waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) is an important crop utilized in regions under irrigation commonly impacted by salinity. In this study we evaluate the effect of salinity, as a continual process, from emergence to mature plant growth in successive harvests. We studied emergence, biomass production, salt ...

  9. Response of the devolatilization process to the lignin concenration in alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The devolatilization of alfalfa stems with variable lignin content and within a narrow band of biological lignin range was carried out using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The samples were subjected to a full thermochemical conversion temperature range between ambient and 1100 degree C. The da...

  10. Impacts of Contrasting Alfalfa Production Systems on the Drivers of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D

    2015-08-01

    Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal. PMID:26314050

  11. Growth, Intake, Diet Digestibility, and Nitrogen Use in Three Hair Sheep Breeds Fed Alfalfa Hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pen feeding and metabolism trials were conducted to determine intake, diet digestibility and nitrogen (N) use in three hair sheep breeds with differing growth potential offered an alfalfa hay diet. For pen feeding, 24 6-mo-old wether lambs, equally representing the Barbados Blackbelly, Katahdin, an...

  12. TANNIN-CONTAINING ALFALFA: A WAY TO IMPROVE NITROGEN-USE AND PROFITABILITY OF DAIRY FARMS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binding of condensed tannins to protein can prevent excessive proteolysis in forages during ensiling, ruminal digestion, and decay of residues in soil. Plant breeding and biotechnology efforts are underway in the U.S. and abroad to develop alfalfa and other forages with adequate levels of tannin for...

  13. Gene flow in commercial alfalfa fields and implications to isolation and seed certification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a perennial species with an out-crossing rate of between 67 and 77 percent. Pollen is primarily vectored by bees. An accurate understanding of the frequency with which foreign pollen results in viable seed set is critical to establishing appropriate mechanisms for i...

  14. Quantifying the area-wide dispersal patterns of honeybees in commercial alfalfa fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the foraging range of honey bees in an agroecosystem dominated by a glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® (RR) alfalfa seed production field and several non-RR fields. Honey bee self-marking devices were attached to colonies originating from nine different apiary locat...

  15. Photosynthate partitioning and nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil. [Lotus corniculatus L. ; Medicago sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Nodule mass and number are usually correlated with rates of nitrogen fixation in legumes. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) with more than twice the nodule number and mass, however, fixes far less nitrogen than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at the same age. In this research, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning and utilization in relation to nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil were examined in order to determine their relationship to nitrogen fixation potential. Photosynthate to nodules was studied using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling techniques. Partitioning patterns were altered by shading and dark depletion treatments. Efficiency of photosynthate utilization was examined by determining turnover of /sup 14/C photosynthate in nodule metabolites and by studying rates of cyanide-resistant and cyanide-sensitive O/sub 2/ uptake. Alfalfa nodule activity was greater than trefoil expressed on a hole pot or nodule dry weight basis. Both shading and dark treatments significantly reduced nodule activity as estimated by the acetylene reduction assay. Shoots of both species were found to be the dominant sinks for photosynthate. Percentage /sup 14/C recovered in alfalfa roots was more than twice that of trefoil at 1,2,3,4 and 24 h after labeling. Greater relative specific radioactivity (RSA) in nodules of both species suggests that they were stronger sinks for current photosynthate than roots.

  16. Study of the ligands involved in metal binding to alfalfa biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemann, K.J.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Sias, S.; Gamez, G.; Rodriguez, O.; Renner, M.W.; Furenlid, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    Previously performed studies have shown that the alfalfa shoot biomass can bind an appreciable amount of copper(II), nickel(II), cadmium(II), chromium(III), lead(II), and zinc(II) ions from aqueous solution. Of the seven different alfalfa populations studied, Malone and African demonstrated the highest capacity for metal binding. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the pH profiles, time dependency, capacity for metal binding, as well as the recovery of the metals bound. For most of the metal ions studied, the biomass showed a high affinity for metal binding around pH 5.0 within a short time period. Binding capacity experiments revealed the following amounts of metal ions bound per gram of biomass: 19.7 mg Cu(II), 4.11 mg Ni(II), 7.1 mg Cd(II), 7.7 mg Cr(III), 43 mg Pb(II), and 4.9 mg Zn(II). Most of these metals were recovered from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 M HCl with the exception of Cr(III). Because no Cr(VI) binding occurred, none was recovered. Direct and indirect approaches were applied to study the possible mechanisms involved in metal binding by the alfalfa biomass. The direct approach involves investigations of the alfalfa shoot biomass by X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis (XANES and EXAFS), which were performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  17. Alfalfa and weed response to alternatives to burning and new herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field burning of crop residues is a common practice in alfalfa seed production to reduce insect, disease and weed pests. A field trial was conducted to evaluate alternative crop residue management practices including mowing and shallow tillage. Field buring reduce seed viability prickly lettuce, m...

