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Sample records for alfalfa buffer strip

  1. Effects of AN Alfalfa (medicago Sativa) Buffer Strip on Leached δ15NNITRATE Values: Implications for Management of Hydrologic N Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Smith, J. L.; Evans, R. D.; Harlow, B.

    2011-12-01

    Buffer strips are commonly used to decrease agricultural runoff with the objective of limiting sediment and agrochemicals fluxes to surface waters. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an alfalfa buffer strip on the magnitude and source(s) of leached nitrate from a dryland agricultural field. Previous research at the Cook Agronomy Farm has inferred two sources of nitrate in tile drain discharge, a high-discharge-season (January through May) synthetic fertilizer source, and a low-discharge-season (June through December) soil organic nitrogen source. This study examines how a change in management strategy and crop species alters the low discharge season nitrate source. In the spring of 2006 an alfalfa buffer strip approximately 20 m wide was planted running approximately north-south in the lowland portion of a 12 ha tile-drained field bordering a ditch that drains into Missouri Flat Creek. Three-year (2003 through 2005) average NO3--N flux prior to the planting of the alfalfa buffer strip was ~0.40 kg ha-1 year-1. After planting, the three-year (2006 through 2008) average NO3--N flux was ~0.38 kg ha-1 year-1. The lack of evident buffer-strip influence on the fluxes may be due in part to the large variation in precipitation amounts and timing that control water flows through the system. Three-year average δ15Nnitrate values for the tile drain pre and post planting of the alfalfa buffer strip were 6.9 ± 1.1 % and 4.2 ± 0.9 % respectively. We hypothesize that the significant difference indicates that the alfalfa strip affects the source of leached nitrate. Before planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the interpreted source of nitrate was mineralization of soil organic nitrogen from non-N2 fixing crops (spring and summer wheat varieties). After planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the source of nitrate was interpreted to be a mixture of mineralized soil organic nitrogen from N2 fixing alfalfa and non-N2 fixing crops. Further work is needed to test

  2. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  3. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  4. Analysis of a hybrid, unidirectional buffer strip laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of a unidirectional composite laminate containing symmetrically placed buffer strips is presented. As an example, for a damaged graphite/epoxy laminate, the results demonstrate the manner in which to select the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties necessary to inhibit crack growth. Ultimate failure of the laminate after crack arrest can occur under increasing load either by continued crack extension through the buffer strips or the crack can jump the buffer strips. For some typical hybrid materials it is found that a buffer strip spacing-to-width ratio of about four to one is the most efficient.

  5. Analysis of a hybrid-undirectional buffer strip laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of a unidirectional composite laminate containing symmetrically placed buffer strips is presented. As an example, for a damaged graphite/epoxy laminate, the results demonstrate the manner in which to select the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties necessary to inhibit crack growth. Ultimate failure of the laminate after the arrest can occur under increasing load either by continued crack extension through the buffer strips or the crack can jump the buffer strips. For some typical hybrid materials it is found that a buffer strip spacing to width ratio of about four to one is the most efficient.

  6. Buffer strip design for protecting water quality and fish habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Belt, G.H.; O'Laughlin, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Buffer strips are protective areas adjacent to streams or lakes. Among other functions, they protect water quality and fish habitat. A typical buffer strip is found in western Oregon, where they are called Riparian Management Areas (RMAs). The authors use the term buffer strip to include functional descriptions such as filter, stabilization, or leave strips, and administrative designations such as Idaho's Stream Protection Zone (SPZ), Washington's Riparian Management Zone (RMZ), and the USDA Forest Service's Streamside Management Zone (SMZ). They address water quality and fishery protective functions of buffer strips on forestlands, pointing out improvements in buffer strip design possible through research or administrative changes. Buffer strip design requirements found in some western Forest Practices Act (FPA) regulations are also compared and related to findings in the scientific literature.

  7. Damage tolerance of woven graphite-epoxy buffer strip panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy panels with S glass buffer strips were tested in tension and shear to measure their residual strengths with crack-like damage. The buffer strips were regularly spaced narrow strips of continuous S glass. Panels were made with a uniweave graphite cloth where the S glass buffer material was woven directly into the cloth. Panels were made with different width and thickness buffer strips. The panels were loaded to failure while remote strain, strain at the end of the slit, and crack opening displacement were monitoring. The notched region and nearby buffer strips were radiographed periodically to reveal crack growth and damage. Except for panels with short slits, the buffer strips arrested the propagating crack. The strength (or failing strain) of the panels was significantly higher than the strength of all-graphite panels with the same length slit. Panels with wide, thick buffer strips were stronger than panels with thin, narrow buffer strips. A shear-lag model predicted the failing strength of tension panels with wide buffer strips accurately, but over-estimated the strength of the shear panels and the tension panels with narrow buffer strips.

  8. An assessment of buffer strips for improving damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Kennedy, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy panels with buffer strips were tested in tension to measure their residual strength with crack-like damage. Panels were made with 45/0/-45/90(2S) and 45/0/450(2S) layups. The buffer strips were parallel to the loading directions. They were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with strips of either 0 deg S-Glass/epoxy or Kevlar-49/epoxy on either a one for one or a two for one basis. In a third case, O deg graphite/epoxy was used as the buffer material and thin, perforated Mylar strips were placed between the 0 deg piles and the cross-plies to weaken the interfaces and thus to isolate the 0 deg plies. Some panels were made with buffer strips of different widths and spacings. The buffer strips arrested the cracks and increased the residual strengths significantly over those plain laminates without buffer strips. A shear-lag type stress analysis correctly predicted the effects of layups, buffer material, buffer strip width and spacing, and the number of plies of buffer material.

  9. Analysis of a unidirectional, symmetric buffer strip laminate with damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    A method for predicting the fracture behavior of hybrid buffer strip laminates is presented in which the classical shear-lag model is used to represent the shear stress distribution between adjacent fibers. The method is demonstrated by applying it to a notched graphite/epoxy laminate, and the results show clearly the manner in which the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties can be selected in order to arrest the crack. The ultimate failure stress of the laminate is plotted vs the buffer strip width. It is shown that in the case of graphite-epoxy and S-glass epoxy laminates, the optimum buffer strip spacing to width ratio should be about four to one.

  10. Emission reduction by multipurpose buffer strips on arable fields.

    PubMed

    Sloots, K; van der Vlies, A W

    2007-01-01

    In the area managed by Hollandse Delta, agriculture is under great pressure and the social awareness of the agricultural sector is increasing steadily. In recent years, a stand-still has been observed in water quality, in terms of agrochemicals, and concentrations even exceed the standard. To improve the waterquality a multi-purpose Field Margin Regulation was drafted for the Hoeksche Waard island in 2005. The regulation prescribes a crop-free strip, 3.5 m wide, alongside wet drainage ditches. The strip must be sown with mixtures of grasses, flowers or herbs. No crop protection chemicals or fertilizer may be used on the strips. A total length of approximately 200 km of buffer strip has now been laid. Besides reducing emissions, the buffer strips also stimulate natural pest control methods and encourage local tourism. Finally, the strips should lead to an improvement in the farmers' image. The regulation has proved to be successful. The buffer strips boosted both local tourism and the image of the agricultural sector. Above all, the strips provided a natural shield for emission to surface water, which will lead to an improvement of the water quality and raise the farmers' awareness of water quality and the environment. PMID:17711002

  11. Woven graphite epoxy composite test specimens with glass buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnar, G. R.; Palmer, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Woven unidirectional graphite cloth with bands of fiberglass replacing the graphite in discrete lengthwise locations was impregnated with epoxy resin and used to fabricate a series of composite tensile and shear specimens. The finished panels, with the fiberglass buffer strips, were tested. Details of the fabrication process are reported.

  12. Evaluating uncertainty in E. coli retention in vegetated buffer strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetated buffer strips (VFS) separate fields and pastures from streams and other water bodies and can serve as barriers that prevent sediment and agricultural chemicals from entering waterways and spoiling them. Growing concern about the manure-borne pathogens as water pollutants defines the need t...

  13. An assessment of buffer strips for improving damage tolerance of composite laminates at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Buffer strips greatly improve the damage tolerance of graphite/epoxy laminates loaded in tension. Graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels were made and tested to determine their residual strength at ambient and elevated (177 C) temperature. Each panel was cut in the center to represent damage. Panels were radiographed and crack-opening displacements were recorded to indicate fracture, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after arrest. All panels had the same buffer strip spacing and width. The buffer strip material was 0 deg S-glass/PMR-15. The buffer strips were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with strips of the 0 deg S-glass on either a one-for-one or a two-for-one basis. Half of the panels were heated to 177 + or - 3 C before and during the testing. Elevated temperature did not alter the fracture behavior of the buffer configuration.

  14. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  15. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... your health provider.Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs)Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Large doses of alfalfa might also increase your ...

  16. Role of buffer strips in management of waterway pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barling, Rowan D.; Moore, Ian D.

    1994-07-01

    A buffer strip can perform a multitude of functions, and these include channel stability, a filter for sediment and nutrients, water purification (e.g., bacteria and pathogens), a nondisturbance area, and the provision of terrestrial and stream habitat. These functions are reviewed with specific application to Australian conditions, and methods for modeling their performance are outlined. The primary focus is on the use of buffer strips to minimize waterway pollution from diffuse sources since their use is often justified on this basis. Particular attention is given to the conditions under which a buffer strip will act as an effective filter and the conditions under which it will fail. Buffer strips are most effective when the flow is shallow (nonsubmerged), slow, and enters the buffer strip uniformly along its length. Their sediment trapping performance decreases as the sediment particle size decreases. Nutrients are often preferentially attached to fine sediment. As a result, buffer strips are better filters of sediment than of nutrients. Buffer strips should only be considered as a secondary conservation practice after controlling the generation of pollutants at their source and, to be effective, buffer strips should always be carefully designed, installed, and maintained.

  17. Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, A.; Gristina, L.; Guaitoli, F.; Santoro, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2013-08-01

    When soil nitrate levels are low, plants suffer nitrogen (N) deficiency but when the levels are excessive, soil nitrates can pollute surface and subsurface waters. Strategies to reduce the nitrate pollution are necessary to reach a sustainable use of resources such as soil, water and plant. Buffer strips and cover crops can contribute to the management of soil nitrates, but little is known of their effectiveness in semiarid vineyards plantations. The research was carried out in the south coast of Sicily (Italy) to evaluate nitrate trends in a vineyard managed both conventionally and using two different cover crops (Triticum durum and Vicia sativa cover crop). A 10 m-wide buffer strip was seeded with Lolium perenne at the bottom of the vineyard. Soil nitrate was measured monthly and nitrate movement was monitored by application of a 15N tracer to a narrow strip between the bottom of vineyard and the buffer and non-buffer strips. Lolium perenne biomass yield in the buffer strips and its isotopic nitrogen content were monitored. Vicia sativa cover crop management contributed with an excess of nitrogen, and the soil management determined the nitrogen content at the buffer areas. A 6 m buffer strip reduced the nitrate by 42% with and by 46% with a 9 m buffer strip. Thanks to catch crops, farmers can manage the N content and its distribution into the soil over the year, can reduced fertilizer wastage and reduce N pollution of surface and groundwater.

  18. Classification of Orthophotos to Identify Vegetative Buffer Strips to Update Existing Land Use Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative buffer strips (VBS) including grass buffer, forested buffer (FBS), among others, are important best management practices implemented in agricultural areas to control the movement of potential agricultural contaminants into water bodies. The importance of VBS has led the Natural Resource C...

  19. The combined effect of glass buffer strips and stitching on the damage tolerance of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kullerd, Susan M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that through-the-thickness stitching provides major improvements in the damage tolerance of composite laminates loaded in compression. However, the brittle nature of polymer matrix composites makes them susceptible to damage propagation, requiring special material applications and designs to limit damage growth. Glass buffer strips, embedded within laminates, have shown the potential for improving the damage tolerance of unstitched composite laminates loaded in tension. The glass buffer strips, less stiff than the surrounding carbon fibers, arrest crack growth in composites under tensile loads. The present study investigates the damage tolerance characteristics of laminates that contain both stitching and glass buffer strips.

  20. Fatigue of graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels with center cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of fatigue loading on the behavior of graphite/epoxy panels with either S-Glass or Kevlar-49 buffer strips is studied. Buffer strip panels are fatigued and tested in tension to measure their residual strength with crack-like damage. Panels are made with 45/0/-45/90 sub 2s layup with either S-Glass or Kevlar-49 buffer strip material. The buffer strips are parallel to the loading direction and made by replacing narrow strips of the 0-degree graphite plies with strips of either 0-degree S-Glass/epoxy or Kevlar-49/epoxy on a one-for-one basis. The panels are subjected to a fatigue loading spectrum MINITWIST, the shortened version of the standardized load program for the wing lower surface of a transport aircraft. Two levels of maximum strain are used in the spectrum with three durations of the fatigue spectrum. One group of panels is preloaded prior to the application of the fatigue cycling. The preload consists of statistically loading the spectrum in tension until the crack-tip damage zone reaches the ajacent buffer strips. After fatigue loading, all specimens are statistically loaded in tension to failure to determine their residual strengths.

  1. The impact of buffer strips and stream-side grazing on small mammals in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Erik W.; Ribic, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The practice of continuously grazing cattle along streams has caused extensive degradation of riparian habitats. Buffer strips and managed intensive rotational grazing (MIRG) have been proposed to protect and restore stream ecosystems in Wisconsin. However, the ecological implications of a switch from traditional livestock management to MIRG or buffer strip establishment have not been investigated. Differences in small mammal communities associated with riparian areas on continuously grazed and MIRG pastures, as well as vegetative buffer strips adjacent to row crops, were investigated in southwestern Wisconsin during May-September 1997 and 1998. More species (mean of 6-7) were found on the buffer sites than on the pasture sites (mean of 2-5). Total small mammal abundance on buffer sites was greater than on the pastures as well: there were 3-5 times as many animals on the buffer sites compared to the pasture sites, depending on year. There were no differences in species richness or total abundance between MIRG and continuously grazed pastures in either year. Total small mammal abundance was greater near the stream than away from the stream, regardless of farm management practice but there were no differences in species richness. Buffer strips appear to support a particularly rich and abundant small mammal community. Although results did not detect a difference in small mammal use between pasture types, farm-wide implications of a conversion from continuous to MIRG styles of grazing may benefit small mammals indirectly by causing an increase in the prevalence of pasture in the agricultural landscape.

  2. Effects of fatigue and environment on residual strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Catherine A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of fatigue, moisture conditioning, and heating on the residual tension strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels were evaluated using specimens made with T300/5208 graphite epoxy in a 16-ply quasi-isotropic layup, with two different buffer strip materials, Kevlar-49 or S-glass. It was found that, for panels subjected to fatigue loading, the residual strengths were not significantly affected by the fatigue loading, the number of repetitions of the loading spectrum, or the maximum strain level. The moisture conditioning reduced the residual strengths of the S-glass buffer strip panels by 10 to 15 percent below the ambient results, but increased the residual strengths of the Kevlar-49 buffer strip panels slightly. For both buffer strip materials, the heat increased the residual strengths of the buffer strip panels slightly over the ambient results.

  3. Preliminary investigation of crack arrest in composite laminates containing buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical properties of some hybrid buffer strip laminates and the crack arrest potential of laminates containing buffer strips were determined. The hybrid laminates consisted of graphite with either S-glass, E-glass, or Kevlar. Unnotched tensile coupons and center-cracked fracture coupons were tested. Elastic properties, complete stress/strain curves, and critical stress intensity values are given. The measured elastic properties compare well with those calculated by classical lamination theory for laminates with linear stress/strain behavior. The glass hybrids had more delamination and higher fracture toughness than the all-graphite or the Kevlar hybrid.

  4. Potential Efficiency of Riparian Vegetated Buffer Strips in Intercepting Soluble Compounds in the Presence of Subsurface Preferential Flows

    PubMed Central

    Allaire, Suzanne Edith; Sylvain, Claudia; Lange, Sébastien F.; Thériault, George; Lafrance, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Buffer strips have been widely recognized as to promote infiltration, deposition and sorption of contaminants for protecting surface water against agricultural contamination. However, such strips do not intercept all contaminants, particularly soluble ones. Although preferential flow (PF) has been suggested as one factor among several decreasing the efficiency of buffer strips, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. This project examines buffer strip efficiency at intercepting solutes when subsurface PF occurs. Two soluble sorbed tracers, FD&C Blue #1 and rhodamine WT, were applied on an agricultural sandy loam soil to evaluate the ability of a naturally vegetated buffer strip to intercept soluble contaminants. Rhodamine was applied about 15 m from the creek, while the Blue was applied 15 m to 165 m from the creek. Tracer concentration was measured over a two-year period in both the creek and the buffer strip through soil and water samples. Although the tracers traveled via different pathways, they both quickly moved toward the creek, passing beneath the buffer strip through the soil matrix. Our results demonstrate that the risk of water contamination by soluble contaminants is high in such systems, even when a well-vegetated buffer strip is used. The design of buffer strips should be modified to account for underground bypass, either by using plants that have deep, fine roots that do not favour PF or by adding a filter extending deep underground that can be regularly changed. PMID:26147093

  5. Livestock Grazing and Vegetative Filter Strip Buffer Effects on Runoff Sediment, Nitrate, and Phosphorus Losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research quantifies the effects of grazing management practices and vegetated filter strip (VFS) buffers on losses of runoff (RO) with total solids (TS), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), ortho-phosphorus (PO4-P), and total-phosphorus (TP) during natural rainfall events. Runoff data were collected from...

  6. EVALUATING UNCERTAINTY IN E. COLI RETENTION IN VEGETATED BUFFER STRIPS IN LOCATIONS SELECTED WITH SWAT SIMULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetated buffer strips (VFS), as the best management practice, have become an important component of the water quality improvement in watersheds. The SWAT model allows for a comprehensive description of agricultural practices, and has proven to be efficient in applications to watershed with a subst...

  7. Riparian buffer strips as a multifunctional management tool in agricultural landscapes: introduction.

    PubMed

    Stutter, Marc I; Chardon, Wim J; Kronvang, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Catchment riparian areas are considered key zones to target mitigation measures aimed at interrupting the movement of diffuse substances from agricultural land to surface waters. Hence, unfertilized buffer strips have become a widely studied and implemented "edge of field" mitigation measure assumed to provide an effective physical barrier against nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sediment transfer. To ease the legislative process, these buffers are often narrow mandatory strips along streams and rivers, across different riparian soil water conditions, between bordering land uses of differing pollution burdens, and without prescribed buffer management. It would be easy to criticize such regulation for not providing the opportunity for riparian ecosystems to maximize their provision for a wider range of ecosystem goods and services. The scientific basis for judging the best course of action in designing and placing buffers to enhance their multifunctionality has slowly increased over the last five years. This collection of papers aims to add to this body of knowledge by giving examples of studies related to riparian buffer management and assessment throughout Europe. This introductory paper summarizes discussion sessions and 13 selected papers from a workshop held in Ballater, UK, highlighting research on riparian buffers brought together under the EU COST Action 869 knowledge exchange program. The themes addressed are (i) evidence of catchment- to national-scale effectiveness, (ii) ecological functioning linking terrestrial and aquatic habitats, (iii) modeling tools for assessment of effectiveness and costs, and (iv) process understanding enabling management and manipulation to enhance pollutant retention in buffers. The combined understanding led us to consider four principle key questions to challenge buffer strip research and policy. PMID:22370391

  8. Prediction of surface flow hydrology and sediment retention upslope of a vetiver buffer strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Janet; Yu, Bofu; Ghadiri, Hossein; Rose, Calvin

    2007-05-01

    SummaryVegetated buffer strips are widely used to reduce fluxes of eroding soil and associated chemicals, from hillslopes into waterways. Sediment retention by buffers is time-dependent, with its effectiveness changing with the deposition process. Our research focuses on settling of sediment upslope of stiff grass buffers at three slopes, under subcritical flow conditions. A new model is developed which couples the hydraulics, sediment deposition and subsequent adjustment to topography in order to predict water and sediment profiles upslope of a buffer with time. Experiments to test the model were carried out in the Griffith University Tilting-Flume Simulated Rainfall facility using subcritical flows at 1%, 3% and 5% slopes. Water and sediment profiles were measured at different times as Vertisol sediment was introduced upslope of a vetiver grass strip. A region of increased flow depth (backwater) was produced upslope of the strip which increased in depth and decreased in length with increasing slope. Backwater height could be predicted from flow rates and thus could be used as an input for the model in the absence of experimental data. As slope increased, sediment was deposited closer to the grass strip, moving into the grass strip itself at 5% slope. The grass strip was less effective in reducing sediment in the outflow as slope increased and differences between slopes were significant. Model prediction of water and sediment profiles compared reasonably well with measured data, giving low root mean square errors and high coefficients of model efficiency. Masses of deposited sediment were generally simulated within 20% of measured values. However, simulated particle size distributions of deposited sediment were less accurate.

  9. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts through Vegetated Buffer Strips and Estimated Filtration Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Atwill, Edward R.; Hou, Lingling; Karle, Betsy M.; Harter, Thomas; Tate, Kenneth W.; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2002-01-01

    Vegetated buffer strips were evaluated for their ability to remove waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum from surface and shallow subsurface flow during simulated rainfall rates of 15 or 40 mm/h for 4 h. Log10 reductions for spiked C. parvum oocysts ranged from 1.0 to 3.1 per m of vegetated buffer, with buffers set at 5 to 20% slope, 85 to 99% fescue cover, soil textures of either silty clay (19:47:34 sand-silt-clay), loam (45:37:18), or sandy loam (70:25:5), and bulk densities of between 0.6 to 1.7 g/cm3. Vegetated buffers constructed with sandy loam or higher soil bulk densities were less effective at removing waterborne C. parvum (1- to 2-log10 reduction/m) compared to buffers constructed with silty clay or loam or at lower bulk densities (2- to 3-log10 reduction/m). The effect of slope on filtration efficiency was conditional on soil texture and soil bulk density. Based on these results, a vegetated buffer strip comprised of similar soils at a slope of ≤20% and a length of ≥3 m should function to remove ≥99.9% of C. parvum oocysts from agricultural runoff generated during events involving mild to moderate precipitation. PMID:12406745

  10. Utilizing Vegetative Buffer Strips to Remove Dissolved and Sediment-Bound Atrazine, Metolachlor and Glyphosate from Surface Water Runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple species vegetative buffer strips (VBS) have been recommended as a cost-effective approach to mitigate herbicide transport in surface runoff derived from agronomic operations. However, the effect of buffer designs and species composition on reducing herbicide transport has not been well doc...

  11. UTILIZING VEGETATIVE BUFFER STRIPS TO REMOVE DISSOLVED AND SEDIMENT-BOUND ATRAZINE, METOLACHLOR AND GLYPHOSATE FROM SURFACE RUNOFF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple species vegetative buffer strips (VBS) have been recommended as a cost-effective approach to mitigate herbicide transport in surface runoff derived from agronomic operations. However, the effect of buffer designs and species composition on reducing herbicide transport has not been well docu...