  18. Potash and nitrogen in alfalfa-corn rotations: withholding pays dividends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With high fertilizer prices, farmers need to reevaluate the rates they apply in order to optimize their profitability. In on-farm work in Minnesota, we determined how much potash fertilizer was needed for the last year of alfalfa production and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer needed on the next ye...

  19. Reducing water inputs with subsurface drip irrigation may improve alfalfa nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop for western Kansas dairy producers. Concerns over decreasing groundwater supplies have prompted the need to develop more efficient methods of irrigation. We investigated the effects of a subsurface drip irrigation system at three lev...

  20. The Impact of Distinct Insect Species on Pollination and Gene Flow in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollinator species and plant density can influence pollination and gene flow. The efficacy of different floral visitors at tripping alfalfa flowers was examined in both low and high density patches to determine their potential role in pollination. In addition, for a subset of the floral visitors, th...

  1. Potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) ecology and integrated pest management focused on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge to date on biology of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is summarized, including geographic distribution, development, migration, agricultural host plants, and the mechanism of injury to host plants. Damage to alfalfa, potato, soybean and snap bean, as well as treatment guide...

  2. ECONOMICS AND ENERGY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM ALFALFA, CORN, AND SWITCHGRASS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., biomass crop systems will be needed to meet future ethanol production goals. We estimated production costs, profits, and energy budgets for three potential crop systems for the Upper Midwest: continuous corn, an alfalfa-corn rotation, and switchgrass. Production costs, profits, and on-f...

  3. ECONOMICS AND ENERGY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM ALFALFA, CORN, AND SWITCHGRASS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., biomass crop systems will be needed to meet future ethanol production goals. We estimated production costs, profits, and energy budgets for three potential crop systems for the Upper Midwest: continuous corn, an alfalfa-corn rotation, and switchgrass. Production costs, profits, and on-f...

  4. Synchronizing the Alfalfa Seed Production Pollinator, Megachile rotundata (F.), with Peak Bloom: Effects of Water Balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important component in the use of the alfalfa leafcutter bee, Megachile rotundata for pollination is synchronizing adult bee emergence with peak crop bloom. Previously, our research group has demonstrated that spring incubations of developing bees can be interrupted by short-term low-temperature...

  5. Temperature stress affects the expression of immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is affected by a fungal disease called chalkbrood. In several species of bees, chalkbrood is more likely to occur in larvae kept at 25-30 C than at 35 C. We found that both high and low temperature stress increased the expression of immune response g...

  6. Transcriptional regulation of temperature stress response during development in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects can be significantly affected by temperature induced stress. While evidence of the physiological consequences of temperature stress is growing, very little is known about how insects respond at the genetic level to these stressors. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, an emergin...

  7. Identification of Dehydration Responsive Genes from Two Non-Nodulated Alfalfa Cultivars Using Medicago Truncatula Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To have a comprehensive understanding of how legume plants respond to drought at the gene expression level and examine whether legume plants that are not fixing nitrogen would behave similar to non-legume plants in drought response, transcriptomes were studied in two non-nodulated alfalfa (Medicago ...

  8. Crop mergers: Management of soil contamination and leaf loss in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximizing the capacity and subsequent efficiency of the forage harvester necessitates consolidation (raking or merging) of alfalfa cuttings. Although rotary rakes are in wide use, the use of continuous pickup belt mergers is increasing in the Midwestern U.S. Previous work on crop consolidation is l...

  9. NADH-Glutamate Synthase in Alfalfa Root Nodules. Immunocytochemical Localization1

    PubMed Central

    Trepp, Gian B.; Plank, David W.; Stephen Gantt, J.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1999-01-01

    In root nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), N2 is reduced to NH4+ in the bacteroid by the nitrogenase enzyme and then released into the plant cytosol. The NH4+ is then assimilated by the combined action of glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) and NADH-dependent Glu synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) into glutamine and Glu. The alfalfa nodule NADH-GOGAT protein has a 101-amino acid presequence, but the subcellular location of the protein is unknown. Using immunocytochemical localization, we determined first that the NADH-GOGAT protein is found throughout the infected cell region of both 19- and 33-d-old nodules. Second, in alfalfa root nodules NADH-GOGAT is localized predominantly to the amyloplast of infected cells. This finding, together with earlier localization and fractionation studies, indicates that in alfalfa the infected cells are the main location for the initial assimilation of fixed N2. PMID:10069822

  10. Forage Quality of Biomass vs. Conventional Alfalfa Cut at Early Bud or Late Flower Maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulosic bioenergy systems will result in large areas planted to biomass crops. An important question is whether biomass crops can also be used for livestock feed. This study compared forage quality of an experimental alfalfa germplasm developed for a biomass production system with a conventional ...