  12. Establishment of a Riparian Buffer Strip for Alleviating Lake Eutrophication in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, M.; Naka, K.; Wu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Riparian buffer strips are a growing conservation practice to control and mitigate non-point source pollution in Asia. China has seen rapid population growth and economic development in the last fifty years, coupled with a rapid increase in environmental pollution. Freshwater ecosystems have been particularly affected. Lake Tai, China's 3rd largest freshwater lake by volume, has seen a severe reduction in water quality since economic reforms began in the 1970s. Thus, significant interest for establishing riparian buffer strips in agricultural watersheds and freshwater systems within China is warranted. Eight 50 m x 20 m plots adjacent to a rice-phragmites farm were cleared within the Lake Tai basin region in Jiangsu Province, China. Seven plots were planted with either a Poplar hybrid, Cypress hybrid or a combination of both at varying densities, while the control and final plot allowed only for local vegetation to grow naturally. Soil, tree and groundwater samples were collected from all plots and analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. At this time in the study, results have been analyzed only for nitrogen concentrations using the ANOVA procedure. Results for both nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are currently being analyzed.

  13. Experiences gained from implementing mandatory buffer strips in Denmark: how can we enhance their ecosystem services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Hille, Sandra; Rubæk, Gitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Gertz, Flemming; Jensen, Henning; Feuerback, Peter; Strand, John; Stutter, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The Danish Parliament adopted in June 2012 a Buffer Strip Act that required 10 m mandatory buffer strips (BSs) to be established along all watercourses and lakes with a surface area greater than 100 m2 from 1st September 2012. The main reasons for deploying BSs was to reduce nitrate-N leaching and phosphorus (P) loss via surface runoff from adjoining fields from the approximately 50,000 ha of BSs as no farming activities were allowed in the BS concerning use of fertilizer, spreading of manure, spraying with pesticides, etc. Reductions in nutrient losses to watercourses are needed for minimizing the eutrophication effects in lakes and coastal waters. Buffer strips are among the most well studied and frequently adapted mitigation measure for reducing sediment and P losses to surface waters via surface runoff. It has, however, been questioned if BSs can also reduce N losses. The international literature gives an overwhelming support to their functioning for reduction in sediment and especially particulate P losses. However, their functioning for dissolved P and nitrogen is more questionable when comparing studies from the international literature. In Denmark, many farmers were against the introduction of BSs as a general mitigation measure for several reasons. The most used argument in the public debate was that BSs in general are not very efficient for reducing N and P losses to surface waters which was originally the argument behind the BS Act from the Ministries of Environment and Food and Agriculture. A desk study had been made prior to the adaptation of the law that showed 10 m BSs to be able to reduce the N loading with 40-50 kg N ha-1 of BS and 0.04-0.4 kg P ha-1 BS. The total reduction from the BSs established in Denmark in 2012 would then amount to 2,000-2,500 tonnes N and 2-20 tonnes P. The intense public debate in Denmark made the Parliament to adopt a new BS law in June 2014 to be implemented in August 2014 that reduced the total areas with mandatory BSs

  14. Evaluating non-equilibrum herbicides transport in undisturbed grassed buffer strips soil columns.

    PubMed

    Martinez Cordon, M J; Yra, A; Pot, V; Benoit, P

    2003-01-01

    Possible contamination of water resources by applied pesticides (including insecticides and herbicides) is a problem currently. Grassed buffer strips have been considered to limit pesticide transfer to surface waters by reducing run-off and erosion. As reduction of run-off mainly involves infiltration in the grassed strip soils, possibility of groundwater contamination by rapid transfer of pesticides via the numerous root channels and macropores presents in grassed soils can not be excluded so far. The beneficial impact of high pesticide retention in the superficial horizons of these soils, related to their high organic matter content, could therefore be strongly reduced by the occurrence of preferential flows. Displacement studies on leaching of bromide (water tracer) and two herbicides, metribuzin (weakly adsorbed) and isoproturon (moderately adsorbed) were conducted in two undisturbed soil columns (length 30 cm, diameter 14 cm) collected from La Jaillière (Loire Atlantique, France) under non saturated conditions. The infiltration fluxes, delivered through a rainfall simulator, were 1.5 and 3 mm/h for one of the columns and 0.6, 1.5 and 3 mm/h for the second column. We obtained asymmetrical shapes of the breakthrough curves, with early breakthrough and increased tailing, qualitatively indicating the presence of preferential flow and confirming the risk of pesticide vertical transport through grassed strips superficial soil horizons. The results showed that leaching of both herbicides increased with the intensity of rainfall applied. This could be explained by a decrease of herbicides sorption due to a lower residence time in the soil. PMID:15149138

  15. Prediction of the Effectiveness of Grass Buffer Strips in Removing Sediment using Artificial Neural Networks and Regression Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, S.; Ghadiri, H.; Yu, B.

    2013-12-01

    Grass buffer strips are widely used and known as effective management practices for controlling sediment and particulate nutrients. They change the hydrology and hydraulics of the flow by increasing the infiltration rate and decreasing the flow velocity. It is essential to consider the effects of major factors on performance of grass strips in order to predict their efficiency in removing sediment. An artificial neural network model with a 'two-layer feedforward backpropagation' structure and an ensemble of 'bootstrap aggregation' regression trees were developed using data gathered from 35 different studies in order to predict the efficiency of grass strips on removing sediment in different conditions. Slope, length of strips, size distribution of the inflow sediment, antecedent soil moisture, and density and stiffness of the grass strips were the major factors considered in developing the models. The two model predictions of the efficiency of grass strips in trapping sediment compared reasonably well with independent data sets, giving low root mean square errors and high coefficients of model efficiency. The sensitivity analysis showed that particle size distribution, length of strips, and the antecedent soil moisture are the most effective factors upon the performance of grass strips in removing sediment.

  16. Influence of soil spatial variability on surface and subsurface flow at a vegetative buffer strip scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatel, Laura; Lauvernet, Claire; Carluer, Nadia; Paniconi, Claudio; Leblois, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of soil hydrodynamic characteristics variability on surface and subsurface flow at a vegetative buffer strip scale, using mecanistic modeling. Cathy (CATchment HYdrology, Camporese et al. 2010) is a research physically based model able to simulate coupled surface/subsurface flow. The evaluation of soil hydrodynamic characteristics variability is based essentially on saturated hydraulic conductivity because of its large spatial variability in the 3 dimensions and its important influence on flow pathways, as well as its high influence on the model output variables. After testing the model sensitivity to some input variables, to the boundary conditions and to the mesh definition, the work focuses on hydraulic conductivity parametrization. The study was first conducted with uniform (by horizons) conductivity domains based on field measurements. In a second step, heterogeneous fields were generated by a statistical tool which allows the user to choose the statistical law (in this case, lognormal or Gauss), the hydraulic conductivity auto-correlation length and the possibility to condition the fields with measured points. With all these different ways to represent spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, model simulated surface and subsurface fluxes consistent with datasets from artificial run-off experiments on an French wineyard hillslope (Morcille catchment, Beaujolais, France). Model simulations are evaluated and compared to observations on several criteria : consistency, stability, interaction with water table, etc...

  17. Effects of moisture, elevated temperature, and fatigue loading on the behavior of graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels with center cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of fatigue loading combined with moisture and heat on the behavior of graphite epoxy panels with either Kevlar-49 or S-glass buffer strips were studied. Buffer strip panels, that had a slit in the center to represent damage, were moisture conditioned or heated, fatigue loaded, and then tested in tension to measure their residual strength. The buffer strips were parallel to the loading direction and were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with Kevlar-49 epoxy or S-glass epoxy on a 1-for-1 basis. The panels were subjected to a fatigue loading spectrum. One group of panels was preconditioned by soaking in 60 C water to produce a 1 percent weight gain then tested at room temperature. One group was heated to 82 C during the fatigue loading. Another group was moisture conditioned and then tested at 82 C. The residual strengths of the buffer panels were not highly affected by the fatigue loading, the number of repetitions of the loading spectrum, or the maximum strain level. The moisture conditioning reduced the residual strengths of the S-glass buffer strip panel by 10 to 15 percent below the ambient results. The moisture conditioning did not have a large effect on the Kevlar-49 panels.

  18. Evaluating uncertainty in E. coli retention in vegetated buffer strips in locations selected with SWAT simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetated fulter strips (VFS), as a best management practice, have become an important component of the water quality improvement in watersheds. The SWAT model allows for a comprehensive description of agricultural practices, and has proven to be efficient in applications to watershed with a substan...

  19. Stress intensity factors of composite orthotropic plates containing periodic buffer strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The fracture problem of laminated plates which consist of bonded orthotropic layers is studied. The fields equations for an elastic orthotropic body are transformed to give the displacement and stress expressions for each layer or strip. The unknown functions in these expressions are found by satisfying the remaining boundary and continuity conditions. A system of singular integral equations is obtained from the mixed boundary conditions. The singular behavior around the crack tip and at the bimaterial interface is studied. The stress intensity factors are computed for various material combinations and various crack geometries. The results are discussed and are compared with those for isotropic materials.

  20. EFFECTS OF A LIVESTOCK MANURE WINDROW COMPOSTING SITE WITH A FLY ASH PAD SURFACE AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIP BUFFERS ON SEDIMENT, NITRATE, AND PHOSPHORUS LOSSES WITH RUNOFF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study quantified the effects of a livestock manure–based windrow composting practice with a fly ash composting pad surface and vegetative filter strip (VFS) buffers on losses of runoff, runoff percent of rainfall, total solids, nitrate-nitrogen, ortho-phosphorus (PO4-P), and total-phosphorus du...

  1. Surface runoff pollution by cattle slurry and inorganic fertilizer spreading: chemical oxygen demand, ortho-phosphates, and electrical conductivity levels for different buffer strip lengths.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Delgado, A; López-Periago, E; Quiroga-Lago, F; Díaz-Fierros Viqueira, F

    2001-01-01

    As a way of dealing with the removal of pollutants from farming practices generated wastewater in the EU, we investigate the effect of spreading cattle slurry and inorganic fertiliser on 8 x 5 m2 and 8 x 3 m2 areas, referred to surface runoff chemical oxygen demand (COD), ortho-phosphates (o-P) and electrical conductivity (EC) levels, and the efficiency of grass buffer strips of various lengths in removing pollutants from runoff. The experimental plot was a 15% sloped Lolium perenne pasture. Surface runoff was generated by means of a rainfall simulator working at 47 mm h-1 rainfall intensity. Runoff was sampled by using Gerlach-type troughs situated 2, 4, 6 and 8 m downslope from the amended areas. During the first rainfall simulation, COD, o-P and EC levels were consistently higher in the slurry zone, more evidently in the larger amended area. During the second and third rainfall simulations, concentration and mass levels show a downslope drift into the buffer zones, with no clear buffer strip length attenuation. Correlation between runoff and mass drift is clearly higher in the slurry zone. Percentage attenuation in COD and o-P levels, referred to initial slurry concentrations--including rainfall dilution--were higher than 98%, and higher than 90% for EC. PMID:11496670

  2. Alfalfa: bioenergy and more

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  3. Using Gene Arrays as Tools to Develop Alfalfa as a Biomass Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa has considerable potential as a biomass feedstock for producing cellulosic ethanol. The model that we propose for alfalfa as a biomass crop involves stripping leaves from stems. The leaves would be used as a protein supplement for livestock while the stems would be used for cellulosic ethano...

  4. Reduced Lignin Alfalfa - Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. farmers harvested alfalfa (Medicago sativa) for hay or haylage from 24.5million acres in 2009. Midwestern states harvested 57 % of 2009 acreage for hay and haylage. However, acreage is stable to declining. Alfalfa provides an excellent source of fiber, protein, minerals and vitamins that partia...

  5. Drought and alfalfa nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although established alfalfa can access deep subsoil water, dry topsoils limit the availability of many nutrients. Dry topsoils can limit the uptake of many plant nutrients. With the potential for drought in 2007, farmers should consider fertilizing alfalfa if the soil tends to be droughty, is shall...

  6. Manure on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  7. Manure use on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...

  8. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  9. ALFALFA: BIOFUEL AND FEED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop that supports Idaho's dairy industry. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of its high biomasss production...

  10. Plant bugs on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper treats the most important plant bugs, or Miridae, found on alfalfa in North America. It is estimated that more than 10 species of plant bugs have the potential to develop on this important forage legume. Of these, the alfalfa plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus), pale legume bug (Lygus e...

  11. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  12. Review of Roundup Ready Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...

  13. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:25300843

  14. Weed Research in Alfalfa Seed Production 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in alfalfa seed production is important to produce high quality and high yield of alfalfa seed. Herbicides were tested on a commercial field of alfalfa seed in central Washington in 2007. Flumioxzin slightly injured alfalfa when applied at 0.125 and 0.25 lb ai/a. to dormant alfalfa in M...

  15. Brown Root Rot of Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This bulletin describes the disease of alfalfa called brown root rot (BRR) including: the disease symptoms, the fungal pathogen and its biology, its distribution, and disease management. Since the 1920s, BRR has been regarded as an important disease of forage legumes, including alfalfa, in northern ...

  16. Biotechnological advancements in alfalfa improvement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh

    2011-05-01

    Review of biotechnology research in alfalfa shows that molecular techniques are extensively being used for basic and applied research toward alfalfa improvement. Biotechnological approaches have been used in two major areas, genomics and transgenics. In genomics, molecular markers, structural and functional genomics allowed identification of genes of interest and their regulatory components. Alfalfa being obstinate to genetic and genomic analysis, comparative genomics is used for molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes in alfalfa. Alternatively, transgenic approach involves incorporation of specific and useful genes into alfalfa to improve the traits of interest. Input traits to improve agronomic performance and output traits to improve forage quality, or to produce novel industrial/pharmaceutical proteins, are the focus of current transgenic research in alfalfa. However, transgenic approach is controversial requiring cautious experimental design to combat bioisafety concerns. Ideally, forage alfalfa needs to possess more fermentable carbohydrates, proteins with balanced amino acid profile that degrade slower in rumen, improved winter hardiness, better water use efficiency, pest resistance and no anti-quality factors. Concerted efforts are required to bring together maximum of these characteristic features into the alfalfa plant. PMID:21279557

  17. Alfalfa subsp. sativa by falcata intersubspecific semi-hybrid seed production using alfalfa leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intersubspecific sativa by falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hybrids offer a means of improving alfalfa dry matter yields. The alfalfa leafcutter bee (Megachile rotundata F.) is a major pollinator used in alfalfa seed production in North America. Alfalfa leafcutter bees have a pollinator prefer...

  18. Cogeneration for existing alfalfa processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.

  19. Impact of buffer type on streamside nutrient concentrations in Upper Big Walnut Creek, Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification and assessment of conservation practices continues to be important for the protection of natural resources. Buffers, also referred to as filter strips, buffer strips, riparian buffers, or vegetative filters are one of the most common types of conservation practice installed in the...

  20. Genetically engineered alfalfa and feral alfalfa plants: What should growers know?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L) is the world’s most important forage crop. The western United States is the most important production area for both alfalfa forage and alfalfa seed. Alfalfa was the first major perennial genetically-engineered (GE)crop and a GE trait for resistance to glypho...

  1. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. PMID:22218195

  2. Buffer Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Presents a science experiment in which students test the buffering capacity of household products such as shampoo, hand lotion, fizzies candy, and cola. Lists the standards addressed in this experiment and gives an example of a student lab write-up. (YDS)

  3. Genetic Mapping of Persistence in Tetraploid Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence is a critical trait for alfalfa, yet the genetics of this trait is poorly understood. Herein, we characterize an F1 alfalfa population derived from the cross between the two cultivated alfalfa subpecies for persistence in three production seasons at Ames and Nashua, Iowa locations and o...

  4. Managing the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa provides many benefits to cropping systems. These benefits occur both during alfalfa production and during the subsequent crops that follow. Some of the common benefits during alfalfa production are increased soil organic matter, decreased soil erosion, and decreased soil nitrate leaching lo...

  5. Prickly lettuce control in alfalfa seed production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds are particularly troublesome in alfalfa grown for seed due to the wider row spacing and the lack of multiple cuttings compared to alfalfa grown for hay. Prickly lettuce is often an escape weed in alfalfa seed production fields as it can germinate throughout the entire year and is naturally tol...

  6. Ensiling Characteristics of Alfalfa Leaves and Stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...

  7. Stripping Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  8. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  9. A buffer value index to evaluate effects of buffers on ruminal milieu in cows fed high or low concentrate, silage, or hay diets.

    PubMed

    Tucker, W B; Hogue, J F; Aslam, M; Lema, M; Martin, M; Owens, F N; Shin, I S; Le Ruyet, P; Adams, G D

    1992-03-01

    Our objective was to develop a buffer value index that would incorporate alterations in both ruminal fluid pH and buffering capacity as indicators of the influence of dietary buffering and alkalinizing agents on ruminal acid-base status. This index was evaluated using ruminal fluid from four lactating Holstein cows fed either sorghum silage or alfalfa hay in high or low concentrate diets. Ruminal fluid was incubated in vitro for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 h with no buffer or with 7.1 g of either NaHCO3, sodium sesquicarbonate, or a multielement buffer added per liter of ruminal fluid. Ruminal fluid pH was lower for diets based on high concentrate or alfalfa; buffering capacity between pH 5 and 7 was greater for high concentrate diets but was not affected by forage type. Ruminal fluid pH was higher for sesquicarbonate than for NaHCO3, the multielement buffer, or the control; however, ruminal fluid H+ concentration was similar between sesquicarbonate and NaHCO3, and both were lower than for the multielement buffer. Hydrogen ion concentration for the multielement buffer was lower than for the control. Buffering capacity was highest for NaHCO3, followed by sesquicarbonate, the multielement buffer, and the control. The buffer value index, which accounted for alterations in both H+ concentration and buffering capacity, was highest for NaCHO3, followed by sesquicarbonate, the multielement buffer, and the control. The poor response to the multielement buffer may be attributable to our relatively short incubation interval (less than 5 h). Dietary buffers increase both ruminal fluid pH and buffering capacity; both of these responses are beneficial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1314858

  10. Alfalfa hay induced primary photosensitization in horses.

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization. PMID:27040919

  11. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  12. Modeling degradation ratios and nutrient availability of anthocyanidin-accumulating Lc-alfalfa populations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jonker, A; Gruber, M Y; Wang, Y; Coulman, B; Azarfar, A; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A; Yu, P

    2011-03-01

    Dairy cattle eating fresh or ensiled alfalfa as the main portion of their diet often have low protein efficiency because of the rapid initial rate of ruminal protein degradation of fresh and ensiled alfalfa. Ruminal protein degradation of alfalfa might be reduced by introducing a gene that stimulates the accumulation of mono- or polymeric anthocyanidins in alfalfa. The objectives of this study were to fractionate protein and carbohydrates by in situ and chemical approaches, to evaluate in situ ruminal degradation characteristics and synchronization ratios, to determine protein availability to dairy cattle using the 2007 digestible intestinal protein/rumen-degraded protein balance (DVE/OEB) protein system, and to determine net energy for lactation using the Dutch net energy for lactation (VEM) system for 3 newly developed transgenic winter hardy anthocyanidin-accumulating T(1)Lc-alfalfa populations. These T(1)Lc-alfalfa populations, called (T1)BeavLc1, (T1)RambLc3, and (T1)RangLc4, had an average anthocyanidin accumulation of 163.4 μg/g of DM, whereas AC Grazeland (selected for a low initial rate of degradation) did not accumulate anthocyanidin. The basic chemical composition of the original samples, soluble and potentially degradable fractions, and degradation characteristics of crude protein and carbohydrates were similar in T(1)Lc-alfalfa and AC Grazeland. The undegradable in situ crude protein and neutral detergent fiber fraction had 1.3% lower CP and 4.8% lower CHO, respectively, in T(1)Lc-alfalfa compared with the amounts in AC Grazeland. The T(1)Lc-alfalfa had a 0.34 MJ/kg of DM higher calculated net energy for lactation and 1.9% of CP higher buffer soluble protein compared with that in AC Grazeland. By the protein evaluation model, it was predicted that T(1)Lc-alfalfa tended to have 11.9, 6.9, and 8.4 g/kg of DM higher rumen degradable protein, OEB, and intestinal available protein, respectively, compared with the amounts in AC Grazeland. The hourly OEB

  13. Redesigning alfalfa to reduce protein losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is often referred to as the “Queen of Forages” due to its relatively good digestibility, high protein, and ability to readily fix nitrogen. But there’s a big drawback to alfalfa – much of its protein is lost during the harvest and ensiling process, and more is lost in the rumen of livestock....

  14. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is known as the “Queen of the Forages” as it is primarily used as animal feed for dairy cows, beef cattle, horses, sheep, chickens and other domesticated animals. Alfalfa is the forage of choice due to its high feed value and high biomass production along with its ease of establishment; res...

  15. The Tradeoff Between Alfalfa Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within individual harvest periods. ...

  16. Past and Present Management of Alfalfa Bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter covers the history of alfalfa pollination by bees. The management of alkali bees, Nomia melanderi, and alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata, is described. Concerns surrounding the current and future use of these bee species as commercial pollinators are discussed....

  17. Bird community response to filter strips in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blank, P.J.; Dively, G.P.; Gill, D.E.; Rewa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Filter strips are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted along agricultural field margins adjacent to streams or wetlands and are designed to intercept sediment, nutrients, and agrichemicals. Roughly 16,000 ha of filter strips have been established in Maryland through the United States Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program. Filter strips often represent the only uncultivated herbaceous areas on farmland in Maryland and therefore may be important habitat for early-successional bird species. Most filter strips in Maryland are planted to either native warm-season grasses or cool-season grasses and range in width from 10.7 m to 91.4 m. From 2004 to 2007 we studied the breeding and wintering bird communities in filter strips adjacent to wooded edges and non-buffered field edges and the effect that grass type and width of filter strips had on bird community composition. We used 5 bird community metrics (total bird density, species richness, scrub-shrub bird density, grassland bird density, and total avian conservation value), species-specific densities, nest densities, and nest survival estimates to assess the habitat value of filter strips for birds. Breeding and wintering bird community metrics were greater in filter strips than in non-buffered field edges but did not differ between cool-season and warm-season grass filter strips. Most breeding bird community metrics were negatively related to the percent cover of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) in ???1 yr. Breeding bird density was greater in narrow (60 m) filter strips. Our results suggest that narrow filter strips adjacent to wooded edges can provide habitat for many bird species but that wide filter strips provide better habitat for grassland birds, particularly obligate grassland species. If bird conservation is an objective, avoid planting orchardgrass in filter strips and reduce or eliminate orchardgrass from filter strips through management practices. Copyright ?? 2011 The

  18. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  19. Short-term low temperature storage of alfalfa leafcutting bee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a major pollinator in alfalfa seed production systems throughout North America. Recent studies have shown that improved timing of female establishment and alfalfa bloom may allow producers to pollinate alfalfa seed crop...

  20. Use of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to enhance in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A; Schulze, H

    2007-03-01

    Two in vitro experiments were performed to identify promising exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products (EFE) and optimum dose rates (DR) for improving the degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage. The relationship between enzymatic activity and fermentation responses was examined to identify optimum formulations. In experiment 1, 5 EFE containing mainly endoglucanase and xylanase activities, with different ratios between the 2 activities, were assessed at a DR of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1 mg/g of DM forage. Milled alfalfa hay or corn silage was incubated in an in vitro batch culture with buffer, ruminal fluid, and EFE. Gas production (GP) was measured during 24 h of incubation, and degradabilities of DM and fiber were measured after terminating the incubation at 24 h. Two (E1 and E3) EFE substantially improved GP and degradation of alfalfa hay and corn silage fiber. The optimum DR of these EFE was 1.4 mg/g of DM for both forages with improvements in NDF degradability up to 20.6% for alfalfa hay and up to 60.3% for corn silage. Whereas added activities of endoglucanase and exoglucanase were positively correlated with improvement in NDF degradability for alfalfa hay and corn silage, there was no relationship between added xylanase activity and NDF degradability. The 2 most promising EFE from experiment 1 were reevaluated in experiment 2, alone and in combination with a high xylanase EFE, to determine whether their effectiveness could be enhanced by decreasing the endoglucanase to xylanase ratio. The 2 EFE improved GP and fiber degradation in a manner similar to that observed in experiment 1, but the combination treatments resulted in no further beneficial effects. Exogenous fibrolytic enzyme products can greatly improve forage utilization, but DR and the activities supplied are critical for achieving this response. Products used with alfalfa hay and corn silage should contain high endoglucanase activity, with an ideal ratio of endoglucanse to xylanase. PMID:17297117

  1. Seeding Rate Effect on Establishment and Yield of Alfalfa in Bermudagrass Sod

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing alfalfa often requires field conversion from another forage species. Planting alfalfa into bermudagrass sod reduces risk of forage loss because bermudagrass would remain if alfalfa was not successfully established. Previous Arkansas experiments on establishing alfalfa in bermudagrass so...

  2. Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes, with more than 650 genera and 20,000 species, range from herbaceous annuals to woody perennials that are important for providing quality human diet and livestock diet. Legumes also contribute to sustainable agriculture because they can fix nitrogen in symbiosis with the soil bacteria called...

  3. Alfalfa

    MedlinePlus

    ... like estrogen, and this might affect the pregnancy. “Auto-immune diseases” such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus ( ... active, and this could increase the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. There are two case reports of ...

  4. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  5. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002952.htm Varicose vein stripping To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Vein stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs. Description Varicose veins are swollen, ...

  6. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  7. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  8. Cash in on N credits when corn follows alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When alfalfa is killed, some of the accumulated N in the soil and in alfalfa leaves, stems, and roots becomes available to subsequent crops. This increased N supply is known as the “alfalfa N credit,” which is the amount of fertilizer or available manure N a grower can save, resulting in higher net ...

  9. Comparative drought response in eleven diverse alfalfa accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production is often negatively affected by drought stress. This is particularly true for alfalfa that is cultivated on rangeland. Thus, the development of drought-tolerant alfalfa cultivars is of great significance. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate 11 alfa...

  10. Using genomics to develop alfalfa as a biomass crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is frequently overlooked as a biomass feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production. However, alfalfa has a number of advantages compared to other potential feedstocks. Alfalfa is a perennial, non-food crop that fixes atmospheric nitrogen, improves soil quality, and provides environmental bene...

  11. Understanding the Regulation of Cell Wall Composition in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and has excellent potential to be a sustainable cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. As the alfalfa stem matures, the xylem tissues become rich in cellulose, xylan, and lignin. The ideal alfalfa plant would have stems...

  12. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  13. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  14. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  15. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  16. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  17. MANURE MANAGEMENT: ALFALFA FIELDS GIVE US OPTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The average cow in the U.S. produces more than 18,000 lbs. of milk each year and generates about 42,000 lbs. of manure. Manure management is not the only task on the farmer's 'to do' list, but in today’s world it is increasingly important to do it right. Although alfalfa acreage is a relatively smal...

  18. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  19. Sativa by falcata alfalfa hybrid variety trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) subsp. sativa by subsp. falcata hybrids showed heterosis. Limited work has been done examining these hybrids in a sward situation. The objective of this study was to produce sativa by falcata hybrids using Dairyland Seed Company’...

  20. N fixation versus N uptake in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer N is the single most expensive input in nearly all crop-production systems and has been implicated in declining groundwater quality due to nitrate contamination. Commercial alfalfas are highly productive in the absence of nitrogen inputs because of the symbiotic association with soil bact...

  1. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  2. ALFALFA TRAITS THAT WILL IMPACT BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in production of energy from renewable resources such as biomass has increased tremendously with the recent price spike for oil and growing recognition of the threat posed by global warming. Alfalfa is an attractive alternative for biomass production because of its perennial nature, ability...

  3. Common data buffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, F.

    1981-01-01

    Time-shared interface speeds data processing in distributed computer network. Two-level high-speed scanning approach routes information to buffer, portion of which is reserved for series of "first-in, first-out" memory stacks. Buffer address structure and memory are protected from noise or failed components by error correcting code. System is applicable to any computer or processing language.

  4. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  5. Prefix Stripping Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes three experiments on prefix stripping. Results show that pseudoprefixed words are indiscriminately treated as prefixed words and concludes that prefix stripping does occur in word recognition and that prefixed words are accessed through a representation of their stem. (Author/BK)

  6. Science Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  7. Buffer Therapy for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria de Lourdes C; Silva, Ariosto S; Bailey, Kate M; Kumar, Nagi B; Sellers, Thomas A; Gatenby, Robert A; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J

    2012-08-15

    Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. Effectiveness of buffer therapy is likely to be affected by diet, which could contribute or interfere with the therapeutic alkalinizing effect. Little data on food pH buffering capacity was available. This study evaluated the pH and buffering capacity of different foods to guide prospective trials and test the effect of the same buffer (lysine) at two different ionization states. Food groups were derived from the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Foods were blended and pH titrated with acid from initial pH values until 4.0 to determine "buffering score", in mmol H(+)/pH unit. A "buffering score" was derived as the mEq H(+) consumed per serving size to lower from initial to a pH 4.0, the postprandial pH of the distal duodenum. To differentiate buffering effect from any metabolic byproduct effects, we compared the effects of oral lysine buffers prepared at either pH 10.0 or 8.4, which contain 2 and 1 free base amines, respectively. The effect of these on experimental metastases formation in mice following tail vein injection of PC-3M prostate cancer cells were monitored with in vivo bioluminescence. Carbohydrates and dairy products' buffering score varied between 0.5 and 19. Fruits and vegetables showed a low to zero buffering score. The score of meats varied between 6 and 22. Wine and juices had negative scores. Among supplements, sodium bicarbonate and Tums(®) had the highest buffering capacities, with scores of 11 and 20 per serving size, respectively. The "de-buffered" lysine had a less pronounced effect of prevention of metastases compared to lysine at pH 10. This study has demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of buffer therapy and suggests foods that can contribute to or compete with this approach to manage cancer. PMID:24371544

  8. Buffer Therapy for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria de Lourdes C; Silva, Ariosto S.; Bailey, Kate M.; Kumar, Nagi B.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. Effectiveness of buffer therapy is likely to be affected by diet, which could contribute or interfere with the therapeutic alkalinizing effect. Little data on food pH buffering capacity was available. This study evaluated the pH and buffering capacity of different foods to guide prospective trials and test the effect of the same buffer (lysine) at two different ionization states. Food groups were derived from the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Foods were blended and pH titrated with acid from initial pH values until 4.0 to determine “buffering score”, in mmol H+/pH unit. A “buffering score” was derived as the mEq H+ consumed per serving size to lower from initial to a pH 4.0, the postprandial pH of the distal duodenum. To differentiate buffering effect from any metabolic byproduct effects, we compared the effects of oral lysine buffers prepared at either pH 10.0 or 8.4, which contain 2 and 1 free base amines, respectively. The effect of these on experimental metastases formation in mice following tail vein injection of PC-3M prostate cancer cells were monitored with in vivo bioluminescence. Carbohydrates and dairy products’ buffering score varied between 0.5 and 19. Fruits and vegetables showed a low to zero buffering score. The score of meats varied between 6 and 22. Wine and juices had negative scores. Among supplements, sodium bicarbonate and Tums® had the highest buffering capacities, with scores of 11 and 20 per serving size, respectively. The “de-buffered” lysine had a less pronounced effect of prevention of metastases compared to lysine at pH 10. This study has demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of buffer therapy and suggests foods that can contribute to or compete with this approach to manage cancer. PMID:24371544

  9. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study has been completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation (IGCC) system that involves a set of inter-related processes between the alfalfa separation plant and the power plant. The alfalfa fractionation process reduces the stem size, improves the bulk density for feeding and provides a uniform moisture feed. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a fuel for the system. The leaf meal, animal feed co-product is separated from the alfalfa plant. The pressurized gasification process is the RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corporation. The adaptation of the process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion, overcome ash agglomeration, control volatile alkali species, and remove particulate matter with a hot gas filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa.

  10. Excimer laser photoresist stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genut, Menachem; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Iskevitch, Eli; Livshits, Boris

    1996-06-01

    A new method for stripping the most challenging photoresists on deep sub-micron technology semiconductor wafers has been developed. The method uses a combination of UV excimer laser ablation and reactive chemistry to strip the photoresist in a single dry process, eliminating the wet acids or solvents often used following ashing of high dose implantation (HDI) and reactive ion etching (RIE). The stripping process combines new removal mechanisms: chemical assisted UV excimer laser ablation/etching, laser induced chemical etching of side walls and residues, and enhanced combustion. During the laser pulses photolysis of the process gas occurs, UV laser radiation breaks the photoresist polymer chain bonds, and the photoresist (including foreign materials imbedded in it) is ablated. The combustion is ignited by the ablative impact of laser radiation and enhanced by the radicals formed during photo-thermal decomposition of the process gases. Following this process, the volatilized products and gases are evacuated. The optimum laser stripping conditions were developed to provide a wide process window for the most challenging stripping conditions, such as after HDI and RIE (metal, polysilicon), without causing damage to the wafer devices. A photoresist stripping system based on the described technology was designed and built. The system has been designated as the L-StripperTM and provides stripping time of 0.15 s/(micrometer cm2).

  11. Effect of electromagnetic stimulation of alfalfa seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwintal, M.; Dziwulska-Hunek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the conducted experiments the effect of presowing He-Ne laser light, magnetic field stimulation or the combination of these two factors of alfalfa seeds on the field emergence, structure and yields in the year of sowing and during three following years of full land use were studied. The examined factors had a significant effect on the number of shoots per 1 m2, plant height, mass of shoots, fresh and dry mass. Electromagnetic stimulation resulted in a significant increase in alfalfa seeds emergence (from 35% - control to 47.8% - magnetic field), number of shoots per 1m2 (from 608 - control to 813 - laser light in cut), but a decrease of the mass of the shoots (from 0.61 g - control to 0.50 g - laser light).

  12. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Erin; Darling, J.; ALFALFA Team

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot project to search for HI 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is the first to conduct a "blind" wide-area search for HI absorption in the local universe. The search covered 517.0 deg2 spanning 10.9h < α < 14.95h and +7.7o < δ < +16.3o. The ALFALFA survey covers -650 km s-1 < cz < 17,500 km s-1, for a Δz = 0.054 along each line of sight (11% of the cz span is lost to radio frequency interference and Galactic HI emission). There are 243 sources toward which all damped Lyα systems (N(HI) > 2x1020 cm-2) could be detected, and 3282 sources toward which N(HI) > 2x1021 cm-2 columns could be detected (assuming 100 K spin temperature, 30 km s-1 line width, and unity filling factor). We performed Green Bank Telescope follow-up observations of 13 possible absorption lines and the 250 strong sources (> 220 mJy) in our survey region. One previously known intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 was re-detected, but no additional lines were identified in the survey region. Nevertheless, this pilot project demonstrates the value and feasibility of large-area absorption line searches commensal with emission line surveys. An absorption line search of the entire 7000 deg2 ALFALFA Survey is a worthwhile undertaking, not only to identify HI absorption systems in the local universe, but to measure the fraction of HI gas not accounted for by emission line surveys. ALFALFA is a legacy survey at the Arecibo Observatory supported by NAIC and NSF.

  13. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. ); Geno, P.W. )

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  14. Geometrical deuteron stripping revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Neoh, Y. S.; Yap, S. L.

    2014-03-05

    We investigate the reality of the idea of geometrical deuteron stripping originally envisioned by Serber. By taking into account of realistic deuteron wavefunction, nuclear density, and nucleon stopping mean free path, we are able to estimate inclusive deuteron stripping cross section for deuteron energy up to before pion production. Our semiclassical model contains only one global parameter constant for all nuclei which can be approximated by Woods-Saxon or any other spherically symmetric density distribution.

  15. A protease additive increases fermentation of alfalfa diets by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Colombatto, D; Beauchemin, K A

    2009-03-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to examine the characteristics and mode of action of a protease that increased the ruminal fiber digestibility of alfalfa hay. A commercial source of protease (Protex 6L, Genencor Int., Rochester, NY), already characterized for its main activities, was further analyzed to determine protease activity in response to pH, molecular size by SDS-PAGE, specificity to degrade model or feed substrates, response to autoclaving, and action of specific protease inhibitors in the absence or presence of ruminal fluid. In addition, batch culture in vitro incubations in buffered ruminal fluid were conducted to compare the enzyme product with purified protease sources, and dose-response studies (0 to 10 microL/g of forage DM) were carried out using alfalfa hay as a substrate. The enzyme product was shown to be an alkaline protease (optimum pH >8.5) of approximately 30 kDa. Specificity in the absence of ruminal fluid showed that the enzyme was active against gelatin and casein to the same extent, whereas it had limited (21% of the total) activity on BSA. In the presence of ruminal fluid and with the use of feed substrates, the protease increased (P < 0.05) 22-h IVDMD (%) of alfalfa hay, fresh corn silage, dry-rolled corn, and a total mixed ration composed of the 3 ingredients (39.5 vs. 44.7; 50.3 vs. 54.5; 63.8 vs. 68.4; and 55.4 vs. 56.4 for control vs. protease for each feed, respectively). Inhibitor studies in the absence of ruminal fluid indicated that the enzyme was inhibited most by a serine protease inhibitor but not by cysteine- or metalloprotease inhibitors (10 vs. 1.9 and 0.1%, respectively). In the presence of ruminal fluid, the serine protease inhibitor reversed (P < 0.05) the increase in alfalfa IVDMD achieved by the enzyme product, such that IVDMD was similar to that of the control treatment. Comparisons among different proteases revealed that only pure subtilisin achieved increases in IVDMD that were similar to those with protease

  16. Alfalfa forage and seed crop tolerance to flumioxazin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed and forage. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa forage and seed production in 2007 and 2008 in Washington State. Flumioxazin applied at 0.14 and 0.28 kg ai/ha plus paraquat in February t...

  17. Reductions in potash for last-year alfalfa production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying the correct amount of potassium (K) fertilizer is critical for alfalfa yield and stand persistence; however, excess K fertilizer will decrease profits and increase the risk of milk fever when alfalfa is fed to fresh cows. Stand persistence is often not a major concern in the last year of al...

  18. Environmental stability of stem cell wall traits in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem Klason lignin, glucose, xylose, an...

  19. Physical analysis of COMT and CCOMT downregulated alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase (CCOMT) downregulated alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.) have been created. This study examined stem characteristics of these lignin downregulated alfalfas grown in three environments. Twenty COMT and twenty CCOMT downregu...

  20. Predicting fertilizer nitrogen response in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct prediction and application of alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn can reduce fertilizer N costs for growers, reduce over-application of N, and reduce the potential for water contamination. For decades, researchers have found that first-year corn following alfalfa often requires n...

  1. Alfalfa: Potential For New Feed and Biofuel - USDFRC Research Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa hay is a major crop supporting U.S ruminant livestock industry, particularly dairy. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of i...

  2. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  3. ALFALFA YIELD AND QUALITY RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN INDIVIDUAL HARVESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within cuttings over the whole growi...

  4. Does K affect N response of corn after alfalfa?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for farmers to apply optimum K rates for alfalfa-corn rotations. However, little is understood about the effect of excess K applied to alfalfa on the subsequent corn crop's grain and silage yield. Furthermore, relatively ...

  5. Harvest management impacts on stem quality in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem total cell wall concentration, Kla...

  6. Satellite images reveal patterns in crop rotations with alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops that follow alfalfa in rotation usually benefit from: i) reduced nitrogen (N) requirement from fertilizer or manure; ii) increased yield potential than when following other crops; and iii) reduced weed, insect, and disease pressure. Although benefits of alfalfa in crop rotations often depend o...

  7. Dig Alfalfa Plants to Assess Root Rots and Yield Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digging alfalfa plants and inspecting their crowns and roots for rot is critical to assess stand health and production potential. Brown root rot (BRR) has been a significant plant disease on alfalfa for decades but until recently was thought to only cause significant damage in western Canada. With i...

  8. New strategies for managing leaf diseases of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation from leaf diseases has been measured from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, age of the stand, and location. In addition to yield loss, foliar diseases can reduce forag...

  9. Inoculant effects on alfalfa silage: fermentation products and nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of fourteen microbial inoculants on the fermentation and nutritive value of alfalfa silages was studied under laboratory conditions. First (477 g dry matter (DM)/kg) and second cuttings (393 g DM /kg) of a second year alfalfa stand were ensiled in two experiments. In both experiments, alf...

  10. Effect of glyphosate on foliar diseases in Roundup Ready alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation due to foliar diseases varies from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, and locale. Fungicide treatments are cost-effective in only some years and locations. Recently, ...

  11. CYTOGENETIC INVESTIGATIONS OF NON-DORMANT ALFALFA GERMPLASM SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined techniques of chromosome C-banding, image analysis, and cluster analysis were utilized to compare the four historically distinct non-dormant alfalfa germplasm sources of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa). Cytogenetic analyses revealed polymorphisms for heterochromatic DN...

  12. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  13. Complete genome sequence of the alfalfa latent virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In the US it is prevalent in Nebraska and Wisconsin. The virus is recognized as a strain of Pea streak virus (PeSV) So far, no complete genomic sequence of PSV or ALV is availab...

  14. Alfalfa Biomass Germplasms: SFP Detection and Transcriptome Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa] breeding, molecular genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex polysomic inheritance. Increasing cellulose and decreasing lignin in alfalfa stem cell walls would improve ...

  15. Does Alfalfa-Hay NDFD Matter in a Dairy TMR?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three feeding trials were conducted to study the effect of alfalfa-hay in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, 48-hour laboratory incubation in rumen fluid) on Holstein dairy cow performance. Treatments (Lh, Ll, Hh, and Hl) included four alfalfa hays selected for relatively low-(L) o...

  16. Potassium management during the rotation from alfalfa to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for growers to apply optimum K rates to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Current University of Minnesota fertilizer guidelines in the Corn Belt do not change for the last production year when alfalfa stand persistence is not a...

  17. 'Don' a Diploid Falcata Alfalfa for Western US Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Don' (Reg. No. CV-______, PI _______) a diploid falcata alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp falcata L.) developed by the Forage and Range Research Laboratory in Logan, Utah, in cooperation with the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University. Recent interest in falcata alfalfa has been ...

  18. The SVT Hit Buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Belforte, S.; Dell`Orso, M.; Donati, S.

    1996-06-01

    The Hit Buffer is part of the Silicon Vertex Tracker, a trigger processor dedicated to the reconstruction of particle trajectories in the Silicon Vertex Detector and the Central Tracking Chamber of the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The Hit Buffer is a high speed data-traffic node, where thousands of words are received in arbitrary order and simultaneously organized in an internal structured data base, to be later promptly retrieved and delivered in response to specific requests. The Hit Buffer is capable of processing data at a rate of 25 MHz, thanks to the use of special fast devices like Cache-Tag RAMs and high performance Erasable Programmable Logic Devices from the XILINX XC7300 family.

  19. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Minnesota growers was conducted to determine adoption of extension N rate guidelines for fertilizer and manure for first- and second-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (AC and ACC, respectively) during 2009 to 2011. There were 421 and 273 valid responses for A...

  20. Opportunities exist to improve alfalfa and manure nitrogen crediting in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was conducted in 2012 to evaluate the acceptance of fertilizer and manure N extension N rate guidelines for corn (Zea mays L.) grown as the first (AC) and second (ACC) crop following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) during 2009 to 2011 in Minnesota. There were 421 valid responses for AC and 273...

  1. Alfalfa variety development. Minnesota Agripower Project, Task II research report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.

    1997-10-30

    This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.

  2. Monitoring Liverworts to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Hydroriparian Buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Kellina L.; Yasué, Maï

    2014-01-01

    In the coastal temperate rainforest of British Columbia (BC) in western Canada, government policies stipulate that foresters leave unlogged hydroriparian buffer strips up to 25 m on each side of streams to protect wildlife habitat. At present, studies on the effectiveness of these buffers focus on mammals, birds, and amphibians while there is comparably little information on smaller organisms such as liverworts in these hydroriparian buffers. To address this gap of knowledge, we conducted field surveys of liverworts comparing the percent cover and community composition in hydroriparian forested areas ( n = 4 sites, n = 32 plots with nested design) to hydroriparian buffer zones ( n = 4 sites, n = 32 plots). We also examined how substrate type affected the cover of liverworts. Liverwort communities in buffers were similar to those in riparian forest areas and most liverworts were found on downed wood. Thus, hydroriparian buffers of 25-35 m on each side in a coastal temperate rainforest effectively provide habitat for liverworts as long as downed wood is left intact in the landscape. Because liverworts are particularly sensitive to changes in humidity, these results may indicate that hydroriparian buffers are an effective management strategy for bryophytes and possibly for a range of other riparian species that are particularly sensitive to forestry-related changes in microclimate.

  3. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (hymenoptera: megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  4. Host density drives spatial variation in parasitism of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica, across dryland and irrigated alfalfa cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control against the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), a destructive pest of alfalfa, has resulted in the establishment of nine hymenpoteran parasitoid species in the USA. Despite widespread redistribution of a number of these species, there remains little post-release data on th...

  5. Occurrence of transgenic feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in alfalfa seed production areas in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa) was commercialized in 2011. The potential risk of transgene dispersal into the environment is not clearly understood for alfalfa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral and tr...

  6. MOLECULAR DNA MARKERS UTILIZED TO DISCERN ALFALFA FALL DORMANCY CHECK CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa cultivars are difficult to distinguish based upon morphological traits. Only a few morphological traits have been used to describe alfalfa. Molecular markers especially simple sequence repeats (SSR) have not been utilized in alfalfa to characterize alfalfa cultivars. This study was conduct...

  7. Challenges and opportunities for improved N management in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With some exceptions, the alfalfa nitrogen (N) credit usually eliminates the need for manure N and/or fertilizer N to economically optimize yield of the first corn crop following alfalfa. Alfalfa also can provide nearly one-half or more of the N requirement for the second corn crop following alfalfa...

  8. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  9. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  10. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  11. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  12. Tetrasomic Segregation for Multiple Alleles in Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Quiros, Carlos F.