  11. Variation Due to Growth Environment in Alfalfa Yield, Cellulosic Ethanol Traits, and Paper Pulp Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a promising bioenergy and bioproduct feedstock because of its high yield, N-fixation capacity, potential for planting in rotation with corn (Zea mays L.), and valuable protein co-product (leaf meal). Our objective was to examine the effect of growth environment on bio...

  12. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megachile rotundata, commonly known as the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a key alternative pollinator. Farmers store pupal M. rotundata over the winter inside a 6°C incubator and then place the pupal bees into incubators at 29°C to initiate adult development. Their goal is to time adult bee emergenc...

  13. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  14. Pythium and Fusarium species causing seed rot and damping-off of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed rot and damping-off is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. This disease may have been overlooked as a cause of poor stand establishment and reduced vigor of adult plants. Globally, 15 Pythium species have been found to cause...

  15. Use of Alfalfa for Soil Phosphorus Removal Following Long-Term Manure Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to examine alfalfa remediation effects on a cornfield treated during a 10-yr period with manure at rates matching either the N (MN) or P (MP) requirements of silage corn (Zea mays L.). A commercial fertilizer (NCK) was used as a control. The site was removed from corn prod...

  16. Flight metabolic rate as an expression of quality in temperature stressed alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee,Megachile rotundata F.(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)is a solitary species that develops inside a maternally constructed brood cell. Pre-pupal M. rotundata diapause over winter and resume development as ambient temperatures increase. Environmental cues are known to initiate b...

  17. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material. PMID:3436916

  18. Asymmetric somatic hybrid plants between Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa, lucerne) and Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin).

    PubMed

    Li, Y G; Tanner, G J; Delves, A C; Larkin, P J

    1993-12-01

    This paper reports on the production of intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between two sexually incompatible legume species. Medicago sativa (alfalfa, lucerne) leaf protoplasts were inactivated by lethal doses of iodoacetamide. Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) suspension-cell protoplasts were gamma-irradiated at lethal doses. Following electrofusion under optimized conditions about 50,000 viable heterokaryons were produced in each test. The fusion products were cultured with the help of alfalfa nurse protoplasts. Functional complementation permitted only the heterokaryons to survive. A total of 706 putative heterokaryon-derived plantlets were regenerated and 570 survived transplantation to soil. Experimentation was aimed at the introduction of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) from sainfoin, a bloat-safe plant, to alfalfa, a bloat-causing forage crop; however, no tannin-positive regenerant plants were detected. Most regenerant plants have shown morphological differences from the fusion parents, although, as expected, all resembled the "recipient" parent, alfalfa. Southern analysis using an improved total-genomic probing technique has shown low levels of sainfoin-specific DNA in 43 out of 158 tested regenerants. Cytogenetic analysis of these asymmetric hybrids has confirmed the existence of euploid (2n=32; 17%) as well as aneuploid (2n=30, 33-78; 83%) plants. Pollen germination tests have indicated that the majority of the hybrids were fertile, while 35% had either reduced fertility or were completely sterile. PMID:24190318

  19. Effects of wrapping time delays on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baled silages are an attractive forage conservation option, especially for small and mid-sized beef and dairy producers. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages on a pre- and post-storage basis. A secondary objective was to evaluate...

  20. Lignin Modification Leads to Increased Nodule Numbers in Alfalfa1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Bhattarai, Kishor; Pislariu, Catalina I.; Nakashima, Jin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Udvardi, Michael K.; Monteros, Maria J.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing and other changes in plant growth. Given the importance of nitrogen fixation for legume growth, we evaluated the impact of constitutively targeted lignin modification on the belowground organs (roots and nodules) of alfalfa plants. HCT down-regulated alfalfa plants exhibit a striking reduction in root growth accompanied by an unexpected increase in nodule numbers when grown in the greenhouse or in the field. This phenotype is associated with increased levels of gibberellins and certain flavonoid compounds in roots. Although HCT down-regulation reduced biomass yields in both the greenhouse and field experiments, the impact on the allocation of nitrogen to shoots or roots was minimal. It is unlikely, therefore, that the altered growth phenotype of reduced-lignin alfalfa is a direct result of changes in nodulation or nitrogen fixation efficiency. Furthermore, HCT down-regulation has no measurable effect on carbon allocation to roots in either greenhouse or 3-year field trials. PMID:24406794