    1982-01-01

    Evidence of tetrasomic inheritance in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. and M. falcata L., for multiple codominant alleles at three isozymic loci is reported in this study. The locus Prx-1 governing anodal peroxidase and the loci Lap-1 and Lap-2 governing anodal leucine-aminopeptidase were studied by starch gel electrophoresis in seedling root tissue or seeds. The progenies from several di-, tri- or tetra-allelic plants belong to the species M. sativa and M. falcata and their hybrids were studied for the segregation of the three genes. In all cases, tetrasomic inheritance of chromosomal-type segregation was observed. In another progeny resulting from the crossing of two plants involving four different alleles at locus Lap-2, tetrasomic segregation with the possible occurrence of double reduction was observed. This study presents direct evidence of autotetraploidy and the existence of tetra-allelic loci in alfalfa. It also supports the concept that the species M. sativa and M. falcata are genetically close enough to be considered biotypes of a common species. PMID:17246077

  13. In vitro ruminal degradation and synthesis of protein on fractions extracted from alfalfa hay and silage.

    PubMed

    Peltekova, V D; Broderick, G A

    1996-04-01

    Net release of degraded N as NH3 and total AA plus microbial protein synthesis, quantified from incorporation of 15NH3 into microbial protein, was used to estimate the rate and extent of in vitro degradation of protein fractions isolated from alfalfa hay and silage. Seven proteins (casein, alfalfa hay, alfalfa silage, extracts from alfalfa hay and silage, and residues from alfalfa hay and silage) were studied. Results from (NH4)2SO4 and SDS-PAGE fractionations suggested that soluble proteins in alfalfa hay and silage differed in susceptibility to proteolytic attack. Although the net release of NH3 plus total AA N from alfalfa silage and alfalfa silage extract was twofold greater than that from alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay extract, net microbial protein synthesis on alfalfa hay and alfalfa hay extract was 33 and 43% greater. Despite greater NPN content in alfalfa silage, protein degradation rate and estimated escape were similar for intact alfalfa hay (0.103/h and 43%) and silage (0.067/h and 43%). This result might be explained by the less efficient microbial utilization of silage NPN, greater protozoal numbers on hay, greater soluble true protein in hay, or differences in molecular mass and stability of soluble proteins in hay versus silage. Use of a two-compartment model, based on water-soluble and insoluble CP fractions assumed to pass with the liquid and solid phases, respectively, yielded RUP estimates for alfalfa hay and silage that were similar to NRC estimates. PMID:8744226

  14. Alfalfa stem feedstock for IGCC power system fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Onischak, M.; Schmid, M.; Wiant, B.; Oelke, E.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study was completed for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant to operate in conjunction with an alfalfa processing plant that provides the gasification feedstock and a mid-level protein animal feed co-product. Alfalfa stem material was evaluated as a gasification feedstock. The leaf material was evaluated as a mid-level protein animal feed supplement. The alfalfa leaf-stem separation and power generation operations have dual and/or synergistic functions which contribute to a technically and economically compatible combination. The pressurized biomass gasification process selected is the IGT RENUGAS{trademark} system licensed to Tampella Power Corp. Adaptation of the air-blown gasification process to alfalfa stems results in low-Btu fuel gas suitable for combustion turbines. The gasification process is expected to obtain very high carbon conversion with low tar production, overcome ash agglomeration, and provide for control of volatile alkali species. A hot gas clean-up system removes particulate matter with a ceramic filter system. The collected ash residues are expected to be returned to the land that grew the alfalfa. The physical and chemical properties of the alfalfa feedstock were evaluated for the gasification process. The alfalfa char carbon-steam reaction, which is the slowest step in the complete conversion of biomass to gases, was measured and the char proved to have a high reactivity. Ash components were measured and evaluated in terms of agglomeration within the gasifier. Using this information, the alfalfa gasification conditions were predicted. A subsequent preliminary gasification test confirmed the alfalfa gasification conditions. To complete the engineering design of the IGCC system, additional testing is required, but the results to date are positive for a successful process.

  15. Relationship of crop radiance to alfalfa agronomic values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1980-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data of alfalfa were collected at the time of the third and fourth cuttings using a hand-held radiometer for the earlier alfalfa cutting. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover. For the alfalfa of the later cutting, which had experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth, the spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores.

  16. Feasibility study: Alfalfa leaf meal as a value-added crop and alfalfa stems as biomass fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, A.; Kaan, D.

    1996-05-28

    The grantee recognizes the importance of alfalfa production to agricultural economics in the western United States. With this grant, it secured the assistance of experts at the University of Wyoming to explore alternative uses for and, thus, ways to add value to alfalfa. The study was prompted by periodic unstable demand and price fluctuations for hay. The agricultural infrastructure and expertise for producing alfalfa is well established in the Western U.S. Alfalfa is a well-adapted, environmentally friendly crop which avoids a large fertilizer subsidy by fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a form utilized for plant growth. Leaf-stem fractions were evaluated for forage quality, biofuel energy content, and co-product yield due to seperation procedure. The feasibility of conducting alfalfa leaf-stem separations in both stationary and mobile plants was considered on the basis of three factors: (1) price received for each fraction, (2) cost of the hay to be processed, and (3) cost of processing the hay. Both stationary and mobile separation plants showed positive net income potentials. Alfalfa stem pellets could be marked at appreciably lower cost than equivalent wood pellets for use in wood stoves. The report recommends that sufficient quantities of high-quality alfalfa leaf meal be produced and tested for evaluation in dairy, beef, aquaculture, poultry, and swine rations.

  17. Parallel strip waveguide for ultrasonic flow measurement in harsh environments.

    PubMed

    Laws, Michael; Ramadas, Sivaram N; Lynnworth, Lawrence C; Dixon, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Wetted ultrasonic transit time flow meters typically consist of one or more pairs of transducers, containing piezoelectric elements, which alternate between transmitting and detecting an ultrasonic pulse. Typical piezoelectric materials and the adhesives used to attach the piezoelectric element in such devices can be damaged by hostile environments, such as extreme temperature, potentially limiting possible applications of ultrasonic flow measurement techniques. We have investigated a design for a flow meter with an integrated thermal buffer waveguide consisting of five parallel stainless steel strips. These, in addition to thermal protection, may function as a transducer array, with the possibility of steering the emitted field. Because the buffer strips used in the transducer assembly are thin, one might expect Lamb-like guided waves to propagate along it. However, the finite width of the strips has a significant effect on the propagation characteristics of the guided waves. In this work, the effect of the waveguide's small rectangular cross-section has been studied. Additionally, we have examined the effect of thermal gradients on the average sound speed and dispersion characteristics of such strip waveguides. We also suggest modifications to the plate geometry, which can alter both the frequency content and the shape of the transmitted pulse, potentially giving a better signal to use in flow measurement. PMID:25881347

  18. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  19. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  20. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  1. Relationships between soil physicochemical, microbiological properties, and nutrient release in buffer soils compared to field soils.

    PubMed

    Stutter, Marc I; Richards, Samia

    2012-01-01

    The retention of nutrients in narrow, vegetated riparian buffer strips (VBS) is uncertain and underlying processes are poorly understood. Evidence suggests that buffer soils are poor at retaining dissolved nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), necessitating management actions if P retention is not to be compromised. We sampled 19 buffer strips and adjacent arable field soils. Differences in nutrient retention between buffer and field soils were determined using a combined assay for release of dissolved P, N, and C forms and particulate P. We then explored these differences in relation to changes in soil bulk density (BD), moisture, organic matter by loss on ignition (OM), and altered microbial diversity using molecular fingerprinting (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism [TRFLP]). Buffer soils had significantly greater soil OM (89% of sites), moisture content (95%), and water-soluble nutrient concentrations for dissolved organic C (80%), dissolved organic N (80%), dissolved organic P (55%), and soluble reactive P (70%). Buffer soils had consistently smaller bulk densities than field soils. Soil fine particle release was generally greater for field than buffer soils. Significantly smaller soil bulk density in buffer soils than in adjacent fields indicated increased porosity and infiltration in buffers. Bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities showed altered diversity between the buffer and field soils, with significant relationships with soil BD, moisture, OM, and increased solubility of buffer nutrients. Current soil conditions in VBS appear to be leading to potentially enhanced nutrient leaching via increasing solubility of C, N, and P. Manipulating soil microbial conditions (by management of soil moisture, vegetation type, and cover) may provide options for increasing the buffer storage for key nutrients such as P without increasing leaching to adjacent streams. PMID:22370402

  2. AmeriFlux US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw3 Twitchell Alfalfa. Site Description - The Twitchell Alfalfa site is an alfalfa field owned by the state of California and leased to third parties for farming. The tower was installed on May 24, 2013. This site and the surrounding region are part of the San Joaquin - Sacramento River Delta drained beginning in the 1850's and subsequently used for agriculture. The field has been alfalfa for X years…., Crop rotation occurs every 5-6 years. The site is harvested by mowing and bailing several times per year. The field is fallow typically between November and February. The site is irrigated by periodically-flooded ditches surrounding the field. The site is irrigated by raising, and subsequently lowering the water table??

  3. Genetic Variation Within and Among Collections of Falata Alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow-flowered alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. falcata) persists in low precipitation rangeland and grassland environments. The origin of Medicago includes Russia, Mongolia, Scandinavia, and China (Hansen, 1909; Lesins and Lesins, 1979). The presence of legumes improves rangelands and grasslands ...

  4. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. PMID:2238434

  5. Valuation of forested buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnyat, Prakash

    The research concentrated on two fronts: (1) defining relationships between land use complex and nitrate and sediment concentrations; and (2) developing a method for assessing the extent of potential and water quality improvements available through land management options and their associated costs. In this work, selected basins of the Fish River (Alabama) were delineated, land use/land cover types were classified, and "contributing zones" were delineated using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) analytical tools. Water samples collected from these basins were analyzed for their nutrient contents. Based on measured nitrate and sediment concentrations in basin streams, a linkage model was developed. This linkage model relates land use/land cover with the pollution levels in the stream. The linkage model was evaluated at three different scales: (1) the basin scale; (2) the contributing zone scale; and (3) the stream buffer/riparian zone scale. The contributing zone linkage model suggests that forests act as a sink or transformation zone. Residential/urban/built-up areas were identified as the strongest contributors of nitrate in the contributing zones model and active agriculture was identified as the second largest contributor. Regression results for the "land use/land cover diversity" model (stream buffer/riparian zone scale) suggest that areas that are close (adjacent) to the stream and any disturbances in these areas will have major impacts on stream water quality. The economic model suggests the value of retiring lands from agricultural land uses to forested buffers varies from 0 to 3067 per hectare, depending on the types of crops currently grown. Along with conversion costs, this land value forms the basis for estimates of the costs of land management options for improving (or maintaining) water quality throughout the study area. The model also shows the importance of stream-side management zones, which are key to maintenance of stream

  6. Buffer Capacity: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a quantitative experiment designed to demonstrate buffer action and the measurement of buffer capacity. Discusses how to make acetate buffers, determine their buffer capacity, plot the capacity/pH curve, and interpret the data obtained. (TW)

  7. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  8. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  9. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  10. Sustainable cropping systems using cover crops, native species field borders and riparian buffers for environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will focus on the application of sustainable management practices for no-till cultivation using cover crops, native species field borders, and fast growing woody species integrated in vegetative strips and riparian buffers. An ongoing field project at the Bradford Research and Exte...

  11. Implementation of Contour Vegetative Buffers for Mitigating of Atrazine in Ground Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of vegetative buffer strips (VBS) in intercepting herbicides from surface runoff is well established. However, effect of VBS on fate of the atrazine in ground water has not been widely studied. An established, well calibrated paired watershed consisting of 1) a corn-soybean/tree-grass ...

  12. Reducing herbicides and veterinary antibiotics losses from agroecosystems using vegetative buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple species vegetative buffer strips (VBSs) have been recommended as an effective approach to mitigate agrochemical transport in surface runoff while at the same time offering a broader range of long-term ecological and environmental benefits. However, the effect of VBS designs and species com...

  13. Denitrification and N2O emissions in annual croplands, perennial grass buffers, and restored perennial grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of perennial vegetation filter strips (PFS) in the toeslope of annual cropland watersheds can decrease nitrate (NO3) losses to ground and surface waters. Although PFS are similar to riparian buffers, PFS are a relatively new conservation tool and the processes responsible for NO3 removal f...

  14. Introduction of biological agents into vegetative buffer to enhance rhizodegradation of atrazine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introducing atrazine (ATR) degraders into riparian vegetative buffer strips (VBS) can be a promising bioremediation approach to accelerate the degradation of ATR and its degradation products deposited into VBS by surface runoff. A growth chamber study was conducted to investigated the synergistic ef...

  15. Reducing herbicides and veterinary antibiotics losses from agroecosystems using vegetative buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple species vegetative buffer strips (VBS) have been recommended as a cost-effective approach to mitigate agrochemical transport in surface runoff derived from agronomic operations, while at the same time offering a broader range of long-term ecological and environmental benefits. However, the ...

  16. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  17. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

  19. Impact of alfalfa on soil and water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J.; Gupta, S.

    1997-10-30

    Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.

  20. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5<' {log} M/{M}⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of HI properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of HI content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  1. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the H i content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5\\lt {log} M/{M}ȯ \\lt 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack H i at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of H i properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of H i content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that H i is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where H i is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  2. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  3. Buffer capacity of biologics--from buffer salts to buffering by antibodies.

    PubMed

    Karow, Anne R; Bahrenburg, Sven; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Controlling pH is essential for a variety of biopharmaceutical process steps. The chemical stability of biologics such as monoclonal antibodies is pH-dependent and slightly acidic conditions are favorable for stability in a number of cases. Since control of pH is widely provided by added buffer salts, the current study summarizes the buffer characteristics of acetate, citrate, histidine, succinate, and phosphate buffers. Experimentally derived values largely coincide with values calculated from a model that had been proposed in 1922 by van Slyke. As high concentrated protein formulations become more and more prevalent for biologics, the self-buffering potential of proteins becomes of relevance. The current study provides information on buffer characteristics for pH ranges down to 4.0 and up to 8.0 and shows that a monoclonal antibody at 50 mg/mL exhibits similar buffer capacity as 6 mM citrate or 14 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). Buffer capacity of antibody solutions scales linearly with protein concentration up to more than 200 mg/mL. At a protein concentration of 220 mg/mL, the buffer capacity resembles the buffer capacity of 30 mM citrate or 50 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). The buffer capacity of monoclonal antibodies is practically identical at the process relevant temperatures 5, 25, and 40°C. Changes in ionic strength of ΔI=0.15, in contrast, can alter the buffer capacity up to 35%. In conclusion, due to efficient self-buffering by antibodies in the pH range of favored chemical stability, conventional buffer excipients could be dispensable for pH stabilization of high concentrated protein solutions. PMID:23296746

  4. Conserving alfalfa wild relatives: is past introgression with Russian varieties evident today?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central Asia, particularly Kazakhstan, supports a rich concentration of wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) relatives. Because they freely cross with domesticated alfalfa, they are important genetic resources. When identifying in situ populations to conserve, contamination of wild populations with dom...

  5. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L.; Harris, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l−1 CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe3O4-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe3O4. CNTs bearing Fe3O4 nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up. PMID:22977097

  6. Biological Relationship of Meloidogyne hapla Populations to Alfalfa Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G. D.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse and growth chamber studies were established to determine if there are pathological and physiological differences among Meloidogyne hapla populations from California (CA), Nevada (NV), Utah (UT), and Wyoming (WY) on alfalfa cultivars classified as resistant or susceptible to root-knot nematodes. In the greenhouse, plant survival was not consistent with resistance classifications. While all highly resistant Nevada Synthetic germplasm (Nev Syn XX) plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, two cultivars classified as moderately resistant ('Chief' and 'Kingstar') survived (P ≤ 0.05) inoculation with M. hapla populations better than did 'Lobo' cultivar, which is classified as resistant. Plant growth of Nev Syn XX was suppressed by only the CA population, whereas growth of the other alfalfa cultivars classified as M. hapla resistant or moderately resistant was suppressed by all nematode populations. Excluding Nev Syn XX, all alfalfa cultivars were severely galled and susceptible to all nematode populations. Except for Nev Syn XX, reproduction did not differ among the nematode populations on alfalfa cultivars. Nev Syn XX was not as favorable a host to CA as were the other cultivars; but, it was a good host (reproductive factor [Rf] = 37). Temperature affected plant resistance; the UT and WY populations were more pathogenic at 15-25 C, and CA was more pathogenic at 30 C. Nev Syn XX was susceptible to all nematode populations, except for CA, at only 30 C, and all other alfalfa cultivars were susceptible to all nematode populations at all temperatures. PMID:19277299

  7. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  8. Soil N to corn after alfalfa through tillage and regrowth management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting corn after alfalfa can eliminate or greatly reduce the nitrogen (N) fertilizer requirement for first-year corn while increasing corn yield potential due to the rotation effect. Current University of Minnesota guidelines regarding alfalfa N credits to corn are based on alfalfa stand density ...

  9. Bacterial population dynamics during the ensiling of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and subsequent exposure to air

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To describe, at high resolution, the bacterial population dynamics and chemical transformations during the ensiling of alfalfa and subsequent exposure to air. Methods and Results: Samples of alfalfa, ensiled alfalfa, and silage exposed to air were collected and their bacterial population stru...

  10. INFLUENCE OF ENHANCED MALATE DEHYDROGENASE EXPRESSION BY ALFALFA ON DIVERSITY OF RHIZOBACTERIA AND SOIL NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic alfalfa over-expressing a nodule-enhanced malate dehydrogenase (neMDH) cDNA and untransformed alfalfa plants were grown at the same field site and rhizosphere soils collected after 53 weeks of plant growth. These alfalfa lines differ in the amount and composition of root organic acids pro...

  11. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  12. Alfalfa production with subsurface drip irrigation in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigated alfalfa production is gaining interest because of the growing number of dairies in the semi-arid U.S. Central Great Plains and its longstanding superior profitability compared to other alternative crops grown in the region. Irrigation requirements for alfalfa are great because of alfalfa's...

  13. Comparison of Alfalfa and Orchardgrass Hay as Replacements for Grain in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While alfalfa has been the predominant perennial forage fed to dairy cows in the Midwest, there has been recent interest to increase use of perennial grasses. This interest is because alfalfa can be expensive to produce (short stand life), the perception that manure cannot be applied to alfalfa, and...

  14. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  15. Combining cropland data layers to identify alfalfa-annual crop rotation patterns and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can provide many economic and environmental benefits to crop rotations. Our objectives were to quantify alfalfa stand lengths, identify the two crops following alfalfa, and determine the soil and temporal factors affecting them. The USDA-NASS cropland data layers for 200...

  16. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  17. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  18. Corn response to nitrogen after alfalfa as affected by tillage and regrowth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current N guidelines for corn following alfalfa in Minnesota suggest that when compared to corn following corn, N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa can be reduced by 168 kg N/ha when greater than or equal to 43 alfalfa plants/square meter are present at termination. Two unanswered questions re...

  19. Pythium species causing damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota: Identification, pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damping-off and seed rot is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. Globally, 15 Pythium species are reported to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in Minnesota are lacki...

  20. Genomic Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the fourth largest crop in the United States. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases and adverse environmental factors. Identification of genes/loci controlli...

  1. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  2. Ring Buffered Network Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the research effort to demonstrate the integration of a data sharing technology, Ring Buffered Network Bus, in development by Dryden Flight Research Center, with an engine simulation application, the Java Gas Turbine Simulator, in development at the University of Toledo under a grant from the Glenn Research Center. The objective of this task was to examine the application of the RBNB technologies as a key component in the data sharing, health monitoring and system wide modeling elements of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AVSP) [Golding, 1997]. System-wide monitoring and modeling of aircraft and air safety systems will require access to all data sources which are relative factors when monitoring or modeling the national airspace such as radar, weather, aircraft performance, engine performance, schedule and planning, airport configuration, flight operations, etc. The data sharing portion of the overall AVSP program is responsible for providing the hardware and software architecture to access and distribute data, including real-time flight operations data, among all of the AVSP elements. The integration of an engine code capable of numerically "flying" through recorded flight paths and weather data using a software tool that allows for distributed access of data to this engine code demonstrates initial steps toward building a system capable of monitoring and modeling the National Airspace.

  3. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  4. Riparian buffer zones on selected rivers in Lower Silesia - an important conservation practice and the management strategy in urban planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamska, Maryna

    2013-09-01

    Buffer zones are narrow strips of land lying along the surface water, covered with appropriately selected vegetation. They separate aquatic ecosystems from the direct impact of agricultural land and reduce the movement of nutrients in the environment. In 2008 the European Commission established requirements for the implementation of buffer strips along water courses. Poland committed to the enforcement of these requirements until 1 January 2012. This was one of the reasons of this study. The subject of the analysis included the following rivers in Lower Silesia: Smortawa, Krynka, Czarna Woda and the selected transects of Ślęza and Nysa Łużycka. Detailed studies were designed to estimate the buffer zones occurring on these watercourses and assess these zones’ structure. This will be used to develop clear criteria for the selection of the width of these zones based on land use land management. It can be used in the implementation of executive acts at different levels of space management. Field research consisted of inventory the extent of riparian buffer strips on selected water courses and photographic documentation. Species composition of the vegetation forming a buffer zone was identified by using Braun-Blanquet method. There was lack of continuity of the riparian buffer zones on investigated rivers. Buffer zones should have carefully formulated definition and width because they are element of the significant ecological value, they perform important environmental protective functions and they are also the subject of Community law.

  5. Microtube Strip Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1990-12-27

    Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their Microtube-Strip Heat Exchanger will contribute significantly to (a) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (b) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (c) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO{sub 2} removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98%, and relative pressure drops below 0.1% with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8-10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means. 7 refs., 9 figs. 1 tab. (CK)

  6. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  7. Toxic hepatopathy and photosensitization in cattle fed moldy alfalfa hay.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, D W; Blue, G K

    1994-01-15

    Cattle in 2 herds developed type-3 photosensitization after eating moldy alfalfa hay. Clinical signs included severe epidermal necrosis of unpigmented skin and marked decrease of milk production (herd 1). One herd had 18% mortality. Values for serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and serum bilirubin were high in affected cows. Biliary epithelial degeneration and necrosis affecting the smaller bile ductules is the most consistent histologic lesion. Biliary hyperplasia, early portal fibroplasia, hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and necrosis, and cholestasis were commonly seen. Mold growth on the alfalfa hay associated with prolonged wet weather prior to harvest was common to both herds. The cases reported here document hepatoxicosis and photosensitization associated with feeding moldy alfalfa hay grown in southeastern United States. PMID:7908282

  8. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  9. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  10. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  11. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  12. Alfalfa seed germination and yield ratio and alfalfa sprout microbial keeping quality following irradiation of seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Rajkowski, K T; Thayer, D W

    2001-12-01

    Foods can be treated with gamma radiation, a nonthermal food process, to inactivate foodborne pathogens and fungi, to kill insects on or in fruits and vegetables, and to increase shelf life. Gamma irradiation is especially well suited for these treatments because of its ability to penetrate commercial pallets of foods. Irradiated fruits, vegetables, poultry, and hamburger have been received favorably by the public and are now available in supermarkets. The use of irradiation on fresh alfalfa sprouts was studied to determine its effect on keeping quality as related to aerobic microbial load. After an irradiation dose of 2 kGy, the total aerobic count decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-5) CFU/g, and the total coliform counts decreased from 10(5-8) to 10(3-0) CFU/g. The results showed that the sprouts maintained their structure after irradiation, and the keeping quality was extended to 21 days, which is an increase of 10 days from the usual shelf life. The effect of various doses of irradiation on alfalfa seeds as measured by percent germination and yield ratio (wt/wt) of sprouts was determined. There was little effect on the percent germination, but as the dose increased, the yield ratio of alfalfa sprouts decreased. As the length of growing time increased, so did the yield ratio of the lower dose irradiated seeds (1 to 2 kGy). The irradiation process can be used to increase the shelf life of alfalfa sprouts, and irradiating alfalfa seeds at doses up to 2 kGy does not unacceptably decrease the yield ratio for production of alfalfa sprouts. PMID:11770628

  13. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephanie L.; Kesoju, Sandya R.; Martin, Ruth C.; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal. PMID:26699337

  14. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules : III. Genotypic and Tissue Expression of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa and Other Species.

    PubMed

    Farnham, M W; Griffith, S M; Miller, S S; Vance, C P

    1990-12-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N(2)-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N(2)-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. PMID:16667896

  15. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    DOEpatents

    Hryn, John N.; Daniels, Edward J.; Krumdick, Greg K.

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  16. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Kong, Dezhao; Wang, Wenbing; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 105 cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples. PMID:25686315

  18. Development of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Kong, Dezhao; Wang, Wenbing; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 10(5) cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples. PMID:25686315

  19. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  20. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  1. Soil particulate organic matter response to incorporation of alfalfa regrowth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the potential effects of climate change have driven a need to understand the potential of agricultural soils to store carbon (C). In Midwestern cropping systems, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has received attention from researchers because including it in crop r...

  2. Validating potassium fertilizer guidelines in alfalfa-corn rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2008 to 2010, on-farm research was conducted on 10 fields with medium soil test K (STK) to validate Minnesota K fertilizer guidelines by determining the effect of K fertilizer applications on alfalfa yield and quality in its last production year and estimating the carryover of excess fertilizer...

  3. The alfalfa yield gap: A review of the evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of feasibly attainable crop yields is needed for many purposes, from field-scale management to national policy decisions. For alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most widely used estimates of yield in the US are whole-farm reports from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, which are b...

  4. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  5. Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa: widespread distribution of race 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early spring of 2012 with prolonged wet soil conditions in many parts of the country resulted in reports of poor performance of alfalfa due to Aphanomyces root rot (ARR). Varieties with resistance to ARR are available, although fewer varieties have resistance to both race 1 and race 2 of the pat...

  6. How reliable are N credits from alfalfa to corn?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first Century farmer and writer, Columella, wrote that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 'dungs the land,' and it is likely that most of the benefit he saw was derived from improved nitrogen (N) supply. Today, there is widespread skepticism among growers and farm advisors about how much fertilizer N ...

  7. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  8. Hourly and daily evapotranspiration of alfalfa under regional advection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regional advection often affects the evapotranspiration rates of irrigated crops in the Southern High Plains. In 1998, during a 10-day period (13-22 June) of unusually strong advection, high evapotranspiration (ET) rates for unstressed, irrigated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were measured with two prec...

  9. In-Situ Use of Ground Water By Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated column lysimeter study was conducted over a 4 year period to determine the effect of groundwater salinity and depth to ground water on the in-situ use of groundwater by a salt tolerant alfalfa crop. The treatments included a control with no groundwater, and ground water with electrical ...

  10. QTL Underlying Self-Fertility in Tetraploid Alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential strategy to decrease the levels of self-seed production during the seed increase stages of alfalfa synthetic cultivar development is selection for decreased self-fertility. The underlying genetics of this trait have not been elucidated, and therefore, a study was designed to identify ge...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus.

    PubMed

    Nemchinov, Lev G; Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  12. Reducing Alfalfa Brown Root Rot with Crop Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stand injury resulting from brown root rot (BRR) of alfalfa, caused by Phoma sclerotioides, may be noted this spring as warmer temperatures promote stand emergence. BRR development occurs primarily over the winter and is favored when stands are covered with snow for an extended period of time. It is...

  13. RATE OF YIELD AND QUALITY CHANGE IN ALFALFA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

  14. Biochemical Conversion of Reduced Lignin Alfalfa Stems Into Ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has potential utility as an energy crop for conversion to biofuels because it is already produced commercially, grows as a perennial, and the protein enriched leaves can be marketed for animal feed. In this paper, the biomass processing characteristics of the stem mater...

  15. The role of disease resistance in alfalfa persistence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of disease resistance on alfalfa persistence, a five-year field study was conducted using sixteen cultivars with release dates from 1940 to 1996. Fusarium wilt and anthracnose were the prevalent lethal diseases observed. Disease was present in all cultivars, with higher incide...

  16. Impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profi...

  17. ADVECTION INFLUENCES ON EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF ALFALFA IN A SEMIARID ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advective enhancement of crop evapotranspiration (ET) occurs when drier, hotter air is transported into the crop by wind and can be an important factor in the water balance of irrigated crops in a semiarid climate. Thirteen days of moderate to extremely high ET rates of irrigated alfalfa (Medicago ...

  18. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  19. Alfalfa diseases 101: diagnosing common and emerging disease problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 50 pathogens have been identified that cause significant damage to alfalfa and prevent it from reaching its full potential for producing high yields of quality forage. There has been excellent progress by plant breeders and plant pathologists in developing cultivars with multiple disease a...

  20. Orchardgrass vs. alfalfa for replacing dairy-cow grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is currently the predominant forage fed to lactating dairy cows in the Midwestern United States however interest in incorporating grasses into lactating dairy cow diets has recently been rejuvenated. Due to differences in chemical composition and physical characteristics of grasses and legum...

  1. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  2. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  3. Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...

  4. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A.

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  6. Thermoperiodism in the cavity nesting alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata is the most intensively managed solitary bee, and is the third most used pollinator in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that while the eclosion pattern of this cavity nesting bee is unaffected by photoperiod, a thermoperiod can give...

  7. Morphological and Molecular Variation in Perennial Medicago (Alfalfa) Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important cultivated forage legumes worldwide. Understanding the areas of adaptation and genetic variation available in a crop species facilitates efforts to identify suitable germplasm for integration in plant breeding programs. Accessions that repr...

  8. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  9. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  10. Alfalfa genomics: importance to sustainability and ecological services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of genomic approaches has the potential to impact alfalfa improvement for any number of traits. We have focused on using genomic and molecular approaches to understand how symbiotic nitrogen fixation, acclimation to phosphorus stress, and cell wall synthesis processes are regulated in alfalf...

  11. Geothermal energy savings for a New Zealand alfalfa drying plant

    SciTech Connect

    van de Wydeven, F.; Freeston, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    The existing alfalfa drying plant was analyzed to determine the efficiency and cost of energy use per unit of production. Further studies are reported of possibilities for energy savings both in the existing plant and in the future development which will incorporate a second dryer and treble the output. (MHR)

  12. Nitrogen management for first-year corn after alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn can increase corn yield potential due to improved soil physical properties that enhance water infiltration and root extension, altered soil microbial communities, and reduced pest pressure. In addition, fertilizer nitrogen (N) requirements are commonly reduced by about 100...

  13. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  14. Analysis of alfalfa root transcriptome in response to salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Illumina RNA-sequencing was performed in two alfalfa genotypes, AZ-88NDC and AZ-GERM SALT-II in order to estimate a broad spectrum of genes affected by and/or involved in adaptation to salt stress. Both accessions were considered susceptible due to the stage at which samples were collected. A total ...

  15. Rate of yield and quality change in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cutting management investigations have documented the effects of harvest date and frequency on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality during the production year; more frequent harvest generally reduces annual yield and increases quality. Information is needed on the change in forage ...

  16. Modular approaches to the control of diffuse agricultural pollution: buffer zones, bioreactors, ditches and ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, J. M. B.; Blackwell, M. S. A.; Granger, S.; Chadwick, D.; Haygarth, P.; Bol, R.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the abundance of literature reporting both riparian and non-riparian buffer strip performance in the control of diffuse pollutants from agriculture, the spatial and temporal mechanistics of the processes involved are poorly understood. As a result, buffer zones have often been implemented incorrectly and have failed to deliver the benefits expected of them. One of the main challenges with buffer zone effectiveness has been found to be their by-passing by the passage of polluted water through sub-surface drains which in many regions of the UK has regularly been shown to greatly limit their value with regard to nutrient control [MAFF report, Leeds-Harrison 1996]. In addition, little work has been carried out on the role of additional, complementary structural buffering methods such as managed ditches and ponds, which may provide more benefits, especially if used either alongside or instead of the more conventional use of buffer strips. This paper describes a new 5 year Defra funded project*, which is using a multi-scaled approach to understand the abiotic and biotic drivers of the short-term and ‘long-term' effectiveness of conventional grassed buffer strips. At the field scale, we are using high resolution monitoring methods to compare the effectiveness of other mitigation methods including buffer strips enhanced with subsurface bioreactors, managed ditches, and ponds, to control a range of water pollutants and hydrology. Each of the mitigation methods is being investigated both individually, and as part of a strategic modular network of mitigation methods in a purposely constructed and replicated experimental site. References Leeds-Harrison , P. B., Quinton, J. N., Walker, M., Harrison, K. S., Gowing, D. G., Tyrrel, S. F., Morris, J., Mills, J., and Harrod, T. (1996). "Buffer zones in headwater catchments ". MAFF-English Nature Buffer Zone project CSA 2285, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedford, UK. *Link to Defra website: http://randd.defra.gov.uk

  17. The Dark Side of the Moebius Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Gideon E.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are various models proposed for the Moebius strip. Included are a discussion of a smooth flat model and two smooth flat algebraic models, some results concerning the shortest Moebius strip, the Moebius strip of least elastic energy, and some observations on real-world Moebius strips. (KR)

  18. Assessing disease stress and modeling yield losses in alfalfa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jie

    Alfalfa is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and worldwide. Fungal foliar diseases are believed to cause significant yield losses in alfalfa, yet, little quantitative information exists regarding the amount of crop loss. Different fungicides and application frequencies were used as tools to generate a range of foliar disease intensities in Ames and Nashua, IA. Visual disease assessments (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation) were obtained weekly for each alfalfa growth cycle (two to three growing cycles per season). Remote sensing assessments were performed using a hand-held, multispectral radiometer to measure the amount and quality of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. Factors such as incident radiation, sun angle, sensor height, and leaf wetness were all found to significantly affect the percentage reflectance of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. The precision of visual and remote sensing assessment methods was quantified. Precision was defined as the intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability of assessment methods. F-tests, slopes, intercepts, and coefficients of determination (R2) were used to compare assessment methods for precision. Results showed that among the three visual disease assessment methods (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation), percentage defoliation had the highest intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Remote sensing assessment method had better precision than the percentage defoliation assessment method based upon higher intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Significant linear relationships between canopy reflectance (810 nm), percentage defoliation and yield were detected using linear regression and percentage reflectance (810 nm) assessments were found to have a stronger relationship with yield than percentage defoliation assessments. There were also significant linear relationships between percentage defoliation, dry

  19. Sex and stripping

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Marco; Grève, Pierre; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect only arthropods and nematodes (mainly filarial worms). A unique feature shared by the two Phyla is the ability to replace the exoskeleton, a process known as ecdysis. This shared characteristic is thought to reflect a common ancestry. Arthropod moulting is induced by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and a role for ecdysteroids in nematode ecdysis has also been suggested. Removing Wolbachia from filarial worms impairs the host’s development. From analyses of the genome of Wolbachia harbored by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi and that of its host, the bacterium may provide a source of heme, an essential component of cytochrome P450’s that are necessary for steroid hormone biosynthetic pathways. In arthropods, Wolbachia is a reproductive manipulator, inducing various phenotypic effects that may be due to differences in host physiology, in particular, endocrine-related processes governing development and reproduction. Insect steroids have well-defined roles in the coordination of multiple developmental processes, and in adults they control important aspects of reproduction, including ovarian development, oogenesis, sexual behavior, and in some taxa vitellogenin biosynthesis. According to some authors ecdysteroids may also act as sex hormones. In insects sex differentiation is generally thought to be a strictly genetic process, in which each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution, but, surprisingly, recent data demonstrate that in Drosophila sex determination is not cell-autonomous, as it happens in mammals. Thus the presence of signals coordinating the development of a gender-specific phenotype cannot be excluded. This could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect reproduction; and also could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect development. Thus, is “sex (=reproduction) and stripping (=ecdysis)” the key to the intimate relationship between Wolbachia and its

  20. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  1. Expression of β-Amylase from Alfalfa Taproots1

    PubMed Central

    Gana, Joyce A.; Kalengamaliro, Newton E.; Cunningham, Suzanne M.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots contain large quantities of β-amylase, but little is known about its role in vivo. We studied this by isolating a β-amylase cDNA and by examining signals that affect its expression. The β-amylase cDNA encoded a 55.95-kD polypeptide with a deduced amino acid sequence showing high similarity to other plant β-amylases. Starch concentrations, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase mRNA levels were measured in roots of alfalfa after defoliation, in suspension-cultured cells incubated in sucrose-rich or -deprived media, and in roots of cold-acclimated germ plasms. Starch levels, β-amylase activities, and β-amylase transcripts were reduced significantly in roots of defoliated plants and in sucrose-deprived cell cultures. β-Amylase transcript was high in roots of intact plants but could not be detected 2 to 8 d after defoliation. β-Amylase transcript levels increased in roots between September and October and then declined 10-fold in November and December after shoots were killed by frost. Alfalfa roots contain greater β-amylase transcript levels compared with roots of sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Southern analysis indicated that β-amylase is present as a multigene family in alfalfa. Our results show no clear association between β-amylase activity or transcript abundance and starch hydrolysis in alfalfa roots. The great abundance of β-amylase and its unexpected patterns of gene expression and protein accumulation support our current belief that this protein serves a storage function in roots of this perennial species. PMID:9847126

  2. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  3. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  4. Free flow cell electrophoresis using zwitterionic buffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodkey, R. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Studies of a zwitterionic buffer formulated for cell electrophoresis were done using the McDonnell-Douglas Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System. Standard buffers were analyzed for their stability in the electrical field and the results showed that both buffers tested were inherently unstable. Further, titration studies showed that the standards buffers buffered poorly at the pH employed for electrophoresis. The zwitterionic buffer buffered well at its nominal pH and was shown to be stable in the electrical field. Comparative studies of the buffer with standard cell separation buffers using formalin fixed rabbit and goose red blood cells showed that the zwitterionic buffer gave better resolution of the fixed cells. Studies with viable hybridoma cells showed that buffer Q supported cell viability equal to Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and that hybridoma cells in different stages of the growth cycle demonstrated reproducible differences in electrophoretic mobility.

  5. Agronomic field evaluation of caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase downregulated alfalfas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a widely used forage legume. Increasing alfalfa digestibility would increase forage value. One digestibility limitation in alfalfa is stem lignification, which presents an attractive target for genetic manipulation and selection. Lignin biosynthesis is controlled by the...

  6. Detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) in pea field in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G H; Mozafari, J

    2005-01-01

    During the spring and summer, in 2003-2004, pea viruses were identified in twenty pea fields of Tehran. Some leaf samples were collected randomly from pea fields of Tehran. Samples were tested by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) technique using polyclonal antiserum of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), AS-0001, DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany). The samples were extracted in 0.1 M Phosphate buffer pH 7 to 7.5 and inoculated on Chenopodium amaranticolor, Chenopodium quina, Phaseolus valgaris, Vicia faba, Vignia unguiculata. Pea cultivars were infected by AMV, causing mild mosaic, translucent veins and a diffuse green-yellow of tender parts and spots may also was involved necrosis of tissue. Infected plants grow slowly and malformed pods produce fewer ovules. In Chenopodium amranticolor, C. quina chlorotic and necrotic flecks, and Vicia faba systemic mosaic had produced. Phaselous vulgaris and Viginia unguiculata are good assay hosts for strains that produce local lesions after 3-5 days in these plants. Back inoculated on Pisum sativum and Vicia faba and tested with DAS-ELISA that had been confirmed the results. This is the first report of AMV on pea from Iran. PMID:16637206

  7. Transcriptome profiling of gene expression in fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Senhao; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) is an adaptive trait in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). It appeared in the regrowth process in late summer or early autumn after alfalfa was harvested. FD affects the biomass accumulation and winter survival in high latitude area. However, the molecular mechanism under FD is still not clear at present. Performing RNA-seq of fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa varieties at different time points, we obtained differentially expressed genes between different FD types or time points. These differentially expressed genes may relate to FD in alfalfa. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study (Zhang S et al., De novo Characterization of Fall Dormant and Nondormant Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Transcriptome and Identification of Candidate Genes Relate to Fall Dormancy, submitted for publication) for reproducible research. Data generated in our work provide a resource to help decipher the molecular mechanism of FD in alfalfa. PMID:26484109

  8. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  9. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  10. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.; Solyak, N.; Ostigy, J.-F.; Alexandrov, A.; Shishlo, A.; /Oak Ridge

    2010-09-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H{sup -} ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  11. Dynamics and mitigation of six pesticides in a "Wet" forest buffer zone.

    PubMed

    Passeport, Elodie; Richard, Benjamin; Chaumont, Cédric; Margoum, Christelle; Liger, Lucie; Gril, Jean-Joël; Tournebize, Julien

    2014-04-01

    Pesticide pollution is one of the main current threats on water quality. This paper presents the potential and functioning principles of a "Wet" forest buffer zone for reducing concentrations and loads of glyphosate, isoproturon, metazachlor, azoxystrobin, epoxiconazole, and cyproconazole. A tracer injection experiment was conducted in the field in a forest buffer zone at Bray (France). A fine time-scale sampling enabled to illustrate that interactions between pesticides and forest buffer substrates (soil and organic-rich litter layer), had a retarding effect on molecule transfer. Low concentrations were observed for all pesticides at the forest buffer outlet thus demonstrating the efficiency of "Wet" forest buffer zone for pesticide dissipation. Pesticide masses injected in the forest buffer inlet directly determined concentration peaks observed at the outlet. Rapid and partially reversible adsorption was likely the major process affecting pesticide transfer for short retention times (a few hours to a few days). Remobilization of metazachlor, isoproturon, desmethylisoproturon, and AMPA was observed when non-contaminated water flows passed through the forest buffer. Our data suggest that pesticide sorption properties alone could not explain the complex reaction mechanisms that affected pesticide transfer in the forest buffer. Nevertheless, the thick layer of organic matter litter on the top of the forest soil was a key parameter, which enhanced partially reversible sorption of pesticide, thus retarded their transfer, decreased concentration peaks, and likely increased degradation of the pesticides. Consequently, to limit pesticide pollution transported by surface water, the use of already existing forest areas as buffer zones should be equally considered as the most commonly implemented grass buffer strips. PMID:23625051

  12. Development of buffer layers by chemical solution deposition for YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Yalcin

    Short length YBCO coated conductors have been fabricated by vacuum thin film deposition techniques. However, the fabrication process increases the cost, and makes them impractical to use for commercial applications even if they are fabricated in kilometer lengths. YBCO coated conductors could be available in the market with a cheaper price by developing non-vacuum deposition techniques. The objective of this research was to investigate development of buffer layers by chemical solution deposition technique for YBCO coated conductors. Buffer layer structures are mainly used to prevent metal ion diffusion, and to reduce the lattice mismatch between YBCO and the metallic substrate. The technical approach, which was adapted here, is the reel-to-reel sol-gel dip coating process to fabricate long length coatings by developing buffer layers' chemical solutions. Rolling assisted biaxially textured Ni substrates were used for deposition of buffer layers. Cold rolled Ni strips were heat-treated at certain conditions to form biaxially textured structure, which became templates for textured growth of buffer layers that is necessary to obtain high critical current in the coated conductors. CeO2 was chosen as a buffer layers because it has been recognized as one of the best cap layers. Growth of highly textured, crack free, pinhole free and smooth CeO2 buffer layers have been demonstrated by chemical solution deposition technique on biaxially textured substrates. A new buffer layer with pseudocubic lattice parameters matching YBCO, (Eu0.893Yb0.107)2O3, was developed for the first time by using a mixture of Eu2O 3 and Yb2O3 to eliminate lattice mismatch, which adversely affected the critical current of the coated conductors. Highly textured (Eu0.893Yb0.107)2O3 buffer layers were deposited on biaxially textured Ni substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. Finally, the growth of CeO2 and (Eu0.893Yb 0.107)2O3 buffer layers were investigated on oxide layers because both Ce

  13. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  14. Proteomics Analysis of Alfalfa Response to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weimin; Wei, Zhenwu; Qiao, Zhihong; Wu, Zinian; Cheng, Lixiang; Wang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin) seedlings were exposed to 25°C (control) and 40°C (heat stress) in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa. PMID:24324825

  15. Effects of tabtoxinine-. beta. -lactam treatments on alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Margiotta, E.A.; Weaver, L.M.; Unkefer, P.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Tabtoxinine-{beta}-lactam (T{beta}L), excreted by the tobacco pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, is an active site directed, irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) (E.C.6.3.2.1). Previously, we have shown infestation of the alfalfa rhizosphere with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci results in selective impairment of GS and increased plant growth and nodule number. We have now shown purified T{beta}L, when administered to alfalfa roots, can produce the same effects as colonization of the rhizosphere with P. syringae pv. tabaci. Results of GS specific activity, nitrogen fixation as measured by acetylene reduction, and plant growth response to T{beta}L dosage are presented.

  16. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  17. Buffering in cyclic gene networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu.; Rozov, N. Kh.

    2016-06-01

    We consider cyclic chains of unidirectionally coupled delay differential-difference equations that are mathematical models of artificial oscillating gene networks. We establish that the buffering phenomenon is realized in these system for an appropriate choice of the parameters: any given finite number of stable periodic motions of a special type, the so-called traveling waves, coexist.

  18. Adenylate cyclase activity in a higher plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Carricarte, V C; Bianchini, G M; Muschietti, J P; Téllez-Iñón, M T; Perticari, A; Torres, N; Flawiá, M M

    1988-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase activity in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) roots was partially characterized. The enzyme activity remains in the supernatant fluid after centrifugation at 105,000 g and shows in crude extracts an apparent Mr of about 84,000. The enzyme is active with Mg2+ and Ca2+ as bivalent cations, and is inhibited by EGTA and by chlorpromazine. Calmodulin from bovine brain or spinach leaves activates this adenylate cyclase. PMID:3128270

  19. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Goering, J. C.; Alper, J. M.; Gause, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  20. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.T.; Goering, J.C.; Alper, J.M.; Gause, L.W.

    1992-09-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  1. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  2. Evaluating the ability of grass filter strips to contribute to the restoration of degraded agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass filter strips are planted adjacent to agricultural streams in the United States as riparian buffers to reduce nutrient, pesticide, and sediment input into streams. This frequently used agricultural conservation practice is assumed to have the ability to mitigate the effects of agriculture on s...

  3. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Kessmann, Helmut; Edwards, Robert; Geno, Paul W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with l-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures. PMID:16667691

  4. Evaluation of two supplements for the prevention of alfalfa bloat.

    PubMed

    Hall, J W; Walker, I; Majak, W

    1994-11-01

    Poloxalene and a mineral mixture feed supplement patented for the treatment of emphysema, polyarthritis, and other pectin related diseases were tested in two trials for their ability to prevent bloat in cattle fed fresh alfalfa. Each trial had a crossover design using three Jersey steers with rumen fistulas per group. Each trial period continued until the total number of cases of bloat reached > or = 24. Treatments were given at 0800 each day. The mineral mixture was given at 100 g/d and 190 mg/kg body weight per day in the first and second trials, respectively. Poloxalene, which was tested only in the second trial, was given at 23 mg/kg body weight per day. Each group of steers was then fed 200 kg of freshly harvested alfalfa in the vegetative to early bloom stages of growth at 0830. In the first trial, only 69% as many cases of bloat occurred on the mineral mixture as on the control treatment, but no significant difference was detected in the second trial. The potency of the alfalfa may have been higher in the second trial, when forage dry matter was lower, magnesium and soluble nitrogen were higher, and bloat occasionally occurred twice a day. Bloat did not occur when the steers were treated with poloxalene. In these trials, poloxalene was completely effective in preventing bloat, but the mineral mixture was only partially so. PMID:7866960

  5. Primary photosensitization related to ingestion of alfalfa silage by cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; George, L W; Oslund, K L; Galey, F D; Stannard, A W; Koch, L M

    1996-11-01

    A herd of 650 Holstein cows was examined for skin disease. Approximately 400 of the lactating adults were affected, but heifers, calves, and nonlactating cows were clinically normal. The condition was characteristic of primary photosensitization. Milk production of the affected cows was normal. Affected cows did not appear to be ill, and none of the cows was icteric. Three of 7 cows had high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, but in the other 4 cows, activity was within the reference range. Serum activities of other hepatic enzymes were within reference ranges in the 7 cows that were examined. Hepatic biopsy specimens from 3 cows were normal. Specimens from 4 other cows had changes that ranged from minimal to mild, chronic, lymphoplasmacytic periportal hepatitis to acute, random, necrotizing hepatitis. Development of photosensitivity was related to ingestion of alfalfa silage. Acetone extracts of the alfalfa silage, but not of other feedstuffs, were found to inhibit growth of Candida albicans under ultraviolet light. Cows experimentally fed a diet composed exclusively of the alfalfa silage developed skin lesions after 6 days, but did not have detectable serum concentrations of phylloerythrin. PMID:8899027

  6. The Perils of Strip Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Every year, a few administrators mishandle school searches and create spectacles similar to the New Castle, Pennsylvania, incident involving six illegally strip-searched students. Principals using "cops-and-robber" techniques to unearth contraband may not realize the potential for infringing on students' constitutional privacy rights. Strip…

  7. Ergovaline disappearance from a ruminally incubated buffer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) is an alkaloid present in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) that is thought to contribute to fescue toxicosis in cattle. To determine the disappearance of ERV in the temporarily washe reticulorumen, steer (n=8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ...

  8. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  9. Bimaterial Thermal Strip With Increased Flexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed bimaterial thermal strip, one layer has negative coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby increasing difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of two outer layers and consequently increasing flexing caused by change in temperature. Proposed bimaterial strips used in thermostats.

  10. Assessment of Genetic Diversity Among Nondormant and Semi-Dormant Alfalfa Populations using Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphisms (SRAPs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic alfalfa populations consist of genetically heterogeneous plants, which has contributed to difficulties in applying molecular markers for examining genetic relationships among alfalfa cultivars. Molecular marker techniques combined with bulked plant DNA analyses provide perhaps the best com...

  11. GENETIC MAPPING FORAGE YIELD, PLANT HEIGHT, AND REGROWTH AT MULTIPLE HARVESTS IN TETRAPLOID ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crosses between Medicago sativa subspecies falcata and sativa result in high levels of heterosis for alfalfa forage production. However, desirable alfalfa cultivars must have acceptable performance for other agronomic traits including regrowth following harvest and appropriate autumn dormancy. In ...

  12. Noise determination in silicon micro strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dubbs, T.; Kashigin, S.; Kratzer, M.

    1996-06-01

    The authors report the study of amplifier noise on silicon micro strip detectors. They have used a fast, low noise amplifier-comparator VLSI chip with 22ns shaping time developed for the LHC to determine the noise at the pre-amp as a function of strip length and strip geometry, i.e., interstrip capacitance and ohmic strip resistance. In addition, they have tested the noise in irradiated detectors. They have compared the results with simulations using SPICE.

  13. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA HI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine; Darling, Jeremiah K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) in the local universe, OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release [1] detected by WISE but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, identified 127 HI optical counterparts and discovered five new OHMs. Fifty-six candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey.The number of OHMs in ALFALFA matches predictions based on the OH luminosity function [2]. Additionally, the OHMs found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This provides validation of the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z~0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH and HI lines without expensive spectral observations. This method utilizes infrared colors and magnitudes, such as WISE mid-IR data. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited HI surveys is expected to increase with the redshift of the survey [3], this analysis can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.We thank the ALFALFA team for observing and producing the survey dataset. The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF AST-1107390 and the Brinson Foundation.[1] Haynes, M. P., R. Giovanelli, A. M. Martin, K. M. Hess, A. Saintonge, et al. 2011, Astron J, 142, 142[2] Darling, J. & R. Giovanelli 2002, Astrophys J, 572, 810[3] Briggs, F. H. 1998, A&A, 336, 815

  14. Effects of natural and simulated rainfall on indicators of ensilability and nutritive value for wilting alfalfa forages sampled before preservation as silage.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Muck, R E

    2012-11-01

    The frustrations of forage producers attempting to conserve high-quality alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage during periods of unstable or inclement weather are widely known. Our objectives for this series of studies were to (1) assess indicators of ensilability, such as pH, buffering capacity, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and starch for wilting alfalfa forages receiving no rainfall or damaged by simulated or natural rainfall events; (2) use these data as inputs to calculate the threshold moisture concentration that would prohibit a clostridially dominated fermentation; and (3) further evaluate the effects of rain damage or no rain damage on measures of forage nutritive value. Rainfall events were applied to wilting forages by both simulated and natural methods over multiple studies distributed across 4 independent forage harvests. Generally, simulated rainfall was applied to alfalfa under controlled conditions in which forages were relatively wet at the time of application, and subsequently were dried to final moisture endpoints under near ideal conditions within a constant temperature/humidity environmental chamber, thereby limiting postwetting wilting time to ≤21 h. As a result, indicators of ensilability, as well as measures of nutritive value, changed only marginally as a result of treatment. Consistently, reductions in concentrations of WSC and starch occurred, but changes in WSC were relatively modest, and postwetting concentrations of WSC may have been buoyed by hydrolysis of starch. When forages were subjected to natural rainfall events followed by prolonged exposure under field conditions, indicators of ensilability were much less desirable. In one study in which alfalfa received 49.3mm of natural rainfall over a prolonged (8-d) field-exposure period, fresh pH increased from 6.48 to 7.43 within all forages exposed to these extended, moist wilting conditions. Furthermore, sharp reductions were observed in buffering capacity (410 vs. 337 meq/kg of

  15. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stripped bond or stripped coupon is less than the amount computed under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of...)) shall be considered to be zero. For purposes of this computation, the number of complete years to maturity is measured from the date the stripped bond or stripped coupon is purchased. (b) Treatment...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  2. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  3. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  4. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  5. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  6. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  7. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  8. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  9. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  10. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  12. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  13. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  14. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  15. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  17. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  18. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  2. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  3. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  4. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  5. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  6. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  8. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  9. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  10. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  11. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  12. Cell buffer with built-in test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, William E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A cell buffer with built-in testing mechanism is provided. The cell buffer provides the ability to measure voltage provided by a power cell. The testing mechanism provides the ability to test whether the cell buffer is functioning properly and thus providing an accurate voltage measurement. The testing mechanism includes a test signal-provider to provide a test signal to the cell buffer. During normal operation, the test signal is disabled and the cell buffer operates normally. During testing, the test signal is enabled and changes the output of the cell buffer in a defined way. The change in the cell buffer output can then be monitored to determine if the cell buffer is functioning correctly. Specifically, if the voltage output of the cell buffer changes in a way that corresponds to the provided test signal, then the functioning of the cell buffer is confirmed. If the voltage output of the cell buffer does not change correctly, then the cell buffer is known not to be operating correctly. Thus, the built in testing mechanism provides the ability to quickly and accurately determine if the cell buffer is operating correctly. Furthermore, the testing mechanism provides this functionality without requiring excessive device size and complexity.

  13. Laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface (LVABI) was developed to serve as the interface between three laser velocimeter high speed burst counters and a minicomputer. A functional description is presented of the instrument and its unique features which allow the studies of flow velocity vector analysis, turbulence power spectra, and conditional sampling of other phenomena. Typical applications of the laser velocimeter using the LVABI are presented to illustrate its various capabilities.

  14. FPGA-based signal processing for the LHCb silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefeli, G.; Bay, A.; Gong, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an electronic board (TELL1) to interface the DAQ system of the LHCb experiment at CERN. Two hundred and eighty-nine TELL1 boards are needed to read out the different subdetectors including the silicon VEertex LOcator (VELO) (172 k strips), the Trigger Tracker (TT) (147 k strips) and the Inner Tracker (129 k strips). Each board can handle either 64 analog or 24 digital optical links. The TELL1 mother board provides common mode correction, zero suppression, data formatting, and a large network interface buffer. To satisfy the different requirements we have adopted a flexible FPGA design and made use of mezzanine cards. Mezzanines are used for data input from digital optical and analog copper links as well as for the Gigabit Ethernet interface to DAQ.

  15. Identification of molecular markers associated with verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) using high-resolution melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to VW, an association study was conducted using autotetraploid alfalfa populations composed of 352...

  16. Assessing the potential of forage alfalfa crops to serve as Xylella fastidiosa, primary inoculum sources in the San Joaquin Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for forage alfalfa to serve as a primary inoculum source of Xylella fastidiosa in the San Joaquin Valley of California was evaluated. Laboratory inoculation of fourteen cultivars of alfalfa indicated that all alfalfa cultivars tested were equally suitable hosts for X. fastidiosa. Inci...

  17. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  18. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    PubMed

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P

    1982-04-23

    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  19. Understanding, Deriving, and Computing Buffer Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbansky, Edward T.; Schock, Michael R.

    2000-12-01

    The concept of buffer capacity appears in varied disciplines, including bio-, geo-, analytical, and environmental chemistry, physiology, medicine, dentistry, and agriculture. Unfortunately, however, derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems to be neglected in the undergraduate analytical chemistry curriculum. In this work, we give an account of the development of the buffer capacity concept and derive the buffer capacity contribution equations for buffer systems containing mono-, di-, and triprotic weak acids (and their conjugate bases) and aluminum(III), which undergoes hydrolysis. A brief review of pH is provided because pH is involved in applying buffer capacity to the real world. In addition, we discuss evaluation of the equations, numerical approximation of buffer capacity when an analytic solution is not derived, and the mathematical properties of the buffer capacity expressions.

  20. Production of bio-oil from alfalfa stems by fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study focused on the production of bio-oil from alfalfa stem material. Two alfalfa maturity stages, harvested at early bud and full flower stages of development, were examined to evaluate the impact of variation in cell wall polysaccharide and lignin content on pyrolysis oil yields, production ...

  1. Yield and ion relations of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in response to irrigation with saline waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a major forage crop utilized in arid and semi-arid regions under irrigation; these regions are commonly impacted by saline water and soils. Four commercial non-dormant, purported salt tolerant Alfalfa cultivars 'Salado', 'S&W8421s', 'S&W9720' and 'S&W9215' were grown in 24 outdoor sand ta...

  2. Research seeks to improve the establishment and subsequent yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This popular press article briefly describes the potential benefits of using prohexadione-calcium for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn. Prohexadione sprayed in June with drop nozzles at 10 to 14 oz ai/A typically reduced alfalfa top growth by about 20% in July and ...

  3. Molecular marker identified selfed progeny and their breeding implications in tetraploid alfalfa synthetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume. Selfing (i.e. self-pollination) in alfalfa is possible, particularly in the absence of pollen from another genotype. Selfing has also been shown to occur in insect pollinated seed production fields. Reported selfing rates under field conditions ...

  4. Sustainable biomass energy production and rural economic development using alfalfa as feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Swanberg, D.R.; Oelke, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and with separate alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  5. Validating Topdressed K Fertilizer Recommendations in an Alfalfa-Corn Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium (K) fertilizer prices are higher than average and may reduce bottom line returns for alfalfa growers. Potassium supports plant stress tolerance and plays a critical role in alfalfa yield by moving sugars from shoots to roots. Current University of Minnesota recommendations are to apply bet...

  6. Mycoleptodiscus Crown and Root Rot of Alfalfa: An Emerging Problem in Minnesota and Wisconsin?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoleptodiscus crown and root rot was observed on alfalfa plants from southeastern MN and southwestern WI during the summer of 2009. The disease was observed in new plantings and established stands. Although the disease has been known since the 1950's, it has not caused severe problems in alfalfa p...

  7. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops (Castagnone-Sereno et al. 2013) and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields...

  8. A system for identification of candidate genes controlling cell wall synthesis in alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...

  9. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  10. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  11. Effect of temperature on post-wintering development and total lipid content of alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature plays an important role in effective management of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata L.), the major commercial pollinator of seed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in North America. Previous studies of the effects of temperature on post-wintering development of M. rotundata ha...

  12. Gain from selection for 16- and 96-h in vitro NDF digestibility of alfalfa stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a high-quality forage, but stems are high in NDF and of limited digestibility. A gain from selection study with alfalfa populations selected for divergent in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) was planted at St. Paul and Becker, MN. Two cycles of selection were conducted starting with a bas...

  13. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...

  14. Fungicide Tests on Adult Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera:Megachilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood is a fungal disease of bee larvae caused by Ascosphaera aggregata. It causes significant mortality in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), a bee that is used extensively for alfalfa seed pollination in the U.S. Using laboratory bioassays, we previously demonstrated that fung...

  15. Quantitative evaluation of fiber from nonforage sources used to replace alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Swain, S M; Armentano, L E

    1994-08-01

    The effectiveness of NDF from nonforage fiber sources was evaluated in two trials using midlactation Holsteins. Dietary NDF was added to the basal diet using either alfalfa silage or a nonforage high fiber feed. Diets were fed for 21 d. In trial 1, four amounts of alfalfa were fed. Basal milk fat percentage was 2.61% at 144 g of alfalfa NDF/kg of diet and increased linearly by .066 for each additional 1% alfalfa NDF added, up to 22.8 g of alfalfa NDF/kg of diet. Based on one amount of added nonforage fiber, the ratio of fat test increase to NDF added was .014 for brewers grains, .040 for oat hulls, and .047 for corn gluten feed. In trial 2, one amount of added alfalfa and each nonforage fiber source was used. The ratio of fat test increase to added NDF was .094 for alfalfa, .043 for brewers grains, .067 for oat hulls, .038 for corn gluten feed, .041 for beet pulp, and .044 for malt sprouts. When added to low fiber diets, NDF from the nonforage fiber sources elevated milk fat concentration approximately one-half as effectively as did NDF from alfalfa. Chewing activity was less affected by nonforage NDF than was milk fat concentration. PMID:7962854

  16. Ensuring coexistence of GE and non-GE alfalfa: status of current research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa routinely places among the top five crops in the nation in terms of both farmgate value and total acreage. In 2011 USDA APHIS announced the complete deregulation of glyphosate-resistant alfalfa in 2011. Since then grower demand for RRA seed has surged. Recognizing the need to support all fac...

  17. INCIDENCE OF INTROGRESSION BETWEEN CULTIVATED ALFALFA AND WILD RELATIVES IN NORTHWESTERN KAZAKHSTAN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central Asia is considered the primary center of origin for alfalfa and has a rich diversity of taxa in the Medicago sativa Complex. An exploration was carried out in 2000 to collect germplasm of wild relatives of alfalfa in Northwestern Kazakhstan. Russian scientists had previously proposed areas w...

  18. Identification of Drought Response Genes fom Two Alfalfa Cultivars Using Medicago Truncatula Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the first step to identify drought-responsive genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and understand how nitrogen fixation interacts with drought response, the alfalfa Ladak and 53V08 were studied when subjected to drought stress. A small set of genes shared by these two cultivars were identified ...

  19. Water transfer in an alfalfa/maize association. [Medicago sativa; Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Corak, S.J.; Blevins, D.G.; Pallardy, S.G.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigated the possibility of interspecific water transfer in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) association. An alfalfa plant was grown through two vertically stacked plastic tubes. A 5 centimeter air gap between tubes was bridged by alfalfa roots. Five-week old maize plants with roots confined to the top tube were not watered, while associated alfalfa roots had free access to water in the bottom tube (the -/+ treatment). Additional treatments included: top and bottom tubes watered (+/+), top and bottom tubes droughted (-/-), and top tube droughted after removal of alfalfa root bridges and routine removal of alfalfa tillers (-*). Predawn leaf water potential of maize in the -/+ treatment fell to -1.5 megapascals 13 days after the start of drought; thereafter, predawn and midday potentials were maintained near -1.9 megapascals. Leaf water potentials of maize in the -/- and -* treatments declined steadily; all plants in these treatments were completely desiccated before day 50. High levels of tritium activity were detected in water extracted from both alfalfa and maize leaves after /sup 3/H/sub 2/O was injected into the bottom -/+ tube at day 70 or later. Maize in the -/+ treatment was able to survive an otherwise lethal period of drought by utilizing water lost by alfalfa roots.

  20. Inoculant effects on alfalfa silage: in vitro gas and volatile fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa silages from two similar trials, 15 treatments with an untreated control and 14 lactic acid bacterial inoculants, were analyzed for in vitro ruminal gas production. First cut (477 g DM/kg) and second cut (393 g DM/kg) alfalfa had been ensiled in glass jars for a minimum of 30 days at room te...

  1. Responses of Medicago sativa and M. falcata type alfalfas to different defoliation times and grass competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating alfalfa into rangelands can enhance the quantity and quality of forage production. We evaluated the impact of defoliation timing and selective defoliation on two grazing- (Anik and SCMF 3713) and one hay-type alfalfas (Vernal) near Mandan, North Dakota, USA. Entries were space-plante...

  2. Alfalfa root health and disease management: a foundation for maximizing production potential and stand life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneath the lush green leaves of an alfalfa plant is a surprisingly large root system. It is this large root system that is at the heart of the valuable traits of the crop. Many factors influence root growth and root health of alfalfa, but diseases can be especially important. Several different dise...

  3. Molecular marker identified selfed progeny and their breeding implications in tetraploid alfalfa synthetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume. Selfing (i.e. self-pollination) in alfalfa is possible, particularly in the absence of pollen from another genotype. Selfing has also been shown to occur in insect pollinated seed production fields. Reported selfing rates under field conditions...

  4. Optimizing Sativa and Falcata Alfalfa Subspecies Ratios for Leafcutter Bee Pollination to Maximize Hybrid Seed Ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing seed production schemes which capture and maintain desired alfalfa (Medicago sativa) heterosis for utilization by growers has been problematic. The semi-hybrid seed production scheme is one proposed means of capturing heterosis in alfalfa cultivars. This scheme proposes mixing equal qua...

  5. Storage characteristics of large round and square alfalfa bales: low-moisture wrapped bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substantial dry matter (DM) and quality losses have been reported for partially dried alfalfa that has been rained on before moisture reduction to levels acceptable for dry hay storage. The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of preserving alfalfa baled at less than 45% mois...

  6. Should Yield or Quality be the 'Rule' at Alfalfa Harvest Time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within individual harvest periods. ...

  7. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  8. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  9. Field Testing of Alfalfa Cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia Crown and Stem Rot: Problems and Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown and stem rot (SCSR), caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum, often causes severe losses in late-summer seeded alfalfa. The disease may be especially destructive when no-till methods are used. Most alfalfa cultivars presently available may be severely damaged when inoculcum concentrat...

  10. Prolonged field exposure after cut alfalfa receives rain reduces ensilability and nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserving high-quality alfalfa silage during unstable, inclement weather is a challenge. Within a series of experiments, rainfall events were applied to wilting alfalfa by both simulated (using a rainfall simulator) and natural methods across four different harvests. Based on our studies, the ensi...

  11. Mapping fall dormancy and winter injury in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa is a widely planted perennial forage crop. Dormancy in autumn (fall dormancy) is generally negatively correlated with winter injury in alfalfa. To understand the genetic basis of the two traits, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling autumn growth and winter injury using a...

  12. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  13. Potato Leafhopper Injury and Fusarium Crown Rot Effects on Three Alfalfa Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests homopterous insects and crown-rotting Fusarium species interact to impose stresses affecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence. Our objective was to investigate interactions of Fusarium crown rot and potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) in three alfalfa populations dif...

  14. A comparative study of alfalfa and Medicago truncatula stem traits: morphology, chemical composition, and ruminal digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an agronomically important forage, but digestibility of stem cell wall material is low. Because the tetraploid genome of alfalfa complicates genetic dissection of complex pathways, Medicago truncatula (Gaertn.) could serve as a model for stem cell wall development in ...

  15. microRNAs and microRNA Targets Involved in Alfalfa Stem Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the possible involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in alfalfa stem development, we hybridized 32P-labeled total miRNA purified from elongating and post-elongation stem internodes (ES and PES, respectively) of alfalfa clone 252 to a miRNA-macroarray that contained a total of 70 reference anti-...

  16. microRNAs and microRNA Targets Involved in Alfalfa Stem Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the possible involvement of microRNAs in alfalfa stem development, we hybridized 32P-labled total microRNAs purified from elongating and post-elongation stem internodes (ES and PES, respectively) of the alfalfa Clone 252 to a microRNA dot blot that contains a total of 70 reference anti-mi...

  17. Single-Feature Polymorphism Discovery in the Transcriptome of Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa ) has economic importance as a forage crop for livestock and potential for development as a biofuel feedstock. Advances in alfalfa breeding, genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex p...

  18. Fluctuating thermal regimes improve survival of the alfalfa leafcutting bee during cold storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata is commonly held at low temperatures for overwintering the prepupae or for interrupting spring incubation to synchronize adult emergence with the peak alfalfa bloom. However, static low temperature exposures can be stressful depending on the temperatu...

  19. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common alfalfa pollinator in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus ...

  20. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  1. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. First, the problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. Then, the singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied in some detail. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. A number of numerical examples are worked out in order to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Finally, some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  2. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  3. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  4. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H.; Haga, T.; Watari, H.; Kumai, S.

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  5. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease. PMID:27068164

  6. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  7. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  8. Circular buffer strips in center pivot irrigation for multiple benefits in the Southern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Ogallala Aquifer has converted the Southern Great Plains from a dust bowl to a highly productive agricultural region in the US. However, over exploitation of the aquifer is threatening sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the region. Partial pivots, where high water using conventional crop...

  9. Impact of Gypsum Applied to Buffer Strips on Reducing Soluble P in Surface Water Runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns resulting from the burgeoning poultry industry have sparked concern regarding water quality. These concerns are primarily a result of P transport from land application of manure, which threatens to accelerate eutrophication of surface water. Thus, a study was conducted to eva...

  10. Utiliizing Vegetative Buffer Strips to Remove Dissolved and Sediment-Bound Herbicides from Surface Water Runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current federal and state soil and water conservation programs consist primarily of cost-sharing or compensating farmers for implementing a set of pre-defined best management practices which do not consider specific environmental outcomes or cost-effectiveness of the program at the farm or watershed...

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF BUFFER STRIPS TO MITIGATE PESTICIDE LOSSES FORM PLASTIC MULCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastic mulch is commonly used in the production of vegetables and other row crops to control weeds, warm the soil and prevent soil from depositing on the crops. In the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S., runoff from plastic mulch has been implicated in the failure of nearby shellfish hatcheries. USD...

  12. Microbiological quality of runoff from manure-amended fields as affected by perennial grass buffer strip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Runoff from manure-amended agricultural fields can provide a transmission route for pathogens and fecal indicator organisms to surface waters. Establishment of stiff-stemmed perennial grass hedges along the contours of agricultural fields has been shown to reduce both soil and nutrient ...

  13. Impact of Gypsum Applied to Grass Buffer Strips on Reducing Soluble P in Surface Water Runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns for environmental quality from the burgeoning poultry industry have prompted concerns in recent years. These concerns are primarily a result of P transport from land application of manure, which poses a threat to accelerated eutrophication of surface water. Thus, a study was conducted to e...

  14. Selenium and sulfur relationships in alfalfa and soil under field conditions, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between total Se and S or soluble SeO4 and SO4 in soils and tissue concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), under field conditions in the San Joaquin Valley of California, suggest that the rate of accumulation of Se in alfalfa may be reduced in areas where high Se and S concentrations in soils were measured. These data suggest that the balance between carbonate and sulfate minerals in soil may have a greater influence on uptake of Se by alfalfa than does the balance of SeO4 and SO4 in soil solution. Soil and alfalfa were sampled from areas representing a wide range in soil Se and S concentrations. Specific sampling locations were selected based on a previous study of Se, S, and other elements where 721 soil samples were collected to map landscape variability and distribution of elements. Six multiple-linear regression equations were developed between total and/or soluble soil chemical constituents and tissue concentrations of Se in alfalfa. We chose a regression model that accounted for 72% of the variability in alfalfa Se concentrations based on an association of elements in soil (total C, S, Se, and Sr) determined by factor analysis. To prepare a map showing the spatial distribution of estimated alfalfa Se concentrations, the model was applied to the data from the previously collected 721 soil samples. Estimated alfalfa Se concentrations in most of the study area were within a range that is predicted to produce alfalfa with neither Se deficiency nor toxicity when consumed by livestock. A few small areas are predicted to produce alfalfa that potentially would not meet minimum dietary needs of livestock.

  15. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501

  16. Influence of vegetative filter strips on heavy metal retention in runoff waters: a laboratory evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Thomas; de Braekeleer, Charlotte; Iserentant, Anne; Rentmeesters, Guido; Lutts, Stanley; Bielders, Charles

    2010-05-01

    Point-polluted industrial sites can be exposed to water erosion, leading to a dispersion of, e.g., heavy metal contaminated soil particles. Sowing vegetative buffer strips could limit this problem. We therefore investigated the influence of different vegetative filter strips on heavy metal retention, for runoff water loaded with two different polluted sediments. An experimental flume was built in order to simulate sediment retention by short vegetative buffer strips for different runoff discharges, slopes and sediment concentrations. At the lower bound of the flume, a 0.58 m wide x 1 m long x 0.1 m deep cage filled with soil could be inserted. Three treatments were considered: bare soil and soil sown with either Trifolium repens or Lolium perenne. The plants were allowed to grow for 2 months after germination. The setup allowed characterizing the water and sediment discharge at the outlet of the vegetative strips by means of a tipping bucket with splitter device. Heavy metal-polluted soils were collected at two industrial sites highly polluted with 1) arsenic and lead (Ath), and 2) cadmium and zinc (Prayon). We investigated the effects of the three different covers for these two sediment types (4 replications by treatment), with a slope of 8%, a discharge of 1.7 m3/h and a sediment concentration of 10g/l. Besides sediment mass, we determined heavy metal concentrations and particle size of the sediments collected both at the outlet of the flume and in the sediment deposits upstream of the strips. Following these experiments, size separation of the initial soils was performed, to analyze heavy metal concentrations of each size class. Finally, selective extractions (water, CaCl2 and EDTA) were performed, allowing estimation of heavy metal soluble fractions not retained by vegetative filter strips. Ath Prayon As [%] Pb [%] Cd [%] Zn [%] Lolium perenne 24.1 21.5 23.7 21.2 Trifolium repens 47.8 40.5 55 52.4 Bare soil 20.5 10.9 26.5 22.1 Concentrations [mg/kg] 800 40000

  17. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  18. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  19. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520.1696a Section 520.1696a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520.1696a Section 520.1696a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

  1. Interactions Among Selected Endoparasitic Nematodes and Three Pseudomonads on Alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Bookbinder, M. G.; Bloom, J. R.; Lukezic, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Meloidogyne hapla, Pratylenchus penetrans, and Helicotylenchus dihystera, reduced the growth of 'Saranac AR alfalfa seedlings when applied at concentrations of 50 nematodes per plant. All except P. penetrans reduced seedling growth when applied at 25 per seedling. M. hapla reduced growth when applied at 12 per seedling. Nematodes interacted with three pseudomonads to produce greater growth reductions than were obtained with single pathogens, suggesting synergistic relationships. Ditylenchus dipsaci, applied at 25 or 50 nematodes per seedling, reduced plant weight compared with weights of control plants, but did not interact with test bacteria. All of the nematodes except D. dipsaci produced root wounds which were invaded by bacteria. PMID:19295682

  2. Effectiveness of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Chang, Yuhua; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2014-09-18

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness from consumption of sprouts have been linked to contaminated seeds prior to germination. Due to the long sprouting period at ambient temperatures and high humidity, germinating seeds contaminated with low pathogen levels (0.1logCFU/g) can result in sprouts with high numbers (≥10(8)CFU/g) of pathogens. Currently, the recommended treatment method involves soaking seeds in 20,000ppm (2%) calcium hypochlorite prior to germination. In this study, an alternative treatment involving soaking seeds in a carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested for its efficacy against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds. The antimicrobial treatment was performed by soaking inoculated seed batches in the spontaneous nanoemulsion (4000 or 8000ppm) for 30 or 60min. The spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by titrating the oil phase (carvacrol and medium chain triglycerides) and water-soluble surfactant (Tween 80®) into sodium citrate buffer. Following treatment, the numbers of surviving cells were determined by suspending the seeds in TSB and performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of the appropriate pathogen. This treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3logCFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on either seed types when soaked for either 30 or 60min at nanoemulsion concentrations corresponding to 4000 (0.4%) or 8000 (0.8%) ppm carvacrol. Inoculated alfalfa seeds treated with 4000ppm nanoemulsion, required a 60min treatment time to show a similar 2-3 log reduction. Complete inactivation was confirmed by germinating treated seeds and performing microbiological testing. Total sprout yield was not compromised by any of the tested treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative antimicrobial treatment method for

  3. Determination of secnidazole in urine by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Radi, A E; Hassanein, A

    2000-05-01

    Cyclic voltammetry was used to explore the adsorption behavior of secnidazole on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The effects of various operational parameters on the accumulation behavior of the adsorbed species were tested. Thus, a sensitive stripping voltammetry procedure for the determination of secnidazole with an adsorptive accumulation on the surface of HMDE has been developed. Measurements were taken by differential-pulse voltammetry after determination of the optimum conditions. The linear concentration range was 1 x 10(-8)-1 x 10(-7) s when using a 120 s preconcentration at -0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl in acetate buffer of pH 4.0. The detection limit of secnidazole was 5 x 10(-9) M. The precision, expressed by the coefficient of variation, was 2.5% (n = 10) at a concentration of 1 x 10(-7) m. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of secnidazole in urine. PMID:10823692

  4. Efficient data transmission from silicon wafer strip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, B.J.; Lackner, K.S.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Sharp, D.H.; Winter, L.; Ziock, H.J.

    1991-12-31

    An architecture for on-wafer processing is proposed for central silicon-strip tracker systems as they are currently designed for high energy physics experiments at the SSC, and for heavy ion experiments at RHIC. The data compression achievable with on-wafer processing would make it possible to transmit all data generated to the outside of the detector system. A set of data which completely describes the state of the wafer for low occupancy events and which contains important statistical information for more complex events can be transmitted immediately. This information could be used in early trigger decisions. Additional data packages which complete the description of the state of the wafer vary in size and are sent through a second channel. By buffering this channel the required bandwidth can be kept far below the peak data rates which occur in rate but interesting events. 18 refs.

  5. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Tian, Hui; Corcoran, Sean

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  6. Ammonia removal from raw manure digestate by means of a turbulent mixing stripping process.

    PubMed

    Limoli, Alice; Langone, Michela; Andreottola, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ammonia stripping by means of a turbulent mixing process followed by pH neutralization was investigated as a simple and cost-effective ammonia removal technique to treat raw manure digestate. Batch tests conducted using CaO, NaOH and H2O2 to control pH and temperature and combinations thereof showed that sodium hydroxide was the most suitable chemical, as it is easy to handle, minimizes treatment time and costs, does not increase the solid content of the sludge and allows to easily control the stripping process. NaOH dosage mainly depended on buffering capacity rather than on total solid content. The analysis of the ammonia stripping process indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH, and ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. Total solid content slightly influenced TAN removal efficiency. When NaOH was applied to treat raw digestate at pH 10 and mean temperature of 23 ± 2 °C, TAN removal efficiency reached 88.7% after 24 h of turbulent mixing stripping, without reaching inhibitory salinity levels. Moreover, pH neutralization with sulfuric acid following the stripping process improved raw digestate dewaterability. PMID:27031295

  7. Development of a test strip for rapid detection of lactoperoxidase in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Che, Hong-xia; Tian, Bo; Bai, Li-na; Cheng, Li-ming; Liu, Li-li; Zhang, Xiao-na; Jiang, Zhan-mei; Xu, Xiao-xi

    2015-08-01

    Traditional methods for detecting lactoperoxidase (LP) are complex and time-consuming, so a test strip was made based on the enzymatic reaction principle to enable quick and convenient detection of LP in raw milk. In this study 0.1 mol/L citric acid (CA)/0.2 mol/L disodium hydrogen phosphate (NaP) buffer solution (pH 5.0), 22 mmol/L 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), 0.6 mmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 0.5% Tween-20 or 0.3% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) were optimal for preparing a quick, sensitive, and accurate LP test strip. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the estimated LP concentrations ranged from 2.47% to 6.72% and the minimum LP concentration detected by the test strip was 1-2 mg/L. Estimates of active LP in sixteen raw milk samples obtained using the test strip or the TMB method showed a good correlation (r=0.9776). So the test strip provides a quick, convenient, and accurate method for detecting the LP concentration of raw milk. PMID:26238542

  8. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  9. Strip of heat-recoverable articles

    SciTech Connect

    McLoughlin, R.H.; Kirkham, S.W.

    1985-01-29

    A strip of hollow heat-recoverable articles formed side-by-side by tear welding two lengths of polymeric material together at intervals so that individual articles may be torn off. A preferred method of making the strip involves cross-linking after the tear welding, heating the strip, and inflating the hollow articles to render them heat-recoverable by introducing pressure via an interconnecting passage formed for that purpose during the tear welding.

  10. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Terry A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasily A.; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M.

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  11. Studies of NICADD Extruded Scintillator Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dychkant, Alexandre; et al.

    2005-03-01

    About four hundred one meter long, 10 cm wide and 5 mm thick extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. The results of measurements strip responses to a radioactive source {sup 90}Sr are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. This work was essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  12. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  13. Modelling the Dynamics of Feral Alfalfa Populations and Its Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V.; Begg, Graham S.; Gulden, Robert H.; Van Acker, Rene C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Feral populations of cultivated crops can pose challenges to novel trait confinement within agricultural landscapes. Simulation models can be helpful in investigating the underlying dynamics of feral populations and determining suitable management options. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a stage-structured matrix population model for roadside feral alfalfa populations occurring in southern Manitoba, Canada. The model accounted for the existence of density-dependence and recruitment subsidy in feral populations. We used the model to investigate the long-term dynamics of feral alfalfa populations, and to evaluate the effectiveness of simulated management strategies such as herbicide application and mowing in controlling feral alfalfa. Results suggest that alfalfa populations occurring in roadside habitats can be persistent and less likely to go extinct under current roadverge management scenarios. Management attempts focused on controlling adult plants alone can be counterproductive due to the presence of density-dependent effects. Targeted herbicide application, which can achieve complete control of seedlings, rosettes and established plants, will be an effective strategy, but the seedbank population may contribute to new recruits. In regions where roadside mowing is regularly practiced, devising a timely mowing strategy (early- to mid-August for southern Manitoba), one that can totally prevent seed production, will be a feasible option for managing feral alfalfa populations. Conclusions/Significance Feral alfalfa populations can be persistent in roadside habitats. Timely mowing or regular targeted herbicide application will be effective in managing feral alfalfa populations and limit feral-population-mediated gene flow in alfalfa. However, in the context of novel trait confinement, the extent to which feral alfalfa populations need to be managed will be dictated by the tolerance levels established by specific production systems for specific

  14. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  15. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. It is assumed that the plane contains a series of collinear cracks perpendicular to the interfaces and is loaded in tension away from and perpendicular to the cracks. The problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. The singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. An interesting result found from the analysis of the latter is that for certain orthotropic material combinations the stress state at the point of intersection of a crack and an interface may be bounded whereas in isotropic materials at this point stresses are always singular. A number of numerical examples are worked out to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  16. Signature-based store checking buffer

    DOEpatents

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  17. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  18. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  19. Spatial characterization of riparian buffer effects on sediment loads from watershed systems.

    PubMed

    Momm, Henrique G; Bingner, Ronald L; Yuan, Yongping; Locke, Martin A; Wells, Robert R

    2014-09-01

    Understanding all watershed systems and their interactions is a complex, but critical, undertaking when developing practices designed to reduce topsoil loss and chemical/nutrient transport from agricultural fields. The presence of riparian buffer vegetation in agricultural landscapes can modify the characteristics of overland flow, promoting sediment deposition and nutrient filtering. Watershed simulation tools, such as the USDA-Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollution model, typically require detailed information for each riparian buffer zone throughout the watershed describing the location, width, vegetation type, topography, and possible presence of concentrated flow paths through the riparian buffer zone. Research was conducted to develop GIS-based technology designed to spatially characterize riparian buffers and to estimate buffer efficiency in reducing sediment loads in a semiautomated fashion at watershed scale. The methodology combines modeling technology at different scales, at individual concentrated flow paths passing through the riparian zone, and at watershed scales. At the concentrated flow path scale, vegetative filter strip models are applied to estimate the sediment-trapping efficiency for each individual flow path, which are aggregated based on the watershed subdivision and used in the determination of the overall impact of the riparian vegetation at the watershed scale. This GIS-based technology is combined with AnnAGNPS to demonstrate the effect of riparian vegetation on sediment loadings from sheet and rill and ephemeral gully sources. The effects of variability in basic input parameters used to characterize riparian buffers, onto generated outputs at field scale (sediment trapping efficiency) and at watershed scale (sediment loadings from different sources) were evaluated and quantified. The AnnAGNPS riparian buffer component represents an important step in understanding and accounting for the effect of riparian

  20. Strategy Strips for Self-Reliant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Dorothy J.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how reading strategy strips were developed to focus students' attention on specific reading steps. Notes that students became more personally knowledgeable and independent by using reading strategy strips. Proposes that their small-group participation helped them progress as collaborative thinkers. (PM)

  1. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25... under § 157.140(a)(2). (b) Each cargo tank must be designed to allow the level of crude oil in the...

  2. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping...) must have a stripping system that is designed to remove crude oil from— (1) Each cargo tank at 1.25... under § 157.140(a)(2). (b) Each cargo tank must be designed to allow the level of crude oil in the...

  3. Improving ethanol production from alfalfa stems via ambient-temperature acid pretreatment and washing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfei; Weimer, Paul J; Hatfield, Ronald D; Runge, Troy M; Digman, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed, and the strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with sulfuric acid at ambient-temperature after harvest, and following ensiling, after which the ensiled stems were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Ethanol yield was improved by ambient-temperature sulfuric acid pretreatment before ensiling, and by washing before SSF. It was theorized that the acid pretreatment at ambient temperature partially degraded hemicellulose, and altered cell wall structure, resulted in improved cellulose accessibility, whereas washing removed soluble ash in substrates which could inhibit the SSF. The pH of stored alfalfa stems can be used to predict the ethanol yield, with a correlation coefficient of +0.83 for washed alfalfa stems. PMID:25151072

  4. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections associated with eating alfalfa sprouts - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2009-05-15

    On February 24, 2009, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services identified six isolates of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul with collection dates from February 7--14. Salmonella Saintpaul is not a commonly detected serotype; during 2008, only three Salmonella Saintpaul isolates were identified in Nebraska. This report summarizes the preliminary results of the investigation of this outbreak, which has identified 228 cases in 13 states and implicated the source as alfalfa sprouts produced at multiple facilities using seeds that likely originated from a common grower. On April 26, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC recommended that consumers not eat raw alfalfa sprouts, including sprout blends containing alfalfa sprouts, until further notice. On May 1, FDA alerted sprout growers and retailers that a seed supplier was withdrawing voluntarily from the market all lots of alfalfa seeds with a specific three-digit prefix. PMID:19444155

  5. Smooth Muscle Strips for Intestinal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Walthers, Christopher M.; Lee, Min; Wu, Benjamin M.; Dunn, James C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle. PMID:25486279

  6. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  7. Tissue Cultures Derived from Ineffective Root Nodules of Alfalfa 1

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Carroll P.; Johnson, Lois E. B.; Boylan, Kristin L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Callus tissue cultures were developed from apical meristem regions of tumor-like ineffective root nodules of alfalfa. Callus growth was a function of tissue source and hormone composition and concentration. Callus derived from ineffective nodules also were shown not to contain Rhizobium meliloti. Glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities were present in callus cultures and in the respective nodule source used for callus induction. The mean specific activity of all enzymes evaluated was higher in callus cultures than in ineffective nodules. Quantitative but not qualitative differences in enzyme activities were evident between ineffective nodules and callus derived from these nodules. Tissue cultures derived from ineffective nodules may provide a model system to evaluate host plant-Rhizobium interactions. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663985

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana is an asymptomatic host of Alfalfa mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Ibrahim, Amr; Kim, Bong-Suk; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2006-11-01

    The susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to infection by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was evaluated. Thirty-nine ecotypes supported both local and systemic infection, 26 ecotypes supported only local infection, and three ecotypes could not be infected. No obvious symptoms characteristic of virus infection developed on the susceptible ecotypes under standard conditions of culture. Parameters of AMV infection were characterized in ecotype Col-0, which supported systemic infection and accumulated higher levels of AMV than the symptomatic host Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of infectious AMV particles in infected Col-0 was confirmed by infectivity assays on a hypersensitive host and by electron microscopy of purified virions. Replication and transcription of AMV was confirmed by de novo synthesis of AMV subgenomic RNA in Col-0 protoplasts transfected with AMV RNA or plasmids harboring AMV cDNAs. PMID:16875753

  9. Phosphorylation of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Suk; Halk, Edward L; Merlo, Donald J; Nelson, Steven E; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2014-07-01

    The 32-kDa movement protein, P3, of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of the virus in plants. P3 shares many properties with other virus movement proteins (MPs); however, it is not known if P3 is posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which is important for the function of other MPs. When expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, P3 accumulated primarily in the cell walls of older leaves or in the cytosol of younger leaves. When expressed in Pischia pastoris, P3 accumulated primarily in a soluble form. Metabolic labeling indicated that a portion of P3 was phosphorylated in both tobacco and yeast, suggesting that phosphorylation regulates the function of this protein as it does for other virus MPs. PMID:24435161

  10. Effects of Temperature on the Pathogenicity of Tylenchorhynchus clarus to Alfalfa and Observations on Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Gregory R.; Lownsbery, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    The involvement of Tylenchorhynchus clarus in plant disease is reported. Addition of a suspension of surface-axenized nematodes reduced top and root growth of alfalfa. Reproduction of T. clarus was greater at 24 and 27 than at 21 C. The interaction of nematodes with temperature did not produce significant effects on alfalfa growth in the 4.5-mo experimental period. T. clarus fed endo- and ectoparasitically. PMID:19305838

  11. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  12. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  13. Local production of agricultural fuel: conversion of alfalfa to ethanol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.; Tjostem, J.; Koeltzow, D.E.

    1981-09-01

    Initial project goals were to determine the economic and technological feasibility of producing fuel grade ethanol from the sugars contained in alfalfa and other legumes using a small-scale, single-farm production facility. These data indicate that alfalfa from the field does have reducing sugar present before any breakdown due to the presence of the mold. There is also plenty of natural bacterial contamination which quickly depletes the sugar supply. However, if the alfalfa is autoclaved prior to incubation, the number of bacteria present in the samples is greatly reduced. There was no difference between the flasks which contained an inoculum of Tricoderma reesei and those that did not. Analysis of these solutions failed to show any trace of cellulase activity even after 288 hours (12 days). Therefore, one can also conclude that the Tricoderma reesei strain QM9414 does not grow on alfalfa under these conditions. Future experiments will involve different conditions of temperature and pH. Acid insoluble lignin levels in our 3rd cutting alfalfa samples range from 16.8% to 19.77% with an average of 18.3%. This agrees well with the levels of 13.8% and 15.9% reported by Linder, et al. Results of lipid, water, protein, lignin and cellulose analysis of alfalfa are given. Over 80% of the cellulose in alfalfa can be converted into glucose. Subsequent fermentation by S. carlisbergenois produced near theoretical yields of ethanol. However, the cost of the hay was $440.00; the market value of the ethanol was $120.00. The poor economics results since only 13.1% of the alfalfa contains cellulose. Results show that while production of ethanol from legume-type plants is technically possible, it is not economically feasible.

  14. An Undergraduate Research Project within the ALFALFA Collaboration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, J. A.; Stilp, A.; Patel, N.; Altaf, A.; Goldstein, J.; Forsyth, C.; Gillin, M.; Mahmood, B.; Read, J.; Vucic, L.; Mullan, B.; Walsh, B.; Wortel, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Kent, B. R.; Alonso, J. L.; Balonek, T. J.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Hoffman, G. L.; Koopmann, R. A.; Marr, J.; O'Donoghue, A.; Pantoja, C. A.; Salzer, J. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) project is an ongoing high sensitivity HI line survey with the 305m Arecibo telescope that will cover 7000 square degrees of sky and is expected to detect some 20,000 HI sources (Giovanelli et al. 2005, AJ in press, astro-ph/0508301). ALFALFA will make major contributions to the understanding of the structure and evolution of galaxies in the local Universe. In July 2005 an Undergraduate Research Workshop was held at Union College, Schenectady (see poster by Koopmann et al.). Participants included 14 undergraduate students, 2 graduate students, and 9 faculty members from 7 universities, in addition to the Director of the Arecibo Observatory Visitor Center. In preparation for the meeting, the students worked as a team in preparing and submitting an observing proposal to the Observatory, thus experiencing the rigorous process of matching science goals to instrumentation and other realities of the time allocation process. In addition to a mini-course on science and technical issues, students engaged in an observing session with the Arecibo telescope, which was carried out remotely and interactively from the lecture room at Union College. The region observed included a nearby loose group of galaxies, LGG 362, dominated by NGC 5363/5364. The group is an example of an intermediate galaxy density environment. As part of the workshop, the data were processed and the scientific analysis started. This poster presents the results of those observations and analysis. This research was supported by the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a management agreement with the National Science Foundation, and partially by NSF/AST-0307661, NSF/AST-0435697 and a Brinson Foundation grant. JA and CAP gratefully acknowledge the Arecibo Observatory and the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation at the UPR for assistance for this research.

  15. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use their HI Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; Van Sistine, Angela; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    2015-08-01

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With the ALFALFA Hα survey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies’ abilities to access and consume their HI gas. On galaxy-wide scales, HI gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and HI content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-HI relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and HI depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from HI. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced HI gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts’ shorter HI depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of HI, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in HI gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of HI at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted HI reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient HI to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  16. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    PubMed

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-01-01

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility. PMID:26985924

  17. Development of nanogold-based lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of ochratoxin A in buffer systems.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jihea; Kim, Giyoung; Lee, Sangdae

    2013-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), classified as a possible human renal carcinogen (group 2B), is a potent toxin as to cause the nephropathy. Many methods have been proposed and reviewed for OTA determination in food and agricultural products. However, current analytical procedures of mycotoxin are based on the time-delayed analysis. To reduce the contamination of OTA during distribution and storage of food and feeds, a rapid and easy-to-use detection method is required. The strip assay is an easy and fast detection method that is very reliable and cheap in production. The purpose of this study was to improve the sensitivity of strip sensor by simplifying the manufacturing steps and detection reading. Feasibility of strip assay detection of OTA was determined by color appearance of test line that was produced by the binding between OTA-BSA conjugates and gold antibody particles. However, in this study, strip assays were improved the efficacy of detection by conjugating with nanoparticles and OTA-BSA conjugates, instead of antibody. By different optimization steps in strip manufacturing and the application of the label on the strips, an increase in sensitivity and applicability was accomplished. The method uses a low cost test device consisting of a conjugation pad, membrane, sample pad, and absorbent pad. OTA-BSA and their conjugates with colloidal gold nanoparticles were prepared. The detection was based on the competition of OTA in a sample and an OTA-BSA on the colloidal particle surfaces for the binding to antibody of OTA immobilized on a membrane. It allows direct analysis of sample containing 10% methanol in phosphate buffered saline. The limit of detection obtained was 10 ng/ml for OTA. The cross reactivity of OTA strip assays with Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was examined. When 10, 100 ng/ml of AFB1 was tested, non-specific binding was not observed in the test strip. PMID:24245237

  18. High stability buffered phase comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. A.; Reinhardt, V. S. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low noise RF signal phase comparator comprised of two high stability driver buffer amplifiers driving a double balanced mixer which operate to generate a beat frequency between the two RF input signals coupled to the amplifiers from the RF sources is described. The beat frequency output from the mixer is applied to a low noise zero crossing detector which is the phase difference between the two RF inputs. Temperature stability is provided by mounting the amplifiers and mixer on a common circuit board with the active circuit elements located on one side of a circuit board and the passive circuit elements located on the opposite side. A common heat sink is located adjacent the circuit board. The active circuit elements are embedded into the bores of the heat sink which slows the effect of ambient temperature changes and reduces the temperature gradients between the active circuit elements, thus improving the cancellation of temperature effects. The two amplifiers include individual voltage regulators, which increases RF isolation.

  19. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine...

  20. FIFO Buffer for Asynchronous Data Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascle, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    Variable-rate, asynchronous data signals from up to four measuring instruments or other sources combined in first-in/first-out (FIFO) buffer for transmission on single channel. Constructed in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic, buffer consumes low power (only 125 mW at 5V) and conforms to aerospace standards of reliability and maintainability.

  1. UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...

  2. The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 μl) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO−3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO−3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO−3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

  3. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  4. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buffers. 58.25-45 Section 58.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  5. Riparian buffer transpiration and watershed scale impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forested riparian buffers are prevalent throughout the Southeastern Coastal Plain Region of the United States (US). Because they make up a significant portion of the regional landscape, transpiration within these riparian buffers is believed to have an important impact on the hydrologic budget of r...

  6. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buffers. 58.25-45 Section 58.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  7. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  8. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buffers. 58.25-45 Section 58.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  9. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buffers. 58.25-45 Section 58.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  10. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buffers. 58.25-45 Section 58.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  11. Effectiveness of neutral detergent fiber in whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains compared with alfalfa haylage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1993-09-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa NDF with NDF from whole, linted cottonseed or dried distillers grains. Low and high fiber control diets (13 and 19% of dietary DM from alfalfa haylage NDF, respectively) were compared with diets designed to contain 13% of DM from alfalfa haylage NDF plus 6% of DM from either cottonseed NDF or distillers grains NDF. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield were lower from the high fiber control diet. Milk fat percentage was lower for the low fiber control diet. The cottonseed diet was equal to the high fiber control diet in stimulating rumination. Rumen acetate to propionate ratio was higher for the high fiber control and cottonseed diets. Replacing alfalfa with either of these high fiber by-product feeds increased feed intake and yields of milk fat and protein. The effectiveness of the NDF in distillers grains and cottonseed was not significantly different from that of alfalfa NDF for maintaining milk fat yield. Whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains appear to be good sources of effective fiber for maintaining milk fat test when they are substituted for alfalfa haylage fiber in lactating cow rations. PMID:8227666

  12. Partial replacement of alfalfa fiber with fiber from ground corn cobs or wheat middlings.

    PubMed

    Depies, K K; Armentano, L E

    1995-06-01

    This trial examined the effect of using corn cobs or wheat middlings to replace alfalfa partially as the dietary fiber source for lactating cows. Multiparous midlactation cows were used in three 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A low fiber, basal diet contained 26.8 g of total NDF, including 14.7 g of alfalfa NDF/100 g of dietary DM. Dietary fiber was increased by addition of more alfalfa, corn cobs, or wheat middlings to obtain 27.4, 28.9, and 27.9%, respectively, of total dietary NDF. Intake (24.9 kg of DM/d) and milk yield (31.6 kg/d) were not different among treatments. Nonforage fiber sources raised milk fat concentration above basal amounts (3.1% to 3.4% fat) and decreased ruminating time below that of the high alfalfa diet (423 to 390 min/d). Fat test was raised approximately one-half as much per unit of NDF from these nonforage feeds as it was per unit of NDF from alfalfa. When additional dietary fiber came from nonforage sources, milk protein concentration (3.3%) was greater than when alfalfa provided the added fiber (3.2%). PMID:7673522

  13. Influence of particle size on the effectiveness of the fiber in alfalfa silage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    2002-11-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of alfalfa silage particle length on milk yield, milk composition, and chewing activity. Sixteen multiparous lactating Holsteins were used in each of two separate feeding trials over a 2-yr period providing two repetitions. Each trial was based on 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. All four diets (2-yr average, dry basis) contained a basal level of 10.7% neutral detergent fiber from corn silage and 2.3% neutral detergent fiber from chopped alfalfagrass hay. One of the diets served as a low forage, low fiber control and contained only the basal forages. The other three diets contained an additional 8.6% neutral detergent fiber from coarser alfalfa silage, finely rechopped alfalfa silage or an equal mixture ofthe two. An increase in the forage content above the basal amount using alfalfa silage increased 4% fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat yield and concentration, eating time, and total chewing time. Dry matter intake was not influenced by diet. Linear increases in rumination and total chewing times were observed as the mean particle size of the alfalfa silage increased from finer to coarser. There was no linear effect of alfalfa silage particle size on milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter intake, or milk composition. PMID:12487465

  14. Alfalfa varieties for biomass production. Task IId. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N.; Lamb, J.

    1997-10-30

    The use of alfalfa for biomass production may require harvest schedules and alfalfa varieties with different traits than currently marketed varieties. A late flower (2-cut) system may have several advantages compared to more frequent cutting systems because it can result in high stem yield, result in less trips over the field, allow more schedule flexibility, provide greater wildlife habitat, and allow greater alfalfa persistence. However, modem alfalfa varieties have been developed for a frequent harvest system with 3-4 cuttings per season. The objectives of this study were to determine the total biomass yield; leaf and stem biomass yield; and leaf and stem composition of alfalfa varieties subject to diverse harvest regimes. Alfalfa varieties included those currently marketed in the biomass region as well as experimental entries developed for lodging resistance and leaf retention. Harvest regimes included conventional strategies based on harvests at bud or first flower and a non-conventional strategy with harvests at late flower. Harvest regime had the most consistent and greatest effect on the variables studied. Forage yields were greater for the early flower regime. Harvests at earlier maturity frequently result in leafier, higher quality forage than harvest at late flower. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Influence of Mount St. Helens volcanic ash on alfalfa growth and nutrient uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that large amounts of volcanic ash from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens may have created potential nutritional problems associated with forage production in northern Idaho and eastern Washington to the extent that adjustments need to be made in soil test correlation data. The objectives of this greenhouse study were to : (1) determine the effect of varying amounts of volcanic ash mixed into soils of northern Idaho on total alfalfa biomass production, and (2) to determine the effect of various soil/ash mixtures on the nutrient concentrations of P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn in alfalfa. Alfalfa was grown in eight different northern Idaho soils amended with differing levels of volcanic ash (0, 20, 35, 50 and 75%) in the greenhouse. The alfalfa seeds were inoculated and fertilizer P and S were added to all treatments. Total plant biomass and P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn plant concentrations were measured. The eight were pooled for analysis and it was found that increasing amounts of volcanic ash increased alfalfa biomass production. Plant P, S, Ca, Mg and Zn concentrations also increased with increasing levels of ash. Conversely, increasing levels of ash resulted in lower alfalfa tissue K and Mn concentrations. 13 references, 7 figures.

  16. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa. PMID:27400509

  17. Effect of replacing alfalfa with panicled-tick clover or sericea lespedeza in corn-alfalfa-based substrates on in vitro ruminal methane production.

    PubMed

    Naumann, H D; Lambert, B D; Armstrong, S A; Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Muir, J P; Ellersieck, M R

    2015-06-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If

  18. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards. PMID:23786042

  19. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices.

    PubMed

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  20. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices

    PubMed Central

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  1. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    PubMed

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. PMID:23643789

  2. Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Rapid Detection of Ciprofloxacin in Milk Samples

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liqiang; Luo, Liju; Suryoprabowo, Steven; Peng, Juan; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive immunochromatographic test strip has been developed for testing residues of ciprofloxacin (CIP). A specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody (mAb) for CIP was generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with well-characterized CIP-Keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Under the optimized conditions, the cut-off limits of test strips for CIP were found to be 5 ng/mL in phosphate-buffered saline and 2.5 ng/mL in milk samples. Each test can be evaluated within 3 min. The cross-reactivities of the CIP test strip to enrofloxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR), nadifloxacin (NDF), danofloxacin (DANO), pefloxacin (PEX), lomefloxacin (LOME), enoxacin (ENO), and sarafloxacin (SAR) were 71.4%, 71.4%, 66%, 50%, 33%, 20%, 12.5%, and 6.25%, respectively. The data indicate that the method is sensitive, specific, and has the advantages of simplicity and speed, therefore, this test strip is a useful screening method for the detection of CIP residues in milk samples. PMID:25211194

  3. Retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has designed an laboratory tested a prototype retractable spiked barrier strip for law enforcement. The proposed system, which is ready for controlled field testing, expands the functionality of existing spiked barrier strips. A retractable barrier strip, one that can place the spikes in either the active (vertical) or passive (horizontal) position, would allow law enforcement personnel to lay the unobtrusive strip across a road far in advance of a fleeing vehicle. No damage occurs to passing vehicles until the spikes are activated, and that can be done from a safe distance and at a strategic location when the offending vehicle is close to the strip. The concept also allows the strips to be place safely across several roadways that are potential paths of a fleeing vehicle. Since they are not activated until needed, they are harmless to nonoffending vehicles. The laboratory tests conducted on the system indicate that it will puncture tires only when the spikes are rotated to the active position and is safe to travel over when the spikes are in the down position. The strip itself will not cause instability to a vehicle driving over it, nor is the strip disturbed or adversely affected by vehicles driving over it. The spikes can be quickly rotated between the active (vertical) and passive (horizontal) position. However, the laboratory tests have only demonstrated that the retractable spiked barrier strip can perform its intended function in a laboratory environment. Field tests are needed to finalize the design and develop the system into a functional law enforcement tool.

  4. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  5. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  6. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Pesci, Adriana I.

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ4 theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation.

  7. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    PubMed

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation. PMID:27419593

  8. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  9. Sediment retention in rangeland riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Hook, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    Controlling nonpoint-source sediment pollution is a common goal of riparian management, but there is little quantitative information about factors affecting performance of rangeland riparian buffers. This study evaluated the influence of vegetation characteristics, buffer width, slope, and stubble height on sediment retention in a Montana foothills meadow. Three vegetation types (sedge wetland, rush transition, bunchgrass upland) were compared using twenty-six 6- x 2-m plots spanning 2 to 20% slopes. Plots were clipped moderately (10-15 cm stubble) or severely (2-5 cm stubble). Sediment (silt + fine sand) was added to simulated overland runoff 6, 2, or 1 m above the bottom of each plot. Runoff was sampled at 15-s to > 5-min intervals until sediment concentrations approached background levels. Sediment retention was affected strongly by buffer width and moderately by vegetation type and slope, but was not affected by stubble height. Mean sediment retention ranged from 63 to > 99% for different combinations of buffer width and vegetation type, with 94 to 99% retention in 6-m-wide buffers regardless of vegetation type or slope. Results suggest that rangeland riparian buffers should be at least 6 m wide, with dense vegetation, to be effective and reliable. Narrower widths, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation increase risk of sediment delivery to streams. Vegetation characteristics such as biomass, cover, or density are more appropriate than stubble height for judging capacity to remove sediment from overland runoff, though stubble height may indirectly indicate livestock impacts that can affect buffer performance. PMID:12809315

  10. Electrophoretic mobilities of erythrocytes in various buffers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of space flight equipment depends on a source of standard test particles, this test particle of choice is the fixed erythrocyte. Erythrocytes from different species have different electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends upon zeta potential, which, in turn depends upon ionic strength. Zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength, so cells have high electrophoretic mobility in space electrophoresis buffers than in typical physiological buffers. The electrophoretic mobilities of fixed human, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes in 0.145 M salt and buffers of varying ionic strength, temperature, and composition, to assess the effects of some of the unique combinations used in space buffers were characterized. Several effects were assessed: glycerol or DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) were considered for use as cryoprotectants. The effect of these substances on erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility was examined. The choice of buffer depended upon cell mobility. Primary experiments with kidney cells established the choice of buffer and cryoprotectant. A nonstandard temperature of EPM in the suitable buffer was determined. A loss of ionic strength control occurs in the course of preparing columns for flight, the effects of small increases in ionic strength over the expected low values need to be evaluated.

  11. A novel structure of optical buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, AiMing; Wu, Chongqing; Gao, Huali; Gong, Yandong; Shum, Ping

    2005-02-01

    Optical buffers are critical for low packet-loss probability in future photonic packet-switched networks. In particular, they would be required to store packets during rate conversion and header processing, and to overcome the receiver's bottleneck. They would be required for queuing packets while transmitters await access to the network. In this paper, we present a novel structure of optical buffer with compact size. This kind of optical buffer is based on a collinear 3x3 fiber coupler in which three fibers are completely in the same plane and weakly coupled. A SOA is used as its nonlinear element as well as an amplifier in it.The experiment result will be also given in the paper. Storage results obtained with this novel structure optical buffer at 100Mb/s will be presented first and then its capacity is extended to higher data rates of 2.5Gb/s, more compatible with present optical networks. Storage has been observed for time up to 1.568ms(more than 32 circulations) in both cases without obvious degration. The novel structure of optical buffer could be a more compact device which makes it possible to be integrated in a chip. SOA in the buffer is used as a nonlinear element as well as an amplifier to compensate loss in the buffer loop. The buffer needs low control power for switch operation. It is easy to control 'write' and 'erase' operation because the same TOAD switch in the buffer can be used for both 'write' and 'erase' operation.

  12. Iron autoxidation in Mops and Hepes buffers.

    PubMed

    Tadolini, B

    1987-01-01

    Iron autoxidation in Mops and Hepes buffers is characterized by a lag phase that becomes shorter with increasing FeCl2 concentration and pH. During iron oxidation in these buffers a yellow colour develops in the solution. When the reaction is conducted in the presence of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), blue formazan is formed. Of the many OH scavengers tested, mannitol and sorbitol are most effective in inhibiting Fe2+ oxidation, yellow colour development and NBT reduction. Some inhibition was also noted with catalase. The iron product of the oxidative reaction differs from Fe3+ in its absorption spectrum and its low reactivity with thiocyanate. Similar results are obtained when iron autoxidation is studied in unbuffered solutions brought to alkaline pH with NaOH. In phosphate buffer, no lag phase is evident and the absorption spectrum of the final solution is identical to that of Fe3+ in this buffer. The iron product reacts immediately with thiocyanate. When iron oxidation is conducted in the presence of NBT the formation of formazan is almost undetectable. Of the many compounds tested only catalase inhibits iron autoxidation in this buffer. The sequence of reactions leading to iron autoxidation in Good-type buffers thus resembles that occurring in unbuffered solutions brought to alkaline pH with NaOH and greatly differs from that occurring in phosphate buffer. These results are in agreement with the observation that these buffers have very low affinity for iron. The data presented define experimental conditions where Fe2+ is substantially stable for a considerable length of time in Mops buffer. PMID:3148493

  13. Nonlocality in deuteron stripping reactions.

    PubMed

    Timofeyuk, N K; Johnson, R C

    2013-03-15

    We propose a new method for the analysis of deuteron stripping reactions, A(d,p)B, in which the nonlocality of nucleon-nucleus interactions and three-body degrees of freedom are accounted for in a consistent way. The model deals with equivalent local nucleon potentials taken at an energy shifted by ∼40  MeV from the "E(d)/2" value frequently used in the analysis of experimental data, where E(d) is the incident deuteron energy. The "E(d)/2" rule lies at the heart of all three-body analyses of (d, p) reactions performed so far with the aim of obtaining nuclear structure properties such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients that are crucial for our understanding of nuclear shell evolution in neutron- and proton-rich regions of the nuclear periodic table and for predicting the cross sections of stellar reactions. The large predicted shift arises from the large relative kinetic energy of the neutron and proton in the incident deuteron in those components of the n+p+A wave function that dominate the (d, p) reaction amplitude. The large shift reduces the effective d-A potentials and leads to a change in predicted (d, p) cross sections, thus affecting the interpretation of these reactions in terms of nuclear structure. PMID:25166525

  14. A video strip chart program

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance

  16. Pathogenicity of Two Populations of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood on Alfalfa and Sainfoin.

    PubMed

    Wofford, D S; Gray, F A; Eckert, J W

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of two populations of the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, population 1 (P1) from alfalfa and population 2 (P2) from sainfoin, was studied on both alfalfa and sainfoin for 25 weeks. Alfalfa and sainfoin plants inoculated with P2 had significantly (P alfalfa and 84.5, 51.0, and 41.0% for sainfoin, respectively. The increased virulence of P2 was again shown when means of plant species were combined (inoculation x week of count interaction). Plants inoculated with P2 had significantly higher mortality than either those inoculated with P1 or the uninoculated control beginning at week 7 and continuing through week 25. Plant stands over species at 25 weeks for the uninoculated control, P1, and P2 were 82.5, 29.0, and 18.0%, respectively. Sainfoin was significantly more susceptible to either population than alfalfa (plant species x week of count interaction). Separation between species first occurred after week 7 and continued until week 25. Percentages of plants remaining for alfalfa and sainfoin were 61.5 and 25.0 after 25 weeks. Significantly higher reproduction occurred in the alfalfa plants remaining after 25 weeks in P2 than in P1. Mean number of eggs per root system were 60,371 for P1 and 104,438 for P2, a difference of 42%. The results of this study indicate a need for breeders to adequately sample nematode populations present in the intended area of cultivar use and to design screening procedures to account for population pathogenicity variability. PMID:19287580

  17. Ram Pressure Stripping: The Long Goodbye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Peter, Annika; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    What turns off star formation in satellite galaxies? Ram pressure stripping, the removal of a galaxy's gas through direct interaction with the gas halo in which it orbits, is an attractive quenching mechanism, particularly in the Milky Way halo where the radial distribution of quenching is dramatic. However, many implementations of this process in semi-analytic models result in overly-rapid gas removal when compared with observations. We use high resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with Enzo to parameterize the stripping of disk and halo gas from an orbiting satellite galaxy for use in the semi-analytic modeling code Galacticus. We find that using the instantaneous ram pressure overestimates the amount of gas that is stripped, and present a physically-motivated module for including ram pressure stripping in semi-analytic models that uses the integral of the ram pressure experienced by a satellite galaxy. We will compare our results to observations of the Milky Way satellites.

  18. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL FOR STRIPPING OF ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procedures and correlations for designing and costing stripping towers for the removal of organics from aqueous streams are presented. The emphasis is on practical methods suitable for engineering estimates. The designs cover steam strippers with and without condensers and reflux...

  19. Technique for stripping Teflon insulated wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, B. D.

    1967-01-01

    Cryogenic stripping of Teflon insulated wire leaves no residue and produces no physical damage. After the wire is immersed in liquid nitrogen, bent slightly, and returned to room temperature, the Teflon is removed by fingernails or flat-nosed pliers.

  20. EFFECTS OF REPLACING DIETARY ALFALFA SILAGE WITH FORMATE-TREATED ALFALFA SILAGE OR RED CLOVER SILAGE ON MILK PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen Holstein cows averaging 256 DIM were blocked by parity and DIM and randomly assigned to 5 squares in a 3x3 Latin square trial and fed TMR containing (DM basis): 40% control alfalfa silage (CAS), 20% corn silage, 33% high moisture corn, 6% soybean meal (18% CP); 40% ammonium tetraformate-trea...

  1. Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158887.html Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems? Study found protective benefit for both men ... News) -- Married people are less likely to have drinking problems than single people, and that protective effect ...

  2. Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158887.html Marriage a Buffer Against Drinking Problems? Study found protective ... aware of the potentially important protective effects of marriage on alcohol problems, our study puts this observation ...

  3. A MICROPROCESSOR ASCII CHARACTER BUFFERING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microprocessor buffering system (MBS) was developed at the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory -Cincinnati (EMSL-CI) to provide an efficient transfer for serial ASCII information between intelligent instrument systema and a Data General NOVA laboratory automation co...

  4. Optical imaging: Ultrafast buffering by molecular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertz, Edouard; Lavorel, Bruno; Faucher, Olivier

    2011-02-01

    A simple molecular gas sample can be used to achieve ultrafast optical buffering in two-dimensional optical imaging, thus serving as a promising extension of the well-developed liquid-crystal display technology.

  5. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  6. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  7. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  8. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  9. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  10. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  13. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  14. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  15. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... strip participations. (a) Effective March 31, 1988, the glossary section of the instructions for the... participation arrangements (sometimes known or styled as loan strips or strip participations) are regarded...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5900 - Preformed craniosynostosis strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed craniosynostosis strip. 882.5900 Section 882.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... craniosynostosis strip. (a) Identification. A preformed craniosynostosis strip is a plastic strip used to...

  17. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  18. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  19. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  20. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.